WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain tumor imaging

  1. Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  2. Permeability imaging in pediatric brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Sandi; Lin, Yimo; Warnke, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    While traditional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging illustrate the structural morphology of brain pathology, newer, dynamic imaging techniques are able to show the movement of contrast throughout the brain parenchyma and across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). These data, in combination with pharmacokinetic models, can be used to investigate BBB permeability, which has wide-ranging applications in the diagnosis and management of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in ...

  3. Proton MRS imaging in pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarifi, Maria [Aghia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Tzika, A.A. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Shriners Burn Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques offer a noninvasive, non-irradiating yet sensitive approach to diagnosing and monitoring pediatric brain tumors. Proton MR spectroscopy (MRS), as an adjunct to MRI, is being more widely applied to monitor the metabolic aspects of brain cancer. In vivo MRS biomarkers represent a promising advance and may influence treatment choice at both initial diagnosis and follow-up, given the inherent difficulties of sequential biopsies to monitor therapeutic response. When combined with anatomical or other types of imaging, MRS provides unique information regarding biochemistry in inoperable brain tumors and can complement neuropathological data, guide biopsies and enhance insight into therapeutic options. The combination of noninvasively acquired prognostic information and the high-resolution anatomical imaging provided by conventional MRI is expected to surpass molecular analysis and DNA microarray gene profiling, both of which, although promising, depend on invasive biopsy. This review focuses on recent data in the field of MRS in children with brain tumors. (orig.)

  4. Non-FDG PET imaging of brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zemin; GUAN Yihui; ZUO Chuantao; ZHANG Zhengwei; XUE Fangping; LIN Xiangtong

    2007-01-01

    Due to relatively high uptake of glucose in the brain cortex, the use of FDG PET imaging is greatly limited in brain tumor imaging, especially for low-grade gliomas and some metastatic tumours. More and more tracers with higher specificity were developed lately for brain tumor imaging. There are 3 main types of non-FDG PET tracers:amino acid tracers, choline tracers and nucleic acid tracers. These tracers are now widely applied in many aspects of brain tumor imaging. This article summarized the general use of non-FDG PET in different aspects of brain tumor imaging.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive imaging method based on the detecting signal from hydrogen nuclei of water molecules and fat. Performances of MRI are continuously increasing, and its domains of investigation of the human body are growing in both morphological and functional study. MRI also allows It also performing advanced management of tumours especially in the brain, by combining anatomical information (morphological MRI), functional (diffusion, perfusion and BOLD contrast) and metabolic (tissue composition in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)). The MRI techniques have an important role in cancerology. These techniques allow essential information for the diagnosis and answering therapist's questions before, during or after the treatment. The MR allows clarifying the localization of expanding processes, the differential diagnosis between brain tumour and a lesion confined by another structural aspect, the diagnosis of the tumoral aspect of a lesion, the histological ranking in case of glial tumour and the extension of its localization as well as the therapeutic follow-up (pre-therapeutic and post-therapeutics assessments). A better combination between the morphological, functional and metabolic studies, as well as integrating new technical developments, especially while using a multichannel bird cage coils the 3T magnet and suitable computing software, would allow significant improvements of the exploration strategies and management of brain tumors.

  6. Wavelet Based Image Fusion for Detection of Brain Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CYN Dwith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumor, is one of the major causes for the increase in mortality among children and adults. Detecting the regions of brain is the major challenge in tumor detection. In the field of medical image processing, multi sensor images are widely being used as potential sources to detect brain tumor. In this paper, a wavelet based image fusion algorithm is applied on the Magnetic Resonance (MR images and Computed Tomography (CT images which are used as primary sources to extract the redundant and complementary information in order to enhance the tumor detection in the resultant fused image. The main features taken into account for detection of brain tumor are location of tumor and size of the tumor, which is further optimized through fusion of images using various wavelet transforms parameters. We discuss and enforce the principle of evaluating and comparing the performance of the algorithm applied to the images with respect to various wavelets type used for the wavelet analysis. The performance efficiency of the algorithm is evaluated on the basis of PSNR values. The obtained results are compared on the basis of PSNR with gradient vector field and big bang optimization. The algorithms are analyzed in terms of performance with respect to accuracy in estimation of tumor region and computational efficiency of the algorithms.

  7. Imaging of brain tumors with histological correlations. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevelegas, Antonios (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    This volume provides a deeper understanding of the diagnosis of brain tumors by correlating radiographic imaging features with the underlying pathological abnormalities. All modern imaging modalities are used to complete a diagnostic overview of brain tumors with emphasis on recent advances in diagnostic neuroradiology. High-quality illustrations depicting common and uncommon imaging characteristics of a wide range of brain tumors are presented and analysed, drawing attention to the ways in which these characteristics reflect different aspects of pathology. Important theoretical considerations are also discussed. Since the first edition, chapters have been revised and updated and new material has been added, including detailed information on the clinical application of functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Radiologists and other clinicians interested in the current diagnostic approach to brain tumors will find this book to be an invaluable and enlightening clinical tool. (orig.)

  8. Rapid and automatic detection of brain tumors in MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjia; Hu, Qingmao; Loe, KiaFock; Aziz, Aamer; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.

    2004-04-01

    An algorithm to automatically detect brain tumors in MR images is presented. The key concern is speed in order to process efficiently large brain image databases and provide quick outcomes in clinical setting. The method is based on study of asymmetry of the brain. Tumors cause asymmetry of the brain, so we detect brain tumors in 3D MR images using symmetry analysis of image grey levels with respect to the midsagittal plane (MSP). The MSP, separating the brain into two hemispheres, is extracted using our previously developed algorithm. By removing the background pixels, the normalized grey level histograms are calculated for both hemispheres. The similarity between these two histograms manifests the symmetry of the brain, and it is quantified by using four symmetry measures: correlation coefficient, root mean square error, integral of absolute difference (IAD), and integral of normalized absolute difference (INAD). A quantitative analysis of brain normality based on 42 patients with tumors and 55 normals is presented. The sensitivity and specificity of IAD and INAD were 83.3% and 89.1%, and 85.7% and 83.6%, respectively. The running time for each symmetry measure for a 3D 8bit MR data was between 0.1 - 0.3 seconds on a 2.4GHz CPU PC.

  9. Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Fukushi, Yasuko; Kubota, Oichi; Itsuji, Takeaki; Ouchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2016-07-01

    Tumor imaging by terahertz spectroscopy of fresh tissue without dye is demonstrated using samples from a rat glioma model. The complex refractive index spectrum obtained by a reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system can discriminate between normal and tumor tissues. Both the refractive index and absorption coefficient of tumor tissues are higher than those of normal tissues and can be attributed to the higher cell density and water content of the tumor region. The results of this study indicate that terahertz technology is useful for detecting brain tumor tissue.

  10. Cerenkov and radioluminescence imaging of brain tumor specimens during neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello Enrico; Schiariti, Marco P.; Grana, Chiara M.; Ferrari, Mahila; Cremonesi, Marta; Boschi, Federico

    2016-05-01

    We presented the first example of Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) and radioluminescence imaging (RLI) of human tumor specimens. A patient with a brain meningioma localized in the left parietal region was injected with 166 MBq of Y90-DOTATOC the day before neurosurgery. The specimens of the tumor removed during surgery were imaged using both CLI and RLI using an optical imager prototype developed in our laboratory. The system is based on a cooled electron multiplied charge coupled device coupled with an f/0.95 17-mm C-mount lens. We showed for the first time the possibility of obtaining CLI and RLI images of fresh human brain tumor specimens removed during neurosurgery.

  11. Skull-stripping for Tumor-bearing Brain Images

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan; Reyes, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Skull-stripping separates the skull region of the head from the soft brain tissues. In many cases of brain image analysis, this is an essential preprocessing step in order to improve the final result. This is true for both registration and segmentation tasks. In fact, skull-stripping of magnetic resonance images (MRI) is a well-studied problem with numerous publications in recent years. Many different algorithms have been proposed, a summary and comparison of which can be found in [Fennema-Notestine, 2006]. Despite the abundance of approaches, we discovered that the algorithms which had been suggested so far, perform poorly when dealing with tumor-bearing brain images. This is mostly due to additional difficulties in separating the brain from the skull in this case, especially when the lesion is located very close to the skull border. Additionally, images acquired according to standard clinical protocols, often exhibit anisotropic resolution and only partial coverage, which further complicates the task. There...

  12. Simulation of brain tumor resection in image-guided neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoyao; Ji, Songbai; Fontaine, Kathryn; Hartov, Alex; Roberts, David; Paulsen, Keith

    2011-03-01

    Preoperative magnetic resonance images are typically used for neuronavigation in image-guided neurosurgery. However, intraoperative brain deformation (e.g., as a result of gravitation, loss of cerebrospinal fluid, retraction, resection, etc.) significantly degrades the accuracy in image guidance, and must be compensated for in order to maintain sufficient accuracy for navigation. Biomechanical finite element models are effective techniques that assimilate intraoperative data and compute whole-brain deformation from which to generate model-updated MR images (uMR) to improve accuracy in intraoperative guidance. To date, most studies have focused on early surgical stages (i.e., after craniotomy and durotomy), whereas simulation of more complex events at later surgical stages has remained to be a challenge using biomechanical models. We have developed a method to simulate partial or complete tumor resection that incorporates intraoperative volumetric ultrasound (US) and stereovision (SV), and the resulting whole-brain deformation was used to generate uMR. The 3D ultrasound and stereovision systems are complimentary to each other because they capture features deeper in the brain beneath the craniotomy and at the exposed cortical surface, respectively. In this paper, we illustrate the application of the proposed method to simulate brain tumor resection at three temporally distinct surgical stages throughout a clinical surgery case using sparse displacement data obtained from both the US and SV systems. We demonstrate that our technique is feasible to produce uMR that agrees well with intraoperative US and SV images after dural opening, after partial tumor resection, and after complete tumor resection. Currently, the computational cost to simulate tumor resection can be up to 30 min because of the need for re-meshing and the trial-and-error approach to refine the amount of tissue resection. However, this approach introduces minimal interruption to the surgical workflow

  13. The Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menze, Bjoern H.; Jakab, Andras; Bauer, Stefan;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report the set-up and results of the Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) organized in conjunction with the MICCAI 2012 and 2013 conferences. Twenty state-of-the-art tumor segmentation algorithms were applied to a set of 65 multi-contrast MR scans of low......- and high-grade glioma patients – manually annotated by up to four raters – and to 65 comparable scans generated using tumor image simulation software. Quantitative evaluations revealed considerable disagreement between the human raters in segmenting various tumor sub-regions (Dice scores in the range 74...... a hierarchical majority vote yielded segmentations that consistently ranked above all individual algorithms, indicating remaining opportunities for further methodological improvements. The BRATS image data and manual annotations continue to be publicly available through an online evaluation system as an ongoing...

  14. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  15. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  16. Round Randomized Learning Vector Quantization for Brain Tumor Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) classification into normal and abnormal is a critical and challenging task. Owing to that, several medical imaging classification techniques have been devised in which Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) is amongst the potential. The main goal of this paper is to enhance the performance of LVQ technique in order to gain higher accuracy detection for brain tumor in MRIs. The classical way of selecting the winner code vector in LVQ is to measure the distance between the input vector and the codebook vectors using Euclidean distance function. In order to improve the winner selection technique, round off function is employed along with the Euclidean distance function. Moreover, in competitive learning classifiers, the fitting model is highly dependent on the class distribution. Therefore this paper proposed a multiresampling technique for which better class distribution can be achieved. This multiresampling is executed by using random selection via preclassification. The test data sample used are the brain tumor magnetic resonance images collected from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center and UCI benchmark data sets. Comparative studies showed that the proposed methods with promising results are LVQ1, Multipass LVQ, Hierarchical LVQ, Multilayer Perceptron, and Radial Basis Function.

  17. Round Randomized Learning Vector Quantization for Brain Tumor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Norul Huda Sheikh Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI classification into normal and abnormal is a critical and challenging task. Owing to that, several medical imaging classification techniques have been devised in which Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ is amongst the potential. The main goal of this paper is to enhance the performance of LVQ technique in order to gain higher accuracy detection for brain tumor in MRIs. The classical way of selecting the winner code vector in LVQ is to measure the distance between the input vector and the codebook vectors using Euclidean distance function. In order to improve the winner selection technique, round off function is employed along with the Euclidean distance function. Moreover, in competitive learning classifiers, the fitting model is highly dependent on the class distribution. Therefore this paper proposed a multiresampling technique for which better class distribution can be achieved. This multiresampling is executed by using random selection via preclassification. The test data sample used are the brain tumor magnetic resonance images collected from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center and UCI benchmark data sets. Comparative studies showed that the proposed methods with promising results are LVQ1, Multipass LVQ, Hierarchical LVQ, Multilayer Perceptron, and Radial Basis Function.

  18. Differential MRI Diagnosis Between Brain Abscess and Necrotic or Cystic Brain Tumors Using Diffusion Weighted Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinat Miabi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: Differentiating brain abscesses from cystic or necrotic tumors by CT or MR imaging can be difficult. Difficulties in the diagnosis of intracranial abscess are mainly due to the combination of often unspecified clinical findings and similarities in the morphologic appearance of some intracranial mass lesions, such as cystic gliomas, metastases, and brain abscesses. Diffusion-weighted imaging provides a way to evaluate the diffusion properties of water molecules in tissue and has been used for diseases such as ischemia, tumors, epilepsy, and white matter disorders. The goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of diffusion MRI to differentiate between brain abscesses and necrotic or cystic brain tumors. "nMaterials and Methods: MRI was performed in 17 patients (12 men and five women; age range, 19–74 years [mean, 55 years] with necrotic lesions and MR imaging evidence of ring-shaped enhancement after the injection of contrast material .In addition to standard MR sequences diffusion weighted MRI with apparent coefficient (ADC maps. "nResults: Eleven patients had tumors, and six had pyogenic abscesses. The tumors were glioblastomas (five patients, anaplastic astrocytoma (three patients, metastases (three patients, and primary malignancy, including lung (2 and breast (1 cancer. Surgical or stereotactic biopsies were obtained, and histologic studies were performed in all except one case (case 5. In the cases of abscess, bacteriologic analysis was also conducted. None of these lesions appeared hemorrhagic on T1-weighted images. "nConclusion: Diffusion-weighted imaging is useful for differentiating brain abscess from cystic or necrotic brain tumor, which is often difficult with conventional MR imaging. Diffusion-weighted imaging is useful as an additional imaging technique for establishing the differential diagnosis between brain abscesses and cystic or necrotic brain tumors. It requires less imaging time and is more

  19. The Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menze, Bjoern H; Jakab, Andras; Bauer, Stefan; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Farahani, Keyvan; Kirby, Justin; Burren, Yuliya; Porz, Nicole; Slotboom, Johannes; Wiest, Roland; Lanczi, Levente; Gerstner, Elizabeth; Weber, Marc-André; Arbel, Tal; Avants, Brian B; Ayache, Nicholas; Buendia, Patricia; Collins, D Louis; Cordier, Nicolas; Corso, Jason J; Criminisi, Antonio; Das, Tilak; Delingette, Hervé; Demiralp, Çağatay; Durst, Christopher R; Dojat, Michel; Doyle, Senan; Festa, Joana; Forbes, Florence; Geremia, Ezequiel; Glocker, Ben; Golland, Polina; Guo, Xiaotao; Hamamci, Andac; Iftekharuddin, Khan M; Jena, Raj; John, Nigel M; Konukoglu, Ender; Lashkari, Danial; Mariz, José Antonió; Meier, Raphael; Pereira, Sérgio; Precup, Doina; Price, Stephen J; Raviv, Tammy Riklin; Reza, Syed M S; Ryan, Michael; Sarikaya, Duygu; Schwartz, Lawrence; Shin, Hoo-Chang; Shotton, Jamie; Silva, Carlos A; Sousa, Nuno; Subbanna, Nagesh K; Szekely, Gabor; Taylor, Thomas J; Thomas, Owen M; Tustison, Nicholas J; Unal, Gozde; Vasseur, Flor; Wintermark, Max; Ye, Dong Hye; Zhao, Liang; Zhao, Binsheng; Zikic, Darko; Prastawa, Marcel; Reyes, Mauricio; Van Leemput, Koen

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we report the set-up and results of the Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) organized in conjunction with the MICCAI 2012 and 2013 conferences. Twenty state-of-the-art tumor segmentation algorithms were applied to a set of 65 multi-contrast MR scans of low- and high-grade glioma patients-manually annotated by up to four raters-and to 65 comparable scans generated using tumor image simulation software. Quantitative evaluations revealed considerable disagreement between the human raters in segmenting various tumor sub-regions (Dice scores in the range 74%-85%), illustrating the difficulty of this task. We found that different algorithms worked best for different sub-regions (reaching performance comparable to human inter-rater variability), but that no single algorithm ranked in the top for all sub-regions simultaneously. Fusing several good algorithms using a hierarchical majority vote yielded segmentations that consistently ranked above all individual algorithms, indicating remaining opportunities for further methodological improvements. The BRATS image data and manual annotations continue to be publicly available through an online evaluation system as an ongoing benchmarking resource.

  20. Fetal brain tumors: Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hérbene; José; Milani; Edward; Araujo; Júnior; Sérgio; Cavalheiro; Patrícia; Soares; Oliveira; Wagner; Jou; Hisaba; Enoch; Quinderé; Sá; Barreto; Maurício; Mendes; Barbosa; Luciano; Marcondes; Nardozza; Antonio; Fernandes; Moron

    2015-01-01

    Congenital central nervous system tumors diagnosed during pregnancy are rare, and often have a poor prognosis. The most frequent type is the teratoma. Use of ultrasound and magnetic resonance image allows the suspicion of brain tumors during pregnancy. However, the definitive diagnosis is only confirmed after birth by histology. The purpose of this mini-review article is to describe the general clinical aspects of intracranial tumors and describe the main fetal brain tumors.

