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Sample records for brain tumor imaging

  1. Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaensler, E.H.L.

    1995-01-01

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  2. Imaging of brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaensler, E H.L. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.).

  3. Brain Tumor Image Segmentation in MRI Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peni Agustin Tjahyaningtijas, Hapsari

    2018-04-01

    Brain tumor segmentation plays an important role in medical image processing. Treatment of patients with brain tumors is highly dependent on early detection of these tumors. Early detection of brain tumors will improve the patient’s life chances. Diagnosis of brain tumors by experts usually use a manual segmentation that is difficult and time consuming because of the necessary automatic segmentation. Nowadays automatic segmentation is very populer and can be a solution to the problem of tumor brain segmentation with better performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of MRI-based brain tumor segmentation methods. There are number of existing review papers, focusing on traditional methods for MRI-based brain tumor image segmentation. this paper, we focus on the recent trend of automatic segmentation in this field. First, an introduction to brain tumors and methods for brain tumor segmentation is given. Then, the state-of-the-art algorithms with a focus on recent trend of full automatic segmentaion are discussed. Finally, an assessment of the current state is presented and future developments to standardize MRI-based brain tumor segmentation methods into daily clinical routine are addressed.

  4. Brain's tumor image processing using shearlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Luis; Espinosa, Nikolai; Cadena, Franklin; Korneeva, Anna; Kruglyakov, Alexey; Legalov, Alexander; Romanenko, Alexey; Zotin, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Brain tumor detection is well known research area for medical and computer scientists. In last decades there has been much research done on tumor detection, segmentation, and classification. Medical imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis of brain tumors and nowadays uses methods non-invasive, high-resolution techniques, especially magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans. Edge detection is a fundamental tool in image processing, particularly in the areas of feature detection and feature extraction, which aim at identifying points in a digital image at which the image has discontinuities. Shearlets is the most successful frameworks for the efficient representation of multidimensional data, capturing edges and other anisotropic features which frequently dominate multidimensional phenomena. The paper proposes an improved brain tumor detection method by automatically detecting tumor location in MR images, its features are extracted by new shearlet transform.

  5. MR imaging of the brain: tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, K.

    1999-01-01

    The radiologic modality that most likely provides the imaging information needed in a patient suspected of having a brain tumor is MR imaging. A brain tumor can be reliably ruled out if the MR examination is performed properly and experts interpret the results as negative. If there is a tumor, however, its exact location and topography must be determined. Important for therapy and prognosis are also tumor properties such as histologic type and grade, as well as effects on adjacent brain structures. Although potentially a noninvasive method of in vivo neuropathology, MR is still far from being sufficiently specific, as dissimilar lesions may look the same despite the use of refined imaging protocols. The evolution of MR imaging continues, however, making further methodologic improvement likely. Presently, advanced methods, such as diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MR imaging, functional MR imaging, neuronavigation based on MR imaging data, and the use of MR imaging during surgery (intraoperative MR imaging), influence the way patients are treated. Likewise, follow-up imaging (monitoring) of tumor patients by MR has become more effective, and experience has shown how to distinguish reactive changes from recurrent tumor. In the future, MR imaging may gain importance in the development of novel therapeutic concepts. (orig.)

  6. Proton MRS imaging in pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarifi, Maria [Aghia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Tzika, A.A. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Shriners Burn Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques offer a noninvasive, non-irradiating yet sensitive approach to diagnosing and monitoring pediatric brain tumors. Proton MR spectroscopy (MRS), as an adjunct to MRI, is being more widely applied to monitor the metabolic aspects of brain cancer. In vivo MRS biomarkers represent a promising advance and may influence treatment choice at both initial diagnosis and follow-up, given the inherent difficulties of sequential biopsies to monitor therapeutic response. When combined with anatomical or other types of imaging, MRS provides unique information regarding biochemistry in inoperable brain tumors and can complement neuropathological data, guide biopsies and enhance insight into therapeutic options. The combination of noninvasively acquired prognostic information and the high-resolution anatomical imaging provided by conventional MRI is expected to surpass molecular analysis and DNA microarray gene profiling, both of which, although promising, depend on invasive biopsy. This review focuses on recent data in the field of MRS in children with brain tumors. (orig.)

  7. Non-FDG PET imaging of brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zemin; GUAN Yihui; ZUO Chuantao; ZHANG Zhengwei; XUE Fangping; LIN Xiangtong

    2007-01-01

    Due to relatively high uptake of glucose in the brain cortex, the use of FDG PET imaging is greatly limited in brain tumor imaging, especially for low-grade gliomas and some metastatic tumours. More and more tracers with higher specificity were developed lately for brain tumor imaging. There are 3 main types of non-FDG PET tracers:amino acid tracers, choline tracers and nucleic acid tracers. These tracers are now widely applied in many aspects of brain tumor imaging. This article summarized the general use of non-FDG PET in different aspects of brain tumor imaging.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging in brain-stem tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Mikio; Saito, Hisazumi; Akino, Minoru; Abe, Hiroshi.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with brain-stem tumors underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after radiotherapy. The brain-stem tumors were seen as a low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and as a high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. A tumor and its anatomic involvement were more clearly visualized on MRI than on cuncurrently performed CT. Changes in tumor before and after radiotherapy could be determined by measuring the diameter of tumor on sagittal and coronal images. This allowed quantitative evaluation of the reduction of tumor in association with improvement of symptoms. The mean T1 value in the central part of tumors was shortened in all patients after radiotherapy. The results indicate that MRI may assist in determining the effect of radiotherapy for brain-stem tumors. (Namekawa, K)

  9. Groupwise registration of MR brain images with tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenyu; Wu, Yihong; Fan, Yong

    2017-09-01

    A novel groupwise image registration framework is developed for registering MR brain images with tumors. Our method iteratively estimates a normal-appearance counterpart for each tumor image to be registered and constructs a directed graph (digraph) of normal-appearance images to guide the groupwise image registration. Particularly, our method maps each tumor image to its normal appearance counterpart by identifying and inpainting brain tumor regions with intensity information estimated using a low-rank plus sparse matrix decomposition based image representation technique. The estimated normal-appearance images are groupwisely registered to a group center image guided by a digraph of images so that the total length of ‘image registration paths’ to be the minimum, and then the original tumor images are warped to the group center image using the resulting deformation fields. We have evaluated our method based on both simulated and real MR brain tumor images. The registration results were evaluated with overlap measures of corresponding brain regions and average entropy of image intensity information, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were adopted to compare different methods with respect to their regional overlap measures. Compared with a groupwise image registration method that is applied to normal-appearance images estimated using the traditional low-rank plus sparse matrix decomposition based image inpainting, our method achieved higher image registration accuracy with statistical significance (p  =  7.02  ×  10-9).

  10. MR imaging assisted radiation therapy planning of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, M.; Roesler, H.P.; Higer, H.P.; Kutzner, J.; Thelen, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the improvement of the accuracy of treatment portals in radiation therapy of brain tumors with use of MR imaging. After proper processing, the parasagittal MR image showing the largest tumor size and the midline sagittal image were superimposed. With common anatomic landmarks of midline tomogram and lateral simulation radiograph, commensurate reference grids were laid over both images in identical positions. Tumor coordinates were then transferred from the synthesized MR image to the lateral radiograph. Rectangular fields or individual shielding blocks encompassing the tumor could be drawn directly. This new method was used in 17 patients, and results were compared with CT-assisted results

  11. Imaging of brain tumors with histological correlations. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevelegas, Antonios (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    This volume provides a deeper understanding of the diagnosis of brain tumors by correlating radiographic imaging features with the underlying pathological abnormalities. All modern imaging modalities are used to complete a diagnostic overview of brain tumors with emphasis on recent advances in diagnostic neuroradiology. High-quality illustrations depicting common and uncommon imaging characteristics of a wide range of brain tumors are presented and analysed, drawing attention to the ways in which these characteristics reflect different aspects of pathology. Important theoretical considerations are also discussed. Since the first edition, chapters have been revised and updated and new material has been added, including detailed information on the clinical application of functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Radiologists and other clinicians interested in the current diagnostic approach to brain tumors will find this book to be an invaluable and enlightening clinical tool. (orig.)

  12. Usefulness of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Yang Gu; Suh, Soo Jhi; Zeon, Seok Kil; Woo, Sung Ku; Kim, Hong; Kim, Jung Sik; Lee, Sung Moon; Lee, Hee Jung; Takahashi, Mutsumasa

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of dynamic MR imaging in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors. Dynamic MR imaging was performed in 43 patients with histopathologically proved brain tumors. Serial images were sequentially obtained every 30 seconds for 3-5 minutes with use of spin-echo technique(TR 200msec/TE 15msec) after rapid injection of Gd-DTPA in a dose of 0.1mmol/kg body weight. Dynamics of contrast enhancement of the brain tumors were analyzed visually and by the sequential contrast enhancement ratio(CER). On the dynamic MR imaging, contrast enhancement pattern of the gliomas showed gradual increase in signal intensity(SI) till 180 seconds and usually had a longer time to peak of the CER. The SI of metastatic brain tumors increased steeply till 30 seconds and then rapidly or gradually decreased and the tumors had a shorter time to peak of the CER. Meningiomas showed a rapid ascent in SI till 30 to 60 seconds and then made a plateau or slight descent of the CER. Lymphomas and germinomas showed relatively rapid increase of SI till 30 seconds and usually had a longer time peak of the CER. Dynamic MR imaging with Gd-DTPA may lead to further information about the brain tumors as the sequential contrast enhancement pattern and CER parameters seem to be helpful in discriminating among the brain tumors

  13. Functional imaging for brain tumors (perfusion, DTI and MR spectroscopy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, M.; Giesel, F.; Stieltjes, B.; Weber, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This contribution considers the possibilities involved with using functional methods in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostics for brain tumors. Of the functional methods available, we discuss perfusion MRI (PWI), diffusion MRI (DWI and DTI) and MR spectroscopy (H-MRS). In cases of brain tumor, PWI aids in grading and better differentiation in diagnostics as well as for pre-therapeutic planning. In addition, the course of treatment, both after chemo- as well as radiotherapy in combination with surgical treatment, can be optimized. PWI allows better estimates of biological activity and aggressiveness in low grade brain tumors, and in the case of WHO grade II astrocytoma showing anaplastically transformed tumor areas, allows more rapid visualization and a better prediction of the course of the disease than conventional MRI diagnostics. Diffusion MRI, due to the directional dependence of the diffusion, can illustrate the course and direction of the nerve fibers, as well as reconstructing the nerve tracts in the cerebrum, pons and cerebellum 3-dimensionally. Diffusion imaging can be used for describing brain tumors, for evaluating contralateral involvement and the course of the nerve fibers near the tumor. Due to its operator dependence, DTI based fiber tracking for defining risk structures is controversial. DWI can also not differentiate accurately between cystic and necrotic brain tumors, or between metastases and brain abscesses. H-MRS provides information on cell membrane metabolism, neuronal integrity and the function of neuronal structures, energy metabolism and the formation of tumors and brain tissue necroses. Diagnostic problems such as the differentiation between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions, grading cerebral glioma and distinguishing between primary brain tumors and metastases can be resolved. An additional contribution will discuss the control of the course of glial tumors after radiotherapy. (orig.)

  14. Sequential computed tomographic imaging of a transplantable rabbit brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.J.; Rosenbaum, A.E.; Beck, T.J.; Ahn, H.S.; Anderson, J.

    1986-01-01

    The accuracy of CT imaging in evaluating VX-2 tumor growth in the rabbit brain was assessed. CT scanning was performed in 5 outbred New Zealand white male rabbits before and at 4, 7, 9 and 13 (in 3 animals) days after surgical implantation of 3 x 10 5 viable VX-2 tumor cells in the frontoparietal lobes. The CT studies were correlated with gross pathology in each. The tumor was visualized with CT in all 5 rabbits by the 9th day post implantation when the tumor ranged in size from 4-6 x 3-4 x 2-3 mm. Between the 9th and 13th day, the tumor increased 6-fold in two rabbits and 12-fold in the third rabbit. CT is a useful technique to evaluate brain tumor growth in this model and should be valuable in documenting the efficacy of chemotherapy on tumor growth. (orig.)

  15. Cerenkov and radioluminescence imaging of brain tumor specimens during neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello Enrico; Schiariti, Marco P.; Grana, Chiara M.; Ferrari, Mahila; Cremonesi, Marta; Boschi, Federico

    2016-05-01

    We presented the first example of Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) and radioluminescence imaging (RLI) of human tumor specimens. A patient with a brain meningioma localized in the left parietal region was injected with 166 MBq of Y90-DOTATOC the day before neurosurgery. The specimens of the tumor removed during surgery were imaged using both CLI and RLI using an optical imager prototype developed in our laboratory. The system is based on a cooled electron multiplied charge coupled device coupled with an f/0.95 17-mm C-mount lens. We showed for the first time the possibility of obtaining CLI and RLI images of fresh human brain tumor specimens removed during neurosurgery.

  16. Novel strategies of Raman imaging for brain tumor research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Imiela; Bartosz, Polis; Lech, Polis; Halina, Abramczyk

    2017-10-17

    Raman diagnostics and imaging have been shown to be an effective tool for the analysis and discrimination of human brain tumors from normal structures. Raman spectroscopic methods have potential to be applied in clinical practice as they allow for identification of tumor margins during surgery. In this study, we investigate medulloblastoma (grade IV WHO) (n= 5), low-grade astrocytoma (grades I-II WHO) (n =4), ependymoma (n=3) and metastatic brain tumors (n= 1) and the tissue from the negative margins used as normal controls. We compare a high grade medulloblastoma, low grade astrocytoma and non-tumor samples from human central nervous system (CNS) tissue. Based on the properties of the Raman vibrational features and Raman images we provide a real-time feedback method that is label-free to monitor tumor metabolism that reveals reprogramming of biosynthesis of lipids, proteins, DNA and RNA. Our results indicate marked metabolic differences between low and high grade brain tumors. We discuss molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes, particularly lipid alterations in malignant medulloblastoma and low grade gliomas that may shed light on the mechanisms driving tumor recurrence thereby revealing new approaches for the treatment of malignant glioma. We have found that the high-grade tumors of central nervous system (medulloblastoma) exhibit enhanced level of β-sheet conformation and down-regulated level of α-helix conformation when comparing against normal tissue. We have found that almost all tumors studied in the paper have increased Raman signals of nucleic acids. This increase can be interpreted as increased DNA/RNA turnover in brain tumors. We have shown that the ratio of Raman intensities I 2930 /I 2845 at 2930 and 2845 cm -1 is a good source of information on the ratio of lipid and protein contents. We have found that the ratio reflects the different lipid and protein contents of cancerous brain tissue compared to the non-tumor tissue. We found that

  17. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  18. Detecting brain tumor in pathological slides using hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Samuel; Fabelo, Himar; Camacho, Rafael; de la Luz Plaza, María; Callicó, Gustavo M; Sarmiento, Roberto

    2018-02-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging technology for medical diagnosis. This research work presents a proof-of-concept on the use of HSI data to automatically detect human brain tumor tissue in pathological slides. The samples, consisting of hyperspectral cubes collected from 400 nm to 1000 nm, were acquired from ten different patients diagnosed with high-grade glioma. Based on the diagnosis provided by pathologists, a spectral library of normal and tumor tissues was created and processed using three different supervised classification algorithms. Results prove that HSI is a suitable technique to automatically detect high-grade tumors from pathological slides.

  19. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  20. Differential diagnostic value of diffusion weighted imaging on brain abscess and necrotic or cystic brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoya; Yin Jie; Wang Kunpeng; Zhang Jiandang; Liang Biling

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)on brain abscess and necrotic or cystic brain tumors. Methods: 27 cases with brain abscesses and 33 cases with necrotic or cystic brain tumors (gliomas or metastases) were performed conventional MRI and DWI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of region of interest (ROI) was measured and statistically tested. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and compared with conventional MR and DWI. Results: Hyperintensity signal was seen on most brain abscesses. All necrotic or cystic brain tumors showed hypointensity signal on DWI. There was statistical significance on ADC of them. The sensitivity and specificity of conventional MRI was lower than that of DWI. Conclusion: DWI and ADC were useful in distinguishing brain abscessed from necrotic or cystic brain tumors, which was important in addition to conventional MRI. (authors)

  1. Treatment of malignant brain tumor. Today and tomorrow. Image-guided neurosurgery for brain tumor. A current perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, Yasukazu; Fujii, Masazumi; Yoshida, Jun; Maesawa, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Although usefulness of the image-guided neurosurgery is well documented, there are scarce facilities having the actually operating system in Japan. Since 2006, authors' Nagoya University Hospital has had an operating room named ''Brain THEATER'', where an open MRI system APERTO (Hitachi-Medical Co.) and a navigation system Vector Vision (BrainLAB) are connected to conduct the complete image-guided neurosurgery for brain tumor by using the intraoperative MRI for continuously updating the residual tumor tissue to be dissected out. The room is pre- and intra-operatively supported by Departments of image analysis and of radiation technology in the University, and as well, is connected by net-working with another image-guided surgical room ''Brain Suite'' (Siemens 1.5 T MRI system: BrainLAB) in the neighboring facility, Nagoya Central Hospital. This paper describes the circumstances of the introduction of these systems in the Hospital, details of the image-guided surgery in the operation rooms with illustration of actual photos of the rooms and of pre-, intra- and post-operative images, outcomes of image-guided neurosurgery for brain tumor reported hitherto, image-guided neurosurgery for brain tumor's future perspectives involving robotic surgery and operation on the virtual 3D image including the net-worked one. Efforts should be made to further spread the system for performing the more non-invasive and precise surgery, and for conducting the diagnosis united with treatment. (R.T.)

  2. Imaging modalities in radiation treatment planning of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, D.

    2009-01-01

    The radiation therapy is a standard treatment after surgery for most of malignant and some of benignant brain tumors. The restriction in acquiring local tumor control is an inability in realization of high dose without causing radiation necrosis in irradiated area and sparing normal tissues. The development of imaging modalities during the last years is responsible for better treatment results and lower early and late toxicity. Essential is the role of image methods not only in the diagnosis and also in the precise anatomical (during last years also functional) localisation, spreading of the tumor, treatment planning process and the effects of the treatment. Target delineation is one of the great geometrical uncertainties in the treatment planning process. Early studies on the use of CT in treatment planning documented that tumor coverage without CT was clearly inadequate in 20% of the patients and marginal in another 27 %. The image fusion of CT, MBI and PET and also the use of contrast materia helps to get over those restrictions. The use of contrast material enhances the signal in 10 % of the patients with glioblastoma multiform and in a higher percentage of the patients with low-grade gliomas

  3. Brain tumors and synchrotron radiation: Methodological developments in quantitative brain perfusion imaging and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Jean-Francois

    2005-01-01

    High-grade gliomas are the most frequent type of primary brain tumors in adults. Unfortunately, the management of glioblastomas is still mainly palliative and remains a difficult challenge, despite advances in brain tumor molecular biology and in some emerging therapies. Synchrotron radiation opens fields for medical imaging and radiation therapy by using monochromatic intense x-ray beams. It is now well known that angiogenesis plays a critical role in the tumor growth process and that brain perfusion is representative of the tumor mitotic activity. Synchrotron radiation quantitative computed tomography (SRCT) is one of the most accurate techniques for measuring in vivo contrast agent concentration and thus computing precise and accurate absolute values of the brain perfusion key parameters. The methodological developments of SRCT absolute brain perfusion measurements as well as their preclinical validation are detailed in this thesis. In particular, absolute cerebral volume and blood brain barrier permeability high-resolution (pixel size 2 ) parametric maps were reported. In conventional radiotherapy, the treatment of these tumors remains a delicate challenge, because the damages to the surrounding normal brain tissue limit the amount of radiation that can be delivered. One strategy to overcome this limitation is to infuse an iodinated contrast agent to the patient during the irradiation. The contrast agent accumulates in the tumor, through the broken blood brain barrier, and the irradiation is performed with kilovoltage x rays, in tomography mode, the tumor being located at the center of rotation and the beam size adjusted to the tumor dimensions. The dose enhancement results from the photoelectric effect on the heavy element and from the irradiation geometry. Synchrotron beams, providing high intensity, tunable monochromatic x rays, are ideal for this treatment. The beam properties allow the selection of monochromatic irradiation, at the optimal energy, for a

  4. Pet imaging of peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junck, L.; Jewett, D.M.; Olsen, J.M.; Kilbourn, M.R.; Koeppe, R.A.; Young, A.B.; Greenberg, H.S.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    Studies in vitro have shown that the peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding site (PBBS) is present in moderate to high density on malignant gliomas as well as in areas of reactive gliosis, but in low density in normal brain. PK 11195 is an isoquinoline derivative that binds selectively to the PBBS but not to the central benzodiazepine receptor. We have used [ 11 C]PK 11195 with positron emission tomography (PET) to study brain tumors and cerebral infarcts. Preliminary results showed that, in 13 of 18 patients with astrocytomas, [ 11 C]PK 11195 radioactivity was increased in tumor compared to remote brain and that the concentration ratios of tumor-to-remote brain were higher for high grade astrocytomas than for low grade astrocytomas. Pharmacokinetic analysis suggests that the increased activity in tumor probably does not result from alterations in blood flow or vascular permeability. Patients with lymphoma, meningioma, medulloblastoma, brain metastasis, and neurosarcoidosis have also shown increased radioactivity in tumor. Among eight patients with acute and subacute cerebral infarcts, activity in the infarct was increased in seven and was often greatest at the periphery. We conclude that [ 11 C]PK 11195 is a promising radiopharmaceutical for further investigation of brain tumors as well as diseases characterized by reactive gliosis

  5. Emerging Techniques in Brain Tumor Imaging: What Radiologists Need to Know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjae; Kim, Ho Sung [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Among the currently available brain tumor imaging, advanced MR imaging techniques, such as diffusion-weighted MR imaging and perfusion MR imaging, have been used for solving diagnostic challenges associated with conventional imaging and for monitoring the brain tumor treatment response. Further development of advanced MR imaging techniques and postprocessing methods may contribute to predicting the treatment response to a specific therapeutic regimen, particularly using multi-modality and multiparametric imaging. Over the next few years, new imaging techniques, such as amide proton transfer imaging, will be studied regarding their potential use in quantitative brain tumor imaging. In this review, the pathophysiologic considerations and clinical validations of these promising techniques are discussed in the context of brain tumor characterization and treatment response.

  6. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric brain tumors

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    Dallery, F.; Michel, D.; Constans, J.M.; Gondry-Jouet, C. [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Amiens (France); Bouzerar, R.; Promelle, V.; Baledent, O. [University Hospital, Department of Imaging and Biophysics, Amiens (France); Attencourt, C. [University Hospital, Departement of Pathology, Amiens (France); Peltier, J. [University Hospital, Departement of Neurosurgery, Amiens (France)

    2017-11-15

    The use of DSC-MR imaging in pediatric neuroradiology is gradually growing. However, the number of studies listed in the literature remains limited. We propose to assess the perfusion and permeability parameters in pediatric brain tumor grading. Thirty children with a brain tumor having benefited from a DSC-MR perfusion sequence have been retrospectively explored. Relative CBF and CBV were computed on the ROI with the largest lesion coverage. Assessment of the lesion's permeability was also performed through the semi-quantitative PSR parameter and the K2 model-based parameter on the whole-lesion ROI and a reduced ROI drawn on the permeability maps. A statistical comparison of high- and low-grade groups (HG, LG) as well as a ROC analysis was performed on the histogram-based parameters. Our results showed a statistically significant difference between LG and HG groups for mean rCBV (p < 10{sup -3}), rCBF (p < 10{sup -3}), and for PSR (p = 0.03) but not for the K2 factor (p = 0.5). However, the ratio K2/PSR was shown to be a strong discriminating factor between the two groups of lesions (p < 10{sup -3}). For rCBV and rCBF indicators, high values of ROC AUC were obtained (> 0.9) and mean value thresholds were observed at 1.07 and 1.03, respectively. For K2/PSR in the reduced area, AUC was also superior to 0.9. The implementation of a dynamic T2* perfusion sequence provided reliable results using an objective whole-lesion ROI. Perfusion parameters as well as a new permeability indicator could efficiently discriminate high-grade from low-grade lesions in the pediatric population. (orig.)

  7. Method of image segmentation using a neural network. Application to MR imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, E.; Gautherie, M.

    1992-01-01

    An original method of numerical images segmentation has been developed. This method is based on pixel clustering using a formal neural network configurated by supervised learning of pre-classified examples. The method has been applied to series of MR images of brain tumors (gliomas) with a view to proceed with a 3D-extraction of the tumor volume. This study is part of a project on cancer thermotherapy including the development of a scan-focused ultrasound system of tumor heating and a 3D-numerical thermal model

  8. Prediction of tumor-brain adhesion in intracranial meningiomas by MR imaging and DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeguchi, Takashi; Miki, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Teruhiko; Kikuchi, Keiichi; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Ohue, Shiro; Ohnishi, Takanori

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and DSA (digital subtraction angiography) by using preoperative MRI and DSA findings in the examination of meningiomas before excision. In particular, we focused on their usefulness in predicting tumor-brain adhesion during surgery. The subjects were 36 patients with intracranial meningioma who underwent tumor excision at which time neurosurgeons examined the tumor-brain adhesion. Two neurosurgeons evaluated the degree of tumor-brain adhesion from operation records and videotapes recorded during surgery. Two neuroradiologists retrospectively evaluated the preoperative MRI findings including tumor diameter, signal intensity of the tumor parenchyma obtained with T 2 -weighted imaging (T 2 WI), characteristics of the tumor-brain interface, and degree of peritumoral brain edema. The vascular supply was also evaluated from the preoperative DSA findings. The relationship between these MRI and DSA findings and the degree of tumor-brain adhesion during surgery as classified by the neurosurgeons was statistically analyzed. The degree of peritumoral brain edema and the shapes and characteristics of the tumor-brain interface, including the findings of FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) imaging and vascular supply observed by DSA, were significantly correlated with tumor-brain adhesion. In particular, the shapes and characteristics of the tumor-brain interface as observed by T 1 -weighted imaging (T 1 WI), T2WI, and FLAIR, respectively, as well as the vascular supply observed by DSA, were closely correlated with the degree of tumor-brain adhesion encountered during surgery. According to these results, we developed a method of predicting tumor-brain adhesion that considers the shape of the tumor-brain interface revealed by MRI and the vascular supply revealed by DSA. We retrospectively examined the findings of MRI and DSA performed before excision of meningioma and clarified

  9. Noninvasive perfusion imaging of human brain tumors with EPISTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaa, J. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Warach, S. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Wen, P. [Department of Neurology, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Thangaraj, V. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Wielopolski, P. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Edelman, R.R. [Department of Radiology, AN-234, MRI, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A total of 17 patients with histologically proven diagnoses of low-grade astrocytoma (n = 4), high-grade astrocytoma (n = 8), lymphoma (n = 3), and meningioma (n = 2) were examined by using EPISTAR MR imaging. Meningiomas had the highest EPISTAR tumor/white matter contrast and low-grade astrocytomas and lymphomas the lowest. High-grade astrocytomas demonstrated elevated EPISTAR signal with marked regional heterogeneity. There was agreement between tumor vascularity by SPECT and EPISTAR in the five cases where both were done. Our results show that tumor vascularity can be assessed qualitatively by using EPISTAR without the need for contrast medium injection. (orig.). With 5 figs.

  10. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  11. A survey of MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stefan; Wiest, Roland; Nolte, Lutz-P.; Reyes, Mauricio

    2013-07-01

    MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies is gaining attention in recent times due to an increased need for efficient and objective evaluation of large amounts of data. While the pioneering approaches applying automated methods for the analysis of brain tumor images date back almost two decades, the current methods are becoming more mature and coming closer to routine clinical application. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview by giving a brief introduction to brain tumors and imaging of brain tumors first. Then, we review the state of the art in segmentation, registration and modeling related to tumor-bearing brain images with a focus on gliomas. The objective in the segmentation is outlining the tumor including its sub-compartments and surrounding tissues, while the main challenge in registration and modeling is the handling of morphological changes caused by the tumor. The qualities of different approaches are discussed with a focus on methods that can be applied on standard clinical imaging protocols. Finally, a critical assessment of the current state is performed and future developments and trends are addressed, giving special attention to recent developments in radiological tumor assessment guidelines.

  12. A survey of MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Stefan; Nolte, Lutz-P; Reyes, Mauricio; Wiest, Roland

    2013-01-01

    MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies is gaining attention in recent times due to an increased need for efficient and objective evaluation of large amounts of data. While the pioneering approaches applying automated methods for the analysis of brain tumor images date back almost two decades, the current methods are becoming more mature and coming closer to routine clinical application. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview by giving a brief introduction to brain tumors and imaging of brain tumors first. Then, we review the state of the art in segmentation, registration and modeling related to tumor-bearing brain images with a focus on gliomas. The objective in the segmentation is outlining the tumor including its sub-compartments and surrounding tissues, while the main challenge in registration and modeling is the handling of morphological changes caused by the tumor. The qualities of different approaches are discussed with a focus on methods that can be applied on standard clinical imaging protocols. Finally, a critical assessment of the current state is performed and future developments and trends are addressed, giving special attention to recent developments in radiological tumor assessment guidelines. (topical review)

  13. Contrast-enhanced fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MR imaging in patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Kyo; Na, Dong Gyu; Ryoo, Wook Jae; Byun Hong Sik; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Kim, Jong hyun

    2000-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of contrast-enhanced fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (fast FLAIR) MR imaging in patients with brain tumors. This study involved 31 patients with pathologically proven brain tumors and nine with clinically diagnosed metastases. In all patients, T2-weighted, fast FLAIR, images were visual contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images were obtained. Contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR images were visually compared with other MR sequences in terms of tumor conspicuity. In order to distinguish tumor and surrounding edema, contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR images were compared with fast FLAIR and T2-weighted images. The tumor-to- white matter contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs), as demonstrated by T2-weighted, fast FLAIR, contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, were quantitatively assessed and compared. For the visual assessment of tumor conspicuity, contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR image imaging superior to fast FLAIR in 60% of cases (24/40), and superior to T2-weighted in 70% (28/40). Contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR imaging was inferior to contrast-enhanced T1-weighted in 58% of cases (23/40). For distinguishing between tumor and surrounding edema, contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR imaging was superior to fast FLAIR or T2-weighted in 22 of 27 tumors with peritumoral edema (81%). Quantitatively, CNR was the highest on contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR image and the lowest on fast FLAIR. For the detection of leptomeningeal metastases, contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR was partially superior to contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging in two of three high-grade gliomas. Although contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR imaging should not be seen as a replacement for conventional modalities, it provides additional informaton for assessment of the extent of glial cell tumors and leptomeningeal metastases in patients with brain tumors. (author)

  14. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  15. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  16. In vivo multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantelhardt, Sven R; Kalasauskas, Darius; König, Karsten; Kim, Ella; Weinigel, Martin; Uchugonova, Aisada; Giese, Alf

    2016-05-01

    High resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging differentiates glioma from adjacent brain in native tissue samples ex vivo. Presently, multiphoton tomography is applied in clinical dermatology and experimentally. We here present the first application of multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging for in vivo imaging on humans during a neurosurgical procedure. We used a MPTflex™ Multiphoton Laser Tomograph (JenLab, Germany). We examined cultured glioma cells in an orthotopic mouse tumor model and native human tissue samples. Finally the multiphoton tomograph was applied to provide optical biopsies during resection of a clinical case of glioblastoma. All tissues imaged by multiphoton tomography were sampled and processed for conventional histopathology. The multiphoton tomograph allowed fluorescence intensity- and fluorescence lifetime imaging with submicron spatial resolution and 200 picosecond temporal resolution. Morphological fluorescence intensity imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging of tumor-bearing mouse brains and native human tissue samples clearly differentiated tumor and adjacent brain tissue. Intraoperative imaging was found to be technically feasible. Intraoperative image quality was comparable to ex vivo examinations. To our knowledge we here present the first intraoperative application of high resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumors in situ. It allowed in vivo identification and determination of cell density of tumor tissue on a cellular and subcellular level within seconds. The technology shows the potential of rapid intraoperative identification of native glioma tissue without need for tissue processing or staining.

  17. H-1 chemical shift imaging characterization of human brain tumor and edema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, PE; Oudkerk, M

    Longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times of metabolites in human brain tumor, peritumoral edema, and unaffected brain tissue were assessed from point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) H-1 chemical shift imaging results at different repetition times (TR = 1500 and 5000 ms; T1: n = 19) and

  18. Examination of human brain tumors in situ with image-localized H-1 MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyten, P.R.; Segebarth, C.; Baleriaux, D.; Den Hollander, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Human brain tumors were examined in situ by combined imaging and H-1 MR spectroscopy at 1.5 T. Water-suppressed localized H-1 MR spectra obtained from the brains of normal volunteers show resonances from lactate, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine, and choline. Several patients suffering from different brain tumors were examined, showing spectral changes in the region of 0.5-1.5 ppm; spectral editing showed that these changes were not due to lactic acid, but to lipid signals. The NAA signal was decreased in the tumors as compared with normal brain. This study shows that H-1 MR spectroscopy can monitor submillimolar changes in chemical composition of human brain tumors in situ

  19. {sup 18}F-labeled RGD peptide: initial evaluation for imaging brain tumor angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xiaoyuan; Park, Ryan; Shahinian, Anthony H.; Tohme, Michel; Khankaldyyan, Vazgen; Bozorgzadeh, Mohammed H.; Bading, James R.; Moats, Rex; Laug, Walter E.; Conti, Peter S. E-mail: pconti@usc.edu

    2004-02-01

    Brain tumors are highly angiogenesis dependent. The cell adhesion receptor integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} is overexpressed in glioma and activated endothelial cells and plays an important role in brain tumor growth, spread and angiogenesis. Suitably labeled {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-integrin antagonists may therefore be useful for imaging brain tumor associated angiogenesis. Cyclic RGD peptide c(RGDyK) was labeled with {sup 18}F via N-succinimidyl-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoate through the side-chain {epsilon}-amino group of the lysine residue. The radiotracer was evaluated in vivo for its tumor targeting efficacy and pharmacokinetics in subcutaneously implanted U87MG and orthotopically implanted U251T glioblastoma nude mouse models by means of microPET, quantitative autoradiography and direct tissue sampling. The N-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoyl-RGD ([{sup 18}F]FB-RGD) was produced in less than 2 h with 20-25% decay-corrected yields and specific activity of 230 GBq/{mu}mol at end of synthesis. The tracer showed very rapid blood clearance and both hepatobiliary and renal excretion. Tumor-to-muscle uptake ratio at 30 min was approximately 5 in the subcutaneous U87MG tumor model. MicroPET imaging with the orthotopic U251T brain tumor model revealed very high tumor-to-brain ratio, with virtually no uptake in the normal brain. Successful blocking of tumor uptake of [{sup 18}F]FB-RGD in the presence of excess amount of c(RGDyK) revealed receptor specific activity accumulation. Hence, N-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoyl labeled cyclic RGD peptide [{sup 18}F]FB-RGD is a potential tracer for imaging {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-integrin positive tumors in brain and other anatomic locations.

  20. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain Tumors What's in ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  1. Demonstration of brain tumors by computer-aided image intensification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froeder, M.; Herbst, M.; Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen

    1987-01-01

    It is possible to distinguish cerebral tumours from brain tissue after the injection of contrast by using an X-ray-video chain. Weak contrast situated behind strongly absorbing bone can be demonstrated by a non-tomographic method by reducing the noise level and by using a special subtraction technique designed for optimal iodine contrast. For this examination, four series of images are prepared and stored (one before the administration of contrast and three subsequently). Dynamic studies of the distribution of contrast in the intra- and extra-vascular spaces of brain and tumour are produced by subtracting the stored images. The demonstration of blood-flow dynamics improves the differentiation of the tumour and, in particular, makes it possible to distinguish the tumour from cerebral oedema. The current input into the X-ray tube is low and the skin dose on the entry side is less than 0.6 R for each series. The usefulness of the method in complementing computer tomography for surgical and radiation treatment is illustrated from various types of tumour. Up to the present 35 patients have been examined by this method. (orig.) [de

  2. Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis and histomorphologic imaging of brain tumors in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Foersch

    Full Text Available Early detection and evaluation of brain tumors during surgery is crucial for accurate resection. Currently cryosections during surgery are regularly performed. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is a novel technique permitting in vivo histologic imaging with miniaturized endoscopic probes at excellent resolution. Aim of the current study was to evaluate CLE for in vivo diagnosis in different types and models of intracranial neoplasia. In vivo histomorphology of healthy brains and two different C6 glioma cell line allografts was evaluated in rats. One cell line expressed EYFP, the other cell line was used for staining with fluorescent dyes (fluorescein, acriflavine, FITC-dextran and Indocyanine green. To evaluate future application in patients, fresh surgical resection specimen of human intracranial tumors (n = 15 were examined (glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma, craniopharyngioma, acoustic neurinoma, brain metastasis, medulloblastoma, epidermoid tumor. Healthy brain tissue adjacent to the samples served as control. CLE yielded high-quality histomorphology of normal brain tissue and tumors. Different fluorescent agents revealed distinct aspects of tissue and cell structure (nuclear pattern, axonal pathways, hemorrhages. CLE discrimination of neoplastic from healthy brain tissue was easy to perform based on tissue and cellular architecture and resemblance with histopathology was excellent. Confocal laser endomicroscopy allows immediate in vivo imaging of normal and neoplastic brain tissue at high resolution. The technology might be transferred to scientific and clinical application in neurosurgery and neuropathology. It may become helpful to screen for tumor free margins and to improve the surgical resection of malignant brain tumors, and opens the door to in vivo molecular imaging of tumors and other neurologic disorders.

  3. Targeting Potassium Channels for Increasing Delivery of Imaging Agents and Therapeutics to Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Sanyasihally Ningaraj

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Every year in the US, 20,000 new primary and nearly 200,000 metastatic brain tumor cases are reported. The cerebral microvessels/ capillaries that form the blood–brain barrier (BBB not only protect the brain from toxic agents in the blood but also pose a significant hindrance to the delivery of small and large therapeutic molecules. Different strategies have been employed to circumvent the physiological barrier posed by blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB. Studies in our laboratory have identified significant differences in the expression levels of certain genes and proteins between normal and brain tumor capillary endothelial cells. In this study, we validated the non-invasive and clinically relevant Dynamic Contrast Enhancing-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI method with invasive, clinically irrelevant but highly accurate Quantitative Autoradiography (QAR method using rat glioma model. We also showed that DCE-MRI metric of tissue vessel perfusion-permeability is sensitive to changes in blood vessel permeability following administration of calcium-activated potassium (BKCa channel activator NS-1619. Our results show that human gliomas and brain tumor endothelial cells that overexpress BKCa channels can be targeted for increased BTB permeability for MRI enhancing agents to brain tumors. We conclude that monitoring the outcome of increased MRI enhancing agents’ delivery to microsatellites and leading tumor edges in glioma patients would lead to beneficial clinical outcome.

  4. Brain tumor segmentation using holistically nested neural networks in MRI images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Ying; Krauze, Andra V; Ning, Holly; Cheng, Jason Y; Arora, Barbara C; Camphausen, Kevin; Miller, Robert W

    2017-10-01

    Gliomas are rapidly progressive, neurologically devastating, largely fatal brain tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used technique employed in the diagnosis and management of gliomas in clinical practice. MRI is also the standard imaging modality used to delineate the brain tumor target as part of treatment planning for the administration of radiation therapy. Despite more than 20 yr of research and development, computational brain tumor segmentation in MRI images remains a challenging task. We are presenting a novel method of automatic image segmentation based on holistically nested neural networks that could be employed for brain tumor segmentation of MRI images. Two preprocessing techniques were applied to MRI images. The N4ITK method was employed for correction of bias field distortion. A novel landmark-based intensity normalization method was developed so that tissue types have a similar intensity scale in images of different subjects for the same MRI protocol. The holistically nested neural networks (HNN), which extend from the convolutional neural networks (CNN) with a deep supervision through an additional weighted-fusion output layer, was trained to learn the multiscale and multilevel hierarchical appearance representation of the brain tumor in MRI images and was subsequently applied to produce a prediction map of the brain tumor on test images. Finally, the brain tumor was obtained through an optimum thresholding on the prediction map. The proposed method was evaluated on both the Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation (BRATS) Benchmark 2013 training datasets, and clinical data from our institute. A dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and sensitivity of 0.78 and 0.81 were achieved on 20 BRATS 2013 training datasets with high-grade gliomas (HGG), based on a two-fold cross-validation. The HNN model built on the BRATS 2013 training data was applied to ten clinical datasets with HGG from a locally developed database. DSC and sensitivity of

  5. Brain MRI Tumor Detection using Active Contour Model and Local Image Fitting Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabizadeh, Nooshin; John, Nigel

    2014-03-01

    Automatic abnormality detection in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an important issue in many diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here an automatic brain tumor detection method is introduced that uses T1-weighted images and K. Zhang et. al.'s active contour model driven by local image fitting (LIF) energy. Local image fitting energy obtains the local image information, which enables the algorithm to segment images with intensity inhomogeneities. Advantage of this method is that the LIF energy functional has less computational complexity than the local binary fitting (LBF) energy functional; moreover, it maintains the sub-pixel accuracy and boundary regularization properties. In Zhang's algorithm, a new level set method based on Gaussian filtering is used to implement the variational formulation, which is not only vigorous to prevent the energy functional from being trapped into local minimum, but also effective in keeping the level set function regular. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves high accuracy brain tumor segmentation results.

  6. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigate their brain tumor diagnosis. WATCH AND SHARE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Central Nervous System Cancers Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  7. Functional MRI procedures in the diagnosis of brain tumors. Perfusion- and diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, M.; Heiland, S.; Sartor, K.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the increased diagnostic accuracy of contrast material enhanced MR imaging, specification and grading of brain tumors are still only approximate at best: neither morphology, nor relaxation times or contrast material enhancement reliably predict tumor histology or tumor grade. As histology and tumor grade strongly influence which therapy concept is chosen, a more precise diagnosis is mandatory. With diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI, PWI) it is now possible to obtain important information regarding the cellular matrix and the relative regional cerebral blood volume (rrCBV) of brain tumors, which cannot be obtained with standard MR techniques. These dynamic-functional imaging techniques are very useful in the preoperative diagnosis of gliomas, lymphomas, and metastases, as well as in the differentiation of these neoplastic lesions from abscesses, atypical ischemic infarctions, and tumor-like manifestations of demyelinating disease. Additionally, they appear suitable for determining glioma grade and regions of active tumor growth which should be the target of stereotactic biopsy and therapy. After therapy these techniques are helpful to better assess the tumor response to therapy, possible therapy failure and therapy complications such as radiation necrosis. (orig.) [de

  8. Proton magnetic spectroscopic imaging of the child's brain: the response of tumors to treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzika, A.A.; Young Poussaint, T.; Astrakas, L.G.; Barnes, P.D.; Goumnerova, L.; Scott, R.M.; Black, P.McL.; Anthony, D.C.; Billett, A.L.; Tarbell, N.J.

    2001-01-01

    Our aim was to determine and/or predict response to treatment of brain tumors in children using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). We studied 24 patients aged 10 months to 24 years, using MRI and point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS; TR 2000 TE 65 ms) with volume preselection and phase-encoding in two dimensions on a 1.5 T imager. Multiple logistic regression was used to establish independent predictors of active tumor growth. Biologically vital cell metabolites, such as N-acetyl aspartate and choline-containing compounds (Cho), were significantly different between tumor and control tissues (P<0.001). The eight brain tumors which responded to radiation or chemotherapy, exhibited lower Cho (P=0.05), higher total creatine (tCr) (P=0.02) and lower lactate and lipid (L) (P=0.04) than16 tumors which were not treated (except by surgery) or did not respond to treatment. The only significant independent predictor of active tumor growth was tCr (P<0.01). We suggest that tCr is useful in assessing response of brain tumors to treatment. (orig.)

  9. A simple method for detecting tumor in T2-weighted MRI brain images. An image-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Phooi-Yee; Ozawa, Shinji

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a decision support system which uses a computer-based procedure to detect tumor blocks or lesions in digitized medical images. The authors developed a simple method with a low computation effort to detect tumors on T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain images, focusing on the connection between the spatial pixel value and tumor properties from four different perspectives: cases having minuscule differences between two images using a fixed block-based method, tumor shape and size using the edge and binary images, tumor properties based on texture values using spatial pixel intensity distribution controlled by a global discriminate value, and the occurrence of content-specific tumor pixel for threshold images. Measurements of the following medical datasets were performed: different time interval images, and different brain disease images on single and multiple slice images. Experimental results have revealed that our proposed technique incurred an overall error smaller than those in other proposed methods. In particular, the proposed method allowed decrements of false alarm and missed alarm errors, which demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed technique. In this paper, we also present a prototype system, known as PCB, to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods by actual experiments, comparing the detection accuracy and system performance. (author)

  10. Computational Modeling of Medical Images of Brain Tumor Patients for Optimized Radiation Therapy Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agn, Mikael

    In brain tumor radiation therapy, the aim is to maximize the delivered radiation dose to the targeted tumor and at the same time minimize the dose to sensitive healthy structures – so-called organs-at-risk (OARs). When planning a radiation therapy session, the tumor and the OARs therefore need...... to be delineated on medical images of the patient’s head, to be able to optimize a radiation dose plan. In clinical practice, the delineation is performed manually with limited assistance from automatic procedures, which is both time-consuming and typically suffers from poor reproducibility. There is, therefore...

  11. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  12. The Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menze, Bjoern H.; Jakab, Andras; Bauer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    a hierarchical majority vote yielded segmentations that consistently ranked above all individual algorithms, indicating remaining opportunities for further methodological improvements. The BRATS image data and manual annotations continue to be publicly available through an online evaluation system as an ongoing...

  13. Computer aided detection of tumor and edema in brain FLAIR magnetic resonance image using ANN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Nandita; Sinha, A. K.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents an efficient region based segmentation technique for detecting pathological tissues (Tumor & Edema) of brain using fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images. This work segments FLAIR brain images for normal and pathological tissues based on statistical features and wavelet transform coefficients using k-means algorithm. The image is divided into small blocks of 4×4 pixels. The k-means algorithm is used to cluster the image based on the feature vectors of blocks forming different classes representing different regions in the whole image. With the knowledge of the feature vectors of different segmented regions, supervised technique is used to train Artificial Neural Network using fuzzy back propagation algorithm (FBPA). Segmentation for detecting healthy tissues and tumors has been reported by several researchers by using conventional MRI sequences like T1, T2 and PD weighted sequences. This work successfully presents segmentation of healthy and pathological tissues (both Tumors and Edema) using FLAIR images. At the end pseudo coloring of segmented and classified regions are done for better human visualization.

  14. Optimal factors of diffusion tensor imaging predicting cortico spinal tract injury in patients with brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Zhi Gang; Niu, Chen; Zhang, Qiu Li; Zhang, Ming [Dept. of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Qian, Yu Cheng [Dept. of Medical Imaging, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China)

    2017-09-15

    To identify the optimal factors in diffusion tensor imaging for predicting corticospinal tract (CST) injury caused by brain tumors. This prospective study included 33 patients with motor weakness and 64 patients with normal motor function. The movement of the CST, minimum distance between the CST and the tumor, and relative fractional anisotropy (rFA) of the CST on diffusion tensor imaging, were compared between patients with motor weakness and normal function. Logistic regression analysis was used to obtain the optimal factor predicting motor weakness. In patients with motor weakness, the displacement (8.44 ± 6.64 mm) of the CST (p = 0.009), minimum distance (3.98 ± 7.49 mm) between the CST and tumor (p < 0.001), and rFA (0.83 ± 0.11) of the CST (p < 0.001) were significantly different from those of the normal group (4.64 ± 6.65 mm, 14.87 ± 12.04 mm, and 0.98 ± 0.05, respectively) (p = 0.009, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001). The frequencies of patients with the CST passing through the tumor (6%, p = 0.002), CST close to the tumor (23%, p < 0.001), CST close to a malignant tumor (high grade glioma, metastasis, or lymphoma) (19%, p < 0.001), and CST passing through infiltrating edema (19%, p < 0.001) in the motor weakness group, were significantly different from those of the patients with normal motor function (0, 8, 1, and 10%, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that decreased rFA and CST close to a malignant tumor were effective variables related to motor weakness. Decreased fractional anisotropy, combined with closeness of a malignant tumor to the CST, is the optimal factor in predicting CST injury caused by a brain tumor.

  15. Digital tumor fluoroscopy (DTF)--a new direct imaging system in the therapy planning for brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, M; Fröder, M

    1990-01-01

    Digital Tumor Fluoroscopy is an expanded x-ray video chain optimized to iodine contrast with an extended Gy scale up to 64000 Gy values. Series of pictures are taken before and after injection of contrast medium. With the most recent unit, up to ten images can be taken and stored. The microprogrammable processor allows the subtraction of images recorded at any moment of the examination. Dynamic views of the distribution of contrast medium in the intravasal and extravasal spaces of brain and tumor tissue are gained by the subtraction of stored images. Tumors can be differentiated by studying the storage and drainage behavior of the contrast medium during the period of examination. Meningiomas store contrast medium very intensively during the whole time of investigation, whereas astrocytomas grade 2-3 pick it up less strongly at the beginning and release it within 2 min. Glioblastomas show a massive but delayed accumulation of contrast medium and a decreased flow-off-rate. In comparison with radiography and MR-imaging the most important advantage of Digital Tumor Fluoroscopy is that direct information on tumor localization is gained in relation to the skull-cap. This enables the radiotherapist to mark the treatment field directly on the skull. Therefore it is no longer necessary to calculate the tumor volume from several CT scans for localization. In radiotherapy Digital Tumor Fluoroscopy a unit combined with a simulator can replace CT planning. This would help overcome the disadvantages arising from the lack of a collimating system, and the inaccuracies which result from completely different geometric relationships between a CT unit and a therapy machine.

  16. Content-based image retrieval using spatial layout information in brain tumor T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Wu, Yao; Jiang, Jun; Gao, Yang; Chen, Yang; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Lu, Zhentai

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to develop content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR (CE-MR) images of brain tumors. When a tumor region is fed to the CBIR system as a query, the system attempts to retrieve tumors of the same pathological category. The bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) model with partition learning is incorporated into the system to extract informative features for representing the image contents. Furthermore, a distance metric learning algorithm called the Rank Error-based Metric Learning (REML) is proposed to reduce the semantic gap between low-level visual features and high-level semantic concepts. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain T1-weighted CE-MR dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor). Using the BoVW model with partition learning, the mean average precision (mAP) of retrieval increases beyond 4.6% with the learned distance metrics compared with the spatial pyramid BoVW method. The distance metric learned by REML significantly outperforms three other existing distance metric learning methods in terms of mAP. The mAP of the CBIR system is as high as 91.8% using the proposed method, and the precision can reach 93.1% when the top 10 images are returned by the system. These preliminary results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and feasible for the retrieval of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MR Images.

  17. Content-based image retrieval using spatial layout information in brain tumor T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyan Huang

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop content-based image retrieval (CBIR system for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR (CE-MR images of brain tumors. When a tumor region is fed to the CBIR system as a query, the system attempts to retrieve tumors of the same pathological category. The bag-of-visual-words (BoVW model with partition learning is incorporated into the system to extract informative features for representing the image contents. Furthermore, a distance metric learning algorithm called the Rank Error-based Metric Learning (REML is proposed to reduce the semantic gap between low-level visual features and high-level semantic concepts. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain T1-weighted CE-MR dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor. Using the BoVW model with partition learning, the mean average precision (mAP of retrieval increases beyond 4.6% with the learned distance metrics compared with the spatial pyramid BoVW method. The distance metric learned by REML significantly outperforms three other existing distance metric learning methods in terms of mAP. The mAP of the CBIR system is as high as 91.8% using the proposed method, and the precision can reach 93.1% when the top 10 images are returned by the system. These preliminary results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and feasible for the retrieval of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MR Images.

  18. An Intraoperative Visualization System Using Hyperspectral Imaging to Aid in Brain Tumor Delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himar Fabelo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging (HSI allows for the acquisition of large numbers of spectral bands throughout the electromagnetic spectrum (within and beyond the visual range with respect to the surface of scenes captured by sensors. Using this information and a set of complex classification algorithms, it is possible to determine which material or substance is located in each pixel. The work presented in this paper aims to exploit the characteristics of HSI to develop a demonstrator capable of delineating tumor tissue from brain tissue during neurosurgical operations. Improved delineation of tumor boundaries is expected to improve the results of surgery. The developed demonstrator is composed of two hyperspectral cameras covering a spectral range of 400–1700 nm. Furthermore, a hardware accelerator connected to a control unit is used to speed up the hyperspectral brain cancer detection algorithm to achieve processing during the time of surgery. A labeled dataset comprised of more than 300,000 spectral signatures is used as the training dataset for the supervised stage of the classification algorithm. In this preliminary study, thematic maps obtained from a validation database of seven hyperspectral images of in vivo brain tissue captured and processed during neurosurgical operations demonstrate that the system is able to discriminate between normal and tumor tissue in the brain. The results can be provided during the surgical procedure (~1 min, making it a practical system for neurosurgeons to use in the near future to improve excision and potentially improve patient outcomes.

  19. Slip Interface Imaging Predicts Tumor-Brain Adhesion in Vestibular Schwannomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ziying; Glaser, Kevin J; Manduca, Armando; Van Gompel, Jamie J; Link, Michael J; Hughes, Joshua D; Romano, Anthony; Ehman, Richard L; Huston, John

    2015-11-01

    To test the clinical feasibility and usefulness of slip interface imaging (SII) to identify and quantify the degree of tumor-brain adhesion in patients with vestibular schwannomas. S With institutional review board approval and after obtaining written informed consent, SII examinations were performed in nine patients with vestibular schwannomas. During the SII acquisition, a low-amplitude mechanical vibration is applied to the head with a pillow-like device placed in the head coil and the resulting shear waves are imaged by using a phase-contrast pulse sequence with motion-encoding gradients synchronized with the applied vibration. Imaging was performed with a 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) system in less than 7 minutes. The acquired shear motion data were processed with two different algorithms (shear line analysis and calculation of octahedral shear strain [OSS]) to identify the degree of tumor-brain adhesion. Blinded to the SII results, neurosurgeons qualitatively assessed tumor adhesion at the time of tumor resection. Standard T2-weighted, fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA), and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging were reviewed to identify the presence of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) clefts around the tumors. The performance of the use of the CSF cleft and SII to predict the degree of tumor adhesion was evaluated by using the κ coefficient and McNemar test. Among the nine patients, SII agreed with the intraoperative assessment of the degree of tumor adhesion in eight patients (88.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 57%, 98%), with four of four, three of three, and one of two cases correctly predicted as no adhesion, partial adhesion, and complete adhesion, respectively. However, the T2-weighted, FIESTA, and T2-weighted FLAIR images that used the CSF cleft sign to predict adhesion agreed with surgical findings in only four cases (44.4% [four of nine]; 95% CI: 19%, 73%). The κ coefficients indicate good agreement (0

  20. Segmentation of tumors in magnetic resonance brain images using an interactive multiscale watershed algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Letteboer, Marloes M J; Olsen, Ole F; Dam, Erik B

    2004-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: This article presents the evaluation of an interactive multiscale watershed segmentation algorithm for segmenting tumors in magnetic resonance brain images of patients scheduled for neuronavigational procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The watershed method is compared...... delineation shows that the two methods are interchangeable according to the Bland and Altman criterion, and thus equally accurate. The repeatability of the watershed method and the manual method are compared by looking at the similarity of the segmented volumes. The similarity for intraobserver...

  1. Peritumoral brain edema in intracranial tumor evaluated by CT perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yuxin; Xu Jianfeng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To semi-quantitatively evaluate the cerebral perfusion in the peritumoral brain edema of cerebral tumors using CT perfusion imaging. Methods: Twenty-one patients with peritumoral brain edema (including pathologically confirmed meningiomas n=4, metastasis n=10, gliomas n=7) were examined by CT perfusion imaging. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and mean transit time (MTT) were calculated for peritumoral brain edema and the contralateralwhite matter. The rCBF and rCBV were compared between peritumoral brain edema and the contralateral white matter. The mean ratios (edema/contralateral white matter) of rCBF and rCBV were compared among the three tumors. Results: The rCBF and rCBV of peritumoral brain edema were significantly lower than those of contralateral white matter in patients with meningiomas and metastasis (rCBF: t=2.92 and 3.82, P 0.05). The mean ratios (edema/contralateralwhite matter) of rCBF and rCBV were not significantly different between meningiomas and metastasis (t=0.23 and 0.73, P>0.05), but both of them were significantly lower than those of gliomas (t=3.05 and 3.37, P<0.01, 0.005). Conclusion: The rCBF and rCBV in peritumoral brain edema were significantly lower than those of contralateral white matter in patients with meningiomas and metastasis, while almost the same with or higher than those of contralateral white matter in patients with gliomas. CT perfusion can provide quantitative information of blood flow in peritumoral brain edema, and is useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of cerebral tumors. (authors)

  2. Intraoperative Imaging Modalities and Compensation for Brain Shift in Tumor Resection Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siming Bayer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative brain shift during neurosurgical procedures is a well-known phenomenon caused by gravity, tissue manipulation, tumor size, loss of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, and use of medication. For the use of image-guided systems, this phenomenon greatly affects the accuracy of the guidance. During the last several decades, researchers have investigated how to overcome this problem. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of publications concerning different aspects of intraoperative brain shift especially in a tumor resection surgery such as intraoperative imaging systems, quantification, measurement, modeling, and registration techniques. Clinical experience of using intraoperative imaging modalities, details about registration, and modeling methods in connection with brain shift in tumor resection surgery are the focuses of this review. In total, 126 papers regarding this topic are analyzed in a comprehensive summary and are categorized according to fourteen criteria. The result of the categorization is presented in an interactive web tool. The consequences from the categorization and trends in the future are discussed at the end of this work.