  1. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging of glial brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferda, Jiri, E-mail: ferda@fnplzen. [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 304 60 Plzen (Czech Republic); Kastner, Jan [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 304 60 Plzen (Czech Republic); Mukensnabl, Petr [Sikl' s Institute of Pathological Anatomy, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 304 60 Plzen (Czech Republic); Choc, Milan [Department of Neurosurgery, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 304 60 Plzen (Czech Republic); Horemuzova, Jana; Ferdova, Eva; Kreuzberg, Boris [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Medical Faculty Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, 304 60 Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2010-06-15

    Aim: To evaluate the author's experience with the use of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) on patients with glial tumors. Methods: A retrospective evaluation of a group of 24 patients with glial tumors was performed. There were eight patients with Grade II, eight patients with Grade III and eight patients with Grade IV tumors with a histologically proven diagnosis. All the patients underwent routine imaging including T2 weighted images, multidirectional diffusion weighted imaging (measured in 60 non-collinear directions) and T1 weighted non-enhanced and contrast enhanced images. The imaging sequence and evaluation software were produced by Massachusetts General Hospital Corporation (Boston, MA, USA). Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were calculated in all patients. The white matter FA changes were assessed within the tumorous tissue, on the tumorous borderline and in the normally appearing white matter adjacent to the tumor. A three-dimensional model of the white matter tract was created to demonstrate the space relationship of the tumor and the capsula interna or corpus callosum in each case using the following fiber tracing parameters: FA step 0.25 and a tensor declination angle of 45 gr. An additional assessment of the tumorous tissue enhancement was performed. Results: A uniform homogenous structure with sharp demargination of the Grade II tumors and the wide rim of the intermedial FA in all Grade III tumors respectively, were found during the evaluation of the FA maps. In Grade IV tumors a variable demargination was noted on the FA maps. The sensitivity and specificity for the discrimination of low- and high-grade glial tumors using FA maps was revealed to be 81% and 87% respectively. If the evaluation of the contrast enhancement was combined with the evaluation of the FA maps, both sensitivity and specificity were 100%. Conclusion: Although the evaluation of the fractional anisotropy maps is not sufficient for glioma grading, the

  2. Imaging of non tumorous and tumorous human brain tissue with full-field optical coherence tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Assayag, Osnath; Devaux, Bertrand; Harms, Fabrice; Pallud, Johan; Chretien, Fabrice; Boccara, Claude; Varlet, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    A prospective study was performed on neurosurgical samples from 18 patients to evaluate the use of Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) in brain tumor diagnosis. FF-OCT captures en face slices of tissue samples at 1\\mum resolution in 3D with a typical 200\\mum imaging depth. A 1cm2 specimen is scanned at a single depth and processed in about 5 minutes. This rapid imaging process is non-invasive and 30 requires neither contrast agent injection nor tissue preparation, which makes it particularly well suited to medical imaging applications. Temporal chronic epileptic parenchyma and brain tumors such as meningiomas, low- grade and high-grade gliomas, and choroid plexus papilloma were imaged. A subpopulation of neurons, myelin fibers and CNS vasculature were clearly identified. Cortex could be discriminated from white matter, but individual glial cells as astrocytes (normal or reactive) or oligodendrocytes were not observable. This study reports for the first time on the feasibility of using FF-OCT in a...

  3. Third harmonic generation imaging for fast, label-free pathology of human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, N V; Wesseling, P; Hamer, P C de Witt; Noske, D P; Galgano, G D; Mansvelder, H D; Baayen, J C; Groot, M L

    2016-05-01

    In brain tumor surgery, recognition of tumor boundaries is key. However, intraoperative assessment of tumor boundaries by the neurosurgeon is difficult. Therefore, there is an urgent need for tools that provide the neurosurgeon with pathological information during the operation. We show that third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy provides label-free, real-time images of histopathological quality; increased cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, and rarefaction of neuropil in fresh, unstained human brain tissue could be clearly recognized. We further demonstrate THG images taken with a GRIN objective, as a step toward in situ THG microendoscopy of tumor boundaries. THG imaging is thus a promising tool for optical biopsies.

  4. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  5. Segmentation of Tumor Region in MRI Images of Brain using Mathematical Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwini Gade; Rekha Vig; Vaishali Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces an efficient detection of brain tumor from cerebral MRI images. The methodology consists of two steps: enhancement and segmentation. To improve the quality of images and limit the risk of distinct regions fusion in the segmentation phase an enhancement process is applied. We applied mathematical morphology to increase the contrast in MRI images and to segment MRI images. Some of experimental results on brain images show the feasibility and the performance of the proposed...

  6. Segmentation of Tumor Region in MRI Images of Brain using Mathematical Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Gade

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an efficient detection of brain tumor from cerebral MRI images. The methodology consists of two steps: enhancement and segmentation. To improve the quality of images and limit the risk of distinct regions fusion in the segmentation phase an enhancement process is applied. We applied mathematical morphology to increase the contrast in MRI images and to segment MRI images. Some of experimental results on brain images show the feasibility and the performance of the proposed approach.

  7. Usefulness of three-dimensional MR images of brain tumors for surgical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) MR imaging of brain tumors for surgical planning. Sixty-nine patients with various tumors of the brain were included in the present study. Using a volume-rendering (VR) method on an independent workstation, 3D-MR images were obtained with the fast-spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (SPGR) sequence after Gd-DTPA administration. VR images could show an exact relationship between the surface of the brain and major vessels. However, in patients with deeply located tumors, VR images did not necessarily provide sufficient information as to the relationship between the tumor and vessels. In combination with a surface-rendering method, 3D-MR imaging could demonstrate the exact relationships among the tumors, major vessels, and surface of the brain. In tumors without contrast enhancement, this method was able to show 3D images of tumors with surrounding structures. For neurosurgeons, 3D-MR images were useful for understanding the surface anatomy and surrounding structures of the tumors prior to surgery. These images were also helpful in explaining the condition of the disease to patients and their families. (author)

  8. Optimizing brain tumor resection. High-field interventional MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, R P; Chu, R M; Liu, H; Truwit, C L; Hall, W A

    2001-11-01

    High-field strength iMRI guidance is an effective tool for brain tumor resection. Although its use lengthens the average time for a craniotomy, the reward is a more extensive tumor excision compared with conventional neurosurgery without an increased risk to the patient (Table 4). Although intraoperative patient transfer into and out of the magnet is cumbersome, the possibility for complete resection, especially for a low-grade glioma, makes the effort worthwhile. The cost and technical support required for this system presently limits its use to only a few sites worldwide. As with any technology, further refinements will make this system less expensive and more attainable. Practical consideration aside, high-field strength iMRI is presently [table: see text] the most effective tool available for brain tumor resection. Because of its novelty, future studies are necessary to determine if this technology lowers the incidence of and extends the duration to tumor recurrence as the preliminary data in children suggests. These are the ultimate measures of efficacy for any brain tumor treatment. Based on the rapid advancement of technology, will today's high-field strength interventional magnet become tomorrow's low-field system? Very high-field strength designs may improve diagnostic capabilities through higher resolution, but their interventional applications may be hindered by increased sensitivity for clinically insignificant abnormalities and decreased specificity for clinically relevant lesions. As new technology is developed, clinicians must continue to explore and refine the existing high-field strength iMRI to make it cost-effective and widely applicable.

  9. A survey of MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stefan; Wiest, Roland; Nolte, Lutz-P.; Reyes, Mauricio

    2013-07-01

    MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies is gaining attention in recent times due to an increased need for efficient and objective evaluation of large amounts of data. While the pioneering approaches applying automated methods for the analysis of brain tumor images date back almost two decades, the current methods are becoming more mature and coming closer to routine clinical application. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview by giving a brief introduction to brain tumors and imaging of brain tumors first. Then, we review the state of the art in segmentation, registration and modeling related to tumor-bearing brain images with a focus on gliomas. The objective in the segmentation is outlining the tumor including its sub-compartments and surrounding tissues, while the main challenge in registration and modeling is the handling of morphological changes caused by the tumor. The qualities of different approaches are discussed with a focus on methods that can be applied on standard clinical imaging protocols. Finally, a critical assessment of the current state is performed and future developments and trends are addressed, giving special attention to recent developments in radiological tumor assessment guidelines.

  10. Detection of Brain Tumor and Extraction of Texture Features using Magnetic Resonance Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dilip Kumar Gandhi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain Cancer Detection system is designed. Aim of this paper is to locate the tumor and determine the texture features from a Brain Cancer affected MRI. A computer based diagnosis is performed in order to detect the tumors from given Magnetic Resonance Image. Basic image processing techniques are used to locate the tumor region. Basic techniques consist of image enhancement, image bianarization, and image morphological operations. Texture features are computed using the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix. Texture features consists of five distinct features. Selective features or the combination of selective features will be used in the future to determine the class of the query image. Astrocytoma type of Brain Cancer affected images are used only for simplicity

  11. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  12. NI-78LABEL-FREE MULTIPHOTON MICROSCOPY: A NOVEL TOOL FOR THE IMAGING OF BRAIN TUMORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckermann, Ortrud; Galli, Roberta; Geiger, Kathrin; Koch, Edmund; Schackert, Gabriele; Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Changes in tissue composition caused by brain tumor growth involve a series of complex biochemical alterations which can be imaged on unstained native tissue using multiphoton microscopy: We used coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging that resonantly excites the symmetric stretching vibration of CH2 groups at 2850 cm−1 and visualizes lipid content in combination with imaging of endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) to discern different types of tumors from normal tissue in unstained, native brain samples. Experimental brain tumors were induced in nude mice NMRI nu/nu (n = 25) by stereotactic implantation of glioblastoma (U87), melanoma (A375) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. Label-free multiphoton microscopy of brain cryosections provided exhaustive information of the tumor morphochemistry. The tumor border was defined with cellular resolution by a strong reduction of CARS signal intensity to 61% (glioblastoma), 71% (melanoma) and 68% (breast cancer). This reduction of lipid content within the tumor was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Micrometastases infiltrating normal tissue (size 50 - 200 µm) were identified in glioblastoma and melanoma. Additionally, multiphoton microscopy proved a reduction of CARS signal intensity in all human glioblastoma samples analyzed (to 72%, n = 6). Additionally, relevant SHG and TPEF signals were detected in human primary and secondary brain tumor samples and enabled to image variations in tumor associated vasculature, fibrosis, necrosis and nuclear size and density. All primary or secondary brain tumors investigated were characterized by a lower intensity of the CARS signal, therefore offering a simple tool for objective tumor detection and delineation. The combination of techniques allows retrieving a quantity of information on native unstained tissue which is comparable to H&E staining. Therefore, label-free multiphoton microscopy has the potential to become a

  13. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging After High-Dose Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for Childhood Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Brain necrosis or other subacute iatrogenic reactions has been recognized as a potential complication of radiotherapy (RT), although the possible synergistic effects of high-dose chemotherapy and RT might have been underestimated. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the clinical and radiologic data of 49 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with high-dose thiotepa and autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue, preceded or followed by RT. The patients were assessed for neurocognitive tests to identify any correlation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anomalies. Results: Of the 49 children, 18 (6 of 25 with high-grade gliomas and 12 of 24 with primitive neuroectodermal tumors) had abnormal brain MRI findings occurring a median of 8 months (range, 2-39 months) after RT and beginning to regress a median of 13 months (range, 2-26 months) after onset. The most common lesion pattern involved multiple pseudonodular, millimeter-size, T1-weighted unevenly enhancing, and T2-weighted hyperintense foci. Four patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumors also had subdural fluid leaks, with meningeal enhancement over the effusion. One-half of the patients had symptoms relating to the new radiographic findings. The MRI lesion-free survival rate was 74% ± 6% at 1 year and 57% ± 8% at 2 years. The number of marrow ablative courses correlated significantly to the incidence of radiographic anomalies. No significant difference was found in intelligent quotient scores between children with and without radiographic changes. Conclusion: Multiple enhancing cerebral lesions were frequently seen on MRI scans soon after high-dose chemotherapy and RT. Such findings pose a major diagnostic challenge in terms of their differential diagnosis vis-a-vis recurrent tumor. Their correlation with neurocognitive results deserves further investigation

  14. Neuroimaging of pediatric brain tumors: from basic to advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Blüml, Stefan

    2009-11-01

    In this review, the basic magnetic resonance concepts used in the imaging approach of a pediatric brain tumor are described with respect to different factors including understanding the significance of the patient's age. Also discussed are other factors directly related to the magnetic resonance scan itself including evaluating the location of the tumor, determining if the lesion is extra-axial or intra-axial, and evaluating the contrast characteristics of the lesion. Of note, there are key imaging features of pediatric brain tumors, which can give information about the cellularity of the lesion, which can then be confirmed with advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. The second part of this review will provide an overview of the major advanced MRI techniques used in pediatric imaging, particularly, magnetic resonance diffusion, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and magnetic resonance perfusion. The last part of the review will provide more specific information about the use of advanced magnetic resonance techniques in the evaluation of pediatric brain tumors.

  15. Double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging: basic concepts and application in brain tumors for the assessment of tumor blood volume and vascular permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Uematsu, Hidemasa; Maeda, Masayuki

    2006-01-01

    Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using contrast agents plays a key role in characterizing tumors of the brain. We have shown that double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging (DEPWI) is potentially useful in assessing brain tumors. Quantitative indices, such as tumor blood volume, are obtained using DEPWI, which allows correction of underestimation of tumor blood volume due to leakage of contrast agents from tumor vessels, in addition to simultaneous acquisition of tumor vessel...

  16. {sup 18}F-labeled RGD peptide: initial evaluation for imaging brain tumor angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xiaoyuan; Park, Ryan; Shahinian, Anthony H.; Tohme, Michel; Khankaldyyan, Vazgen; Bozorgzadeh, Mohammed H.; Bading, James R.; Moats, Rex; Laug, Walter E.; Conti, Peter S. E-mail: pconti@usc.edu

    2004-02-01

    Brain tumors are highly angiogenesis dependent. The cell adhesion receptor integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} is overexpressed in glioma and activated endothelial cells and plays an important role in brain tumor growth, spread and angiogenesis. Suitably labeled {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-integrin antagonists may therefore be useful for imaging brain tumor associated angiogenesis. Cyclic RGD peptide c(RGDyK) was labeled with {sup 18}F via N-succinimidyl-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoate through the side-chain {epsilon}-amino group of the lysine residue. The radiotracer was evaluated in vivo for its tumor targeting efficacy and pharmacokinetics in subcutaneously implanted U87MG and orthotopically implanted U251T glioblastoma nude mouse models by means of microPET, quantitative autoradiography and direct tissue sampling. The N-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoyl-RGD ([{sup 18}F]FB-RGD) was produced in less than 2 h with 20-25% decay-corrected yields and specific activity of 230 GBq/{mu}mol at end of synthesis. The tracer showed very rapid blood clearance and both hepatobiliary and renal excretion. Tumor-to-muscle uptake ratio at 30 min was approximately 5 in the subcutaneous U87MG tumor model. MicroPET imaging with the orthotopic U251T brain tumor model revealed very high tumor-to-brain ratio, with virtually no uptake in the normal brain. Successful blocking of tumor uptake of [{sup 18}F]FB-RGD in the presence of excess amount of c(RGDyK) revealed receptor specific activity accumulation. Hence, N-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoyl labeled cyclic RGD peptide [{sup 18}F]FB-RGD is a potential tracer for imaging {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-integrin positive tumors in brain and other anatomic locations.

  17. Development of image-processing software for automatic segmentation of brain tumors in MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the commercially available software for brain tumor segmentation have limited functionality and frequently lack the careful validation that is required for clinical studies. We have developed an image-analysis software package called 'Prometheus,' which performs neural system-based segmentation operations on MR images using pre-trained information. The software also has the capability to improve its segmentation performance by using the training module of the neural system. The aim of this article is to present the design and modules of this software. The segmentation module of Prometheus can be used primarily for image analysis in MR images. Prometheus was validated against manual segmentation by a radiologist and its mean sensitivity and specificity was found to be 85. 7 4.89% and 93. 2±2.87%, respectively. Similarly, the mean segmentation accuracy and mean correspondence ratio was found to be 92. 35±3. 37% and 0. 78±0. 046, respectively. (author)

  18. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  19. Optimizing brain tumor resection. Midfield interventional MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, E

    2001-11-01

    The development of the intraoperative MR imager represents an important example of creative vision and interdisciplinary teamwork. The result is a remarkable tool for neurosurgical applications. MRT allows surgical manipulation under direct visualization of the intracranial contents through the eye of the surgeon and through the volumetric images of the MR imaging system. This technology can be applied to cranial and spinal cases, and forseeably can encompass application to the entire gamut of neurosurgical efforts. The author's experience has been that this device is easy and comfortable for the surgeon to use. Image acquisition, giving views in the plane of choice, lasts no more than 2 to 60 seconds (depending on the imaging method), and does not increase the duration of a given procedure substantially. The author believes that the information received through intraoperative MR imaging scanning ultimately will contribute to decreasing the duration of surgery. Future possibilities include combining the intraoperative MR imager with other technologies, such as the endoscope, focused ultrasound, robotics, and the evaluation of brain function intraoperatively. The development of the intraoperative MR imager marks a significant advance in neurosurgery, an advance that will revolutionize intraoperative visualization as fully as the operating microscope. The combination of intraoperative visualization and precise surgical navigation is unparalleled, and its enhancement of surgical applications will be widespread. Considering the remarkable potential of the intraoperative MR imager for neurosurgical applications, optimal magnet design, image quality, and navigational methods are necessary to capitalize on the advantages of this revolutionary tool. The intraoperative MR imaging system that the author's team has developed and used has combined these features, and allows the performance of open surgical procedures without the need of patient or magnet repositioning. By

  20. Targeting Potassium Channels for Increasing Delivery of Imaging Agents and Therapeutics to Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Sanyasihally Ningaraj

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Every year in the US, 20,000 new primary and nearly 200,000 metastatic brain tumor cases are reported. The cerebral microvessels/ capillaries that form the blood–brain barrier (BBB not only protect the brain from toxic agents in the blood but also pose a significant hindrance to the delivery of small and large therapeutic molecules. Different strategies have been employed to circumvent the physiological barrier posed by blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB. Studies in our laboratory have identified significant differences in the expression levels of certain genes and proteins between normal and brain tumor capillary endothelial cells. In this study, we validated the non-invasive and clinically relevant Dynamic Contrast Enhancing-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI method with invasive, clinically irrelevant but highly accurate Quantitative Autoradiography (QAR method using rat glioma model. We also showed that DCE-MRI metric of tissue vessel perfusion-permeability is sensitive to changes in blood vessel permeability following administration of calcium-activated potassium (BKCa channel activator NS-1619. Our results show that human gliomas and brain tumor endothelial cells that overexpress BKCa channels can be targeted for increased BTB permeability for MRI enhancing agents to brain tumors. We conclude that monitoring the outcome of increased MRI enhancing agents’ delivery to microsatellites and leading tumor edges in glioma patients would lead to beneficial clinical outcome.

  1. Double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging: basic concepts and application in brain tumors for the assessment of tumor blood volume and vascular permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Hidemasa [University of Fukui, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui (Japan); Maeda, Masayuki [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mie (Japan)

    2006-01-01

    Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using contrast agents plays a key role in characterizing tumors of the brain. We have shown that double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging (DEPWI) is potentially useful in assessing brain tumors. Quantitative indices, such as tumor blood volume, are obtained using DEPWI, which allows correction of underestimation of tumor blood volume due to leakage of contrast agents from tumor vessels, in addition to simultaneous acquisition of tumor vessel permeability. This article describes basic concepts of DEPWI and demonstrates clinical applications in brain tumors. (orig.)