  3. The registration accuracy analysis of different CT-MRI imaging fusion method in brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jie; Yin Yong; Shao Qian; Zhang Zicheng; Chen Jinhu; Chen Zhaoqiu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To find an effective CT-MRI image fusion protocol in brain tumor by analyzing the registration accuracy of different methods. Methods: The simulation CT scan and MRI T 1 WI imaging of 10 brain tumor patients obtained with same position were registered by Tris-Axes landmark ,Tris-Axes landmark + manual adjustment, mutual information and mutual information + manual adjustment method. The clinical tumor volume (CTV) were contoured on both CT and MRI images respectively. The accuracy of image fusion was assessed by the mean distance of five bone markers (d 1-5 ), central position of CTV (d CTV ) the percentage of CTV overlap (P CT-MRI ) between CT and MRI images. The difference between different methods was analyzed by Freedman M non-parameter test. Results: The difference of the means d1-5 between the Tris-Axes landmark,Tris-Axes landmark plus manual adjustment,mutual information and mutual information plus manual adjustment methods were 0.28 cm ±0.12 cm, 0.15 cm ±0.02 cm, 0.25 cm± 0.19 cm, 0.10 cm ± 0.06 cm, (M = 14.41, P = 0.002). the means d CTV were 0.59 cm ± 0.28 cm, 0.60 cm± 0.32 cm, 0.58 cm ± 0.39 cm, 0.42 cm± 0.30 cm (M = 9.72, P = 0.021), the means P CT-MRI were 0.69% ±0.18%, 0.68% ±0.16%, 0.66% ±0.17%, 0.74% ±0.14% (M =14.82, P=0.002), respectively. Conclusions: Mutual information plus manual adjustment registration method was the preferable fusion method for brain tumor patients. (authors)

  4. Molecular Imaging of Gene Expression and Efficacy following Adenoviral-Mediated Brain Tumor Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alnawaz Rehemtulla

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer gene therapy is an active area of research relying upon the transfer and subsequent expression of a therapeutic transgene into tumor cells in order to provide for therapeutic selectivity. Noninvasive assessment of therapeutic response and correlation of the location, magnitude, and duration of transgene expression in vivo would be particularly useful in the development of cancer gene therapy protocols by facilitating optimization of gene transfer protocols, vector development, and prodrug dosing schedules. In this study, we developed an adenoviral vector containing both the therapeutic transgene yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD along with an optical reporter gene (luciferase. Following intratumoral injection of the vector into orthotopic 9L gliomas, anatomical and diffusion-weighted MR images were obtained over time in order to provide for quantitative assessment of overall therapeutic efficacy and spatial heterogeneity of cell kill, respectively. In addition, bioluminescence images were acquired to assess the duration and magnitude of gene expression. MR images revealed significant reduction in tumor growth rates associated with yCD/5-fluorocytosine (5FC gene therapy. Significant increases in mean tumor diffusion values were also observed during treatment with 5FC. Moreover, spatial heterogeneity in tumor diffusion changes were also observed revealing that diffusion magnetic resonance imaging could detect regional therapeutic effects due to the nonuniform delivery and/or expression of the therapeutic yCD transgene within the tumor mass. In addition, in vivo bioluminescence imaging detected luciferase gene expression, which was found to decrease over time during administration of the prodrug providing a noninvasive surrogate marker for monitoring gene expression. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the yCD/5FC strategy for the treatment of brain tumors and reveal the feasibility of using multimodality molecular and functional imaging

  5. Bridging from Brain to Tumor Imaging: (S-(−- and (R-(+-[18F]Fluspidine for Investigation of Sigma-1 Receptors in Tumor-Bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kranz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sigma-1 receptors (Sig1R are highly expressed in various human cancer cells and hence imaging of this target with positron emission tomography (PET can contribute to a better understanding of tumor pathophysiology and support the development of antineoplastic drugs. Two Sig1R-specific radiolabeled enantiomers (S-(−- and (R-(+-[18F]fluspidine were investigated in several tumor cell lines including melanoma, squamous cell/epidermoid carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and glioblastoma. Dynamic PET scans were performed in mice to investigate the suitability of both radiotracers for tumor imaging. The Sig1R expression in the respective tumors was confirmed by Western blot. Rather low radiotracer uptake was found in heterotopically (subcutaneously implanted tumors. Therefore, a brain tumor model (U87-MG with orthotopic implantation was chosen to investigate the suitability of the two Sig1R radiotracers for brain tumor imaging. High tumor uptake as well as a favorable tumor-to-background ratio was found. These results suggest that Sig1R PET imaging of brain tumors with [18F]fluspidine could be possible. Further studies with this tumor model will be performed to confirm specific binding and the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB.

  6. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Family Donate Volunteer Justin's Hope Fund Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  7. Treatment of Experimental Brain Tumors with Trombospondin-1 Derived Peptides: an In Vivo Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bogdanov, Jr.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects of synthetic D-reverse peptides derived from the type 1 repeats of thrombospondin (TSP1 [1,2] were studied in rodent C6 glioma and 9L gliosarcomas. To directly measure tumor size and vascular parameters, we employed in vivo magnetic resonance (MR imaging and corroborated results by traditional morphometric tissue analysis. Rats bearing either C6 or 9L tumors were treated with TSP1-derived peptide (D-reverse amKRFKQDGGWSHWSPWSSac, n=13 or a control peptide (D-reverse am KRAKQAGGASHASPASSac, n=12 at 10 mg/kg, administered either intravenously or through subcutaneous miniosmotic pumps starting 10 days after tumor implantation. Eleven days later, the effect of peptide treatment was evaluated. TSP1 peptide-treated 9L tumors (50.7±44.2 mm3, n=7 and C6 tumors (41.3±34.2 mm3, n=6 were significantly smaller than tumors treated with control peptide (9L: 215.7±67.8 mm3, n=6; C6:184.2±105.2 mm3, n=6. In contrast, the in vivo vascular volume fraction, the mean vascular area (determined by microscopy, and the microvascular density of tumors were not significantly different in any of the experimental groups. In cell culture, TSP1, and the amKRFKQDGGWSHWSPWSSac peptide showed antiproliferative effects against C6 with an IC of 45 nM for TSP1. These results indicate that TSP1derived peptides retard brain tumor growth presumably as a result of slower de novo blood vessel formation and synergistic direct antiproliferative effects on tumor cells. We also show that in vivo MR imaging can be used to assess treatment efficacy of novel antiangiogenic drugs non-invasively, which has obvious implications for clinical trials.

  8. Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches for the Diagnosis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ciulla

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research presents signal-image post-processing techniques called Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches with application to the diagnosis of human brain tumors detected through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Post-processing of the MRI of the human brain encompasses the following model functions: (i bivariate cubic polynomial, (ii bivariate cubic Lagrange polynomial, (iii monovariate sinc, and (iv bivariate linear. The following Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches were used: (i classic-curvature, (ii signal resilient to interpolation, (iii intensity-curvature measure and (iv intensity-curvature functional. The results revealed that the classic-curvature, the signal resilient to interpolation and the intensity-curvature functional are able to add additional information useful to the diagnosis carried out with MRI. The contribution to the MRI diagnosis of our study are: (i the enhanced gray level scale of the tumor mass and the well-behaved representation of the tumor provided through the signal resilient to interpolation, and (ii the visually perceptible third dimension perpendicular to the image plane provided through the classic-curvature and the intensity-curvature functional.

  9. A tri-modality image fusion method for target delineation of brain tumors in radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Guo

    Full Text Available To develop a tri-modality image fusion method for better target delineation in image-guided radiotherapy for patients with brain tumors.A new method of tri-modality image fusion was developed, which can fuse and display all image sets in one panel and one operation. And a feasibility study in gross tumor volume (GTV delineation using data from three patients with brain tumors was conducted, which included images of simulation CT, MRI, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET examinations before radiotherapy. Tri-modality image fusion was implemented after image registrations of CT+PET and CT+MRI, and the transparency weight of each modality could be adjusted and set by users. Three radiation oncologists delineated GTVs for all patients using dual-modality (MRI/CT and tri-modality (MRI/CT/PET image fusion respectively. Inter-observer variation was assessed by the coefficient of variation (COV, the average distance between surface and centroid (ADSC, and the local standard deviation (SDlocal. Analysis of COV was also performed to evaluate intra-observer volume variation.The inter-observer variation analysis showed that, the mean COV was 0.14(± 0.09 and 0.07(± 0.01 for dual-modality and tri-modality respectively; the standard deviation of ADSC was significantly reduced (p<0.05 with tri-modality; SDlocal averaged over median GTV surface was reduced in patient 2 (from 0.57 cm to 0.39 cm and patient 3 (from 0.42 cm to 0.36 cm with the new method. The intra-observer volume variation was also significantly reduced (p = 0.00 with the tri-modality method as compared with using the dual-modality method.With the new tri-modality image fusion method smaller inter- and intra-observer variation in GTV definition for the brain tumors can be achieved, which improves the consistency and accuracy for target delineation in individualized radiotherapy.

  10. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May cause excessive secretion of hormones Common among men and women in their 50s-80s Accounts for about 13 percent of all brain tumors Symptoms Headache Depression Vision loss Nausea or vomiting Behavioral and cognitive ...

  11. PCA based clustering for brain tumor segmentation of T1w MRI images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Irem Ersöz; Pehlivanlı, Ayça Çakmak; Sekizkardeş, Emine Gezmez; Ibrikci, Turgay

    2017-03-01

    Medical images are huge collections of information that are difficult to store and process consuming extensive computing time. Therefore, the reduction techniques are commonly used as a data pre-processing step to make the image data less complex so that a high-dimensional data can be identified by an appropriate low-dimensional representation. PCA is one of the most popular multivariate methods for data reduction. This paper is focused on T1-weighted MRI images clustering for brain tumor segmentation with dimension reduction by different common Principle Component Analysis (PCA) algorithms. Our primary aim is to present a comparison between different variations of PCA algorithms on MRIs for two cluster methods. Five most common PCA algorithms; namely the conventional PCA, Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis (PPCA), Expectation Maximization Based Principal Component Analysis (EM-PCA), Generalize Hebbian Algorithm (GHA), and Adaptive Principal Component Extraction (APEX) were applied to reduce dimensionality in advance of two clustering algorithms, K-Means and Fuzzy C-Means. In the study, the T1-weighted MRI images of the human brain with brain tumor were used for clustering. In addition to the original size of 512 lines and 512 pixels per line, three more different sizes, 256 × 256, 128 × 128 and 64 × 64, were included in the study to examine their effect on the methods. The obtained results were compared in terms of both the reconstruction errors and the Euclidean distance errors among the clustered images containing the same number of principle components. According to the findings, the PPCA obtained the best results among all others. Furthermore, the EM-PCA and the PPCA assisted K-Means algorithm to accomplish the best clustering performance in the majority as well as achieving significant results with both clustering algorithms for all size of T1w MRI images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional MR imaging using sensory and motor task in brain tumors and other focal cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ok, Chul Su; Lim, Myung Kwan; Yu, Ki Bong; Kim, Hyung Jin; Suh, Chang Hae

    2002-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of the functional MRI (fMRI) using motor and sensory stimuli in patients with brain tumors of focal cerebral lesions. This study involved five patients with brain tumors (n=2) or cerebral lesions (cysticercosis (n=1), arteriovenous malformation (n=1), focal infarction (n=1) and seven normal controls. For MR examinations a 1.5T scanner was used, and during motor or sensory stimulation, the EPI BOLD technique was employed. For image postprocessing an SPM program was utilized. In volunteers, contralateral sensori-motor cortices were activated by both motor and sensory stimuli, while supplementary motor cortices were activated by motor stimuli and other sensory cortices by sensory stimuli. Preoperative evaluation of the relationship between lesions and important sensory and motor areas was possible, and subsequent surgery was thus successful, involving no severe complications. Activation of ipsilateral or other areas occurred in patients with destruction of a major sensory and/or motor area, suggesting compensatory reorganization. fMRI could be a useful supportive method for determining the best approach to surgery treatment in patients with brain tumors or focal cerebral lesions

  13. Six-color intravital two-photon imaging of brain tumors and their dynamic microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eRicard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The majority of intravital studies on brain tumor in living animal so far rely on dual color imaging. We describe here a multiphoton imaging protocol to dynamically characterize the interactions between six cellular components in a living mouse. We applied this methodology to a clinically relevant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM model designed in reporter mice with targeted cell populations labeled by fluorescent proteins of different colors. This model permitted us to make non-invasive longitudinal and multi-scale observations of cell-to-cell interactions. We provide examples of such 5D (x,y,z,t,color images acquired on a daily basis from volumes of interest, covering most of the mouse parietal cortex at subcellular resolution. Spectral deconvolution allowed us to accurately separate of each cell population as well as some components of the extracellular matrix. The technique represents a powerful tool for investigating how tumor progression is influenced by the interactions of tumor cells with host cells and the extracellular matrix micro-environment. It will be especially valuable for evaluating neuro-oncological drug efficacy and target specificity. The imaging protocol provided here can be easily translated to other mouse models of neuropathologies, and should also be of fundamental interest for investigations in other areas of systems biology.

  14. Six-color intravital two-photon imaging of brain tumors and their dynamic microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Clément; Debarbieux, Franck Christian

    2014-01-01

    The majority of intravital studies on brain tumor in living animal so far rely on dual color imaging. We describe here a multiphoton imaging protocol to dynamically characterize the interactions between six cellular components in a living mouse. We applied this methodology to a clinically relevant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) model designed in reporter mice with targeted cell populations labeled by fluorescent proteins of different colors. This model permitted us to make non-invasive longitudinal and multi-scale observations of cell-to-cell interactions. We provide examples of such 5D (x,y,z,t,color) images acquired on a daily basis from volumes of interest, covering most of the mouse parietal cortex at subcellular resolution. Spectral deconvolution allowed us to accurately separate each cell population as well as some components of the extracellular matrix. The technique represents a powerful tool for investigating how tumor progression is influenced by the interactions of tumor cells with host cells and the extracellular matrix micro-environment. It will be especially valuable for evaluating neuro-oncological drug efficacy and target specificity. The imaging protocol provided here can be easily translated to other mouse models of neuropathologies, and should also be of fundamental interest for investigations in other areas of systems biology.

  15. Targeting Potassium Channels for Increasing Delivery of Imaging Agents and Therapeutics to Brain Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Nagendra Sanyasihally Ningaraj; Divya eKhaitan

    2013-01-01

    Every year in the US, 20,000 new primary and nearly 200,000 metastatic brain tumor cases are reported. The cerebral microvessels/ capillaries that form the blood–brain barrier (BBB) not only protect the brain from toxic agents in the blood but also pose a significant hindrance to the delivery of small and large therapeutic molecules. Different strategies have been employed to circumvent the physiological barrier posed by blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB). Studies in our laboratory have identifi...

  16. Brain imaging and brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage

  17. Development of NMR imaging using CEST agents: application to brain tumor in a rodent model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, J.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed at developing saturation transfer imaging of lipoCEST contrast agents for the detection of angiogenesis in a U87 mouse brain tumor model. A lipoCEST with a sensitivity threshold of 100 pM in vitro was optimized in order to make it compatible with CEST imaging in vivo. Thanks to the development of an experimental setup dedicated to CEST imaging, we evaluated lipoCEST to detect specifically tumor angiogenesis. We demonstrated for the first time that lipoCEST visualization was feasible in vivo in a mouse brain after intravenous injection. Moreover, the integrin α v β 3 over expressed during tumor angiogenesis can be specifically targeted using a functionalized lipoCEST with RGD peptide. The specific association between the RGD-lipoCEST and its target α v β 3 was confirmed by immunohistochemical data and fluorescence microscopy. Finally, in order to tend to a molecular imaging protocol by CEST-MRI, we developed a quantification tool of lipoCEST contrast agents. This tool is based on modeling of proton exchange processes in vivo. By taking into account both B0 and B1 fields inhomogeneities which can dramatically alter CEST contrast, we showed that the accuracy of our quantification tool was 300 pM in vitro. The tool was applied on in vivo data acquired on the U87 mouse model and the maximum concentration of RGD-lipoCEST linked to their molecular targets was evaluated to 1.8 nM. (author) [fr

  18. Quantitative imaging of magnesium distribution at single-cell resolution in brain tumors and infiltrating tumor cells with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash; Parker, Dylan J.; Barth, Rolf F.; Pannullo, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest forms of human brain tumors. The infiltrative pattern of growth of these tumors includes the spread of individual and/or clusters of tumor cells at some distance from the main tumor mass in parts of the brain protected by an intact blood-brain-barrier. Pathophysiological studies of GBM could be greatly enhanced by analytical techniques capable of in situ single-cell resolution measurements of infiltrating tumor cells. Magnesium homeostasis is an area of active investigation in high grade gliomas. In the present study, we have used the F98 rat glioma as a model of human GBM and an elemental/isotopic imaging technique of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), a CAMECA IMS-3f ion microscope, for studying Mg distributions with single-cell resolution in freeze-dried brain tissue cryosections. Quantitative observations were made on tumor cells in the main tumor mass, contiguous brain tissue, and infiltrating tumor cells in adjacent normal brain. The brain tissue contained a significantly lower total Mg concentration of 4.70 ± 0.93 mmol/Kg wet weight (mean ± SD) in comparison to 11.64 ± 1.96 mmol/Kg wet weight in tumor cells of the main tumor mass and 10.72 ± 1.76 mmol/Kg wet weight in infiltrating tumor cells (p<0.05). The nucleus of individual tumor cells contained elevated levels of bound Mg. These observations demonstrate enhanced Mg-influx and increased binding of Mg in tumor cells and provide strong support for further investigation of GBMs for altered Mg homeostasis and activation of Mg-transporting channels as possible therapeutic targets. PMID:26703785

  19. Epilepsy and Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-yi Sha

    2009-01-01

    @@ Epidemiology It is estimated 61,414 new cases of primary brain tumors are expected to be diagnosed in 2009 in the U.S. The incidence statistic of 61,414 persons diagnosed per year includes both malignant (22,738) and non-malignant (38,677) brain tumors. (Data from American Brain Tumor Association). During the years 2004-2005, approximately 359,000 people in the United States were living with the diagnosis of a primary brain or central nervous system tumor. Specifically, more than 81,000 persons were living with a malignant tumor, more than 267,000 persons with a benign tumor. For every 100,000 people in the United States, approximately 131 are living following the diagnosis of a brain tumor. This represents a prevalence rate of 130.8 per 100,000 person years[1].

  20. Glucocorticoid treatment of brain tumor patients: changes of apparent diffusion coefficient values measured by MR diffusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamikawa, Sosuke; Kono, Kinuko; Nakayama, Keiko; Yokote, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Takahiko; Inoue, Yuichi; Nishio, Akimasa; Hara, Mitsuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCC) generally are administered to patients with brain tumors to relieve neurological symptoms by decreasing the water content in a peritumoral zone of edema. We hypothesized that diffusion imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values could detect subtle changes of water content in brain tumors and in peritumoral edema after GCC therapy. The study consisted of 13 patients with intra-axial brain tumor, and ADC was measured in the tumor, within peritumoral edema, and in normal white matter remote from the tumor before and after GCC therapy. ADC also was measured in normal white matter in four control patients with no intracranial disease who were treated with GCC for other indications. Conventional MR images showed no visually evident interval change in tumor size or the extent of peritumoral edema in any subject after GCC therapy, which nonetheless resulted in a decrease in mean ADC of 7.0% in tumors (P 0.05, not significant) and 5.8% in normal white matter (P<0.05). In patients with no intracranial disease, GCC therapy decreased mean ADC in white matter by 5.4% (P<0.05). ADC measurement can demonstrate subtle changes in the brain after GCC therapy that cannot be observed by conventional MR imaging. Measurement of ADC proved to be a sensitive means of assessing the effect of GCC therapy, even in the absence of visually discernible changes in conventional MR images. (orig.)

  1. Automatic Brain Tumor Detection in T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Pavel; Kropatsch, W.G.; Bartušek, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2013), s. 223-230 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/1104; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Brain tumor * Brain tumor detection * Symmetry analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2013

  2. Classification of tumor based on magnetic resonance (MR) brain images using wavelet energy feature and neuro-fuzzy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, A.; Werdiningsih, I.

    2018-03-01

    The brain is the organ that coordinates all the activities that occur in our bodies. Small abnormalities in the brain will affect body activity. Tumor of the brain is a mass formed a result of cell growth not normal and unbridled in the brain. MRI is a non-invasive medical test that is useful for doctors in diagnosing and treating medical conditions. The process of classification of brain tumor can provide the right decision and correct treatment and right on the process of treatment of brain tumor. In this study, the classification process performed to determine the type of brain tumor disease, namely Alzheimer’s, Glioma, Carcinoma and normal, using energy coefficient and ANFIS. Process stages in the classification of images of MR brain are the extraction of a feature, reduction of a feature, and process of classification. The result of feature extraction is a vector approximation of each wavelet decomposition level. The feature reduction is a process of reducing the feature by using the energy coefficients of the vector approximation. The feature reduction result for energy coefficient of 100 per feature is 1 x 52 pixels. This vector will be the input on the classification using ANFIS with Fuzzy C-Means and FLVQ clustering process and LM back-propagation. Percentage of success rate of MR brain images recognition using ANFIS-FLVQ, ANFIS, and LM back-propagation was obtained at 100%.

  3. Third harmonic generation imaging for fast, label-free pathology of human brain tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmin, N.V.; Wesseling, P.; Hamer, P.C.; Noske, D.P.; Galgano, G.D.; Mansvelder, H.D.; Baayen, J.C.; Groot, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    In brain tumor surgery, recognition of tumor boundaries is key. However, intraoperative assessment of tumor boundaries by the neurosurgeon is difficult. Therefore, there is an urgent need for tools that provide the neurosurgeon with pathological information during the operation. We show that third

  4. Third harmonic generation imaging for fast, label-free pathology of human brain tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmin, N. V.; Wesseling, P.; Hamer, P. C de Witt; Noske, D. P.; Galgano, G. D.; Mansvelder, H. D.; Baayen, J. C.; Groot, M. L.

    In brain tumor surgery, recognition of tumor boundaries is key. However, intraoperative assessment of tumor boundaries by the neurosurgeon is difficult. Therefore, there is an urgent need for tools that provide the neurosurgeon with pathological information during the operation. We show that third

  5. Label-free imaging of brain and brain tumor specimens with combined two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liwei; Wang, Xingfu; Wu, Zanyi; Du, Huiping; Wang, Shu; Li, Lianhuang; Fang, Na; Lin, Peihua; Chen, Jianxin; Kang, Dezhi; Zhuo, Shuangmu

    2017-10-01

    Label-free imaging techniques are gaining acceptance within the medical imaging field, including brain imaging, because they have the potential to be applied to intraoperative in situ identifications of pathological conditions. In this paper, we describe the use of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in combination for the label-free detection of brain and brain tumor specimens; gliomas. Two independently detecting channels were chosen to subsequently collect TPEF/SHG signals from the specimen to increase TPEF/SHG image contrasts. Our results indicate that the combined TPEF/SHG microscopic techniques can provide similar rat brain structural information and produce a similar resolution like conventional H&E staining in neuropathology; including meninges, cerebral cortex, white-matter structure corpus callosum, choroid plexus, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellar cortex. It can simultaneously detect infiltrating human brain tumor cells, the extracellular matrix collagen fiber of connective stroma within brain vessels and collagen depostion in tumor microenvironments. The nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio and collagen content can be extracted as quantitative indicators for differentiating brain gliomas from healthy brain tissues. With the development of two-photon fiberscopes and microendoscope probes and their clinical applications, the combined TPEF and SHG microcopy may become an important multimodal, nonlinear optical imaging approach for real-time intraoperative histological diagnostics of residual brain tumors. These occur in various brain regions during ongoing surgeries through the method of simultaneously identifying tumor cells, and the change of tumor microenvironments, without the need for the removal biopsies and without the need for tissue labelling or fluorescent markers.

  6. A Hybrid DE-RGSO-ELM for Brain Tumor Tissue Categorization in 3D Magnetic Resonance Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kothavari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical diagnostics, a technique used for visualizing the internal structures and functions of human body, serves as a scientific tool to assist physicians and involves direct use of digital imaging system analysis. In this scenario, identification of brain tumors is complex in the diagnostic process. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique is noted to best assist tissue contrast for anatomical details and also carries out mechanisms for investigating the brain by functional imaging in tumor predictions. Considering 3D MRI model, analyzing the anatomy features and tissue characteristics of brain tumor is complex in nature. Henceforth, in this work, feature extraction is carried out by computing 3D gray-level cooccurence matrix (3D GLCM and run-length matrix (RLM and feature subselection for dimensionality reduction is performed with basic differential evolution (DE algorithm. Classification is performed using proposed extreme learning machine (ELM, with refined group search optimizer (RGSO technique, to select the best parameters for better simplification and training of the classifier for brain tissue and tumor characterization as white matter (WM, gray matter (GM, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, and tumor. Extreme learning machine outperforms the standard binary linear SVM and BPN for medical image classifier and proves better in classifying healthy and tumor tissues. The comparison between the algorithms proves that the mean and standard deviation produced by volumetric feature extraction analysis are higher than the other approaches. The proposed work is designed for pathological brain tumor classification and for 3D MRI tumor image segmentation. The proposed approaches are applied for real time datasets and benchmark datasets taken from dataset repositories.

  7. Parameter estimation of brain tumors using intraoperative thermal imaging based on artificial tactile sensing in conjunction with artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi-Goughari, M; Mojra, A; Sadeghi, S

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative Thermal Imaging (ITI) is a new minimally invasive diagnosis technique that can potentially locate margins of brain tumor in order to achieve maximum tumor resection with least morbidity. This study introduces a new approach to ITI based on artificial tactile sensing (ATS) technology in conjunction with artificial neural networks (ANN) and feasibility and applicability of this method in diagnosis and localization of brain tumors is investigated. In order to analyze validity and reliability of the proposed method, two simulations were performed. (i) An in vitro experimental setup was designed and fabricated using a resistance heater embedded in agar tissue phantom in order to simulate heat generation by a tumor in the brain tissue; and (ii) A case report patient with parafalcine meningioma was presented to simulate ITI in the neurosurgical procedure. In the case report, both brain and tumor geometries were constructed from MRI data and tumor temperature and depth of location were estimated. For experimental tests, a novel assisted surgery robot was developed to palpate the tissue phantom surface to measure temperature variations and ANN was trained to estimate the simulated tumor’s power and depth. Results affirm that ITI based ATS is a non-invasive method which can be useful to detect, localize and characterize brain tumors. (paper)

  8. Effect of intravenous gadolinium-DTPA on diffusion-weighted imaging of brain tumors: a short temporal interval assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Qu, Jin-Rong; Luo, Jun-Peng; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hong-Kai; Shao, Nan-Nan; Kwok, Keith; Zhang, Shou-Ning; Li, Yan-le; Liu, Cui-Cui; Zee, Chi-Shing; Li, Hai-Liang

    2014-09-01

    To determine the effect of intravenous administration of gadolinium (Gd) contrast medium (Gd-DTPA) on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for the evaluation of normal brain parenchyma vs. brain tumor following a short temporal interval. Forty-four DWI studies using b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm(2) were performed before, immediately after, 1 min after, 3 min after, and 5 min after the administration of Gd-DTPA on 62 separate lesions including 15 meningioma, 17 glioma and 30 metastatic lesions. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the brain tumor lesions and normal brain tissues were measured on pre- and postcontrast images. Statistical analysis using paired t-test between precontrast and postcontrast data were obtained on three brain tumors and normal brain tissue. The SNR and CNR of brain tumors and the SNR of normal brain tissue showed no statistical differences between pre- and postcontrast (P > 0.05). The ADC values on the three cases of brain tumors demonstrated significant initial increase on the immediate time point (P < 0.01) and decrease on following the 1 min time point (P < 0.01) after contrast. Significant decrease of ADC value was still found at 3min and 5min time point in the meningioma group (P < 0.01) with gradual normalization over time. The ADC values of normal brain tissues demonstrated significant initial elevation on the immediately postcontrast DWI sequence (P < 0.01). Contrast medium can cause a slight but statistically significant change on the ADC value within a short temporal interval after the contrast administration. The effect is both time and lesion-type dependent. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Content-based retrieval of brain tumor in contrast-enhanced MRI images using tumor margin information and learned distance metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Feng, Qianjin; Yu, Mei; Lu, Zhentai; Gao, Yang; Xu, Yikai; Chen, Wufan

    2012-11-01

    A content-based image retrieval (CBIR) method for T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) images of brain tumors is presented for diagnosis aid. The method is thoroughly evaluated on a large image dataset. Using the tumor region as a query, the authors' CBIR system attempts to retrieve tumors of the same pathological category. Aside from commonly used features such as intensity, texture, and shape features, the authors use a margin information descriptor (MID), which is capable of describing the characteristics of tissue surrounding a tumor, for representing image contents. In addition, the authors designed a distance metric learning algorithm called Maximum mean average Precision Projection (MPP) to maximize the smooth approximated mean average precision (mAP) to optimize retrieval performance. The effectiveness of MID and MPP algorithms was evaluated using a brain CE-MRI dataset consisting of 3108 2D scans acquired from 235 patients with three categories of brain tumors (meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor). By combining MID and other features, the mAP of retrieval increased by more than 6% with the learned distance metrics. The distance metric learned by MPP significantly outperformed the other two existing distance metric learning methods in terms of mAP. The CBIR system using the proposed strategies achieved a mAP of 87.3% and a precision of 89.3% when top 10 images were returned by the system. Compared with scale-invariant feature transform, the MID, which uses the intensity profile as descriptor, achieves better retrieval performance. Incorporating tumor margin information represented by MID with the distance metric learned by the MPP algorithm can substantially improve the retrieval performance for brain tumors in CE-MRI.

  10. Comparison of Amino Acid Positron Emission Tomographic Radiotracers for Molecular Imaging of Primary and Metastatic Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Juhász

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET is an imaging technology that can detect and characterize tumors based on their molecular and biochemical properties, such as altered glucose, nucleoside, or amino acid metabolism. PET plays a significant role in the diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment of various cancers, including brain tumors. In this article, we compare uptake mechanisms and the clinical performance of the amino acid PET radiotracers (L-[methyl-11C]methionine [MET], 18F-fluoroethyl-tyrosine [FET], 18F-fluoro-L- dihydroxy-phenylalanine [FDOPA], and 11C-alpha-methyl-L-tryptophan [AMT] most commonly used for brain tumor imaging. First, we discuss and compare the mechanisms of tumoral transport and accumulation, the basis of differential performance of these radioligands in clinical studies. Then we summarize studies that provided direct comparisons among these amino acid tracers and to clinically used 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose [FDG] PET imaging. We also discuss how tracer kinetic analysis can enhance the clinical information obtained from amino acid PET images. We discuss both similarities and differences in potential clinical value for each radioligand. This comparative review can guide which radiotracer to favor in future clinical trials aimed at defining the role of these molecular imaging modalities in the clinical management of brain tumor patients.

  11. Regional distribution of TL-201 in the brain and spinal cord after injection into the cerebrospinal fluid: Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, D.V.; Rubertone, J.; Vincent, S.; Brady, L.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Radiotracers are typically employed to evaluate the brain ventricular space; however, there are no agents designed to be taken up into specific neuronal regions after injection into the cerebrospinal fluids (CSF). The authors report studies in which T1-201 was stereotaxically administered into the lateral or fourth ventricles of Sprague-Dawley rats. Brains were removed (n = 42) 2-6 hours after injection and sectioned for apposition to autoradiographic film. Specific uptake was observed in active neurons of the diencephalon, mesencephalon, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal gray matter. Astrocytoma cell implants into the caudate nucleus of Sprague-Dawley rats induced histologically confirmed brain tumors (n = 5). Significant localization of T1-201 was observed in the tumor 4 hours after injection into the lateral ventricle. These findings suggest that T1-201 may be useful for delineating specific neuronal function via CSF circulation and for imaging actively growing brain tumors

  12. Adult Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma Mimicking a Cortical Brain Tumor: MR Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong Chang; Weon, Young Cheol; Suh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young; Hwang, Jae Cheol [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    A pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified low-grade neoplasm that was previously classified as a pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), yet demonstrates unique histological features and more aggressive behavior. Although a PMA is generally a tumor of early childhood and typically occurs in the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region, it can mimic cortical tumors, especially in adults. We report the MR findings of a PMA presenting as a cortical brain tumor in an adult with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1)

  13. Application of PET in brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Key

    2002-01-01

    The annual incidence of primary brain tumors is 7-19 cases per 100,000 people. The unique capacity of visualizing biochemical processes allows PET to determine functional metabolic activities of the brain tumors. Like other malignant tumors, F-18 FDG has been used commonly in the imaging of brain tumors. FDG PET is valuable in grading malignancy, predicting prognosis, monitoring treatment, differentiating tumor recurrence from radiation nucrosis, and detecting primary lesion in metastatric brain tumors. Among amino acids labeled with positron emitters, C-11 methionine is used clinically.Tumor delineation is much better with methionine PET than with FDG PET. Low grade gliomas, in particular, are better evaluated with methionine than with FDG. PET opens another dimension in brain tumor imaging. PET imaging has clearly entered the clinical area with a profound impact on patient care in many indications

  14. DELAYED FDG-PET/CT IMAGES IN PATIENTS WITH BRAIN TUMORS - IMPACT ON VISUAL AND SEMIQUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel H. Bochev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the extensive use of FDG-PET/CT its role in brain tumor assessment remains controversial mostly because of the physiologically high brain uptake which easily obscures pathological processes. The wide availability of FDG, however, maintains the interest in FDG neuro-oncological applications. Objective: to evaluate the use of a late registration at 180min in patients with brain tumors, studied with FDG-PET/CT based on visual and semiquantitative analysis. Materials and methods: 38 patients with brain neoplasms and non-tumor structural lesions underwent a selective brain 18F-FDG PET/CT at two time points at 60 and 180 minutes after administration. Visual assessment was made by two readers with interobserver agreement calculation. Region ratio comparison with three different reference regions - the contralateral one, the white matter, and the cerebellum was used as a base for semiquantitative analysis. Results: Visual analysis showed better delineation of malignant lesion on late registrations with higher inter/intraobserver agreement as compared to the early images. Semiquantitative analysis demonstrated significant differences in early and late indices of metastases and gliomas, but failed in distinguishing gliomas from metastatic lesions and benign lesions.Conclusion: Delayed brain images with FDG-PET/CT at 180 min after injection provide better tumor delineation, higher accuracy, lower interobserver variations. The use of semiquantitative indices, irrespective of the reference region used, is of limited value

  15. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    The techniques of brain imaging and results in perfusion studies and delayed images are outlined. An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the brain scan in a variety of common problems is discussed, especially as compared with other available procedures. Both nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions are considered. (Auth/C.F.)

  16. Application of Image Processing Algorithms for Brain Tumor Analysis in 2D and 3D Leading to Tumor’s Positioning in Skull: Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYESHA AMIR SIDDIQI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation of brain tumors has been found challenging throughout in the field of image processing. Different algorithms have been applied to the segmentation of solid or cystic tumors individually but little work has been done for solid cum cystic tumor. The papers reviewed in this article only deal with the case study of patients suffering from solid cum cystic brain tumor as this type of tumor is rarely found for the purpose of research. The research work conducted so far on this topic has been reviewed. The study begins with 2D (Two Dimensional segmentation of tumor using MATLAB. It is then extended to study of slices of tumor and its volume calculation using open source software named 3D Slicer which represents the tumor in 3D. This software can intake the 2D slices and process them to give a combined 3D view. Various techniques are available in the software. According to the particular requirement an appropriate algorithm can be chosen. This paper gives a promising hierarchy for volume calculation of tumor and the three dimensional view. Further we can also find the position of tumor in the skull using the same software. This piece of work is a valuable guideline for the researchers interested in segmentation and three dimensional representations of different areas of human body. The models extracted out using the given algorithms can also be treated for matching and comparison of any future research. This will also aid surgeons and physicians in efficient analysis and reporting techniques.

  17. Comparison of manual vs. automated multimodality (CT-MRI) image registration for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Abhirup; Santiago, Roberto J.; Smith, Ryan; Kassaee, Alireza

    2005-01-01

    Computed tomgoraphy-magnetic resonance imaging (CT-MRI) registrations are routinely used for target-volume delineation of brain tumors. We clinically use 2 software packages based on manual operation and 1 automated package with 2 different algorithms: chamfer matching using bony structures, and mutual information using intensity patterns. In all registration algorithms, a minimum of 3 pairs of identical anatomical and preferably noncoplanar landmarks is used on each of the 2 image sets. In manual registration, the program registers these points and links the image sets using a 3-dimensional (3D) transformation. In automated registration, the 3 landmarks are used as an initial starting point and further processing is done to complete the registration. Using our registration packages, registration of CT and MRI was performed on 10 patients. We scored the results of each registration set based on the amount of time spent, the accuracy reported by the software, and a final evaluation. We evaluated each software program by measuring the residual error between 'matched' points on the right and left globes and the posterior fossa for fused image slices. In general, manual registration showed higher misalignment between corresponding points compared to automated registration using intensity matching. This error had no directional dependence and was, most of the time, larger for a larger structure in both registration techniques. Automated algorithm based on intensity matching also gave the best results in terms of registration accuracy, irrespective of whether or not the initial landmarks were chosen carefully, when compared to that done using bone matching algorithm. Intensity-matching algorithm required the least amount of user-time and provided better accuracy

  18. Perfusion and spectroscopy magnetic resonance imaging in a case of lymphocytic vasculitis mimicking brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccio, Carmine Franco; Di Blasi, Arturo; Esposito, Gennaro; Brunese, Luca; D’Arco, Felice; Caranci, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    Lymphocytic vasculitis of the central nervous system is an uncommon subtype of primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) – a rare inflammatory disorder affecting parenchymal and leptomeningeal arteries and veins. Establishing diagnosis on the basis of neuroimaging only is difficult, as it can mimic a brain tumor. Thus, histological diagnosis is essential for appropriate management. We present a case of biopsy-proven lymphocytic vasculitis mimicking a brain tumor on neuroimaging that was subsequently successfully treated with steroid therapy. We also discuss the findings in perfusion MR (PWI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS). Regional hypoperfusion on PWI and elevation of glutamate and glutamine levels on MRS (without associated typical tumor spectra) are common findings in inflammatory disorders, including PACNS, and can be useful in differential diagnosis with tumors

  19. Epilepsy and brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENGLOT, DARIO J.; CHANG, EDWARD F.; VECHT, CHARLES J.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are common in patients with brain tumors, and epilepsy can significantly impact patient quality of life. Therefore, a thorough understanding of rates and predictors of seizures, and the likelihood of seizure freedom after resection, is critical in the treatment of brain tumors. Among all tumor types, seizures are most common with glioneuronal tumors (70–80%), particularly in patients with frontotemporal or insular lesions. Seizures are also common in individuals with glioma, with the highest rates of epilepsy (60–75%) observed in patients with low-grade gliomas located in superficial cortical or insular regions. Approximately 20–50% of patients with meningioma and 20–35% of those with brain metastases also suffer from seizures. After tumor resection, approximately 60–90% are rendered seizure-free, with most favorable seizure outcomes seen in individuals with glioneuronal tumors. Gross total resection, earlier surgical therapy, and a lack of generalized seizures are common predictors of a favorable seizure outcome. With regard to anticonvulsant medication selection, evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of focal epilepsy should be followed, and individual patient factors should also be considered, including patient age, sex, organ dysfunction, comorbidity, or cotherapy. As concomitant chemotherapy commonly forms an essential part of glioma treatment, enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants should be avoided when possible. Seizure freedom is the ultimate goal in the treatment of brain tumor patients with epilepsy, given the adverse effects of seizures on quality of life. PMID:26948360

  20. Fiber tracking for brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kei; Nakamura, Hisao; Ito, Hirotoshi; Tanaka, Osamu; Kubota, Takao; Yuen, Sachiko; Kizu, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate an innovative scanning method for patients diagnosed with brain tumors. Using a 1.5 Tesla whole body magnetic resonance (MR) imager, 23 patients with brain tumors were scanned. The recorded data points of the diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) sequences were 128 x 37 with the parallel imaging technique. The parallel imaging technique was equivalent to a true resolution of 128 x 74. The scan parameters were repetition time (TR)=6000, echo time (TE)=88, 6 averaging with a b-value of 800 s/mm 2 . The total scan time for DTI was 4 minutes and 24 seconds. DTI scans and subsequent fiber tracking were successfully applied in all cases. All fiber tracts on the contralesional side were visualized in the expected locations. Fiber tracts on the lesional side had varying degrees of displacement, disruption, or a combination of displacement and disruption due to the tumor. Tract disruption resulted from direct tumor involvement, compression upon the tract, and vasogenic edema surrounding the tumor. This DTI method using a parallel imaging technique allows for clinically feasible fiber tracking that can be incorporated into a routine MR examination. (author)

  1. Echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging (EPI) with high-resolution matrix in intra-axial brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruening, R.; Scheidler, J.; Porn, U.; Reiser, M. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, University of Munich (Germany); Seelos, K.; Yousry, T. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, University of Munich (Germany); Exner, H. [Institute for Medical Epidemiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Rosen, B.R. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, NMR Center, Charlestown, MA (United States)

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of high-speed interleaved echo-planar imaging (EPI) to achieve diagnostic image quality comparable to T2-weighted imaging in patients with brain tumors. Seventeen patients with intra-axial, supratentorial tumors (10 untreated gliomas, 7 radiated gliomas) were investigated on a 1.5-T scanner. The conventional scan (SE, TR/TE = 2200/80 ms, 18 slices) was acquired in 8 min, 4 s, and EPI (TR/TE = 3000/80 ms, 18 slices) was completed in 25 s. The films were compared in a blinded trail by three radiologists. On the general impression and anatomic display, both sequences were rated to be of similar quality. Artifacts were slightly more pronounced at the skull base and around surgical clips using EPI. Tumor delineation was nearly equivalent using EPI, compared with the T2-weighted sequence. Echo-planar imaging reached diagnostic quality in all patients. Interleaved high-resolution EPI yielded sufficient quality to depict intra-axial, supratentorial brain tumors. Since EPI can be obtained in a small fraction of the time needed for conventional spin echo, in addition to other indications it could be considered to study patients unable to cooperate. (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 27 refs.

  2. Echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging (EPI) with high-resolution matrix in intra-axial brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruening, R.; Scheidler, J.; Porn, U.; Reiser, M.; Seelos, K.; Yousry, T.; Exner, H.; Rosen, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of high-speed interleaved echo-planar imaging (EPI) to achieve diagnostic image quality comparable to T2-weighted imaging in patients with brain tumors. Seventeen patients with intra-axial, supratentorial tumors (10 untreated gliomas, 7 radiated gliomas) were investigated on a 1.5-T scanner. The conventional scan (SE, TR/TE = 2200/80 ms, 18 slices) was acquired in 8 min, 4 s, and EPI (TR/TE = 3000/80 ms, 18 slices) was completed in 25 s. The films were compared in a blinded trail by three radiologists. On the general impression and anatomic display, both sequences were rated to be of similar quality. Artifacts were slightly more pronounced at the skull base and around surgical clips using EPI. Tumor delineation was nearly equivalent using EPI, compared with the T2-weighted sequence. Echo-planar imaging reached diagnostic quality in all patients. Interleaved high-resolution EPI yielded sufficient quality to depict intra-axial, supratentorial brain tumors. Since EPI can be obtained in a small fraction of the time needed for conventional spin echo, in addition to other indications it could be considered to study patients unable to cooperate. (orig.)

  3. Pediatric brain tumors; Kindliche Hirntumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Bodea, S. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Muehl-Benninghaus, R.

    2017-09-15

    Brain tumors differ between children and adults both in histology and localization. Malignant gliomas and meningiomas predominate in adults while medulloblastomas and low-grade astrocytomas are the most frequent brain tumors in children. More than one half (50-70%) of pediatric brain tumors have an infratentorial location but only approximately 30% in adults. Brain tumors can be recognized in sonography, cranial computed tomography (CCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by their space-consuming character and by their divergent density and intensity in comparison to normal brain parenchyma. They can grow extrusively, even infiltrate the parenchyma or originate from it. Besides clinical symptoms and diagnostics this article describes the most common pediatric brain tumors, i.e. astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, brainstem glioma, craniopharyngioma, neurofibromatosis and ganglioglioma. The most important imaging criteria are outlined. (orig.) [German] Sowohl Histologie als auch Lokalisation von Hirntumoren unterscheiden sich bei Kindern und Erwachsenen. Waehrend maligne Gliome und Meningeome bei Erwachsenen vorherrschen, kommen bei Kindern ueberwiegend Medulloblastome und niedriggradige Astrozytome vor. Mehr als die Haelfte (50-70 %) aller kindlichen Hirntumoren sind infratentoriell lokalisiert, dagegen sind es bei Erwachsenen nur etwa 30 %. Im Ultraschall, in der kranialen CT (CCT) oder MRT koennen Hirntumoren durch ihren raumfordernden Charakter und ihrer zum normalen Parenchym abweichenden Dichte oder Signalintensitaet erkannt werden. Sie koennen verdraengend wachsen, z. T. auch das Parenchym infiltrieren oder von diesem ausgehen. Neben der klinischen Symptomatik und Diagnostik werden im vorliegenden Artikel die haeufigsten kindlichen Hirntumoren, das Astrozytom, Medulloblastom, Hirnstammgliom, Kraniopharyngeom, die Neurofibromatose und das Gangliogliom beschrieben. Die wichtigsten bildgebende Kriterien werden dargestellt. (orig.)

  4. Shift of the pyramidal tract during resection of the intraaxial brain tumors estimated by intraoperative diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Norihiko; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Iseki, Hiroshi; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the shift of the pyramidal tract during resection of 17 proximal intraaxial brain tumors. In each case intraoperative diffusion-weighted (iDW) magnetic resonance imaging with a motion-probing gradient applied in the anteroposterior direction was performed using a scanner with a 0.3 T vertical magnetic field. The position of the white matter bundles containing the pyramidal tract was estimated on the coronal images before and after resection of the neoplasm, and both quantitative and directional evaluation of its displacement was done. In all cases iDW imaging provided visualization of the structure of interest. The magnitude of the pyramidal tract displacement due to removal of the neoplasm varied from 0.5 to 8.7 mm (mean 4.4±2.5 mm) on the lesion side and from 0 to 3.6 mm (mean 1.3±1.1 mm) on the normal side (p<0.001). Tumor location in regards to the pyramidal tract was significantly associated with the direction of the pyramidal tract displacement (p<0.05). Outward shift occurred in 10 out of 13 cases of the lateral neoplasms, whereas in all 4 superomedial tumors inward shift was marked. In conclusion, the direction of the pyramidal tract displacement during resection of the proximal intraaxial brain tumors is mainly determined by position of the neoplasm, but can be unpredictable in some cases, which necessitates use of subcortical brain mapping and intraoperative imaging, particularly iDW imaging with updated neuronavigation. (author)

  5. Image Registration to Compensate for EPI Distortion in Patients with Brain Tumors: An Evaluation of Tract-Specific Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albi, Angela; Meola, Antonio; Zhang, Fan; Kahali, Pegah; Rigolo, Laura; Tax, Chantal M W; Ciris, Pelin Aksit; Essayed, Walid I; Unadkat, Prashin; Norton, Isaiah; Rathi, Yogesh; Olubiyi, Olutayo; Golby, Alexandra J; O'Donnell, Lauren J

    2018-03-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) provides preoperative maps of neurosurgical patients' white matter tracts, but these maps suffer from echo-planar imaging (EPI) distortions caused by magnetic field inhomogeneities. In clinical neurosurgical planning, these distortions are generally not corrected and thus contribute to the uncertainty of fiber tracking. Multiple image processing pipelines have been proposed for image-registration-based EPI distortion correction in healthy subjects. In this article, we perform the first comparison of such pipelines in neurosurgical patient data. Five pipelines were tested in a retrospective clinical dMRI dataset of 9 patients with brain tumors. Pipelines differed in the choice of fixed and moving images and the similarity metric for image registration. Distortions were measured in two important tracts for neurosurgery, the arcuate fasciculus and corticospinal tracts. Significant differences in distortion estimates were found across processing pipelines. The most successful pipeline used dMRI baseline and T2-weighted images as inputs for distortion correction. This pipeline gave the most consistent distortion estimates across image resolutions and brain hemispheres. Quantitative results of mean tract distortions on the order of 1-2 mm are in line with other recent studies, supporting the potential need for distortion correction in neurosurgical planning. Novel results include significantly higher distortion estimates in the tumor hemisphere and greater effect of image resolution choice on results in the tumor hemisphere. Overall, this study demonstrates possible pitfalls and indicates that care should be taken when implementing EPI distortion correction in clinical settings. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  6. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, L.D.; Bennett, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Imaging with radionuclides should be used in a complementary fashion with other neuroradiologic techniques. It is useful in the early detection and evaluation of intracranial neoplasm, cerebrovascular accident and abscess, and in postsurgical follow-up. Cisternography yields useful information about the functional status of cerebrospinal fluid pathways. Computerized axial tomography is a new technique of great promise that produced a cross-sectional image of the brain

  7. The role of diffusion tensor imaging in brain tumor surgery : A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R. E.; Wagemakers, Michiel; van Hulzen, Arjen L. J.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Hoving, Eelco W.; Groen, Rob J. M.

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recent technique that utilizes diffusion of water molecules to make assumptions about white matter tract architecture of the brain. Early on, neurosurgeons recognized its potential value in neurosurgical planning, as it is the only technique that offers the

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging-based detection of glial brain tumors in mice after antiangiogenic treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claes, A.; Gambarota, G.; Hamans, B.C.; Tellingen, O. van; Wesseling, P.; Maass, C.N.; Heerschap, A.; Leenders, W.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Proper delineation of gliomas using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) poses a problem in neuro-oncology. The blood brain barrier (BBB) in areas of diffuse-infiltrative growth may be intact, precluding extravasation and subsequent MR-based detection of the contrast agent

  9. Correlation between language function and the left arcuate fasciculus detected by diffusion tensor imaging tractography after brain tumor surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yutaka; Kinoshita, Masashi; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hamada, Jun-ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Disturbance of the arcuate fasciculus in the dominant hemisphere is thought to be associated with language-processing disorders, including conduction aphasia. Although the arcuate fasciculus can be visualized in vivo with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, its involvement in functional processes associated with language has not been shown dynamically using DTI tractography. In the present study, to clarify the participation of the arcuate fasciculus in language functions, postoperative changes in the arcuate fasciculus detected by DTI tractography were evaluated chronologically in relation to postoperative changes in language function after brain tumor surgery. Preoperative and postoperative arcuate fasciculus area and language function were examined in 7 right-handed patients with a brain tumor in the left hemisphere located in proximity to part of the arcuate fasciculus. The arcuate fasciculus was depicted, and its area was calculated using DTI tractography. Language functions were measured using the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). After tumor resection, visualization of the arcuate fasciculus was increased in 5 of the 7 patients, and the total WAB score improved in 6 of the 7 patients. The relative ratio of postoperative visualized area of the arcuate fasciculus to preoperative visualized area of the arcuate fasciculus was increased in association with an improvement in postoperative language function (p = 0.0039). The role of the left arcuate fasciculus in language functions can be evaluated chronologically in vivo by DTI tractography after brain tumor surgery. Because increased postoperative visualization of the fasciculus was significantly associated with postoperative improvement in language functions, the arcuate fasciculus may play an important role in language function, as previously thought. In addition, postoperative changes in the arcuate fasciculus detected by DTI tractography could represent a predicting factor for postoperative language

  10. Unusual radiological characteristics of teratoid/rhabdoid brain tumor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of atypical teratoid rhabdoid brain tumor for 4 months old male child, who presented with unusual radiological findings, that can be confused with other brain tumors ,so we high light these unusual imaging features to aid in making correct diagnosis. Keywords: atypical teratoid–rhabdoid tumor, brain tumor, ...

  11. Epidemiological features of brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors account for 1.4% of all cancers and 2.4% of all cancer-related deaths. The incidence of brain tumors varies and it is higher in developed countries of Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. In Serbia, according to data from 2009, malignant brain tumors account for 2. 2 of all tumors, and from all cancer­related deaths, 3.2% is caused by malignant brain tumors. According to recent statistical reports, an overall incidence of brain tumors for benign and malignant tumors combined is 18.71 per 100,000 persons/year. The most common benign brain tumor in adults is meningioma, which is most present in women, and the most common malignant tumor is glioblastoma, which is most present in adult men. Due to high mortality, especially in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma and significant brain tumor morbidity, there is a constant interest in understanding its etiology in order to possibly prevent tumor occurrence in future and enable more efficient treatment strategies for this fatal brain disease. Despite the continuously growing number of epidemiological studies on possible factors of tumor incidence, the etiology remains unclear. The only established environmental risk factor of gliomas is ionizing radiation exposure. Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields via cell phone use has gained a lot of attention as a potential risk factor of brain tumor development. However, studies have been inconsistent and inconclusive, so more definite results are still expected.

  12. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions

  13. Neural - levelset shape detection segmentation of brain tumors in dynamic susceptibility contrast enhanced and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, C.; Bhargava, Sunil; Gharpure, Damayanti Chandrashekhar

    2008-01-01

    A novel Neuro - level set shape detection algorithm is proposed and evaluated for segmentation and grading of brain tumours. The algorithm evaluates vascular and cellular information provided by dynamic contrast susceptibility magnetic resonance images and apparent diffusion coefficient maps. The proposed neural shape detection algorithm is based on the levels at algorithm (shape detection algorithm) and utilizes a neural block to provide the speed image for the level set methods. In this study, two different architectures of level set method have been implemented and their results are compared. The results show that the proposed Neuro-shape detection performs better in differentiating the tumor, edema, necrosis in reconstructed images of perfusion and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images. (author)

  14. Brain tumors in children; Hirntumoren beim Kind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harting, I.; Seitz, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

    2009-06-15

    Brain tumors are common in children; in Germany approximately 400 children are diagnosed every year. In the posterior fossa, cerebellar neoplasms outnumber brainstem gliomas. In contrast to their rarity in adults, brainstem gliomas are not uncommon in children. Supratentorial tumors can be subdivided by location into neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres, suprasellar and pineal tumors. Astrocytoma is the most common pediatric brain tumor followed by medulloblastoma, ependymoma and craniopharyngeoma. The combination of imaging morphology, tumor localisation and patient age at manifestation form the basis of the neuroradiological differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Pediatric brain tumors of neuroepithelial tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Politi, M.; Bergmann, M.; Pekrun, A.; Juergens, K.U.

    2014-01-01

    Tumors of neuroepithelial tissue represent the largest group of pediatric brain tumors by far and has therefore been divided into several discrete tumor subtypes each corresponding to a specific component of the neuropil. The neuropil contains several subtypes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and modified ependymal cells that form the choroid plexus. This review discusses the imaging aspects of the most common pediatric tumors of neuroepithelial tissue. (orig.) [de

  16. Peritumoral edema of meningiomas and metastatic brain tumors: differences in diffusion characteristics evaluated with diffusion-tensor MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toh, Cheng-Hong; Wong, Alex M.-C; Wong, Ho-Fai; Wan, Yung-Liang; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Ng, Shu-Hang

    2007-01-01

    We prospectively compared the fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of the peritumoral edema of meningiomas and metastatic brain tumors with diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained. Preoperative diffusion-tensor MR imaging was performed in 15 patients with meningiomas and 11 patients with metastatic brain tumors. Regions of interest (ROI) were placed in the peritumoral edema and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of the contralateral hemisphere to measure the FA and MD. The FA and MD ratios were calculated for each ROI in relation to the NAWM of the contralateral hemisphere. Changes in peritumoral MD and FA, in terms of primary values and ratios, were compared using a two-sample t-test; P -3 mm 2 /s) of the peritumoral edema for metastases and meningiomas, respectively, were 0.902 ± 0.057 and 0.820 ± 0.094, the mean MD ratios were 220.3 ± 22.6 and 193.1 ± 23.4, the mean FA values were 0.146 ± 0.026 and 0.199 ± 0.052, and the mean FA ratios were 32.3 ± 5.9 and 46.0 ± 12.1. All the values were significantly different between metastases and meningiomas (MD values P 0.016, MD ratios P = 0.006, FA values P = 0.005, FA ratios P = 0.002). The peritumoral edema of metastatic brain tumors and meningiomas show different MD and FA on diffusion-tensor MR imaging. (orig.)

  17. Peritumoral edema of meningiomas and metastatic brain tumors: differences in diffusion characteristics evaluated with diffusion-tensor MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toh, Cheng-Hong; Wong, Alex M.-C; Wong, Ho-Fai; Wan, Yung-Liang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung University, School of Medicine and Medical Technology, Tao-Yuan (China); Wei, Kuo-Chen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung University, School of Medicine and Medical Technology, Tao-Yuan (China); Ng, Shu-Hang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung University, School of Medicine and Medical Technology, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Molecular Image Center, Tao-Yuan (China)

    2007-06-15

    We prospectively compared the fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of the peritumoral edema of meningiomas and metastatic brain tumors with diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained. Preoperative diffusion-tensor MR imaging was performed in 15 patients with meningiomas and 11 patients with metastatic brain tumors. Regions of interest (ROI) were placed in the peritumoral edema and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of the contralateral hemisphere to measure the FA and MD. The FA and MD ratios were calculated for each ROI in relation to the NAWM of the contralateral hemisphere. Changes in peritumoral MD and FA, in terms of primary values and ratios, were compared using a two-sample t-test; P < 0.05 was taken as indicating statistical significance. The mean MD values (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) of the peritumoral edema for metastases and meningiomas, respectively, were 0.902 {+-} 0.057 and 0.820 {+-} 0.094, the mean MD ratios were 220.3 {+-} 22.6 and 193.1 {+-} 23.4, the mean FA values were 0.146 {+-} 0.026 and 0.199 {+-} 0.052, and the mean FA ratios were 32.3 {+-} 5.9 and 46.0 {+-} 12.1. All the values were significantly different between metastases and meningiomas (MD values P = 0.016, MD ratios P = 0.006, FA values P = 0.005, FA ratios P = 0.002). The peritumoral edema of metastatic brain tumors and meningiomas show different MD and FA on diffusion-tensor MR imaging. (orig.)

  18. Epidemiological features of brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Živković Nenad; Mihailović Goran; Marković Marko; Berisavac Iva; Spaić Milan

    2013-01-01

    Brain tumors account for 1.4% of all cancers and 2.4% of all cancer-related deaths. The incidence of brain tumors varies and it is higher in developed countries of Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. In Serbia, according to data from 2009, malignant brain tumors account for 2. 2 of all tumors, and from all cancer­related deaths, 3.2% is caused by malignant brain tumors. According to recent statistical reports, an overall incidence of b...

  19. Three-dimensional visualization of functional brain tissue and functional magnetic resonance imaging-integrated neuronavigation in the resection of brain tumor adjacent to motor cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Tong; Cui Shimin; Tong Xiaoguang; Liu Li; Xue Kai; Liu Meili; Liang Siquan; Zhang Yunting; Zhi Dashi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of three -dimensional visualization of functional brain tissue and the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-integrated neuronavigation in the resection of brain tumor adjacent to motor cortex. Method: Sixty patients with tumor located in the central sulcus were enrolled. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to function group and 30 to control group. Patients in function group underwent fMRI to localize the functional brain tissues. Then the function information was transferred to the neurosurgical navigator. The patients in control group underwent surgery with navigation without function information. The therapeutic effect, excision rate. improvement of motor function, and survival quality during follow-up were analyzed. Result: All patients in function group were accomplished visualization of functional brain tissues and fMRI-integrated neuronavigation. The locations of tumors, central sulcus and motor cortex were marked during the operation. The fMRI -integrated information played a great role in both pre- and post-operation. Pre-operation: designing the location of the skin flap and window bone, determining the relationship between the tumor and motor cortex, and designing the pathway for the resection. Post- operation: real-time navigation of relationship between the tumor and motor cortex, assisting to localize the motor cortex using interoperation ultra-sound for correcting the displacement by the CSF outflow and collapsing tumor. The patients in the function group had better results than the patients in the control group in therapeutic effect (u=2.646, P=0.008), excision rate (χ = 7.200, P<0.01), improvement of motor function (u=2.231, P=0.026), and survival quality (KPS u c = 2.664, P=0.008; Zubrod -ECOG -WHO u c =2.135, P=0.033). Conclusions: Using preoperative three -dimensional visualization of cerebral function tissue and the fMRI-integrated neuronavigation technology, combining intraoperative accurate

  20. Notch Signaling and Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2011-01-01

    Human brain tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplasms occurring inside the cranium and the central spinal cord. In adults and children, astrocytic glioma and medulloblastoma are the most common subtypes of primary brain tumors. These tumor types are thought to arise from cells in which Notch...