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in assessment of treatment response of gamma knife for brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xiao; ZHANG Xue-ning; ZHANG Yun-ting; YU Chun-shui; XU De-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective To review the applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in assessing treatment response to gamma knife radiosurgery for brain tumors.Data sources Published articles about assessing treatment response to gamma knife radiosurgery for brain tumors were selected using PubMed. The search terms were "MRI", "gamma knife" and "brain tumors".Study selection Articles regarding the MRI techniques using for early assessment of treatment response of gamma knife were selected.Results MRI techniques, especially diffusion weighted imaging, perfusion weighted imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are useful for early assessment of treatment response of gamma knife by detecting the hemodynamic, metabolic, and cellular alterations. Moreover, they can also provide important information on prognosis.Conclusions Diffusion weighted imaging, perfusion weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy can provide early assessment of treatment response of gamma knife for brain tumors, and also information of tumor progression or recurrence earlier than conventional MRI. But there are still many questions to be answered which should be based on the development and advancement of MRI and related disciplines.

  3. Improved tumor identification using dual tracer molecular imaging in fluorescence guided brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaochun; Torres, Veronica; Straus, David; Brey, Eric M.; Byrne, Richard W.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2015-03-01

    Brain tumors represent a leading cause of cancer death for people under the age of 40 and the probability complete surgical resection of brain tumors remains low owing to the invasive nature of these tumors and the consequences of damaging healthy brain tissue. Molecular imaging is an emerging approach that has the potential to improve the ability for surgeons to correctly discriminate between healthy and cancerous tissue; however, conventional molecular imaging approaches in brain suffer from significant background signal in healthy tissue or an inability target more invasive sections of the tumor. This work presents initial studies investigating the ability of novel dual-tracer molecular imaging strategies to be used to overcome the major limitations of conventional "single-tracer" molecular imaging. The approach is evaluated in simulations and in an in vivo mice study with animals inoculated orthotopically using fluorescent human glioma cells. An epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted Affibody-fluorescent marker was employed as a targeted imaging agent, and the suitability of various FDA approved untargeted fluorescent tracers (e.g. fluorescein & indocyanine green) were evaluated in terms of their ability to account for nonspecific uptake and retention of the targeted imaging agent. Signal-to-background ratio was used to measure and compare the amount of reporter in the tissue between targeted and untargeted tracer. The initial findings suggest that FDA-approved fluorescent imaging agents are ill-suited to act as untargeted imaging agents for dual-tracer fluorescent guided brain surgery as they suffer from poor delivery to the healthy brain tissue and therefore cannot be used to identify nonspecific vs. specific uptake of the targeted imaging agent where current surgery is most limited.

  4. A Review of Fully Automated Techniques for Brain Tumor Detection From MR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Hayat Gondal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Radiologists use medical images to diagnose diseases precisely. However, identification of brain tumor from medical images is still a critical and complicated job for a radiologist. Brain tumor identification form magnetic resonance imaging (MRI consists of several stages. Segmentation is known to be an essential step in medical imaging classification and analysis. Performing the brain MR images segmentation manually is a difficult task as there are several challenges associated with it. Radiologist and medical experts spend plenty of time for manually segmenting brain MR images, and this is a non-repeatable task. In view of this, an automatic segmentation of brain MR images is needed to correctly segment White Matter (WM, Gray Matter (GM and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF tissues of brain in a shorter span of time. The accurate segmentation is crucial as otherwise the wrong identification of disease can lead to severe consequences. Taking into account the aforesaid challenges, this research is focused towards highlighting the strengths and limitations of the earlier proposed segmentation techniques discussed in the contemporary literature. Besides summarizing the literature, the paper also provides a critical evaluation of the surveyed literature which reveals new facets of research. However, articulating a new technique is beyond the scope of this paper.

  5. Evaluation of image quality of MRI data for brain tumor surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckel, Frank; Arlt, Felix; Geisler, Benjamin; Zidowitz, Stephan; Neumuth, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    3D medical images are important components of modern medicine. Their usefulness for the physician depends on their quality, though. Only high-quality images allow accurate and reproducible diagnosis and appropriate support during treatment. We have analyzed 202 MRI images for brain tumor surgery in a retrospective study. Both an experienced neurosurgeon and an experienced neuroradiologist rated each available image with respect to its role in the clinical workflow, its suitability for this specific role, various image quality characteristics, and imaging artifacts. Our results show that MRI data acquired for brain tumor surgery does not always fulfill the required quality standards and that there is a significant disagreement between the surgeon and the radiologist, with the surgeon being more critical. Noise, resolution, as well as the coverage of anatomical structures were the most important criteria for the surgeon, while the radiologist was mainly disturbed by motion artifacts.

  6. Raman spectroscopic imaging as complementary tool for histopathologic assessment of brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Christoph; Bergner, Norbert; Romeike, Bernd; Reichart, Rupert; Kalff, Rolf; Geiger, Kathrin; Kirsch, Matthias; Schackert, Gabriele; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy enables label-free assessment of brain tissues and tumors based on their biochemical composition. Combination of the Raman spectra with the lateral information allows grading of tumors, determining the primary tumor of brain metastases and delineating tumor margins - even during surgery after coupling with fiber optic probes. This contribution presents exemplary Raman spectra and images collected from low grade and high grade regions of astrocytic gliomas and brain metastases. A region of interest in dried tissue sections encompassed slightly increased cell density. Spectral unmixing by vertex component analysis (VCA) and N-FINDR resolved cell nuclei in score plots and revealed the spectral contributions of nucleic acids, cholesterol, cholesterol ester and proteins in endmember signatures. The results correlated with the histopathological analysis after staining the specimens by hematoxylin and eosin. For a region of interest in non-dried, buffer immersed tissue sections image processing was not affected by drying artifacts such as denaturation of biomolecules and crystallization of cholesterol. Consequently, the results correspond better to in vivo situations. Raman spectroscopic imaging of a brain metastases from renal cell carcinoma showed an endmember with spectral contributions of glycogen which can be considered as a marker for this primary tumor.

  7. Multimodal imaging enables early detection and characterization of changes in tumor permeability of brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Frits; Fite, Brett; Mahakian, Lisa M; Seo, Jai W; Qin, Shengping; Harrison, Victoria; Johnson, Sarah; Ingham, Elizabeth; Caskey, Charles; Sundstrøm, Terje; Meade, Thomas J; Harter, Patrick N; Skaftnesmo, Kai Ove; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2013-12-28

    Our goal was to develop strategies to quantify the accumulation of model therapeutics in small brain metastases using multimodal imaging, in order to enhance the potential for successful treatment. Human melanoma cells were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of immunodeficient mice. Bioluminescent, MR and PET imaging were applied to evaluate the limits of detection and potential for contrast agent extravasation in small brain metastases. A pharmacokinetic model was applied to estimate vascular permeability. Bioluminescent imaging after injecting d-luciferin (molecular weight (MW) 320 D) suggested that tumor cell extravasation had already occurred at week 1, which was confirmed by histology. 7T T1w MRI at week 4 was able to detect non-leaky 100 μm sized lesions and leaky tumors with diameters down to 200 μm after contrast injection at week 5. PET imaging showed that (18)F-FLT (MW 244 Da) accumulated in the brain at week 4. Gadolinium-based MRI tracers (MW 559 Da and 2.066 kDa) extravasated after 5 weeks (tumor diameter 600 μm), and the lower MW agent cleared more rapidly from the tumor (mean apparent permeabilities 2.27 × 10(-5)cm/s versus 1.12 × 10(-5)cm/s). PET imaging further demonstrated tumor permeability to (64)Cu-BSA (MW 65.55 kDa) at week 6 (tumor diameter 700 μm). In conclusion, high field T1w MRI without contrast may improve the detection limit of small brain metastases, allowing for earlier diagnosis of patients, although the smallest lesions detected with T1w MRI were permeable only to d-luciferin and the amphipathic small molecule (18)F-FLT. Different-sized MR and PET contrast agents demonstrated the gradual increase in leakiness of the blood tumor barrier during metastatic progression, which could guide clinicians in choosing tailored treatment strategies.

  8. In vivo pink-beam imaging and fast alignment procedure for rat brain tumor radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoz, Christian; Kibleur, Astrid; Hyacinthe, Jean Noël; Berruyer, Gilles; Brochard, Thierry; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Le Duc, Géraldine; Brun, Emmanuel; Elleaume, Hélène; Serduc, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    A fast positioning method for brain tumor microbeam irradiations for preclinical studies at third-generation X-ray sources is described. The three-dimensional alignment of the animals relative to the X-ray beam was based on the X-ray tomography multi-slices after iodine infusion. This method used pink-beam imaging produced by the ID17 wiggler. A graphical user interface has been developed in order to define the irradiation parameters: field width, height, number of angles and X-ray dose. This study is the first reporting an image guided method for soft tissue synchrotron radiotherapy. It allowed microbeam radiation therapy irradiation fields to be reduced by a factor of ∼20 compared with previous studies. It permitted more targeted, more efficient brain tumor microbeam treatments and reduces normal brain toxicity of the radiation treatment. PMID:26698083

  9. In vivo pink-beam imaging and fast alignment procedure for rat brain tumor radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoz, Christian; Kibleur, Astrid; Hyacinthe, Jean Noël; Berruyer, Gilles; Brochard, Thierry; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Le Duc, Géraldine; Brun, Emmanuel; Elleaume, Hélène; Serduc, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    A fast positioning method for brain tumor microbeam irradiations for preclinical studies at third-generation X-ray sources is described. The three-dimensional alignment of the animals relative to the X-ray beam was based on the X-ray tomography multi-slices after iodine infusion. This method used pink-beam imaging produced by the ID17 wiggler. A graphical user interface has been developed in order to define the irradiation parameters: field width, height, number of angles and X-ray dose. This study is the first reporting an image guided method for soft tissue synchrotron radiotherapy. It allowed microbeam radiation therapy irradiation fields to be reduced by a factor of ∼20 compared with previous studies. It permitted more targeted, more efficient brain tumor microbeam treatments and reduces normal brain toxicity of the radiation treatment.

  10. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  11. Hemodynamic response imaging: a potential tool for the assessment of angiogenesis in brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafna Ben Bashat

    Full Text Available Blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD imaging under either hypercapnia or hyperoxia has been used to study neuronal activation and for assessment of various brain pathologies. We evaluated the benefit of a combined protocol of BOLD imaging during both hyperoxic and hypercapnic challenges (termed hemodynamic response imaging (HRI. Nineteen healthy controls and seven patients with primary brain tumors were included: six with glioblastoma (two newly diagnosed and four with recurrent tumors and one with atypical-meningioma. Maps of percent signal intensity changes (ΔS during hyperoxia (carbogen; 95%O2+5%CO2 and hypercapnia (95%air+5%CO2 challenges and vascular reactivity mismatch maps (VRM; voxels that responded to carbogen with reduced/absent response to CO2 were calculated. VRM values were measured in white matter (WM and gray matter (GM areas of healthy subjects and used as threshold values in patients. Significantly higher response to carbogen was detected in healthy subjects, compared to hypercapnia, with a GM/WM ratio of 3.8 during both challenges. In patients with newly diagnosed/treatment-naive tumors (n = 3, increased response to carbogen was detected with substantially increased VRM response (compared to threshold values within and around the tumors. In patients with recurrent tumors, reduced/absent response during both challenges was demonstrated. An additional finding in 2 of 4 patients with recurrent glioblastoma was a negative response during carbogen, distant from tumor location, which may indicate steal effect. In conclusion, the HRI method enables the assessment of blood vessel functionality and reactivity. Reference values from healthy subjects are presented and preliminary results demonstrate the potential of this method to complement perfusion imaging for the detection and follow up of angiogenesis in patients with brain tumors.

  12. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of primary brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Daniel; Kingston, Sara; Hoque, Kristina E; Law, Meng; Shiroishi, Mark S

    2014-08-01

    Gliomas comprise 80% of primary brain neoplasms, with glioblastoma multiforme being the most commonly diagnosed glioma. The annual incidence is 5.26 per 100,000, or 17,000 newly diagnosed cases per year in the United States. The incidence increases with age, peaking between the 6th and 8th decades. Gliomas are more common among Caucasians and occur more often in men. They can be associated with certain rare hereditary syndromes including Cowden, Turcot, Li-Fraumeni, neurofibromatosis type 1 and type 2, tuberous sclerosis, and familial schwannomatosis. Known risk factors include a history of ionizing radiation, family history of glioma, and certain genetic susceptibility variants that are weakly associated with glioma. Preventative measures have not been shown to decrease the risk of later development. In addition, screening tests are unwarranted since early diagnosis and treatment have not been shown to improve outcome. PMID:25173141

  13. Content-based image retrieval using spatial layout information in brain tumor T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyan Huang

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop content-based image retrieval (CBIR system for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR (CE-MR images of brain tumors. When a tumor region is fed to the CBIR system as a query, the system attempts to retrieve tumors of the same pathological category. The bag-of-visual-words (BoVW model with partition learning is incorporated into the system to extract informative features for representing the image contents. Furthermore, a distance metric learning algorithm called the Rank Error-based Metric Learning (REML is proposed to reduce the semantic gap between low-level visual features and high-level semantic concepts. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain T1-weighted CE-MR dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor. Using the BoVW model with partition learning, the mean average precision (mAP of retrieval increases beyond 4.6% with the learned distance metrics compared with the spatial pyramid BoVW method. The distance metric learned by REML significantly outperforms three other existing distance metric learning methods in terms of mAP. The mAP of the CBIR system is as high as 91.8% using the proposed method, and the precision can reach 93.1% when the top 10 images are returned by the system. These preliminary results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and feasible for the retrieval of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MR Images.

  14. Content-based image retrieval using spatial layout information in brain tumor T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Wu, Yao; Jiang, Jun; Gao, Yang; Chen, Yang; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Lu, Zhentai

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to develop content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR (CE-MR) images of brain tumors. When a tumor region is fed to the CBIR system as a query, the system attempts to retrieve tumors of the same pathological category. The bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) model with partition learning is incorporated into the system to extract informative features for representing the image contents. Furthermore, a distance metric learning algorithm called the Rank Error-based Metric Learning (REML) is proposed to reduce the semantic gap between low-level visual features and high-level semantic concepts. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain T1-weighted CE-MR dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor). Using the BoVW model with partition learning, the mean average precision (mAP) of retrieval increases beyond 4.6% with the learned distance metrics compared with the spatial pyramid BoVW method. The distance metric learned by REML significantly outperforms three other existing distance metric learning methods in terms of mAP. The mAP of the CBIR system is as high as 91.8% using the proposed method, and the precision can reach 93.1% when the top 10 images are returned by the system. These preliminary results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and feasible for the retrieval of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MR Images.

  15. Content-based image retrieval using spatial layout information in brain tumor T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Wu, Yao; Jiang, Jun; Gao, Yang; Chen, Yang; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Lu, Zhentai

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to develop content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR (CE-MR) images of brain tumors. When a tumor region is fed to the CBIR system as a query, the system attempts to retrieve tumors of the same pathological category. The bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) model with partition learning is incorporated into the system to extract informative features for representing the image contents. Furthermore, a distance metric learning algorithm called the Rank Error-based Metric Learning (REML) is proposed to reduce the semantic gap between low-level visual features and high-level semantic concepts. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain T1-weighted CE-MR dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor). Using the BoVW model with partition learning, the mean average precision (mAP) of retrieval increases beyond 4.6% with the learned distance metrics compared with the spatial pyramid BoVW method. The distance metric learned by REML significantly outperforms three other existing distance metric learning methods in terms of mAP. The mAP of the CBIR system is as high as 91.8% using the proposed method, and the precision can reach 93.1% when the top 10 images are returned by the system. These preliminary results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and feasible for the retrieval of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MR Images. PMID:25028970

  16. A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Zerda, Adam; Kircher, Moritz F.; Jokerst, Jesse V.; Zavaleta, Cristina L.; Kempen, Paul J.; Mittra, Erik; Pitter, Ken; Huang, Ruimin; Campos, Carl; Habte, Frezghi; Sinclair, Robert; Brennan, Cameron W.; Mellinghoff, Ingo K.; Holland, Eric C.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2013-03-01

    The difficulty in delineating brain tumor margins is a major obstacle in the path toward better outcomes for patients with brain tumors. Current imaging methods are often limited by inadequate sensitivity, specificity and spatial resolution. Here we show that a unique triplemodality magnetic resonance imaging - photoacoustic imaging - Raman imaging nanoparticle (termed here MPR nanoparticles), can accurately help delineate the margins of brain tumors in living mice both preoperatively and intraoperatively. The MPRs were detected by all three modalities with at least a picomolar sensitivity both in vitro and in living mice. Intravenous injection of MPRs into glioblastoma-bearing mice led to MPR accumulation and retention by the tumors, with no MPR accumulation in the surrounding healthy tissue, allowing for a noninvasive tumor delineation using all three modalities through the intact skull. Raman imaging allowed for guidance of intraoperative tumor resection, and a histological correlation validated that Raman imaging was accurately delineating the brain tumor margins. This new triple-modality- nanoparticle approach has promise for enabling more accurate brain tumor imaging and resection.

  17. Statistical Validation of Brain Tumor Shape Approximation via Spherical Harmonics for Image-Guided Neurosurgery1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg-Zimring, Daniel; Talos, Ion-Florin; Bhagwat, Jui G.; Haker, Steven J.; Black, Peter M.; Zou, Kelly H.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Surgical planning now routinely uses both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) models that integrate data from multiple imaging modalities, each highlighting one or more aspects of morphology or function. We performed a preliminary evaluation of the use of spherical harmonics (SH) in approximating the 3D shape and estimating the volume of brain tumors of varying characteristics. Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance (MR) images from five patients with brain tumors were selected randomly from our MR-guided neurosurgical practice. Standardized mean square reconstruction errors (SMSRE) by tumor volume were measured. Validation metrics for comparing performances of the SH method against segmented contours (SC) were the dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and standardized Euclidean distance (SED) measure. Results Tumor volume range was 22413–85189 mm3, and range of number of vertices in triangulated models was 3674–6544. At SH approximations with degree of at least 30, SMSRE were within 1.66 × 10−5 mm−1. Summary measures yielded a DSC range of 0.89–0.99 (pooled median, 0.97 and significantly >0.7; P < .001) and an SED range of 0.0002–0.0028 (pooled median, 0.0005). Conclusion 3D shapes of tumors may be approximated by using SH for neurosurgical applications. PMID:15831419

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Diffusion Weighted MR Images of Brain Tumor Using Signal Intensity Gradient Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Shanbhag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of diffusion weighted-magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI in the examination and classification of brain tumors, namely, glioma and meningioma. Our hypothesis was that as signal intensity variations on diffusion weighted (DW images depend on histology and cellularity of the tumor, analysing the signal intensity characteristics on DW images may allow differentiating between the tumor types. Towards this end the signal intensity variations on DW images of the entire tumor volume data of 20 subjects with glioma and 12 subjects with meningioma were investigated and quantified using signal intensity gradient (SIG parameter. The relative increase in the SIG values (RSIG for the subjects with glioma and meningioma was in the range of 10.08–28.36 times and 5.60–9.86 times, respectively, compared to their corresponding SIG values on the contralateral hemisphere. The RSIG values were significantly different between the subjects with glioma and meningioma (P<0.01, with no overlap between RSIG values across the two tumors. The results indicate that the quantitative changes in the RSIG values could be applied in the differential diagnosis of glioma and meningioma, and their adoption in clinical diagnosis and treatment could be helpful and informative.