  1. Net-based data transfer and automatic image fusion of metabolic (PET) and morphologic (CT/MRI) images for radiosurgical planning of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Przetak, C.; Schmuecking, M.; Klener, G.; Surber, G.; Hamm, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The main purpose of radiosurgery in comparison to conventional radiotherapy of brain tumors is to reach a higher radiation dose in the tumor and sparing normal brain tissue as much as possible. To reach this aim it is crucial to define the target volume extremely accurately. For this purpose, MRI and CT examinations are used for radiotherapy planning. In certain cases, however, metabolic information obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) may be useful to achieve a higher therapeutic accuracy by sparing important brain structures. This can be the case, i.e. in low grade astrocytomas for exact delineation of vital tumor as well as in differentiating scaring tissue from tumor recurrence and edema after operation. For this purpose, radiolabeled aminoacid analogues (e.g. C-11 methionine) and recently O-2-[ 18 F] Fluorethyl-L-Tyrosin (F-18 FET) have been introduced as PET tracers to detect the area of highest tumor metabolism which allows to obtain additional information as compared to FDG-PET that reflects the local glucose metabolism. In these cases, anatomical and metabolic data have to be combined with the technique of digital image fusion to exactly determine the target volume, the isodoses and the area where the highest dose has to be applied. Materials: We have set up a data transfer from the PET Center of the Zentralklinik Bad Berka with the Department of Stereotactic Radiation at the Helios Klinik Erfurt (distance approx. 25 km) to enable this kind of image fusion. PET data (ECAT EXACT 47, Siemens/CTI) are transferred to a workstation (NOVALIS) in the Dept. of Stereotactic Radiation to be co-registered with the CT or MRI data of the patient. All PET images are in DICOM format (obtained by using a HERMES computer, Nuclear Diagnostics, Sweden) and can easily be introduced into the NOVALIS workstation. The software uses the optimation of mutual information to achieve a good fusion quality. Sometimes manual corrections have to be performed to get an

  2. MRI Brain Tumor Segmentation Methods- A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gursangeet, Kaur; Jyoti, Rani

    2016-01-01

    Medical image processing and its segmentation is an active and interesting area for researchers. It has reached at the tremendous place in diagnosing tumors after the discovery of CT and MRI. MRI is an useful tool to detect the brain tumor and segmentation is performed to carry out the useful portion from an image. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of different image segmentation methods like watershed algorithm, morphological operations, neutrosophic sets, thresholding, K-...

  3. Cortical mapping by functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majos, Agata; Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Goraj, Bozena; Tybor, Krzysztof

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to establish the effectiveness of the functional MRI (fMRI) technique in comparison with intraoperative cortical stimulation (ICS) in planning cortex-saving neurosurgical interventions. The combination of sensory and motor stimulation during fMRI experiments was used to improve the exactness of central sulcus localization. The study subjects were 30 volunteers and 33 patients with brain tumors in the rolandic area. Detailed topographical relations of activated areas in fMRI and intraoperative techniques were compared. The agreement in the location defined by the two methods for motor centers was found to be 84%; for sensory centers it was 83%. When both kinds of activation are taken into account this agreement increases to 98%. A significant relation was found between fMRI and ICS for the agreement of the distance both for motor and sensory centers (p=0.0021-0.0024). Also a strong dependence was found between the agreement of the location and the agreement of the distance for both kinds of stimulation. The spatial correlation between fMRI and ICS methods for the sensorimotor cortex is very high. fMRI combining functional and structural information is very helpful for preoperative neurosurgical planning. The sensitivity of the fMRI technique in brain mapping increases when using both motor and sensory paradigms in the same patient. (orig.)

  4. Behaviors of cost functions in image registration between 201Tl brain tumor single-photon emission computed tomography and magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, Tsutomu; Takaki, Akihiro; Teraoka, Satomi; Ishikawa, Yasushi; Murase, Kenya; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    We studied the behaviors of cost functions in the registration of thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) brain tumor single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images, as the similarity index of image positioning. A marker for image registration [technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) point source] was attached at three sites on the heads of 13 patients with brain tumor, from whom 42 sets of 99m Tc- 201 Tl SPECT (the dual-isotope acquisition) and MR images were obtained. The 201 Tl SPECT and MR images were manually registered according to the markers. From the positions where the two images were registered, the position of the 201 Tl SPECT was moved to examine the behaviors of the three cost functions, i.e., ratio image uniformity (RIU), mutual information (MI), and normalized MI (NMI). The cost functions MI and NMI reached the maximum at positions adjacent to those where the SPECT and MR images were manually registered. As for the accuracy of image registration in terms of the cost functions MI and NMI, on average, the images were accurately registered within 3 deg of rotation around the X-, Y-, and Z-axes, and within 1.5 mm (within 2 pixels), 3 mm (within 3 pixels), and 4 mm (within 1 slice) of translation to the X-, Y-, and Z-axes, respectively. In terms of rotation around the Z-axis, the cost function RIU reached the minimum at positions where the manual registration of the two images was substantially inadequate. The MI and NMI were suitable cost functions in the registration of 201 Tl SPECT and MR images. The behavior of the RIU, in contrast, was unstable, being unsuitable as an index of image registration. (author)

  5. Accuracy of Presurgical Functional MR Imaging for Language Mapping of Brain Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsu-Huei; Noll, Kyle R; Johnson, Jason M; Prabhu, Sujit S; Tsai, Yuan-Hsiung; Chang, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Yen-Chu; Lee, Jiann-Der; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Hazle, John D; Schomer, Donald F; Liu, Ho-Ling

    2018-02-01

    Purpose To compare functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for language mapping (hereafter, language functional MR imaging) with direct cortical stimulation (DCS) in patients with brain tumors and to assess factors associated with its accuracy. Materials and Methods PubMed/MEDLINE and related databases were searched for research articles published between January 2000 and September 2016. Findings were pooled by using bivariate random-effects and hierarchic summary receiver operating characteristic curve models. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate whether publication year, functional MR imaging paradigm, magnetic field strength, statistical threshold, and analysis software affected classification accuracy. Results Ten articles with a total of 214 patients were included in the analysis. On a per-patient basis, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of functional MR imaging was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14%, 78%) and 80% (95% CI: 54%, 93%), respectively. On a per-tag basis (ie, each DCS stimulation site or "tag" was considered a separate data point across all patients), the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 67% (95% CI: 51%, 80%) and 55% (95% CI: 25%, 82%), respectively. The per-tag analysis showed significantly higher sensitivity for studies with shorter functional MR imaging session times (P = .03) and relaxed statistical threshold (P = .05). Significantly higher specificity was found when expressive language task (P = .02), longer functional MR imaging session times (P functional MR imaging when compared with intraoperative DCS, and the included studies displayed significant methodologic heterogeneity. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  6. Multiparametric MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzika, A.A.; Astrakas, L.G.; Zarifi, M.K.; Petridou, N.; Young-Poussaint, T.; Goumnerova, L.; Black, P.McL.; Zurakowski, D.; Anthony, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors has expanded to include physiologic information related to cellular metabolites, hemodynamic and diffusion parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between MR and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in children with primary brain tumors. Twenty-one patients (mean age 9 years) with histologically verified brain tumors underwent conventional MR imaging, hemodynamic MR imaging (HMRI) and proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). Fourteen patients also had diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWMRI). Metabolic indices including choline-containing compounds (Cho), total creatine (tCr) and lipids/lactate (L) were derived by proton MRSI, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) by HMRI, and apparent tissue water diffusion coefficients (ADC) by DWMRI. Variables were examined by linear regression and correlation as well as by ANOVA. Cho (suggestive of tumor cellularity and proliferative activity) correlated positively with rCBV, while the relationship between Cho and ADC (suggestive of cellular density) was inverse (P<0.001). The relationship between rCBV and ADC was also inverse (P=0.004). Cho and lipids (suggestive of necrosis and/or apoptosis) were not significantly correlated (P=0.51). A positive relationship was found between lipids and ADC (P=0.002). The relationships between Cho, rCBV, ADC and lipids signify that tumor physiology is influenced by the tumor's physical and chemical environment. Normalized Cho and lipids distinguished high-grade from low-grade tumors (P<0.05). Multiparametric MR imaging using MRSI, HMRI and DWMRI enhances assessment of brain tumors in children and improves our understanding of tumor physiology while promising to distinguish higher- from lower-malignancy tumors, a distinction that is particularly clinically important among inoperable tumors. (orig.)

  7. Differentiation of Glioblastomas from Metastatic Brain Tumors by Tryptophan Uptake and Kinetic Analysis: A Positron Emission Tomographic Study with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Kamson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Differentiating high-grade gliomas from solitary brain metastases is often difficult by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; molecular imaging may facilitate such discrimination. We tested the accuracy of α[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT–positron emission tomography (PET to differentiate newly diagnosed glioblastomas from brain metastases. AMT-PET was performed in 36 adults with suspected brain malignancy. Tumoral AMT accumulation was measured by standardized uptake values (SUVs. Tracer kinetic analysis was also performed to separate tumoral net tryptophan transport (by AMT volume of distribution [VD] from unidirectional uptake rates using dynamic PET and blood input function. Differentiating the accuracy of these PET variables was evaluated and compared to conventional MRI. For glioblastoma/metastasis differentiation, tumoral AMT SUV showed the highest accuracy (74% and the tumor/cortex VD ratio had the highest positive predictive value (82%. The combined accuracy of MRI (size of contrast-enhancing lesion and AMT-PET reached up to 93%. For ring-enhancing lesions, tumor/cortex SUV ratios were higher in glioblastomas than in metastatic tumors and could differentiate these two tumor types with > 90% accuracy. These results demonstrate that evaluation of tryptophan accumulation by PET can enhance pretreatment differentiation of glioblastomas and metastatic brain tumors. This approach may be particularly useful in patients with a newly diagnosed solitary ring-enhancing mass.

  8. SU-E-J-212: MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessment of Tumor and Normal Brain Tissue Responses of Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma Treated by Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, P; Park, P; Li, H; Zhu, X; Mahajan, A; Grosshans, D [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can measure molecular mobility at the cellular level, quantified by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). DTI may also reveal axonal fiber directional information in the white matter, quantified by the fractional anisotropy (FA). Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is a rare brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. Proton therapy (PT) is increasingly used in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors including JPA. However, the response of both tumors and normal tissues to PT is currently under investigation. We report tumor and normal brain tissue responses for a pediatric case of JPA treated with PT assessed using DTI. Methods: A ten year old male with JPA of the left thalamus received passive scattered PT to a dose of 50.4 Gy (RBE) in 28 fractions. Post PT, the patient has been followed up in seven years. At each follow up, MRI imaging including DTI was performed to assess response. MR images were registered to the treatment planning CT and the GTV mapped onto each MRI. The GTV contour was then mirrored to the right side of brain through the patient’s middle line to represent normal brain tissue. ADC and FA were measured within the ROIs. Results: Proton therapy can completely spare contra lateral brain while the target volume received full prescribed dose. From a series of MRI ADC images before and after PT at different follow ups, the enhancement corresponding to GTV had nearly disappeared more than 2 years after PT. Both ADC and FA demonstrate that contralateral normal brain tissue were not affect by PT and the tumor volume reverted to normal ADC and FA values. Conclusion: DTI allowed quantitative evaluation of tumor and normal brain tissue responses to PT. Further study in a larger cohort is warranted.

  9. SU-E-J-212: MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessment of Tumor and Normal Brain Tissue Responses of Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma Treated by Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, P; Park, P; Li, H; Zhu, X; Mahajan, A; Grosshans, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can measure molecular mobility at the cellular level, quantified by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). DTI may also reveal axonal fiber directional information in the white matter, quantified by the fractional anisotropy (FA). Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is a rare brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. Proton therapy (PT) is increasingly used in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors including JPA. However, the response of both tumors and normal tissues to PT is currently under investigation. We report tumor and normal brain tissue responses for a pediatric case of JPA treated with PT assessed using DTI. Methods: A ten year old male with JPA of the left thalamus received passive scattered PT to a dose of 50.4 Gy (RBE) in 28 fractions. Post PT, the patient has been followed up in seven years. At each follow up, MRI imaging including DTI was performed to assess response. MR images were registered to the treatment planning CT and the GTV mapped onto each MRI. The GTV contour was then mirrored to the right side of brain through the patient’s middle line to represent normal brain tissue. ADC and FA were measured within the ROIs. Results: Proton therapy can completely spare contra lateral brain while the target volume received full prescribed dose. From a series of MRI ADC images before and after PT at different follow ups, the enhancement corresponding to GTV had nearly disappeared more than 2 years after PT. Both ADC and FA demonstrate that contralateral normal brain tissue were not affect by PT and the tumor volume reverted to normal ADC and FA values. Conclusion: DTI allowed quantitative evaluation of tumor and normal brain tissue responses to PT. Further study in a larger cohort is warranted

  10. Development in NMR spiral imaging and application to the assessment of the permeability of the blood-brain barrier on 2 models of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, M.

    2007-12-01

    The results presented in this work were obtained as part of methodological developments in magnetic resonance imaging. First of all, the setting of the rapid imaging technique using a k-space sampling scheme along a variable density spiral is described. Numerical simulations were used to optimize the acquisitions parameters and to compare different reconstruction techniques. An original approach to calibrate the k-space trajectory was proposed. Then, spiral imaging was used to implement a method to measure the blood brain barrier permeability to Gd-DOTA. This protocol was combined to blood volume and vessel size index measurements using Sinerem. The results obtained highlighted differences between the microvascular parameters measured on C6 and RG2 tumor models. The presence of Sinerem induces a mean decrease of the transfer constant across the vascular wall (Ktrans), in the tumor, of 24 per cent. This study also showed extravasation of the Sinerem, during the first two hours after the product injection, only in the RG2 tumors. (author)

  11. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  12. Asymptomatic brain tumor detected at brain check-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizuka, Masanari; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Shibayama, Akira; Hiura, Tsuyoshi; Horie, Nobutaka; Miyazaki, Hisaya

    2001-01-01

    Brain check-up was performed in 4000 healthy subjects who underwent medical and radiological examinations for possible brain diseases in our hospital from April 1996 to March 2000. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 11 brain tumors which consisted of six meningiomas, three pituitary adenomas, one astrocytoma, and one epidermoid cyst. The detection rate of incidental brain tumor in our hospital was 0.3%. Nine patients underwent surgery, with one case of morbidity due to postoperative transient oculomotor nerve paresis. The widespread use of brain check-up may increasingly detect asymptomatic brain tumors. Surgical indications for such lesions remain unclear, and the strategy for treatment should be determined with consideration of the patient's wishes. (author)

  13. Evaluation of FSE and FSPGR MRI imaging methods for planning cranial stereotactic irradiation of a metastatic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Masaki; Tanoi, Chiharu

    2003-01-01

    Cranial stereotactic irradiation (STI) of a metastatic brain tumor (BT) was planned by fusing CT images with MRI images using the landmark method of the X-Knife System. The MRI images revealed the BT, the critical optic nerve and brain stem of structures and the eyeball and blood vessels that are landmarks. It was important to improve visibility of the BT with sufficient contrast. Therefore, comparison examinations were performed using the two dimensions fast spin echo (2DFSE), the two dimensions fast spoiled gradient echo (2DFSPGR), and the three dimensions fast spoiled gradient echo (3DFSPGR) methods of T1-weighted imaging with Gd-DTPA contrast. Critical structures and the internal structures of the landmark method were suitable for planning STI when the results of three or more points were combined in visual evaluations. However, the 2DFSE method could showed three or more points. The BT also be visually evaluated using three or less points by the FSPGR method, but had reduced visibility. From detailed contents, the fall of visual evaluation by the small thin and solid BT of the diameter of a BT was characteristic. In the whole signal noise ratio (SNR), the 3DFSPGR method is excellent in images analysis, and the 2DFSE method was excellent in contrast noise ratio (CNR) of a BT. The cystic BT accompanied by dropsy was images with clear and good depiction in all scan parameter. However, the FSPGR method was the boundary not clear in the small solid BT, the FSE method was able to recognize the maximum of the diameter of BT most, and depiction was good. Artifacts of blood flow and motion of the FSE method is a fault. However, the FSE method had the highest useful depiction ability of all BT in the STI plan. (author)

  14. Mechanism of brain tumor headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lynne P

    2014-04-01

    Headaches occur commonly in all patients, including those who have brain tumors. Using the search terms "headache and brain tumors," "intracranial neoplasms and headache," "facial pain and brain tumors," "brain neoplasms/pathology," and "headache/etiology," we reviewed the literature from the past 78 years on the proposed mechanisms of brain tumor headache, beginning with the work of Penfield. Most of what we know about the mechanisms of brain tumor associated headache come from neurosurgical observations from intra-operative dural and blood vessel stimulation as well as intra-operative observations and anecdotal information about resolution of headache symptoms with various tumor-directed therapies. There is an increasing overlap between the primary and secondary headaches and they may actually share a similar biological mechanism. While there can be some criticism that the experimental work with dural and arterial stimulation produced head pain and not actual headache, when considered with the clinical observations about headache type, coupled with improvement after treatment of the primary tumor, we believe that traction on these structures, coupled with increased intracranial pressure, is clearly part of the genesis of brain tumor headache and may also involve peripheral sensitization with neurogenic inflammation as well as a component of central sensitization through trigeminovascular afferents on the meninges and cranial vessels. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  15. Intracerebral hemorrhage in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Katsuzo; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    1980-01-01

    A series of 16 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage associated with brain tumors are described. The literature is reviewed and the incidence of these cases is reported to be low, but we had clinically encountered these cases more commonly than reported, since CT was introduced to the neurosurgical field as a diagnostic aid. The presenting symptoms were those of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage or brain tumor. The intracerebral hemorrhage associated with brain tumor may mask the cause of bleeding and confuse the diagnosis. The majority of the tumor causing the intracerebral hemorrhage are highly malignant as glioblastoma or metastatic brain tumor, but there are some benign tumors such as pituitary adenoma, hemangioblastoma, benign astrocytoma and meningioma, which would have good survival rates if discovered early. The mechanisms of massive hemorrhage with brain tumor are not clear. From pathological findings of our cases and other reports, the mechanism seems to be due to the vascular endothelial proliferation with subsequent obliteration of the lumen of the vessel. Thin walled, poorly formed vessels in tumor may also become distorted with growth of the tumor and these may easily rupture and bleed. Necrosis with subsequent loss of vessel support may be a factor in production of hemorrhage. Radiation therapy may be a predisposing factor. Children are rarely involved in these cases. The prognosis in the majority of cases would seen to be poor, since the majority of the tumor are highly malignant and most such patients are seen by the neurosurgeon some time after the hemorrhage has accomplished its fatal mischief. (author)

  16. Intracerebral hemorrhage in brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K; Matsumoto, S [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1980-10-01

    A series of 16 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage associated with brain tumors are described. The literature is reviewed and the incidence of these cases is reported to be low, but we had clinically encountered these cases more commonly than reported, since CT was introduced to the neurosurgical field as a diagnostic aid. The presenting symptoms were those of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage or brain tumor. The intracerebral hemorrhage associated with brain tumor may mask the cause of bleeding and confuse the diagnosis. The majority of the tumor causing the intracerebral hemorrhage are highly malignant as glioblastoma or metastatic brain tumor, but there are some benign tumors such as pituitary adenoma, hemangioblastoma, benign astrocytoma and meningioma, which would have good survival rates if discovered early. The mechanisms of massive hemorrhage with brain tumor are not clear. From pathological findings of our cases and other reports, the mechanism seems to be due to the vascular endothelial proliferation with subsequent obliteration of the lumen of the vessel. Thin walled, poorly formed vessels in tumor may also become distorted with growth of the tumor and these may easily rupture and bleed. Necrosis with subsequent loss of vessel support may be a factor in production of hemorrhage. Radiation therapy may be a predisposing factor. Children are rarely involved in these cases. The prognosis in the majority of cases would seen to be poor, since the majority of the tumor are highly malignant and most such patients are seen by the neurosurgeon some time after the hemorrhage has accomplished its fatal mischief.

  17. Monte Carlo simulation studies on scintillation detectors and image reconstruction of brain-phantom tumors in TOFPET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Nagendra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS results of detection efficiencies, spatial resolutions and resolving powers of a time-of-flight (TOF PET detector systems. Cerium activated Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (Lu 2 SiO 5 : Ce in short LSO, Barium Fluoride (BaF 2 and BriLanCe 380 (Cerium doped Lanthanum tri-Bromide, in short LaBr 3 scintillation crystals are studied in view of their good time and energy resolutions and shorter decay times. The results of MCS based on GEANT show that spatial resolution, detection efficiency and resolving power of LSO are better than those of BaF 2 and LaBr 3 , although it possesses inferior time and energy resolutions. Instead of the conventional position reconstruction method, newly established image reconstruction (talked about in the previous work method is applied to produce high-tech images. Validation is a momentous step to ensure that this imaging method fulfills all purposes of motivation discussed by reconstructing images of two tumors in a brain phantom.

  18. Radiation therapy of brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, K. J.; Lee, D. H.; Park, C. Y.

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and six cases of brain tumors were treated at the Yonsei Cancer Center from January 1972 to August 1978 by Co-60 teletherapy unit. We analyses their clinical findings, histopathological findings, treatment and results. In those cases which computerized tomography had been used before and after radiation therapy, changes in tumor size and the presence of edema or necrosis following treatment was evaluated. 1. Among 106 cases, 90 cases were primary brain tumors and 16 cases were metastatic brain tumors. Pituitary tumors (38), glioma (34) and pinealoma (10) composed of most of primary brain tumors. 2. Post treatment follow-up was possible in 38 cases more than 1 years. Four among 11 cases of giloma expired and survivors had considerable neurological symptoms except 2 cases. Sixty five percent (12/20) of pituitary tumors showed improvement of visual symptoms and all cases (7) of pinealoma which post treatment follow-up was possible, showed remarkable good response. 3. Findings of CT scan after radiation treatment were compatible with results of clinical findings and post treatment follow-up. It showed complete regression of tumor mass in one case of pinealoma and medulloblastoma. One case of pituitary tumor showed almost complete regression of tumor mass. It also showed large residual lesion in cases of glioblastoma multiforme and cystic astrocytoma.

  19. Brain tumor and CT, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuyuki; Katada, Kazuhiro; Shinomiya, Youichi; Sano, Hirotoshi; Kanno, Tetsuo

    1981-01-01

    It is very important for a neurosurgeon to know the consistency of a brain tumor preoperatively, since the information which is of much use in indicating the likely difficulty of the operation, which operative tools should be selected, the amount of bleeding to be expected from the tumor, and so on. The authors, therefore, tried to evaluate the consistency of brain tumors preoperatively 27 cases in which the margin of the tumor was made clear with a homogeneous stain were studied concerning the relationship between the tumor consistency and the CT findings. The results are as follows: 1) A higher CT number on a plain CT indicated a harder consistency of the tumor. 2) A lesser contrast index (CT number on enhancement CT/CT number on plain CT) showed a harder consistency of the tumor. (author)

  20. Assisted Care Options (Brain Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you with relief from the symptoms, pain, and stress of your brain tumor, while improving quality of life for both you and your family. Palliative care specialists work together as a team to provide an extra ...

  1. Brain Tumor Therapy-Induced Changes in Normal-Appearing Brainstem Measured With Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Chiaho; Merchant, Thomas E.; Gajjar, Amar; Broniscer, Alberto; Zhang, Yong; Li Yimei; Glenn, George R.; Kun, Larry E.; Ogg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize therapy-induced changes in normal-appearing brainstems of childhood brain tumor patients by serial diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods and Materials: We analyzed 109 DTI studies from 20 brain tumor patients, aged 4 to 23 years, with normal-appearing brainstems included in the treatment fields. Those with medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (n = 10) received postoperative craniospinal irradiation (23.4–39.6 Gy) and a cumulative dose of 55.8 Gy to the primary site, followed by four cycles of high-dose chemotherapy. Patients with high-grade gliomas (n = 10) received erlotinib during and after irradiation (54–59.4 Gy). Parametric maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were computed and spatially registered to three-dimensional radiation dose data. Volumes of interest included corticospinal tracts, medial lemnisci, and the pons. Serving as an age-related benchmark for comparison, 37 DTI studies from 20 healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 25 years, were included in the analysis. Results: The median DTI follow-up time was 3.5 years (range, 1.6–5.0 years). The median mean dose to the pons was 56 Gy (range, 7–59 Gy). Three patterns were seen in longitudinal FA and apparent diffusion coefficient changes: (1) a stable or normal developing time trend, (2) initial deviation from normal with subsequent recovery, and (3) progressive deviation without evidence of complete recovery. The maximal decline in FA often occurred 1.5 to 3.5 years after the start of radiation therapy. A full recovery time trend could be observed within 4 years. Patients with incomplete recovery often had a larger decline in FA within the first year. Radiation dose alone did not predict long-term recovery patterns. Conclusions: Variations existed among individual patients after therapy in longitudinal evolution of brainstem white matter injury and recovery. Early response

  2. Biomarkers of Pediatric Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Russell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Need for Novel Biomarkers: Brain tumors are the leading cause of death by solid tumors in children. Although improvements have been made in their radiological detection and treatment, our capacity to promptly diagnose pediatric brain tumors in their early stages remains limited. This contrasts several other cancers where serum biomarkers such as CA 19-9 and CA 125 facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Aim: The aim of this article is to review the latest literature and highlight biomarkers which may be of clinical use in the common types of primary pediatric brain tumor. Methods: A PubMed search was performed to identify studies reporting biomarkers in the bodily fluids of pediatric patients with brain tumors. Details regarding the sample type (serum, cerebrospinal fluid or urine, biomarkers analyzed, methodology, tumor type and statistical significance were recorded. Results: A total of 12 manuscripts reporting 19 biomarkers in 367 patients vs. 397 controls were identified in the literature. Of the 19 biomarkers identified, 12 were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid, 2 from serum, 3 from urine, and 2 from multiple bodily fluids. All but one study reported statistically significant differences in biomarker expression between patient and control groups.Conclusions: This review identifies a panel of novel biomarkers for pediatric brain tumors. It provides a platform for the further studies necessary to validate these biomarkers and, in addition, highlights several techniques through which new biomarkers can be discovered.

  3. Fluorescent Nanoparticle Uptake for Brain Tumor Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Tréhin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate delineation of tumor margins is vital to the successful surgical resection of brain tumors. We have previously developed a multimodal nanoparticle CLIO-Cy5.5, which is detectable by both magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence, to assist in intraoperatively visualizing tumor boundaries. Here we examined the accuracy of tumor margin determination of orthotopic tumors implanted in hosts with differing immune responses to the tumor. Using a nonuser-based signal intensity method applied to fluorescent micrographs of 9L gliosarcoma green fluorescent protein (GFP tumors, mean overestimations of 2 and 24 µm were obtained using Cy5.5 fluorescence, compared to the true tumor margin determined by GFP fluorescence, in nude mice and rats, respectively. To resolve which cells internalized the nanoparticle and to quantitate degree of uptake, tumors were disaggregated and cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Nanoparticle uptake was seen in both CD11b+ cells (representing activated microglia and macrophages and tumor cells in both animal models by both methods. CD11b+ cells were predominantly found at the tumor margin in both hosts, but were more pronounced at the margin in the rat model. Additional metastatic (CT26 colon and primary (Gli36 glioma brain tumor models likewise demonstrated that the nanoparticle was internalized both by tumor cells and by host cells. Together, these observations suggest that fluorescent nanoparticles provide an accurate method of tumor margin estimation based on a combination of tumor cell and host cell uptake for primary and metastatic tumors in animal model systems and offer potential for clinical translation.

  4. Imaging of pancreatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Juchems, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma is the most frequent solid tumor of the pancreas. This tumor has distinct features including early obstruction of the pancreatic duct, diminished enhancement after administration of contrast material due to desmoplastic growth, high propensity to infiltrate adjacent structures and to metastasize into the liver and the peritoneum. Hormone active endocrine tumors cause specific clinical symptoms. Imaging is aimed at localization of these hypervascular tumors. Non hormone active tumors are most frequently malignant and demonstrate very varying features. Cystic pancreatic tumors are increasingly detected by means of cross sectional imaging. Exact classification can be achieved with knowledge of the macropathology and considering clinical presentation as well as age and gender of the patients. (orig.)

  5. Brain tumor-targeted drug delivery strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Wei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the application of aggressive surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy in clinics, brain tumors are still a difficult health challenge due to their fast development and poor prognosis. Brain tumor-targeted drug delivery systems, which increase drug accumulation in the tumor region and reduce toxicity in normal brain and peripheral tissue, are a promising new approach to brain tumor treatments. Since brain tumors exhibit many distinctive characteristics relative to tumors growing in peripheral tissues, potential targets based on continuously changing vascular characteristics and the microenvironment can be utilized to facilitate effective brain tumor-targeted drug delivery. In this review, we briefly describe the physiological characteristics of brain tumors, including blood–brain/brain tumor barriers, the tumor microenvironment, and tumor stem cells. We also review targeted delivery strategies and introduce a systematic targeted drug delivery strategy to overcome the challenges.

  6. Negative brain scintigrams in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalke, K.G.

    1978-01-01

    With 53 histologically verified and 2 histologically not identified brain tumors, that showed a negative scintigram, it was tried to find reasons for the wrong and negative dropout of these scintigrams. The electroencephalograms and angiograms, that were made simultaneously were taken into consideration with respect to their propositional capability and were compared with the scintigram findings. For the formation of the negative brain scintigrams there could be found no unique cause or causal constellation. The scintigraphic tumor representation is likely based on a complex process. Therefore the reasons for the negativity of the brain scintigrams can be a manifold of causes. An important role plays the vascularisation of the tumor, but not in a sole way. As well the tumor localisation gains some importance; especially in the temporal lobe or in the deeper structures situated tumors can be negative in the scintigram. To hold down the rate of wrong-negative quote in the case of intracranial tumor search, one is advised to continue with an further exposure after 2 to 4 hours besides the usual exposures, unless a sequential scintigraphy was made from the beginning. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Brain hypoxia imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Chun [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The measurement of pathologically low levels of tissue pO{sub 2} is an important diagnostic goal for determining the prognosis of many clinically important diseases including cardiovascular insufficiency, stroke and cancer. The target tissues nowadays have mostly been tumors or the myocardium, with less attention centered on the brain. Radiolabelled nitroimidazole or derivatives may be useful in identifying the hypoxic cells in cerebrovascular disease or traumatic brain injury, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. In acute stroke, the target of therapy is the severely hypoxic but salvageable tissue. {sup 18}F-MISO PET and {sup 99m}Tc-EC-metronidazole SPECT in patients with acute ischemic stroke identified hypoxic tissues and ischemic penumbra, and predicted its outcome. A study using {sup 123}I-IAZA in patient with closed head injury detected the hypoxic tissues after head injury. Up till now these radiopharmaceuticals have drawbacks due to its relatively low concentration with hypoxic tissues associated with/without low blood-brain barrier permeability and the necessity to wait a long time to achieve acceptable target to background ratios for imaging in acute ischemic stroke. It is needed to develop new hypoxic marker exhibiting more rapid localization in the hypoxic region in the brain. And then, the hypoxic brain imaging with imidazoles or non-imidazoles may be very useful in detecting the hypoxic tissues, determining therapeutic strategies and developing therapeutic drugs in several neurological disease, especially, in acute ischemic stroke.

  8. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of an 18Fluorine-Labeled COX Inhibitor—[18F]Fluorooctyl Fenbufen Amide—For Imaging of Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Cheng Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging of brain tumors remains a great challenge, despite the advances made in imaging technology. An anti-inflammatory compound may be a useful tool for this purpose because there is evidence of inflammatory processes in brain tumor micro-environments. Fluorooctylfenbufen amide (FOFA was prepared from 8-chlorooctanol via treatment with potassium phthalimide, tosylation with Ts2O, fluorination with KF under phase transfer catalyzed conditions, deprotection using aqueous hydrazine, and coupling with fenbufen. The corresponding radiofluoro product [18F]FOFA, had a final radiochemical yield of 2.81 mCi and was prepared from activated [18F]F− (212 mCi via HPLC purification and concentration. The radiochemical purity was determined to be 99%, and the specific activity was shown to exceed 22 GBq/μmol (EOS based on decay-corrected calculations. Ex-vivo analysis of [18F]FOFA in plasma using HPLC showed that the agent had a half-life of 15 min. PET scanning showed significant accumulation of [18F]FOFA over tumor loci with reasonable contrast in C6-glioma bearing rats. These results suggest that this molecule is a promising agent for the visualization of brain tumors. Further investigations should focus on tumor micro-environments.

  9. Functional MR imaging of the primary motor area in patients with brain tumors of the motor cortex. Evaluation with echo-planer imaging on a clinical 1.0 T MR imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Yoshie; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Tamaki, Norihiko; Ehara, Kazumasa; Kitamura, Junji

    1998-01-01

    The study included 3 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with a brain tumor of the motor cortex. The fMRI study was based on the spin echo (SE) type single shot echo-planer technique. Ten contiguous axial slices consisted of 40-60 echo-planer images acquired during 80-120 seconds of repeated task performances and resting periods. Activation maps were calculated by a Z-score method with thresholding, and interpolated on T1 images and surface anatomy scans. In all cases, areas of a significant signal increase were detected as clusters of several pixels on the precentral gyrus contralateral to the motor task performance. The mean signal change was 3.6±0.9% in normal subjects, and 7.2±4.1% in brain tumor patients. There was no significant difference between the two groups. In 5 brain tumor patients significant displacement of the precentral gyrus was observed on T1- or T2-weighted SE images. Of these, 2 also had marked peritumoral edema spreading over the precentral gyrus. There was no significant difference in the size, or the degree, of signal change between patients with or without compression or edema, nor between patients with and without preoperative motor impairment. During surgical intervention, displacement of the precentral gyrus was observed as had been demonstrated on preoperative images of patients. In all patients the precentral gyrus was preserved in all cases, and no deterioration of motor function occurred. Resolution of the displacement and edema was detected on postoperative MRI. Using the echo-planer technique on a clinical 1.0 T imager fMRI localization of the primary motor cortex was obtained in normal and brain tumor subjects. The activated areas were detected on the precentral gyrus of both groups, and even when there was marked brain compression or edema. It is important to identify and preserve the precentral gyrus during surgery to avoid deterioration of motor function. (K.H.)

  10. Optical clearing and fluorescence deep-tissue imaging for 3D quantitative analysis of the brain tumor microenvironment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerweij, Tonny; Dusoswa, Sophie A.; Negrean, Adrian; Hendrikx, Esther M.L.; de Vries, Helga E.; Kole, Jeroen; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J.; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Vandertop, W. Peter; Noske, David P.; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Musters, René J P; van Kooyk, Yvette; Wesseling, Pieter; Zhao, Xi Wen; Wurdinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Three-dimensional visualization of the brain vasculature and its interactions with surrounding cells may shed light on diseases where aberrant microvascular organization is involved, including glioblastoma (GBM). Intravital confocal imaging allows 3D visualization of microvascular

  11. Optical clearing and fluorescence deep-tissue imaging for 3D quantitative analysis of the brain tumor microenvironment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerweij, Tonny; Dusoswa, Sophie A.; Negrean, Adrian; Hendrikx, Esther M. L.; de Vries, Helga E.; Kole, Jeroen; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Vandertop, W. Peter; Noske, David P.; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Musters, René J. P.; van Kooyk, Yvette; Wesseling, Pieter; Zhao, Xi Wen; Wurdinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional visualization of the brain vasculature and its interactions with surrounding cells may shed light on diseases where aberrant microvascular organization is involved, including glioblastoma (GBM). Intravital confocal imaging allows 3D visualization of microvascular structures and

  12. Quantitation of blood-brain barrier defect by magnetic resonance imaging and gadolinium-DTPA in patients with multiple sclerosis and brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Stubgaard, M; Frederiksen, J L

    1990-01-01

    In this study quantitation of the degree of deficiency of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with multiple sclerosis or brain tumors, by using MRI, is shown to be possible. As a measure of permeability of the BBB to Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) the flux per unit of distribution volume per unit...... of brain mass was used. This quantity was found by introducing the longitudinal relaxation rate (R1) as a measure of concentration of Gd-DTPA in the brain tissue in the mathematical model for the transcapillary transport over the BBB. High accordance between the observed data points and the model was found...

  13. Consensus recommendations for a standardized Brain Tumor Imaging Protocol in clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Ellingson (Benjamin M.); M. Bendszus (Martin); J. Boxerman (Jerrold); D. Barboriak (Daniel); B.J. Erickson (Bradley J.); M. Smits (Marion); S.J. Nelson (Sarah J.); E. Gerstner (Elizabeth); B. Alexander (Brian); G. Goldmacher (Gregory); W. Wick (Wolfgang); M.A. Vogelbaum (Michael); M. Weller (Michael); E. Galanis (Evanthia); J. Kalpathy-Cramer (Jayashree); L. Shankar; P. Jacobs (Paula); W.B. Pope (Whitney B.); D. Yang (Dewen); C. Chung (Caroline); R.H. Knopp; S. Cha (Soonme); M.J. van den Bent (Martin); S.M. Chang (Susan); W.K. Al Yung; T.F. Cloughesy (Timothy F.); P.Y. Wen (Patrick Y.); M.R. Gilbert (Mark R.); A. Whitney (Andrew); D. Sandak (David); A. Musella (Al); C. Haynes (Chas); M. Wallace (Max); D.F. Arons (David F.); A. Kingston (Ann)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractA recent joint meeting was held on January 30, 2014, with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Cancer Institute (NCI), clinical scientists, imaging experts, pharmaceutical and biotech companies, clinical trials cooperative groups, and patient advocate groups to discuss

  14. Fluorescence Imaging/Agents in Tumor Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stummer, Walter; Suero Molina, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Intraoperative fluorescence imaging allows real-time identification of diseased tissue during surgery without being influenced by brain shift and surgery interruption. 5-Aminolevulinic acid, useful for malignant gliomas and other tumors, is the most broadly explored compound approved for fluorescence-guided resection. Intravenous fluorescein sodium has recently received attention, highlighting tumor tissue based on extravasation at the blood-brain barrier (defective in many brain tumors). Fluorescein in perfused brain, unselective extravasation in brain perturbed by surgery, and propagation with edema are concerns. Fluorescein is not approved but targeted fluorochromes with affinity to brain tumor cells, in development, may offer future advantages. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tracking Normalization of Brain Tumor Vasculature by Magnetic Imaging and Proangiogenic Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormigo, Adília; Gutin, Philip H.; Rafii, Shahin

    2010-01-01

    Clinical assessment of the response to antiangiogenic therapy has been cumbersome. A study in this issue of Cancer Cell demonstrates that a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantification of normalized vessels with measurements of circulating levels of proangiogenic factors, including FGF2, SDF1, and viable circulating endothelial cells, provides an effective means to evaluate the response of recurrent glioblastoma to a prototypical pan-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AZD2171. PMID:17222788

  16. Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Brain Tumor Diagnosis and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Morshed, Ramin; Auffinger, Brenda; Tobias, Alex L.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2013-01-01

    Brain tumors are a diverse group of neoplasms that often carry a poor prognosis for patients. Despite tremendous efforts to develop diagnostic tools and therapeutic avenues, the treatment of brain tumors remains a formidable challenge in the field of neuro-oncology. Physiological barriers including the blood-brain barrier result in insufficient accumulation of therapeutic agents at the site of a tumor, preventing adequate destruction of malignant cells. Furthermore, there is a need for improvements in brain tumor imaging to allow for better characterization and delineation of tumors, visualization of malignant tissue during surgery, and tracking of response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Multifunctional nanoparticles offer the potential to improve upon many of these issues and may lead to breakthroughs in brain tumor management. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of nanoparticles for brain tumors with an emphasis on innovative approaches in tumor targeting, tumor imaging, and therapeutic agent delivery. Clinically feasible nanoparticle administration strategies for brain tumor patients are also examined. Furthermore, we address the barriers towards clinical implementation of multifunctional nanoparticles in the context of brain tumor management. PMID:24060923

  17. Advance MRI for pediatric brain tumors with emphasis on clinical benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Ra, Young Shin [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Conventional anatomic brain MRI is often limited in evaluating pediatric brain tumors, the most common solid tumors and a leading cause of death in children. Advanced brain MRI techniques have great potential to improve diagnostic performance in children with brain tumors and overcome diagnostic pitfalls resulting from diverse tumor pathologies as well as nonspecific or overlapped imaging findings. Advanced MRI techniques used for evaluating pediatric brain tumors include diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging. Because pediatric brain tumors differ from adult counterparts in various aspects, MRI protocols should be designed to achieve maximal clinical benefits in pediatric brain tumors. In this study, we review advanced MRI techniques and interpretation algorithms for pediatric brain tumors.

  18. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hua; YAO Hong-tian; ZHANG Wei-ping; ZHANG LEI; DING Wei; ZHANG Shi-hong; CHEN Zhong; WEI Er-qing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), one of the aquaporins (AQPs), in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or brain tumors. Methods: Nineteen human brain specimens were obtained from the patients with traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, benign meningioma or early stage hemorrhagic stroke. MRI or CT imaging was used to assess brain edema. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to evaluate cell damage. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the AQP4 expression. Results: AQP4 expression was increased from 15h to at least 8 d after injury. AQP4immunoreactivity was strong around astrocytomas, ganglioglioma and metastatic adenocarcinoma. However, AQP4 immunoreactivity was only found in the centers of astrocytomas and ganglioglioma, but not in metastatic adenocarcinoma derived from lung.Conclusion: AQP4 expression increases in human brains after traumatic brain injury, within brain-derived tumors, and around brain tumors.

  19. Bone tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.A.; Berquist, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    The emphasis of this chapter is on the contribution of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the care of patients with bone neoplasms. These modalities are emphasized because of their relative newness and not because they are considered more significant than the other more established examinations. Routine radiographs remain the most informative and essential imaging procedures for the diagnosis of bone tumors

  20. Amide proton transfer imaging in clinics: Basic concepts and current and future use in brain tumors and stoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Eun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jahng, Geon Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ha Kyu [Philips Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is gaining attention as a relatively new in vivo molecular imaging technique that has higher sensitivity and spatial resolution than magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging. APT imaging is a subset of the chemical exchange saturation transfer mechanism, which can offer unique image contrast by selectively saturating protons in target molecules that get exchanged with protons in bulk water. In this review, we describe the basic concepts of APT imaging, particularly with regard to the benefit in clinics from the current literature. Clinical applications of APT imaging are described from two perspectives: in the diagnosis and monitoring of the treatment response in brain glioma by reflecting endogenous mobile proteins and peptides, and in the potential for stroke imaging with respect to tissue acidity.

  1. Preoperative magnetic resonance and intraoperative ultrasound fusion imaging for real-time neuronavigation in brain tumor surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, F; Del Bene, M; Mattei, L; Lodigiani, L; DeBeni, S; Kolev, V; Vetrano, I; Solbiati, L; Sakas, G; DiMeco, F

    2015-04-01

    Brain shift and tissue deformation during surgery for intracranial lesions are the main actual limitations of neuro-navigation (NN), which currently relies mainly on preoperative imaging. Ultrasound (US), being a real-time imaging modality, is becoming progressively more widespread during neurosurgical procedures, but most neurosurgeons, trained on axial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slices, lack specific US training and have difficulties recognizing anatomic structures with the same confidence as in preoperative imaging. Therefore real-time intraoperative fusion imaging (FI) between preoperative imaging and intraoperative ultrasound (ioUS) for virtual navigation (VN) is highly desirable. We describe our procedure for real-time navigation during surgery for different cerebral lesions. We performed fusion imaging with virtual navigation for patients undergoing surgery for brain lesion removal using an ultrasound-based real-time neuro-navigation system that fuses intraoperative cerebral ultrasound with preoperative MRI and simultaneously displays an MRI slice coplanar to an ioUS image. 58 patients underwent surgery at our institution for intracranial lesion removal with image guidance using a US system equipped with fusion imaging for neuro-navigation. In all cases the initial (external) registration error obtained by the corresponding anatomical landmark procedure was below 2 mm and the craniotomy was correctly placed. The transdural window gave satisfactory US image quality and the lesion was always detectable and measurable on both axes. Brain shift/deformation correction has been successfully employed in 42 cases to restore the co-registration during surgery. The accuracy of ioUS/MRI fusion/overlapping was confirmed intraoperatively under direct visualization of anatomic landmarks and the error was surgery and is less expensive and time-consuming than other intraoperative imaging techniques, offering high precision and

  2. Advantages of stereotaxic needle biopsy of brain tumor using interventional magnetic resonance imaging. Report of 12 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terao, Tohru; Hashimoto, Takuo; Koyama, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koichi; Harada, Junta; Abe, Toshiaki

    1998-01-01

    Interventional MRI, an advanced neuroimaging system, was used to perform stereotaxic needle biopsy of brain tissue (AIRIS, 0.3 Tesla, Hitachi) in 12 patients (9 males, 3 females) with intraparenchymal abnormal lesions. This system permits accurate and safe biopsy of brain tissue in real time. Patient ages ranged from 31 to 79 years (mean 61.5 years). We evaluated the abnormal lesion and dominant hemisphere of these patients preoperatively by using CT, MRI and cerebral angiography. Lesions were located in the left frontal lobe in 3 cases, the right frontal lobe in 1 case, the left temporal lobe in 1 case, the right temporal lobe in 1 case, the left parietal lobe in 2 cases, the right parietal lobe in 1 case, the left occipital lobe in 1 case, the bilateral basal ganglia in 1 case and the corpus callosum in 1 case. The sampling points were in the dominant hemisphere in 7 cases and in the non-dominant hemisphere in 5 cases. The diagnosis based on stereotaxic needle biopsy using this system were 4 gliomas, 1 brain abscess, 1 metastatic brain tumor, 1 granuloma, 2 cerebral infarctions, 2 malignant lymphomas and 1 normal brain tissue. Success rate of biopsy for our 12 cases using this system was 91.7%. Brain hemorrhage was a complication in 1 case but there was no case of meningitis or convulsion. This method is useful in patients with inoperable lesions, including deep lesion or lesions in the brainstem diencephalon or dominant hemisphere, in patients with serious complications, and in geriatric patients. In the future, this MRI system may be applied to minimally invasive therapies such as tumor ablation, cryosurgery, chemoablation, and ventrolateral thalamotomy for parkinsonism. (author)

  3. Brain tumors and syndromes in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, Fonnet E.; Hopman, Saskia M. J.; Merks, Johannes H. M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.

    2014-01-01

    (Brain) tumors are usually a disorder of aged individuals. If a brain tumor occurs in a child, there is a possible genetic susceptibility for this. Such genetic susceptibilities often show other signs and symptoms. Therefore, every child with a brain tumor should be carefully evaluated for the

  4. Effect of intravenous gadolinium-DTPA on diffusion tensor MR imaging for the evaluation of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Min Sun; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Ryu, Chang Woo; Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Eui Jong; Choi, Woo Suk

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether indices of diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI) are altered after contrast medium injection in patients with brain tumors. DT-MRIs at a 3-T unit before and 6 min after gadolinium-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid injection were obtained in nine patients (five women, four men) with histologically confirmed brain tumors (four metastases, one glioblastoma multiforme, three meningiomas, and one lymphoma). Fractional anisotropy (FA), trace and mean raw DT-MRI data without (DT b 0, b value = 0 s/mm 2 ) and with (DT b 800, b value = 800 s/mm 2 ) diffusion-encoded gradients were calculated. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in the tumor, peritumoral edema, and normal-appearing symmetric contralateral brain tissue for each patient. The Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was used to determine the effects of contrast medium and ROI for all of the maps, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed for either paired t test between pre- and post-contrast values of DTI indices for the ROIs or the post hoc test. Statistically significant differences between pre-contrast and post-contrast DT-MRI are shown in the trace value of the peritumoral edema area (p = 0.0195) and the FA value of the tumor area (p = 0.0273). Trace and FA values of the other areas show no statistically significant differences between pre- and post-contrast (p > 0.05). In addition, we find a significant ROI effect for both FA (χ 2 = 26.514, df = 2, p = 0.0001) and trace (χ 2 = 21.218, df = 2, p = 0.0001). DT-MRI obtained after contrast medium injection of 6 min results in significant changes in diffusion isotropic and anisotropic values. Therefore, clinical applications of DT-MRI after administrating a contrast medium require caution in interpretation. (orig.)

  5. Image Denoising And Segmentation Approchto Detect Tumor From BRAINMRI Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanta Rangaswamy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection of the Brain Tumor is a challenging problem, due to the structure of the Tumor cells in the brain. This project presents a systematic method that enhances the detection of brain tumor cells and to analyze functional structures by training and classification of the samples in SVM and tumor cell segmentation of the sample using DWT algorithm. From the input MRI Images collected, first noise is removed from MRI images by applying wiener filtering technique. In image enhancement phase, all the color components of MRI Images will be converted into gray scale image and make the edges clear in the image to get better identification and improvised quality of the image. In the segmentation phase, DWT on MRI Image to segment the grey-scale image is performed. During the post-processing, classification of tumor is performed by using SVM classifier. Wiener Filter, DWT, SVM Segmentation strategies were used to find and group the tumor position in the MRI filtered picture respectively. An essential perception in this work is that multi arrange approach utilizes various leveled classification strategy which supports execution altogether. This technique diminishes the computational complexity quality in time and memory. This classification strategy works accurately on all images and have achieved the accuracy of 93%.

  6. MR Imaging Evaluation of Intracerebral Hemorrhages and T2 Hyperintense White Matter Lesions Appearing after Radiation Therapy in Adult Patients with Primary Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dong Hyun; Song, Sang Woo; Yun, Tae Jin; Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Se-Hoon; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sung-Hye; Park, Chul-Kee; Kim, Il Han; Choi, Seung Hong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the frequency and severity of intracerebral hemorrhages and T2 hyperintense white matter lesions (WMLs) following radiation therapy for brain tumors in adult patients. Of 648 adult brain tumor patients who received radiation therapy at our institute, magnetic resonance (MR) image data consisting of a gradient echo (GRE) and FLAIR T2-weighted image were available three and five years after radiation therapy in 81 patients. Intracerebral hemorrhage was defined as a hypointense dot lesion appearing on GRE images after radiation therapy. The number and size of the lesions were evaluated. The T2 hyperintense WMLs observed on the FLAIR sequences were graded according to the extent of the lesion. Intracerebral hemorrhage was detected in 21 (25.9%) and 35 (43.2) patients in the three- and five-year follow-up images, respectively. The number of intracerebral hemorrhages per patient tended to increase as the follow-up period increased, whereas the size of the intracerebral hemorrhages exhibited little variation over the course of follow-up. T2 hyperintense WMLs were observed in 27 (33.3%) and 32 (39.5) patients in the three and five year follow-up images, respectively. The age at the time of radiation therapy was significantly higher (p T2 hyperintense WMLs than in those without lesions. Intracerebral hemorrhages are not uncommon in adult brain tumor patients undergoing radiation therapy. The incidence and number of intracerebral hemorrhages increased over the course of follow-up. T2 hyperintense WMLs were observed in more than one-third of the study population.

  7. Preliminary study of MR elastography in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lei; Gao Peiyi; Lin Yan; Han Jiancheng; Xi Zhinong; Shen Hao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential values of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for evaluating the brain tumor consistency in vivo. Methods: Fourteen patients with known solid brain tumor (5 male, 9 female; age range: 16-63 years) underwent brain MRE studies. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. A dedicated external force actuator for brain MRE study was developed. The actuator was fixed to the head coil. During scan, one side of the actuator was attached to the patients' head. Low frequency oscillation was produced by the actuator and caused shear waves propagating into brain tissue. The pulse sequence used in the study was phase-contrast gradient-echo sequence. Phase images of the brain were obtained and the shear waves within the brain were directly imaged. Phase images were processed with local frequency estimation (LFE) technique to obtain the elasticity image. Consistency of brain tumors was evaluated at surgery and was classified as soft, intermediate, or hard with comparison to the white matter of the brain. Correspondence of MRE evaluation with operative results was studied. Results: The elastic modulus of the tumor was lower than that of white matter in 1 patient, higher in 11 patients, and similar in 2 patients. At surgery, the tumor manifested a soft consistency in 1 patient, hard consistency in 11 patients, intermediate consistency in 2 patients. The elasticity of tumors in 14 patients evaluated by MRE was correlated with the tumor consistency on the operation. Conclusion: MRE can noninvasively display the elasticity of brain tumors in vivo, and evaluate the brain tumor consistency before operation. (authors)

  8. Detection of tumor recurrence using technetium99m-tetrofosmin brain SPECT in patients with previously irradiated brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llamas A; Reyes A; Uribe, L F; Martinez T

    2004-01-01

    Objective: to assess the clinical utility of brain SPECT with Tc-99m Tetrofosmin to differentiate between tumor recurrence and radionecrosis in patients with primary brain tumors previously treated with external beam radiotherapy. Materials and methods: thirteen patients with clinical or radiological suspicion of tumor recurrence were studied with brain SPECT using 20-mCi of Tc-99m Tetrofosmin. Obtained images were interpreted by consensus between two experienced observers and subsequently classified as positive or negative for tumor viability. Results were compared to those of conventional diagnostic imaging techniques. Diagnostic test values and 95% confidence intervals were quantified. Results: SPECT results included 7 true-positives, 5 true-negatives and 1 false negative result. Conclusions: Tc-99m Tetrofosmin brain SPECT night be a useful alternative to diagnose recurrent brain tumors, especially with non-conclusive clinical and radiological findings

  9. Brain imaging and schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, J.L.; Dao-Castellana, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Brain structures and brain function have been investigated by the new brain imaging techniques for more than ten years. In Psychiatry, these techniques could afford a new understanding of mental diseases. In schizophrenic patients, CAT scanner and RMI pointed out statistically significant ventricular enlargments which are presently considered as evidence for abnormalities in brain maturation. Functional imaging techniques reported metabolic dysfunctions in the cortical associative areas which are probably linked to the cognitive features of schizophrenics [fr

  10. Therapy of malignant brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jellinger, K [ed.

    1987-01-01

    The tumors of the brain claim for a separate position in scientific medicine regarding biology, morphology, features of clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy. During the past years due to rapid progress in medical biotechnics the situation of the neuroclinician in front of brain tumors has been dramatically changed. The prerequisites for early and accurate diagnosis as well as for successful treatment also of malignant neoplasms have increased and remarkably improved. At the same time the information necessary for an appropriate pragmatic use of the available cognitive methods and therapeutic means increased along the same scale. These facts necessitate the preparation of publications in which the state of the art is presented in possible completeness, systematic order and proper dis-posability for rational management and therapeutic strategies. The primary aim of the present book is to serve these purposes. With 8 chapters, two of them are indexed for INIS, the collective of competent authors deal on the biology, pathology and immunology of malignant brain tumors of adults and of children including relevant basic and recent data of experimental research; further on the available methods of therapy: neurosurgery, radiology and chemotherapy, the fundamental principals of their efficacy and the differing models of single respective combined application, in comprehensive critical form. 111 figs.

  11. Therapy of malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellinger, K.

    1987-01-01

    The tumors of the brain claim for a separate position in scientific medicine regarding biology, morphology, features of clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy. During the past years due to rapid progress in medical biotechnics the situation of the neuroclinician in front of brain tumors has been dramatically changed. The prerequisites for early and accurate diagnosis as well as for successful treatment also of malignant neoplasms have increased and remarkably improved. At the same time the information necessary for an appropriate pragmatic use of the available cognitive methods and therapeutic means increased along the same scale. These facts necessitate the preparation of publications in which the state of the art is presented in possible completeness, systematic order and proper dis-posability for rational management and therapeutic strategies. The primary aim of the present book is to serve these purposes. With 8 chapters, two of them are indexed for INIS, the collective of competent authors deal on the biology, pathology and immunology of malignant brain tumors of adults and of children including relevant basic and recent data of experimental research; further on the available methods of therapy: neurosurgery, radiology and chemotherapy, the fundamental principals of their efficacy and the differing models of single respective combined application, in comprehensive critical form. 111 figs

  12. Performance Analysis of Unsupervised Clustering Methods for Brain Tumor Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar H Jaware

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical image processing is the most challenging and emerging field of neuroscience. The ultimate goal of medical image analysis in brain MRI is to extract important clinical features that would improve methods of diagnosis & treatment of disease. This paper focuses on methods to detect & extract brain tumour from brain MR images. MATLAB is used to design, software tool for locating brain tumor, based on unsupervised clustering methods. K-Means clustering algorithm is implemented & tested on data base of 30 images. Performance evolution of unsupervised clusteringmethods is presented.

  13. Intraoperative MRI in pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhri, Asim F. [Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Siddiqui, Adeel [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Semmes-Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); St. Jude Children' s Hospital, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) has emerged as an important tool in guiding the surgical management of children with brain tumors. Recent advances have allowed utilization of high field strength systems, including 3-tesla MRI, resulting in diagnostic-quality scans that can be performed while the child is on the operating table. By providing information about the possible presence of residual tumor, it allows the neurosurgeon to both identify and resect any remaining tumor that is thought to be safely accessible. By fusing the newly obtained images with the surgical guidance software, the images have the added value of aiding in navigation to any residual tumor. This is important because parenchyma often shifts during surgery. It also gives the neurosurgeon insight into whether any immediate postoperative complications have occurred. If any complications have occurred, the child is already in the operating room and precious minutes lost in transport and communications are saved. In this article we review the three main approaches to an iMRI system design. We discuss the possible roles for iMRI during intraoperative planning and provide guidance to help radiologists and neurosurgeons alike in the collaborative management of these children. (orig.)

  14. Intraoperative MRI in pediatric brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhri, Asim F.; Siddiqui, Adeel; Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A.

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) has emerged as an important tool in guiding the surgical management of children with brain tumors. Recent advances have allowed utilization of high field strength systems, including 3-tesla MRI, resulting in diagnostic-quality scans that can be performed while the child is on the operating table. By providing information about the possible presence of residual tumor, it allows the neurosurgeon to both identify and resect any remaining tumor that is thought to be safely accessible. By fusing the newly obtained images with the surgical guidance software, the images have the added value of aiding in navigation to any residual tumor. This is important because parenchyma often shifts during surgery. It also gives the neurosurgeon insight into whether any immediate postoperative complications have occurred. If any complications have occurred, the child is already in the operating room and precious minutes lost in transport and communications are saved. In this article we review the three main approaches to an iMRI system design. We discuss the possible roles for iMRI during intraoperative planning and provide guidance to help radiologists and neurosurgeons alike in the collaborative management of these children. (orig.)

  15. High-field, high-resolution, susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: improved image quality by addition of contrast agent and higher field strength in patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinker, K.; Noebauer-Huhmann, I.M.; Szomolanyi, P.; Weber, M.; Grabner, G.; Trattnig, S.; Stavrou, I.; Knosp, E.; Hoeftberger, R.; Stadlbauer, A.

    2008-01-01

    To demonstrate intratumoral susceptibility effects in malignant brain tumors and to assess visualization of susceptibility effects before and after administration of the paramagnetic contrast agent MultiHance (gadobenate dimeglumine; Bracco Imaging), an agent known to have high relaxivity, with respect to susceptibility effects, image quality, and reduction of scan time. Included in the study were 19 patients with malignant brain tumors who underwent high-resolution, susceptibility-weighted (SW) MR imaging at 3 T before and after administration of contrast agent. In all patients, Multihance was administered intravenously as a bolus (0.1 mmol/kg body weight). MR images were individually evaluated by two radiologists with previous experience in the evaluation of pre- and postcontrast 3-T SW MR images with respect to susceptibility effects, image quality, and reduction of scan time. In the 19 patients 21 tumors were diagnosed, of which 18 demonstrated intralesional susceptibility effects both in pre- and postcontrast SW images, and 19 demonstrated contrast enhancement in both SW images and T1-weighted spin-echo MR images. Conspicuity of susceptibility effects and image quality were improved in postcontrast images compared with precontrast images and the scan time was also reduced due to decreased TE values from 9 min (precontrast) to 7 min (postcontrast). The intravenous administration of MultiHance, an agent with high relaxivity, allowed a reduction of scan time from 9 min to 7 min while preserving excellent susceptibility effects and image quality in SW images obtained at 3 T. Contrast enhancement and intralesional susceptibility effects can be assessed in one sequence. (orig.)