  19. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... to make progress in “immunogenomics” Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  20. Brain and Spinal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Tumors of the brain and ...

  1. A HYBRID APPROACH BASED SEGMENTATION TECHNIQUE FOR BRAIN TUMOR IN MRI IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Anithadevi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Automatic image segmentation becomes very crucial for tumor detection in medical image processing. Manual and semi automatic segmentation techniques require more time and knowledge. However these drawbacks had overcome by automatic segmentation still there needs to develop more appropriate techniques for medical image segmentation. Therefore, we proposed hybrid approach based image segmentation using the combined features of region growing and threshold segmentation technique. It is followed by pre-processing stage to provide an accurate brain tumor extraction by the help of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. If the tumor has holes in it, the region growing segmentation algorithm can’t reveal but the proposed hybrid segmentation technique can be achieved and the result as well improved. Hence the result used to made assessment with the various performance measures as DICE, Jaccard similarity, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. These similarity measures have been extensively used for evaluation with the ground truth of each processed image and its results are compared and analyzed.

  2. Targeted Multifunctional Nanoparticles cure and image Brain Tumors: Selective MRI Contrast Enhancement and Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Raoul

    2008-03-01

    Aimed at targeted therapy and imaging of brain tumors, our approach uses targeted, multi-functional nano-particles (NP). A typical nano-particle contains a biologically inert, non-toxic matrix, biodegradable and bio-eliminable over a long time period. It also contains active components, such as fluorescent chemical indicators, photo-sensitizers, MRI contrast enhancement agents and optical imaging dyes. In addition, its surface contains molecular targeting units, e.g. peptides or antibodies, as well as a cloaking agent, to prevent uptake by the immune system, i.e. enabling control of the plasma residence time. These dynamic nano-platforms (DNP) contain contrast enhancement agents for the imaging (MRI, optical, photo-acoustic) of targeted locations, i.e. tumors. Added to this are targeted therapy agents, such as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). A simple protocol, for rats implanted with human brain cancer, consists of tail injection with DNPs, followed by 5 min red light illumination of the tumor region. It resulted in excellent cure statistics for 9L glioblastoma.

  3. Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches for the Diagnosis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ciulla

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research presents signal-image post-processing techniques called Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches with application to the diagnosis of human brain tumors detected through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Post-processing of the MRI of the human brain encompasses the following model functions: (i bivariate cubic polynomial, (ii bivariate cubic Lagrange polynomial, (iii monovariate sinc, and (iv bivariate linear. The following Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches were used: (i classic-curvature, (ii signal resilient to interpolation, (iii intensity-curvature measure and (iv intensity-curvature functional. The results revealed that the classic-curvature, the signal resilient to interpolation and the intensity-curvature functional are able to add additional information useful to the diagnosis carried out with MRI. The contribution to the MRI diagnosis of our study are: (i the enhanced gray level scale of the tumor mass and the well-behaved representation of the tumor provided through the signal resilient to interpolation, and (ii the visually perceptible third dimension perpendicular to the image plane provided through the classic-curvature and the intensity-curvature functional.

  4. Near-infrared fluorescence heptamethine carbocyanine dyes mediate imaging and targeted drug delivery for human brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason Boyang; Shi, Changhong; Chu, Gina Chia-Yi; Xu, Qijin; Zhang, Yi; Li, Qinlong; Yu, John S; Zhau, Haiyen E; Chung, Leland W K

    2015-10-01

    Brain tumors and brain metastases are among the deadliest malignancies of all human cancers, largely due to the cellular blood-brain and blood-tumor barriers that limit the delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents from the systemic circulation to tumors. Thus, improved strategies for brain tumor visualization and targeted treatment are critically needed. Here we identified and synthesized a group of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) heptamethine carbocyanine dyes and derivative NIRF dye-drug conjugates for effective imaging and therapeutic targeting of brain tumors of either primary or metastatic origin in mice, which is mechanistically mediated by tumor hypoxia and organic anion-transporting polypeptide genes. We also demonstrate that these dyes, when conjugated to chemotherapeutic agents such as gemcitabine, significantly restricted the growth of both intracranial glioma xenografts and prostate tumor brain metastases and prolonged survival in mice. These results show promise in the application of NIRF dyes as novel theranostic agents for the detection and treatment of brain tumors.

  5. Functional MR imaging using sensory and motor task in brain tumors and other focal cerebral lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ok, Chul Su; Lim, Myung Kwan; Yu, Ki Bong; Kim, Hyung Jin; Suh, Chang Hae [College of Medicine, Inha Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To determine the usefulness of the functional MRI (fMRI) using motor and sensory stimuli in patients with brain tumors of focal cerebral lesions. This study involved five patients with brain tumors (n=2) or cerebral lesions (cysticercosis (n=1)), arteriovenous malformation (n=1), focal infarction (n=1) and seven normal controls. For MR examinations a 1.5T scanner was used, and during motor or sensory stimulation, the EPI BOLD technique was employed. For image postprocessing an SPM program was utilized. In volunteers, contralateral sensori-motor cortices were activated by both motor and sensory stimuli, while supplementary motor cortices were activated by motor stimuli and other sensory cortices by sensory stimuli. Preoperative evaluation of the relationship between lesions and important sensory and motor areas was possible, and subsequent surgery was thus successful, involving no severe complications. Activation of ipsilateral or other areas occurred in patients with destruction of a major sensory and/or motor area, suggesting compensatory reorganization. fMRI could be a useful supportive method for determining the best approach to surgery treatment in patients with brain tumors or focal cerebral lesions.

  6. Functional MR imaging using sensory and motor task in brain tumors and other focal cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the usefulness of the functional MRI (fMRI) using motor and sensory stimuli in patients with brain tumors of focal cerebral lesions. This study involved five patients with brain tumors (n=2) or cerebral lesions (cysticercosis (n=1), arteriovenous malformation (n=1), focal infarction (n=1) and seven normal controls. For MR examinations a 1.5T scanner was used, and during motor or sensory stimulation, the EPI BOLD technique was employed. For image postprocessing an SPM program was utilized. In volunteers, contralateral sensori-motor cortices were activated by both motor and sensory stimuli, while supplementary motor cortices were activated by motor stimuli and other sensory cortices by sensory stimuli. Preoperative evaluation of the relationship between lesions and important sensory and motor areas was possible, and subsequent surgery was thus successful, involving no severe complications. Activation of ipsilateral or other areas occurred in patients with destruction of a major sensory and/or motor area, suggesting compensatory reorganization. fMRI could be a useful supportive method for determining the best approach to surgery treatment in patients with brain tumors or focal cerebral lesions

  7. Intraaxial brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of primary intracranial tumors in the United States is approximately 15,0000 new cases per year. It has been estimated that 80--85% of all intracranial tumors occur in adults; the majority are situated in the supratentorial compartment. In the pediatric population, intracranial tumors are extraordinarily common---the CNS is the second most common site of pediatric neoplasia. Excluding the first year of life and adolescence, the location of intracranial tumors in the pediatric age group is infratentorial in 60--70% of cases, of which 75% involve the cerebellum and 25% reside in the brainstem. The limitations of neuroimaging are often revealed by understanding the microscopic pathology of these lesions, just as the neuropathologist would find if he or she relied solely on gross pathology. The general correlation between pathology and imaging will be stressed in this paper. Innumerable schemes for tumor classification have been devised; unfortunately, no classification is perfect. For the purposes of this discussion, the author has modified the proposed classifications of tumors in an attempt to combine typical neuroanatomic sites with the complex divisions traditionally formed on the basis of histopathology, since it is well recognized that the clinical behavior of brain tumors can depend largely on their sites of origin

  8. In vivo pink-beam imaging and fast alignment procedure for rat brain tumor radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nemoz, Christian; Kibleur, Astrid; Hyacinthe, Jean-Noël; Berruyer, Gilles; Brochard, Thierry; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Le Duc, Géraldine; Brun, Emmanuel; Elleaume, Hélène; Serduc, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    A fast positioning method for brain tumor microbeam irradiations for preclinical studies at third-generation X-ray sources is described. The three-dimensional alignment of the animals relative to the X-ray beam was based on the X-ray tomography multi-slices after iodine infusion. This method used pink-beam imaging produced by the ID17 wiggler. A graphical user interface has been developed in order to define the irradiation parameters: field width, height, number of angles and X-ray dose. This...

  9. Development of NMR imaging using CEST agents: application to brain tumor in a rodent model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aimed at developing saturation transfer imaging of lipoCEST contrast agents for the detection of angiogenesis in a U87 mouse brain tumor model. A lipoCEST with a sensitivity threshold of 100 pM in vitro was optimized in order to make it compatible with CEST imaging in vivo. Thanks to the development of an experimental setup dedicated to CEST imaging, we evaluated lipoCEST to detect specifically tumor angiogenesis. We demonstrated for the first time that lipoCEST visualization was feasible in vivo in a mouse brain after intravenous injection. Moreover, the integrin αvβ3 over expressed during tumor angiogenesis can be specifically targeted using a functionalized lipoCEST with RGD peptide. The specific association between the RGD-lipoCEST and its target αvβ3 was confirmed by immunohistochemical data and fluorescence microscopy. Finally, in order to tend to a molecular imaging protocol by CEST-MRI, we developed a quantification tool of lipoCEST contrast agents. This tool is based on modeling of proton exchange processes in vivo. By taking into account both B0 and B1 fields inhomogeneities which can dramatically alter CEST contrast, we showed that the accuracy of our quantification tool was 300 pM in vitro. The tool was applied on in vivo data acquired on the U87 mouse model and the maximum concentration of RGD-lipoCEST linked to their molecular targets was evaluated to 1.8 nM. (author)

  10. Functional imaging for brain tumors (perfusion, DTI and MR spectroscopy); Funktionelle Bildgebung bei Hirntumoren (Perfusion, DTI, MR-Spektroskopie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, M.; Giesel, F.; Stieltjes, B.; Weber, M.A. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Radiologie

    2007-06-15

    This contribution considers the possibilities involved with using functional methods in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostics for brain tumors. Of the functional methods available, we discuss perfusion MRI (PWI), diffusion MRI (DWI and DTI) and MR spectroscopy (H-MRS). In cases of brain tumor, PWI aids in grading and better differentiation in diagnostics as well as for pre-therapeutic planning. In addition, the course of treatment, both after chemo- as well as radiotherapy in combination with surgical treatment, can be optimized. PWI allows better estimates of biological activity and aggressiveness in low grade brain tumors, and in the case of WHO grade II astrocytoma showing anaplastically transformed tumor areas, allows more rapid visualization and a better prediction of the course of the disease than conventional MRI diagnostics. Diffusion MRI, due to the directional dependence of the diffusion, can illustrate the course and direction of the nerve fibers, as well as reconstructing the nerve tracts in the cerebrum, pons and cerebellum 3-dimensionally. Diffusion imaging can be used for describing brain tumors, for evaluating contralateral involvement and the course of the nerve fibers near the tumor. Due to its operator dependence, DTI based fiber tracking for defining risk structures is controversial. DWI can also not differentiate accurately between cystic and necrotic brain tumors, or between metastases and brain abscesses. H-MRS provides information on cell membrane metabolism, neuronal integrity and the function of neuronal structures, energy metabolism and the formation of tumors and brain tissue necroses. Diagnostic problems such as the differentiation between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions, grading cerebral glioma and distinguishing between primary brain tumors and metastases can be resolved. An additional contribution will discuss the control of the course of glial tumors after radiotherapy. (orig.)

  11. Improvement of therapeutic index for brain tumors with daily image guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image-guidance maximizes the therapeutic index of brain irradiation by decreasing setup uncertainty. As dose-volume data emerge defining the tolerance of critical normal structures responsible for neuroendocrine function and neurocognition, minimizing clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) expansion of targets near these structures potentially lessens long-term toxicity. We reviewed the treatment records of 29 patients with brain tumors, with a total of 517 fractions analyzed. The CTV was uniformly expanded by 3 mm to create the PTV for all cases. We determined the effect of patient specific factors (prescribed medications, weight gain, tumor location) and image-guidance technique on setup uncertainty and plotted the mean +/- standard deviation for each factor. ANOVA was used to determine significance between these factors on setup uncertainty. We determined the impact of applying the initial three fraction variation as custom PTV-expansion on dose to normal structures. The initial 3 mm margin encompassed 88% of all measured shifts from daily imaging for all fractions. There was no difference (p = n.s.) in average setup uncertainty between CBCT or kV imaging for all patients. Vertical, lateral, longitudinal, and 3D shifts were similar (p = n.s.) between days 1, 2, and 3 imaging and later fractions. Patients prescribed sedatives experienced increased setup uncertainty (p < 0.05), while weight gain, corticosteroid administration, and anti-seizure medication did not associate with increased setup uncertainty. Patients with targets near OAR with individualized margins led to decreased OAR dose. No reductions to targets occurred with individualized PTVs. Daily imaging allows application of individualized CTV expansion to reduce dose to OAR responsible for neurocognition, learning, and neuroendocrine function below doses shown to correlate with long-term morbidity. The demonstrated reduction in dose to OAR in this study has implications for quality

  12. Brain Tumor Detection and Classification Using Deep Learning Classifier on MRI Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Gladis Pushpa Rathi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has become an effective tool for clinical research in recent years and has found itself in applications such as brain tumour detection. In this study, tumor classification using multiple kernel-based probabilistic clustering and deep learning classifier is proposed. The proposed technique consists of three modules, namely segmentation module, feature extraction module and classification module. Initially, the MRI image is pre-processed to make it fit for segmentation and de-noising process is carried out using median filter. Then, pre-processed image is segmented using Multiple Kernel based Probabilistic Clustering (MKPC. Subsequently, features are extracted for every segment based on the shape, texture and intensity. After features extraction, important features will be selected using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA for classification purpose. Finally, deep learning classifier is employed for classification into tumor or non-tumor. The proposed technique is evaluated using sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The proposed technique results are also compared with existing technique which uses Feed-Forward Back Propagation Network (FFBN. The proposed technique achieved an average sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 0.88, 0.80 and 0.83, respectively with the highest values as about 1, 0.85 and 0.94. Improved results show the efficiency of the proposed technique.

  13. Detecting brain tumor in computed tomography images using Markov random fields and fuzzy C-means clustering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulbaqi, Hayder Saad; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim Bin; Abood, Loay Kadom

    2015-04-01

    Brain tumors, are an abnormal growth of tissues in the brain. They may arise in people of any age. They must be detected early, diagnosed accurately, monitored carefully, and treated effectively in order to optimize patient outcomes regarding both survival and quality of life. Manual segmentation of brain tumors from CT scan images is a challenging and time consuming task. Size and location accurate detection of brain tumor plays a vital role in the successful diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Brain tumor detection is considered a challenging mission in medical image processing. The aim of this paper is to introduce a scheme for tumor detection in CT scan images using two different techniques Hidden Markov Random Fields (HMRF) and Fuzzy C-means (FCM). The proposed method has been developed in this research in order to construct hybrid method between (HMRF) and threshold. These methods have been applied on 4 different patient data sets. The result of comparison among these methods shows that the proposed method gives good results for brain tissue detection, and is more robust and effective compared with (FCM) techniques.

  14. Detecting brain tumor in computed tomography images using Markov random fields and fuzzy C-means clustering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulbaqi, Hayder Saad [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11700, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Physics, College of Education, University of Al-Qadisiya, Al-Qadisiya (Iraq); Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim Bin [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11700, Penang (Malaysia); Abood, Loay Kadom [Department of Computer Science, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2015-04-24

    Brain tumors, are an abnormal growth of tissues in the brain. They may arise in people of any age. They must be detected early, diagnosed accurately, monitored carefully, and treated effectively in order to optimize patient outcomes regarding both survival and quality of life. Manual segmentation of brain tumors from CT scan images is a challenging and time consuming task. Size and location accurate detection of brain tumor plays a vital role in the successful diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Brain tumor detection is considered a challenging mission in medical image processing. The aim of this paper is to introduce a scheme for tumor detection in CT scan images using two different techniques Hidden Markov Random Fields (HMRF) and Fuzzy C-means (FCM). The proposed method has been developed in this research in order to construct hybrid method between (HMRF) and threshold. These methods have been applied on 4 different patient data sets. The result of comparison among these methods shows that the proposed method gives good results for brain tissue detection, and is more robust and effective compared with (FCM) techniques.

  15. Epilepsy and Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-yi Sha

    2009-01-01

    @@ Epidemiology It is estimated 61,414 new cases of primary brain tumors are expected to be diagnosed in 2009 in the U.S. The incidence statistic of 61,414 persons diagnosed per year includes both malignant (22,738) and non-malignant (38,677) brain tumors. (Data from American Brain Tumor Association). During the years 2004-2005, approximately 359,000 people in the United States were living with the diagnosis of a primary brain or central nervous system tumor. Specifically, more than 81,000 persons were living with a malignant tumor, more than 267,000 persons with a benign tumor. For every 100,000 people in the United States, approximately 131 are living following the diagnosis of a brain tumor. This represents a prevalence rate of 130.8 per 100,000 person years[1].

  16. Brain Tumor Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Press Releases Headlines Newsletter ABTA ... About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain ...