  16. Clinical experience with image-guided robotic radiosurgery (the Cyberknife) in the treatment of brain and spinal cord tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.D.; Murphy, M.; Geis, P.; Martin, D.P.; Hancock, S.L.; Doty, J.R.; Adler, J.R. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The Cyberknife is an image-guided ''frameless'' dedicated radiosurgical device. This instrument has several distinct advantages over frame-based systems, including improved patient comfort, increased treatment degrees of freedom, and the potential to target extracranial lesions. Clinical results thus far with respect to the treatment of malignant intracranial tumors has been promising. Additionally, the Cyberknife will likely revolutionize the application of radiosurgery to extracranial sites. A description of the components, treatment planning, and clinical results of the Cyberknife will be reviewed. (author)

  17. Efficacy of NGR peptide-modified PEGylated quantum dots for crossing the blood-brain barrier and targeted fluorescence imaging of glioma and tumor vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ning; Cheng, Si; Zhang, Xiang; Tian, Qi; Pi, Jiangli; Tang, Jun; Huang, Qing; Wang, Feng; Chen, Jin; Xie, Zongyi; Xu, Zhongye; Chen, Weifu; Zheng, Huzhi; Cheng, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Delivery of imaging agents to brain glioma is challenging because the blood-brain barrier (BBB) functions as a physiological checkpoint guarding the central nervous system from circulating large molecules. Moreover, the ability of existing probes to target glioma has been insufficient and needs to be improved. In present study, PEG-based long circulation, CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs)-based nanoscale and fluorescence, asparagines-glycine-arginine peptides (NGR)-based specific CD13 recognition were integrated to design and synthesize a novel nanoprobe by conjugating biotinylated NGR peptides to avidin-PEG-coated QDs. Our data showed that the NGR-PEG-QDs were nanoscale with less than 100 nm and were stable in various pH (4.0~8.0). These nanomaterials with non-toxic concentrations could cross the BBB and target CD13-overexpressing glioma and tumor vasculature in vitro and in vivo, contributing to fluorescence imaging of this brain malignancy. These achievements allowed groundbreaking technological advances in targeted fluorescence imaging for the diagnosis and surgical removal of glioma, facilitating potential transformation toward clinical nanomedicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of (S)-Amino-2-methyl-4-[(76)Br]bromo-3-(E)-butenoic Acid (BrVAIB) for Brain Tumor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkemper, Jennifer L; Huang, Chaofeng; Li, Aixiao; Yuan, Liya; Rich, Keith; McConathy, Jonathan; Lapi, Suzanne E

    2015-11-12

    The novel compound, (S)-amino-2-methyl-4-[(76)Br]bromo-3-(E)-butenoic acid (BrVAIB, [(76)Br]5), was characterized against the known system A tracer, IVAIB ([(123)I]8). [(76)Br]5 was prepared in a 51% ± 19% radiochemical yield with high radiochemical purity (≥98%). The biological properties of [(76)Br]5 were compared with those of [(123)I]8. Results showed that [(76)Br]5 undergoes mixed amino acid transport by system A and system L transport, while [(123)I]8 had less uptake by system L. [(76)Br]5 demonstrated higher uptake than [(123)I]8 in DBT tumors 1 h after injection (3.7 ± 0.4% ID/g vs 1.5 ± 0.3% ID/g) and also showed higher uptake vs [(123)I]8 in normal brain. Small animal PET studies with [(76)Br]5 demonstrated good tumor visualization of intracranial DBTs up to 24 h with clearance from normal tissues. These results indicate that [(76)Br]5 is a promising PET tracer for brain tumor imaging and lead compound for a mixed system A and system L transport substrate.

  19. Effect of α-Methyl versus α-Hydrogen Substitution on Brain Availability and Tumor Imaging Properties of Heptanoic [F-18]Fluoroalkyl Amino Acids for Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Ahlem; Alyami, Wadha; Li, Aixiao; Yuan, Liya; Rich, Keith; McConathy, Jonathan

    2016-04-14

    Two [(18)F]fluoroalkyl substituted amino acids differing only by the presence or absence of a methyl group on the α-carbon, (S)-2-amino-7-[(18)F]fluoro-2-methylheptanoic acid ((S)-[(18)F]FAMHep, (S)-[(18)F]14) and (S)-2-amino-7-[(18)F]fluoroheptanoic acid ((S)-[(18)F]FAHep, (S)-[(18)F]15), were developed for brain tumor imaging and compared to the well-established system L amino acid tracer, O-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine ([(18)F]FET), in the delayed brain tumor (DBT) mouse model of high-grade glioma. Cell uptake, biodistribution, and PET/CT imaging studies showed differences in amino acid transport of these tracer by DBT cells. Recognition of (S)-[(18)F]15 but not (S)-[(18)F]14 by system L amino acid transporters led to approximately 8-10-fold higher uptake of the α-hydrogen substituted analogue (S)-[(18)F]15 in normal brain. (S)-[(18)F]15 had imaging properties similar to those of (S)-[(18)F]FET in the DBT tumor model while (S)-[(18)F]14 afforded higher tumor to brain ratios due to much lower uptake by normal brain. These results have important implications for the future development of α-alkyl and α,α-dialkyl substituted amino acids for brain tumor imaging.

  20. Imaging findings of sacral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Hong, Sung Hwan; Choi, Ja Young; Koh, Sung Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Choi, Jung Ah; Kang, Heung Sik

    2003-01-01

    The various pathologic conditions detected at CT and MRI and subsumed by the term 'sacral tumor' include primary bone tumors, sacral canal tumors and metastases. Among these, metastases are much more common than primary bone tumors, of which chordoma is the most common. Although the imaging findings of sacral tumors are nonspecific, a patient's age and sex, and specific findings such as calcification or fluid-fluid levels, can help radiologists in their differential diagnosis. We describe the imaging findings of primary sacral tumors, emphasizing the MRI findings

  1. Brain spect imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.G.L.; Hill, T.C.; Holman, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how the rapid development of single-photon radiopharmaceuticals has given new life to tomographic brain imaging in nuclear medicine. Further developments in radiopharmaceuticals and refinements in neuro-SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography) instrumentation should help to reinstate brain scintigraphy as an important part of neurologic diagnosis. SPECT of the brain evolved from experimentation using prototype instrumentation during the early 1960s. Although tomographic studies provided superior diagnostic accuracy when compared to planar techniques, the arrival of X-ray CT of the head resulted in the rapid demise of technetium brain imaging

  2. Measurement of the perfusion fraction in brain tumors with intravoxel incoherent motion MR imaging: validation with histopathological vascular density in meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togao, Osamu; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Kikuchi, Kazufumi; Momosaka, Daichi; Yoshimoto, Koji; Kuga, Daisuke; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Iwaki, Toru; Van Cauteren, Marc; Iihara, Koji; Honda, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the quantification performance of the perfusion fraction (f) measured with intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MR imaging in a comparison with the histological vascular density in meningiomas. 29 consecutive patients with meningioma (59.0 ± 16.8 years old, 8 males and 21 females) who underwent a subsequent surgical resection were examined with both IVIM imaging and a histopathological analysis. IVIM imaging was conducted using a single-shot SE-EPI sequence with 13 b-factors (0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 80, 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, 800, 1000 s mm - 2 ) at 3T. The perfusion fraction (f) was calculated by fitting the IVIM bi-exponential model. The 90-percentile f-value in the tumor region-of-interest (ROI) was defined as the maximum f-value (f-max). Histopathological vascular density (%Vessel) was measured on CD31-immunostainted histopathological specimens. The correlation and agreement between the f-values and %Vessel was assessed. The f-max (15.5 ± 5.5%) showed excellent agreement [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.754] and a significant correlation (r = 0.69, p < 0.0001) with the %Vessel (12.9 ± 9.4%) of the tumors. The Bland-Altman plot analysis showed excellent agreement between the f-max and %Vessel (bias, -2.6%; 95% limits of agreement, from -16.0 to 10.8%). The f-max was not significantly different among the histological subtypes of meningioma. An excellent agreement and a significant correlation were observed between the f-values and %Vessel. The f-value can be used as a noninvasive quantitative imaging measure to directly assess the vascular volume fraction in brain tumors. Advances in knowledge: The f-value measured by IVIM imaging showed a significant correlation and an excellent agreement with the histological vascular density in the meningiomas. The f-value can be used as a noninvasive and quantitative imaging measure to directly assess the volume fraction of capillaries in brain tumors.

  3. Portable Intraoperative Computed Tomography Scan in Image-Guided Surgery for Brain High-grade Gliomas: Analysis of Technical Feasibility and Impact on Extent of Tumor Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, Giuseppe M V; Palmucci, Stefano; Visocchi, Massimiliano; Paratore, Sabrina; Attinà, Giancarlo; Sortino, Giuseppe; Albanese, Vincenzo; Certo, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard among image-guided techniques for glioma surgery. Scant data are available on the role of intraoperative computed tomography (i-CT) in high-grade glioma (HGG) surgery. To verify the technical feasibility and usefulness of portable i-CT in image-guided surgical resection of HGGs. This is a retrospective series control analysis of prospectively collected data. Twenty-five patients (Group A) with HGGs underwent surgery using i-CT and 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence. A second cohort of 25 patients (Group B) underwent 5-ALA fluorescence-guided surgery but without i-CT. We used a portable 8-slice CT scanner and, in both groups, neuronavigation. Extent of tumor resection (ETOR) and pre- and postoperative Karnofsky performance status (KPS) scores were measured; the impact of i-CT on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was also analyzed. In 8 patients (32%) in Group A, i-CT revealed residual tumor, and in 4 of them it helped to also resect pathological tissue detached from the main tumor. EOTR in these 8 patients was 97.3% (96%-98.6%). In Group B, residual tumor was found in 6 patients, whose tumor's mean resection was 98% (93.5-99.7). The Student t test did not show statistically significant differences in EOTR in the 2 groups. The KPS score decreased from 67 to 69 after surgery in Group A and from 74 to 77 in Group B (P = .07 according to the Student t test). Groups A and B did not show statistically significant differences in OS and PFS (P = .61 and .46, respectively, by the log-rank test). No statistically significant differences in EOTR, KPS, PFS, and OS were observed in the 2 groups. However, i-CT helped to verify EOTR and to update the neuronavigator with real-time images, as well as to identify and resect pathological tissue in multifocal tumors. i-CT is a feasible and effective alternative to intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Portable i-CT can provide useful

  4. Multiscale CNNs for Brain Tumor Segmentation and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early brain tumor detection and diagnosis are critical to clinics. Thus segmentation of focused tumor area needs to be accurate, efficient, and robust. In this paper, we propose an automatic brain tumor segmentation method based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs. Traditional CNNs focus only on local features and ignore global region features, which are both important for pixel classification and recognition. Besides, brain tumor can appear in any place of the brain and be any size and shape in patients. We design a three-stream framework named as multiscale CNNs which could automatically detect the optimum top-three scales of the image sizes and combine information from different scales of the regions around that pixel. Datasets provided by Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS organized by MICCAI 2013 are utilized for both training and testing. The designed multiscale CNNs framework also combines multimodal features from T1, T1-enhanced, T2, and FLAIR MRI images. By comparison with traditional CNNs and the best two methods in BRATS 2012 and 2013, our framework shows advances in brain tumor segmentation accuracy and robustness.

  5. Multiscale CNNs for Brain Tumor Segmentation and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liya; Jia, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    Early brain tumor detection and diagnosis are critical to clinics. Thus segmentation of focused tumor area needs to be accurate, efficient, and robust. In this paper, we propose an automatic brain tumor segmentation method based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). Traditional CNNs focus only on local features and ignore global region features, which are both important for pixel classification and recognition. Besides, brain tumor can appear in any place of the brain and be any size and shape in patients. We design a three-stream framework named as multiscale CNNs which could automatically detect the optimum top-three scales of the image sizes and combine information from different scales of the regions around that pixel. Datasets provided by Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) organized by MICCAI 2013 are utilized for both training and testing. The designed multiscale CNNs framework also combines multimodal features from T1, T1-enhanced, T2, and FLAIR MRI images. By comparison with traditional CNNs and the best two methods in BRATS 2012 and 2013, our framework shows advances in brain tumor segmentation accuracy and robustness.

  6. Brain lesion analysis using three-dimensional SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Iekado; Onagi, Atsuo; Kuroki, Takao

    1995-01-01

    A three-headed gamma camera (PRISM 3000) is capable to scan the protocol of early dynamic SPECT and to analyze two radioisotopes at the same time. We have framed three-dimensional brain SPECT images for several brain diseases by using the Application Visualization System (AVS). We carried out volume measurements in brain tumors and/or AVMs by applying this methodology. Thallium-201 and/or 123I-IMP were used for brain SPECT imaging. The dynamic scan protocol was changed in accordance with the given disease. The protocol for brain tumors was derived from a preliminary comparative study with thallium-201 and 123I-IMP that had suggested a disparity in the detection of brain tumors and the differentiation between tumor tissue and normal brain. The three-dimension SPECT image represented the brain tumor or AVM in a striking fashion, and the changes with respect to tumor or AVM after radiosurgery or embolization were understood readily. (author)

  7. Evaluation of D-isomers of 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-phenylalanine and O-11C-methyl-tyrosine as brain tumor imaging agents: a comparative PET study with their L-isomers in rat brain glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Masakatsu; Nishiyama, Shingo; Hashimoto, Fumio; Kakiuchi, Takeharu; Tsukada, Hideo

    2018-06-13

    The potential of the D-isomerization of 4-borono-2- 18 F-fluoro-phenylalanine ( 18 F-FBPA) to improve its target tumor to non-target normal brain tissue ratio (TBR) was evaluated in rat brain glioma and compared with those of L- and D- 11 C-methyl-tyrosine ( 11 C-CMT). The L- or D-isomer of 18 F-FBPA was injected into rats through the tail vein, and their whole body kinetics and distributions were assessed using the tissue dissection method up to 90 min after the injection. The kinetics of L- and D- 18 F-FBPA or L- and D- 11 C-CMT in the C-6 glioma-inoculated rat brain were measured for 90 or 60 min, respectively, using high-resolution animal PET, and their TBRs were assessed. Tissue dissection analyses showed that D- 18 F-FBPA uptake was significantly lower than that of L- 18 F-FBPA in the brain and abdominal organs, except for the kidney and bladder, reflecting the faster elimination rate of D- 18 F-FBPA than L- 18 F-FBPA from the blood to the urinary tract. PET imaging using 18 F-FBPA revealed that although the brain uptake of D- 18 F-FBPA was significantly lower than that of L- 18 F-FBPA, the TBR of the D-isomer improved to 6.93 from 1.45 for the L-isomer. Similar results were obtained with PET imaging using 11 C-CMT with a smaller improvement in TBR to 1.75 for D- 11 C-CMT from 1.33 for L- 11 C-CMT. The present results indicate that D- 18 F-FBPA is a better brain tumor imaging agent with higher TBR than its original L-isomer and previously reported tyrosine-based PET imaging agents. This improved TBR of D- 18 F-FBPA without any pre-treatments, such as tentative blood-brain barrier disruption using hyperosmotic agents or sonication, suggests that the D-isomerization of BPA results in the more selective accumulation of 10 B in tumor cells that is more effective and less toxic than conventional L-BPA.

  8. Kinetic Analysis of 2-[11C]Thymidine PET Imaging Studies of Malignant Brain Tumors: Compartmental Model Investigation and Mathematical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M. Wells

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available 2-[11C]Thymidine (TdR, a PET tracer for cellular proliferation, may be advantageous for monitoring brain tumor progression and response to therapy. We previously described and validated a five-compartment model for thymidine incorporation into DNA in somatic tissues, but the effect of the blood–brain barrier on the transport of TdR and its metabolites necessitated further validation before it could be applied to brain tumors. Methods: We investigated the behavior of the model under conditions experienced in the normal brain and brain tumors, performed sensitivity and identifiability analysis to determine the ability of the model to estimate the model parameters, and conducted simulations to determine whether it can distinguish between thymidine transport and retention. Results: Sensitivity and identifiability analysis suggested that the non-CO2 metabolite parameters could be fixed without significantly affecting thymidine parameter estimation. Simulations showed that K1t and KTdR could be estimated accurately (r = .97 and .98 for estimated vs. true parameters with standard errors < 15%. The model was able to separate increased transport from increased retention associated with tumor proliferation. Conclusion: Our model adequately describes normal brain and brain tumor kinetics for thymidine and its metabolites, and it can provide an estimate of the rate of cellular proliferation in brain tumors.

  9. Endothelial cell marker PAL-E reactivity in brain tumor, developing brain, and brain disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, S.; Troost, D.; Das, P. K.; Claessen, N.; Becker, A. E.; Bosch, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The endothelial cell marker PAL-E is not reactive to vessels in the normal brain. The present study concerns the PAL-E reactivity in brain tumors in contrast to normal brain and nonneoplastic brain disease. A total of 122 specimens were examined: brain tumors (n = 94), nonneoplastic brain disease (n

  10. Human brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhar, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Just as there have been dramatic advances in the molecular biology of the human brain in recent years, there also have been remarkable advances in brain imaging. This paper reports on the development and broad application of microscopic imaging techniques which include the autoradiographic localization of receptors and the measurement of glucose utilization by autoradiography. These approaches provide great sensitivity and excellent anatomical resolution in exploring brain organization and function. The first noninvasive external imaging of receptor distributions in the living human brain was achieved by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. Developments, techniques and applications continue to progress. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is also becoming important. Its initial clinical applications were in examining the structure and anatomy of the brain. However, more recent uses, such as MRI spectroscopy, indicate the feasibility of exploring biochemical pathways in the brain, the metabolism of drugs in the brain, and also of examining some of these procedures at an anatomical resolution which is substantially greater than that obtainable by PET scanning. The issues will be discussed in greater detail

  11. Evaluation of intraaxial enhancing brain tumors on magnetic resonance imaging: intraindividual crossover comparison of gadobenate dimeglumine and gadopentetate dimeglumine for visualization and assessment, and implications for surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Matthew J; Picozzi, Piero; Maldjian, Joseph A; Schmalfuss, Ilona M; Maravilla, Kenneth R; Bowen, Brian C; Wippold, Franz J; Runge, Val M; Knopp, Michael V; Wolansky, Leo J; Gustafsson, Lars; Essig, Marco; Anzalone, Nicoletta

    2007-04-01

    The goal in this article was to compare 0.1 mmol/kg doses of gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadopentetate dimeglumine, also known as gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), for enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of intraaxial brain tumors. Eighty-four patients with either intraaxial glioma (47 patients) or metastasis (37 patients) underwent two MR imaging examinations at 1.5 tesla, one with Gd-BOPTA as the contrast agent and the other with Gd-DTPA. The interval between fully randomized contrast medium administrations was 2 to 7 days. The T1-weighted spin echo and T2-weighted fast spin echo images were acquired before administration of contrast agents and T1-weighted spin echo images were obtained after the agents were administered. Acquisition parameters and postinjection acquisition times were identical for the two examinations in each patient. Three experienced readers working in a fully blinded fashion independently evaluated all images for degree and quality of available information (lesion contrast enhancement, lesion border delineation, definition of disease extent, visualization of the lesion's internal structures, global diagnostic preference) and quantitative enhancement (that is, the extent of lesion enhancement after contrast agent administration compared with that seen before its administration [hereafter referred to as percent enhancement], lesion/brain ratio, and contrast/noise ratio). Differences were tested with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Reader agreement was assessed using kappa statistics. Significantly better diagnostic information/imaging performance (p 0.4). Lesion visualization, delineation, definition, and contrast enhancement are significantly better after administration of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-BOPTA, potentially allowing better surgical planning and follow up and improved disease management.

  12. BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, T.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Nagahiro, S.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    BSH-based intra-operative BNCT as an initial treatment underwent in 4 children with malignant brain tumors since 1998. There were 2 glioblastomas, one primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) and one anaplastic ependymoma patient. They included two children under 3-year-old. All GBM patients were died of CSF dissemination without tumor regrowth in the primary site. Another PNET and anaplastic ependymoma patients are still alive without tumor recurrence. We can consider BNCT is optimal treatment modality for malignant brain tumor in children. (author)

  13. Magnetic resonance and photoacoustic imaging of brain tumor mediated by mesenchymal stem cell labeled with multifunctional nanoparticle introduced via carotid artery injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yang; Gumin, Joy; MacLellan, Christopher J.; Gao, Feng; Bouchard, Richard; Lang, Frederick F.; Stafford, R. Jason; Melancon, Marites P.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. To evaluate the feasibility of visualizing bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) labeled with a gold-coated magnetic resonance (MR)-active multifunctional nanoparticle and injected via the carotid artery for assessing the extent of MSC homing in glioma-bearing mice. Materials and methods. Nanoparticles containing superparamagnetic iron oxide coated with gold (SPIO@Au) with a diameter of ˜82 nm and maximum absorbance in the near infrared region were synthesized. Bone marrow-derived MSCs conjugated with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were successfully labeled with SPIO@Au at 4 μg ml-1 and injected via the internal carotid artery in six mice bearing orthotopic U87 tumors. Unlabeled MSCs were used as a control. The ability of SPIO@Au-loaded MSCs to be imaged using MR and photoacoustic (PA) imaging at t = 0 h, 2 h, 24 h, and 72 h was assessed using a 7 T Bruker Biospec experimental MR scanner and a Vevo LAZR PA imaging system with a 5 ns laser as the excitation source. Histological analysis of the brain tissue was performed 72 h after MSC injection using GFP fluorescence, Prussian blue staining, and hematoxylin-and-eosin staining. Results. MSCs labeled with SPIO@Au at 4 μg ml-1 did not exhibit cell death or any adverse effects on differentiation or migration. The PA signal in tumors injected with SPIO@Au-loaded MSCs was clearly more enhanced post-injection, as compared with the tumors injected with unlabeled MSCs at t = 72 h. Using the same mice, T2-weighted MR imaging results taken before injection and at t = 2 h, 24 h, and 72 h were consistent with the PA imaging results, showing significant hypointensity of the tumor in the presence of SPIO@Au-loaded MSCs. Histological analysis also showed co-localization of GFP fluorescence and iron, thereby confirming that SPIO@Au-labeled MSCs continue to carry their nanoparticle payloads even at 72 h after injection. Conclusions. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of tracking carotid artery

  14. Examination of Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) Integrity In A Mouse Brain Tumor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Ngoc; Mitchell, Ryan; Savant, Sanjot D.; Bachmeier, Corbin. J.; Hatch, Grant M.; Miller, Donald W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluates, both functionally and biochemically, brain tumor-induced alterations in brain capillary endothelial cells. Brain tumors were induced in Balb/c mice via intracranial injection of Lewis Lung carcinoma (3LL) cells into the right hemisphere of the mouse brain using stereotaxic apparatus. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability was assessed at various stages of tumor development, using both radiolabeled tracer permeability and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate contrast enhancement (Gad-DTPA). The expression of the drug efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in the BBB at various stages of tumor development was also evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Median mouse survival following tumor cell injection was 17 days. The permeability of the BBB to 3H-mannitol was similar in both brain hemispheres at 7 and 10 days post-injection. By day 15, there was a 2-fold increase in 3H-mannitol permeability in the tumor bearing hemispheres compared to the non-tumor hemispheres. Examination of BBB permeability with Gad-DTPA contrast enhanced MRI indicated cerebral vascular permeability changes were confined to the tumor area. The permeability increase observed at the later stages of tumor development correlated with an increase in cerebral vascular volume suggesting angiogenesis within the tumor bearing hemisphere. Furthermore, the Gad-DPTA enhancement observed within the tumor area was significantly less than Gad-DPTA enhancement within the circumventricular organs not protected by the BBB. Expression of P-gp in both the tumor bearing and non-tumor bearing portions of the brain appeared similar at all time points examined. These studies suggest that although BBB integrity is altered within the tumor site at later stages of development, the BBB is still functional and limiting in terms of solute and drug permeability in and around the tumor. PMID:23184143

  15. Brain tumors in patients primarly treated psychiatrically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović-Ristić Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psychiatric symptoms are not rare manifestations of brain tumors. Brain tumors presented by symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, focal neurological signs, or convulsions are usually first seen by the neurologist or less frequently by the neurosurgeon in routine diagnostic procedures. On the other hand, when psychiatric symptoms are the first manifestation in “neurologically silent” brain tumors, the patients are sent to the psychiatrist for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms and brain tumors are left misdiagnosed for a long period of time. Case Report. We presented three patients with the diagnosed brain tumor where psychiatrist had been the first specialist to be consulted. In all three cases neurological examination was generally unremarkable with no focal signs or features of raised intracranial pressure. CT scan demonstrated right insular tumor in a female patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; right parietal temporal tumor in a patient with delusions and depression and left frontal tumor in a patient with history of alcohol dependency. Conclusion. Psychiatric symptoms/disorders in patients with brain tumors are not specific enough and can have the same clinical presentation as the genuine psychiatric disorder. Therefore, we emphasize the consideration of neuroimaging in patients with abrupt beginning of psychiatric symptoms, in those with a change in mental status, or when headaches suddenly appear or in cases of treatment resistant psychiatric disorders regardless the lack of neurological symptoms.

  16. Soft tissue tumors - imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlart, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    Soft Tissue Tumors - Imaging Methods: Imaging methods play an important diagnostic role in soft tissue tumors concerning a preoperative evaluation of localization, size, topographic relationship, dignity, and metastatic disease. The present paper gives an overview about diagnostic methods available today such as ultrasound, thermography, roentgenographic plain films and xeroradiography, radionuclide methods, computed tomography, lymphography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Besides sonography particularly computed tomography has the most important diagnostic value in soft tissue tumors. The application of a recently developed method, the magnetic resonance imaging, cannot yet be assessed in its significance. (orig.) [de

  17. Hybrid Clustering And Boundary Value Refinement for Tumor Segmentation using Brain MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anjali; Pahuja, Gunjan

    2017-08-01

    The method of brain tumor segmentation is the separation of tumor area from Brain Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. There are number of methods already exist for segmentation of brain tumor efficiently. However it’s tedious task to identify the brain tumor from MR images. The segmentation process is extraction of different tumor tissues such as active, tumor, necrosis, and edema from the normal brain tissues such as gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). As per the survey study, most of time the brain tumors are detected easily from brain MR image using region based approach but required level of accuracy, abnormalities classification is not predictable. The segmentation of brain tumor consists of many stages. Manually segmenting the tumor from brain MR images is very time consuming hence there exist many challenges in manual segmentation. In this research paper, our main goal is to present the hybrid clustering which consists of Fuzzy C-Means Clustering (for accurate tumor detection) and level set method(for handling complex shapes) for the detection of exact shape of tumor in minimal computational time. using this approach we observe that for a certain set of images 0.9412 sec of time is taken to detect tumor which is very less in comparison to recent existing algorithm i.e. Hybrid clustering (Fuzzy C-Means and K Means clustering).

  18. TH-EF-207A-06: High-Resolution Optical-CT/ECT Imaging of Unstained Mice Femur, Brain, Spleen, and Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, S; Dewhirst, M; Oldham, M; Boss, M; Birer, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Optical transmission and emission computed tomography (optical-CT/ECT) provides high-resolution 3D attenuation and emission maps in unsectioned large (∼1cm 3 ) ex vivo tissue samples at a resolution of 12.9µm 3 per voxel. Here we apply optical-CT/ECT to investigate high-resolution structure and auto-fluorescence in a range of optically cleared mice organs, including, for the first time, mouse bone (femur), opening the potential for study of bone metastasis and bone-mediated immune response. Methods: Three BALBc mice containing 4T1 flank tumors were sacrificed to obtain spleen, brain, tumor, and femur. Tissues were washed in 4% PFA, fixed in EtOH solution (for 5, 10, 10, and 2 days respectively), and then optically cleared for 3 days in BABBs. The femur was also placed in 0.25M aqueous EDTA for 15–30 days to remove calcium. Optical-CT/ECT attenuation and emission maps at 633nm (the latter using 530nm excitation light) were obtained for all samples. Bi-telecentric optical-CT was compared side-by-side with conventional optical projection tomography (OPT) imaging to evaluate imaging capability of these two rival techniques. Results: Auto-fluorescence mapping of femurs reveals vasculatures and fluorescence heterogeneity. High signals (A.U.=10) are reported in the medullary cavity but not in the cortical bone (A.U.=1). The brain strongly and uniform auto-fluoresces (A.U.=5). Thick, optically dense organs such as the spleen and the tumor (0.12, 0.46OD/mm) are reconstructed at depth without significant loss of resolution, which we attribute to the bi-telecentric optics of optical-CT. The attenuation map of tumor reveals vasculature, attenuation heterogeneity, and possibly necrotic tissue. Conclusion: We demonstrate the feasibility of optical-CT/ECT imaging of un-sectioned mice bones (femurs) and spleen with high resolution. This result, and the characterization of unstained organs, are important steps enabling future studies involving optical-CT/ECT applied

  19. Brain tumors and synchrotron radiation: new methods for mini-beams radiation therapy and treatment follow-up by functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deman, P.

    2012-01-01

    An innovative method of synchrotron radiation therapy, called mini-beams, was proposed by A. Dilmanian et al. in 2006. Mini-beams consists in tumor irradiation with monochromatic sub-millimetric x-ray beams spatially fractionated produced by a synchrotron source. To obtain a homogeneous dose in the target volume, an interleaving is realized using two orthogonal incidences. Adjacent healthy tissue is only partially irradiated by mini-beams, the areas between the beams only receive scattered radiation and therefore the energy deposited is 10 to 15 times lower than on one mini-beam axis, leading to a sparing effect of healthy tissue even when a high dose is deposited in the target volume. The thesis project is the development of this experimental method of monochromatic mini-beams, which involves the control of the irradiation geometry, the control of dosimetry and its modeling by Monte Carlo simulations. To evaluate the method, preclinical experiments on models of brain tumors implanted in rats (F98) are performed. Follow-up by anatomical and functional imaging is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. Functional imaging of cerebral perfusion (volume and cerebral blood flow, mean transit time of heavy elements) appears to be associated in the literature as a relevant method for monitoring prognostic. The key parameters of the cerebral vasculature are mainly studied in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), because of the harmlessness of this imaging modality. The relation between MRI signal and contrast agent concentration is very complex and no quantitative relationship is well known. Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography (SRCT) is an imaging modality with performances to measure absolute contrast agent concentration very close to the theoretical limits and can be used as gold-standard. The used pharmacokinetic models need as input parameters a contrast agent concentration versus time. A comparison of perfusion measurements between MRI and SRCT

  20. SU-F-J-24: Setup Uncertainty and Margin of the ExacTrac 6D Image Guide System for Patients with Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S; Oh, S; Yea, J; Park, J [Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study evaluated the setup uncertainties for brain sites when using BrainLAB’s ExacTrac X-ray 6D system for daily pretreatment to determine the optimal planning target volume (PTV) margin. Methods: Between August 2012 and April 2015, 28 patients with brain tumors were treated by daily image-guided radiotherapy using the BrainLAB ExacTrac 6D image guidance system of the Novalis-Tx linear accelerator. DUONTM (Orfit Industries, Wijnegem, Belgium) masks were used to fix the head. The radiotherapy was fractionated into 27–33 treatments. In total, 844 image verifications were performed for 28 patients and used for the analysis. The setup corrections along with the systematic and random errors were analyzed for six degrees of freedom in the translational (lateral, longitudinal, and vertical) and rotational (pitch, roll, and yaw) dimensions. Results: Optimal PTV margins were calculated based on van Herk et al.’s [margin recipe = 2.5∑ + 0.7σ − 3 mm] and Stroom et al.’s [margin recipe = 2∑ + 0.7σ] formulas. The systematic errors (∑) were 0.72, 1.57, and 0.97 mm in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical translational dimensions, respectively, and 0.72°, 0.87°, and 0.83° in the pitch, roll, and yaw rotational dimensions, respectively. The random errors (σ) were 0.31, 0.46, and 0.54 mm in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical rotational dimensions, respectively, and 0.28°, 0.24°, and 0.31° in the pitch, roll, and yaw rotational dimensions, respectively. According to van Herk et al.’s and Stroom et al.’s recipes, the recommended lateral PTV margins were 0.97 and 1.66 mm, respectively; the longitudinal margins were 1.26 and 3.47 mm, respectively; and the vertical margins were 0.21 and 2.31 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Therefore, daily setup verifications using the BrainLAB ExacTrac 6D image guide system are very useful for evaluating the setup uncertainties and determining the setup margin.∑σ.

  1. Brain tumor segmentation with Deep Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaei, Mohammad; Davy, Axel; Warde-Farley, David; Biard, Antoine; Courville, Aaron; Bengio, Yoshua; Pal, Chris; Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Larochelle, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully automatic brain tumor segmentation method based on Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). The proposed networks are tailored to glioblastomas (both low and high grade) pictured in MR images. By their very nature, these tumors can appear anywhere in the brain and have almost any kind of shape, size, and contrast. These reasons motivate our exploration of a machine learning solution that exploits a flexible, high capacity DNN while being extremely efficient. Here, we give a description of different model choices that we've found to be necessary for obtaining competitive performance. We explore in particular different architectures based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), i.e. DNNs specifically adapted to image data. We present a novel CNN architecture which differs from those traditionally used in computer vision. Our CNN exploits both local features as well as more global contextual features simultaneously. Also, different from most traditional uses of CNNs, our networks use a final layer that is a convolutional implementation of a fully connected layer which allows a 40 fold speed up. We also describe a 2-phase training procedure that allows us to tackle difficulties related to the imbalance of tumor labels. Finally, we explore a cascade architecture in which the output of a basic CNN is treated as an additional source of information for a subsequent CNN. Results reported on the 2013 BRATS test data-set reveal that our architecture improves over the currently published state-of-the-art while being over 30 times faster. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution of Brain Tumor and Stability of Geometric Invariants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tawbe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to reconstruct and to calculate geometric invariants on brain tumors. The geometric invariants considered in the paper are the volume, the area, the discrete Gauss curvature, and the discrete mean curvature. The volume of a tumor is an important aspect that helps doctors to make a medical diagnosis. And as doctors seek a stable calculation, we propose to prove the stability of some invariants. Finally, we study the evolution of brain tumor as a function of time in two or three years depending on patients with MR images every three or six months.

  3. A study of spinal cord tumors by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushiken, Isao; Nishihira, Takeshi; Nakasone, Tomohiro [Ryukyu Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). School of Medicine; Takara, Hiroaki; Oshiro, Yutaka; Oshiro, Takashi; Isa, Makoto; Kinjo, Yukio; Ibaraki, Kunio

    1989-10-01

    We studied 17 cases of spinal cord tumors using magnetic resonance imaging. According to the intensity of image and histological feature of spinal cord tumors, we identified two groups in T2 weighted imaging. One was a hypointensity group showing cystic or vascular tumors, and the other was hyperintensity group of solid tumors. Preoperative images of swelling, narrowing, deviation of the spinal cord were remained after the operations. Grafted free fatty tissue for the prevention of adhesion was recognized well also after the operation. Postoperative imagings sometime showed pseudo-deviation of the spinal cord which was easy to be mistaken as the remains of tumors and narrowing of the spinal cord. In conclusion, the magnetic resonance imaging makes very early detection of spinal cord tumors possible, and it is valuable for a diagnosis of the spinal cord tumor associated with brain tumor. (author).

  4. A study of spinal cord tumors by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gushiken, Isao; Nishihira, Takeshi; Nakasone, Tomohiro; Takara, Hiroaki; Oshiro, Yutaka; Oshiro, Takashi; Isa, Makoto; Kinjo, Yukio; Ibaraki, Kunio.

    1989-01-01

    We studied 17 cases of spinal cord tumors using magnetic resonance imaging. According to the intensity of image and histological feature of spinal cord tumors, we identified two groups in T2 weighted imaging. One was a hypointensity group showing cystic or vascular tumors, and the other was hyperintensity group of solid tumors. Preoperative images of swelling, narrowing, deviation of the spinal cord were remained after the operations. Grafted free fatty tissue for the prevention of adhesion was recognized well also after the operation. Postoperative imagings sometime showed pseudo-deviation of the spinal cord which was easy to be mistaken as the remains of tumors and narrowing of the spinal cord. In conclusion, the magnetic resonance imaging makes very early detection of spinal cord tumors possible, and it is valuable for a diagnosis of the spinal cord tumor associated with brain tumor. (author)

  5. Correlation of emmprin expression in vascular endothelial cells with blood-brain-barrier function: a study using magnetic resonance imaging enhanced by Gd-DTPA and immunohistochemistry in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameshima, Tetsuro; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Toole, Bryan P; Inoue, Teruhiko; Yokogami, Kiyotaka; Nakano, Shinichi; Ohi, Takekazu; Wakisaka, Shinichiro

    2003-06-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that the expression levels in tumor cells of emmprin (CD147) correlated with the grade of astrocytic tumors. Also, we found that emmprin was expressed in vascular endothelial cells of the non-neoplastic brain and hypothesized that emmprin expression could be associated with normal blood-brain-barrier (BBB) function of vascular endothelial cells. In this study, this possibility was examined in non-neoplastic brain, glioma and metastatic carcinoma tissues by comparing emmprin immunohistochemistry with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhancement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is a clinical indicator of the BBB function. This study included 10 cases of non-neoplastic brain tissues, 7 of metastatic carcinoma, 7 of diffuse astrocytoma, 4 of anaplastic astrocytoma and 13 of glioblastoma multiforme. In all the cases, MRI with administration of Gd-DTPA was performed. The lesions were resected using the microdissection method with the help of ultrasonography and a neuronavigator. The tissues from Gd-DTPA-enhanced or non-enhanced areas were processed into frozen sections and subjected to immunohistochemistry with anti-emmprin antibody. The expression of emmprin in brain vascular endothelial cells inversely correlated with Gd-DTPA-enhancement of MRI: emmprin was positive in tissues not enhanced by Gd-DTPA and was negative in DTPA-enhanced tissues. Since BBB function presumably remains unimpaired in regions in which MR images are not Gd-DTPA-enhanced, emmprin expression appears to be associated with unimpaired BBB function. This is the first report to demonstrate a possible correlation between emmprin expression and BBB function in humans.

  6. Brain Tumor Segmentation Using a Generative Model with an RBM Prior on Tumor Shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agn, Mikael; Puonti, Oula; Rosenschöld, Per Munck af

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully automated generative method for brain tumor segmentation in multi-modal magnetic resonance images. The method is based on the type of generative model often used for segmenting healthy brain tissues, where tissues are modeled by Gaussian mixture models combined...... the use of the intensity information in the training images. Experiments on public benchmark data of patients suffering from low- and high-grade gliomas show that the method performs well compared to current state-of-the-art methods, while not being tied to any specific imaging protocol....... with a spatial atlas-based tissue prior. We extend this basic model with a tumor prior, which uses convolutional restricted Boltzmann machines (cRBMs) to model the shape of both tumor core and complete tumor, which includes edema and core. The cRBMs are trained on expert segmentations of training images, without...

  7. Imaging tumors of the patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadei, R., E-mail: roberto.casadei@ior.it [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Kreshak, J., E-mail: j.kreshak@yahoo.com [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Rinaldi, R. [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, E., E-mail: eugenio.rimondi@ior.it [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Bianchi, G., E-mail: giuseppe.bianchi@ior.it [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Alberghini, M., E-mail: marco.alberghini@ior.it [Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Ruggieri, P. [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Vanel, D., E-mail: daniel.vanel@ior.it [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Background: Patellar tumors are rare; only a few series have been described in the literature and radiographic diagnosis can be challenging. We reviewed all patellar tumors at one institution and reviewed the literature. Materials and methods: In an evaluation of the database at one institution from 1916 to 2009, 23,000 bone tumors were found. Of these, 41 involved the patella. All had imaging studies and microscopic diagnostic confirmation. All medical records, imaging studies, and pathology were reviewed. Results: There were 15 females and 26 males, ranging from 8 to 68 years old (average 30). There were 30 benign tumors; eight giant cell tumors, eight chondroblastomas, seven osteoid osteomas, two aneurysmal bone cysts, two ganglions, one each of chondroma, exostosis, and hemangioma. There were 11 malignant tumors: five hemangioendotheliomas, three metastases, one lymphoma, one plasmacytoma, and one angiosarcoma. Conclusion: Patellar tumors are rare and usually benign. As the patella is an apophysis, the most frequent lesions are giant cell tumor in the adult and chondroblastoma in children. Osteoid osteomas were frequent in our series and easily diagnosed. Metastases are the most frequent malignant diagnoses in the literature; in our series malignant vascular tumors were more common. These lesions are often easily analyzed on radiographs. CT and MR define better the cortex, soft tissue extension, and fluid levels. This study presents the imaging patterns of the more common patellar tumors in order to help the radiologist when confronted with a lesion in this location.

  8. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aghighi

    Full Text Available Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO are promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. USPIO mediated proton relaxation rate enhancement is strongly dependent on compartmentalization of the agent and can vary depending on their intracellular or extracellular location in the tumor microenvironment. We compared the T1- and T2-enhancement pattern of intracellular and extracellular USPIO in mouse models of cancer and pilot data from patients. A better understanding of these MR signal effects will enable non-invasive characterizations of the composition of the tumor microenvironment.Six 4T1 and six MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors were grown in mice and imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. R1 relaxation rates were calculated for different tumor types and different tumor areas and compared with histology. The transendothelial leakage rate of ferumoxytol was obtained by our measured relaxivity of ferumoxytol and compared between different tumor types, using a t-test. Additionally, 3 patients with malignant sarcomas were imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. T1- and T2-enhancement patterns were compared with histopathology in a descriptive manner as a proof of concept for clinical translation of our observations.4T1 tumors showed central areas of high signal on T1 and low signal on T2 weighted MR images, which corresponded to extracellular nanoparticles in a necrotic core on histopathology. MMTV-PyMT tumors showed little change on T1 but decreased signal on T2 weighted images, which correlated to compartmentalized nanoparticles in tumor associated macrophages. Only 4T1 tumors demonstrated significantly increased R1 relaxation rates of the tumor core compared to the tumor periphery (p<0.001. Transendothelial USPIO leakage was significantly higher for 4T1 tumors (3.4±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100cm3 compared to MMTV-PyMT tumors (1.0±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100 cm3. Likewise, ferumoxytol imaging in patients showed similar findings with

  9. Growth of melanoma brain tumors monitored by photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Jacob; Grogan, Patrick; Samadi, Abbas K.; Cui, Huizhong; Cohen, Mark S.; Yang, Xinmai

    2010-07-01

    Melanoma is a primary malignancy that is known to metastasize to the brain and often causes death. The ability to image the growth of brain melanoma in vivo can provide new insights into its evolution and response to therapies. In our study, we use a reflection mode photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) system to detect the growth of melanoma brain tumor in a small animal model. The melanoma tumor cells are implanted in the brain of a mouse at the beginning of the test. Then, PAM is used to scan the region of implantation in the mouse brain, and the growth of the melanoma is monitored until the death of the animal. It is demonstrated that PAM is capable of detecting and monitoring the brain melanoma growth noninvasively in vivo.

  10. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  11. Brain tumor locating in 3D MR volume using symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Pavel; Bartusek, Karel

    2014-03-01

    This work deals with the automatic determination of a brain tumor location in 3D magnetic resonance volumes. The aim of this work is not the precise segmentation of the tumor and its parts but only the detection of its location. This work is the first step in the tumor segmentation process, an important topic in neuro-image processing. The algorithm expects 3D magnetic resonance volumes of brain containing a tumor. The detection is based on locating the area that breaks the left-right symmetry of the brain. This is done by multi-resolution comparing of corresponding regions in left and right hemisphere. The output of the computation is the probabilistic map of the tumor location. The created algorithm was tested on 80 volumes from publicly available BRATS databases containing 3D brain volumes afflicted by a brain tumor. These pathological structures had various sizes and shapes and were located in various parts of the brain. The locating performance of the algorithm was 85% for T1-weighted volumes, 91% for T1-weighted contrast enhanced volumes, 96% for FLAIR and T2-wieghted volumes and 95% for their combinations.

  12. Neuroradiolological diagnosis and follow-up of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummer, R. von

    1997-01-01

    Primary tumors of the brain and cerebral metastases cause considerable morbidity and mortality. To assess the chance for cure and to develop a valid concept of treatment, the exact assessment of the tumor's location, of the tumor's borders and malignancy is essential. Today, neuroradiological examination mainly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows an almost histological diagnosis and description of the tumor's extent. MRI is as well useful for studying the patient's short- and long-term follow-up clinical course. This is illustrated by 3 case histories. (orig.)

  13. Imaging brain tumour microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Markus; Englund, Elisabet; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; van Westen, Danielle; Sundgren, Pia C

    2018-05-08

    Imaging is an indispensable tool for brain tumour diagnosis, surgical planning, and follow-up. Definite diagnosis, however, often demands histopathological analysis of microscopic features of tissue samples, which have to be obtained by invasive means. A non-invasive alternative may be to probe corresponding microscopic tissue characteristics by MRI, or so called 'microstructure imaging'. The promise of microstructure imaging is one of 'virtual biopsy' with the goal to offset the need for invasive procedures in favour of imaging that can guide pre-surgical planning and can be repeated longitudinally to monitor and predict treatment response. The exploration of such methods is motivated by the striking link between parameters from MRI and tumour histology, for example the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient and cellularity. Recent microstructure imaging techniques probe even more subtle and specific features, providing parameters associated to cell shape, size, permeability, and volume distributions. However, the range of scenarios in which these techniques provide reliable imaging biomarkers that can be used to test medical hypotheses or support clinical decisions is yet unknown. Accurate microstructure imaging may moreover require acquisitions that go beyond conventional data acquisition strategies. This review covers a wide range of candidate microstructure imaging methods based on diffusion MRI and relaxometry, and explores advantages, challenges, and potential pitfalls in brain tumour microstructure imaging. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Changing Epidemiology of Pediatric Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurosurgeons at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada, analyzed and classified 1, 866 surgical pathology cases of brain tumors in children under age 19 years, treated 1980-2008.

  15. Headache and Vascular Events with Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, performed a retrospective study of 265 children with brain tumors who received cranial irradiation and developed severe recurrent headache.

  16. Beyond Survival - Cognition after Pediatric Brain Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Tonning Olsson, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pediatric Brain Tumor (PBT) survivors suffer from cognitive sequelae, especially within the areas of cognitive tempo, attention, executive function and memory. The cognitive difficulties are often accentuated over the years, but knowledge about the long term trajectory is still scarce. Aim: The aim of this thesis was to examine cognitive sequelae after Pediatric Brain Tumor (PBT); risk factors, common difficulties, development and neuroimaging correlates. Methods: In study...

  17. Recent technological advances in pediatric brain tumor surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebian, Bassel; Vergani, Francesco; Lavrador, José Pedro; Mukherjee, Soumya; Kitchen, William John; Stagno, Vita; Chamilos, Christos; Pettorini, Benedetta; Mallucci, Conor

    2017-01-01

    X-rays and ventriculograms were the first imaging modalities used to localize intracranial lesions including brain tumors as far back as the 1880s. Subsequent advances in preoperative radiological localization included computed tomography (CT; 1971) and MRI (1977). Since then, other imaging modalities have been developed for clinical application although none as pivotal as CT and MRI. Intraoperative technological advances include the microscope, which has allowed precise surgery under magnification and improved lighting, and the endoscope, which has improved the treatment of hydrocephalus and allowed biopsy and complete resection of intraventricular, pituitary and pineal region tumors through a minimally invasive approach. Neuronavigation, intraoperative MRI, CT and ultrasound have increased the ability of the neurosurgeon to perform safe and maximal tumor resection. This may be facilitated by the use of fluorescing agents, which help define the tumor margin, and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, which helps identify and protect eloquent brain.

  18. Differential diagnosis of the epileptogenic supratentorial brain tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Khalilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-six out of 79 pediatric patients with supratentorial brain tumors were noted to have symptomatic epilepsy. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET, diffuse astrocytomas (DA, and gangliogliomas (GG were the most epileptogenic tumors. Seizures were new-onset in all our noted cases of DNET and in 4 patients with GG and the only clinical tumor sign in 6 of 8 cases of DNET. The neuroimaging features of the MRI pattern of DNET, DA, and GG were an iso/hypointense signal on Tl-weighted magnetic resonance images and a signal, the intensity of which varied from heterogeneous to cerebrospinal fluid, on T2-weighted FLAIR images. Cases of DNET and GG displayed no mass effect or perifocal edema, a trend towards location in the temporoinsular regions, and a frequent concurrence with local gray-white matter differentiation disorders and atrophy. The FLAIR images clearly showed the so-called foam-like (multicystic structure with pericystic changes. No significant change in the dimensions of the identified DNET and GG was observed during the follow up period. In low-grade DA, tumor growth was reduced and it is difficult to differentiate minimal perifocal edema from tumor-like tissue. The sensitivity of these tumors to contrast enhancement is ambiguous. Along with DNET (that was epileptogenic in 100% of cases, DA (91,7% and GG (80% were the most common epileptogenic brain tumors.

  19. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  20. Radiotherapy for pediatric brain stem tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbenko, O.I.; Parkhomenko, R.A.; Govorina, E.V.; Zelinskaya, N.I.; Ardatova, G.V.; Nechaeva, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    The immediate and short-term results of gamma therapy of brain stem tumors in 24 children were evaluated. All the patients were able to sustain treatment due to adjuvant support with dehydrating and hormonal drugs, and beneficial clinical effect was recorded in 80%. However, magnetic resonance tomography showed no decrease in tumor size. Tumor growth relapsed 3-8 months after radiotherapy. Although total dose ranged 60-72 Gy in 19 patients, there was no clinical evidence of radiation injury [ru

  1. Electromagnetic brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekihara, Kensuke

    2008-01-01

    Present imaging methods of cerebral neuro-activity like brain functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) secondarily measure only average activities within a time of the second-order (low time-resolution). In contrast, the electromagnetic brain imaging (EMBI) directly measures the faint magnetic field (10 -12 -10 -13 T) yielded by the cerebral activity with use of multiple arrayed sensors equipped on the head surface within a time of sub-millisecond order (high time-resolution). The sensor array technology to find the signal source from the measured data is common in wide areas like signal procession for radar, sonar, and epicenter detection by seismic wave. For estimating and reconstructing the active region in the brain in EMBI, the efficient method must be developed and this paper describes the direct and inverse problems concerned in signal and image processions of EMBI. The direct problem involves the cerebral magnetic field/lead field matrix and inverse problem for reconstruction of signal source, the MUSIC (multiple signal classification) algorithm, GLRT (generalized likelihood ratio test) scan, and adaptive beamformer. As an example, given are results of magnetic intensity changes (unit, fT) in the somatosensory cortex vs time (msec) measured by 160 sensors and of images reconstructed from EMBI and MRI during electric muscle afferent input from the hand. The real-time imaging is thus possible with EMBI and extremely, the EMBI image, the real-time cerebral signals, can inversely operate a machine, of which application directs toward the brain/machine interface development. (R.T.)

  2. (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/Computed Tomography for Primary Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen Segtnan, Eivind; Hess, Søren; Grupe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Structural imaging with computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging is the mainstay in primary diagnosis of primary brain tumors, but these modalities depend on morphologic appearance and an intact blood-brain barrier, and important aspects of tumor biology are not addressed. Such issues may...

  3. Utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for differentiating glioblastoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma and brain metastatic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shanshan, E-mail: lushan1118@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Gao, Qianqian, E-mail: gaoqian123011@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Yu, Jing, E-mail: yujing0303@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, Yang, E-mail: yuhao040511@163.com [Department of Pathology,The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Cao, Peng, E-mail: peng.cao@ge.com [GE healthcare, Shanghai (China); Shi, Haibin, E-mail: hbshi346@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Hong, Xunning, E-mail: hongxunning@sina.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: The study aimed to investigate the use of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived permeability parameters for the differentiation of glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs), primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs), and brain metastatic tumors (MTs). Materials and methods: Seventy-five patients with histopathologically confirmed GBMs (n = 38), PCNSLs (n = 16) and MTs (n = 21) underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRIs before surgery. The volume transfer constant K{sup trans}, the flux rate constant between extravascular extracellular space and plasma K{sub ep}, the extravascular extracellular volume V{sub e} and the fractional plasma volume V{sub p} were measured within the entire contrast-enhancing tumor by extended Tofts model. A one-way analysis of variance was used to compare all of the parameters among these three tumors, followed by the post-hoc test. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the permeability parameters. Results: Mean K{sup trans} value and V{sub e} value were significantly higher in PCNSLs than in GBMs (P < 0.001 and P = 0.011) and MTs (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in all of the permeability parameters between GBMs and MTs. According to the receiver operating characteristic analyses, both K{sup trans} and V{sub e} had good diagnostic performance for discriminating between PCNSLs and GBMs (the area under the curve: 0.847 and 0.785, respectively), as well as between PCNSLs and MTs (the area under the curve: 0.851 and 0.884, respectively). Conclusions: The K{sup trans} and V{sub e} derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI facilitate the differentiation of PCNSLs from GBMs and MTs.

  4. Radionuclidr diagnosis of brain tumors, brain inflammatory and traumatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badmaev, K.N.; Mel'kishev, V.F.; Dement'ev, E.V.; Svetlova, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    A complex of problems of radionuclide diagnosis of central nervous system diseases including tumors, traumas, vascular lessons, inflammatory processes is considered. The principles, technique and results of radionuclide xintigraphy of a tumor, depending on its localization are given. Radioindication of brain tumours in the operation is given

  5. Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging of brain tumors at 7 T : The role of tissue water T1 -Relaxation properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khlebnikov, V; Polders, Daniel; Hendrikse, J; Robe, Pierre A.; Voormolen, Eduard H; Luijten, Peter R; Klomp, DWJ; Hoogduin, Hans

    PURPOSE: To provide insight into the effect of water T1 relaxation (T1wat ) on amide proton transfer (APT) contrast in tumors. Three different metrics of APT contrast-magnetization transfer ratio (MTRRex ), relaxation-compensated MTRRex (AREX), and traditional asymmetry (MTRasym )-were compared in

  6. Histopathological studies on the irradiated brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Tadao

    1980-01-01

    Of 43 cases of irradiated brain tumor, histological findings showed extensive necrosis or disappearance of the neoplasm, considered to be attributable to radiation treatment, in 30 (70%). Extensive necrosis of the tumor in areas exposed to radiation was found in 16 treated cases (37.2%). The histopathology of massive necrosis was that of simple coagulative necrosis, sometimes with marked vascular alterations and extravasation of fibrinoid material into the necrotic tissue. Necrosis was almost always incomplete, and foci of residual tumors were found at the periphery of the tumors. The terminal picture in cases of massive necrosis was often that of widespread intra- and extracranial metastasis. Almost complete disappearance of the tumor was observed in some cases with subsequent diffuse degenerative changes in the brain parenchyma exposed to radiation. In 5 cases of irradiated tumors, autopsy findings suggested that the growth of the primary tumor might have been restricted. And in 5 cases tumor cytology revealed the marked presence of a large number of multinucleated, bizarre giant cells with evidence of degeneration in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Multifocal necrosis of the brain, with axonal swelling and sponginess of the tissue, was observed in two patients following combined radiation and antineoplastic chemotherapy. Diffuse loss and degeneration of nerve cells of the cerebral cortex in pseudo-laminar fashion was observed in 7 patients with or without bilateral necrosis of the globus pallidus. Histological findings revealed typical anoxic encephalopathy. (J.P.N.)

  7. Histopathological studies on the irradiated brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, T [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan).School of Medicine

    1980-01-01

    Of 43 cases of irradiated brain tumor, histological findings showed extensive necrosis or disappearance of the neoplasm, considered to be attributable to radiation treatment, in 30 (70%). Extensive necrosis of the tumor in areas exposed to radiation was found in 16 treated cases (37.2%). The histopathology of massive necrosis was that of simple coagulative necrosis, sometimes with marked vascular alterations and extravasation of fibrinoid material into the necrotic tissue. Necrosis was almost always incomplete, and foci of residual tumors were found at the periphery of the tumors. The terminal picture in cases of massive necrosis was often that of widespread intra- and extracranial metastasis. Almost complete disappearance of the tumor was observed in some cases with subsequent diffuse degenerative changes in the brain parenchyma exposed to radiation. In 5 cases of irradiated tumors, autopsy findings suggested that the growth of the primary tumor might have been restricted. And in 5 cases tumor cytology revealed the marked presence of a large number of multinucleated, bizarre giant cells with evidence of degeneration in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Multifocal necrosis of the brain, with axonal swelling and sponginess of the tissue, was observed in two patients following combined radiation and antineoplastic chemotherapy. Diffuse loss and degeneration of nerve cells of the cerebral cortex in pseudo-laminar fashion was observed in 7 patients with or without bilateral necrosis of the globus pallidus. Histological findings revealed typical anoxic encephalopathy.

  8. Brain imaging and autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilbovicius, M.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  9. Brain imaging and autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilbovicius, M [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM CEA 0205, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  10. Measurement of P-31 MR relaxation times and concentrations in human brain and brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, K.; Naruse, S.; Hubesch, B.; Gober, I.; Lawry, T.; Boska, M.; Matson, G.B.; Weiner, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of high-energy phosphates and pH were made in human brain and brain tumors using P-31 MR imaging. Using a Philips Gyroscan 1.5-T MRMRS, MR images were used to select a cuboidal volume of interest and P-31 MR spectra were obtained from that volume using the ISIS technique. An external quantitation standard was used. T 1 s were measured by inversion recovery. Quantitative values for metabolites were calculated using B 1 field plot of the head coil. The results for normal brain phosphates are as follows; adenosine triphosphate, 2.2 mM; phosphocreatin, 5.3 mM; inorganic phosphate, 1.6 mM. Preliminary studies with human brain tumors show a decrease of all phosphate compounds. These experiments are the first to quantitate metabolites in human brain

  11. Extended diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging with two-compartment and anomalous diffusion models for differentiation of low-grade and high-grade brain tumors in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrowes, Delilah; Deng, Jie [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Fangusaro, Jason R. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Hematology/Oncology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics-Hematology, Oncology, and Stem Cell Transplantation, Chicago, IL (United States); Nelson, Paige C.; Rozenfeld, Michael J. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Wadhwani, Nitin R. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine advanced diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) models for differentiation of low- and high-grade tumors in the diagnosis of pediatric brain neoplasms. Sixty-two pediatric patients with various types and grades of brain tumors were evaluated in a retrospective study. Tumor type and grade were classified using the World Health Organization classification (WHO I-IV) and confirmed by pathological analysis. Patients underwent DW-MRI before treatment. Diffusion-weighted images with 16 b-values (0-3500 s/mm{sup 2}) were acquired. Averaged signal intensity decay within solid tumor regions was fitted using two-compartment and anomalous diffusion models. Intracellular and extracellular diffusion coefficients (D{sub slow} and D{sub fast}), fractional volumes (V{sub slow} and V{sub fast}), generalized diffusion coefficient (D), spatial constant (μ), heterogeneity index (β), and a diffusion index (index{sub d}iff = μ x V{sub slow}/β) were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models with stepwise model selection algorithm and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to evaluate the ability of each diffusion parameter to distinguish tumor grade. Among all parameter combinations, D and index{sub d}iff jointly provided the best predictor for tumor grades, where lower D (p = 0.03) and higher index{sub d}iff (p = 0.009) were significantly associated with higher tumor grades. In ROC analyses of differentiating low-grade (I-II) and high-grade (III-IV) tumors, index{sub d}iff provided the highest specificity of 0.97 and D provided the highest sensitivity of 0.96. Multi-parametric diffusion measurements using two-compartment and anomalous diffusion models were found to be significant discriminants of tumor grading in pediatric brain neoplasms. (orig.)