  17. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children)

  18. A Hybrid DE-RGSO-ELM for Brain Tumor Tissue Categorization in 3D Magnetic Resonance Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kothavari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical diagnostics, a technique used for visualizing the internal structures and functions of human body, serves as a scientific tool to assist physicians and involves direct use of digital imaging system analysis. In this scenario, identification of brain tumors is complex in the diagnostic process. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique is noted to best assist tissue contrast for anatomical details and also carries out mechanisms for investigating the brain by functional imaging in tumor predictions. Considering 3D MRI model, analyzing the anatomy features and tissue characteristics of brain tumor is complex in nature. Henceforth, in this work, feature extraction is carried out by computing 3D gray-level cooccurence matrix (3D GLCM and run-length matrix (RLM and feature subselection for dimensionality reduction is performed with basic differential evolution (DE algorithm. Classification is performed using proposed extreme learning machine (ELM, with refined group search optimizer (RGSO technique, to select the best parameters for better simplification and training of the classifier for brain tissue and tumor characterization as white matter (WM, gray matter (GM, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, and tumor. Extreme learning machine outperforms the standard binary linear SVM and BPN for medical image classifier and proves better in classifying healthy and tumor tissues. The comparison between the algorithms proves that the mean and standard deviation produced by volumetric feature extraction analysis are higher than the other approaches. The proposed work is designed for pathological brain tumor classification and for 3D MRI tumor image segmentation. The proposed approaches are applied for real time datasets and benchmark datasets taken from dataset repositories.

  19. Mutual-information-corrected tumor displacement using intraoperative ultrasound for brain shift compensation in image-guided neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Songbai; Hartov, Alex; Roberts, David; Paulsen, Keith

    2008-03-01

    Intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) has emerged as a practical neuronavigational tool for brain shift compensation in image-guided tumor resection surgeries. The use of iUS is optimized when coregistered with preoperative magnetic resonance images (pMR) of the patient's head. However, the fiducial-based registration alone does not necessarily optimize the alignment of internal anatomical structures deep in the brain (e.g., tumor) between iUS and pMR. In this paper, we investigated and evaluated an image-based re-registration scheme to maximize the normalized mutual information (nMI) between iUS and pMR to improve tumor boundary alignment using the fiducial registration as a starting point for optimization. We show that this scheme significantly (p<<0.001) reduces tumor boundary misalignment pre-durotomy. The same technique was employed to measure tumor displacement post-durotomy, and the locally measured tumor displacement was assimilated into a biomechanical model to estimate whole-brain deformation. Our results demonstrate that the nMI re-registration pre-durotomy is critical for obtaining accurate measurement of tumor displacement, which significantly improved model response at the craniotomy when compared with stereopsis data acquired independently from the tumor registration. This automatic and computationally efficient (<2min) re-registration technique is feasible for routine clinical use in the operating room (OR).

  20. Automated brain tumor segmentation in magnetic resonance imaging based on sliding-window technique and symmetry analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Yanyun; Song Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain tumor segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important step toward surgical planning,treatment planning,monitoring of therapy.However,manual tumor segmentation commonly used in clinic is time-consuming and challenging,and none of the existed automated methods are highly robust,reliable and efficient in clinic application.An accurate and automated tumor segmentation method has been developed for brain tumor segmentation that will provide reproducible and objective results close to manual segmentation results.Methods Based on the symmetry of human brain,we employed sliding-window technique and correlation coefficient to locate the tumor position.At first,the image to be segmented was normalized,rotated,denoised,and bisected.Subsequently,through vertical and horizontal sliding-windows technique in turn,that is,two windows in the left and the right part of brain image moving simultaneously pixel by pixel in two parts of brain image,along with calculating of correlation coefficient of two windows,two windows with minimal correlation coefficient were obtained,and the window with bigger average gray value is the location of tumor and the pixel with biggest gray value is the locating point of tumor.At last,the segmentation threshold was decided by the average gray value of the pixels in the square with center at the locating point and 10 pixels of side length,and threshold segmentation and morphological operations were used to acquire the final tumor region.Results The method was evaluated on 3D FSPGR brain MR images of 10 patients.As a result,the average ratio of correct location was 93.4% for 575 slices containing tumor,the average Dice similarity coefficient was 0.77 for one scan,and the average time spent on one scan was 40 seconds.Conclusions An fully automated,simple and efficient segmentation method for brain tumor is proposed and promising for future clinic use.Correlation coefficient is a new and effective feature for tumor

  1. Parameter estimation of brain tumors using intraoperative thermal imaging based on artificial tactile sensing in conjunction with artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Goughari, M.; Mojra, A.; Sadeghi, S.

    2016-02-01

    Intraoperative Thermal Imaging (ITI) is a new minimally invasive diagnosis technique that can potentially locate margins of brain tumor in order to achieve maximum tumor resection with least morbidity. This study introduces a new approach to ITI based on artificial tactile sensing (ATS) technology in conjunction with artificial neural networks (ANN) and feasibility and applicability of this method in diagnosis and localization of brain tumors is investigated. In order to analyze validity and reliability of the proposed method, two simulations were performed. (i) An in vitro experimental setup was designed and fabricated using a resistance heater embedded in agar tissue phantom in order to simulate heat generation by a tumor in the brain tissue; and (ii) A case report patient with parafalcine meningioma was presented to simulate ITI in the neurosurgical procedure. In the case report, both brain and tumor geometries were constructed from MRI data and tumor temperature and depth of location were estimated. For experimental tests, a novel assisted surgery robot was developed to palpate the tissue phantom surface to measure temperature variations and ANN was trained to estimate the simulated tumor’s power and depth. Results affirm that ITI based ATS is a non-invasive method which can be useful to detect, localize and characterize brain tumors.

  2. Parameter estimation of brain tumors using intraoperative thermal imaging based on artificial tactile sensing in conjunction with artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraoperative Thermal Imaging (ITI) is a new minimally invasive diagnosis technique that can potentially locate margins of brain tumor in order to achieve maximum tumor resection with least morbidity. This study introduces a new approach to ITI based on artificial tactile sensing (ATS) technology in conjunction with artificial neural networks (ANN) and feasibility and applicability of this method in diagnosis and localization of brain tumors is investigated. In order to analyze validity and reliability of the proposed method, two simulations were performed. (i) An in vitro experimental setup was designed and fabricated using a resistance heater embedded in agar tissue phantom in order to simulate heat generation by a tumor in the brain tissue; and (ii) A case report patient with parafalcine meningioma was presented to simulate ITI in the neurosurgical procedure. In the case report, both brain and tumor geometries were constructed from MRI data and tumor temperature and depth of location were estimated. For experimental tests, a novel assisted surgery robot was developed to palpate the tissue phantom surface to measure temperature variations and ANN was trained to estimate the simulated tumor’s power and depth. Results affirm that ITI based ATS is a non-invasive method which can be useful to detect, localize and characterize brain tumors. (paper)

  3. Adult Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma Mimicking a Cortical Brain Tumor: MR Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong Chang; Weon, Young Cheol; Suh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young; Hwang, Jae Cheol [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    A pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified low-grade neoplasm that was previously classified as a pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), yet demonstrates unique histological features and more aggressive behavior. Although a PMA is generally a tumor of early childhood and typically occurs in the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region, it can mimic cortical tumors, especially in adults. We report the MR findings of a PMA presenting as a cortical brain tumor in an adult with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1)

  4. Comparison between neuroimaging classifications and histopathological diagnoses using an international multicenter brain tumor magnetic resonance imaging database.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julia-Sape, M.; Acosta, D.M.; Majos, C.; Moreno-Torres, A.; Wesseling, P.; Acebes, J.J.; Griffiths, J.R.; Arus, C.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECT: The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy of routine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies in the classification of brain tumors in terms of both cell type and grade of malignancy. METHODS: The authors retrospectively assessed the correlation between neuroimaging classifications a

  5. USE OF PROTON MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPIC IMAGING DATA IN PLANNING FOCAL RADIATION THERAPIES FOR BRAIN TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward E Graves

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Advances in radiation therapy for malignant neoplasms have produced techniques such as Gamma Knife radiosurgery, capable of delivering an ablative dose to a specific, irregular volume of tissue. However, efficient use of these techniques requires the identification of a target volume that will produce the best therapeutic response while sparing surrounding normal brain tissue. Accomplishing this task using conventional computed tomography (CT and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques has proven difficult because of the difficulties in identifying the effective tumor margin. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI has been shown to offer a clinically-feasible metabolic assessment of the presence and extent of neoplasm that can complement conventional anatomic imaging. This paper reviews current Gamma Knife protocols and MRSI acquisition, reconstruction, and interpretation techniques, and discusses the motivation for including magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings while planning focal radiation therapies. A treatment selection and planning strategy incorporating MRSI is then proposed, which can be used in the future to assess the efficacy of spectroscopy-based therapy planning.

  6. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Mission Advance Research Clinical Trial Endpoints Defeat GBM Oligo Research Fund Pediatric Initiatives Funded Research & Accomplishments ... no symptoms when their brain tumor is discovered Recurrent headaches Issues with vision Seizures Changes in personality ...

  7. Synthesis of tumor-targeted folate conjugated fluorescent magnetic albumin nanoparticles for enhanced intracellular dual-modal imaging into human brain tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueqin; Tu, Miaomiao; Tian, Baoming; Yi, Yanjie; Wei, ZhenZhen; Wei, Fang

    2016-11-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs), utilized as carriers are attractive materials widely applied in biomedical fields, but target-specific SPIO NPs with lower toxicity and excellent biocompatibility are still lacking for intracellular visualization in human brain tumor diagnosis and therapy. Herein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) coated superparamagnetic iron oxide, i.e. γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (BSA-SPIO NPs), are synthesized. Tumor-specific ligand folic acid (FA) is then conjugated onto BSA-SPIO NPs to fabricate tumor-targeted NPs, FA-BSA-SPIO NPs as a contrast agent for MRI imaging. The FA-BSA-SPIO NPs are also labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) for intracellular visualization after cellular uptake and internalization by glioma U251 cells. The biological effects of the FA-BSA-SPIO NPs are investigated in human brain tumor U251 cells in detail. These results show that the prepared FA-BSA-SPIO NPs display undetectable cytotoxicity, excellent biocompatibility, and potent cellular uptake. Moreover, the study shows that the made FA-BSA-SPIO NPs are effectively internalized for MRI imaging and intracellular visualization after FITC labeling in the targeted U251 cells. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that the fabricated FITC-FA-BSA-SPIO NPs hold promising perspectives by providing a dual-modal imaging as non-toxic and target-specific vehicles in human brain tumor treatment in future.

  8. Free magnesium levels in normal human brain and brain tumors: sup 31 P chemical-shift imaging measurements at 1. 5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.S.; Vigneron, D.B.; Murphy-Boesch, J.; Nelson, S.J.; Kessler, H.B.; Coia, L.; Curran, W.; Brown, T.R. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The authors have studied a series of normal subjects and patients with brain tumors, by using {sup 31}P three-dimensional chemical shift imaging to obtain localized {sup 31}P spectra of the brain. A significant proportion of brain cytosolic ATP in normal brain is not complexed to Mg{sup 2+}, as indicated by the chemical shift {delta} of the {beta}-P resonance of ATP. The ATP {beta}P resonance position in brain thus is sensitive to changes in intracellular free Mg{sup 2+} concentration and in the proportion of ATP complexed with Mg because this shift lies on the rising portion of the {delta} vs. Mg{sup 2+} titration curve for ATP. They have measured the ATP {beta}-P shift and compared intracellular free Mg{sup 2+} concentration and fractions of free ATP for normal individuals and a limited series of patients with brain tumors. In four of the five spectra obtained from brain tissue containing a substantial proportion of tumor, intracellular free Mg{sup 2+} was increased, and the fraction of free ATP was decreased, compared with normal brain.

  9. Extra-axial brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapalino, Otto; Smirniotopoulos, James G

    2016-01-01

    Extra-axial brain tumors are the most common adult intracranial neoplasms and encompass a broad spectrum of pathologic subtypes. Meningiomas are the most common extra-axial brain tumor (approximately one-third of all intracranial neoplasms) and typically present as slowly growing dural-based masses. Benign meningiomas are very common, and may occasionally be difficult to differentiate from more aggressive subtypes (i.e., atypical or malignant varieties) or other dural-based masses with more aggressive biologic behavior (e.g., hemangiopericytoma or dural-based metastases). Many neoplasms that typically affect the brain parenchyma (intra-axial), such as gliomas, may also present with primary or secondary extra-axial involvement. This chapter provides a general and concise overview of the common types of extra-axial tumors and their typical imaging features. PMID:27432671

  10. Metastatic Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Haciyakupoglu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumor is secondary spread to the central nervous system of primer systemic cancers originating from tissues other than the central nervous system. In adults; there are metastases respectively from lungs, breasts, malign melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, colon and thyroid cancers. 30-60% of lung cancers metastasis to the brain. In children there are quite a few cerebral metastases. Most commonly leukemia, lymphoma, osteogenic sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and germ cell tumors metastasis to the brain. %50 of malign melanoma, lung, breast and colon cancers intend to make multipl metastases but renal cell cancers intend to make solitary metastasis.While lung cancers metastasis to brain in 6-9 months after the definitive diagnosis, renal cancers in 1 year, colon cancers in 2 years, breast cancers and malign melanoma in 3 years metastasis to brain. In 6% of cases there are cerebral metastasis while there isn’t a symptom of a primary tumor. For treatment corticosteroids, surgery, Radiotherapy(RT, Chemotherapy(CT and Stereotactic Radiosurgery(SRS can be implemented. Small cell lung cancers, lymphoma, germ cell tumors are sensitive to RT and CT. Non small cell lung cancers, renal, colon cancers and malign melanoma are radioresistant. The purposes in the surgery of the metastatic brain tumors are; total resection of tumors without neurologic deficits, decreasing the intracranial pressure and decreasing the dose of postoperative radiotherapy. Key Words: Metastatic brain tumors, Stereotactic radiosurgery, Malign melanoma, Lung cancers, Renal cell carcinoma, Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 191-202

  11. Brain tumor delineation based on CT and MR imaging. Implications for radiotherapy treatment planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, M A; Wijrdeman, H K; Struikmans, H; Witkamp, T; Moerland, M A

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact MRI may have on radiotherapy treatment planning of brain tumors. The authors analyzed differences in size and position of treatment fields as indicated by three observers (two radiotherapists and one neuroradiologist) using CT or MR based radiotherapy planning proced

  12. Robust Cell Detection of Histopathological Brain Tumor Images Using Sparse Reconstruction and Adaptive Dictionary Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hai; Xing, Fuyong; Yang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Successful diagnostic and prognostic stratification, treatment outcome prediction, and therapy planning depend on reproducible and accurate pathology analysis. Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) is a useful tool to help doctors make better decisions in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Accurate cell detection is often an essential prerequisite for subsequent cellular analysis. The major challenge of robust brain tumor nuclei/cell detection is to handle significant variations in cell appearance and to split touching cells. In this paper, we present an automatic cell detection framework using sparse reconstruction and adaptive dictionary learning. The main contributions of our method are: 1) A sparse reconstruction based approach to split touching cells; 2) An adaptive dictionary learning method used to handle cell appearance variations. The proposed method has been extensively tested on a data set with more than 2000 cells extracted from 32 whole slide scanned images. The automatic cell detection results are compared with the manually annotated ground truth and other state-of-the-art cell detection algorithms. The proposed method achieves the best cell detection accuracy with a F1 score = 0.96.

  13. MicroPET imaging of brain tumor angiogenesis with {sup 18}F-labeled PEGylated RGD peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Park, Ryan; Hou, Yingping; Tohme, Michel; Bading, James R.; Conti, Peter S. [PET Imaging Science Center, Department of Radiology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, 1510 San Pablo St., Suite 350, CA 90033, Los Angeles (United States); Khankaldyyan, Vazgen; Gonzales-Gomez, Ignacio; Laug, Walter E. [Department of Pediatrics, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, CA 90027, Los Angeles (United States)

    2004-08-01

    We have previously labeled cyclic RGD peptide c(RGDyK) with fluorine-18 through conjugation labeling via a prosthetic 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoyl moiety and applied this [{sup 18}F]FB-RGD radiotracer for {alpha}{sub v}-integrin expression imaging in different preclinical tumor models with good tumor-to-background contrast. However, the unfavorable hepatobiliary excretion and rapid tumor washout rate of this tracer limit its potential clinical applications. The aims of this study were to modify the [{sup 18}F]FB-RGD tracer by inserting a heterobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, M.W. =3,400) between the {sup 18}F radiolabel and the RGD moiety and to test this [{sup 18}F]FB-PEG-RGD tracer for brain tumor targeting and in vivo kinetics. [{sup 18}F]FB-PEG-RGD was prepared by coupling the RGD-PEG conjugate with N-succinimidyl 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoate ([{sup 18}F]SFB) under slightly basic conditions (pH=8.5). The radiochemical yield was about 20-30% based on the active ester [{sup 18}F]SFB, and specific activity was over 100 GBq/{mu}mol. This tracer had fast blood clearance, rapid and high tumor uptake in the subcutaneous U87MG glioblastoma model (5.2{+-}0.5%ID/g at 30 min p.i.). Moderately rapid tumor washout was observed, with the activity accumulation decreased to 2.2{+-}0.4%ID/g at 4 h p.i. MicroPET and autoradiography imaging showed a very high tumor-to-background ratio and limited activity accumulation in the liver, kidneys and intestinal tracts. U87MG tumor implanted into the mouse forebrain was well visualized with [{sup 18}F]FB-PEG-RGD. Although uptake in the orthotopic tumor was significantly lower (P<0.01) than in the subcutaneous tumor, the maximum tumor-to-brain ratio still reached 5.0{+-}0.6 due to low normal brain background. The results of H and E staining post mortem agreed with the anatomical information obtained from non-invasive microPET imaging. In conclusion, PEGylation suitably modifies the physiological behavior of the RGD peptide. [{sup 18

  14. Echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging (EPI) with high-resolution matrix in intra-axial brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruening, R.; Scheidler, J.; Porn, U.; Reiser, M. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, University of Munich (Germany); Seelos, K.; Yousry, T. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, University of Munich (Germany); Exner, H. [Institute for Medical Epidemiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Rosen, B.R. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, NMR Center, Charlestown, MA (United States)

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of high-speed interleaved echo-planar imaging (EPI) to achieve diagnostic image quality comparable to T2-weighted imaging in patients with brain tumors. Seventeen patients with intra-axial, supratentorial tumors (10 untreated gliomas, 7 radiated gliomas) were investigated on a 1.5-T scanner. The conventional scan (SE, TR/TE = 2200/80 ms, 18 slices) was acquired in 8 min, 4 s, and EPI (TR/TE = 3000/80 ms, 18 slices) was completed in 25 s. The films were compared in a blinded trail by three radiologists. On the general impression and anatomic display, both sequences were rated to be of similar quality. Artifacts were slightly more pronounced at the skull base and around surgical clips using EPI. Tumor delineation was nearly equivalent using EPI, compared with the T2-weighted sequence. Echo-planar imaging reached diagnostic quality in all patients. Interleaved high-resolution EPI yielded sufficient quality to depict intra-axial, supratentorial brain tumors. Since EPI can be obtained in a small fraction of the time needed for conventional spin echo, in addition to other indications it could be considered to study patients unable to cooperate. (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 27 refs.