  12. CISS MR imaging findings of epidermoid tumor : comparison with spin-echo images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Woo; Kim, Hak Jin; Choi, Sang Yoel; Heo, Jin Sam; Jung, Hoon Sik; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo [Pusan National Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Wha [Ulsan Univ. Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate CISS MR imaging findings of epidermoid tumor in comparison with conventional spin-echo images. We studied 6 cases of epidermoid tumor in the subarachnoid space. We used a 1.5T MR unit to obtain CISS images(TR/TE/FA ; 12.3msec/5.9 msec/700) and T1- and T2- weighted spin-echo images. CISS MR imaging findings were evaluated with respect to tumor's signal intensity , contour, and relation with adjacent structures. Conspicuity of the tumor was compared between CISS and spin-echo images. A quantitative analysis was performed by measuring tumor to CSF contrast. In qualitative analysis, three radiologists independently compared CISS image and conventional spin-echo images for visibility of the tumor and graded them into three categories( poor, good, and excellent). Epidermoid tumors were located in the cerebellopontine angle in 4 cases, the prepontine cisstern in 1 case, and the cerebellopontine angle-prepontine cistern in 1 case. The tumors were hyperintense relative to brain parenchyma and hypointense relative to CSF on CISS images, were lobulated, encased adjacent cranial nerve and vessels, and invaginated into brain parenchyma. In qualitative analysis, CISS images showed clear demarcation between tumor and CSF, exact tumor extension, and tumor's relation with cranial nerves and vessels better than conventional spin-echo images. In quantitative analysis, the mean contrast values of tumor to CSF on T1-, T2-weighted images, and CISS images were 0.12, 0.06, and 0.52, respectively. The contrast value for CISS images was significantly higher than that for T1-and T2-weighted images(p<0.05). Epidermoid tumors in the subarachnoid space are better demonstrated on CISS images than on conventional spin-echo images. This special MR sequence can be added as a routine protocol in the diagnosis of subarachnoid epidermoid tumor.

  13. Tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisma, H.; Hilgers, J.

    1987-01-01

    Many monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor-associated antigens have been identified, but so far none of these are tumor specific. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have been used for imaging of a wide variety of tumors with success. Radiolabeling of antibody is usually done with iodine isotopes of which 123 I is the best candidate for radioimmunodetection purposes. The labeling of antibodies through chelates makes it possible to use metal radioisotopes like 111 In, which is the best radioisotope for imaging with monoclonal antibodies due to its favorable half-life of 2.5 days. Usually imaging cannot be performed within 24 h after injection, but clearance of antibody can be increased by using F(ab) 2 of Fab. Another approach is to clear non-bound antibody by a second antibody, directed against the first. The detection limit of immunoimaging is about 2 cm, but will be improved by tomography or SPECT. There is still a high false positive and false negative rate, which makes it impossible to use radioimmunodetection as the only technique for diagnosis of tumors. In combination with other detection techniques, tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies can improve diagnosis. 44 refs.; 3 tabs

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Target Volume Delineation in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning for Brain Tumors Using Localized Region-Based Active Contour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslian, Hossein [Department of Medical Radiation, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Mahdi [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdavi, Seied Rabie [Department of Medical Physics, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babapour Mofrad, Farshid [Department of Medical Radiation, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Astarakee, Mahdi, E-mail: M-Astarakee@Engineer.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khaledi, Navid [Department of Medical Radiation, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fadavi, Pedram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical application of a robust semiautomatic image segmentation method to determine the brain target volumes in radiation therapy treatment planning. Methods and Materials: A local robust region-based algorithm was used on MRI brain images to study the clinical target volume (CTV) of several patients. First, 3 oncologists delineated CTVs of 10 patients manually, and the process time for each patient was calculated. The averages of the oncologists’ contours were evaluated and considered as reference contours. Then, to determine the CTV through the semiautomatic method, a fourth oncologist who was blind to all manual contours selected 4-8 points around the edema and defined the initial contour. The time to obtain the final contour was calculated again for each patient. Manual and semiautomatic segmentation were compared using 3 different metric criteria: Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance. A comparison also was performed between volumes obtained from semiautomatic and manual methods. Results: Manual delineation processing time of tumors for each patient was dependent on its size and complexity and had a mean (±SD) of 12.33 ± 2.47 minutes, whereas it was 3.254 ± 1.7507 minutes for the semiautomatic method. Means of Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance between manual contours were 0.84 ± 0.02, 2.05 ± 0.66 cm, and 0.78 ± 0.15 cm, and they were 0.82 ± 0.03, 1.91 ± 0.65 cm, and 0.7 ± 0.22 cm between manual and semiautomatic contours, respectively. Moreover, the mean volume ratio (=semiautomatic/manual) calculated for all samples was 0.87. Conclusions: Given the deformability of this method, the results showed reasonable accuracy and similarity to the results of manual contouring by the oncologists. This study shows that the localized region-based algorithms can have great ability in determining the CTV and can be appropriate alternatives for manual approaches in brain cancer.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Target Volume Delineation in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning for Brain Tumors Using Localized Region-Based Active Contour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslian, Hossein; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Mahdavi, Seied Rabie; Babapour Mofrad, Farshid; Astarakee, Mahdi; Khaledi, Navid; Fadavi, Pedram

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical application of a robust semiautomatic image segmentation method to determine the brain target volumes in radiation therapy treatment planning. Methods and Materials: A local robust region-based algorithm was used on MRI brain images to study the clinical target volume (CTV) of several patients. First, 3 oncologists delineated CTVs of 10 patients manually, and the process time for each patient was calculated. The averages of the oncologists’ contours were evaluated and considered as reference contours. Then, to determine the CTV through the semiautomatic method, a fourth oncologist who was blind to all manual contours selected 4-8 points around the edema and defined the initial contour. The time to obtain the final contour was calculated again for each patient. Manual and semiautomatic segmentation were compared using 3 different metric criteria: Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance. A comparison also was performed between volumes obtained from semiautomatic and manual methods. Results: Manual delineation processing time of tumors for each patient was dependent on its size and complexity and had a mean (±SD) of 12.33 ± 2.47 minutes, whereas it was 3.254 ± 1.7507 minutes for the semiautomatic method. Means of Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance between manual contours were 0.84 ± 0.02, 2.05 ± 0.66 cm, and 0.78 ± 0.15 cm, and they were 0.82 ± 0.03, 1.91 ± 0.65 cm, and 0.7 ± 0.22 cm between manual and semiautomatic contours, respectively. Moreover, the mean volume ratio (=semiautomatic/manual) calculated for all samples was 0.87. Conclusions: Given the deformability of this method, the results showed reasonable accuracy and similarity to the results of manual contouring by the oncologists. This study shows that the localized region-based algorithms can have great ability in determining the CTV and can be appropriate alternatives for manual approaches in brain cancer

  16. Liquid biopsy for brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Ganesh M.; Balaj, Leonora; Stott, Shannon L.; Nahed, Brian; Carter, Bob S.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Minimally invasive methods will augment the clinical approach for establishing the diagnosis or monitoring treatment response of central nervous system tumors. Liquid biopsy by blood or cerebrospinal fluid sampling holds promise in this regard. Areas covered In this literature review, the authors highlight recent studies describing the analysis of circulating tumor cells, cell free nucleic acids, and extracellular vesicles as strategies to accomplish liquid biopsy in glioblastoma and metastatic tumors. The authors then discuss the continued efforts to improve signal detection, standardize the liquid biopsy handling and preparation, develop platforms for clinical application, and establish a role for liquid biopsies in personalized medicine. Expert commentary As the technologies used to analyze these biomarkers continue to evolve, we propose that there is a future potential to precisely diagnose and monitor treatment response with liquid biopsies. PMID:28875730

  17. A noninvasive multimodal technique to monitor brain tumor vascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vishal; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Laug, Walter E.

    2007-09-01

    Determination of tumor oxygenation at the microvascular level will provide important insight into tumor growth, angiogenesis, necrosis and therapeutic response and will facilitate to develop protocols for studying tumor behavior. The non-ionizing near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique has the potential to differentiate lesion and hemoglobin dynamics; however, it has a limited spatial resolution. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has achieved high spatial resolution with excellent tissue discrimination but is more susceptible to limited ability to monitor the hemoglobin dynamics. In the present work, the vascular status and the pathophysiological changes that occur during tumor vascularization are studied in an orthotopic brain tumor model. A noninvasive multimodal approach based on the NIRS technique, namely steady state diffuse optical spectroscopy (SSDOS) along with MRI, is applied for monitoring the concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor region. The concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor vasculature are extracted at 15 discrete wavelengths in a spectral window of 675-780 nm. We found a direct correlation between tumor size, intratumoral microvessel density and tumor oxygenation. The relative decrease in tumor oxygenation with growth indicates that though blood vessels infiltrate and proliferate the tumor region, a hypoxic trend is clearly present.

  18. A noninvasive multimodal technique to monitor brain tumor vascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Vishal; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Laug, Walter E

    2007-01-01

    Determination of tumor oxygenation at the microvascular level will provide important insight into tumor growth, angiogenesis, necrosis and therapeutic response and will facilitate to develop protocols for studying tumor behavior. The non-ionizing near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique has the potential to differentiate lesion and hemoglobin dynamics; however, it has a limited spatial resolution. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has achieved high spatial resolution with excellent tissue discrimination but is more susceptible to limited ability to monitor the hemoglobin dynamics. In the present work, the vascular status and the pathophysiological changes that occur during tumor vascularization are studied in an orthotopic brain tumor model. A noninvasive multimodal approach based on the NIRS technique, namely steady state diffuse optical spectroscopy (SSDOS) along with MRI, is applied for monitoring the concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor region. The concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor vasculature are extracted at 15 discrete wavelengths in a spectral window of 675-780 nm. We found a direct correlation between tumor size, intratumoral microvessel density and tumor oxygenation. The relative decrease in tumor oxygenation with growth indicates that though blood vessels infiltrate and proliferate the tumor region, a hypoxic trend is clearly present

  19. Bleomycin treatment of brain tumors: an evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnert, Mette; Gehl, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Bleomycin has been used in the treatment of brain tumors for over 30 years. Currently, we are evaluating electrochemotherapy (the use of electric pulses to enhance uptake of bleomycin) for patients with secondary brain tumors. We, therefore, reviewed the literature with specific reference...... fever, headaches, nausea and vomiting, lethargy, and peritumoral edema. Out of 189 patients treated from 1973 to 2007, only five patients (3%) had severe and six patients (3%) had moderate adverse effects. One death was directly related to this treatment, where very high doses were used. Two patients...

  20. Signs & Symptoms (of Brain Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... memory are often more noticeable than effects on long-term memory. Memory terms to know Short-term memory : Short-term memory is where we ... process by which our brains move information from short-term to long-term memory. Retrieval: The process by which previously learned information ...

  1. Development of stereotactic mass spectrometry for brain tumor surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Nathalie Y R; Golby, Alexandra J; Ligon, Keith L; Norton, Isaiah; Mohan, Vandana; Wiseman, Justin M; Tannenbaum, Allen; Jolesz, Ferenc A

    2011-02-01

    Surgery remains the first and most important treatment modality for the majority of solid tumors. Across a range of brain tumor types and grades, postoperative residual tumor has a great impact on prognosis. The principal challenge and objective of neurosurgical intervention is therefore to maximize tumor resection while minimizing the potential for neurological deficit by preserving critical tissue. To introduce the integration of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry into surgery for in vivo molecular tissue characterization and intraoperative definition of tumor boundaries without systemic injection of contrast agents. Using a frameless stereotactic sampling approach and by integrating a 3-dimensional navigation system with an ultrasonic surgical probe, we obtained image-registered surgical specimens. The samples were analyzed with ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and validated against standard histopathology. This new approach will enable neurosurgeons to detect tumor infiltration of the normal brain intraoperatively with mass spectrometry and to obtain spatially resolved molecular tissue characterization without any exogenous agent and with high sensitivity and specificity. Proof of concept is presented in using mass spectrometry intraoperatively for real-time measurement of molecular structure and using that tissue characterization method to detect tumor boundaries. Multiple sampling sites within the tumor mass were defined for a patient with a recurrent left frontal oligodendroglioma, World Health Organization grade II with chromosome 1p/19q codeletion, and mass spectrometry data indicated a correlation between lipid constitution and tumor cell prevalence. The mass spectrometry measurements reflect a complex molecular structure and are integrated with frameless stereotaxy and imaging, providing 3-dimensional molecular imaging without systemic injection of any agents, which can be implemented for surgical margins delineation of

  2. Peritumoral edema associated with metastatic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirotani, Toshiki; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Shima, Katsuji; Chigasaki, Hiroo; Tajima, Atsushi; Watanabe, Satoru.

    1992-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) examinations were performed in 94 lesions of 50 patients with metastatic brain tumors. Peritumoral edema (A E ) and tumor area (A T ) were measured using the planimetric method on the CT scan films that demonstrated maximum size of the tumor. Then, the volume of the peritumoral edema (V E ) and the surface area of the tumor (S T ) were claculated from these data. Eighty-three brain lesions from lung cancers were subdivided into 49 adenocarcinomas, 11 squamous cell carcinomas, 16 small cell carcinomas and 7 large cell carcinomas. Eleven metastatic tumors from breast cancers were all adenocarcinomas. There was statistical correlation between the surface area of tumor and the volume of the peritumoral edema for the adenocarcinoma (r=0.4043, p E /S T ratios in small cell carcinomas were smaller then those in non-small cell carcinomas, when the volume of the tumor was larger than 10 mm 3 . Accordingly, we suggest that the volume of the peritumoral edema in the small cell carcinoma is generally smaller than that in others. (author)

  3. PET/MRI for Oncologic Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rausch, Ivo; Rischka, Lucas; Ladefoged, Claes N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare attenuation-correction (AC) approaches for PET/MRI in clinical neurooncology.Methods:Forty-nine PET/MRI brain scans were included: brain tumor studies using18F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine (18F-FET) (n= 31) and68Ga-DOTANOC (n= 7) and studies of healthy subjects using18...... by Siemens Healthcare). As a reference, AC maps were derived from patient-specific CT images (CTref). PET data were reconstructed using standard settings after AC with all 4 AC methods. We report changes in diagnosis for all brain tumor patients and the following relative differences values (RDs...... of the whole brain and 10 anatomic regions segmented on MR images.Results:For brain tumor imaging (A and B), the standard PET-based diagnosis was not affected by any of the 3 MR-AC methods. For A, the average RDs of SUVmeanwere -10%, -4%, and -3% and of the VOIs 1%, 2%, and 7% for DIXON, UTE, and BD...

  4. The impact of dietary isoflavonoids on malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehm, Tina; Fan, Zheng; Weiss, Ruth; Schwarz, Marc; Engelhorn, Tobias; Hore, Nirjhar; Doerfler, Arnd; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyüpoglu, IIker Y; Savaskan, Nic E

    2014-01-01

    Poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options render malignant brain tumors one of the most devastating diseases in clinical medicine. Current treatment strategies attempt to expand the therapeutic repertoire through the use of multimodal treatment regimens. It is here that dietary fibers have been recently recognized as a supportive natural therapy in augmenting the body's response to tumor growth. Here, we investigated the impact of isoflavonoids on primary brain tumor cells. First, we treated glioma cell lines and primary astrocytes with various isoflavonoids and phytoestrogens. Cell viability in a dose-dependent manner was measured for biochanin A (BCA), genistein (GST), and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). Dose–response action for the different isoflavonoids showed that BCA is highly effective on glioma cells and nontoxic for normal differentiated brain tissues. We further investigated BCA in ex vivo and in vivo experimentations. Organotypic brain slice cultures were performed and treated with BCA. For in vivo experiments, BCA was intraperitoneal injected in tumor-implanted Fisher rats. Tumor size and edema were measured and quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In vascular organotypic glioma brain slice cultures (VOGIM) we found that BCA operates antiangiogenic and neuroprotective. In vivo MRI scans demonstrated that administered BCA as a monotherapy was effective in reducing significantly tumor-induced brain edema and showed a trend for prolonged survival. Our results revealed that dietary isoflavonoids, in particular BCA, execute toxicity toward glioma cells, antiangiogenic, and coevally neuroprotective properties, and therefore augment the range of state-of-the-art multimodal treatment approach

  5. Study of Inter- and Intra-fraction Motion in Brain Tumor Patients Undergoing VMAT Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascencion Ybarra, Y.; Alfonso Laguardia, R.; Yartsev, S.

    2015-01-01

    Conforming dose to the tumor and sparing normal tissue can be challenging for brain tumors with complex shapes in close proximity to critical structures. The goal of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-fraction motion in brain tumor patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The image matching software was found to be very sensitive to the choice of the region of matching. It is recommended to use the same region of interest for comparing the image sets and perform the automatic matching based on bony landmarks in brain tumor cases. (Author)

  6. Radionecrosis after radiotherapy for brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Maki, Yutaka; Tosa, Junichi; Tsuboi, Koji; Matsumura, Akira

    1984-01-01

    The neurological deterioration after radiotherapy of brain tumor may depend on radionecrosis or regrowth of the tumor. In the present study, five patients with brain tumor were irradiated with doses of 3,900 to 6,800 rads. The neurological deterioration appeared 3.5 to 46 months after radiotherapy in three patients, who received 5,000 to 5,680 rads, immediately after radiotherapy in one patient, who received 6,800 rads, and during radiotherapy in one patient, who received 3,900 rads. Ring enhancement was observed on sequential CT scans. This enhanced area was surgically removed and the correlation between histology and CT scans and superimposed dose distributions was studied in order to differentiate radionecrosis from regrowth of tumor. The radionecrosis was confirmed at the second operation in five patients, but regrowth of the tumor was also observed in the brain adjacent to radionecrosis in three out of five patients. Coagulation necrosis and fibrinoid necrosis were observed microscopically at the rim of the ring enhancement and necrotic and hyalinized debri were observed in the central low density area of the ring enhancement. Viable tumor cells were noted in the enhanced area adjacent to the ring enhancement on CT scans. Both radionecrosis and regrowth of tumor were observed in the dose distribution area of 3,500 to 6,120 rads on CT scans. This suggested that the superimposed dose distributions could not differentiate radionecrosis from tumor regrowth. Forty-eight cases of cerebral radionecrosis gathered from the literature were reviewed. (J.P.N.)

  7. Technological progress in radiation therapy for brain tumors

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vernimmen, Frederik Jozef

    2014-01-01

    To achieve a good therapeutic ratio the radiation dose to the tumor should be as high as possible with the lowest possible dose to the surrounding normal tissue. This is especially the case for brain tumors. Technological ad- vancements in diagnostic imaging, dose calculations, and radiation delivery systems, combined with a better un- derstanding of the pathophysiology of brain tumors have led to improvements in the therapeutic results. The widely used technology of delivering 3-D conformal therapy with photon beams (gamma rays) produced by Li-near Accelerators has progressed into the use of Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Particle beams have been used for several decades for radiotherapy because of their favorable depth dose characteristics. The introduction of clinically dedicated proton beam therapy facilities has improved the access for cancer patients to this treatment. Proton therapy is of particular interest for pediatric malignancies. These technical improvements are further enhanced by the evolution in tumor physiology imaging which allows for improved delineation of the tumor. This in turn opens the potential to adjust the radiation dose to maximize the radiobiological effects. The advances in both imaging and radiation therapy delivery will be discussed.

  8. An accurate segmentation method for volumetry of brain tumor in 3D MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahui; Li, Qiang; Hirai, Toshinori; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Li, Feng; Doi, Kunio

    2008-03-01

    Accurate volumetry of brain tumors in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is important for evaluating the interval changes in tumor volumes during and after treatment, and also for planning of radiation therapy. In this study, an automated volumetry method for brain tumors in MRI was developed by use of a new three-dimensional (3-D) image segmentation technique. First, the central location of a tumor was identified by a radiologist, and then a volume of interest (VOI) was determined automatically. To substantially simplify tumor segmentation, we transformed the 3-D image of the tumor into a two-dimensional (2-D) image by use of a "spiral-scanning" technique, in which a radial line originating from the center of the tumor scanned the 3-D image spirally from the "north pole" to the "south pole". The voxels scanned by the radial line provided a transformed 2-D image. We employed dynamic programming to delineate an "optimal" outline of the tumor in the transformed 2-D image. We then transformed the optimal outline back into 3-D image space to determine the volume of the tumor. The volumetry method was trained and evaluated by use of 16 cases with 35 brain tumors. The agreement between tumor volumes provided by computer and a radiologist was employed as a performance metric. Our method provided relatively accurate results with a mean agreement value of 88%.

  9. Computerized tomographic evaluation of primary brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Ok; Lee, Jong Soon; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [Presbyterian Mediacal center, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Deok [Inje Medical College, Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-10-15

    In a study of primary brain tumors 104 cases having satisfactory clinical, operative and histological proofs were analyzed by computerized tomography at Presbyterian Medical Center from May, 1982 to April 1985. The results were as follows: 1. The male to female ratio of primary brain tumor was 54 : 46. 2. The 2nd decade group (26%) was the most prevalent age group, followed by the 5th decade (16.3%), 1st decade (14.4%) , 3rd decade (12.5%), 4th decade (11.5%), 6th decade (10.6%), 7th decade (8.7%) in that order. 3. The incidence of primary brain tumors was found to be: glioma 64 cases (61.6%) among the GM, the most frequent 17 cases (16.3%), followed by meningioma 12 cases (11.5%), pituitary adenoma 10 cases (9.6%), craniopharyngioma 6 cases (5.8%), pinealoma and germinoma 3 cases (2.9%) respectively, and dermoid cyst 2 cases (1.9%) in that order. 4. The location of the primary brain tumors were as follows: cb. hemisphere (49%) of these 24.5% in parietal region, 11.9% in temporal region, 9.7% in frontal region, 3.0% in occipital region: juxtasella area (16.3%), cerebellar hemisphere (8.7%), parapineal and intraventricle (7.7%) respectively, cerebello-pontine angle area (5.8%), vermis and 4th ventricular region (4.8%). 5. There were no remarkable differences in the findings of pre- and post-contrast CT scanning of primary brain tumors computed with others.

  10. "Facilitated" amino acid transport is upregulated in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, T; Oku, T; Uehara, H; Desai, R; Beattie, B; Tjuvajev, J; Blasberg, R

    1998-05-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the magnitude of "facilitated" amino acid transport across tumor and brain capillaries and to evaluate whether amino acid transporter expression is "upregulated" in tumor vessels compared to capillaries in contralateral brain tissue. Aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid (ACPC), a non-metabolized [14C]-labeled amino acid, and a reference molecule for passive vascular permeability, [67Ga]-gallium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Ga-DTPA), were used in these studies. Two experimental rat gliomas were studied (C6 and RG2). Brain tissue was rapidly processed for double label quantitative autoradiography 10 minutes after intravenous injection of ACPC and Ga-DTPA. Parametric images of blood-to-brain transport (K1ACPC and K1Ga-DTPA, microL/min/g) produced from the autoradiograms and the histology were obtained from the same tissue section. These three images were registered in an image array processor; regions of interest in tumor and contralateral brain were defined on morphologic criteria (histology) and were transferred to the autoradiographic images to obtain mean values. The facilitated component of ACPC transport (deltaK1ACPC) was calculated from the K1ACPC and K1Ga-DTPA data, and paired comparisons between tumor and contralateral brain were performed. ACPC flux, K1ACPC, across normal brain capillaries (22.6 +/- 8.1 microL/g/min) was >200-fold greater than that of Ga-DTPA (0.09 +/- 0.04 microL/g/min), and this difference was largely (approximately 90%) due to facilitated ACPC transport. Substantially higher K1ACPC values compared to corresponding K1DTPA values were also measured in C6 and RG2 gliomas. The deltaK1ACPC values for C6 glioma were more than twice that of contralateral brain cortex. K1ACPC and deltaK1ACPC values for RG2 gliomas was not significantly higher than that of contralateral cortex, although a approximately 2-fold difference in facilitated transport is obtained after normalization for differences in capillary

  11. Gamma knife treatment of pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takayuki; Oyama, Hirofumi (Komaki City Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery was performed on 386 patients with intracranial lesions at Komaki City Hospital from May 1991 through December 1992. Forty three of the patients were under 15 years of age. Twenty six patients had arteriovenous malformations and 17 had brain tumors: 9 gliomas and 8 non-gliomatous tumors. The gliomas included 3 ependymomas, 2 benign astrocytomas, one ganglioglioma, one oligodendroglioma; one medulloblastoma and one glioblastoma multiforme. The non-gliomatous tumors included 3 pineal tumors, 2 craniopharyngiomas, 2 acoustic neurinomas, and one C-P angle epidermoid tumor. The male/female ratio was 12:5 and the mean diameter of the tumors was 19.3 mm. They were treated with a mean maximum dose of 32.5 Gy and a marginal dose of 17.1 Gy with a mean isocenter number of 4.9. The early results of single session treatment with Gamma knife of pediatric brain tumors were evaluated by repeated MRIs and changes of neurological signs during a mean follow-up period of 6.4 months. It was found that 5 of the 17 responded to treatment (29.5%), with partical response (PR) in 2 with craniopharyngioma and one with ganglioglioma. Central necrosis (CN) was present with optic glioma and one with neurinoma. In three patients (17.6%) the treatment was not effective. One with medulloblastoma and one with glioblastoma died at 4 and 6 months and the one with ependymoma was reoperated on after 3 months because of progression of the tumor (PG). The other nine patients (52.9%) were unchanged (NC). We must follow more patients to determine the effectiveness of gamma radiosurgery on these tumors. (author).

  12. SU-G-IeP1-07: Inaccuracy of Lesion Blood Flow Quantification Related to the Proton Density Reference Image in Arterial Spin Labeling MRI of Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jen, M; Johnson, J; Hou, P; Liu, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Cerebral blood flow quantification in arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI requires an estimate of the equilibrium magnetization of blood, which is often obtained by a set of proton density (PD) reference image. Normally, a constant blood-brain partition coefficient is assumed across the brain. However, this assumption may not be valid for brain lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of lesion-related PD variations on ASL quantification in patients with brain tumors. Methods: MR images for posttreatment evaluation of 42 patients with brain tumors were retrospectively analyzed. These images were acquired on a 3T MRI scanner, including T2-weighted FLAIR, 3D pseudo-continuous ASL and post-contrast T1-weighted images. Anatomical images were coregistered with ASL images using the SPM software. Regions of interest (ROIs) of the enhancing and FLAIR lesions were manually drawn on the coregistered images. ROIs of the contralateral normal appearing tissues were also determined, with the consideration of approximating coil sensitivity patterns in lesion ROIs. Relative lesion blood flow (lesion/contralateral tissue) was calculated from both the CBF map (dependent on the PD) and the ΔM map for comparison. Results: The signal intensities in both enhancing and FLAIR lesions were significantly different than contralateral tissues on the PD reference image (p<0.001). The percent signal difference ranged from −15.9 to 19.2%, with a mean of 5.4% for the enhancing lesion, and from −2.8 to 22.9% with a mean of 10.1% for the FLAIR lesion. The high/low lesion-related PD signal resulted in inversely proportional under-/over-estimation of blood flow in both enhancing and FLAIR lesions. Conclusion: Significant signal differences were found between lesions and contralateral tissues in the PD reference image, which introduced errors in blood flow quantification in ASL. The error can be up to 20% in individual patients with an average of 5- 10% for the group of patients

  13. SU-G-IeP1-07: Inaccuracy of Lesion Blood Flow Quantification Related to the Proton Density Reference Image in Arterial Spin Labeling MRI of Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jen, M; Johnson, J; Hou, P; Liu, H [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Cerebral blood flow quantification in arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI requires an estimate of the equilibrium magnetization of blood, which is often obtained by a set of proton density (PD) reference image. Normally, a constant blood-brain partition coefficient is assumed across the brain. However, this assumption may not be valid for brain lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of lesion-related PD variations on ASL quantification in patients with brain tumors. Methods: MR images for posttreatment evaluation of 42 patients with brain tumors were retrospectively analyzed. These images were acquired on a 3T MRI scanner, including T2-weighted FLAIR, 3D pseudo-continuous ASL and post-contrast T1-weighted images. Anatomical images were coregistered with ASL images using the SPM software. Regions of interest (ROIs) of the enhancing and FLAIR lesions were manually drawn on the coregistered images. ROIs of the contralateral normal appearing tissues were also determined, with the consideration of approximating coil sensitivity patterns in lesion ROIs. Relative lesion blood flow (lesion/contralateral tissue) was calculated from both the CBF map (dependent on the PD) and the ΔM map for comparison. Results: The signal intensities in both enhancing and FLAIR lesions were significantly different than contralateral tissues on the PD reference image (p<0.001). The percent signal difference ranged from −15.9 to 19.2%, with a mean of 5.4% for the enhancing lesion, and from −2.8 to 22.9% with a mean of 10.1% for the FLAIR lesion. The high/low lesion-related PD signal resulted in inversely proportional under-/over-estimation of blood flow in both enhancing and FLAIR lesions. Conclusion: Significant signal differences were found between lesions and contralateral tissues in the PD reference image, which introduced errors in blood flow quantification in ASL. The error can be up to 20% in individual patients with an average of 5- 10% for the group of patients

  14. Study on radiation necrosis following intraoperative radiotherapy for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Takeshita, Nagayuki; Niwa, Kohkichi; Kamata, Noriko; Matsuda, Tadayoshi; Matsutani, Masao

    1989-01-01

    Ninety-five patients with primary or metastatic brain tumors were treated with the intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT). In seven cases, surgery was performed a second time because of suspected of tumor recurrence, later found to be a radiation necrosis. Tumorous lesions were irradiated by IORT in the range of 15 Gy to 20 Gy together with external radiotherapy in the 30 Gy to 72 Gy range. In follow-up postcontrast CT studies, irregularly-shaped lesions appeared at the IORT site and increased in size with the perifocal low density area on subsequent scans. The images resembled those seen in tumor recurrence. Histopathologic changes seen during the follow-up surgery were thought to be mainly the result of radiation necrosis, though viable tumor cells at the marginal tumor site were one possible etiology. A coagulation necrosis with a fibrin exudate was observed in the IORT portal area and the vascular walls exhibited marked degeneration which is symptomatic of delayed radiation necrosis. Thus, post-IORT radiation necrosis is thought to be a direct reaction to this technique, and the delayed absorption of necrotic tissue to be a direct reaction to this technique, and the delayed absorption of necrotic tissue clearly indicates the possibility of adverse effects in its use for treatment of brain tumors. (author)

  15. Dynamic Quantitative T1 Mapping in Orthotopic Brain Tumor Xenografts

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    Kelsey Herrmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human brain tumors such as glioblastomas are typically detected using conventional, nonquantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques, such as T2-weighted and contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI. In this manuscript, we tested whether dynamic quantitative T1 mapping by MRI can localize orthotopic glioma tumors in an objective manner. Quantitative T1 mapping was performed by MRI over multiple time points using the conventional contrast agent Optimark. We compared signal differences to determine the gadolinium concentration in tissues over time. The T1 parametric maps made it easy to identify the regions of contrast enhancement and thus tumor location. Doubling the typical human dose of contrast agent resulted in a clearer demarcation of these tumors. Therefore, T1 mapping of brain tumors is gadolinium dose dependent and improves detection of tumors by MRI. The use of T1 maps provides a quantitative means to evaluate tumor detection by gadolinium-based contrast agents over time. This dynamic quantitative T1 mapping technique will also enable future quantitative evaluation of various targeted MRI contrast agents.

  16. Analysis of p53- immunoreactivity in astrocytic brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinkarenko T.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available P53 is an antioncogene with the frequently occured mutations in human tumor cells, leading to corresponding protein overexpression which can be detected by immunohistochemistry. Researches dedicated to the investigation of possibilities of using this technique gave controversial results. The authors investigated features of p53 protein expression in astrocytic brain tumors with different degrees of malignancy. Analyzed the relationship of the expression level of p53 by tumor cells with clinical parameters and Ki-67 proliferation index (PI as well. Tissues were collected from 52 cases with diagnosed astrocytic brain tumors. The sections were immunohistochemically stained with p53 and Ki-67. For each marker, 1000 tumor cells were counted and the ratio of positive tumor cells was calculated using software package ImageJ 1,47v. In normal brain tissue p53- expression was not identified. p53-immunoreactive tumor cells were detected in 25% (1/4 pilocytic astrocytomas, 33.3% (2/6 of diffuse astrocytomas, 53.8% (7/13 anaplastic astrocytomas, 58.6% (17/29 glioblastomas. A high proportion of p53-immunoreactive cells (> 30% was observed only in glioblastomas. The level of p53-imunoreactivity was not related to the age, gender and Grade WHO (p> 0,05. Spearman correlation coefficient between the relative quantity of ki-67- and p53-immunoreactive nuclei showed weak direct correlation (0.023, but the one was not statistically significant (p> 0,05. The level of p53-imunoreactivity is not dependent from age and sex of patients, Grade (WHO and proliferative activity (p>0,05 but the high level of p53-immunoreactive cells (>30% is found in glioblastoma specimens only, that may be due to the accumulation of mutations in DNA of tumor cells. There is insignificant weak relationship between relative quantities of ki-67- and p53-immunoreactive tumor cells (p>0,05.

  17. Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery of brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takayuki; Oyama, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Maesawa, Satoshi; Kai, Osamu; Nakamura, Mototoshi; Arahata, Masashige [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    One thousand cases with various head and neck diseases have been treated by gamma radiosurgery at Komaki City Hospital since May 1991. Five hundred and sixty-eight out of 1,000 cases were neoplastic lesions which consisted of 173 cases of neurinoma, 108 of metastatic tumors, 103 of meningioma, 69 of gliomas, 27 of pituitary adenoma, 26 of craniopharyngioma, 13 of pineal tumors, 11 of chordoma, 6 of malignant lymphoma, 5 of hemangioblastoma and so on. The most effective result has been shown in metastatic brain tumors. The complete response (disappearance of the lesion) was obtained in more than 50% of the treated lesions, and the control rate of 85% was maintained for more than 12 months. Next effective results were shown in craniopharyngioma, malignant pineal tumors and malignant lymphoma. There was a group which showed moderate response but no tumor disappearance. Those were pituitary adenoma, acoustic neurinoma, meningioma and chordoma. Gliomas showed less response and even progression of tumor at relatively higher rate. It has been found that malignant gliomas showed difficult control of the tumor and progression rate of 70%, while benign gliomas showed the control rate of more than 90%. Besides intracranial lesions, malignant skull base tumors such as chordoma, naso-pharyngeal cancer, adenoid cystic cancer showed better response to gamma radiosurgery and higher control rate for longer period of time with high QOL compaired to conventional irradiation. (author)

  18. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekov, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be

  19. Delayed radiation necrosis of the brain simulating a brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hiroya; Kanai, Nobuhiro; Kamikawa, Kiyoo

    1976-01-01

    Two cases of delayed radiation necrosis of the brain are reported. Case 1 was a 50-year-old man who had right hemiparesis and disorientation 26 months after Linac irradiation (5,000 rad), preceded by an operation for right maxillar carcinoma. A left carotid angiogram demonstrated a left temporal mass lesion, extending to the frontal lobe. Case 2 was a 41-year-old man who had previously had an operation for right intraorbital plasmocytoma, followed by two Co irradiations (6,400 rad, and 5,000 rad). He had the signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension 36 months after his last irradiation. A left carotid angiogram demonstrated a left temporal mass lesion. Both cases were treated by administration of steroid hormone (which alleviated the signs and symptoms) and by temporal lobectomy. Microscopic examinations showed necrosis of the brain tissues associated with hyaline degeneration of blood vessel walls and perivascular cell infiltration. The signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension subsided postoperatively. Thirteen other cases the same as ours were collected from literature. They showed the signs and symptoms simulating a brain tumor (like a metastatic brain tumor) after irradiation to extracranial malignant tumors. Diagnosis of radiation necrosis was made by operation or autopsy. A follow-up for a long time is necessary, because the pathological changes in the brain may be progressive and extending in some cases, although decompressive operations for mass lesions give excellent results. (auth.)

  20. Functional brain imaging; Funktionelle Hirnbildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizewski, E.R. [Medizinische Universitaet Innsbruck, Universitaetsklinik fuer Neuroradiologie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-02-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive method that has become one of the major tools for understanding human brain function and in recent years has also been developed for clinical applications. Changes in hemodynamic signals correspond to changes in neuronal activity with good spatial and temporal resolution in fMRI. Using high-field MR systems and increasingly dedicated statistics and postprocessing, activated brain areas can be detected and superimposed on anatomical images. Currently, fMRI data are often combined in multimodal imaging, e. g. with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequences. This method is helping to further understand the physiology of cognitive brain processes and is also being used in a number of clinical applications. In addition to the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, this article deals with the construction of fMRI investigations, selection of paradigms and evaluation in the clinical routine. Clinically, this method is mainly used in the planning of brain surgery, analyzing the location of brain tumors in relation to eloquent brain areas and the lateralization of language processing. As the BOLD signal is dependent on the strength of the magnetic field as well as other limitations, an overview of recent developments is given. Increases of magnetic field strength (7 T), available head coils and advances in MRI analytical methods have led to constant improvement in fMRI signals and experimental design. Especially the depiction of eloquent brain regions can be done easily and quickly and has become an essential part of presurgical planning. (orig.) [German] Mittlerweile ist die funktionelle MRT (fMRT) eine Methode, die nicht mehr nur in der neurowissenschaftlichen Routine verwendet wird. Die fMRT ermoeglicht die nichtinvasive Darstellung der Hirnaktivitaet in guter raeumlicher und zeitlicher Aufloesung unter Ausnutzung der Durchblutungsaenderung aufgrund der erhoehten Nervenzellaktivitaet. Unter

  1. Detection of brain tumor margins using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Chambi, Ronald M.; Kut, Carmen; Rico-Jimenez, Jesus; Campos-Delgado, Daniel U.; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Li, Xingde; Jo, Javier

    2018-02-01

    In brain cancer surgery, it is critical to achieve extensive resection without compromising adjacent healthy, non-cancerous regions. Various technological advances have made major contributions in imaging, including intraoperative magnetic imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). However, these technologies have pros and cons in providing quantitative, real-time and three-dimensional (3D) continuous guidance in brain cancer detection. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, label-free, cost-effective technique capable of imaging tissue in three dimensions and real time. The purpose of this study is to reliably and efficiently discriminate between non-cancer and cancer-infiltrated brain regions using OCT images. To this end, a mathematical model for quantitative evaluation known as the Blind End- Member and Abundances Extraction method (BEAE). This BEAE method is a constrained optimization technique which extracts spatial information from volumetric OCT images. Using this novel method, we are able to discriminate between cancerous and non-cancerous tissues and using logistic regression as a classifier for automatic brain tumor margin detection. Using this technique, we are able to achieve excellent performance using an extensive cross-validation of the training dataset (sensitivity 92.91% and specificity 98.15%) and again using an independent, blinded validation dataset (sensitivity 92.91% and specificity 86.36%). In summary, BEAE is well-suited to differentiate brain tissue which could support the guiding surgery process for tissue resection.

  2. MRI of neurosyphilis presenting as brain tumor: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuling Xi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, among which cerebral gumma is a kind of neurosyphilis. However, it is rare and can be cured by penicillin. We report a case of syphilitic gumma of which the patient was first suspected of brain tumor, but confirmed by surgery to be cerebral gumma due to neurosyphilis. Magnetic resonance imaging, which is thought to be one of the potential and specific diagnostic methods for neurosyphilis, is discussed.

  3. Stereotactic irradiation for metastatic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Ryutaro

    2017-01-01

    First, this paper reviewed the latest findings of stereotactic irradiation (STI) for metastatic brain tumors. Then, it described the results of randomized controlled trials for single or a few (2-4) metastasis in the following comparison tests: (1) comparison between whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) alone group and (WBRT + STI) group, (2) comparison between STI alone group and (STI + WBRT) group, (3) comparison between STI alone group and (tumorectomy + WBRT) group, (4) comparison between (STI + WBRT) group and (tumorectomy + WBRT) group, and (5) between (tumorectomy + WBRT) group and (tumorectomy + STI) group. Among these, STI alone without WBRT has obtained a certain consensus. Against multiple metastatic brain tumors of 5 or more, when considering cognitive impairment and QOL loss by adding WBRT, it is general consensus that STI alone may be sufficient. At the authors' institution, cyber knife (CK) was introduced in 2008 and nearly 300 stereotactic radiotherapy for metastatic brain tumors have been performed annually. By adopting a robot arm and development of a lesion tracking system, the positional correction against the deviation of the bone margin of the skull is guaranteed in real time to ensure accuracy during irradiation, and hypofractionated stereotactic irradiation becomes easier. (A.O.)

  4. Brain imaging during seizure: ictal brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottamasu, Sambasiva Rao

    1997-01-01

    The role of single photon computed tomography (SPECT) in presurgical localization of medically intractable complex partial epilepsy (CPE) in children is reviewed. 99m Technetium neurolite, a newer lipophylic agent with a high first pass brain extraction and little or no redistribution is injected during a seizure, while the child is monitored with a video recording and continuous EEG and SPECT imaging is performed in the next 1-3 hours with the images representing regional cerebral profusion at the time of injection. On SPECT studies performed with radiopharmaceutical injected during a seizure, ictal focus is generally hypervascular. Other findings on ictal brain SPECT include hypoperfusion of adjacent cerebral cortex and white matter, hyperperfusion of contralateral motor cortex, hyperperfusion of ipsilateral basal ganglia and thalamus, brain stem and contralateral cerebellum. Ictal brain SPECT is non-invasive, cost effective and highly sensitive for localization of epileptic focus in patients with intractable CPE. (author)

  5. Tumor sterilization dose and radiation induced change of the brain tissue in radiotherapy of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Maki, Yutaka; Takano, Shingo

    1987-01-01

    Ninety-seven patients with brain tumors (38 gliomas, 26 brain metastases, 18 sellar tumors, 15 others) were treated by cobalt gamma ray or proton radiotherapy. In this study, normal brain injury due to radiation was analysed in terms of time-dose-fractionation (TDF), nominal standard dose (NSD) by the Ellis formula and NeuNSD by a modification in which the N exponent was -0.44 and the T exponent was -0.06. Their calculated doses were analysed in relationship to the normal brain radiation induced change (RIC) and the tumor sterilization dose. All brain tumors with an exception of many patients with brain metastases were received a surgical extirpation subtotally or partially prior to radiotherapy. And all patients with glioma and brain metastasis received also immuno-chemotherapy in the usual manner during radiotherapy. The calculated dose expressed by NeuNSD and TDF showed a significant relationship between a therapeutic dose and a postradiation time in terms of the appearance of RIC. It was suggested that RIC was caused by a dose over 800 in NeuNSD and a dose over 70 in TDF. Furthermore, it was suggested that an aged patient and a patient who had the vulnerable brain tissue to radiation exposure in the irradiated field had the high risk of RIC. On the other hand, our results suggested that the tumor sterilization dose should be over 1,536 NeuNSD and the irradiated method should be further considered in addition to the radiobiological concepts for various brain tumors. (author)

  6. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Kou; Armin Iraji

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy;however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrat-ed both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. However, the large scale brain network alterations after TBI are still unknown, and the ifeld is still short of proper means on how to guide the choice of TBI rehabilitation or treat-ment plan to promote brain plasticity. The authors also point out the new direction of brain plas-ticity investigation.

  7. Functional MRI procedures in the diagnosis of brain tumors. Perfusion- and diffusion-weighted imaging; Funktionelle MR-Verfahren in der Diagnostik intraaxialer Hirntumoren. Perfusions- und Diffusions-Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Neurologische Klinik, Abteilung Neuroradiologie; Heiland, S.; Sartor, K.

    2002-08-01

    Despite the increased diagnostic accuracy of contrast material enhanced MR imaging, specification and grading of brain tumors are still only approximate at best: neither morphology, nor relaxation times or contrast material enhancement reliably predict tumor histology or tumor grade. As histology and tumor grade strongly influence which therapy concept is chosen, a more precise diagnosis is mandatory. With diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI, PWI) it is now possible to obtain important information regarding the cellular matrix and the relative regional cerebral blood volume (rrCBV) of brain tumors, which cannot be obtained with standard MR techniques. These dynamic-functional imaging techniques are very useful in the preoperative diagnosis of gliomas, lymphomas, and metastases, as well as in the differentiation of these neoplastic lesions from abscesses, atypical ischemic infarctions, and tumor-like manifestations of demyelinating disease. Additionally, they appear suitable for determining glioma grade and regions of active tumor growth which should be the target of stereotactic biopsy and therapy. After therapy these techniques are helpful to better assess the tumor response to therapy, possible therapy failure and therapy complications such as radiation necrosis. (orig.) [German] Die radiologische Diagnostik intraaxialer Hirntumoren ist durch die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) erheblich verbessert worden, besonders nach Einfuehrung der paramagnetischen Kontrastmittel. Mit konventionellen MR-Verfahren ist aber noch keine verlaessliche Unterscheidung zwischen Gliomen, Metastasen, primaeren Lymphomen und tumorsimulierenden entzuendlichen Erkrankungen moeglich. In dieser Hinsicht vielversprechend sind neue, funktionell-dynamische MR-Verfahren, mit denen sich nicht-invasiv die zerebrale Wasserdiffusion und Mikrozirkulation erfassen lassen und die eine bessere Gewebecharakterisierung erlauben als die herkoemmlichen MR-Methoden. Die Perfusions-MRT erfasst

  8. Comparison of two brain tumor-localizing MRI agent. GD-BOPTA and GD-DTPA. MRI and ICP study of rat brain tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, T.; Matsumura, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshida, F.; Nose, T.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we compared the behavior of Gd-BOPTA as a brain tumor selective contrast agent with Gd-DTPA in a common dose of 0.1 mmol/kg. We performed a MRI study using those two agent as contrast material, and we measured tissue Gd-concentrations by ICP-AES. As a result, Gd-BOPTA showed a better MRI enhancement in brain tumor. ICP showed significantly greater uptake of Gd-BOPTA in tumor samples, at all time course peaked at 5 minutes after administration, Gd being retained for a longer time in brain tumor till 2 hours, without rapid elimination as Gd-DTPA. We conclude that Gd-BOPTA is a new useful contrast material for MR imaging in brain tumor and an effective absorption agent for neutron capture therapy for further research. (author)

  9. [Isolation and identification of brain tumor stem cells from human brain neuroepithelial tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia-sheng; Deng, Yong-wen; Li, Ming-chu; Chen, Feng-Hua; Wang, Yan-jin; Lu, Ming; Fang, Fang; Wu, Jun; Yang, Zhuan-yi; Zhou, Xang-yang; Wang, Fei; Chen, Cheng

    2007-01-30

    To establish a simplified culture system for the isolation of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) from the tumors of human neuroepithelial tissue, to observe the growth and differentiation pattern of BTSCs, and to investigate their expression of the specific markers. Twenty-six patients with brain neuroepithelial tumors underwent tumor resection. Two pieces of tumor tissues were taken from each tumor to be dissociated, triturated into single cells in sterile DMEM-F12 medium, and then filtered. The tumor cells were seeded at a concentration of 200,000 viable cells per mL into serum-free DMEM-F12 medium simply supplemented with B27, human basic fibroblast growth factor (20 microg/L), human epidermal growth factor (20 microg /L), insulin (4 U/L), L-glutamine, penicillin and streptomycin. After the primary brain tumor spheres (BTSs) were generated, they were triturated again and passed in fresh medium. Limiting dilution assay was performed to observe the monoclone formation. 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation test was performed to observe the proliferation of the BTS. The BTSCs were cultured in mitogen-free DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum to observe their differentiation. Immunocytochemistry was used to examine the expression of CD133 and nestin, specific markers of BTSC, and the rate of CD133 positive cells. Only a minority of subsets of cells from the tumors of neuroepithelial tissue had the capacity to survive, proliferate, and generate free-floating neurosphere-like BTSs in the simplified serum-free medium. These cells attached to the poly-L-lysine coated coverslips in the serum-supplemented medium and differentiated. The BTSCs were CD133 and nestin positive. The rate of CD133 positive cells in the tumor specimens was (21 +/- 6.2)% - (38 +/- 7.0)%. A new simplified culture system for the isolation of BTSCs is established. The tumors of human neuroepithelial tissue contain CD133 and nestin positive tumor stem cells which can be isolated

  10. Spread of edema with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Takaaki

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral edema associated with brain tumors is visualized on CT as a hypodensity lesion involving mainly the white matter. The detailed features of its evolution were investigated in a review of CT examinations performed on 56 patients with brain tumors, with the following results. 1. The susceptibility to edema varied according to the types of fibers. Association fibers were more sensitive to edema than projection and commissural fibers. 2. The edema had a characteristic of spreading along not only the association fibers but also the projection and commissural fibers. 3. The spread of edema along the association fibers was interupted in sites of convergence of the fibers such as the external capsule and just beneath the central sulcus in the certrum semiovale. 4. In some cases with intra-axial tumors, the edema extended mainly in the projection and commissural fibers considered to be more resistant to it. For example, in cases with parietal and temporal intra-axial tumors, the posterior limb of the internal capsule was often more edematous than the external capsule. 5. The edema associated with meningioma had a characteristic of spreading mainly along the association fibers. When situated close to the corpus callosum, however, the commissural fibers were also involved. Edema extending mainly in the internal capsule, thus, was rarely observed in meningioma. 6. There was unique pattern of spread of edema in frontal tumors, which differentiated their CT pattern. Therefore, the location of the tumor could be correctly diagnosed by the pattern of the edema extension, even near the central sulcus or in the operculum region. (author)

  11. TECHNOLOGIES OF BRAIN IMAGES PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Klyuchko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present research was to analyze modern methods of processing biological images implemented before storage in databases for biotechnological purposes. The databases further were incorporated into web-based digital systems. Examples of such information systems were described in the work for two levels of biological material organization; databases for storing data of histological analysis and of whole brain were described. Methods of neuroimaging processing for electronic brain atlas were considered. It was shown that certain pathological features can be revealed in histological image processing. Several medical diagnostic techniques (for certain brain pathologies, etc. as well as a few biotechnological methods are based on such effects. Algorithms of image processing were suggested. Electronic brain atlas was conveniently for professionals in different fields described in details. Approaches of brain atlas elaboration, “composite” scheme for large deformations as well as several methods of mathematic images processing were described as well.

  12. Targeting Malignant Brain Tumors with Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Razpotnik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies have been shown to be a potent therapeutic tool. However, their use for targeting brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancers, has been limited, particularly because the blood–brain barrier (BBB makes brain tissue hard to access by conventional antibody-targeting strategies. In this review, we summarize new antibody therapeutic approaches to target brain tumors, especially malignant gliomas, as well as their potential drawbacks. Many different brain delivery platforms for antibodies have been studied such as liposomes, nanoparticle-based systems, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs, and cell-based approaches. We have already shown the successful delivery of single-chain fragment variable (scFv with CPP as a linker between two variable domains in the brain. Antibodies normally face poor penetration through the BBB, with some variants sufficiently passing the barrier on their own. A “Trojan horse” method allows passage of biomolecules, such as antibodies, through the BBB by receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT. Such examples of therapeutic antibodies are the bispecific antibodies where one binding specificity recognizes and binds a BBB receptor, enabling RMT and where a second binding specificity recognizes an antigen as a therapeutic target. On the other hand, cell-based systems such as stem cells (SCs are a promising delivery system because of their tumor tropism and ability to cross the BBB. Genetically engineered SCs can be used in gene therapy, where they express anti-tumor drugs, including antibodies. Different types and sources of SCs have been studied for the delivery of therapeutics to the brain; both mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and neural stem cells (NSCs show great potential. Following the success in treatment of leukemias and lymphomas, the adoptive T-cell therapies, especially the chimeric antigen receptor-T cells (CAR-Ts, are making their way into glioma treatment as another type of cell

  13. Imaging of brain tumors in AIDS patients by means of dual-isotope thallium-201 and technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Pena, R.C.; Ketonen, L.; Villanueva-Meyer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the use of dual-isotope thallium-201 (Tl) and technetium-99m sestamibi (sestamibi) simultaneous acquisition in brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) for the differentiation between brain lymphoma and benign central nervous system (CNS) lesions in AIDS patients. Thirty-six consecutive patients with enhancing mass lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were included in the study. SPET of the brain was performed to obtain simultaneous Tl and sestamibi images. Regions-of-interest were drawn around the lesion and on the contralateral side to calculate uptake ratios. The final diagnosis was reached by pathologic findings in 17 patients and clinical and/or MR follow-up in 19 patients. Of the 36 patients, 11 had brain lymphoma, 1 glioblastoma multiforme, 15 toxoplasmosis and 9 other benign CNS lesions. Correlation between SPET and the final diagnosis revealed in 10 true-positive, 23 true-negative, 1 false-positive and 2 false-negative studies. All patients with toxoplasmosis had negative scans. A patient with a purulent infection had positive scans. Tl and sestamibi scans were concordant in every lesion. The same lesions that took up Tl were also visualized with sestamibi. However, sestamibi scans showed higher lesion-to-normal tissue uptake ratios (3.7±1.8) compared with those of Tl (2.3±0.8, P<0.002). Simultaneous acquisition of Tl and sestamibi can help differentiate CNS lymphoma from benign brain lesions in AIDS patients. (orig.)

  14. Cathepsin D and Its Prognostic Value in Neuroepithelial Brain Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Pigac, Biserka; Dmitrović, Branko; Marić, Svjetlana; Mašić, Silvija

    2012-01-01

    Expression of Cathepsin D (Cath D) in some primary neuroepithelial brain tumors and its prognostic value were studied. The research included 65 samples of human primary neuroepithelial brain tumors. There were 50 glial tumors (10 diffuse astrocytomas (DA), 15 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), 25 glioblastomas (GB), 15 embryonic tumors (15 medulloblastomas (MB) as well as 5 samples of normal brain tissue. Immunohistochemical method was applied to monitor diffuse positive reaction in the cytoplasm ...

  15. Awake Craniotomy for Tumor Resection: Further Optimizing Therapy of Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdorn, H Maximilian; Schwartz, Felix; Becker, Juliane

    2017-01-01

    In recent years more and more data have emerged linking the most radical resection to prolonged survival in patients harboring brain tumors. Since total tumor resection could increase postoperative morbidity, many methods have been suggested to reduce the risk of postoperative neurological deficits: awake craniotomy with the possibility of continuous patient-surgeon communication is one of the possibilities of finding out how radical a tumor resection can possibly be without causing permanent harm to the patient.In 1994 we started to perform awake craniotomy for glioma resection. In 2005 the use of intraoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was included in the standard tumor therapy protocol. Here we review our experience in performing awake surgery for gliomas, gained in 219 patients.Patient selection by the operating surgeon and a neuropsychologist is of primary importance: the patient should feel as if they are part of the surgical team fighting against the tumor. The patient will undergo extensive neuropsychological testing, functional MRI, and fiber tractography in order to define the relationship between the tumor and the functionally relevant brain areas. Attention needs to be given at which particular time during surgery the intraoperative MRI is performed. Results from part of our series (without and with ioMRI scan) are presented.

  16. Brain Tumor Database, a free relational database for collection and analysis of brain tumor patient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamino, Maurizio; Hamilton, David J; Castelletti, Lara; Barletta, Laura; Castellan, Lucio

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we describe the development and utilization of a relational database designed to manage the clinical and radiological data of patients with brain tumors. The Brain Tumor Database was implemented using MySQL v.5.0, while the graphical user interface was created using PHP and HTML, thus making it easily accessible through a web browser. This web-based approach allows for multiple institutions to potentially access the database. The BT Database can record brain tumor patient information (e.g. clinical features, anatomical attributes, and radiological characteristics) and be used for clinical and research purposes. Analytic tools to automatically generate statistics and different plots are provided. The BT Database is a free and powerful user-friendly tool with a wide range of possible clinical and research applications in neurology and neurosurgery. The BT Database graphical user interface source code and manual are freely available at http://tumorsdatabase.altervista.org. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Primary brain tumor presenting as intracranial hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, Shigeru; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Miyamoto, Seiji; Kyoi, Kikuo; Utsumi, Shozaburo; Kamada, Kitaro; Inui, Shoji; Masuda, Akio.

    1989-01-01

    Ten cases of primary brain tumor presenting as intracranial hemorrhage were studied in terms of the radiological and histological findings. The cases having hemorrhage in the tumor, as established through CT or histologically, were excluded if their onsets were not sudden due to intracranial hemorrhages. The results obtained may be summarized as follows: 1) From an anatomical point of view, cerebral subcortical hemorrhages account for 80%; hemorrhages in the cerebellopontine angle, 10%, and hemorrhages in the basal ganglia, 10%. 2) Plain CT findings showed perifocal low-density areas within 24 hours after onset in all 10 cases. 3) Enhanced CT findings showed enhanced areas in 4 or 6 cases. 4) Angiographic findings revealed abnormalities besides the mass effect in 5 of the 10 cases. 4) Angiographic findings revealed abnormalities besides the mass effect in 5 of the 10 cases. 5) From a histological point of view, glioblastomas account for 30%; malignant astrocytomas, 20%; astrocytomas, 20%; malignant ependymomas, 10%; hemangioblastoma, 10%, and transitional meningiomas, 10%. In conclusion, a perifocal low-density area on CT within 24 hours after onset is the most meaningful indication of intracranial hemorrhage originating from a brain tumor. A histological 'perinuclear halo' in an astrocytoma as an artifact due to hemorrhage may often be misleading in diagnosing mixed oligo-astrocytomas. (author)

  18. Targeting Nanomedicine to Brain Tumors: Latest Progress and Achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Root, Moniek; Lowik, Clemens; Mezzanotte, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Targeting nanomedicine to brain tumors is hampered by the heterogeneity of brain tumors and the blood brain barrier. These represent the main reasons of unsuccessful treatments. Nanomedicine based approaches hold promise for improved brain tissue distribution of drugs and delivery of combination therapies. In this review, we describe the recent advancements and latest achievements in the use of nanocarriers, virus and cell-derived nanoparticles for targeted therapy of brain tumors. We provide successful examples of nanomedicine based approaches for direct targeting of receptors expressed in brain tumor cells or modulation of pathways involved in cell survival as well as approaches for indirect targeting of cells in the tumor stroma and immunotherapies. Although the field is at its infancy, clinical trials involving nanomedicine based approaches for brain tumors are ongoing and many others will start in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Brain imaging in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morihisa, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry

  20. An operational perspective of challenging statistical dogma while establishing a modern, secure distributed data management and imaging transport system: the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium phase I experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onar, Arzu; Ramamurthy, Uma; Wallace, Dana; Boyett, James M

    2009-04-01

    The Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC) is a multidisciplinary cooperative research organization devoted to the study of correlative tumor biology and new therapies for primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors of childhood. The PBTC was created in 1999 to conduct early-phase studies in a rapid fashion in order to provide sound scientific foundation for the Children's Oncology Group to conduct definitive trials. The Operations and Biostatistics Center (OBC) of the PBTC is responsible for centrally administering study design and trial development, study conduct and monitoring, data collection and management as well as various regulatory and compliance processes. The phase I designs utilized for the consortium trials have accommodated challenges unique to pediatric trials such as body surface area (BSA)-based dosing in the absence of pediatric formulations of oral agents. Further during the past decade, the OBC has developed and implemented a state-of-the-art secure and efficient internet-based paperless distributed data management system. Additional web-based systems are also in place for tracking and distributing correlative study data as well as neuroimaging files. These systems enable effective communications among the members of the consortium and facilitate the conduct and timely reporting of multi-institutional early-phase clinical trials.

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izunaga, Hiroshi; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Fuwa, Isao; Kodama, Takafumi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko

    1986-01-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined on seventeen patients with brain tumors. Ring type single photon emission CT (SPECT) was used following intravenous injection of 133 Xe. Case materials included eleven meningiomas and six malignant gliomas. Evaluation was performed with emphasis on the following points; 1. Correlation of the flow data within tumors to the angiographic tumor stains, 2. Influence of tumors on the cerebral blood flow of the normal brain tissue, 3. Correlation between degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemispheres. There was significant correlation between flow data within tumors and angiographic tumor stains in meningiomas. Influence of tumors on cerebral blood flow of the normal tissue was greater in meningiomas than in gliomas. There was negative correlation between the degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemisphere. It has been concluded that the measurement of CBF in brain tumors is a valuable method in evaluation of brain tumors. (author)

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement in brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izunaga, Hiroshi; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Fuwa, Isao; Kodama, Takafumi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko

    1986-10-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined on seventeen patients with brain tumors. Ring type single photon emission CT (SPECT) was used following intravenous injection of /sup 133/Xe. Case materials included eleven meningiomas and six malignant gliomas. Evaluation was performed with emphasis on the following points; 1. Correlation of the flow data within tumors to the angiographic tumor stains, 2. Influence of tumors on the cerebral blood flow of the normal brain tissue, 3. Correlation between degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemispheres. There was significant correlation between flow data within tumors and angiographic tumor stains in meningiomas. Influence of tumors on cerebral blood flow of the normal tissue was greater in meningiomas than in gliomas. There was negative correlation between the degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemisphere. It has been concluded that the measurement of CBF in brain tumors is a valuable method in evaluation of brain tumors.