  15. Echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging (EPI) with high-resolution matrix in intra-axial brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of high-speed interleaved echo-planar imaging (EPI) to achieve diagnostic image quality comparable to T2-weighted imaging in patients with brain tumors. Seventeen patients with intra-axial, supratentorial tumors (10 untreated gliomas, 7 radiated gliomas) were investigated on a 1.5-T scanner. The conventional scan (SE, TR/TE = 2200/80 ms, 18 slices) was acquired in 8 min, 4 s, and EPI (TR/TE = 3000/80 ms, 18 slices) was completed in 25 s. The films were compared in a blinded trail by three radiologists. On the general impression and anatomic display, both sequences were rated to be of similar quality. Artifacts were slightly more pronounced at the skull base and around surgical clips using EPI. Tumor delineation was nearly equivalent using EPI, compared with the T2-weighted sequence. Echo-planar imaging reached diagnostic quality in all patients. Interleaved high-resolution EPI yielded sufficient quality to depict intra-axial, supratentorial brain tumors. Since EPI can be obtained in a small fraction of the time needed for conventional spin echo, in addition to other indications it could be considered to study patients unable to cooperate. (orig.)

  16. Imaging in Pediatric Infratentorial Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hajiahmadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial tumors are the second cause of malignancies in childhood following leukemia. The overall incidence varies between 1:20000 and 1:100000 in different series. They are the most common solid tumors that occur in childhood .The most important diagnostic feature of an intracranial mass is its location. They can be supratentorial or infratentorial. With the exception of the first year of life, infratentorial brain tumors are more frequent than supratentorial tumors in the first decade of life. In particular, these are cerebellar low-grade astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, brain stem gliomas and ependymomas of the fourth ventricle. .Posterior fossa tumors also are readily identified with both CT and MRI. Spectroscopy in the analysis of brain tumors has recently come on the scene but may be of limited practical value when it comes to differentiating tumors. However, CT and especially MRI are the primary imaging modalities for the investigation of brain tumors. Sonography can be used in the neonates. With modern imaging, it is relatively easy to detect the presence of a tumor in most patients. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the imaging features of various infratentorial brain tumors to make a clue for differentiation them by these features.

  17. Ultrasound/Magnetic Targeting with SPIO-DOX-Microbubble Complex for Image-Guided Drug Delivery in Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ching-Hsiang; Cheng, Yu-Hang; Ting, Chien-Yu; Ho, Yi-Ju; Hsu, Po-Hung; Liu, Hao-Li; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in the deployment of chemotherapeutic drugs against brain tumors is ensuring that sufficient drug concentrations reach the tumor, while minimizing drug accumulation at undesired sites. Recently, injection of therapeutic agents following blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening by focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles (MBs) has been shown to enhance drug delivery in targeted brain regions. Nevertheless, the distribution and quantitative deposition of agents delivered to the brain are still hard to estimate. Based on our previous work on superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-loaded MBs, we present a novel theranostic complex of SPIO-Doxorubicin (DOX)-conjugated MB (SD-MB) for drug delivery to the brain. Magnetic labeling of the drug enables direct visualization via magnetic resonance imaging, and also facilitates magnetic targeting (MT) to actively enhance targeted deposition of the drug. In a rat glioma model, we demonstrated that FUS sonication can be used with SD-MBs to simultaneously facilitate BBB opening and allow dual ultrasound/magnetic targeting of chemotherapeutic agent (DOX) delivery. The accumulation of SD complex within brain tumors can be significantly enhanced by MT (25.7 fold of DOX, 7.6 fold of SPIO). The change in relaxation rate R2 (1/T2) within tumors was highly correlated with SD deposition as quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (R2 = 0.93) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (R2 = 0.94), demonstrating real-time monitoring of DOX distribution. Our results suggest that SD-MBs can serve as multifunction agents to achieve advanced molecular theranostics. PMID:27446489

  18. Brain tumors in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Ghodsi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12 were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16; bulge fontanel (15; vomiting (15; developmental regression (11; sunset eye (7; seizure (4; loss of consciousness (4; irritability (3; nystagmus (2; visual loss (2; hemiparesis (2; torticollis (2; VI palsy (3; VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2; and ptosis (1. Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7, followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6 and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%, from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%, 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%, and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary.

  19. Human brain tumor imaging with a protein-binding MR contrast agent: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, Marco; Giesel, Frederik; Weber, Marc-Andre; Gerigk, Lars [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Rohrer, Martin [University of Applied Science Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Tuettenberg, Jochen [University of Heidelberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Mannheim (Germany); Michaely, Hendrik; Voth, Matthias [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Klinikum Mannheim (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Gadofosveset is a Gd-based protein-binding blood pool agent with increased relaxivities and blood half-life compared with conventional Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs). No experience exists about the use of gadofosveset as an extracellular agent. In this report we present the first clinical experience with gadofosveset in enhancing intracranial tumors. Ten patients with different intracranial tumors were examined with a standard dose (0.03 mmol/kg) of gadofosveset compared with a standard dose (0.1 mmol/kg) of conventional GBCA. As a result of its significantly higher relaxivity, gadofosveset could, despite its low dose, achieve a sufficient contrast enhancement. The visual rating of the intensity of enhancement and the contrast to noise ratios were comparable to conventional agents. The detection and delineation of more complex lesions was rated equal. In one nonenhancing low grade astrocytoma an enhancing nodule became visible only 5 h after gadofosvesest injection. As shown in this initial report, contrast-enhanced intracranial tumor imaging is possible with the protein-binding blood pool agent gadofosveset. The agent gives a significant tumor contrast in early postcontrast imaging comparable with conventional agents. As a result of its unique longer lasting contrast, the use of gadofosveset might enable a new approach to imaging mild or nonenhancing tumors. (orig.)

  20. Imaging features of brain tumor-like lesions; Diferentes aspectos de imagem das lesoes pseudotumorais no encefalo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Matheus Fonseca Barbosa; Lisboa, Joao Paulo Ribeiro; Pontes, Bruno de Castro Nogueira; Guedes, Marcelo dos Santos; Silva, Marcia Lopes da [Hospital Alvorada de Moema, SP (Brazil). Setor de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: doc.es@uol.com.br; Mello, Marco Antonio Rocha [Hospitais Alvorada, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the image aspects of the main pathologies of the brain that may simulate tumors. It was made a retrospective evaluation of our institution patients. The following pathologies were diagnosed: multiple sclerosis, neurosarcoidosis, neurocysticercosis, neurotoxoplasmosis, radionecrosis and stroke. Differential diagnosis among these diseases and neoplastic lesions can be difficult, though imaging technology has advanced rapidly and associated to the current knowledge of the main findings of each one of them may become this task less strenuous. (author)

  1. Adult brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of adults with brain tumors. This refresher course will focus on a variety of benign and malignant brain neoplasms and how contemporary radiotherapy affects outcome. Successful outcome after radiotherapy requires that (1) there is no tumor extension beyond the selected target volume, (2) adequate dose is delivered to the target volume, and (3) normal tissue tolerance dose is not exceeded. For many neoplasms serial post-treatment scans may show little change, and success is often measured more by absence of tumor progression than by scan normalization. Three-dimensional treatment planning based on MRI or CT makes it possible to guarantee delivery of the full prescription dose to gross tumor while minimizing the volume of normal tissue receiving high dose. Acceptable dose conformity can often be achieved with 2-4 static beams or arcs, which is usually preferable to opposed lateral fields. Protocols involving substantial dose escalation require a large number of non-coplanar x-ray beams or particle therapy. This course will cover important concepts and techniques which relate to the treatment of brain tumors, including conformal radiotherapy, brachytherapy, radiosurgery, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, altered fractionation, inverse treatment planning, re-irradiation, and biologically effective dose (BED). Examples of planning solutions for a variety of tumor types, size and anatomical locations will be given. Note: I will incorporate examples of interesting, difficult and unusual cases from other practices as time permits, provided slides and descriptive materials are sent to me in advance of the course

  2. Dynamic perfusion CT in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Timothy Pok Chi; Bauman, Glenn; Yartsev, Slav; Fainardi, Enrico; Macdonald, David; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic perfusion CT (PCT) is an imaging technique for assessing the vascular supply and hemodynamics of brain tumors by measuring blood flow, blood volume, and permeability-surface area product. These PCT parameters provide information complementary to histopathologic assessments and have been used for grading brain tumors, distinguishing high-grade gliomas from other brain lesions, differentiating true progression from post-treatment effects, and predicting prognosis after treatments. In this review, the basic principles of PCT are described, and applications of PCT of brain tumors are discussed. The advantages and current challenges, along with possible solutions, of PCT are presented.

  3. Epidemiological features of brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors account for 1.4% of all cancers and 2.4% of all cancer-related deaths. The incidence of brain tumors varies and it is higher in developed countries of Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. In Serbia, according to data from 2009, malignant brain tumors account for 2. 2 of all tumors, and from all cancer­related deaths, 3.2% is caused by malignant brain tumors. According to recent statistical reports, an overall incidence of brain tumors for benign and malignant tumors combined is 18.71 per 100,000 persons/year. The most common benign brain tumor in adults is meningioma, which is most present in women, and the most common malignant tumor is glioblastoma, which is most present in adult men. Due to high mortality, especially in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma and significant brain tumor morbidity, there is a constant interest in understanding its etiology in order to possibly prevent tumor occurrence in future and enable more efficient treatment strategies for this fatal brain disease. Despite the continuously growing number of epidemiological studies on possible factors of tumor incidence, the etiology remains unclear. The only established environmental risk factor of gliomas is ionizing radiation exposure. Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields via cell phone use has gained a lot of attention as a potential risk factor of brain tumor development. However, studies have been inconsistent and inconclusive, so more definite results are still expected.

  4. Brain Tumors and Brain Tumor Research Progress in Image Classification%脑肿瘤及脑肿瘤图像分类的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞海平; 邬立保

    2011-01-01

    Many methods of brain tumor classification,there is no uniform classification^! A variety of tumors and pathological features of the different tissue, the study of benign and malignant, and things are not the same characteristics. Usually can be classified as histological.-(l) Originated in glial tumors: astrocytoma, less support glial cell tumors, medulloblastoma, etc.(2) Originated in meningeal tumors: meningioma, meningeal sarcoma, arachnoid cyst.(3) Originated in the pituitary tumors: tired color cell adenoma, acidophilic, basophilic cell adenoma.(4) Originated in cranial nerve tumors: acoustic neuroma, trigeminal nerve sheath tumors and other tumors.(S) Originated from residual embryonic tissue: craniopharyngioma, chordoma, dermoid cyst (6) Originated in vascular cells: vascular tumors and vascular reticular cell tumor, etc.(7) Transfer or by other parts of the tumor invasion: a variety of metastatic tumors, and nasopharyn-geal carcinoma, etc.%脑肿瘤分类的方法很多,目前尚无统一的分类方法,并且各种肿瘤的组织发生与病理特征不同,其良性与恶性以及物学特性也不一样.通常按组织学可分类如下:(1)发源于神经胶质的肿瘤:星形细胞瘤、少支胶质细胞瘤、髓母细胞瘤等.(2)发源于脑膜的肿瘤:脑膜瘤、脑膜内瘤、蛛网膜囊肿等.(3)发源于垂体的肿瘤:厌色细胞腺瘤,嗜酸、嗜碱性细胞腺瘤.(4)发源于颅神经的肿瘤:听神经瘤、三叉神经瘤等各种神经鞘瘤.(5)发源于胚胎残余组织:颅咽管瘤、脊索瘤、皮样囊肿等.(6)发源于血管细胞:血管瘤及血管网织细胞瘤等.(7)由其它部位转移或侵入的肿瘤:各种转移瘤及鼻咽癌等.

  5. Brain tumors in children; Hirntumoren beim Kind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harting, I.; Seitz, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

    2009-06-15

    Brain tumors are common in children; in Germany approximately 400 children are diagnosed every year. In the posterior fossa, cerebellar neoplasms outnumber brainstem gliomas. In contrast to their rarity in adults, brainstem gliomas are not uncommon in children. Supratentorial tumors can be subdivided by location into neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres, suprasellar and pineal tumors. Astrocytoma is the most common pediatric brain tumor followed by medulloblastoma, ependymoma and craniopharyngeoma. The combination of imaging morphology, tumor localisation and patient age at manifestation form the basis of the neuroradiological differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  6. Three-dimensional visualization of functional brain tissue and functional magnetic resonance imaging-integrated neuronavigation in the resection of brain tumor adjacent to motor cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the value of three -dimensional visualization of functional brain tissue and the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-integrated neuronavigation in the resection of brain tumor adjacent to motor cortex. Method: Sixty patients with tumor located in the central sulcus were enrolled. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to function group and 30 to control group. Patients in function group underwent fMRI to localize the functional brain tissues. Then the function information was transferred to the neurosurgical navigator. The patients in control group underwent surgery with navigation without function information. The therapeutic effect, excision rate. improvement of motor function, and survival quality during follow-up were analyzed. Result: All patients in function group were accomplished visualization of functional brain tissues and fMRI-integrated neuronavigation. The locations of tumors, central sulcus and motor cortex were marked during the operation. The fMRI -integrated information played a great role in both pre- and post-operation. Pre-operation: designing the location of the skin flap and window bone, determining the relationship between the tumor and motor cortex, and designing the pathway for the resection. Post- operation: real-time navigation of relationship between the tumor and motor cortex, assisting to localize the motor cortex using interoperation ultra-sound for correcting the displacement by the CSF outflow and collapsing tumor. The patients in the function group had better results than the patients in the control group in therapeutic effect (u=2.646, P=0.008), excision rate (χ=7.200, P<0.01), improvement of motor function (u=2.231, P=0.026), and survival quality (KPS uc= 2.664, P=0.008; Zubrod -ECOG -WHO uc=2.135, P=0.033). Conclusions: Using preoperative three -dimensional visualization of cerebral function tissue and the fMRI-integrated neuronavigation technology, combining intraoperative accurate positioning

  7. 19F molecular MR imaging for detection of brain tumor angiogenesis: in vivo validation using targeted PFOB nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) targeted contrast agents has emerged as a promising diagnostic approach in cancer research to detect associated bio-markers. In this work, the potential of 19F MRI was investigated to detect angiogenesis with αvβ3-targeted perfluoro-octylbromide nanoparticles (PFOB NP) in a U87 glioblastoma mouse model at 7 Tesla. Mice were injected intravenously with targeted or non-targeted NP and 19F images were immediately acquired for 90 min using a PFOB-dedicated MRI sequence. Mice infused with targeted NP exhibited higher concentrations in tumors than mice of the control group, despite the presence of nonspecific signal originating from the blood. Imaging results were corroborated by histology and fluorescence imaging, suggesting specific binding of targeted NP to αvβ3 integrin. Two other groups of mice were injected 24 h before imaging to allow blood clearance but no significant differences were found between both groups, probably due to a loss of specificity of PFOB NP. This is the first demonstration of the ability of 19F MRI to detect αvβ3 -integrin endothelial expression in brain tumors in vivo. (authors)

  8. Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorger, Mihaela [Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, St. James’s University Hospital, Beckett Street, Leeds, LS9 7TF (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-22

    In addition to malignant cancer cells, tumors contain a variety of different stromal cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment. Some of these cell types provide crucial support for tumor growth, while others have been suggested to actually inhibit tumor progression. The composition of tumor microenvironment varies depending on the tumor site. The brain in particular consists of numerous specialized cell types such as microglia, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells. In addition to these brain-resident cells, primary and metastatic brain tumors have also been shown to be infiltrated by different populations of bone marrow-derived cells. The role of different cell types that constitute tumor microenvironment in the progression of brain malignancies is only poorly understood. Tumor microenvironment has been shown to be a promising therapeutic target and diagnostic marker in extracranial malignancies. A better understanding of tumor microenvironment in the brain would therefore be expected to contribute to the development of improved therapies for brain tumors that are urgently required due to a poor availability of treatments for these malignancies. This review summarizes some of the known interactions between brain tumors and different stromal cells, and also discusses potential therapeutic approaches within this context.

  9. Diffusion tensor imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in brain tumorCorrelation between structure and metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Min; Chen Niu; Netra Rana; Huanmei Ji; Ming Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging are non-invasive techniques used to detect metabolites and water diffusion in vivo. Previous studies have confirmed a positive correlation of individual fractional anisotropy values with N-acetylaspartate/creatine and N-acetylaspartate/choline ratios in tumors, edema, and normal white matter. This study divided the brain parenchyma into tumor, peritumoral edema, and normal-appearing white matter according to MRI data, and analyzed the correlation of metabolites with water molecular diffusion. Results demonstrated that in normal-appearing white matter, N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratios were positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values, negatively correlated with radial diffusivities, and positively correlated with maximum eigenvalues. Maximum eigenvalues and radial diffusivities in peritumoral edema showed a negative correlation with choline, N-acetylaspartate, and creatine. Radial diffusivities in tumor demonstrated a negative correlation with choline. These data suggest that the relationship between metabolism and structure is markedly changed from normal white matter to peritumoral edema and tumor. Neural metabolism in the peritumoral edema area decreased with expanding extracellular space. The normal relationship of neural function and microstructure disappeared in the tumor region.

  10. NANOROBOTS IN BRAIN TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Tarannum, Garje Dattatray H

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicine is the process of diagnosing, treating, and preventing disease and traumatic injury, of relieving pain, and of preserving and improving human health, using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of the human body. In the relatively near term, nanomedicine can address many important medical problems by using nanoscale-structured materials and simple nanodevices that can be manufactured today, including the interaction of nanostructured materials with biological systems. The authors predict that technology-assisted medicine and robotics in particular, will have a significant impact over the next few decades. Robots will augment the surgeon’s motor performance, diagnosis capability, and senses with haptics (feel, augmented reality (sight, and ultrasound (sound. Robotic devices have been used in cardiac surgery, urology, fetal surgery, pediatrics, neurosurgery, orthopedics, and many other medical disciplines. In this article, we present the Nanorobot drug delivery to brain tumor, paying special attention to the transformation trends of organizations, and the integration of robots in brain tumor and underscoring potential repercussions which may deserve more attention and further research.