  3. SU-D-207A-02: Possible Characterization of the Brain Tumor Vascular Environment by a Novel Strategy of Quantitative Analysis in Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MR Imaging: A Combination of Both Patlak and Logan Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S; Chinnaiyan, P; Wloch, J; Pirkola, M; Yan, D [Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The majority of quantitative analyses involving dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI have been performed to obtain kinetic parameters such as Ktrans and ve. Such analyses are generally performed assuming a “reversible” tissue compartment, where the tracer is assumed to be rapidly equilibrated between the plasma and tissue compartments. However, some tumor vascular environments may be more suited for a “non-reversible” tissue compartment, where, as with FDG PET imaging, the tracer is continuously deposited into the tissue compartment (or the return back to the plasma compartment is very slow in the imaging time scale). Therefore, Patlak and Logan analyses, which represent tools for the “non-reversible” and “reversible” modeling, respectively, were performed to better characterize the brain tumor vascular environment. Methods: A voxel-by-voxel analysis was performed to generate both Patlak and Logan plots in two brain tumor patients, one with grade III astrocytoma and the other with grade IV astrocytoma or glioblastoma. The slopes of plots and the r-square were then obtained by linear fitting and compared for each voxel. Results: The 2-dimensional scatter plots of Logan (Y-axis) vs. Patlak slopes (X-axis) clearly showed increased Logan slopes for glioblastoma (Figure 3A). The scatter plots of goodness-of-fit (Figure 3B) also suggested glioblastoma, relative to grade III astrocytoma, might consist of more voxels that are kinetically Logan-like (i.e. rapidly equilibrated extravascular space and active vascular environment). Therefore, the enhanced Logan-like behavior (and the Logan slope) in glioblastoma may imply an increased fraction of active vascular environment, while the enhanced Patlak-like behavior implies the vascular environment permitting a relatively slower washout of the tracer. Conclusion: Although further verification is required, the combination of Patlak and Logan analyses in DCE MRI may be useful in characterizing the tumor

  4. Photodynamic Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium together with a semiconductor laser was approved in Japan in October 2003 as a less invasive therapy for early-stage lung cancer. The author believes that the principle of PDT would be applicable for controlling the invading front of malignant brain tumors and verified its efficacy through experiments using glioma cell lines and glioma xenograft models. An investigator-initiated clinical study was jointly conducted with Tokyo Women's Medical University with the support of the Japan Medical Association. Patient enrollment was started in May 2009 and a total of 27 patients were enrolled by March 2012. Of 22 patients included in efficacy analysis, 13 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma showed progression-free survival of 12 months, progression-free survival at the site of laser irradiation of 20 months, 1-year survival of 100%, and overall survival of 24.8 months. In addition, the safety analysis of the 27 patients showed that adverse events directly related to PDT were mild. PDT was approved in Japan for health insurance coverage as a new intraoperative therapy with the indication for malignant brain tumors in September 2013. Currently, the post-marketing investigation in the accumulated patients has been conducted, and the preparation of guidelines, holding training courses, and dissemination of information on the safe implementation of PDT using web sites and videos, have been promoted. PDT is expected to be a breakthrough for the treatment of malignant glioma as a tumor cell-selective less invasive therapy for the infiltrated functional brain area.

  5. Imaging of brain tumors in AIDS patients by means of dual-isotope thallium-201 and technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De La Pena, R.C.; Ketonen, L.; Villanueva-Meyer, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Texas, Galveston (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the use of dual-isotope thallium-201 (Tl) and technetium-99m sestamibi (sestamibi) simultaneous acquisition in brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) for the differentiation between brain lymphoma and benign central nervous system (CNS) lesions in AIDS patients. Thirty-six consecutive patients with enhancing mass lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were included in the study. SPET of the brain was performed to obtain simultaneous Tl and sestamibi images. Regions-of-interest were drawn around the lesion and on the contralateral side to calculate uptake ratios. The final diagnosis was reached by pathologic findings in 17 patients and clinical and/or MR follow-up in 19 patients. Of the 36 patients, 11 had brain lymphoma, 1 glioblastoma multiforme, 15 toxoplasmosis and 9 other benign CNS lesions. Correlation between SPET and the final diagnosis revealed in 10 true-positive, 23 true-negative, 1 false-positive and 2 false-negative studies. All patients with toxoplasmosis had negative scans. A patient with a purulent infection had positive scans. Tl and sestamibi scans were concordant in every lesion. The same lesions that took up Tl were also visualized with sestamibi. However, sestamibi scans showed higher lesion-to-normal tissue uptake ratios (3.7{+-}1.8) compared with those of Tl (2.3{+-}0.8, P<0.002). Simultaneous acquisition of Tl and sestamibi can help differentiate CNS lymphoma from benign brain lesions in AIDS patients. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 34 refs.

  6. Emergence of Convolutional Neural Network in Future Medicine: Why and How. A Review on Brain Tumor Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Savareh, Behrouz; Emami, Hassan; Hajiabadi, Mohamadreza; Ghafoori, Mahyar; Majid Azimi, Seyed

    2018-03-01

    Manual analysis of brain tumors magnetic resonance images is usually accompanied by some problem. Several techniques have been proposed for the brain tumor segmentation. This study will be focused on searching popular databases for related studies, theoretical and practical aspects of Convolutional Neural Network surveyed in brain tumor segmentation. Based on our findings, details about related studies including the datasets used, evaluation parameters, preferred architectures and complementary steps analyzed. Deep learning as a revolutionary idea in image processing, achieved brilliant results in brain tumor segmentation too. This can be continuing until the next revolutionary idea emerging.

  7. MR image-guided portal verification for brain treatment field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, F.-F.; Gao, Q.H.; Xie, H.; Nelson, D.F.; Yu, Y.; Kwok, W.E.; Totterman, S.; Schell, M.C.; Rubin, P.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Although MR images have been extensively used for the treatment planning of radiation therapy of cancers, especially for brain cancers, they are not effectively used for the portal verification due to lack of bone/air information in MR images and geometric distortions. Typically, MR images are utilized through correlation with CT images, and this procedure is usually very labor and time consuming. For many brain cancer patients to be treated using conventional external beam radiation, MR images with proper distortion correction provide sufficient information for treatment planning and dose calculation, and a projection images may be generated for each specific treatment port and to be used as a reference image for treatment verification. The question is how to transfer anatomical features in MR images to the projection image as landmarks which could be correlated automatically to those in the portal image. The goal of this study is to generate digitally reconstructed projection images from MR brain images with some important anatomical features (brain contour, skull and gross tumor) as well as their relative locations to be used as references for the development of computerized portal verification scheme. Materials/Methods: Compared to conventional digital reconstructed radiograph from CT images, generation of digitally reconstructed projection images from MR images is heavily involved with pixel manipulation of MR images to correlate information from two types of images (MR, portal x-ray images) which are produced based on totally different imaging principles. Initially a wavelet based multi-resolution adaptive thresholding method is used to segment the skull slice-by-slice in MR brain axial images, and identified skull pixels are re-assigned to relatively higher intensities so that projection images will have comparable grey-level information as that in typical brain portal images. Both T1- and T2-weighted images are utilized to eliminate fat

  8. PET imaging for brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Described are the principle of PET and its characteristics, imaging of human brain function, mapping of detailed human cerebral functions and PET imaging of nerve transmission. Following compounds labeled by positron emitters are used for PET imaging of brain functions: for blood flow and oxygen metabolism, 15 O-O 2 gas, water and carbon dioxide; for energy metabolism, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose; and for nerve transmission functions in receptor binding, transporter, transmitter synthesis and enzyme, 11 C- or 18 F-dopamine, serotonin and their analogues, and acetylcholine analogues. For brain mapping, examples of cognition tasks, results and their statistics are presented with images for blood flow. Nerve transmissions in schizophrenia and Alzheimer disease are imaged with labeled analogues of dopamine and acetylcholine, respectively. PET is becoming more and more important in the field of psychiatric science particularly in the coming society of increasing aged people. (N.I.)

  9. Simultaneous assessment of cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid IVIM and DK MR imaging: initial experience with brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-Chau [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Yang, Shun-Chung; Chen, Ya-Fang; My, Pei-Chi [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Tseng, Han-Min [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Taipei (China)

    2017-01-15

    To investigate the feasibility of simultaneously assessing cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid diffusion-kurtosis (DK) and intravoxel-incoherent-motion (IVIM) MR imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers and 30 patients with histologically proven brain tumours (25 WHO grade II-IV gliomas and five metastases) were recruited. On a 3-T system, diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with six b-values ranging from 0 to 1,700 s/mm{sup 2}. Nonlinear least-squares fitting was employed to extract diffusion coefficient (D), diffusion kurtosis coefficient (K, a measure of the degree of non-Gaussian and heterogeneous diffusion) and intravascular volume fraction (f, a measure proportional to cerebral blood volume). Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to assess the ability of D/K/f in differentiating contrast-enhanced tumour from peritumoral oedema and normal-appearing white matter. Based on our imaging setting (baseline signal-to-noise ratio = 32-128), coefficient of variation was 14-20 % for K, ∝6 % for D and 26-44 % for f. The indexes were able to differentiate contrast-enhanced tumour (Wilks' λ = 0.026, p < 10{sup -3}), and performance was greatest with K, followed by f and D. Hybrid DK IVIM imaging is capable of simultaneously measuring cerebral perfusion and diffusion indexes that together may improve brain tumour diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Brain tumor segmentation based on a hybrid clustering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Abdel-Maksoud

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents an efficient image segmentation approach using K-means clustering technique integrated with Fuzzy C-means algorithm. It is followed by thresholding and level set segmentation stages to provide an accurate brain tumor detection. The proposed technique can get benefits of the K-means clustering for image segmentation in the aspects of minimal computation time. In addition, it can get advantages of the Fuzzy C-means in the aspects of accuracy. The performance of the proposed image segmentation approach was evaluated by comparing it with some state of the art segmentation algorithms in case of accuracy, processing time, and performance. The accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results with the ground truth of each processed image. The experimental results clarify the effectiveness of our proposed approach to deal with a higher number of segmentation problems via improving the segmentation quality and accuracy in minimal execution time.

  11. Determination of intra-axial brain tumors cellularity through the analysis of T2 Relaxation time of brain tumors before surgery using MATLAB software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmohammadi, Jamil; Shafiee, Mohsen; Faeghi, Fariborz; Arefan, Douman; Zali, Alireza; Motiei-Langroudi, Rouzbeh; Farshidfar, Zahra; Nazarlou, Ali Kiani; Tavakkoli, Ali; Yarham, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Timely diagnosis of brain tumors could considerably affect the process of patient treatment. To do so, para-clinical methods, particularly MRI, cannot be ignored. MRI has so far answered significant questions regarding tumor characteristics, as well as helping neurosurgeons. In order to detect the tumor cellularity, neuro-surgeons currently have to sample specimens by biopsy and then send them to the pathology unit. The aim of this study is to determine the tumor cellularity in the brain. In this cross-sectional study, 32 patients (18 males and 14 females from 18-77 y/o) were admitted to the neurosurgery department of Shohada-E Tajrish Hospital in Tehran, Iran from April 2012 to February 2014. In addition to routine pulse sequences, T2W Multi echo pulse sequences were taken and the images were analyzed using the MATLAB software to determine the brain tumor cellularity, compared with the biopsy. These findings illustrate the need for more T2 relaxation time decreases, the higher classes of tumors will stand out in the designed table. In this study, the results show T2 relaxation time with a 85% diagnostic weight, compared with the biopsy, to determine the brain tumor cellularity (p<0.05). Our results indicate that the T2 relaxation time feature is the best method to distinguish and present the degree of intra-axial brain tumors cellularity (85% accuracy compared to biopsy). The use of more data is recommended in order to increase the percent accuracy of this techniques.

  12. FCM Clustering Algorithms for Segmentation of Brain MR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita K. Dubey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of brain disorders requires accurate tissue segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR brain images which is very important for detecting tumors, edema, and necrotic tissues. Segmentation of brain images, especially into three main tissue types: Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF, Gray Matter (GM, and White Matter (WM, has important role in computer aided neurosurgery and diagnosis. Brain images mostly contain noise, intensity inhomogeneity, and weak boundaries. Therefore, accurate segmentation of brain images is still a challenging area of research. This paper presents a review of fuzzy c-means (FCM clustering algorithms for the segmentation of brain MR images. The review covers the detailed analysis of FCM based algorithms with intensity inhomogeneity correction and noise robustness. Different methods for the modification of standard fuzzy objective function with updating of membership and cluster centroid are also discussed.

  13. Peritumoral hemorrhage immediately after radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Masafumi; Kitajima, Satoru; Miyazaki, Chikao; Otsuka, Takashi; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Shibata, Iekado

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of a 44-year-old woman with metastatic brain tumors who suffered peri-tumoral hemorrhage soon after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). She had been suffering from breast cancer with multiple systemic metastasis. She started to have headache, nausea, dizziness and speech disturbance 1 month before admission. There was no bleeding tendency in the hematological examination and the patient was normotensive. Neurological examination disclosed headache and slightly aphasia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large round mass lesion in the left temporal lobe. It was a well-demarcated, highly enhanced mass, 45 mm in diameter. SRS was performed on four lesions in a single session (Main mass: maximum dose was 30 Gy in the center and 20 Gy in the margin of the tumor. Others: maximum 25 Gy margin 20 Gy). After radiosurgery, she had severe headache, nausea and vomiting and showed progression of aphasia. CT scan revealed a peritumoral hemorrhage. Conservative therapy was undertaken and the patient's symptoms improved. After 7 days, she was discharged, able to walk. The patient died of extensive distant metastasis 5 months after SRS. Acute transient swelling following conventional radiotherapy is a well-documented phenomenon. However, the present case indicates that such an occurrence is also possible in SRS. We have hypothesized that acute reactions such as brain swelling occur due to breakdown of the fragile vessels of the tumor or surrounding tissue. (author)

  14. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance reconstruction images before and after surgical therapy of spontaneous canine brain tumors Imagens de reconstrução tri-dimensional por ressonância magnética antes e depois de tratamento cirúrgico de tumores cerebrais espontâneos caninos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Carlos Canola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Specific software was used for reconstruction of spontaneous intracranial tumor volume from magnetic resonance images (MRI in three dogs. Histopathologically confirmed meningioma, cystic meningioma, and choroid plexus tumors were evaluated before and after surgery. The software allowed the whole-volume segmentation of the skin, brain, tumor, edema, and cyst. Manipulation of the three-dimensional images (3D allowed visualization of all anatomical structures, aided clinical understanding, surgical planning, and treatment monitoring.Um programa de computador específico foi utilizado para reconstrução do volume tumoral intracraniano espontâneo por imagens de ressonância magnética (IRM em três cães. Tumores histopatologicamente confirmados como meningioma, meningioma cístico e tumor do plexo coróide foram avaliados antes e após cirurgia. O programa de computador permitiu a segmentação por completo da pele, do cérebro, do tumor, do edema e do cisto. A manipulação das imagens tridimensionais permitiu a visibilização de todas as estruturas anatômicas, além da compreensão clínica, do planejamento cirúrgico e da monitorização do tratamento.

  15. Primary cardiac and pericardial tumors, imaging approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu-Qing Liu, M D [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Radiology, Fu Wai Hospital and Cardiovascular Inst.

    1996-12-31

    The incidence of cardiac tumor and its classification was discussed. Imaging study i.e. conventional radiology, echocardiagoaphy (echo), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), angiography and computed tomography (CT) used also discussed briefly. (8 refs.).

  16. Primary cardiac and pericardial tumors, imaging approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Qing Liu, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The incidence of cardiac tumor and its classification was discussed. Imaging study i.e. conventional radiology, echocardiagoaphy (echo), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), angiography and computed tomography (CT) used also discussed briefly. (8 refs.)

  17. MR imaging of the brain in neurofibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, J.P.; Cohen, M.L.; Duffner, P.K.; Seidel, F.; Harwood-Nash, D.

    1986-01-01

    Fifteen children and young adults with neurofibromatosis underwent CT and MR imaging (0.5-T superconducting magnet). Seven had optic gliomas and five had other intracranial neoplasms. Before thin-section MR imaging became available, CT was superior for demonstrating the optic nerves, although MR imaging better delineated tumor spread to the optic chiasm and tract. MR imaging was superior for demonstrating other gliomatous lesions associated with neurofibromatosis. Most lesions had long T1 and T2 values and were best seen on T2-weighted images. MR imaging revealed small areas of increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images in nearly half the patients. These lesions were not apparent on CT and were usually located in the globus pallidus, but were seen in many areas of the brain, commonly in the white matter, and in the brain steam and the cerebellar peduncles. Their exact etiology is unknown. Their imaging characteristics are somewhat different from those of gray matter. They may represent hamartomas or areas of glial scarring. Differentiation from a small glioma is presently not possible on a single examination

  18. Halofuginone Inhibits Angiogenesis and Growth in Implanted Metastatic Rat Brain Tumor Model-an MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinat Abramovitch

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis; therefore, efforts are made to develop specific angiogenic inhibitors. Halofuginone (HF is a potent inhibitor of collagen type α1(I. In solid tumor models, HF has a potent antitumor and antiangiogenic effect in vivo, but its effect on brain tumors has not yet been evaluated. By employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, we monitored the effect of HF on tumor progression and vascularization by utilizing an implanted malignant fibrous histiocytoma metastatic rat brain tumor model. Here we demonstrate that treatment with HF effectively and dose-dependently reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis. On day 13, HF-treated tumors were fivefold smaller than control (P < .001. Treatment with HF significantly prolonged survival of treated animals (142%; P = .001. In HF-treated rats, tumor vascularization was inhibited by 30% on day 13 and by 37% on day 19 (P < .05. Additionally, HF treatment inhibited vessel maturation (P = .03. Finally, in HF-treated rats, we noticed the appearance of a few clusters of satellite tumors, which were distinct from the primary tumor and usually contained vessel cores. This phenomenon was relatively moderate when compared to previous reports of other antiangiogenic agents used to treat brain tumors. We therefore conclude that HF is effective for treatment of metastatic brain tumors.

  19. Specific features of epilepsy in children with brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalmykova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of epilepsy in children and adolescents with brain tumors and to define the optimal tactics of management and antiepileptic therapy after surgical treatment. Patients and methods. Sixty-one patients aged 5 months to 15 years were examined. All the patients were diagnosed as having a brain tumor found in the presence of symptomatic epilepsy. They were all followed up for 5 years postsurgery or during their lifetime (in case of death. Comprehensive examination encompassing the assessment of history data and concomitant complaints, brain magnetic resonance imaging, video-EEC monitoring, and the neurological status (the presence of cognitive impairments and eye ground changes was done in all the cases. The probability of epileptic seizures in the clinical presentation of the disease, their semiology, and frequency were studied. Results and discussion. Epileptic seizures were the major complaint in all the patients at the first visit to their doctor. The disease occurred with status epilepticus in 9% of the patients. Different types of generalized seizures were more common (53%; p≥0.05. The tumor was located above the tentorium of the cerebellum in most examinees (77% and beneath it in the others (23%; p≤0.05. The significant clinical sign of a brain tumor in the epileptic children is focal neurological symptoms (72% of the cases. MRI was performed in children who had no focal neurological symptoms in the late periods. There was cerebrospinal fluid hypertension in 51% of the patients (p≥0.05 and cognitive impairments in 33% (p<0.05. The maximum number (74% of children with psycho-speech disorders and cognitive impairments were registered in the age group of 7–15 years. Eye ground changes characteristic of intracranial hypertension were identified in 19 epileptic children; they occurred in 27 patients more than 1 year after the onset of seizures. The late (few months-to-14 years diagnosis of a brain

  20. Simultaneous assessment of cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid IVIM and DK MR imaging: initial experience with brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Chau; Yang, Shun-Chung; Chen, Ya-Fang; Tseng, Han-Min; My, Pei-Chi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of simultaneously assessing cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid diffusion-kurtosis (DK) and intravoxel-incoherent-motion (IVIM) MR imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers and 30 patients with histologically proven brain tumours (25 WHO grade II-IV gliomas and five metastases) were recruited. On a 3-T system, diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with six b-values ranging from 0 to 1,700 s/mm 2 . Nonlinear least-squares fitting was employed to extract diffusion coefficient (D), diffusion kurtosis coefficient (K, a measure of the degree of non-Gaussian and heterogeneous diffusion) and intravascular volume fraction (f, a measure proportional to cerebral blood volume). Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to assess the ability of D/K/f in differentiating contrast-enhanced tumour from peritumoral oedema and normal-appearing white matter. Based on our imaging setting (baseline signal-to-noise ratio = 32-128), coefficient of variation was 14-20 % for K, ~6 % for D and 26-44 % for f. The indexes were able to differentiate contrast-enhanced tumour (Wilks' λ = 0.026, p DK IVIM imaging is capable of simultaneously measuring cerebral perfusion and diffusion indexes that together may improve brain tumour diagnosis. • Hybrid DK-IVIM imaging allows simultaneous measurement of K, D and f. • Combined K/D/f better demarcates contrast-enhanced tumour than they do separately. • f correlates better with contrast-leakage-corrected CBV DSC than with uncorrected CBV DSC.

  1. Analysis of Brain Tumors Due to the Usage of Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOOBIA SAEED

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of cellular phone radiation on human health is the subject of current mindfulness and is an outcome of the huge increase in phone usage throughout the world. Phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. The issue is associated with wireless use for 50 minutes and above. The excessive use of mobile phone may cause brain tumors. Nowadays the most commonly developed brain tumor type is GBM (Glioblastoma in multiform and Malignant Astrocytoma. In this paper, we focus on the causes of brain tumor (cancer due to the cell phone as this increase in glucose metabolism. The aim of the study is to address the aforementioned problems associated with the cell phone. MATLAB programming to detect a brain tumor has been used. We have conducted MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging study to get the best images and results.

  2. Analysis of brain tumors due to the usage of mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.; Noor, S.A.; Shaikh, A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of cellular phone radiation on human health is the subject of current mindfulness and is an outcome of the huge increase in phone usage throughout the world. Phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. The issue is associated with wireless use for 50 minutes and above. The excessive use of mobile phone may cause brain tumors. Nowadays the most commonly developed brain tumor type is GBM (Glioblastoma) in multiform and Malignant Astrocytoma. In this paper, we focus on the causes of brain tumor (cancer) due to the cell phone as this increase in glucose metabolism. The aim of the study is to address the aforementioned problems associated with the cell phone. MATLAB programming to detect a brain tumor has been used. We have conducted MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) study to get the best images and results. (author)

  3. Diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumors in clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Gorlia, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAccording to the Central Brain Registry Of The United States (CBTRUS) statistical report (February 2012) the incidence rate of all primary non malignant and malignant brain and central nervous system tumors is 19.89 cases per 100.000 (11.58 for non-malignant tumors and 7.31 for malignant tumors). Malignant brain tumors account for only 1% to 2% of all adult cancers. As a comparison, in 2012, the incidence of women breast cancer was 121.2 (per 100.000). Tumors of neuroepithelial ti...

  4. NMR imaging of soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval-Jeantet, M.; Tobolsk, F.; Delepine, N.; Delepine, G.; Roger, B.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary findings on NMR imaging of 30 soft tissue tumors demonstrated the indispensable value of this examination (particularly when a surface antenna is used) for preoperative investigation and diagnosis of tumoral recurrence when compared with other radiologic techniques. The possible potential of NMR imaging for characterization of tissues, apart from lipoma or liposarcoma, cannot be evaluated at the present time [fr

  5. Biodistribution of ultra small gadolinium-based nanoparticles as theranostic agent: application to brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladi, Imen; Duc, Géraldine Le; Kryza, David; Berniard, Aurélie; Mowat, Pierre; Roux, Stéphane; Taleb, Jacqueline; Bonazza, Pauline; Perriat, Pascal; Lux, François; Tillement, Olivier; Billotey, Claire; Janier, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Gadolinium-based nanoparticles are novel objects with interesting physical properties, allowing their use for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Gadolinium-based nanoparticles were imaged following intravenous injection in healthy rats and rats grafted with 9L gliosarcoma tumors using magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphic imaging. Quantitative biodistribution using gamma-counting of each sampled organ confirmed that these nanoparticles were rapidly cleared essentially by renal excretion. Accumulation of these nanoparticles in 9L gliosarcoma tumors implanted in the rat brain was quantitated. This passive and long-duration accumulation of gadolinium-based nanoparticles in tumor, which is related to disruption of the blood-brain barrier, is in good agreement with the use of these nanoparticles as radiosensitizers for brain tumors.

  6. Sodium-23 magnetic resonance brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, S.S.; Wisconsin Univ., Madison

    1990-01-01

    This is a review of recent work in 23 Na MR imaging. The main emphasis of recent papers has been pulse sequences that, with appropriate postprocessing, give images of the fast, slow, and intermediate components of T 2 decay. The assignment of compartmental designation to the T 2 component remains a problem except for homogeneous structures easily identifiable anatomically (ventricles, superior sagittal sinus, globe of the eye). Compartmental distribution of sodium is described. The predominance of the interstitial and plasma compartment, the invisibility of part of the intracellular sodium, and the difficulty in imaging the very fast T 2 component of visible intracellular sodium make the usual Na spin-echo image essentially an image of the interstitial and plasma space. Use of paramagnetic iron oxide coupled to dextran as a contrast medium may help to identify the plasma compartment. Because the usual Na MR images are essentially interstitial and plasma images, our own interest is in observing functional changes in these compartments. Another proposed application is the detection of the very fast T 2 component in brain tumors to aid in defining tumor grade and extent. (orig.)

  7. FLAIR images of brain diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, Fuminori; Kinoshita, Masao; Kishibayashi, Jun; Kamada, Kazuhiko; Sunohara, Nobuhiko.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the usefulness of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in diagnosing brain diseases. The subjects were 20 patients with multiple cerebral infarction, multiple sclerosis, temporal epilepsy, or brain trauma, and 20 other healthy adults. FLAIR images, with a long repetitive time of 6000 msec and a long inversion time of 1400-1600 msec, showed low signal intensity in the cerebrospinal fluid in the lateral ventricles and the cerebral sulci, and high signal intensity in brain tissues. Signal intensity on FLAIR images correlated well with T2 relaxation times under 100 msec. For multiple sclerosis and cerebral infarction, cystic lesions, which were shown on T2-weighted images with long relaxation times over 100 msec, appeared as low-signal areas; and the lesions surrounding the cystic lesions appeared as high-signal areas. For temporal lobe epilepsy, the hippocampus was visualized as a high-signal area. Hippocampal lesions were demonstrated better with FLAIR images than with conventional T2-weighted and proton-density images. In a patient with cerebral trauma, FLAIR images revealed the lobulated structure with the residual cortex shown as a high signal area. The lesions surrounding the cystic change were imaged as high signal areas. These structural changes were demonstrated better with FLAIR images than with conventional T2-weighted sequences. FLAIR images were useful in detecting white matter lesions surrounding the lateral ventricles and cortical and subcortical lesions near the brain surface, which were unclear on conventional T2-weighted and proton-density images. (N.K.)

  8. Anatomically standardized statistical mapping of 123I-IMP SPECT in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Yasushi; Akimoto, Manabu; Matsushita, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Takano, Shingo; Matsumura, Akira

    2010-01-01

    123 I-iodoamphetamine Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (IMP SPECT) is used to evaluate cerebral blood flow. However, application of IMP SPECT to patients with brain tumors has been rarely reported. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare tumor that shows delayed IMP uptake. The relatively low spatial resolution of SPECT is a clinical problem in diagnosing brain tumors. We examined anatomically standardized statistical mapping of IMP SPECT in patients with brain lesions. This study included 49 IMP SPECT images for 49 patients with brain lesions: 20 PCNSL, 1 Burkitt's lymphoma, 14 glioma, 4 other tumor, 7 inflammatory disease and 3 without any pathological diagnosis but a clinical diagnosis of PCNSL. After intravenous injection of 222 MBq of 123 I-IMP, early (15 minutes) and delayed (4 hours) images were acquired using a multi-detector SPECT machine. All SPECT data were transferred to a newly developed software program iNeurostat+ (Nihon Medi-physics). SPECT data were anatomically standardized on normal brain images. Regions of increased uptake of IMP were statistically mapped on the tomographic images of normal brain. Eighteen patients showed high uptake in the delayed IMP SPECT images (16 PCNSL, 2 unknown). Other tumor or diseases did not show high uptake of delayed IMP SPECT, so there were no false positives. Four patients with pathologically proven PCNSL showed no uptake in original IMP SPECT. These tumors were too small to detect in IMP SPECT. However, statistical mapping revealed IMP uptake in 18 of 20 pathologically verified PCNSL patients. A heterogeneous IMP uptake was seen in homogenous tumors in MRI. For patients with a hot IMP uptake, statistical mapping showed clearer uptake. IMP SPECT is a sensitive test to diagnose of PCNSL, although it produced false negative results for small posterior fossa tumor. Anatomically standardized statistical mapping is therefore considered to be a useful method for improving the diagnostic

  9. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Primary Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-min Wang

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been used to treat primary brain tumors as standard primary and/or adjunctive therapies for decades. It is difficult for conventional radiotherapy to deliver a lethal dose of radiation to the tumors while sparing surrounding normal brain due to complicated structures and multifunction in human brain. With the understanding of radiation physics and computer technology, a number of novel and more precise radiotherapies have been developed in recent years. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of these strategies. The use of IMRT in the treatment of primary brain tumors is being increasing nowadays. It shows great promise for some of primary brain tumors and also presents some problems, This review highlights current IMRT in the treatment of mainly primary brain tumors.

  10. Obstacles to Brain Tumor Therapy: Key ABC Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwina Wijaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The delivery of cancer chemotherapy to treat brain tumors remains a challenge, in part, because of the inherent biological barrier, the blood–brain barrier. While its presence and role as a protector of the normal brain parenchyma has been acknowledged for decades, it is only recently that the important transporter components, expressed in the tightly knit capillary endothelial cells, have been deciphered. These transporters are ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters and, so far, the major clinically important ones that functionally contribute to the blood–brain barrier are ABCG2 and ABCB1. A further limitation to cancer therapy of brain tumors or brain metastases is the blood–tumor barrier, where tumors erect a barrier of transporters that further impede drug entry. The expression and regulation of these two transporters at these barriers, as well as tumor derived alteration in expression and/or mutation, are likely obstacles to effective therapy.

  11. Regional glucose utilization and blood flow in experimental brain tumors studied by double tracer autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, A.; Sako, K.; Diksic, M.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Feindel, W.

    1985-01-01

    Coupling of regional glucose utilization (GLU) and blood flow (CBF) was examined in rats with implanted brain tumors (AA ascites tumor) by quantitative double tracer autoradiography using YF-2-fluorodeoxyglucose and 14C-iodoantipyrine. Four to 13 days after implantation, the animals were injected with the two tracers to obtain autoradiograms from the same brain section before and after the decay of YF. The autoradiograms were then analyzed by an image processor to obtain a metabolic coupling index (MCI = GLU/CBF). In the tumor, high GLU and low CBF were uncoupled to give a high MCI which implied anerobic glycolysis. In large tumors, the CBF was even lower. In the peri-tumoral region, GLU was reduced and reduction was lowest around the larger tumors. CBF in the peri-tumoral region was also reduced, but this reduction became less as the distance from the tumor margin increased. The GLU and CBF of white matter was little influenced by the presence of tumors except for some reduction in these values in relation to the larger tumors. The MCI in the tumor was higher than in the cortex of the same as well as the opposite hemisphere. These findings indicate that the metabolism and blood flow of the tumor and surrounding brain are variable and directly related to tumor size.

  12. Computer-aided analysis of CT images for the differentiation of cerebral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, M.; Michalik, S.; Bornholdt, F.

    1988-01-01

    For the integration of CT imaging into the differential diagnostics of intracranial space occupations, the selection and description of characteristics facilitating a good discrimination of serveral classes of tumors becomes a very important task. From images of 93 patients with the most frequent brain tumors the optimal set of characteristics was determined. The four most significant characteristics for the differentiation of brain tumors are 'uptake of contrast medium by the tumor', 'deliniation of the tumor contours', 'progression of the tumor' and the 'average tumor density after administration of contrast media'. Very good results were obtained for the differentiation of menigneomas with and without anaplasia and for the differentiation of meningeomas from all other tumors examined. The differentiation of the degree of malignancy for various gliomatous tumors was difficult. An accurate reclassification with the computer program was obtained for 83.4% of all tumors. (author)

  13. Complementary information from magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography in the assessment of the response to an antiangiogenic treatment in a rat brain tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valable, Samuel; Petit, Edwige; Roussel, Simon; Marteau, Lena; Toutain, Jerome; Divoux, Didier; Sobrio, Franck; Delamare, Jerome; Barre, Louisa; Bernaudin, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: No direct proof has been brought to light in a link between hypoxic changes in glioma models and the effects of antiangiogenic treatments. Here, we assessed the sensitivity of the detection of hypoxia through the use of 18 F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography ([ 18 F]-FMISO PET) in response to the evolution of the tumor and its vasculature. Methods: Orthotopic glioma tumors were induced in rats after implantation of C6 or 9L cells. Sunitinib was administered from day (D) 17 to D24. At D17 and D24, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was performed to characterize tumor growth and vasculature. Hypoxia was assessed by [ 18 F]-FMISO PET. Results: We showed that brain hypoxic volumes are related to glioma volume and its vasculature and that an antiangiogenic treatment, leading to an increase in cerebral blood volume and a decrease in vessel permeability, is accompanied by a decrease in the degree of hypoxia. Conclusions: We propose that [ 18 F]-FMISO PET and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging are pertinent complementary tools in the evaluation of the effects of an antiangiogenic treatment in glioma.

  14. Aberrant paramagnetic signals outside the tumor volume on routine surveillance MRI of brain tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yust-Katz, Shlomit; Inbar, Edna; Michaeli, Natalia; Limon, Dror; Siegal, Tali

    2017-09-01

    Late complications of cerebral radiation therapy (RT) involve vascular injury with acquired cavernous malformation, telangiectasias and damage to vascular walls which are well recognized in children. Its incidence in adults is unknown. Blood products and iron deposition that accompany vascular injury create paramagnetic effects on MRI. This study retrospectively investigated the frequency of paramagnetic lesions on routine surveillance MRI of adult brain tumor patients. MRI studies of 115 brain tumor patients were reviewed. Only studies containing sequences of either susceptibility weighted images or gradient echo or blood oxygenation level dependent imaging were included. Lesions inside the tumor volume were not considered. 68 studies fulfilled the above criteria and included 48 patients with previous RT (35 followed for >2 years and 13 for 1 year) and 20 patients who were not treated with RT. The median age at time of irradiation was 47 years. Aberrant paramagnetic lesions were found in 23/35 (65%) patients followed for >2 years after RT and in only 1/13 (8%) patients followed for 1-year after radiation (p = 0.03). The 1-year follow-up group did not differ from the control group [2/20 (9%)]. Most lesions were within the radiation field and none of the patients had related symptomatology. The number and incidence of these lesions increased with time and amounted to 75% over 3 years post RT. MRI paramagnetic signal aberrations are common findings in adult brain tumor patients that evolve over time after RT. The clinical significance of these lesions needs further investigation.

  15. Brain Tumor Segmentation Based on Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Lefkovits

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a discriminative model for tumor detection from multimodal MR images. The main part of the model is built around the random forest (RF classifier. We created an optimization algorithm able to select the important features for reducing the dimensionality of data. This method is also used to find out the training parameters used in the learning phase. The algorithm is based on random feature properties for evaluating the importance of the variable, the evolution of learning errors and the proximities between instances. The detection performances obtained have been compared with the most recent systems, offering similar results.

  16. Childhood brain tumors: epidemiology, current management and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Ian F; Jakacki, Regina I

    2011-07-26

    Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. With the increasingly widespread availability of MRI, the incidence of childhood brain tumors seemed to rise in the 1980s, but has subsequently remained relatively stable. However, management of brain tumors in children has evolved substantially during this time, reflecting refinements in classification of tumors, delineation of risk groups within histological subsets of tumors, and incorporation of molecular techniques to further define tumor subgroups. Although considerable progress has been made in the outcomes of certain tumors, prognosis in other childhood brain tumor types is poor. Among the tumor groups with more-favorable outcomes, attention has been focused on reducing long-term morbidity without sacrificing survival rates. Studies for high-risk groups have examined the use of intensive therapy or novel, molecularly targeted approaches to improve disease control rates. In addition to reviewing the literature and providing an overview of the complexities in diagnosing childhood brain tumors, we will discuss advances in the treatment and categorization of several tumor types in which progress has been most apparent, as well as those in which improvements have been lacking. The latest insights from molecular correlative studies that hold potential for future refinements in therapy will also be discussed.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging for cardiac tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Koichiro; Tashima, Kazuyuki; Okajima, Yoshitomo; Nakajima, Hiromichi; Terai, Masaru; Nakajima, Hironori; Harada, Tsutomu; Ishida, Yoshikazu.

    1988-01-01

    We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 4 patients with cardiac tumor (1 with rhabdomyoma, 1 with left atrial myxoma, and 2 with tumor of the left ventricular wall) for morphological evaluation of the tumor. ECG-gated MRI was performed by the spin echo imaging technique using a superconducting MRI system operating at 0.5 tesla. Spatial extension of the tumor was clearly demonstrated in all the patients. Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA), was used in the 2 patients with tumor of the left ventricular myocardium to enhance the contrast, and allowed clear visualization of the tumor. These findings show the usefulness of MRI and MRI with Gd-DTPA for morphological evaluation of cardiac tumor. (author)

  18. Diagnostic value of the fast-FLAIR sequence in MR imaging of intracranial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husstedt, H.W.; Sickert, M.; Koestler, H.; Haubitz, B.; Becker, H.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify imaging characteristics of fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence in brain tumors compared with T1-postcontrast- and T2-sequences. Fast-FLAIR-, T2 fast spin echo (FSE)-, and T1 SE postcontrast images of 74 patients with intracranial neoplasms were analyzed. Four neuroradiologists rated signal intensity and inhomogeneity of the tumor, rendering of cystic parts, demarcation of the tumor vs brain, of the tumor vs edema and of brain vs edema, as well as the presence of motion and of other artifacts. Data analysis was performed for histologically proven astrocytomas, glioblastomas, and meningiomas, for tumors with poor contrast enhancement, and for all patients pooled. Only for tumors with poor contrast enhancement (n = 12) did fast FLAIR provide additional information about the lesion. In these cases, signal intensity, demarcation of the tumor vs brain, and differentiation of the tumor vs edema were best using fast FLAIR. In all cases, rendering of the tumor's inner structure was poor. For all other tumor types, fast FLAIR did not give clinically relevant information, the only exception being a better demarcation of the edema from brain tissue. Artifacts rarely interfered with evaluation of fast-FLAIR images. Thus, fast FLAIR cannot replace T2-weighted series. It provides additional information only in tumors with poor contrast enhancement. It is helpful for defining the exact extent of the edema of any tumor but gives little information about their inner structure. (orig.)

  19. Diagnostic value of the fast-FLAIR sequence in MR imaging of intracranial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husstedt, H W; Sickert, M; Köstler, H; Haubitz, B; Becker, H

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify imaging characteristics of fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence in brain tumors compared with T1-postcontrast- and T2-sequences. Fast-FLAIR-, T2 fast spin echo (FSE)-, and T1 SE postcontrast images of 74 patients with intracranial neoplasms were analyzed. Four neuroradiologists rated signal intensity and inhomogeneity of the tumor, rendering of cystic parts, demarcation of the tumor vs brain, of the tumor vs edema and of brain vs edema, as well as the presence of motion and of other artifacts. Data analysis was performed for histologically proven astrocytomas, glioblastomas, and meningiomas, for tumors with poor contrast enhancement, and for all patients pooled. Only for tumors with poor contrast enhancement (n = 12) did fast FLAIR provide additional information about the lesion. In these cases, signal intensity, demarcation of the tumor vs brain, and differentiation of the tumor vs edema were best using fast FLAIR. In all cases, rendering of the tumor's inner structure was poor. For all other tumor types, fast FLAIR did not give clinically relevant information, the only exception being a better demarcation of the edema from brain tissue. Artifacts rarely interfered with evaluation of fast-FLAIR images. Thus, fast FLAIR cannot replace T2-weighted series. It provides additional information only in tumors with poor contrast enhancement. It is helpful for defining the exact extent of the edema of any tumor but gives little information about their inner structure.

  20. A fractional motion diffusion model for grading pediatric brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, M Muge; Wang, He; Sui, Yi; Engelhard, Herbert H; Li, Yuhua; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel fractional motion (FM) diffusion model for distinguishing low- versus high-grade pediatric brain tumors; and to investigate its possible advantage over apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and/or a previously reported continuous-time random-walk (CTRW) diffusion model. With approval from the institutional review board and written informed consents from the legal guardians of all participating patients, this study involved 70 children with histopathologically-proven brain tumors (30 low-grade and 40 high-grade). Multi- b -value diffusion images were acquired and analyzed using the FM, CTRW, and mono-exponential diffusion models. The FM parameters, D fm , φ , ψ (non-Gaussian diffusion statistical measures), and the CTRW parameters, D m , α , β (non-Gaussian temporal and spatial diffusion heterogeneity measures) were compared between the low- and high-grade tumor groups by using a Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon U test. The performance of the FM model for differentiating between low- and high-grade tumors was evaluated and compared with that of the CTRW and the mono-exponential models using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The FM parameters were significantly lower ( p  < 0.0001) in the high-grade ( D fm : 0.81 ± 0.26, φ : 1.40 ± 0.10, ψ : 0.42 ± 0.11) than in the low-grade ( D fm : 1.52 ± 0.52, φ : 1.64 ± 0.13, ψ : 0.67 ± 0.13) tumor groups. The ROC analysis showed that the FM parameters offered better specificity (88% versus 73%), sensitivity (90% versus 82%), accuracy (88% versus 78%), and area under the curve (AUC, 93% versus 80%) in discriminating tumor malignancy compared to the conventional ADC. The performance of the FM model was similar to that of the CTRW model. Similar to the CTRW model, the FM model can improve differentiation between low- and high-grade pediatric brain tumors over ADC.

  1. Cerebral function estimation using electro-encephalography for the patients with brain tumor managed by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariya, Yasushi; Saito, Fumio; Kimura, Tamaki

    1999-01-01

    Cerebral function of 12 patients accompanied with brain tumor, managed by radiotherapy, were serially estimated using electroencephalography (EEG), and the results were compared with tumor responses, analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and clinical courses. After radiotherapy, EEG findings were improved in 7 patients, unchanged in 3, and worsened in 1. Clinical courses were generally correlated with serial changes in EEG findings and tumor responses. However, in 3 patients, clinical courses were explained better with EEG findings than tumor responses. It is suggested that the combination of EEG and image analysis is clinically useful for comprehensive estimation of radiotherapeutic effects. (author)

  2. Anticonvulsant therapy in brain-tumor related epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröscher Walter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The lifetime risk of patients with brain tumors to have focal epileptic seizures is 10-100%; the risk depends on different histology. Specific guidelines for drug treatment of brain tumor-related seizures have not yet been established.

  3. Brain Tumor Trials Collaborative | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain Tumor Trials Collaborative In Pursuit of a Cure The mission of the BTTC is to develop and perform state-of-the-art clinical trials in a collaborative and collegial environment, advancing treatments for patients with brain tumors, merging good scientific method with concern for patient well-being and outcome.

  4. Interphone study - on mobile phones and brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Interphone study is the largest study on mobile phone use and risk of brain tumors that have been implemented. The study does not provide reliable answers to whether there is an increased risk of brain tumors using the mobile phone, but is an important contribution. (AG)

  5. Diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumors in clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.S. Gorlia (Thierry)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAccording to the Central Brain Registry Of The United States (CBTRUS) statistical report (February 2012) the incidence rate of all primary non malignant and malignant brain and central nervous system tumors is 19.89 cases per 100.000 (11.58 for non-malignant tumors and 7.31 for malignant

  6. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaHu; Wei-PingZhang; LeiZhang; ZhongChen; Er-QingWei

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is one of the aquaporins (AQPs), a water channel family. In the brain, AQP4 is expressed in astroeyte foot processes, and plays an important role in water homeostasis and in the formation of brain edema. In our study, AQP4 expression in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or different brain tumors was detected

  7. Brain connectivity study of brain tumor patients using MR-PET data: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Ana Carina; Ribeiro, Andre Santos; Oros-Peusquens, Ana Maria; Langen, Karl Josef; Shah, Jon; Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Brain activity results from anatomical and functional connections that can be disrupted or altered due to trauma or lesion. This work presents a first approach on the study of whole-brain connectivity of brain tumor patients using the Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity (MIBCA) toolbox. Two patients with glioblastoma lesions located in the left hemisphere (one in the motor cortex and the other in the temporal lobe) underwent simultaneous MRI and dynamic PET scans using a 3T MRI scanner with a BrainPET insert. The following data was acquired: T1-w MPRAGE (1x1x1mm 3 ), DTI (dir=30, b=0,800s/mm2, 2x2x2mm 3 ), and dynamic 18F-FET PET. The MIBCA toolbox was used to automatically pre-process MRI-PET data and to derive imaging and connectivity metrics from the multimodal data. Computed metrics included: cortical thickness from T1-w data; mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), node degree, clustering coefficient and pairwise ROI fibre tracking (structural connectivity) from DTI data; and standardized uptake value (SUV) from PET data. For all the metrics, the differences between left and right hemispherical structures were obtained, followed by a 25% threshold (except for SUV thresholded at 15%). Data was visualized in a connectogram, and both structural connectivity and metrics were studied in regions surrounding lesions. Preliminary results showed increased SUV values in regions surrounding the tumor for both patients. Patients also showed changes in structural connectivity involving these regions and also other more spatially distant regions such as the putamen and the pallidum, including decreased number of fibers between the subcortical structures themselves and with frontal regions. These findings suggest that the presence of a tumor may alter both local and more distant structural connections. Presently, a larger patient sample is being studied along with the inclusion of a control group to test the consistency of the findings.

  8. Brain connectivity study of brain tumor patients using MR-PET data: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Ana Carina [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (Portugal); Ribeiro, Andre Santos [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (Portugal); Centre for Neuropsychopharmacology, Division of Brain Sciences, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Oros-Peusquens, Ana Maria; Langen, Karl Josef; Shah, Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine - 4, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2015-05-18

    Brain activity results from anatomical and functional connections that can be disrupted or altered due to trauma or lesion. This work presents a first approach on the study of whole-brain connectivity of brain tumor patients using the Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity (MIBCA) toolbox. Two patients with glioblastoma lesions located in the left hemisphere (one in the motor cortex and the other in the temporal lobe) underwent simultaneous MRI and dynamic PET scans using a 3T MRI scanner with a BrainPET insert. The following data was acquired: T1-w MPRAGE (1x1x1mm{sup 3}), DTI (dir=30, b=0,800s/mm2, 2x2x2mm{sup 3}), and dynamic 18F-FET PET. The MIBCA toolbox was used to automatically pre-process MRI-PET data and to derive imaging and connectivity metrics from the multimodal data. Computed metrics included: cortical thickness from T1-w data; mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), node degree, clustering coefficient and pairwise ROI fibre tracking (structural connectivity) from DTI data; and standardized uptake value (SUV) from PET data. For all the metrics, the differences between left and right hemispherical structures were obtained, followed by a 25% threshold (except for SUV thresholded at 15%). Data was visualized in a connectogram, and both structural connectivity and metrics were studied in regions surrounding lesions. Preliminary results showed increased SUV values in regions surrounding the tumor for both patients. Patients also showed changes in structural connectivity involving these regions and also other more spatially distant regions such as the putamen and the pallidum, including decreased number of fibers between the subcortical structures themselves and with frontal regions. These findings suggest that the presence of a tumor may alter both local and more distant structural connections. Presently, a larger patient sample is being studied along with the inclusion of a control group to test the consistency of the findings.

  9. Stereotaxic external irradiation for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.H.; Fayos, J.V.; Houdek, P.V.; Landy, H.; Van Buren, J.

    1987-01-01

    A system has been developed to deliver precision radiation therapy to a limited volume of brain tissue. A CT-compatible nonmetallic headband, or ''halo,'' is secured to the skull with screw pins. A metal frame attached to the CT couch and the patient's head is secured to the couch by temporarily affixing the halo to the frame. A CT scan is obtained to determine the x,y,z coordinates of the brain lesion. The same halo, frame, and coordinates are used in daily treatment with 10-MVX accelerator and a coplanar arc rotation technique. Field size is determined to cover the target volume with the 90% isodose line. Verification films are obtained twice a week. On completion of treatment, the halo is removed. From December 1982 to January 1986, 14 patients were treated with this system. Six had pituitary tumors, two had craniopharyngiomas, and six had astrocytomas. The dose delivered ranged from 3,600 rad in 12 fractions to 6,250 rad in 25 fractions at a rate of one fraction per day, 5 days a week. Judging from the verification films, daily administration of intended radiation was extremely good. Superficial infection of the screw-pin sites healed without sequelae. All patients were alive at the last follow-up. This system is relatively simple yet able to deliver precision irradiation without any remarkable complications

  10. Study on intraoperative radiotherapy of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uozumi, Akimasa

    1990-01-01

    Effects of a single large dose radiation on the brain of dogs were investigated for the purpose of determining the optimal dose and radiation field in intraoperative radiotherapy. The right parietal lobe of dogs (three groups, four dogs in each) were radiated at the dose of 30, 40 and 50 Gy respectively at the depth of 1.5 cm by 11 Nev electron beam with field size of 2 cm. CT and histopathological study were performed 2, 6, 12 and 24 months after radiation. L-hemiparesis developed 14 months after radiation in the 30 Gy group and 8 months in the 40 Gy group, 6 months in the 50 Gy group. All animals in the 40 Gy and 50 Gy groups died before 15 months of radiation. CT showed delayed radiation necrosis in all groups. Brain swelling and ventricular displacement in the radiated hemisphere and contralateral ventricular dilatation were depicted on plain CT. Diffuse heterogeneous contrast enhancement (CE) was observed on CE-CT. CT revealed disappearance of radiation necrosis in the 30 Gy group 24 months of radiation, suggesting that radiation necrosis may be dependent on the term after radiation. Histological findings of radiation necrosis were similar in all animals, and the vascular change preceding the parechymal necrosis was not observed. This supports the theory that the vascular alternation dose not play a major role in the production of radiation necrosis. The necrotic area grossly reflected the isodose curve and was observed in the radiation field with 15 to 20 Gy at the depth of 3 to 4.5 cm. Thus, the intraoperative radiotherapy should be planned on the basis of two such factors as electron beam energy and the field size, and the area out of the target should not be radiated at the dose of more than 15 Gy. The author believes that the information would contribute to safer and more effective application of intraoperative radiotherapy on malignant brain tumors. (J.P.N.) 63 refs

  11. Utility of 99mTc-GHA Brain SPECT in the grading of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, B.R.; Kumar, Ashok

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Brain tumors are of diverse histological types, the most common being derived from glial tissue. The clinical management and prognosis of brain tumor patients is dependent on accurate neuro-pathologic diagnosis and grading. Radiological imaging is not always a good modality for assessing the exact nature and grade of a malignant tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a very high soft tissue resolution and is helpful in classifying the grade of tumor. Radionuclide imaging techniques that can reveal metabolic activity within tumor cells are very helpful in predicting the degree of malignancy. Usefulness of Tl-201 SPECT and FDG PET studies have been widely reported to evaluate malignant lesions by measuring increased regional glucose metabolism and amino acid uptake. 99mTc-GHA (Glucoheptonate), more or less analogous to 18F-FDG, may show increased glucose metabolism and help in grading tumors. This study was carried out to determine the utility of 99mTc-GHA SPECT for grading cerebral gliomas. Nineteen patients (12M, 7F) aged 22 to 51 years (36.1 ± 8.3) diagnosed clinically and radiologically to have a brain tumor were evaluated with 99mTc-GHA brain SPECT. All the patients had undergone CT/ MRI examination prior to the brain SPECT study. No patient had undergone surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy before the imaging studies. Brain SPECT was performed twice, i.e 40 min and 3 hours after intravenous administration of 20 mCi of Tc99m-GHA under a dual head SPECT gamma camera (Ecam, Siemens), with a low energy high-resolution collimator. A total of 128 frames of 30 seconds each, 64 per detector, were acquired in 128 x 128 matrix, with 360-degree rotation in step and shoot mode. Reconstruction of the SPECT data was done using standard software. Abnormal concentration of tracer at the tumor site was compared to normal uptake on the contralateral side, and ratios obtained for early (40 min) and delayed (3 hours) uptake of tracer. Retention ratio (RR), a

  12. Remodeling the blood–brain barrier microenvironment by natural products for brain tumor therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Zhao; Rujing Chen; Mei Liu; Jianfang Feng; Jun Chen; Kaili Hu

    2017-01-01

    Brain tumor incidence shows an upward trend in recent years; brain tumors account for 5% of adult tumors, while in children, this figure has increased to 70%. Moreover, 20%–30% of malignant tumors will eventually metastasize into the brain. Both benign and malignant tumors can cause an increase in intracranial pressure and brain tissue compression, leading to central nervous system(CNS) damage which endangers the patients’ lives. Despite the many approaches to treating brain tumors and the progress that has been made, only modest gains in survival time of brain tumor patients have been achieved. At present, chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for many cancers, but the special structure of the blood–brain barrier(BBB) limits most chemotherapeutic agents from passing through the BBB and penetrating into tumors in the brain. The BBB microenvironment contains numerous cell types, including endothelial cells, astrocytes, peripheral cells and microglia, and extracellular matrix(ECM). Many chemical components of natural products are reported to regulate the BBB microenvironment near brain tumors and assist in their treatment. This review focuses on the composition and function of the BBB microenvironment under both physiological and pathological conditions, and the current research progress in regulating the BBB microenvironment by natural products to promote the treatment of brain tumors.

  13. High-resolution 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging at 1.5 and 3 Tesla of the human brain: development of techniques and applications for patients with primary brain tumors and multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, A.

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this work was to develop several strategies and software-packages for the evaluation of in-vivo-data of the human brain, which were acquired with high-resolution 1H-MRSI at 1.5 and 3 T. Several studies involving phantoms, volunteers and patients were performed. Quality assurance studies were conducted in order to evaluate the reproducibility of the applied MR-techniques at both field strengths. A qualitative comparison-study between MRSI-data from a 1.5 T clinical MR-scanner and a 3 T research MR-scanner showed the advantages of the more advanced MRSI sequences and higher field strength (3 T). A study involving patients with primary brain tumours (gliomas) was performed in cooperation with the Department of Neurosurgery (University of Erlangen-Nuremberg). The methods developed in the course of this study, such as the integration of MRS-data into a stereotactic-system, the segmentation of metabolic maps and the correlation with histopathological findings represent a package of vital information for diagnostics and therapy of primary brain tumors, neurodegenerative disorders or epilepsy. In the course of two pilot-studies in cooperation with the MR-Centre of Excellence (Medical University of Vienna) the advantages of high-resolution 3D in-vivo-1H-MRSI at 3T were qualitatively evaluated via measurements on patients with brain tumors and multiple sclerosis (MS). It was demonstrated that 1H-MRSI may be valuable for the diagnosis, follow-up and prediction of 'seizures' with MS-patients. In conclusion, this work contains an overview of potential and advantages of in-vivo-1H-MRS-methods at 1.5 and 3 T for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with gliomas and MS. (author)

  14. Clinical evaluation of FMPSPGR sequence of the brain MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Mitsuyuki; Hasegawa, Makoto; Mori, Naohiko; Yamanoguchi, Minoru; Matsubara, Tadashi

    1998-01-01

    In order to apply the FMPSPGR (fast multi planar spoiled GRASS) method to diagnose brain diseases, authors obtained the optimal condition for imaging by the phantom experiments and examined the clinical usefulness. Six kinds of the phantom, which were 4 of diluted Gd solution with different concentrations, olive oil and physiological saline solution were used. From the phantom experiments, TR/TE/FR=300/3.3/90 degrees was the optimal condition. The evaluation of the clinical images was performed on the same section by the ST method and the FMPSPGR method. Fifteen patients (9 men and 6 women, aged from 17 to 80 years) suspected of brain diseases were examined, including 8 of cerebral infarction, 1 of pontine infarction, 1 of brain contusion, 1 of intracerebral bleeding and 4 of brain tumors. Four cases of brain tumor were evaluated on the contrast imaging and the others were on the plain imaging. In the plain imaging, the FMPSPGR method was better than the SE method on the low signal region in the T1 weighted imaging. Furthermore, in the contrast imaging, it could give more clear images of the lesion in anterior cranial pit by suppressing artifacts of blood flow. The present results indicate that the FMPSPGR method is useful to diagnose brain diseases. (K.H.)

  15. Minireview of Stereoselective Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Donald F.; Jakobsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Stereoselectivity is a fundamental principle in living systems. Stereoselectivity reflects the dependence of molecular processes on the spatial orientation of constituent atoms. Stereoselective processes govern many aspects of brain function and direct the course of many psychotropic drugs. Today......, modern imaging techniques such as SPECT and PET provide a means for studying stereoselective processes in the living brain. Chemists have prepared numerous radiolabelled stereoisomers for use in SPECT and PET in order to explore various molecular processes in the living brain of anesthetized laboratory...... animals and awake humans. The studies have demonstrated how many aspects of neurotransmission consist of crucial stereoselective events that can affect brain function in health and disease. Here, we present a brief account of those findings in hope of stimulating further interest in the vital topic....

  16. Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-27

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  17. NMR relaxation times in human brain tumors (preliminary results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, L.; Certaines, J. de; Chatel, M.; Menault, F.

    1981-01-01

    Since the early work of Damadian in 1971, proton NMR studies of tumors has been well documented. Present study concerns the spin-lattice T 1 and spin-spin T 2 relaxation times of normal dog brain according to the histological differentiation and of 35 human benignant or malignant tumors. The results principally show T 2 important variations between white and gray substance in normal brain but no discrimination between malignant and benignant tumors [fr

  18. Retrieval of Brain Tumors by Adaptive Spatial Pooling and Fisher Vector Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Yang, Wei; Huang, Meiyan; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Yujia; Yang, Ru; Zhao, Jie; Feng, Yanqiu; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2016-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) techniques have currently gained increasing popularity in the medical field because they can use numerous and valuable archived images to support clinical decisions. In this paper, we concentrate on developing a CBIR system for retrieving brain tumors in T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI images. Specifically, when the user roughly outlines the tumor region of a query image, brain tumor images in the database of the same pathological type are expected to be returned. We propose a novel feature extraction framework to improve the retrieval performance. The proposed framework consists of three steps. First, we augment the tumor region and use the augmented tumor region as the region of interest to incorporate informative contextual information. Second, the augmented tumor region is split into subregions by an adaptive spatial division method based on intensity orders; within each subregion, we extract raw image patches as local features. Third, we apply the Fisher kernel framework to aggregate the local features of each subregion into a respective single vector representation and concatenate these per-subregion vector representations to obtain an image-level signature. After feature extraction, a closed-form metric learning algorithm is applied to measure the similarity between the query image and database images. Extensive experiments are conducted on a large dataset of 3604 images with three types of brain tumors, namely, meningiomas, gliomas, and pituitary tumors. The mean average precision can reach 94.68%. Experimental results demonstrate the power of the proposed algorithm against some related state-of-the-art methods on the same dataset.

  19. Efficacy and toxicity in brain tumor treatment - quantitative Measurements using advanced MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Søren

    2016-01-01

    From the clinical introduction in the 1980s, MRI has grown to become an indispensable brain imaging modality, mainly due to its excellent ability to visualize soft tissues. Morphologically, T1- and T2-weighted brain tumor MRI have been part of routine diagnostic radiology for more than two decades...... with the introduction of magnets with higher field strength. Ongoing technical development has enabled a change from semiquantitative measurements to a true quantitative approach. This step is expected to have a great impact on the treatment of brain tumor patients in the future. The aim of this Ph.D. dissertation...... was to explore how different advanced MRI techniques could contribute to a higher degree of individualized treatment of brain tumor patients. The thesis is based on three studies in which advanced MRI is used to evaluate the possible role of fMRI in presurgical planning, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI...

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of intraorbital tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tooru; Fukui, Masashi; Matsushima, Toshio; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Hasuo, Kanehiro

    1991-01-01

    Ten cases of histologically confirmed intraorbital tumors were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two meningiomas were nearly isointense on the T 1 -weighted image (T 1 WI) and the T 2 -weighted image (T 2 WI) relative on the cerebral cortex. The hemangiopericytoma, lacrimal gland tumor, optic glioma, and encephalocele were hypointense on the T 1 WI. The pseudotumor was hypoisointense on both the T 1 WI and the T 2 WI. The metastatic tumor (prostatic carcinoma) was hyperintense on both the T 1 WI and the T 2 WI. Gd-DTPA MRI was performed in five cases. The anatomical relationships between the tumor and the orbital tissue could be discriminated well by means of the coronal and sagittal views. MRI is thus found to be useful for the preoperative diagnosis of the intraorbital tumor and the selection of the surgical approach. (author)

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of intraorbital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Tooru; Fukui, Masashi; Matsushima, Toshio; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Hasuo, Kanehiro (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1991-12-01

    Ten cases of histologically confirmed intraorbital tumors were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two meningiomas were nearly isointense on the T[sub 1]-weighted image (T[sub 1]WI) and the T[sub 2]-weighted image (T[sub 2]WI) relative on the cerebral cortex. The hemangiopericytoma, lacrimal gland tumor, optic glioma, and encephalocele were hypointense on the T[sub 1]WI. The pseudotumor was hypoisointense on both the T[sub 1]WI and the T[sub 2]WI. The metastatic tumor (prostatic carcinoma) was hyperintense on both the T[sub 1]WI and the T[sub 2]WI. Gd-DTPA MRI was performed in five cases. The anatomical relationships between the tumor and the orbital tissue could be discriminated well by means of the coronal and sagittal views. MRI is thus found to be useful for the preoperative diagnosis of the intraorbital tumor and the selection of the surgical approach. (author).

  2. Fetal antigen 2 in primary and secondary brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H Boje; Teisner, B; Schrøder, H D

    1991-01-01

    Immunohistochemical deposition and distribution of fetal antigen 2 (FA2) was examined in normal brain tissue and in primary and metastatic tumors of the brain. In normal brain tissue FA2 was exclusively found linearly around the vessels, along pia and in arachnoidea. A similar localization was seen...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain KidsHealth / For Parents / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain What's in this article? What ...

  4. Impact of Gradient Number and Voxel Size on Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography for Resective Brain Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, Friso W. A.; de Witt Hamer, Philip C.; Pouwels, Petra J. W.; Barkhof, Frederik; Vandertop, W. Peter

    2017-01-01

    To explore quantitatively and qualitatively how the number of gradient directions (NGD) and spatial resolution (SR) affect diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography in patients planned for brain tumor surgery, using routine clinical magnetic resonance imaging protocols. Of 67 patients with

  5. MR imaging manifestations of skin tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong-hyon; Kim, Jee Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea); Chun, Kyung Ah [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary Hospital, Uijeongbu, Gyeonggi-do (Korea); Jee, Won-Hee [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Sung, Mi-Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Holy family Hospital, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea)

    2008-11-15

    In this study, we evaluated MR imaging findings of skin tumors and categorized them into four types: (1) discrete mass lesions of the dermis and epidermis, (2) mass lesions of the subcutis with or without abutment to the skin, (3) diffuse or localized skin thickening without a true mass, and (4) a skin mass with bone destruction. The categorization of MR images may be useful in the differential diagnosis of skin tumors. (orig.)

  6. Hypofractionation Regimens for Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Large Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jiankui; Wang, Jian Z.; Lo, Simon; Grecula, John C.; Ammirati, Mario; Montebello, Joseph F.; Zhang Hualin; Gupta, Nilendu; Yuh, William T.C.; Mayr, Nina A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate equivalent regimens for hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) for brain tumor treatment and to provide dose-escalation guidance to maximize the tumor control within the normal brain tolerance. Methods and Materials: The linear-quadratic model, including the effect of nonuniform dose distributions, was used to evaluate the HSRT regimens. The α/β ratio was estimated using the Gammaknife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) and whole-brain radiotherapy experience for large brain tumors. The HSRT regimens were derived using two methods: (1) an equivalent tumor control approach, which matches the whole-brain radiotherapy experience for many fractions and merges it with the GKSRS data for few fractions; and (2) a normal-tissue tolerance approach, which takes advantages of the dose conformity and fractionation of HSRT to approach the maximal dose tolerance of the normal brain. Results: A plausible α/β ratio of 12 Gy for brain tumor and a volume parameter n of 0.23 for normal brain were derived from the GKSRS and whole-brain radiotherapy data. The HSRT prescription regimens for the isoeffect of tumor irradiation were calculated. The normal-brain equivalent uniform dose decreased as the number of fractions increased, because of the advantage of fractionation. The regimens for potential dose escalation of HSRT within the limits of normal-brain tolerance were derived. Conclusions: The designed hypofractionated regimens could be used as a preliminary guide for HSRT dose prescription for large brain tumors to mimic the GKSRS experience and for dose escalation trials. Clinical studies are necessary to further tune the model parameters and validate these regimens

  7. Brain Imaging in Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith A.; Fox, Nick C.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Klunk, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Imaging has played a variety of roles in the study of Alzheimer disease (AD) over the past four decades. Initially, computed tomography (CT) and then magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used diagnostically to rule out other causes of dementia. More recently, a variety of imaging modalities including structural and functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral metabolism with fluoro-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) and amyloid tracers such as Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB) have shown characteristic changes in the brains of patients with AD, and in prodromal and even presymptomatic states that can help rule-in the AD pathophysiological process. No one imaging modality can serve all purposes as each have unique strengths and weaknesses. These modalities and their particular utilities are discussed in this article. The challenge for the future will be to combine imaging biomarkers to most efficiently facilitate diagnosis, disease staging, and, most importantly, development of effective disease-modifying therapies. PMID:22474610

  8. Early-postoperative magnetic resonance imaging in glial tumors: prediction of tumor regrowth and recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekinci, Gazanfer; Akpinar, Ihsan N. E-mail: i.akpinar@mailcity.com; Baltacioglu, Feyyaz; Erzen, Canan; Kilic, Tuerker; Elmaci, Ilhan; Pamir, Necmettin

    2003-02-01

    Objective: This study investigated the value of early-postoperative magnetic resonance (EPMR) imaging in the detection of residual glial tumor and investigated the role of EPMR for the prediction of tumor regrowth and recurrence. Methods and materials: We retrospectively analyzed pre- and post-operative magnetic resonance imaging results from 50 adult patients who underwent surgical treatment for supratentorial glial tumor. There were glioblastoma multiforme in 25 patients, astrocytoma (grades II and III) in 11 patients, oligodendroglioma (grades II and III) in 9 patients, and oligoastrocytoma (grades II and III) in 5 patients. EPMR imaging was performed within 24 h after surgery. EPMR findings were compared with the neurosurgeon's intraoperative estimation of gross tumor removal. Patterns of contrast enhancement at the resection site, in residual and developing tumor tissue and blood at the resection site were evaluated on EPMR and in follow-up studies. 'Residual tumor' was defined as contrast enhancing mass at the operative site on EPMR. 'Regrowth' was defined as contrast enhancing mass detected on follow-up in the same location as the primary tumor. 'Recurrence' was defined as appearance of a mass lesion in the brain parenchyma distant from the resection bed during follow-up. Results: Nineteen patients showed no evidence of residual tumor, regrowth, or recurrence on EPMR or any of the later follow-up radiological examinations. EPMR identified 20 cases of residual tumor. Follow-up showed tumor regrowth in 10 patients, and tumor recurrence in 1 case. EPMR showed contrast enhancement of the resection bed in 45 of the 50 patients. Four of the 20 residual tumors showed a thick linear enhancement pattern, and the other 16 cases exhibited thick linear-nodular enhancement. No thin linear enhancement was observed in the residual tumor group. Nine of the 10-regrowth tumors showed a thick linear-nodular enhancement pattern, and one

  9. Re-irradiation for metastatic brain tumors with whole-brain radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Takeshi; Kunieda, Etsuo; Kogawa, Asuka; Komatsu, Tetsuya; Tamai, Yoshifumi; Ohizumi, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether second whole-brain irradiation is beneficial for patients previously treated with whole-brain irradiation. A retrospective analysis was done for 31 patients with brain metastases who had undergone re-irradiation. Initial whole-brain irradiation was performed with 30 Gy/10 fractions for 87% of these patients. Whole-brain re-irradiation was performed with 30 Gy/10 fractions for 42% of these patients (3-40 Gy/1-20 fractions). Three patients underwent a third whole-brain irradiation. The median interval between the initial irradiation and re-irradiation was 10 months (range: 2-69 months). The median survival time after re-irradiation was 4 months (range: 1-21 months). The symptomatic improvement rate after re-irradiation was 68%, and the partial and complete tumor response rate was 55%. Fifty-two percent of the patients developed Grade 1 acute reactions. On magnetic resonance imaging, brain atrophy was observed in 36% of these patients after the initial irradiation and 74% after re-irradiation. Grade ≥2 encephalopathy or cognitive disturbance was observed in 10 patients (32%) after re-irradiation. Based on univariate analysis, significant factors related to survival after re-irradiation were the location of the primary cancer (P=0.003) and the Karnofsky performance status at the time of re-irradiation (P=0.008). A Karnofsky performance status ≥70 was significant based on multivariate analysis (P=0.050). Whole-brain re-irradiation for brain metastases placed only a slight burden on patients and was effective for symptomatic improvement. However, their remaining survival time was limited and the incidence of cognitive disturbance was rather high. (author)

  10. Sodium MR imaging of human brain neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Takakura, Kintomo; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-01-01

    We reported the experience of the sodium magnetic resonance imaging of 5 patients with brain tumors (4 astrocytomas and 1 craniopharyngioma), using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla superconductive magnet. We used two-dimensional Fourier imaging with a spin-echo scanning sequence (and with the repetition time of 140 msec and the echo time of 11 - 14 msec). The radiofrequency was maintained at 17 MHz. Sodium MR imaging was achieved with a 64 x 64 data acquisition (30 mm slice thickness) in 19.1 min. On the sodium MRI, all four astrocytomas, along with the eye balls and the cerebrospinal fluid spaces, appeared as high-intensity areas. Peritumoral edema is also visualized as highly intense, so that it is difficult to discriminate tumor extent from the surrounding edema. Our comparative studies with malignant glioma cases using the same equipment are needed to clarify the relationship between sodium signal intensities and the malignancy of gliomas, and to evaluate the potential clinical utility of sodium MRI. A craniopharyngioma than contained a yellowish cystic fluid with a sodium concentration as high as CSF was shown on sodium MRI as a mass with highly intense signals. The ability to differentiate extracellular from intracellular sodium, that has been studied by several investigators, would greatly augment the clinical specificity of MR imaging. (author)

  11. Enhanced tumor imaging with pokeweed mitogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitner, D.M.; Mann, P.L.; D'Souza, P.; Wenk, R.; Baughman, D.G.; Quesada, S.M.; Purvis, R.; Born, J.L.; Matwiyoff, N.A.; Eshima, D.

    1993-01-01

    Traditional tumor imaging with biotracer techniques relies solely on the target specificity of the biomolecule. We hypothesize that specific imaging is possible by altering the rate of tissue clearance of any given radiotracer. Pokeweed mitogen (PWM) as a biomodulator, represents a class of molecules which regulate cellular differentiation and cell-cell interactions and, as part of these mechanisms alter tissue clearance rates. Utilizing the B-16/C57BL/6 model, 7 days post-transplantation, 10 animals were imaged following an i.v. injection of 1-2 mCi 99m Tc-PWM in order to visualize the tumors and determine the optimal imaging kinetics. A specific tumor image is achieved between 120 and 240 min post-injection. In addition, tumor imaging studies using a non-tumor-specific biomolecule were conducted by injecting 19 animals i.v. with 1-2 mCi of 99m Tc-human serum albumin (HSA). Twelve of these animals were given 10 μg of PWM i.p. at various intervals prior to the 99m Tc-HAS administration. Imaging and biodistribution studies were performed at various intervals up to 2 h post- 99m Tc-HSA injection. A 32-59% increase in the tumor-to-muscle ratio was observed in the PWM-treated animals relative to the non-treated controls. To further investigate the PWM-induced tissue clearance alteration hypothesis, tissue clearance studies using 99m Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) were conducted in non-tumor bearing ICR mice and the B-16/C57BL/6 tumor bearing animals. 99m Tc-DTPA normal tissue clearance rates were significantly increased in the PWM treated animals relative to the non-treated controls. (author)

  12. Imaging of pancreatic tumors with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanzi, I.; Robeson, W.; Vinciquerra, V.; Chaly, T.; Kroop, S.; Dahl, R.; Schulman, P.; Goldman, S.; Margouleff, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper identifies pancreatic tumors with positron emission tomography (PET) using F-18 2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). PET studies were performed in 13 patients with pancreatic tumors (11 adenocarcinomas; two islet cell tumors) using FDG. Data were acquired for 1 hour and in 14 contiguous 7-mm sections after attenuation correction. Suspicious areas were evaluated using quantitative techniques. In seven of 11 patients with adenocarcinomas, focal increase in FDG uptake correlated with pancreatic tumor shown on CT scans or MR images. Of the remaining four, one had a previous Whipple procedure, another had completed chemotherapy, and in two the tumor was out of the limited region imaged; in these four patients, liver metastases were identified in three

  13. Automated Processing of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: Correlation of Advanced Pharmacokinetic Metrics with Tumor Grade in Pediatric Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajapeyam, S; Stamoulis, C; Ricci, K; Kieran, M; Poussaint, T Young

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging have proved useful for differentiating brain tumor grades in adults. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion data from children with newly diagnosed brain tumors and analyzed the pharmacokinetic parameters correlating with tumor grade. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging data from 38 patients were analyzed by using commercially available software. Subjects were categorized into 2 groups based on pathologic analyses consisting of low-grade (World Health Organization I and II) and high-grade (World Health Organization III and IV) tumors. Pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between the 2 groups by using linear regression models. For parameters that were statistically distinct between the 2 groups, sensitivity and specificity were also estimated. Eighteen tumors were classified as low-grade, and 20, as high-grade. Transfer constant from the blood plasma into the extracellular extravascular space (K trans ), rate constant from extracellular extravascular space back into blood plasma (K ep ), and extracellular extravascular volume fraction (V e ) were all significantly correlated with tumor grade; high-grade tumors showed higher K trans , higher K ep , and lower V e . Although all 3 parameters had high specificity (range, 82%-100%), K ep had the highest specificity for both grades. Optimal sensitivity was achieved for V e , with a combined sensitivity of 76% (compared with 71% for K trans and K ep ). Pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging can effectively discriminate low- and high-grade pediatric brain tumors. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. Blood Brain Barrier: A Challenge for Effectual Therapy of Brain Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmik, Arijit; Khan, Rajni; Ghosh, Mrinal Kanti

    2015-01-01

    Brain tumors are one of the most formidable diseases of mankind. They have only a fair to poor prognosis and high relapse rate. One of the major causes of extreme difficulty in brain tumor treatment is the presence of blood brain barrier (BBB). BBB comprises different molecular components and transport systems, which in turn create efflux machinery or hindrance for the entry of several drugs in brain. Thus, along with the conventional techniques, successful modification of drug delivery and n...

  15. Imaging of childhood inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguz, Berna; Ozcan, Hatice Nursun; Omay, Burak; Ozgen, Burce; Haliloglu, Mithat [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Altindag / Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-10-15

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare benign neoplasm and most commonly involves the lung but occurs in extrapulmonary locations. To present imaging findings in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors in children based on a single-centre experience. We retrospectively reviewed CT and MRI findings of children diagnosed with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in a single institution. We identified 15 children (range: 1-17 years) with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The tumor was localized to the lung (n = 5), mediastinum (n = 3), trachea (n = 1), bronchus (n = 1), abdomen (n = 2) and orbit (n = 3). All the extraorbital tumors were solid masses with homogeneous or heterogeneous enhancement. Four lung tumors and one posterior mediastinal tumor contained calcification. Local recurrence following surgical removal occurred in two children with invasion of the esophagus and of the left atrium in one. Localized masses were seen in all children with orbital tumour. Two of these had episcleritis and perineuritis; one had episcleritis, tendonitis, perineuritis, myositis and dacryoadenitis. The locations and imaging features of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are variable. (orig.)

  16. Brain Imaging with the Spintharicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsaith, Ann L.; Horwitz, N. H.; Lofstrom, J. E.; Izenstark, J. L.; Cook, K. J. [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    1969-01-15

    The spark imaging camera has been successfully applied to the imaging of the distributions of radioactive {sup 125}I in the thyroid gland. A 7-in.-diameter chamber has been developed for use with larger organs. In experiments with skull phantoms, high-resolution images have been obtained with focal areas of 2.2 cm in diameter containing as little as 30 {mu}Ci of {sup 99'}mTc-labelled sodium pertechnetate at a distance as great as 10 cm from the face of the collimator. In its present form, the Spintharicon is not adaptable to electronic discrimination of photon energies. An electronic quenching circuit aids in increasing the count-rate with the high fluxes that can be obtained in {sup 99m}Tc brain imaging. The contrast obtained in the image is controlled by the film contrast and camera f-stop. By using high-contrast copy film instead of the conventional ASA 3000 type, areas of increased activity are more easily visualized in a background pool of radioactivity. In these large distributions spark contents ranging from 30 000 to 60 000 are usually required for adequate resolution. In-vivo demonstrations of known brain lesions have been obtained with the Spintharicon. In its present stage of development, the inability to enhance contrast may limit its clinical usefulness in situations where the target to non-target ratio is low. (author)

  17. Fueling and Imaging Brain Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald A Dienel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models.

  18. Fueling and imaging brain activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models. PMID:22612861

  19. Improving the accuracy of brain tumor surgery via Raman-based technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollon, Todd; Lewis, Spencer; Freudiger, Christian W; Sunney Xie, X; Orringer, Daniel A

    2016-03-01

    Despite advances in the surgical management of brain tumors, achieving optimal surgical results and identification of tumor remains a challenge. Raman spectroscopy, a laser-based technique that can be used to nondestructively differentiate molecules based on the inelastic scattering of light, is being applied toward improving the accuracy of brain tumor surgery. Here, the authors systematically review the application of Raman spectroscopy for guidance during brain tumor surgery. Raman spectroscopy can differentiate normal brain from necrotic and vital glioma tissue in human specimens based on chemical differences, and has recently been shown to differentiate tumor-infiltrated tissues from noninfiltrated tissues during surgery. Raman spectroscopy also forms the basis for coherent Raman scattering (CRS) microscopy, a technique that amplifies spontaneous Raman signals by 10,000-fold, enabling real-time histological imaging without the need for tissue processing, sectioning, or staining. The authors review the relevant basic and translational studies on CRS microscopy as a means of providing real-time intraoperative guidance. Recent studies have demonstrated how CRS can be used to differentiate tumor-infiltrated tissues from noninfiltrated tissues and that it has excellent agreement with traditional histology. Under simulated operative conditions, CRS has been shown to identify tumor margins that would be undetectable using standard bright-field microscopy. In addition, CRS microscopy has been shown to detect tumor in human surgical specimens with near-perfect agreement to standard H & E microscopy. The authors suggest that as the intraoperative application and instrumentation for Raman spectroscopy and imaging matures, it will become an essential component in the neurosurgical armamentarium for identifying residual tumor and improving the surgical management of brain tumors.

  20. Local recurrence of metastatic brain tumor after surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoura, Nobusada; Yamada, Ryoji; Okamoto, Koichiro; Nakamura, Osamu; Shitara, Nobuyuki; Karasawa, Katsuyuki

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed factors associated with the local recurrence of brain metastases after surgery. Forty-seven patients with 67 metastatic brain tumors underwent surgery between 1994 and 2001. The survival time in the ''no recurrence'' group (34.7 months) was significantly longer than that in the recurrence group (21.9 months) (p=0.0008; log rank test). The factors affecting the local recurrence of brain metastases after surgery were as follows: cyst (p=0.0156), dural invasion (p=0.0029) of tumors, failure to totally remove tumors (p=0.0040), and lack of post-surgical irradiation (p<0.0001). Sex, age, tumor histology, tumor size, pre-surgical radiation, dose (≥45 vs <45, ≥50 vs <50 Gy) and the method (local vs whole brain) of post-surgical radiation did not affect the local recurrence rate of brain metastases after surgery. To avoid early recurrences of metastatic brain tumors, the factors associated with local recurrence should be considered in providing optimal treatment of tumors by surgery. (author)

  1. Cellular characterization of the peritumoral edema zone in malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhorn, T.; Schwarz, M.A.; Savaskan, N.E.

    2009-01-01

    Brain edema is a hallmark of human malignant brain tumors and contributes to the clinical course and outcome of brain tumor patients. The so-called perifocal edema or brain swelling imposes in T2-weighted MR scans as high intensity areas surrounding the bulk tumor mass. The mechanisms of this increased fluid attraction and the cellular composition of the microenvironment are only partially understood. In this study, we focus on imaging perifocal edema in orthotopically implanted gliomas in rodents and correlate perifocal edema with immunohistochemical markers. We identified that areas of perifocal edema not only include the tumor invasion zone, but also are associated with increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and aquaporin-4 expression surrounding the bulk tumor mass. Moreover, a high number of activated microglial cells expressing CD11b and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) accumulate at the tumor border. Thus, the area of perifocal edema is mainly dominated by reactive changes of vital brain tissue. These data corroborate that perifocal edema identified in T2-weighted MR scans are characterized with alterations in glial cell distribution and marker expression forming an inflammatory tumor microenvironment. (author)

  2. Gd-DOTA enhancement of cerebral and spinal tumors on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, I.; Manelfe, C.; Chastin, I.; Arrue, P.; Prere, J.

    1987-01-01

    The use of Gd-DOTA as a contrast agent in MR imaging to improve the diagnosis of cerebral and spinal tumors was assessed in 20 patients, ten with brain tumors and ten with spinal tumors. Imaging was performed with a 0.5-T Magniscan 5000 unit. T1-weighted (spin-echo and gradient-echo) and T2-weighted (spin-echo) images were acquired before and after intravenous injection of Gd-DOTA, 0.1 mmol/kg. On T1-weighted images, Gd-DOTA enhanced sites of presumed disruption of the blood-brain barrier. This made some brain tumors more conspicuous and helped target biopsies, but did not reveal any additional lesions. On the other hand, the use of Gd-DOTA significantly improved the reliability of spinal tumor imaging compared to imaging performed without contrast agent, allowing delineation of abnormalities on T1-weighted images, which frequently contain fewer artifacts than the most sensitive T2-weighted images. Images obtained with Gd-DOTA could be used by the physician to rule out residual tumor after surgery and to assess recurrences. Additional work should be done to discover whether spinal tumor exploration with MR imaging could include solely T1-weighted sequences, performed before and after contrast agent administration, without T2-weighted sequences

  3. Application of 31P MR spectroscopy to the brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Dong Ho; Choi, Sun Seob; Oh, Jong Young; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Kang, Myong Jin; Kim, Ki Uk

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical feasibility and obtain useful parameters of 3 1P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study for making the differential diagnosis of brain tumors. Twenty-eight patients with brain tumorous lesions (22 cases of brain tumor and 6 cases of abscess) and 11 normal volunteers were included. The patients were classified into the astrocytoma group, lymphoma group, metastasis group and the abscess group. We obtained the intracellular pH and the metabolite ratios of phosphomonoesters/phosophodiesters (PME/PDE), PME/inorganic phosphate (Pi), PDE/Pi, PME/adenosine triphosphate (ATP), PDE/ATP, PME/phosphocreatine (PCr), PDE/PCr, PCr/ATP, PCr/Pi, and ATP/Pi, and evaluated the statistical significances. The brain tumors had a tendency of alkalization (pH = 7.28 ± 0.27, p = 0.090), especially the pH of the lymphoma was significantly increased (pH = 7.45 ± 0.32, p = 0.013). The brain tumor group showed increased PME/PDE ratio compared with that in the normal control group (p 0.012). The ratios of PME/PDE, PDE/Pi, PME/PCr and PDE/PCr showed statistically significant differences between each brain lesion groups (p 1 'P MRS, and the pH, PME/PDE, PDE/Pi, PME/PCr, and PDE/PCr ratios are helpful for differentiating among the different types of brain tumors.

  4. Nuclear Medicine Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabander, Tessa; Kwekkeboom, Dik J.; Feelders, Richard A.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Teunissen, Jaap J. M.; Papotti, M; DeHerder, WW

    2015-01-01

    An important role is reserved for nuclear imaging techniques in the imaging of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with In-111-DTPA-octreotide is currently the most important tracer in the diagnosis, staging and selection for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

  5. Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Kumada, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    It is very difficult to treat the patients with malignant brain tumor in children, especially under 3 years, because the conventional irradiation cannot be applied due to the damage of normal brain tissue. However, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has tumor selectivity such that it can make damage only in tumor cells. We evaluated the clinical results and courses in patients with malignant glioma under 15 years. Among 183 patients with brain tumors treated by our group using BSH-based intra-operative BNCT, 23 patients were under 15 years. They included 4 patients under 3 years. There were 3 glioblastomas (GBM), 6 anaplastic astrocytomas(AAS), 7 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), 6 pontine gliomas and 1 anaplastic ependymoma. All GBM and PNET patients died due to CSF and/or CNS dissemination without local tumor regrowth. All pontine glioma patients died due to regrowth of the tumor. Four of 6 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 anaplastic ependymoma patients alive without tumor recurrence. BNCT can be applied to malignant brain tumors in children, especially under 3 years instead of conventional radiation. Although it can achieve the local control in the primary site, it cannot prevent CSF dissemination in patients with glioblastoma.

  6. From reverse transcription to human brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrenko V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase from avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV was the subject of the study, from which the investi- gations of the Department of biosynthesis of nucleic acids were started. Production of AMV in grams quantities and isolation of AMV reverse transcriptase were established in the laboratory during the seventies of the past cen- tury and this initiated research on the cDNA synthesis, cloning and investigation of the structure and functions of the eukaryotic genes. Structures of salmon insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF family genes and their transcripts were determined during long-term investigations. Results of two modern techniques, microarray-ba- sed hybridization and SAGE, were used for the identification of the genes differentially expressed in astrocytic gliomas and human normal brain. Comparison of SAGE results on the genes overexpressed in glioblastoma with the results of microarray analysis revealed a limited number of common genes. 105 differentially expressed genes, common to both methods, can be included in the list of candidates for the molecular typing of glioblastoma. The first experiments on the classification of glioblastomas based on the data of the 20 genes expression were conducted by using of artificial neural network analysis. The results of these experiments showed that the expression profiles of these genes in 224 glioblastoma samples and 74 normal brain samples could be according to the Koho- nen’s maps. The CHI3L1 and CHI3L2 genes of chitinase-like cartilage protein were revealed among the most overexpressed genes in glioblastoma, which could have prognostic and diagnostic potential. Results of in vitro experiments demonstrated that both proteins, CHI3L1 and CHI3L2, may initiate the phosphorylation of ERK1/ ERK2 and AKT kinases leading to the activation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling cascades in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, human glioblastoma U87MG, and U373 cells. The new human cell line

  7. MR imaging and histopathology of cartilage tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, Hirokazu; Ohba, Satoru; Ohtsuka, Takanobu; Matui, Norio; Nakamura, Takaaki (Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1994-05-01

    The MR imaging-pathologic correlation of cartilaginous bone tumors and the value of intravenously administered Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging was studied. The MR studies were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-seven cases were examined with 0.5 T and 1.0 T scanner and all cases were pathologically proved. We discussed the following MR findings: signal intensities of tumors, Gd-DTPA features, morphological findings, and associated findings. Hyaline cartilage tumors showed low signal intensity on T[sub 1]-weighted images and very high signal intensity on T[sub 2]-weighted images. Lobulated marginal enhancements were recognized in chondrosarcomas. This may be an important finding to suspect chondrosarcoma. (author).

  8. Quantitative Apparent Diffusion Coefficients in the Characterization of Brain Tumors and Associated Peritumoral Edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, A.; Schellhorn, T.; Nakstad, P.H.; Kulle, B.; Maehlen, J.; Kumar, T.; Josefsen, R.; Langberg, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has a number of limitations in the diagnosis of the most common intracranial brain tumors, including tumor specification and the detection of tumoral infiltration in regions of peritumoral edema. Purpose: To prospectively assess if diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) could be used to differentiate between different types of brain tumors and to distinguish between peritumoral infiltration in high-grade gliomas, lymphomas, and pure vasogenic edema in metastases and meningiomas. Material and Methods: MR imaging and DWI was performed on 93 patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors: 59 patients had histologically verified high-grade gliomas (37 glioblastomas multiforme, 22 anaplastic astrocytomas), 23 patients had metastatic brain tumors, five patients had primary cerebral lymphomas, and six patients had meningiomas. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of tumor (enhancing regions or the solid portion of tumor) and peritumoral edema, and ADC ratios (ADC of tumor or peritumoral edema to ADC of contralateral white matter, ADC of tumor to ADC of peritumoral edema) were compared with the histologic diagnosis. ADC values and ratios of high-grade gliomas, primary cerebral lymphomas, metastases, and meningiomas were compared by using ANOVA and multiple comparisons. Optimal thresholds of ADC values and ADC ratios for distinguishing high-grade gliomas from metastases were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: Statistically significant differences were found for minimum and mean of ADC tumor and ADC tumor ratio values between metastases and high-grade gliomas when including only one factor at a time. Including a combination of in total four parameters (mean ADC tumor, and minimum, maximum and mean ADC tumor ratio) resulted in sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV), and negative predictive values (NPV) of 72.9, 82.6, 91.5, and 54.3% respectively. In the ROC curve analysis

  9. Why does Jack, and not Jill, break his crown? Sex disparity in brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tao; Warrington, Nicole M; Rubin, Joshua B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract It is often reported that brain tumors occur more frequently in males, and that males suffer a worse outcome from brain tumors than females. If correct, these observations suggest that sex plays a fundamental role in brain tumor biology. The following review of the literature regarding primary and metastatic brain tumors, reveals that brain tumors do occur more frequently in males compared to females regardless of age, tumor histology, or region of the world. Sexually dimorphic mecha...

  10. Brain tumor and CT, 1. Relationship between the consistency of a brain tumor and the CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, N.; Katada, K.; Shinomiya, Y.; Sano, H.; Kanno, T. (Fujita Gakuen Univ., School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi (Japan))

    1981-08-01

    It is very important for a neurosurgeon to know the consistency of a brain tumor preoperatively, since the information is of much use in indicating the likely difficulty of the operation, which operative tools should be selected, the amount of bleeding to be expected from the tumor, and so on. The authors, therefore, tried to evaluate the consistency of brain tumors preoperatively. Twenty-seven cases in which the margin of the tumor was made clear with a homogeneous stain were studied concerning the relationship between the tumor consistency and the CT findings. The results are as follows: 1) A higher CT number on a plain CT indicated a harder consistency of the tumor. 2) A lesser contrast index (CT number on enhancement CT/CT number on plain CT) showed a harder consistency of the tumor.

  11. FDTD analysis of a noninvasive hyperthermia system for brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoob, Sulafa M; Hassan, Noha S

    2012-08-14

    Hyperthermia is considered one of the new therapeutic modalities for cancer treatment and is based on the difference in thermal sensitivity between healthy tissues and tumors. During hyperthermia treatment, the temperature of the tumor is raised to 40-45°C for a definite period resulting in the destruction of cancer cells. This paper investigates design, modeling and simulation of a new non-invasive hyperthermia applicator system capable of effectively heating deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors using inexpensive, simple, and easy to fabricate components without harming surrounding healthy brain tissues. The proposed hyperthermia applicator system is composed of an air filled partial half ellipsoidal chamber, a patch antenna, and a head model with an embedded tumor at an arbitrary location. The irradiating antenna is placed at one of the foci of the hyperthermia chamber while the center of the brain tumor is placed at the other focus. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used to compute both the SAR patterns and the temperature distribution in three different head models due to two different patch antennas at a frequency of 915 MHz. The obtained results suggest that by using the proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system it is feasible to achieve sufficient and focused energy deposition and temperature rise to therapeutic values in deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors without harming surrounding healthy tissue. The proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system proved suitable for raising the temperature in tumors embedded in the brain to therapeutic values by carefully selecting the systems components. The operator of the system only needs to place the center of the brain tumor at a pre-specified location and excite the antenna at a single frequency of 915 MHz. Our study may provide a basis for a clinical applicator prototype capable of heating brain tumors.

  12. FDTD analysis of a noninvasive hyperthermia system for brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoob Sulafa M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperthermia is considered one of the new therapeutic modalities for cancer treatment and is based on the difference in thermal sensitivity between healthy tissues and tumors. During hyperthermia treatment, the temperature of the tumor is raised to 40–45°C for a definite period resulting in the destruction of cancer cells. This paper investigates design, modeling and simulation of a new non-invasive hyperthermia applicator system capable of effectively heating deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors using inexpensive, simple, and easy to fabricate components without harming surrounding healthy brain tissues. Methods The proposed hyperthermia applicator system is composed of an air filled partial half ellipsoidal chamber, a patch antenna, and a head model with an embedded tumor at an arbitrary location. The irradiating antenna is placed at one of the foci of the hyperthermia chamber while the center of the brain tumor is placed at the other focus. The finite difference time domain (FDTD method is used to compute both the SAR patterns and the temperature distribution in three different head models due to two different patch antennas at a frequency of 915 MHz. Results The obtained results suggest that by using the proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system it is feasible to achieve sufficient and focused energy deposition and temperature rise to therapeutic values in deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors without harming surrounding healthy tissue. Conclusions The proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system proved suitable for raising the temperature in tumors embedded in the brain to therapeutic values by carefully selecting the systems components. The operator of the system only needs to place the center of the brain tumor at a pre-specified location and excite the antenna at a single frequency of 915 MHz. Our study may provide a basis for a clinical applicator prototype capable of heating brain tumors.

  13. PET tracer for imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a radiolabelled peptide-based compound for diagnostic imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). The compound may thus be used for diagnosis of malignant diseases. The compound is particularly useful for imaging of somatostatin overexpression in tumors, wherein the compound...... is capable of being imaged by PET when administered with a target dose in the range of 150-350 MBq, such as 150-250 MBq, preferable in the range of 191-210 MBq....

  14. Preclinical models to study the impact of the blood-brain barrier in brain tumor chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, N.A. de

    2009-01-01

    High-grade gliomas, in particular Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), are the most common primary brain tumors in adults and among the deadliest of human cancers. Their location and the extensively infiltrative character of tumor cells into surrounding normal brain structures is an impediment for all

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of nasopharyngeal malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakihara, Junji; Kanoh, Naoyuki; Hayakawa, Katsumi.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used in the examination of three patients with nasopharyngeal malignant tumor and cranial nerve symptoms. Coronal and saggital sections were very useful for determining skull base invasion. Its high contrast resolution enabled us to visualize several cranial nerves directly. Differentiation between tumor and effusion in the paranasal sinuses was easy especially in T2 weighted images. Bone destruction could also be detected as bone marrow replacement by tumor or as interruption of the black line of compact bone. Local relationships of tumor and large blood vessels were visualized by MRI without invasive contrast enhancing methods. Despite such advantages, in one patient whose symptoms were highly suggestive of cranial invasion, no cranial invasion was detected by CT or MRI. (author)

  16. Assessment of tumors of the lung apex by imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueda, J.; Serrano, F.; Pain, M.I.; Rodriguez, F.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the value of MR in the preoperative staging of tumors of the lung apex and detection of local invasion of adjacent structures to determine its influence on the therapeutic approach. We obtained plain X-ray images in two planes, as well as CT and Mr images, in 12 patients with Pan coast tumor in whom there was surgical (n=8) or clinical (n=4) evidence of invasion. The objective was to assess local infiltration of brain stem and chest wall soft tissue, enveloping of the subclavian artery, substantial involvement of the brachial plexus and destruction of the vertebral body. In our series, MR was superior to the other imaging techniques in predicting the involvement of the structures surrounding the tumor. In conclusion, MR should be performed in a patient diagnosed by plain radiography as having an apical tumors to assess local tumor extension, while CT should be done to detect mediastinal lymph node involvement and distant metastases. 19 refs

  17. Three-dimensional corticospinal tractography for brain tumor surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kyousuke

    2009-01-01

    Maximal resection of the intracranial lesion like a brain tumor and concomitant identification of the unresectable region for avoiding the loss of motor and language functions are important before and during the operation. For these purposes, corticospinal tract (CST)-tractography (TG) based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is widely used for nerve fiber tracking but it is conceivably essential to examine if the CST image in problem reflects the actually valid anatomical, functional CST. For the problem, in author's department, the intraoperative local relationship between the lesion and CST is monitored by a neuronavigation (NNA) system combined with CST-TG in case of patients who have the lesion close to CST and, when the resection site approaches CST, its surrounding white matter is electrically stimulated to evoke the myoelectric potential at upper and lower limbs. Here are reported examinations of the reliability of CST-TG by analysis of the positional relation of CST with the electric stimulating point and current value, and of the expansion of the subcortical stimulation current in the white matter. MRI data of such 40 patients as above by 1.5 or 3T machine were obtained with spin-echo/echo planer imaging and subsequent DTI data were processed by authors' VOLUME-ONE/dTV (http://volume-one.org). CST-TG-fused functional NNA was conducted by NNA system where 3D reconstructed image of CST-TG DTI and 3DMRI using digital imaging and communication medicine (DICOM) and the evoked functional myoelectric potential had been combined. This fusion was found useful for rapid decision of the position and timing of the electric stimulation at surgery, and highly reliable as CST-TG. Further, the stimulating threshold in the white matter was found lower than in the cortex. Future progress in imaging technology and separating algorithm of crossing fibers was expected for improved image of more complex central nervous system (CNS) structures. (K.T.)

  18. [Neuronavigator-guided microsurgery for resection of brain tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Jianning; Fei, Zhou; Wu, Jingwen; Fu, Luoan; Qu, Yan; Liu, Weiping; Wang, Zhanxiang; Yang, Lisun; He, Xiaosheng; Zhen, Haining; Gao, Dakuan; Cao, Weidong; Liang, Jingwen

    2002-02-25

    To study locating accuracy for the brain tumors and their peri-structures by the neuronavigator and elucidate the microsurgical effects. 65 patients with intracranial tumors were microsurgically treated by the application of Stealth Station and Vector Vision system. The treatment effects were summarized and the neuronavigational accuracy was discussed. After mean fiducial error (MFE) and sustained accuracy (SA) were satisfied. Total tumor removal was achieved in 63 cases (97.0%), subtotal removal in 2 cases (3.0%). The neurological functions were improved in 56 cases (86.2%), unchanged obviously in 9 cases (13.8%). No case deteriorated and died in the group. Navigation systems are reliable and accurate in making microneurosurgical plans for brain tumors. And they can provide tracing of the tumor in the operation and guide the operator's manipulation. The techniques, which help total removal of the tumors and reduce the postoperative complications, are very useful in guarantee operation effects.

  19. Growth of Malignant Non-CNS Tumors Alters Brain Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Nersisyan, Lilit; Mandal, Rupasri; Wishart, David; Mancini, Maria; Sidransky, David; Kolb, Bryan; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2018-01-01

    Cancer survivors experience numerous treatment side effects that negatively affect their quality of life. Cognitive side effects are especially insidious, as they affect memory, cognition, and learning. Neurocognitive deficits occur prior to cancer treatment, arising even before cancer diagnosis, and we refer to them as “tumor brain.” Metabolomics is a new area of research that focuses on metabolome profiles and provides important mechanistic insights into various human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging. Many neurological diseases and conditions affect metabolic processes in the brain. However, the tumor brain metabolome has never been analyzed. In our study we used direct flow injection/mass spectrometry (DI-MS) analysis to establish the effects of the growth of lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and sarcoma on the brain metabolome of TumorGraft™ mice. We found that the growth of malignant non-CNS tumors impacted metabolic processes in the brain, affecting protein biosynthesis, and amino acid and sphingolipid metabolism. The observed metabolic changes were similar to those reported for neurodegenerative diseases and brain aging, and may have potential mechanistic value for future analysis of the tumor brain phenomenon. PMID:29515623

  20. Childhood kidney tumors - the relevance of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, J.-P.; Schrader, C.; Ley, S.; Troeger, J.; Guenther, P.; Furtwaengler, R.; Graf, N.; Leuschner, I.; Edelhaeuser, M.

    2005-01-01

    Kidney tumors represent 6.2% of malignant tumors in children. History, clinical course and radiological findings are necessary elements in the differential diagnosis of the different renal tumors. In the case of nephroblastoma, chemotherapy is based solely on the radiological diagnosis without prior histology. In therapy-optimizing studies of the Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, preoperative chemotherapy is performed. Therapy monitoring is performed in the course of and after preoperative chemotherapy to verify tumor response. Radiological staging plays a significant role in deciding on further treatment and in operative planning. Three-dimensional visualization of the abdominal situs can assist preoperative planning. In summary, diagnostic imaging in renal tumors in children plays a role in differential diagnosis, staging, monitoring of therapy, and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  1. Evaluation of 18F-labeled icotinib derivatives as potential PET agents for tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongyu Ren; Hongyu Ning; Jin Chang; Mingxia Zhao; Yong He; Yan Chong; Chuanmin Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, three 18 F-labeled crown ether fused anilinoquinazoline derivatives ([ 18 F]11a-c) were synthesized and evaluated as potential tumor imaging probes. The biodistribution results of [ 18 F]11b were good. Compared with [ 18 F]-fludeoxyglucose and l-[ 18 F]-fluoroethyltyrosine in the same animal model, [ 18 F]11b had better tumor/brain, tumor/muscle, and tumor/blood uptake ratios. Overall, these results suggest that [ 18 F]11b is promising as a tumor imaging agent for positron emission tomography. (author)

  2. Clinical impact of anatomo-functional evaluation of brain function during brain tumor surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Yohei; Takahashi, Jun; Hashimoto, Nobuo

    2009-01-01

    To attempt to improve surgical outcome of brain surgery, clinical significance of anatomo-functional evaluation of brain function during resection of brain tumors was assessed. Seventy four patients with glioma located near eloquent areas underwent surgery while awake. Intraoperative tractography-integrated functional neuronavigation and cortical/subcortical electrical stimulation were correlated with clinical symptoms during and after resection of tumors. Cortical functional areas were safely removed with negative electric stimulation and eloquent cortices could be removed in some circumstances. Subcortical functional mapping was difficult except for motor function. Studying cortical functional compensation allows more extensive removal of brain tumors located in the eloquent areas. (author)

  3. ELSI priorities for brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illes, Judy; De Vries, Raymond; Cho, Mildred K; Schraedley-Desmond, Pam

    2006-01-01

    As one of the most compelling technologies for imaging the brain, functional MRI (fMRI) produces measurements and persuasive pictures of research subjects making cognitive judgments and even reasoning through difficult moral decisions. Even after centuries of studying the link between brain and behavior, this capability presents a number of novel significant questions. For example, what are the implications of biologizing human experience? How might neuroimaging disrupt the mysteries of human nature, spirituality, and personal identity? Rather than waiting for an ethical agenda to emerge from some unpredictable combination of the concerns of ethicists and researchers, the attention of journalists, or after controversy is sparked by research that cannot be retracted, we queried key figures in bioethics and the humanities, neuroscience, media, industry, and patient advocacy in focus groups and interviews. We identified specific ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) that highlight researcher obligations and the nonclinical impact of the technology at this new frontier.

  4. Digit ratio (2D:4D) in primary brain tumor patients: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Tamasauskas, Sarunas; Deltuva, Vytenis Pranas; Tamasauskas, Arimantas; Sliauzys, Albertas; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2016-12-01

    The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) reflects prenatal estrogen and testosterone exposure, and is established in utero. Sex steroids are implicated in development and progression of primary brain tumors. To investigate whether there is a link between 2D:4D ratio and primary brain tumors, and age at presentation. Digital images of the right and left palms of 85 primary brain tumor patients (age 56.96±13.68years; 71% women) and 106 (age 54.31±13.68years; 68% women) gender and age matched controls were obtained. The most common brain tumor diagnoses were meningioma (41%), glioblastoma (20%) and pituitary adenoma (16%). Right and left 2D:4D ratios, and right minus left 2D:4D (D r-l ) were compared between patients and controls, and were correlated with age. Right and left 2D:4D ratios were significantly lower in primary brain tumor patients relative to controls (t=-4.28, pbrain tumor patients and controls (p=0.27). In meningioma and glioma patients, age at presentation correlated negatively with left 2D:4D ratio (rho=-0.42, p=0.01 and rho=-0.36, p=0.02, respectively) and positively with D r-l (rho=0.45, p=0.009 and rho=0.65, p=0.04, respectively). Right and left hand 2D:4D ratios are lower in primary brain tumor patients relative to healthy individuals suggesting greater prenatal testosterone and lower prenatal estrogen exposure in brain tumor patients. Greater age at presentation is associated with greater D r-l and with lower left 2D:4D ratio of meningioma and glioma patients. Due to small sample size our results should be considered preliminary and interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of lectins to tumor imaging radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shuji; Jay, M.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro binding of 125 I-lectins to Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells and in vivo uptake of 125 I-lectins in Ehrlich solid tumor (EST) bearing mice. In in vitro binding assays, phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA), pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA), and concanavalia agglutinin (Con A) showed a high affinity for EAT cells. The in vivo biodistribution of 125 I-lectins showed 125 I-PSA to be significantly taken up into EST tissues 24 h postinjection. After IV injection of 125 I-PSA, uptake of the radioactivity into the tumor tissues reached a maximum at 6 h, and thereafter decreased. Rapid disappearance of the radioactivity from blood and its excretion into kidney soon after injection of 125 I-PSA were observed. When compared with the biodistribution of 67 Ga-citrate in EST bearing mice 24 h postinjection, tumor to liver (T/B), tumor to muscle (T/M), and tumor to blood (T/B) ratios were superior for 125 I-PSA. At 6 h postinjection, the T/B-ratio of 125 I-PSA was 2.5, and this value may be sufficient to enable discernable diagnostic images. Our results suggest that PSA might be a useful tumor imaging radiopharmaceutical. (orig.)

  6. A correlative optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach to locating nanoparticles in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Paul J; Kircher, Moritz F; de la Zerda, Adam; Zavaleta, Cristina L; Jokerst, Jesse V; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of nanoparticles in biomedical applications, including cancer diagnosis and treatment, demands the capability to exactly locate them within complex biological systems. In this work a correlative optical and scanning electron microscopy technique was developed to locate and observe multi-modal gold core nanoparticle accumulation in brain tumor models. Entire brain sections from mice containing orthotopic brain tumors injected intravenously with nanoparticles were imaged using both optical microscopy to identify the brain tumor, and scanning electron microscopy to identify the individual nanoparticles. Gold-based nanoparticles were readily identified in the scanning electron microscope using backscattered electron imaging as bright spots against a darker background. This information was then correlated to determine the exact location of the nanoparticles within the brain tissue. The nanoparticles were located only in areas that contained tumor cells, and not in the surrounding healthy brain tissue. This correlative technique provides a powerful method to relate the macro- and micro-scale features visible in light microscopy with the nanoscale features resolvable in scanning electron microscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of parotid tumors, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akihiko; Yamashita, Toshio; Inoue, Toshiya; Kumazawa, Tadami; Kato, Tsutomu; Sawada, Satoshi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa

    1987-01-01

    We compared the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with that of X-ray computed tomography in the preoperative diagnosis of parotid tumors. We performed in 13 patients with parotid tumors and 10 of them were operated. The MRI equipment had a magnetic fild of 0.15 Tesla. We used the spine echo acquisition technique and a repetition time of 600, 1000 and 2000 milli-seconds, and echo time of 40 and 80 milli-seconds. We found that the T 1 weighted image well visualized the duct of the parotid gland, the T 2 weighted image provided fine pictures of the parotid tumor. The facial nerve of normal parotid glands could not be visualized by MRI. (author)

  8. A new method for brain tumor detection using the Bhattacharyya similarity coefficient, color conversions and neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Mansori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is widely applied for examination and diagnosis of brain tumors based on its advantages of high resolution in detecting the soft tissues and especially of its harmless radiation damages to human bodies. The goal of the processing of images is automatic segmentation of brain edema and tumors, in different dimensions of the magnetic resonance images. Methods: The proposed method is based on the unsupervised method which discovers the tumor region, if there is any, by analyzing the similarities between two hemispheres and computes the image size of the goal function based on Bhattacharyya coefficient which is used in the next stage to detect the tumor region or some part of it. In this stage, for reducing the color variation, the gray brain image is segmented, then it is turned to gray again. The self-organizing map (SOM neural network is used the segmented brain image is colored and finally the tumor is detected by matching the detected region and the colored image. This method is proposed to analyze MRI images for discovering brain tumors, and done in Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran, in 2014. Results: The results for 30 randomly selected images from data bank of MRI center in Hamedan was compared with manually segmentation of experts. The results showed that, our proposed method had the accuracy of more than 94% at Jaccard similarity index (JSI, 97% at Dice similarity score (DSS, and 98% and 99% at two measures of specificity and sensitivity. Conclusion: The experimental results showed that it was satisfactory and can be used in automatic separation of tumor from normal brain tissues and therefore it can be used in practical applications. The results showed that the use of SOM neural network to classify useful magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and demonstrated a good performance.

  9. Stereotactic interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of oligodendroglial brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Majdoub, Faycal; Neudorfer, Clemens; Maarouf, Mohammad [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); University of Witten/Herdecke, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Center of Neurosurgery, Cologne-Merheim Medical Center (CMMC), Cologne (Germany); Blau, Tobias; Deckert, Martina [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Neuropathology, Cologne (Germany); Hellmich, Martin [University Hospital of Cologne, Institute of Statistics, Informatics and Epidemiology, Cologne (Germany); Buehrle, Christian [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); Sturm, Volker [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); University Hospital of Wurzburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    We evaluated the treatment of oligodendroglial brain tumors with interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) using {sup 125}iodine seeds ({sup 125}I) and analyzed prognostic factors. Between January 1991 and December 2010, 63 patients (median age 43.3 years, range 20.8-63.4 years) suffering from oligodendroglial brain tumors were treated with {sup 125}I IBT either as primary, adjuvantly after incomplete resection, or as salvage therapy after tumor recurrence. Possible prognostic factors influencing disease progression and survival were retrospectively investigated. The actuarial 2-, 5-, and 10-year overall and progression-free survival rates after IBT for WHO II tumors were 96.9, 96.9, 89.8 % and 96.9, 93.8, 47.3 %; for WHO III tumors 90.3, 77, 54.9 % and 80.6, 58.4, 45.9 %, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete remission in 2 patients, partial remission in 13 patients, stable disease in 17 patients and tumor progression in 31 patients. Median time to progression for WHO II tumors was 87.6 months and for WHO III tumors 27.8 months. Neurological status improved in 10 patients and remained stable in 20 patients, while 9 patients deteriorated. There was no treatment-related mortality. Treatment-related morbidity was transient in 11 patients. WHO II, KPS ≥ 90 %, frontal location, and tumor surface dose > 50 Gy were associated with increased overall survival (p ≤ 0.05). Oligodendroglioma and frontal location were associated with a prolonged progression-free survival (p ≤ 0.05). Our study indicates that IBT achieves local control rates comparable to surgery and radio-/chemotherapy treatment, is minimally invasive, and safe. Due to the low rate of side effects, IBT may represent an attractive option as part of a multimodal treatment schedule, being supplementary to microsurgery or as a salvage therapy after chemotherapy and conventional irradiation. (orig.) [German] Die Behandlung oligodendroglialer Hirntumoren durch die interstitielle Brachytherapie

  10. Gamma knife radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serizawa, Toru; Ono, Junichi; Iuchi, Toshihiko [Chiba Cardiovascular Center, Ichihara (Japan). Chiba Cancer Center] (and others)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) alone for metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer. Two hundred thirty-one consecutive patients with metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer filling the following 4 criteria were analyzed for this study; no prior brain tumor treatment, 25 or fewer lesions, a maximum 5 tumors with diameter of 2 cm or more, no surgically inaccessible tumor 3 cm or greater in diameter. According to the same treatment protocol, large tumors ({>=} 3 cm) were surgically removed and all the other small lesions (<3 cm) were treated with GKS. New lesions were treated with repeated GKS. The tumor-progression-free, overall, neurological, lowered-QOL (quality of life)-free and new-lesion-free survivals were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. The poor prognostic factors for each survival were also analyzed with the Cox's proportional hazard model. The tumor control rate at 1 year was 96.5%. The estimated median overall survival time was 7.7 months. The first-year survival rates were 83.0% in neurological survival and 76.0% in lowered-QOL-free survival. The new-lesion-free survival at 1 year was 27.9%. Multivariate analysis revealed significant poor prognostic factors for neurological and lowered-QOL-free survivals were carcinomatous meningitis and >10 brain lesions. This study suggests the results of GKS for metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer are quite satisfactory considering prevention of neurological death and maintenance of QOL. But cases with carcinomatous meningitis and/or >10 brain lesions are not good candidates for GKS alone. (author)

  11. Optically enhanced blood-brain-barrier crossing of plasmonic-active nanoparticles in preclinical brain tumor animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Wilson, Christy M.; Li, Shuqin; Fales, Andrew M.; Liu, Yang; Grant, Gerald; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-02-01

    Nanotechnology provides tremendous biomedical opportunities for cancer diagnosis, imaging, and therapy. In contrast to conventional chemotherapeutic agents where their actual target delivery cannot be easily imaged, integrating imaging and therapeutic properties into one platform facilitates the understanding of pharmacokinetic profiles, and enables monitoring of the therapeutic process in each individual. Such a concept dubbed "theranostics" potentiates translational research and improves precision medicine. One particular challenging application of theranostics involves imaging and controlled delivery of nanoplatforms across blood-brain-barrier (BBB) into brain tissues. Typically, the BBB hinders paracellular flux of drug molecules into brain parenchyma. BBB disrupting agents (e.g. mannitol, focused ultrasound), however, suffer from poor spatial confinement. It has been a challenge to design a nanoplatform not only acts as a contrast agent but also improves the BBB permeation. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of plasmonic gold nanoparticles as both high-resolution optical contrast agent and focalized tumor BBB permeation-inducing agent. We specifically examined the microscopic distribution of nanoparticles in tumor brain animal models. We observed that most nanoparticles accumulated at the tumor periphery or perivascular spaces. Nanoparticles were present in both endothelial cells and interstitial matrices. This study also demonstrated a novel photothermal-induced BBB permeation. Fine-tuning the irradiating energy induced gentle disruption of the vascular integrity, causing short-term extravasation of nanomaterials but without hemorrhage. We conclude that our gold nanoparticles are a powerful biocompatible contrast agent capable of inducing focal BBB permeation, and therefore envision a strong potential of plasmonic gold nanoparticle in future brain tumor imaging and therapy.

  12. Early skin tumor detection from microscopic images through image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, A.A.; Narejo, G.B.; Khan, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The research is done to provide appropriate detection technique for skin tumor detection. The work is done by using the image processing toolbox of MATLAB. Skin tumors are unwanted skin growth with different causes and varying extent of malignant cells. It is a syndrome in which skin cells mislay the ability to divide and grow normally. Early detection of tumor is the most important factor affecting the endurance of a patient. Studying the pattern of the skin cells is the fundamental problem in medical image analysis. The study of skin tumor has been of great interest to the researchers. DIP (Digital Image Processing) allows the use of much more complex algorithms for image processing, and hence, can offer both more sophisticated performance at simple task, and the implementation of methods which would be impossibly by analog means. It allows much wider range of algorithms to be applied to the input data and can avoid problems such as build up of noise and signal distortion during processing. The study shows that few works has been done on cellular scale for the images of skin. This research allows few checks for the early detection of skin tumor using microscopic images after testing and observing various algorithms. After analytical evaluation the result has been observed that the proposed checks are time efficient techniques and appropriate for the tumor detection. The algorithm applied provides promising results in lesser time with accuracy. The GUI (Graphical User Interface) that is generated for the algorithm makes the system user friendly. (author)

  13. Quantitative imaging of brain chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    We can now measure how chemicals affect different regions of the human brain. One area involves the study of drugs - in-vivo neuro-pharmacology; another involves the study of toxic chemical effects - in vivo neurotoxicology. The authors approach is to label drugs with positron-emitting radioactive tracers - chiefly carbon-11 with a half-life of 20 minutes and fluorine-18 with a half-life of 110 minutes. The labeled drugs are injected intravenously and a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner is used to map out the distribution of the radioactivity within the brain from the moment of injection until about 90 minutes later. Mathematical models are used to calculate receptor concentrations and the affinity of the receptors for the injected radioactive tracer. By means of PET scanning, they look at cross sections or visual slices throughout the human brain, obtaining computer-generated images in any plane. The authors are investigating the functions of specific drugs or specific receptors, as well as looking at the metabolic activity in different parts of the brain as revealed in glucose metabolism. For example, the authors are studying opiate receptors in patients with a variety of conditions: those who suffer from chronic pain, those who are congenitally insensitive to pain and drug addicts. They are studying patients with schizophrenia, tardive dyskinesia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, depressed patients and sex-offenders. They are relating the state of the neurotransmitter/neuroreceptor systems to behavior. In essence, they believe that they can now examine in living human beings what relates the structure of the brain to the function of the mind that is chemistry

  14. A novel pre-clinical in vivo mouse model for malignant brain tumor growth and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Laura M; Mukherjee, Purna; Huysentruyt, Leanne C; Urits, Ivan; Rosenberg, Joshua A; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2010-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a rapidly progressive disease of morbidity and mortality and is the most common form of primary brain cancer in adults. Lack of appropriate in vivo models has been a major roadblock to developing effective therapies for GBM. A new highly invasive in vivo GBM model is described that was derived from a spontaneous brain tumor (VM-M3) in the VM mouse strain. Highly invasive tumor cells could be identified histologically on the hemisphere contralateral to the hemisphere implanted with tumor cells or tissue. Tumor cells were highly expressive for the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and the proliferation marker Ki-67 and could be identified invading through the pia mater, the vascular system, the ventricular system, around neurons, and over white matter tracts including the corpus callosum. In addition, the brain tumor cells were labeled with the firefly luciferase gene, allowing for non-invasive detection and quantitation through bioluminescent imaging. The VM-M3 tumor has a short incubation time with mortality occurring in 100% of the animals within approximately 15 days. The VM-M3 brain tumor model therefore can be used in a pre-clinical setting for the rapid evaluation of novel anti-invasive therapies.