  11. Cortical mapping by functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majos, Agata; Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Goraj, Bozena [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Radiology, Lodz (Poland); Tybor, Krzysztof [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Neurosurgery, Lodz (Poland)

    2005-06-01

    The aim of our study was to establish the effectiveness of the functional MRI (fMRI) technique in comparison with intraoperative cortical stimulation (ICS) in planning cortex-saving neurosurgical interventions. The combination of sensory and motor stimulation during fMRI experiments was used to improve the exactness of central sulcus localization. The study subjects were 30 volunteers and 33 patients with brain tumors in the rolandic area. Detailed topographical relations of activated areas in fMRI and intraoperative techniques were compared. The agreement in the location defined by the two methods for motor centers was found to be 84%; for sensory centers it was 83%. When both kinds of activation are taken into account this agreement increases to 98%. A significant relation was found between fMRI and ICS for the agreement of the distance both for motor and sensory centers (p=0.0021-0.0024). Also a strong dependence was found between the agreement of the location and the agreement of the distance for both kinds of stimulation. The spatial correlation between fMRI and ICS methods for the sensorimotor cortex is very high. fMRI combining functional and structural information is very helpful for preoperative neurosurgical planning. The sensitivity of the fMRI technique in brain mapping increases when using both motor and sensory paradigms in the same patient. (orig.)

  12. Cortical mapping by functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to establish the effectiveness of the functional MRI (fMRI) technique in comparison with intraoperative cortical stimulation (ICS) in planning cortex-saving neurosurgical interventions. The combination of sensory and motor stimulation during fMRI experiments was used to improve the exactness of central sulcus localization. The study subjects were 30 volunteers and 33 patients with brain tumors in the rolandic area. Detailed topographical relations of activated areas in fMRI and intraoperative techniques were compared. The agreement in the location defined by the two methods for motor centers was found to be 84%; for sensory centers it was 83%. When both kinds of activation are taken into account this agreement increases to 98%. A significant relation was found between fMRI and ICS for the agreement of the distance both for motor and sensory centers (p=0.0021-0.0024). Also a strong dependence was found between the agreement of the location and the agreement of the distance for both kinds of stimulation. The spatial correlation between fMRI and ICS methods for the sensorimotor cortex is very high. fMRI combining functional and structural information is very helpful for preoperative neurosurgical planning. The sensitivity of the fMRI technique in brain mapping increases when using both motor and sensory paradigms in the same patient. (orig.)

  13. A Re-Learning Based Post-Processing Step For Brain Tumor Segmentation From Multi-Sequence Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naouel Boughattas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a brain tumor segmentation method from multi-spectral MRI images. The method is based on classification and uses Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL which jointly selects one or more kernels associated to each feature and trains SVM (Support Vector Machine. First, a large set of features based on wavelet decomposition is computed on a small number of voxels for all types of images. The most significant features from the feature base are then selected and a classifier is then learned. The images are segmented using the trained classifier on the selected features. In our framework, a second step called re-learning is added. It consists in training again a classifier from a reduced part of the training set located around the segmented tumor in the first step. A fusion of both segmentation procures the final results. Our algorithm was tested on the real data provided by the challenge of Brats 2012. This dataset includes 20 high-grade glioma patients and 10 low-grade glioma patients. For each patient, T1, T2, FLAIR, and post-Gadolinium T1 MR images are available. The results show good performances of our method.

  14. Asymptomatic brain tumor detected at brain check-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onizuka, Masanari; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Shibayama, Akira; Hiura, Tsuyoshi; Horie, Nobutaka; Miyazaki, Hisaya [Sankoukai Miyazaki Hospital, Isahaya, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Brain check-up was performed in 4000 healthy subjects who underwent medical and radiological examinations for possible brain diseases in our hospital from April 1996 to March 2000. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 11 brain tumors which consisted of six meningiomas, three pituitary adenomas, one astrocytoma, and one epidermoid cyst. The detection rate of incidental brain tumor in our hospital was 0.3%. Nine patients underwent surgery, with one case of morbidity due to postoperative transient oculomotor nerve paresis. The widespread use of brain check-up may increasingly detect asymptomatic brain tumors. Surgical indications for such lesions remain unclear, and the strategy for treatment should be determined with consideration of the patient's wishes. (author)

  15. SU-E-J-212: MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessment of Tumor and Normal Brain Tissue Responses of Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma Treated by Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can measure molecular mobility at the cellular level, quantified by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). DTI may also reveal axonal fiber directional information in the white matter, quantified by the fractional anisotropy (FA). Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is a rare brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. Proton therapy (PT) is increasingly used in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors including JPA. However, the response of both tumors and normal tissues to PT is currently under investigation. We report tumor and normal brain tissue responses for a pediatric case of JPA treated with PT assessed using DTI. Methods: A ten year old male with JPA of the left thalamus received passive scattered PT to a dose of 50.4 Gy (RBE) in 28 fractions. Post PT, the patient has been followed up in seven years. At each follow up, MRI imaging including DTI was performed to assess response. MR images were registered to the treatment planning CT and the GTV mapped onto each MRI. The GTV contour was then mirrored to the right side of brain through the patient’s middle line to represent normal brain tissue. ADC and FA were measured within the ROIs. Results: Proton therapy can completely spare contra lateral brain while the target volume received full prescribed dose. From a series of MRI ADC images before and after PT at different follow ups, the enhancement corresponding to GTV had nearly disappeared more than 2 years after PT. Both ADC and FA demonstrate that contralateral normal brain tissue were not affect by PT and the tumor volume reverted to normal ADC and FA values. Conclusion: DTI allowed quantitative evaluation of tumor and normal brain tissue responses to PT. Further study in a larger cohort is warranted

  16. SU-E-J-212: MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessment of Tumor and Normal Brain Tissue Responses of Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma Treated by Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, P; Park, P; Li, H; Zhu, X; Mahajan, A; Grosshans, D [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can measure molecular mobility at the cellular level, quantified by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). DTI may also reveal axonal fiber directional information in the white matter, quantified by the fractional anisotropy (FA). Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is a rare brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. Proton therapy (PT) is increasingly used in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors including JPA. However, the response of both tumors and normal tissues to PT is currently under investigation. We report tumor and normal brain tissue responses for a pediatric case of JPA treated with PT assessed using DTI. Methods: A ten year old male with JPA of the left thalamus received passive scattered PT to a dose of 50.4 Gy (RBE) in 28 fractions. Post PT, the patient has been followed up in seven years. At each follow up, MRI imaging including DTI was performed to assess response. MR images were registered to the treatment planning CT and the GTV mapped onto each MRI. The GTV contour was then mirrored to the right side of brain through the patient’s middle line to represent normal brain tissue. ADC and FA were measured within the ROIs. Results: Proton therapy can completely spare contra lateral brain while the target volume received full prescribed dose. From a series of MRI ADC images before and after PT at different follow ups, the enhancement corresponding to GTV had nearly disappeared more than 2 years after PT. Both ADC and FA demonstrate that contralateral normal brain tissue were not affect by PT and the tumor volume reverted to normal ADC and FA values. Conclusion: DTI allowed quantitative evaluation of tumor and normal brain tissue responses to PT. Further study in a larger cohort is warranted.

  17. MRI and MRS of human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bob L; Hu, Jiani

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an introduction to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of human brain tumors, including the primary applications and basic terminology involved. Readers who wish to know more about this broad subject should seek out the referenced books (1. Tofts (2003) Quantitative MRI of the brain. Measuring changes caused by disease. Wiley; Bradley and Stark (1999) 2. Magnetic resonance imaging, 3rd Edition. Mosby Inc; Brown and Semelka (2003) 3. MRI basic principles and applications, 3rd Edition. Wiley-Liss) or reviews (4. Top Magn Reson Imaging 17:127-36, 2006; 5. JMRI 24:709-724, 2006; 6. Am J Neuroradiol 27:1404-1411, 2006).MRI is the most popular means of diagnosing human brain tumors. The inherent difference in the magnetic resonance (MR) properties of water between normal tissues and tumors results in contrast differences on the image that provide the basis for distinguishing tumors from normal tissues. In contrast to MRI, which provides spatial maps or images using water signals of the tissues, proton MRS detects signals of tissue metabolites. MRS can complement MRI because the observed MRS peaks can be linked to inherent differences in biochemical profiles between normal tissues and tumors.The goal of MRI and MRS is to characterize brain tumors, including tumor core, edge, edema, volume, types, and grade. The commonly used brain tumor MRI protocol includes T2-weighted images and T1-weighted images taken both before and after the injection of a contrast agent (typically gadolinium: Gd). The commonly used MRS technique is either point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) or stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM).

  18. Improvised Levelset method for segmentation and grading of brain tumors in dynamic contrast susceptibility and apparent diffusion coefficient magnetic resonance images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar Chinnadurai

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel Neuro – level set algorithm is proposed and evaluated for simultaneous segmentation and grading of brain tumors. The algorithm utilizes vascular and cellular information provided by the reconstructed images of dynamic contrast susceptibility magnetic resonance images and apparent diffusion coefficient images. The reconstructed images are relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV image, time to peak (TTP image and percentage of base at peak (PBP image along with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC maps. The proposed neural - levelset algorithm utilizes a neural block to provide the speed image for the levelset methods. In this study, two different architectures of levelset method have been implemented and their results are compared. The results show that the proposed Neuro- Levelset method performs better in differentiating the tumor, edema,necrosis in reconstructed images of dynamic contrast susceptibility magnetic resonance images and apparent diffusion coefficient MR images.

  19. Living with a Brain Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when you have been diagnosed with a brain tumor diagnosis. Dealing with changes to your appearance – such as losing your hair or losing weight is difficult for most of us. Keep in mind that your life is not so much ... with a brain tumor may mean rethinking your work and professional goals, ...

  20. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  1. Imaging the Tumor Microenvironment

    OpenAIRE

    LeBleu, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex, heterogeneous, and dominant component of solid tumors. Cancer imaging strategies of a subset of characteristics of the tumor microenvironment are under active development and currently used modalities and novel approaches are summarized here. Understanding the dynamic and evolving functions of the tumor microenvironment is critical to accurately inform imaging and clinical care of cancer. Novel insights into distinct roles of the tumor microenvironment...

  2. Functional brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive method that has become one of the major tools for understanding human brain function and in recent years has also been developed for clinical applications. Changes in hemodynamic signals correspond to changes in neuronal activity with good spatial and temporal resolution in fMRI. Using high-field MR systems and increasingly dedicated statistics and postprocessing, activated brain areas can be detected and superimposed on anatomical images. Currently, fMRI data are often combined in multimodal imaging, e. g. with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequences. This method is helping to further understand the physiology of cognitive brain processes and is also being used in a number of clinical applications. In addition to the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, this article deals with the construction of fMRI investigations, selection of paradigms and evaluation in the clinical routine. Clinically, this method is mainly used in the planning of brain surgery, analyzing the location of brain tumors in relation to eloquent brain areas and the lateralization of language processing. As the BOLD signal is dependent on the strength of the magnetic field as well as other limitations, an overview of recent developments is given. Increases of magnetic field strength (7 T), available head coils and advances in MRI analytical methods have led to constant improvement in fMRI signals and experimental design. Especially the depiction of eloquent brain regions can be done easily and quickly and has become an essential part of presurgical planning. (orig.)

  3. Monte Carlo simulation studies on scintillation detectors and image reconstruction of brain-phantom tumors in TOFPET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Nagendra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS results of detection efficiencies, spatial resolutions and resolving powers of a time-of-flight (TOF PET detector systems. Cerium activated Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (Lu 2 SiO 5 : Ce in short LSO, Barium Fluoride (BaF 2 and BriLanCe 380 (Cerium doped Lanthanum tri-Bromide, in short LaBr 3 scintillation crystals are studied in view of their good time and energy resolutions and shorter decay times. The results of MCS based on GEANT show that spatial resolution, detection efficiency and resolving power of LSO are better than those of BaF 2 and LaBr 3 , although it possesses inferior time and energy resolutions. Instead of the conventional position reconstruction method, newly established image reconstruction (talked about in the previous work method is applied to produce high-tech images. Validation is a momentous step to ensure that this imaging method fulfills all purposes of motivation discussed by reconstructing images of two tumors in a brain phantom.

  4. Brain hypoxia imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Chun [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The measurement of pathologically low levels of tissue pO{sub 2} is an important diagnostic goal for determining the prognosis of many clinically important diseases including cardiovascular insufficiency, stroke and cancer. The target tissues nowadays have mostly been tumors or the myocardium, with less attention centered on the brain. Radiolabelled nitroimidazole or derivatives may be useful in identifying the hypoxic cells in cerebrovascular disease or traumatic brain injury, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. In acute stroke, the target of therapy is the severely hypoxic but salvageable tissue. {sup 18}F-MISO PET and {sup 99m}Tc-EC-metronidazole SPECT in patients with acute ischemic stroke identified hypoxic tissues and ischemic penumbra, and predicted its outcome. A study using {sup 123}I-IAZA in patient with closed head injury detected the hypoxic tissues after head injury. Up till now these radiopharmaceuticals have drawbacks due to its relatively low concentration with hypoxic tissues associated with/without low blood-brain barrier permeability and the necessity to wait a long time to achieve acceptable target to background ratios for imaging in acute ischemic stroke. It is needed to develop new hypoxic marker exhibiting more rapid localization in the hypoxic region in the brain. And then, the hypoxic brain imaging with imidazoles or non-imidazoles may be very useful in detecting the hypoxic tissues, determining therapeutic strategies and developing therapeutic drugs in several neurological disease, especially, in acute ischemic stroke.

  5. Brain Tumor Therapy-Induced Changes in Normal-Appearing Brainstem Measured With Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To characterize therapy-induced changes in normal-appearing brainstems of childhood brain tumor patients by serial diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods and Materials: We analyzed 109 DTI studies from 20 brain tumor patients, aged 4 to 23 years, with normal-appearing brainstems included in the treatment fields. Those with medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (n = 10) received postoperative craniospinal irradiation (23.4–39.6 Gy) and a cumulative dose of 55.8 Gy to the primary site, followed by four cycles of high-dose chemotherapy. Patients with high-grade gliomas (n = 10) received erlotinib during and after irradiation (54–59.4 Gy). Parametric maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were computed and spatially registered to three-dimensional radiation dose data. Volumes of interest included corticospinal tracts, medial lemnisci, and the pons. Serving as an age-related benchmark for comparison, 37 DTI studies from 20 healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 25 years, were included in the analysis. Results: The median DTI follow-up time was 3.5 years (range, 1.6–5.0 years). The median mean dose to the pons was 56 Gy (range, 7–59 Gy). Three patterns were seen in longitudinal FA and apparent diffusion coefficient changes: (1) a stable or normal developing time trend, (2) initial deviation from normal with subsequent recovery, and (3) progressive deviation without evidence of complete recovery. The maximal decline in FA often occurred 1.5 to 3.5 years after the start of radiation therapy. A full recovery time trend could be observed within 4 years. Patients with incomplete recovery often had a larger decline in FA within the first year. Radiation dose alone did not predict long-term recovery patterns. Conclusions: Variations existed among individual patients after therapy in longitudinal evolution of brainstem white matter injury and recovery. Early response

  6. Usefulness of double dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for clear delineation of gross tumor volume in stereotactic radiotherapy treatment planning of metastatic brain tumors. A dose comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the size and clearness of gross tumor volumes (GTVs) of metastatic brain tumors on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images between a single dose contrast administration protocol and a double dose contrast administration protocol to determine the optimum dose of contrast-enhancement for clear delineation of GTV in stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). A total of 28 small metastatic brain tumors were evaluated in 13 patients by intra-individual comparison of GTV measurements using single dose and double dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice (1-mm) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All patients had confirmed histological types of primary tumors and had undergone hypo-fractionated SRT for metastatic brain tumors. The mean tumor diameter with single dose and double dose contrast-enhancement was 12.0 ± 1.1 mm and 13.2 ± 1.1 mm respectively (P 1ml volume was 41.8 ± 0.05% and 12.4 ± 0.03% respectively (P < 0.001). We conclude that double dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice MRI is a more useful technique than single dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice MRI, especially for clear delineation of GTVs of small metastatic brain tumors in treatment planning of highly precise SRT. (author)

  7. Usefulness of double dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for clear delineation of gross tumor volume in stereotactic radiotherapy treatment planning of metastatic brain tumors: a dose comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Kalloo Sharma; Takahashi, Takeo; Yamano, Takafumi; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Nishimura, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Nakano, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the size and clearness of gross tumor volumes (GTVs) of metastatic brain tumors on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images between a single dose contrast administration protocol and a double dose contrast administration protocol to determine the optimum dose of contrast-enhancement for clear delineation of GTV in stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). A total of 28 small metastatic brain tumors were evaluated in 13 patients by intra-individual comparison of GTV measurements using single dose and double dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice (1-mm) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All patients had confirmed histological types of primary tumors and had undergone hypo-fractionated SRT for metastatic brain tumors. The mean tumor diameter with single dose and double dose contrast-enhancement was 12.0 ± 1.1 mm and 13.2 ± 1.1 mm respectively (P 1ml volume was 41.8 ± 0.05 % and 12.4 ± 0.03 % respectively (P < 0.001). We conclude that double dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice MRI is a more useful technique than single dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice MRI, especially for clear delineation of GTVs of small metastatic brain tumors in treatment planning of highly precise SRT. PMID:22843378

  8. Brain Tumor Detection Based On Mathematical Analysis and Symmetry Information

    OpenAIRE

    G., Narkhede Sachin; Khairnar, Vaishali; Kadu, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Image segmentation some of the challenging issues on brain magnetic resonance image tumor segmentation caused by the weak correlation between magnetic resonance imaging intensity and anatomical meaning.With the objective of utilizing more meaningful information to improve brain tumor segmentation,an approach which employs bilateral symmetry information as an additional feature for segmentation is proposed.This is motivated by potential performance improvement in the general automatic brain tu...

  9. Fluorescent Nanoparticle Uptake for Brain Tumor Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Tréhin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate delineation of tumor margins is vital to the successful surgical resection of brain tumors. We have previously developed a multimodal nanoparticle CLIO-Cy5.5, which is detectable by both magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence, to assist in intraoperatively visualizing tumor boundaries. Here we examined the accuracy of tumor margin determination of orthotopic tumors implanted in hosts with differing immune responses to the tumor. Using a nonuser-based signal intensity method applied to fluorescent micrographs of 9L gliosarcoma green fluorescent protein (GFP tumors, mean overestimations of 2 and 24 µm were obtained using Cy5.5 fluorescence, compared to the true tumor margin determined by GFP fluorescence, in nude mice and rats, respectively. To resolve which cells internalized the nanoparticle and to quantitate degree of uptake, tumors were disaggregated and cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Nanoparticle uptake was seen in both CD11b+ cells (representing activated microglia and macrophages and tumor cells in both animal models by both methods. CD11b+ cells were predominantly found at the tumor margin in both hosts, but were more pronounced at the margin in the rat model. Additional metastatic (CT26 colon and primary (Gli36 glioma brain tumor models likewise demonstrated that the nanoparticle was internalized both by tumor cells and by host cells. Together, these observations suggest that fluorescent nanoparticles provide an accurate method of tumor margin estimation based on a combination of tumor cell and host cell uptake for primary and metastatic tumors in animal model systems and offer potential for clinical translation.