  15. Cross sectional imaging of cardiac tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimovic, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Primary cardiac tumors are a rare entity whose incidence, according to surgery and autopsy reports, is 0.3% to 0.7% of all cardiac tumors. Metastasis to the heart from other primary cancers is 30 times more common. Only 25% of primary cardiac tumors are malignant, and, of these, 75% are sarcomas. Malignant primary cardiac sarcomas are usually located in the right atrium and are most commonly angiosarcoma. In the left atrium, the most common malignant tumors are pleomorphic sarcoma and leiomyosarcoma. Symptom presentation for cardiac tumors is quite varied, but it is dependent upon tumor location and size, rather than upon histologic characteristics. Presentation includes congestive heart failure from intracardiac obstruction, systemic embolization, constitutional symptoms, and arrhythmias. Left atrial sarcomas tend to be more solid and less infiltrative than right-sided sarcomas; consequently, they tend to metastasize later. They usually present with symptoms of blood-flow obstruction and substantial, life-threatening congestive heart failure. Right-sided cardiac tumors are usually malignant and appear as bulky, infiltrative masses that grow in an outward pattern. These are usually fast-growing tumors that metastasize early and do not present with congestive heart failure until late in the disease. The diagnosis of cardiac tumors relies heavily on the use of multiple imaging techniques, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), and echocardiography. Important imaging data to collect include information on the size of the intracardiac mass, the mobility of the mass (an important predictor of prognosis and embolic potential), myocardial invasion, and cardiac chamber location. These factors will provide the means to diagnosis and prognosis. Other important data to collect include the mechanism of tumor implantation, the relationship of the tumor with adjacent structures, the surgeon route of access to the heart

  16. Awake craniotomy for brain tumor: indications, technique and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Tomasz; Bernstein, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Increasing interest in the quality of life of patients after treatment of brain tumors has led to the exploration of methods that can improve intraoperative assessment of neurological status to avoid neurological deficits. The only method that can provide assessment of all eloquent areas of cerebral cortex and white matter is brain mapping during awake craniotomy. This method helps ensure that the quality of life and the neuro-oncological result of treatment are not compromised. Apart from the medical aspects of awake surgery, its economic issues are also favorable. Here, we review the main aspects of awake brain tumor surgery. Neurosurgical, neuropsychological, neurophysiological and anesthetic issues are briefly discussed.

  17. Factors affecting intellectual outcome in pediatric brain tumor patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellenberg, L.; McComb, J.G.; Siegel, S.E.; Stowe, S.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study utilizing repeated intellectual testing was undertaken in 73 children with brain tumors consecutively admitted to Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles over a 3-year period to determine the effect of tumor location, extent of surgical resection, hydrocephalus, age of the child, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy on cognitive outcome. Forty-three patients were followed for at least two sequential intellectual assessments and provide the data for this study. Children with hemispheric tumors had the most general cognitive impairment. The degree of tumor resection, adequately treated hydrocephalus, and chemotherapy had no bearing on intellectual outcome. Age of the child affected outcome mainly as it related to radiation. Whole brain radiation therapy was associated with cognitive decline. This was especially true in children below 7 years of age, who experienced a very significant loss of function after whole brain radiation therapy

  18. Quantum dot loaded immunomicelles for tumor imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levchenko Tatyana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optical imaging is a promising method for the detection of tumors in animals, with speed and minimal invasiveness. We have previously developed a lipid coated quantum dot system that doubles the fluorescence of PEG-grafted quantum dots at half the dose. Here, we describe a tumor-targeted near infrared imaging agent composed of cancer-specific monoclonal anti-nucleosome antibody 2C5, coupled to quantum dot (QD-containing polymeric micelles, prepared from a polyethylene glycol/phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE conjugate. Its production is simple and involves no special equipment. Its imaging potential is great since the fluorescence intensity in the tumor is twofold that of non-targeted QD-loaded PEG-PE micelles at one hour after injection. Methods Para-nitrophenol-containing (5% PEG-PE quantum dot micelles were produced by the thin layer method. Following hydration, 2C5 antibody was attached to the PEG-PE micelles and the QD-micelles were purified using dialysis. 4T1 breast tumors were inoculated subcutaneously in the flank of the animals. A lung pseudometastatic B16F10 melanoma model was developed using tail vein injection. The contrast agents were injected via the tail vein and mice were depilated, anesthetized and imaged on a Kodak Image Station. Images were taken at one, two, and four hours and analyzed using a methodology that produces normalized signal-to-noise data. This allowed for the comparison between different subjects and time points. For the pseudometastatic model, lungs were removed and imaged ex vivo at one and twenty four hours. Results The contrast agent signal intensity at the tumor was double that of the passively targeted QD-micelles with equally fast and sharply contrasted images. With the side views of the animals only tumor is visible, while in the dorsal view internal organs including liver and kidney are visible. Ex vivo results demonstrated that the agent detects melanoma nodes in a lung

  19. Development in NMR spiral imaging and application to the assessment of the permeability of the blood-brain barrier on 2 models of brain tumors; Developpements en imagerie RMN spirale et application a la caracterisation de la permeabilite de la barriere hemato-encephalique sur deux modeles de tumeurs intracerebrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumont, M

    2007-12-15

    The results presented in this work were obtained as part of methodological developments in magnetic resonance imaging. First of all, the setting of the rapid imaging technique using a k-space sampling scheme along a variable density spiral is described. Numerical simulations were used to optimize the acquisitions parameters and to compare different reconstruction techniques. An original approach to calibrate the k-space trajectory was proposed. Then, spiral imaging was used to implement a method to measure the blood brain barrier permeability to Gd-DOTA. This protocol was combined to blood volume and vessel size index measurements using Sinerem. The results obtained highlighted differences between the microvascular parameters measured on C6 and RG2 tumor models. The presence of Sinerem induces a mean decrease of the transfer constant across the vascular wall (Ktrans), in the tumor, of 24 per cent. This study also showed extravasation of the Sinerem, during the first two hours after the product injection, only in the RG2 tumors. (author)

  20. MR spectroscopy in children: protocols and pitfalls in non-tumorous brain pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jacques F. [University Children' s Hospital Basel (UKBB), Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) delivers information about cell content and metabolism in a noninvasive manner. The diagnostic strength of MRS lies in its evaluation of pathologies in combination with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRS in children has been most widely used to evaluate brain conditions like tumors, infections, metabolic diseases or learning disabilities and especially in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This article reviews some basic theoretical considerations, routine procedures, protocols and pitfalls and will illustrate the range of spectrum alterations occurring in some non-tumorous pediatric brain pathologies. (orig.)

  1. MR spectroscopy in children: protocols and pitfalls in non-tumorous brain pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Jacques F.

    2016-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) delivers information about cell content and metabolism in a noninvasive manner. The diagnostic strength of MRS lies in its evaluation of pathologies in combination with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRS in children has been most widely used to evaluate brain conditions like tumors, infections, metabolic diseases or learning disabilities and especially in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This article reviews some basic theoretical considerations, routine procedures, protocols and pitfalls and will illustrate the range of spectrum alterations occurring in some non-tumorous pediatric brain pathologies. (orig.)

  2. Modeling tumor-associated edema in gliomas during anti-angiogenic therapy and its impact on imageable tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eHawkins-Daarud

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of primary brain tumor is predominantly assessed with gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted (T1Gd and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Pixel intensity enhancement on the T1Gd image is understood to correspond to the gadolinium contrast agent leaking from the tumor-induced neovasculature, while hyperintensity on the T2/FLAIR images corresponds with edema and infiltrated tumor cells. None of these modalities directly show tumor cells; rather, they capture abnormalities in the microenvironment caused by the presence of tumor cells. Thus, assessing disease response after treatments impacting the microenvironment remains challenging through the obscuring lens of MR imaging. Anti-angiogenic therapies have been used in the treatment of gliomas with spurious results ranging from no apparent response to significant imaging improvement with the potential for extremely diffuse patterns of tumor recurrence on imaging and autopsy. Anti-angiogenic treatment normalizes the vasculature, effectively decreasing vessel permeability and thus reducing tumor-induced edema, drastically altering T2-weighted MRI. We extend a previously developed mathematical model of glioma growth to explicitly incorporate edema formation allowing us to directly characterize and potentially predict the effects of anti-angiogenics on imageable tumor growth. A comparison of simulated glioma growth and imaging enhancement with and without bevacizumab supports the current understanding that anti-angiogenic treatment can serve as a surrogate for steroids and the clinically-driven hypothesis that anti-angiogenic treatment may not have any significant effect on the growth dynamics of the overall tumor-cell populations. However, the simulations do illustrate a potentially large impact on the level of edematous extracellular fluid, and thus on what would be imageable on T2/FLAIR MR for tumors with lower proliferation rates.

  3. Molecular Imaging of Tumors Using a Quantitative T1 Mapping Technique via Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Herrmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM with molecular imaging agents would allow for the specific localization of brain tumors. Prior studies using T1-weighted MR imaging demonstrated that the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 molecular imaging agent labeled heterotopic xenograft models of brain tumors more intensely than non-specific contrast agents using conventional T1-weighted imaging techniques. In this study, we used a dynamic quantitative T1 mapping strategy to more objectively compare intra-tumoral retention of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent over time in comparison to non-targeted control agents. Our results demonstrate that the targeted SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent, a scrambled-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 control agent, and the non-specific clinical contrast agent Optimark™ all enhanced flank tumors of human glioma cells with similar maximal changes on T1 mapping. However, the retention of the agents differs. The non-specific agents show significant recovery within 20 min by an increase in T1 while the specific agent SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 is retained in the tumors and shows little recovery over 60 min. The retention effect is demonstrated by percent change in T1 values and slope calculations as well as by calculations of gadolinium concentration in tumor compared to muscle. Quantitative T1 mapping demonstrates the superior binding and retention in tumors of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent over time compared to the non-specific contrast agent currently in clinical use.

  4. Synchrotron supported Dei/KES of a brain tumor in an animal model: The search for a microimaging modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannan, K.A.; Schueltke, E.; Menk, R.H.; Siu, K.; Pavlov, K.; Kelly, M.; McLoughlin, G.; Beveridge, T.; Tromba, G.; Juurlink, B.H.; Chapman, D.; Rigon, L.; Griebel, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the commonest and most aggressive primary brain tumor in humans. The high rate of tumor recurrence results in a poor prognosis despite multimodality treatment. One reason for high rate of recurrence is the invasive nature of the tumor into the surrounding normal brain tissue or multifocal occurrence at sites remote from that of the primary tumor establishment. Existing imaging demonstrates the primary tumor but fail to show the residual tumor microaggregates left behind following initial treatment. In this study, we employed diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) in an attempt to find an imaging modality that will provide visualization of residual disease that is not be apparent on MRI or CT scans

  5. Advances in Brain Tumor Surgery for Glioblastoma in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Lara-Velazquez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common primary intracranial neoplasia, and is characterized by its extremely poor prognosis. Despite maximum surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, the histological heterogeneity of GBM makes total eradication impossible, due to residual cancer cells invading the parenchyma, which is not otherwise seen in radiographic images. Even with gross total resection, the heterogeneity and the dormant nature of brain tumor initiating cells allow for therapeutic evasion, contributing to its recurrence and malignant progression, and severely impacting survival. Visual delimitation of the tumor’s margins with common surgical techniques is a challenge faced by many surgeons. In an attempt to achieve optimal safe resection, advances in approaches allowing intraoperative analysis of cancer and non-cancer tissue have been developed and applied in humans resulting in improved outcomes. In addition, functional paradigms based on stimulation techniques to map the brain’s electrical activity have optimized glioma resection in eloquent areas such as the Broca’s, Wernike’s and perirolandic areas. In this review, we will elaborate on the current standard therapy for newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma with a focus on surgical approaches. We will describe current technologies used for glioma resection, such as awake craniotomy, fluorescence guided surgery, laser interstitial thermal therapy and intraoperative mass spectrometry. Additionally, we will describe a newly developed tool that has shown promising results in preclinical experiments for brain cancer: optical coherence tomography.

  6. Malignant primary germ-cell tumor of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toyoshiro; Sato, Shinichi; Nakao, Satoshi; Ban, Sadahiko; Namba, Koh

    1983-01-01

    The unusual case of a 15 year old boy with three discrete paraventricular germ-cell tumors is reported.FThe first tumor was located just lateral to the left thalamus and included a massive cystic part around it, the second tumor in the paraventricular region above the head of the left caudate nucleus and the third tumor in the medial part of the left parietal lobe.FTotal removal of all tumors was successfully accomplished in stages at four separate operations, namely, the first tumor was removed through the left transsylvian approach, the second tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and the third tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and left superior parietal lobule.FHistological examination revealed that the first tumor was teratoma, the second was choriocarcinoma and the third was germinoma.FPrimary germ-cell tumors of the brain can be divided into 5 groups: 1) germinoma; 2) embryonal carcinoma; 3) choriocarcinoma; 4) yolk-sac tumor; or 5) teratoma.FIn this case, a combination of three different histological patterns was seen. If malignant germ-cell tumor is supected on CT, aggressive extirpation should be done, not only to determine the exact diagnosis, but also to provide the basis for subsequent adjunctive therapy. (author)

  7. Micro-MRI at 11.7 T of a Murine Brain Tumor Model Using Delayed Contrast Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex A. Moats

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In vivo imaging methodologies allow for serial measurement of tumor size, circumventing the need for sacrificing mice at given time points. In orthotopically transplanted murine models of brain tumors, cross-section micro-MRI allows for visualization and measurement of the physically inaccessible tumors. To allow for long resident times of a contrast agent in the tumor, intraperitoneal administration was used as a route of injection for contrast-enhanced micro-MRI, and a simple method for relative tumor volume measurements was examined. A strategy for visualizing the variability of the delayed tumor enhancement was developed. These strategies were applied to monitor the growth of brain tumors xenotransplanted into nude mice and either treated with the antiangiogenic peptide EMD 121974 or an inactive control peptide. Each mouse was used as its own control. Serial imaging was done weekly, beginning at Day 7 after tumor cell implantation and continued for 7 weeks. Images obtained were reconstructed on the MRI instrument. The image files were transferred off line to be postprocessed to assess tumor growth (volume and variability in enhancement (three-dimensional [3-D] intensity models. In a small study, tumor growth and response to treatment were followed using this methodology and the high-resolution images displayed in 3-D allowed for straightforward qualitative assessment of variable enhancement related to vascular factors and tumor age.

  8. Computed tomographic aspects of primary brain tumors in dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Zardo, Karen Maciel; Santos, Debora Rodrigues dos; Silva, Luciana Carandina da; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, the Veterinary Medicine has made great advances, enabling thus the diagnosis of many diseases. As a result of this new situation, there was an increased expectation of life of animals resulting in an increase in the number of clinical care of older animals. Thus, diseases considered unusual in the past, begin to be diagnosed more frequently, as is the case of brain damage. Recently, computed tomography has been widely used in Brazil as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of several diseases. This noninvasive imaging technique allows the identification and evaluation of lesions of central nervous tissue such as brain tumors. This provides information about the size, shape and location of the lesion, in addition to the magnitude of compression and invasion of adjacent structures by the tumor and its side effects (such as the peritumoral edema and hydrocephalus). The image obtained from computed tomography may suggest the presence of a certain type brain tumor, data of great importance for the prognosis and treatment of the animal. This review covers the computed tomography aspects of primary brain tumors such as meningiomas, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, choroid plexus tumors and ependymomas. However, despite the computed tomography provide much information about the changes inside the skull; no way replace histopathological examination in determining the definitive diagnosis. (author)

  9. Value of Frequency Domain Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Metrics Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuation and Fractional Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuation in the Assessment of Brain Tumor-Induced Neurovascular Uncoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shruti; Lu, Hanzhang; Pillai, Jay J

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether the phenomenon of brain tumor-related neurovascular uncoupling (NVU) in resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) (rsfMRI) may also affect the resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) frequency domain metrics the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF). Twelve de novo brain tumor patients, who underwent clinical fMRI examinations, including task-based fMRI (tbfMRI) and rsfMRI, were included in this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Each patient displayed decreased/absent tbfMRI activation in the primary ipsilesional (IL) sensorimotor cortex in the absence of a corresponding motor deficit or suboptimal task performance, consistent with NVU. Z-score maps for the motor tasks were obtained from general linear model analysis (reflecting motor activation vs. rest). Seed-based correlation analysis (SCA) maps of sensorimotor network, ALFF, and fALFF were calculated from rsfMRI data. Precentral and postcentral gyri in contralesional (CL) and IL hemispheres were parcellated using an automated anatomical labeling template for each patient. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed on four maps: tbfMRI, SCA, ALFF, and fALFF. Voxel values in the CL and IL ROIs of each map were divided by the corresponding global mean of ALFF and fALFF in the cortical brain tissue. Group analysis revealed significantly decreased IL ALFF (p = 0.02) and fALFF (p = 0.03) metrics compared with CL ROIs, consistent with similar findings of significantly decreased IL BOLD signal for tbfMRI (p = 0.0005) and SCA maps (p = 0.0004). The frequency domain metrics ALFF and fALFF may be markers of lesion-induced NVU in rsfMRI similar to previously reported alterations in tbfMRI activation and SCA-derived resting-state functional connectivity maps.

  10. Brain and Spinal Tumors: Hope through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arm or leg. A sudden, marked change in handwriting may be a sign of a tumor. Balance ... coordination and balance, mental status, and changes in mood or behavior, among other abilities. Some tests require ...

  11. Possible neuro-Sweet disease mimicking brain tumor in the medulla oblongata--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Chihiro; Esaki, Takanori; Ando, Maya; Furuya, Tsuyoshi; Noda, Kazuyuki; Nakao, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Takuji; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Mori, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    A 62-year-old male presented with a rare case of possible neuro-Sweet Disease (NSD) mimicking brain tumor in the medulla oblongata, manifesting as numbness in the bilateral upper and lower extremities, gait disturbance, dysarthria, and swallowing disturbance which gradually deteriorated over 3 months. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion in the medulla oblongata, extending to the upper cervical cord with rim enhancement by gadolinium. The preoperative diagnosis was brain tumor, such as glioma, or inflammatory disease. His neurological symptoms gradually deteriorated, so biopsy was performed through the midline suboccipital approach. Histological examination showed infiltration of inflammatory cells, mainly lymphocytes and macrophages. Human leukocyte antigen typing showed Cw1 and B54 which strongly suggested possible NSD. Steroid pulse therapy was started after surgery and the clinical symptoms improved. Neurosurgeons should be aware of inflammatory disorders such as NSD mimicking brain tumor.

  12. Subacute brain atrophy induced by radiation therapy to the malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Akio; Matsutani, Masao; Takakura, Kintomo.

    1987-01-01

    In order to analyze brain atrophy after radiation therapy to the brain tumors, we calculated a CSF-cranial volume ratio on CT scan as an index of brain atrophy, and estimated dementia-score by Hasegawa's method in 91 post-irradiated patients with malignant brain tumors. Radiation-induced brain atrophy was observed in 51 out of 91 patients (56 %) and dementia in 23 out of 47 patients (49 %). These two conditions were closely related, and observed significantly more often in aged and whole-brain-irradiated patients. As radiation-induced brain atrophy accompanied by dementia appeared 2 - 3 months after the completion of radiation therapy, it should be regarded as a subacute brain injury caused by radiation therapy. (author)

  13. Comparison of one-, two-, and three-dimensional measurements of childhood brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, K E; Patronas, N; Aikin, A A; Albert, P S; Balis, F M

    2001-09-19

    End points for assessing drug activity in brain tumors are determined by measuring the change in tumor size by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relative to a pretreatment or best-response scan. Traditionally, two-dimensional (2D) tumor measurements have been used, but one-dimensional (1D) measurements have recently been proposed as an alternative. Because software to estimate three-dimensional (3D) tumor volume from digitized MRI images is available, we compared all three methods of tumor measurement for childhood brain tumors and clinical outcome. Tumor size from 130 MRI scans from 32 patients (32 baseline and 98 follow-up scans, for a total of 130 scans; median, three scans per patient; range, two to 18 scans) was measured by each method. Tumor-response category (partial response, minor response, stable disease, or progressive disease) was determined from the percentage change in tumor size between the baseline or best-response scan and follow-up scans. Time to clinical progression was independently determined by chart review. All statistical tests were two-sided. Concordances between 1D and 2D, 1D and 3D, and 2D and 3D were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 67% to 99%), 61% (95% CI = 47% to 75%), and 66% (95% CI = 52% to 80%), respectively, on follow-up scans. Concordances for 1D and 3D and for 2D and 3D were statistically significantly lower than the concordance for 1D and 2D (Ptumors in the minor response and progressive-disease categories. Median times to progression measured by the 1D, 2D, and 3D methods were 154, 105, and 112 days, respectively, compared with 114 days based on neurologic symptoms and signs (P = .09 for overall comparison). Detection of partial responses was not influenced by the measurement method, but estimating time to disease progression may be method dependent for childhood brain tumors.

  14. Brain tumor segmentation in multi-spectral MRI using convolutional neural networks (CNN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sajid; Ghani, M Usman; Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad

    2018-04-01

    A tumor could be found in any area of the brain and could be of any size, shape, and contrast. There may exist multiple tumors of different types in a human brain at the same time. Accurate tumor area segmentation is considered primary step for treatment of brain tumors. Deep Learning is a set of promising techniques that could provide better results as compared to nondeep learning techniques for segmenting timorous part inside a brain. This article presents a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to segment brain tumors in MRIs. The proposed network uses BRATS segmentation challenge dataset which is composed of images obtained through four different modalities. Accordingly, we present an extended version of existing network to solve segmentation problem. The network architecture consists of multiple neural network layers connected in sequential order with the feeding of Convolutional feature maps at the peer level. Experimental results on BRATS 2015 benchmark data thus show the usability of the proposed approach and its superiority over the other approaches in this area of research. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Blood Brain Barrier: A Challenge for Effectual Therapy of Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Bhowmik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors are one of the most formidable diseases of mankind. They have only a fair to poor prognosis and high relapse rate. One of the major causes of extreme difficulty in brain tumor treatment is the presence of blood brain barrier (BBB. BBB comprises different molecular components and transport systems, which in turn create efflux machinery or hindrance for the entry of several drugs in brain. Thus, along with the conventional techniques, successful modification of drug delivery and novel therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome this obstacle for treatment of brain tumors. In this review, we have elucidated some critical insights into the composition and function of BBB and along with it we have discussed the effective methods for delivery of drugs to the brain and therapeutic strategies overcoming the barrier.

  16. The use of amino acid PET and conventional MRI for monitoring of brain tumor therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galldiks, Norbert; Law, Ian; Pope, Whitney B

    2017-01-01

    Routine diagnostics and treatment monitoring of brain tumors is usually based on contrast-enhanced MRI. However, the capacity of conventional MRI to differentiate tumor tissue from posttherapeutic effects following neurosurgical resection, chemoradiation, alkylating chemotherapy, radiosurgery, and......),O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine (FET) and 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[18F]-fluoro-l-phenylalanine (FDOPA) and summarizes investigations regarding monitoring of brain tumor therapy......./or immunotherapy may be limited. Metabolic imaging using PET can provide relevant additional information on tumor metabolism, which allows for more accurate diagnostics especially in clinically equivocal situations. This review article focuses predominantly on the amino acid PET tracers11C-methyl-l-methionine (MET...

  17. Effect of glucose level on brain FDG-PET images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Young; Lee, Yong Ki; Ahn, Sung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In addition to tumors, normal tissues, such as the brain and myocardium can intake {sup 18}F-FDG, and the amount of {sup 18}F-FDG intake by normal tissues can be altered by the surrounding environment. Therefore, a process is necessary during which the contrasts of the tumor and normal tissues can be enhanced. Thus, this study examines the effects of glucose levels on FDG PET images of brain tissues, which features high glucose activity at all times, in small animals. Micro PET scan was performed on fourteen mice after injecting {sup 18}F-FDG. The images were compared in relation to fasting. The findings showed that the mean SUV value w as 0 .84 higher in fasted mice than in non-fasted mice. During observation, the images from non-fasted mice showed high accumulation in organs other than the brain with increased surrounding noise. In addition, compared to the non-fasted mice, the fasted mice showed higher early intake and curve increase. The findings of this study suggest that fasting is important in assessing brain functions in brain PET using {sup 18}F-FDG. Additional studies to investigate whether caffeine levels and other preprocessing items have an impact on the acquired images would contribute to reducing radiation exposure in patients.

  18. Effect of glucose level on brain FDG-PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Young; Lee, Yong Ki; Ahn, Sung Min

    2017-01-01

    In addition to tumors, normal tissues, such as the brain and myocardium can intake 18 F-FDG, and the amount of 18 F-FDG intake by normal tissues can be altered by the surrounding environment. Therefore, a process is necessary during which the contrasts of the tumor and normal tissues can be enhanced. Thus, this study examines the effects of glucose levels on FDG PET images of brain tissues, which features high glucose activity at all times, in small animals. Micro PET scan was performed on fourteen mice after injecting 18 F-FDG. The images were compared in relation to fasting. The findings showed that the mean SUV value w as 0 .84 higher in fasted mice than in non-fasted mice. During observation, the images from non-fasted mice showed high accumulation in organs other than the brain with increased surrounding noise. In addition, compared to the non-fasted mice, the fasted mice showed higher early intake and curve increase. The findings of this study suggest that fasting is important in assessing brain functions in brain PET using 18 F-FDG. Additional studies to investigate whether caffeine levels and other preprocessing items have an impact on the acquired images would contribute to reducing radiation exposure in patients

  19. Clinical application of synthesized brain surface imaging for preoperative simulation of brain biopsy under local anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Yuko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Imai, Fumihiro; Fujisawa, Kazuhisa; Takeshita, Gen; Kanno, Tetsuo; Koga, Sukehiko

    1994-01-01

    Surface anatomy scanning (SAS) is the technique which permits the direct visualization of brain surface structures, including cortical sulci, guri, subcortical lesions as well as skin markings for craniotomy. A synthesized brain surface image is a technique that combines MR angiography (MRA) with SAS, and it proposed by us for detecting cerebral superficial veins with these surface structures on the same image. The purpose of this report is to present the result of applying the synthesized brain surface image to the preoperative simulation of biopsy under local anesthesia in 2 cases of multiple metastatic brain tumors. The parameters for SAS were TR/TE=50/40 msec, flip angle=60deg by the fast T 2 technique using refocused FID in steady-state (STERF technique). SAS images were processed by gray scale reversal. The MRA data were acquired with two-dimensional time of flight (TOF) sequence after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. Before imaging, the water-filled plastic tubes were placed on the patients scalp as markings for craniotomy. Their positions were planned by the neurosurgeons. On SAS, the markings for burr-hole appeared located above the tumors. However on the synthesized brain surface images, the positions of burr-hole were considered to be inadequate, since superficial cerebral vein and sinus were also visualized in the area of the markings. From these results, the positions of burr-hole were reset to avoid the venous structures, and so as to include the lesions in operations. The biopsies were performed successfully and safely because the venous structure could be excluded from the operative field. By this technique it was easy to confirm the relationships among lesions, skin markings and venous structures. The technique described appears to be a useful method for preoperative simulation of biopsies for multiple metastatic brain tumors under local anesthesia. (author)

  20. Fusing in vivo and ex vivo NMR sources of information for brain tumor classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitor-Sava, A R; Laudadio, T; Sima, D M; Van Huffel, S; Martinez-Bisbal, M C; Celda, B; Piquer, J; Heerschap, A

    2011-01-01

    In this study we classify short echo-time brain magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) data by applying a model-based canonical correlation analyses algorithm and by using, as prior knowledge, multimodal sources of information coming from high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS), MRSI and magnetic resonance imaging. The potential and limitations of fusing in vivo and ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance sources to detect brain tumors is investigated. We present various modalities for multimodal data fusion, study the effect and the impact of using multimodal information for classifying MRSI brain glial tumors data and analyze which parameters influence the classification results by means of extensive simulation and in vivo studies. Special attention is drawn to the possibility of considering HR-MAS data as a complementary dataset when dealing with a lack of MRSI data needed to build a classifier. Results show that HR-MAS information can have added value in the process of classifying MRSI data

  1. Photon spectrum and absorbed dose in brain tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva S, A. [General Electric Healthcare, Antonio Dovali Jaime 70, Torre A 3er. piso, Col. Santa Fe, 01210 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria No. 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Using Monte Carlo methods a BOMAB phantom inside a treatment hall with a brain tumor nearby the pituitary gland was treated with photons produced by a Varian 6 MV linac. The photon spectrum and the absorbed dose were calculated in the tumor, pituitary gland and the head. The treatment beam was collimated to illuminate only the tumor volume; however photons were noticed in the gland. Photon fluence reaching the tumor is 78.1 times larger than the fluence in the pituitary gland, on the other hand the absorbed dose in the tumor is 188 times larger than the dose in the gland because photons that reach the pituitary gland are scattered, by the head and the tumor, through Compton effect. (Author)

  2. Photon spectrum and absorbed dose in brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene; Silva-Sanchez, Angeles; Rivera-Montalvo, Teodoro

    2016-11-01

    Using Monte Carlo methods a BOMAB phantom inside a treatment hall with a brain tumor nearby the pituitary gland was treated with photons produced by a Varian 6MV linac. The photon spectrum and the absorbed dose were calculated in the tumor, pituitary gland and the head. The treatment beam was collimated to illuminate only the tumor volume; however photons were noticed in the gland. Photon fluence reaching the tumor is and 15.7 times larger than the fluence in the pituitary gland, on the other hand the absorbed dose in the tumor is 37.1 times larger than the dose in the gland because photons that reach the pituitary gland are scattered, by the head and the tumor, through Compton effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Photon spectrum and absorbed dose in brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva S, A.; Vega C, H. R.; Rivera M, T.

    2015-10-01

    Using Monte Carlo methods a BOMAB phantom inside a treatment hall with a brain tumor nearby the pituitary gland was treated with photons produced by a Varian 6 MV linac. The photon spectrum and the absorbed dose were calculated in the tumor, pituitary gland and the head. The treatment beam was collimated to illuminate only the tumor volume; however photons were noticed in the gland. Photon fluence reaching the tumor is 78.1 times larger than the fluence in the pituitary gland, on the other hand the absorbed dose in the tumor is 188 times larger than the dose in the gland because photons that reach the pituitary gland are scattered, by the head and the tumor, through Compton effect. (Author)

  4. Perfusion and diffusion MR imaging in enhancing malignant cerebral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calli, Cem; Kitis, Omer; Yunten, Nilgun; Yurtseven, Taskin; Islekel, Sertac; Akalin, Taner

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Common contrast-enhancing malignant tumors of the brain are glioblastoma multiforme (GBMs), anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), metastases, and lymphomas, all of which have sometimes similar conventional MRI findings. Our aim was to evaluate the role of perfusion MR imaging (PWI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the differentiation of these contrast-enhancing malignant cerebral tumors. Materials and methods: Forty-eight patients with contrast-enhancing and histologically proven brain tumors, 14 AAs, 17 GBMs, nine metastases, and eight lymphomas, were included in the study. All patients have undergone routine MR examination where DWI and PWI were performed in the same session. DWI was performed with b values of 0, 500, and 1000 mm 2 /s. Minimum ADC values (ADC min ) of each tumor was later calculated from ADC map images. PWI was applied using dynamic susceptibility contrast technique and maximum relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV max ) was calculated from each tumor, given in ratio with contralateral normal white matter. Comparisons of ADC min and rCBV max values with the histological types of the enhancing tumors were made with a one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni test. A P value less than 0.05 indicated a statistically significant difference. Results: The ADC min values (mean ± S.D.) in GBMs, AAs, lymphomas, and metastases were 0.79 ± 0.21 (x10 -3 mm 2 /s), 0.75 ± 0.21 (x10 -3 mm 2 /s), 0.51 ± 0.09 (x10 -3 mm 2 /s), and 0.68 ± 0.11 (x10 -3 mm 2 /s), respectively. The difference in ADC min values were statistically significant between lymphomas and GBMs (P max ratio (mean ± S.D.) in GBMs were 6.33 ± 2.03, whereas it was 3.66 ± 1.79 in AAs, 2.33 ± 0.68 in lymphomas, and 4.45 ± 1.87 in metastases. These values were statistically different between GBMs and AAs (P min and rCBV max calculations, may aid routine MR imaging in the differentiation of common cerebral contrast-enhancing malignant tumors

  5. Irradiation effects on the tumor and adjacent tissues of brain tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Maki, Yutaka; Tsunemoto, Hiroshi; Koike, Sachiko; Furukawa, Shigeo.

    1979-01-01

    C 3 H mice aged 56 - 70 days, weighing 27 - 37 g were used throughout this experiment. A transplantable fibrosarcoma arising spontaneously from C 3 H mice was used. For experiment, 10 4 tumor cells suspended in 0.025 ml of saline solution were injected into the cerebral hemisphere by a 26 gauge needle with a micrometer syringe under nembutal anesthesia. Whole brain irradiation was performed at 7 days after injection of the tumor cells and the radiation doses were 2,000 and 20,000 rads, respectively. The feature of x-rays were 200 kVp, 20 mA, 0.5 mm Cu + 0.5 mm Al filtration and TSD 20 cm. The dose-rate was 340 - 360 R/min. The articles of this study were as follows: a) Determination of LD 50 values for the mice, tumor-bearing in the brain or non-tumor-bearing; and b) Observation of clinical features and gross autopsy findings of the mice following irradiation. The LD 50 values for 2,000 rad irradiation in the tumor-bearing or non-tumor-bearing mice were 10.9 and 11.4 days, respectively. LD 50 values of 3.7 days and 4.3 days were the results for the tumor-bearing and non-tumor-bearing mice irradiated by 20,000 rad, respectively. On the other hand, the LD 50 value for the control group, i.e. non-irradiated mice, was 6.7 days. At postmortem examinations, gastrointestinal bleeding was observed frequently in mice bearing tumor in the brain. Whole brain irradiation is effective to prolong the life of tumor-bearing mice. However, in some instances, deaths have occurred earlier in tumor-bearing mice compared to the control group. (author)

  6. Optical imaging of tumor hypoxia dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Gregory M.; Fontanella, Andrew N.; Zhang, Guoqing; Hanna, Gabi; Fraser, Cassandra L.; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2010-11-01

    The influence of the tumor microenvironment and hypoxia plays a significant role in determining cancer progression, treatment response, and treatment resistance. That the tumor microenvironment is highly heterogeneous with significant intratumor and intertumor variability presents a significant challenge in developing effective cancer therapies. Critical to understanding the role of the tumor microenvironment is the ability to dynamically quantify oxygen levels in the vasculature and tissue in order to elucidate the roles of oxygen supply and consumption, spatially and temporally. To this end, we describe the use of hyperspectral imaging to characterize hemoglobin absorption to quantify hemoglobin content and oxygen saturation, as well as dual emissive fluorescent/phosphorescent boron nanoparticles, which serve as ratiometric indicators of tissue oxygen tension. Applying these techniques to a window-chamber tumor model illustrates the role of fluctuations in hemoglobin saturation in driving changes in tissue oxygenation, the two being significantly correlated (r = 0.77). Finally, a green-fluorescence-protein reporter for hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) provides an endpoint for hypoxic stress in the tumor, which is used to demonstrate a significant association between tumor hypoxia dynamics and HIF-1 activity in an in vivo demonstration of the technique.

  7. Brain mapping in tumors: intraoperative or extraoperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffau, Hugues

    2013-12-01

    In nontumoral epilepsy surgery, the main goal for all preoperative investigation is to first determine the epileptogenic zone, and then to analyze its relation to eloquent cortex, in order to control seizures while avoiding adverse postoperative neurologic outcome. To this end, in addition to neuropsychological assessment, functional neuroimaging and scalp electroencephalography, extraoperative recording, and electrical mapping, especially using subdural strip- or grid-electrodes, has been reported extensively. Nonetheless, in tumoral epilepsy surgery, the rationale is different. Indeed, the first aim is rather to maximize the extent of tumor resection while minimizing postsurgical morbidity, in order to increase the median survival as well as to preserve quality of life. As a consequence, as frequently seen in infiltrating tumors such as gliomas, where these lesions not only grow but also migrate along white matter tracts, the resection should be performed according to functional boundaries both at cortical and subcortical levels. With this in mind, extraoperative mapping by strips/grids is often not sufficient in tumoral surgery, since in essence, it allows study of the cortex but cannot map subcortical pathways. Therefore, intraoperative electrostimulation mapping, especially in awake patients, is more appropriate in tumor surgery, because this technique allows real-time detection of areas crucial for cerebral functions--eloquent cortex and fibers--throughout the resection. In summary, rather than choosing one or the other of different mapping techniques, methodology should be adapted to each pathology, that is, extraoperative mapping in nontumoral epilepsy surgery and intraoperative mapping in tumoral surgery. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow in the patient with brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Shohei

    1993-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with xenon-enhanced CT (Xe-CT) in 21 cases of intracranial tumors (13 meningiomas, 5 gliomas, 3 metastatic brain tumors). Peritumoral edema was graded as mild, moderate or severe based on the extent of edema on CT and MRI. According to intratumoral blood flow distribution patterns, three patterns were classified as central type with relatively high blood flow at the center of the tumor, homogeneous type with an almost homogeneous blood flow distribution, and marginal type with relatively high blood flow at the periphery of the tumor. High grade astrocytoma and metastatic brain tumor showed marginal type blood flow and moderate or severe edema except in one case. Five meningiomas with severe peritumoral edema revealed marginal type blood flow and four with mild peritumoral edema showed central type blood flow, except for one case. No correlation was found between the extent of peritumoral edema and histological subtype, tumor size, location, duration of clinical history, vascularization on angiogram, and mean blood flow in the tumor. These results suggest that blood flow distribution patterns within the tumor may affect the extension of peritumoral edema. Pre- and postoperative rCBFs were evaluated with Xe-CT and IMP-SPECT in 7 cases, mean rCBF of peritumoral edema was 6.2 ml/100 g/min preoperatively, and discrepancy between rCBF on Xe-CT and that on IMP-SPECT was shown in the remote cortical region ipsilateral to the tumor. Postoperative rCBF revealed an improved blood flow in both adjacent and remote areas, suggesting that the decreased blood flow associated with brain tumors might be relieved after surgery. (author) 53 refs

  9. CADrx for GBM Brain Tumors: Predicting Treatment Response from Changes in Diffusion-Weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Brown

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop a computer-aided therapeutic response (CADrx system for early prediction of drug treatment response for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM brain tumors with diffusion weighted (DW MR images. In conventional Macdonald assessment, tumor response is assessed nine weeks or more post-treatment. However, we will investigate the ability of DW-MRI to assess response earlier, at five weeks post treatment. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC map, calculated from DW images, has been shown to reveal changes in the tumor’s microenvironment preceding morphologic tumor changes. ADC values in treated brain tumors could theoretically both increase due to the cell kill (and thus reduced cell density and decrease due to inhibition of edema. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of features that quantify changes from pre- and post-treatment tumor ADC histograms to detect treatment response. There are three parts to this study: first, tumor regions were segmented on T1w contrast enhanced images by Otsu’s thresholding method, and mapped from T1w images onto ADC images by a 3D region of interest (ROI mapping tool using DICOM header information; second, ADC histograms of the tumor region were extracted from both pre- and five weeks post-treatment scans, and fitted by a two-component Gaussian mixture model (GMM. The GMM features as well as standard histogram-based features were extracted. Finally, supervised machine learning techniques were applied for classification of responders or non-responders. The approach was evaluated with a dataset of 85 patients with GBM under chemotherapy, in which 39 responded and 46 did not, based on tumor volume reduction. We compared adaBoost, random forest and support vector machine classification algorithms, using ten-fold cross validation, resulting in the best accuracy of 69.41% and the corresponding area under the curve (Az of 0.70.

  10. Clinical Evaluation of a Fully-automatic Segmentation Method for Longitudinal Brain Tumor Volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Raphael; Knecht, Urspeter; Loosli, Tina; Bauer, Stefan; Slotboom, Johannes; Wiest, Roland; Reyes, Mauricio

    2016-03-01

    Information about the size of a tumor and its temporal evolution is needed for diagnosis as well as treatment of brain tumor patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of a fully-automatic segmentation method, called BraTumIA, for longitudinal brain tumor volumetry by comparing the automatically estimated volumes with ground truth data acquired via manual segmentation. Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging data of 14 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma encompassing 64 MR acquisitions, ranging from preoperative up to 12 month follow-up images, was analysed. Manual segmentation was performed by two human raters. Strong correlations (R = 0.83-0.96, p < 0.001) were observed between volumetric estimates of BraTumIA and of each of the human raters for the contrast-enhancing (CET) and non-enhancing T2-hyperintense tumor compartments (NCE-T2). A quantitative analysis of the inter-rater disagreement showed that the disagreement between BraTumIA and each of the human raters was comparable to the disagreement between the human raters. In summary, BraTumIA generated volumetric trend curves of contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing T2-hyperintense tumor compartments comparable to estimates of human raters. These findings suggest the potential of automated longitudinal tumor segmentation to substitute manual volumetric follow-up of contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing T2-hyperintense tumor compartments.

  11. Aerobic Glycolysis as a Marker of Tumor Aggressiveness: Preliminary Data in High Grade Human Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei G. Vlassenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Glucose metabolism outside of oxidative phosphorylation, or aerobic glycolysis (AG, is a hallmark of active cancer cells that is not directly measured with standard 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET. In this study, we characterized tumor regions with elevated AG defined based on PET measurements of glucose and oxygen metabolism. Methods. Fourteen individuals with high-grade brain tumors underwent structural MR scans and PET measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF, oxygen (CMRO2 and glucose (CMRGlu metabolism, and AG, using 15O-labeled CO, O2 and H2O, and FDG, and were compared to a normative cohort of 20 age-matched individuals. Results. Elevated AG was observed in most high-grade brain tumors and it was associated with decreased CMRO2 and CBF, but not with significant changes in CMRGlu. Elevated AG was a dramatic and early sign of tumor growth associated with decreased survival. AG changes associated with tumor growth were differentiated from the effects of nonneoplastic processes such as epileptic seizures. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that high-grade brain tumors exhibit elevated AG as a marker of tumor growth and aggressiveness. AG may detect areas of active tumor growth that are not evident on conventional FDG PET.

  12. Air pollution from traffic and risk for brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana J

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Air pollution is an established lung carcinogen, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution also negatively affects the brain. We have previously reported an association between air pollution and risk of brain tumors in a cohort study based on only 95 cases. We set out...... to replicate that finding in a large nationwide case-control study. METHODS: We identified all 4,183 adult brain tumor cases in Denmark in the years 2000-2009 and 8,018 risk set sampled population controls matched on gender and year of birth. We extracted residential address histories and estimated mean...... residential nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentrations since 1971 with a validated dispersion model. Categorical and linear odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: The highest risk estimates for any brain cancer were observed among...

  13. Training stem cells for treatment of malignant brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengwen; Calvin; Li; Mustafa; H; Kabeer; Long; T; Vu; Vic; Keschrumrus; Hong; Zhen; Yin; Brent; A; Dethlefs; Jiang; F; Zhong; John; H; Weiss; William; G; Loudon

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of malignant brain tumors remains a challenge. Stem cell technology has been applied in the treatment of brain tumors largely because of the ability of some stem cells to infiltrate into regions within the brain where tumor cells migrate as shown in preclinical studies. However, not all of these efforts can translate in the effective treatment that improves the quality of life for pa-tients. Here, we perform a literature review to identify the problems in the field. Given the lack of efficacy of most stem cell-based agents used in the treatment of malignant brain tumors, we found that stem cell distribution(i.e., only a fraction of stem cells applied capable of targeting tumors) are among the limiting factors. We provide guidelines for potential improvements in stem cell distribution. Specifically, we use an engineered tissue graft platform that replicates the in vivo microenvironment, and provide our data to validate that this culture platform is viable for producing stem cells that have better stem cell distribution than with the Petri dish culture system.

  14. Gonadal status in male survivors following childhood brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, M; Lassen, S; Poulsen, H S

    2001-01-01

    The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males......The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males...

  15. Boron neutron capture therapy: Brain Tumor Treatment Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, M.L.; Dorn, R.V. III; Gavin, P.R.; Spickard, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE) recently initiated a focused, multidisciplined program to evaluate Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of brain tumors. The program, centered at the DOE/endash/Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), will develop the analytical, diagnostic and treatment tools, and the database required for BNCT technical assessment. The integrated technology will be evaluated in a spontaneously-occurring canine brain-tumor model. Successful animal studies are expected to lead to human clinical trials within four to five years. 2 refs., 3 figs

  16. Recurrent medulloblastoma: Frequency of tumor enhancement on Gd-DTPA MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollins, N.; Mendelsohn, D.; Mulne, A.; Barton, R.; Diehl, J.; Reyes, N.; Sklar, F.

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-two children with medulloblastoma were evaluated postoperatively with conventional and gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Eleven patients had abnormal cranial MR studies; nine of these had recurrent tumor. In six patients recurrent tumor enhanced with Gd, while in the other three patients recurrent tumor did not enhance. The remaining two patients had areas of abnormal Gd enhancement that were caused by radiation-induced breakdown of the blood-brain barrier rather than by recurrent tumor. This study shows that not all recurrent medulloblastoma enhances and that the absence of Gd enhancement does not necessarily indicate the absence of recurrent tumor

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy for children with malignant brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Komatsu, Hisao; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Tsuji, Fumio; Matsumoto, Keizo; Kitamura, Katsuji; Hatanaka, Hiroshi; Minobe, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    Among the 131 cases with brain tumors treated by boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT), seventeen were children. Eight supratentorial tumors included five astrocytomas(grade 2-4), two primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) and one rhabdomyosarcoma. Seven pontine tumors included one astrocytoma, one PNET and 5 unverified gliomas. Two cerebellar tumors (PNET and astrocytoma) were also treated. All pontine tumors showed remarkable decrease in size after BNCT. However, most of them showed regrowth of the tumors because the neutrons were insufficient due to the depth. Four cases with cerebral tumor died of remote cell dissemination, although they all responded to BNCT. One of them survived 7 years after repeated BNCTs. An 11 years old girl with a large astrocytoma in the right frontal lobe has lived more than 11 years and is now a draftswoman at a civil engineering company after graduating from a technical college. An 8 years old girl with an astrocytoma in the left occipital lobe has no recurrence of the tumor for 2 years and attends on elementary school without mental and physical problems. Two children (one year old girl and four years old boy) with cerebellar tumors have shown showed an excellent growth after BNCT and had no neurological deficits. Mental and physical development in patients treated by BNCT is usually better than that in patients treated by conventional radiotherapy. (author)

  18. Comparison of brain activation to purposefully activate a tool in healthy subjects and brain tumor patients using fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Masahiko; Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Hyodo, Akio; Sugimoto, Koichi; Tsuchida, Yukihiro; Yonaha, Hirokatsu; Ito, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the functional organization of the human brain involved in tool-manipulation. Blood Oxygen Level Dependent was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging in seventeen right-handed healthy volunteers and two brain tumor patients during two tool-manipulation tasks: simulated tightening a bolt with a screwdriver (Simulation), and tightening a bolt with a screwdriver (Real). Subjects performed the experiment without watching the tasks. Bilateral pre-supplementary motor areas, bilateral cerebellar posterior lobes, right ventral premotor area, right calcarine sulcus, and cerebellar vermis were activated during Real but not during Simulation tasks in healthy volunteers. In addition, brain tumor patients activated the prefrontal areas. Our results suggest that the human brain mechanisms for tool-manipulation have a neural-network comprised of presupplementary motor area, ventral premotor area, and bilateral cerebellar posterior lobes. In the patients with brain dusfurction diee to tumors, activation at the prefrontal area provided function compensation without motor paralysis. (author)

  19. Expression of iron-related genes in human brain and brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britton Robert S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defective iron homeostasis may be involved in the development of some diseases within the central nervous system. Although the expression of genes involved in normal iron balance has been intensively studied in other tissues, little is known about their expression in the brain. We investigated the mRNA levels of hepcidin (HAMP, HFE, neogenin (NEO1, transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC, transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2, and hemojuvelin (HFE2 in normal human brain, brain tumors, and astrocytoma cell lines. The specimens included 5 normal brain tissue samples, 4 meningiomas, one medulloblastoma, 3 oligodendrocytic gliomas, 2 oligoastrocytic gliomas, 8 astrocytic gliomas, and 3 astrocytoma cell lines. Results Except for hemojuvelin, all genes studied had detectable levels of mRNA. In most tumor types, the pattern of gene expression was diverse. Notable findings include high expression of transferrin receptor 1 in the hippocampus and medulla oblongata compared to other brain regions, low expression of HFE in normal brain with elevated HFE expression in meningiomas, and absence of hepcidin mRNA in astrocytoma cell lines despite expression in normal brain and tumor specimens. Conclusion These results indicate that several iron-related genes are expressed in normal brain, and that their expression may be dysregulated in brain tumors.

  20. 3-Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided tumor resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, W.A. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Depts. of Neurosurgery; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiology; University of Minnesota Medical Center (MMC), Minneapolis, MN (United States); Truwit, C.L. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Neurology; Hennepin Country Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-12-15

    Objective: We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of using 3-tesla (T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to guide brain tumor resection. Material and methods: From February 2004 to March 2006, fMRI was performed on 13 patients before surgical resection. Functional imaging was used to identify eloquent cortices for motor (8), speech (3), and motor and speech (2) activation using two different 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. Surgical resection was accomplished using a 1.5-T intraoperative MR system. Appropriate MR scan sequences were performed intraoperatively to determine and maximize the extent of the surgical resection. Results: Tumors included six oligodendrogliomas, three meningiomas, two astrocytomas and two glioblastomas multiforme. The fMRI data was accurate in all cases. After surgery, two patients had hemiparesis, two had worsening of their speech, and one had worsening of speech and motor function. Neurological function returned to normal in all patients within 1 month. Complete resections were possible in 10 patients (77%). Two patients had incomplete resections because of the proximity of their tumors to functional areas. Biopsy was performed in another patient with an astrocytoma in the motor strip. Conclusion: 3-T fMRI was accurate for locating neurologic function before tumor resection near eloquent cortex. (orig.)

  1. 3-Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided tumor resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, W.A.; Truwit, C.L.; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN; Hennepin Country Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN

    2006-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of using 3-tesla (T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to guide brain tumor resection. Material and methods: From February 2004 to March 2006, fMRI was performed on 13 patients before surgical resection. Functional imaging was used to identify eloquent cortices for motor (8), speech (3), and motor and speech (2) activation using two different 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. Surgical resection was accomplished using a 1.5-T intraoperative MR system. Appropriate MR scan sequences were performed intraoperatively to determine and maximize the extent of the surgical resection. Results: Tumors included six oligodendrogliomas, three meningiomas, two astrocytomas and two glioblastomas multiforme. The fMRI data was accurate in all cases. After surgery, two patients had hemiparesis, two had worsening of their speech, and one had worsening of speech and motor function. Neurological function returned to normal in all patients within 1 month. Complete resections were possible in 10 patients (77%). Two patients had incomplete resections because of the proximity of their tumors to functional areas. Biopsy was performed in another patient with an astrocytoma in the motor strip. Conclusion: 3-T fMRI was accurate for locating neurologic function before tumor resection near eloquent cortex. (orig.)

  2. Brain tumor classification using Probabilistic Neural Network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Baghdad, Iraq. 1sami.hasan@coie.nahrainuniv.edu.iq ... The Human brain is the most amazing and complex thing known in the world [1]. ... achieved using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). This work is aimed to ...

  3. Pathology, treatment and management of posterior fossa brain tumors in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, K.; Siegel, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Brain tumors are the second most common childhood malignancy. Between 1975 and 1985, 462 newly diagnosed patients were treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; 207 (45%) tumors arose in the posterior fossa and 255 (55%) appeared supratentorially. A wide variety of histological subtypes were seen, each requiring tumor-specific treatment approaches. These included primitive neuroectodermal tumor (n = 86, 19%), astrocytoma (n = 135, 30%), brainstem glioma (n = 47, 10%), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 32, 7%), and ependymoma (n = 30, 6%). Because of advances in diagnostic abilities, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, between 60% and 70% of these patients are alive today. Diagnostic tools such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allow for better perioperative management and follow-up, while the operating microscope, CO 2 laser, cavitron ultrasonic aspirator and neurosurgical microinstrumentation allow for more extensive and safer surgery. Disease specific treatment protocols, utilizing radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, have made survival common in tumors such as medulloblastoma. As survival rates increase, cognitive, endocrinologic and psychologic sequelae become increasingly important. The optimal management of children with brain tumors demands a multidisciplinary approach, best facilitated by a neuro-oncology team composed of multiple subspecialists. This article addresses incidence, classification and histology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, pre-, intra- and postoperative management, long-term effects and the team approach in posterior fossa tumors in childhood. Management of specific tumor types is included as well. 57 references

  4. Clinical value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for differentiating recurrent or residual brain tumor from delayed cerebral necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, June S.; Langston, James W.; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Kingsley, Peter B.; Ogg, Robert J.; Pui, Margaret H.; Kun, Larry E.; Jenkins, Jesse J.; Gang, Chen; Ochs, Judith J.; Sanford, Robert A.; Heideman, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed cerebral necrosis (DN) is a significant risk for brain tumor patients treated with high-dose irradiation. Although differentiating DN from tumor progression is an important clinical question, the distinction cannot be made reliably by conventional imaging techniques. We undertook a pilot study to assess the ability of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) to differentiate prospectively between DN or recurrent/residual tumor in a series of children treated for primary brain tumors with high-dose irradiation. Methods and Materials: Twelve children (ages 3-16 years), who had clinical and MR imaging (MRI) changes that suggested a diagnosis of either DN or progressive/recurrent brain tumor, underwent localized 1 H MRS prior to planned biopsy, resection, or other confirmatory histological procedure. Prospective 1 H MRS interpretations were based on comparison of spectral peak patterns and quantitative peak area values from normalized spectra: a marked depression of the intracellular metabolite peaks from choline, creatine, and N-acetyl compounds was hypothesized to indicate DN, and median-to-high choline with easily visible creatine metabolite peaks was labeled progressive/recurrent tumor. Subsequent histological studies identified the brain lesion as DN or recurrent/residual tumor. Results: The patient series included five cases of DN and seven recurrent/residual tumor cases, based on histology. The MRS criteria prospectively identified five out of seven patients with active tumor, and four out of five patients with histologically proven DN correctly. Discriminant analysis suggested that the primary diagnostic information for differentiating DN from tumor lay in the normalized MRS peak areas for choline and creatine compounds. Conclusions: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows promising sensitivity and selectivity for differentiating DN from recurrent/progressive brain tumor. A novel diagnostic index based on peak areas for choline and

  5. Brain perfusion imaging with iodinated amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    Traditional nuclear medicine brain study using 99m Tc pertechnetate, glucoheptonate or diethlenetriaminepentacetic acid (DTPA) and planar imaging has experienced a significant decline in the past 10 years. This is mainly due to the introduction of X-ray CT and more recently the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, by which detailed morphology of the brain, including the detection of breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, can be obtained. The nuclear medicine brain imaging is only prescribed as a complementary test when X-ray CT is negative or equivocal and clinical suspicion remains. The attention of nuclear medicine brain imaging has been shifted from the detection of the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier to the study of brain function-perfusion, metabolism, and receptor binding, etc. The functional brain imaging provides diagnostic information usually unattainable by other radiological techniques. In this article, the iodinated amines as brain perfusion imaging agents are reviewed. Potential clinical application of these agents is discussed

  6. Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor: Imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarencon, Frederic, E-mail: fredclare5@msn.com [Department of Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, APHP, 75013 Paris (France); Bonneville, Fabrice [Department of Neuroradiology, Hopital Rangueil, Toulouse University Hospital, 31000 Toulouse (France); Rousseau, Audrey [Department of Neuropathology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital (France); Galanaud, Damien [Department of Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, APHP, 75013 Paris (France); Kujas, Michele [Department of Neuropathology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital (France); Naggara, Olivier [Department of Neuroradiology, St Anne Hospital, 75014 Paris (France); Cornu, Philippe [Department of Neurosurgery, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital (France); Chiras, Jacques [Department of Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, APHP, 75013 Paris (France)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To study the neuroimaging features of intracranial solitary fibrous tumors (ISFTs). Materials and methods: Retrospective study of neuroimaging features of 9 consecutive histopathologically proven ISFT cases. Location, size, shape, density, signal intensity and gadolinium uptake were studied at CT and MRI. Data collected from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) (3 patients), perfusion imaging and MR spectroscopy (2 patients), and DSA (4 patients) were also analyzed. Results: The tumors most frequently arose from the intracranial meninges (7/9), while the other lesions were intraventricular. Tumor size ranged from 2.5 to 10 cm (mean = 6.6 cm). They presented multilobular shape in 6/9 patients. Most ISFTs were heterogeneous (7/9) with areas of low T2 signal intensity that strongly enhanced after gadolinium administration (6/8). Erosion of the skull was present in about half of the cases (4/9). Components with decreased apparent diffusion coefficient were seen in 2/3 ISFTs on DWI. Spectroscopy revealed elevated peaks of choline and myo-inositol. MR perfusion showed features of hyperperfusion. Conclusion: ISFT should be considered in cases of extra-axial, supratentorial, heterogeneous, hypervascular tumor. Areas of low T2 signal intensity that strongly enhance after gadolinium injection are suggestive of this diagnosis. Restricted diffusion and elevated peak of myo-inositol may be additional valuable features.

  7. Neuroradiologic work-up of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbein, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of an intracranial tumor may be suspected or deduced from the clinical history and examination, or it may be discovered incidentally during investigation of another disorder. Once the suggestion is raised, a variety of neuroradiologic techniques are available to define the extent and nature of the lesion. The studies performed may allow a tissue diagnosis to be presumed, may serve as a guide to proposed surgical therapy, or may allow the course of a previously diagnosed lesion to be followed. This chapter discusses the utility of common neuroradiologic techniques and their specific indications in the work-up of intracranial tumors. Emphasis is placed upon tests that are most frequently utilized and have the greatest value

  8. DEMARCATE: Density-based magnetic resonance image clustering for assessing tumor heterogeneity in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhijoy; Banerjee, Sayantan; Kurtek, Sebastian; Narang, Shivali; Lee, Joonsang; Rao, Ganesh; Martinez, Juan; Bharath, Karthik; Rao, Arvind U K; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran

    2016-01-01

    Tumor heterogeneity is a crucial area of cancer research wherein inter- and intra-tumor differences are investigated to assess and monitor disease development and progression, especially in cancer. The proliferation of imaging and linked genomic data has enabled us to evaluate tumor heterogeneity on multiple levels. In this work, we examine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with brain cancer to assess image-based tumor heterogeneity. Standard approaches to this problem use scalar summary measures (e.g., intensity-based histogram statistics) that do not adequately capture the complete and finer scale information in the voxel-level data. In this paper, we introduce a novel technique, DEMARCATE (DEnsity-based MAgnetic Resonance image Clustering for Assessing Tumor hEterogeneity) to explore the entire tumor heterogeneity density profiles (THDPs) obtained from the full tumor voxel space. THDPs are smoothed representations of the probability density function of the tumor images. We develop tools for analyzing such objects under the Fisher-Rao Riemannian framework that allows us to construct metrics for THDP comparisons across patients, which can be used in conjunction with standard clustering approaches. Our analyses of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) based Glioblastoma dataset reveal two significant clusters of patients with marked differences in tumor morphology, genomic characteristics and prognostic clinical outcomes. In addition, we see enrichment of image-based clusters with known molecular subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme, which further validates our representation of tumor heterogeneity and subsequent clustering techniques.

  9. Experimental research for tumor VIP receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qianwei; Tan Tianzhi

    1998-01-01

    To study the possibility of radioactive labelled vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) for tumor VIP receptor imaging. 125 I-VIP was prepared by chloramine-T method, and purified by Sephadex G-50 column chromatography. The bioactivity and stability of 125 I-VIP were measured by silica 60 F 254 TLC and competition test to SGC7901 cell in vitro. The biodistribution of 125 I-VIP was studied in the nude mice bearing tumor. The results showed that labelled rate of 125 I was 73.8%, the specific activity was 18.2 PBq/mol, the radiochemical purity (RCP) was over 98% and remained 96.3% after 48 days stored at -80 degree C. The specific binding of 125 I-VIP to the SGC7901 cell was inhibited by VIP in dose dependence in the competition experiment. The radioactivity of tumor