  10. Quantitation of blood-brain barrier defect by magnetic resonance imaging and gadolinium-DTPA in patients with multiple sclerosis and brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Stubgaard, M; Frederiksen, J L;

    1990-01-01

    In this study quantitation of the degree of deficiency of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with multiple sclerosis or brain tumors, by using MRI, is shown to be possible. As a measure of permeability of the BBB to Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) the flux per unit of distribution volume per uni...

  11. Quantitation of blood-brain barrier defect by magnetic resonance imaging and gadolinium-DTPA in patients with multiple sclerosis and brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Stubgaard, M; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini;

    1990-01-01

    In this study quantitation of the degree of deficiency of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with multiple sclerosis or brain tumors, by using MRI, is shown to be possible. As a measure of permeability of the BBB to Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) the flux per unit of distribution volume per unit...

  12. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What are adult brain ...

  13. Which is the best advanced MR imaging protocol for predicting recurrent metastatic brain tumor following gamma-knife radiosurgery: focused on perfusion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Myeong Ju; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Sang Joon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    High spatial resolution of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging allows characterization of heterogenous tumor microenvironment. Our purpose was to determine which is the best advanced MR imaging protocol, focused on additional MR perfusion method, for predicting recurrent metastatic brain tumor following gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Seventy-two consecutive patients with post-GKRS metastatic brain tumor were enrolled. Two readers independently calculated the percentile histogram cutoffs for normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) from dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging and initial area under the time signal-intensity curve (IAUC) from DCE imaging, respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and interreader agreement were assessed. For differentiating tumor recurrence from therapy effect, adding DCE imaging to diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) significantly improved AUC from 0.79 to 0.95 for reader 1 and from 0.80 to 0.96 for reader 2, respectively. There was no significant difference of AUC between the combination of DWI with DSC imaging and the combination of DWI with DCE imaging for both readers. With the combination of DWI and DCE imaging, the sensitivity and specificity were 86.7 and 88.1 % for reader 1 and 90.0 and 85.7 % for reader 2, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between readers was highest for calculation of the 90th percentile histogram cutoffs for IAUC (ICC, 0.87). Adding perfusion MR imaging to DWI significantly improves the prediction of recurrent metastatic tumor; however, the diagnostic performance is not affected by selection of either DSC or DCE MR perfusion method. (orig.)

  14. Ensemble segmentation for GBM brain tumors on MR images using confidence-based averaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huo, J.; Okada, K.; Rikxoort, E.M. van; Kim, H.J.; Alger, J.R.; Pope, W.B.; Goldin, J.G.; Brown, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Ensemble segmentation methods combine the segmentation results of individual methods into a final one, with the goal of achieving greater robustness and accuracy. The goal of this study was to develop an ensemble segmentation framework for glioblastoma multiforme tumors on single-channel T1

  15. Notch Signaling and Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2011-01-01

    Human brain tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplasms occurring inside the cranium and the central spinal cord. In adults and children, astrocytic glioma and medulloblastoma are the most common subtypes of primary brain tumors. These tumor types are thought to arise from cells in which Notch...... signaling plays a fundamental role during development. Recent findings have shown that Notch signaling is dysregulated, and contributes to the malignant potential of these tumors. Growing evidence point towards an important role for cancer stem cells in the initiation and maintenance of glioma...... and medulloblastoma. In this chapter we will cover the present findings of Notch signaling in human glioma and medulloblastoma and try to create an overall picture of its relevance in the pathogenesis of these tumors....

  16. Brain Tumor Detection Based On Symmetry Information

    OpenAIRE

    G., Narkhede Sachin; Khairnar, Vaishali

    2013-01-01

    Advances in computing technology have allowed researchers across many fields of endeavor to collect and maintain vast amounts of observational statistical data such as clinical data, biological patient data, data regarding access of web sites, financial data, and the like. This paper addresses some of the challenging issues on brain magnetic resonance (MR) image tumor segmentation caused by the weak correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) intensity and anatomical meaning. With th...

  17. High resolution susceptibility weighted MR-imaging of brain tumors during the application of a gaseous agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, A. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Friedrich Schiller Univ. Jena (Germany); Exzellenzzentrum Hochfeld-Magnetresonanz, Medizinische Univ. Wien (Austria); Sedlacik, J.; Fitzek, C.; Kaiser, W.A.; Reichenbach, J.R. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Friedrich Schiller Univ. Jena (Germany); Walter, B.; Hochstetter, A.; Kalff, R. [Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Friedrich Schiller Univ. Jena (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: to employ a high resolution blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) method called susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) together with the breathing of carbogen to investigate the response of cerebral tumors to this breathing gas and to assess tumor anatomy at high resolution. Methods: five patients with cerebral tumors (four glioblastoma multiforme, one astrocytoma [WHO grade II]) were studied using a susceptibility weighted 3D gradient echo, first order velocity compensated sequence (TE = 45 ms, TR = 67 ms, {alpha} = 25 , FOV = 256 x 192 x 64 mm{sup 3}, typical matrix = 512 x 192 x 64), on a 1.5 T MR scanner while they were breathing air and carbogen. Signal changes between the two breathing conditions were investigated. Results: the glioblastomas showed strong but heterogeneous signal changes between carbogen and air breathing, with changes between + 22.4 {+-} 4.9% at the perimeter of the tumors and -5.0 {+-} 0.4% in peritumoral areas that appeared hyperintense on T{sub 2}-weighted images. The astrocytoma displayed a signal decrease during carbogen breathing (-4.1 {+-} 0.1% to -6.8 {+-} 0.3% in peritumoral areas that correspond to hyperintense regions on T{sub 2}-weighted images, and -3.1 {+-} 0.1% in the tumor-center). Conclusions: SWI provides high resolution images of cerebral anatomy and venous vascularization. Combined with hypercapnia it allows for regional assessment of tumor activity. (orig.)

  18. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hua; YAO Hong-tian; ZHANG Wei-ping; ZHANG LEI; DING Wei; ZHANG Shi-hong; CHEN Zhong; WEI Er-qing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), one of the aquaporins (AQPs), in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or brain tumors. Methods: Nineteen human brain specimens were obtained from the patients with traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, benign meningioma or early stage hemorrhagic stroke. MRI or CT imaging was used to assess brain edema. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to evaluate cell damage. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the AQP4 expression. Results: AQP4 expression was increased from 15h to at least 8 d after injury. AQP4immunoreactivity was strong around astrocytomas, ganglioglioma and metastatic adenocarcinoma. However, AQP4 immunoreactivity was only found in the centers of astrocytomas and ganglioglioma, but not in metastatic adenocarcinoma derived from lung.Conclusion: AQP4 expression increases in human brains after traumatic brain injury, within brain-derived tumors, and around brain tumors.

  19. Brain Tumor Detection Based On Mathematical Analysis and Symmetry Information

    OpenAIRE

    Narkhede Sachin G.,; Prof. Vaishali Khairnar

    2014-01-01

    Image segmentation some of the challenging issues on brain magnetic resonance (MR) image tumor segmentation caused by the weak correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) intensity and anatomical meaning. With the objective of utilizing more meaningful information to improve brain tumor segmentation, an approach which employs bilateral symmetry information as an additional feature for segmentation is proposed. This is motivated by potential performance improvement in ...

  20. Brain tumor stem cell dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Bozzuto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Issues regarding cancer stem cell (CSC movement are important in neurosphere biology as cell-cell or cell-environment interactions may have significant impacts on CSC differentiation and contribute to the heterogeneity of the neurosphere. Aims. Despite the growing body of literature data on the biology of brain tumor stem cells, floating CSC-derived neurospheres have been scarcely characterized from a morphological and ultrastructural point of view. Results. Here we report a morphological and ultrastructural characterization performed by live imaging and scanning electron microscopy. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM CSC-derived neurospheres are heterogeneous and are constituted by cells, morphologically different, capable of forming highly dynamic structures. These dynamic structures are regulated by not serendipitous cell-cell interactions, and they synchronously pulsate following a cyclic course made of "fast" and "slow" alternate phases. Autocrine/paracrine non canonical Wnt signalling appears to be correlated with the association status of neurospheres. Conclusions. The results obtained suggest that GBM CSCs can behave both as independents cells and as "social" cells, highly interactive with other members of its species, giving rise to a sort of "multicellular organism".

  1. A Rare Malignant Fetal Brain Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iruretagoyena, Jesus Igor; Heiser, Timothy; Iskandar, Bermans; Shah, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    A gravida 4, para 3 female at 37 weeks' gestation presented for a routine ultrasound. She had an otherwise uncomplicated low-risk pregnancy. The sonographic evaluation of the fetus revealed a macrocephaly and a deviation of the brain midline structures with a mass effect as well as a massively dilated left cerebral ventricular system with ill-defined echogenic ventricular delineation. Multiple free intracavitary echogenicities and disruptions of the brain mantle were visible. Our images were suggestive of either an intracranial bleed with the presence of an underlying tumor or a spontaneous bleed. A postnatal MRI was consistent with our prenatal findings of a possible tumor. The postnatal biopsy revealed an anaplastic astroblastoma within a hemorrhagic background. The infant received multiple courses of chemotherapy and further tumor debulking. At present, the infant is 18 months old. This is only the 4th case of an astrocytoma identified in the fetal period, and our case has the longest known survival yet. PMID:26044034

  2. Mapping of language brain areas in patients with brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Rasha; Kamel, Nidal; Boon, Tang Tong; Reza, Faruque

    2015-08-01

    Language cortex in the human brain shows high variability among normal individuals and may exhibit a considerable shift from its original position due to tumor growth. Mapping the precise location of language areas is important before surgery to avoid postoperative language deficits. In this paper, the Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recording and the MRI scanning of six brain tumorous subjects are used to localize the language specific areas. MEG recordings were performed during two silent reading tasks; silent word reading and silent picture naming. MEG source imaging is performed using distributed source modeling technique called CLARA ("Classical LORETA Analysis Recursively Applied"). Estimated MEG sources are overlaid on individual MRI of each patient to improve interpretation of MEG source imaging results. The results show successful identification of the essential language areas and clear definition of the time course of neural activation connecting them. PMID:26736340

  3. A Comparative Study of Segmentation Methods for Brain tumor Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Haribhau Zol

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a comparative study of three methods of automated medical image segmentation which can be used to locate volumetric objects such asbrain tumor in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images and they are - Automated Medical Image Segmentation Using a New Deformable Surface Model, Brain Tumor Detection Using Segmentation Based on Neuro Fuzzy Technique, An Image Segmentation Method Based on a Discrete Version of the Topological Derivative.

  4. [Differential infratentorial brain tumor diagnosis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmuth-Metz, M; Kühl, J; Rutkowski, S; Krauss, J; Solymosi, L

    2003-11-01

    With the exception of the first year of life, infratentorial brain tumors are more frequent in the first decade than tumors in the supratentorial compartment. In particular these are cerebellar low-grade astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, brainstem gliomas and ependymomas of the fourth ventricle. The morphology on MRI and CT and the mode of dissemination permit differential diagnosis in many cases. To allow correct stratification into different treatments in possibly disseminating malignant brain tumors, knowledge of the status of dissemination is essential, and therefore not only cranial but also spinal MRI is indispensable for staging. If the spinal MRI is performed in the immediate postoperative period, knowledge of the normal non-specific purely postoperative changes, often seen as enhancement in the subdural spinal spaces, is necessary in order to avoid misinterpretation as meningial seeding. The differential diagnosis of pediatric infratentorial brain tumors and the morphology of subdural enhancement are illustrated with typical images. The natural history of the most frequent tumors and its importance for treatment decisions is discussed in light of the literature.

  5. 1H-MR spectroscopy of brain tumors in the course of radiation therapy: Use of fast spectroscopic imaging and single-voxel spectroscopy for diagnosing recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To improve differential diagnosis of residual or recurrent tumor vs. tissue necrosis in the course of radiation therapy of neurosurgically-treated brain tumors by application of fast 1H-MR spectroscopic imaging in combination with single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS). Methods: 54 patients after with malignant brain tumor (44 cases of glioblastoma, 10 other high-grade gliomas) were examined post-surgically in a total of 140 proton MRS examinations in the course of radiotherapy and in follow-up controls. Fast SI acquisition was performed as single-slice or double-slice TSI sequence with 32x32 phase encodings within 11 or 15 minutes, respectively. SVS with TR/TE 2000/272 ms yielded relative metabolite ratios, and in 15 patients the time courses of the absolute concentrations of brain metabolites were also determined. Results: In the group of 44 patients that could be tracked by MRS until therapy completion, TSI localized in 23 patients a persistent or newly arisen distinct choline accumulation indicating residual or reccurent tumor after radiation therapy. In all these cases MRS diagnosis was confirmed histologically or by short-term follow-up. However, in 6 of 15 patients showing a normal choline pattern in the TSI acquisition, tumor recurrence appeared within three months. SVS provided early recognition of recurrent tumor when detecting characteristic alterations of metabolite concentrations oin therapy follow-up. Conclusion: TSI and SVS represent complementary MRS techniques fand are able to diagnose tumor recurrence early and unambiguously in cases where focal choline accumulation is detected. (orig.)

  6. Brain and Spinal Tumors: Hope through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and worsen as the tumor grows. The most obvious sign of a brain tumor in infants is ... blood flow, antidepressants to treat anxiety or ease depression that might occur following a tumor diagnosis, and ...

  7. Preliminary study of MR elastography in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the potential values of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for evaluating the brain tumor consistency in vivo. Methods: Fourteen patients with known solid brain tumor (5 male, 9 female; age range: 16-63 years) underwent brain MRE studies. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. A dedicated external force actuator for brain MRE study was developed. The actuator was fixed to the head coil. During scan, one side of the actuator was attached to the patients' head. Low frequency oscillation was produced by the actuator and caused shear waves propagating into brain tissue. The pulse sequence used in the study was phase-contrast gradient-echo sequence. Phase images of the brain were obtained and the shear waves within the brain were directly imaged. Phase images were processed with local frequency estimation (LFE) technique to obtain the elasticity image. Consistency of brain tumors was evaluated at surgery and was classified as soft, intermediate, or hard with comparison to the white matter of the brain. Correspondence of MRE evaluation with operative results was studied. Results: The elastic modulus of the tumor was lower than that of white matter in 1 patient, higher in 11 patients, and similar in 2 patients. At surgery, the tumor manifested a soft consistency in 1 patient, hard consistency in 11 patients, intermediate consistency in 2 patients. The elasticity of tumors in 14 patients evaluated by MRE was correlated with the tumor consistency on the operation. Conclusion: MRE can noninvasively display the elasticity of brain tumors in vivo, and evaluate the brain tumor consistency before operation. (authors)

  8. Central Nervous System Lymphoma in a 3-Year-Old Male Suffering from a Severe Juvenile Xanthogranuloma – the Usefulness of Perfusion Weighted Imaging and Diffusion Weighted Imaging in the Diagnostics of Pediatric Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neska-Matuszewska, Małgorzata; Zimny, Anna; Kałwak, Krzysztof; Sąsiadek, Marek J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas (PCNSLs) are rare, malignant brain tumors derived from lymphocytes B. Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a non-Langerhans histiocytic cell disorder in children which mostly affects the skin. Rare fatalities have been reported in extracutaneous manifestation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a method of choice in the diagnostics of all neoplastic CNS lesions. Perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) allow for more detailed analysis of brain tumors including the rate of neoangiogenesis and cellularity. We presented a pediatric patient suffering from JXG with CNS involvement and the role of brain MRI including DWI and PWI in the evaluation of brain focal lesions. Case Report A 3-year-old male with severe JXG underwent two stem cell transplantations with a development of neurological complications. The patient underwent emergency CT and MRI which revealed a non-specific enhancing focal brain lesion. In DWI it showed restricted diffusion while PWI revealed low values of rCBV and the signal intensity curve returning above the baseline level. Advanced MRI techniques such as DWI and PWI suggested PCNSL. Stereotactic biopsy confirmed PCNSL due to Ebstein-Barr virus reactivation. Conclusions The use of advanced MRI sequences is important to differentiate brain lesions in pediatric patients. The use of PWI and DWI facilitated the diagnosis of PCNSL. It is important to remember that PCNSLs show a very typical pattern of changes visualized with MRI such as: usually strong homogenous enhancement, restricted diffusion and low perfusion. PMID:25624957

  9. Central Nervous System Lymphoma in a 3-Year-Old Male Suffering from a Severe Juvenile Xanthogranuloma – the Usefulness of Perfusion Weighted Imaging and Diffusion Weighted Imaging in the Diagnostics of Pediatric Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas (PCNSLs) are rare, malignant brain tumors derived from lymphocytes B. Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a non-Langerhans histiocytic cell disorder in children which mostly affects the skin. Rare fatalities have been reported in extracutaneous manifestation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a method of choice in the diagnostics of all neoplastic CNS lesions. Perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) allow for more detailed analysis of brain tumors including the rate of neoangiogenesis and cellularity. We presented a pediatric patient suffering from JXG with CNS involvement and the role of brain MRI including DWI and PWI in the evaluation of brain focal lesions. A 3-year-old male with severe JXG underwent two stem cell transplantations with a development of neurological complications. The patient underwent emergency CT and MRI which revealed a non-specific enhancing focal brain lesion. In DWI it showed restricted diffusion while PWI revealed low values of rCBV and the signal intensity curve returning above the baseline level. Advanced MRI techniques such as DWI and PWI suggested PCNSL. Stereotactic biopsy confirmed PCNSL due to Ebstein-Barr virus reactivation. The use of advanced MRI sequences is important to differentiate brain lesions in pediatric patients. The use of PWI and DWI facilitated the diagnosis of PCNSL. It is important to remember that PCNSLs show a very typical pattern of changes visualized with MRI such as: usually strong homogenous enhancement, restricted diffusion and low perfusion

  10. IMAGE SEGMENTATION FOR TUMOR DETECTION USING FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    V. Janani; P. Meena

    2013-01-01

    Image segmentation on surgical images plays a vital role in diagnosing and analyzing theanatomy of human body. The area of image segmentation has made an extensive ideology for classifyingbiomedical images. One such application for segmenting and classifying MRI brain images using fuzzy basedcontrol theory is proposed in this project. A special technique called FIS is used in brain image segmentation.The proposed FIS technique plays a promising part in identifying the tumor in brain image. In...

  11. Stereoselective synthesis and biological evaluation of syn-1-amino-3-[18F]fluorocyclobutyl-1-carboxylic acid as a potential positron emission tomography brain tumor imaging agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiping; Williams, Larry; Camp, Vernon M; Malveaux, Eugene; Olson, Jeffrey J; Goodman, Mark M

    2009-03-01

    Amino acid syn-1-amino-3-fluoro-cyclobutyl-1-carboxylic acid (syn-FACBC) 12, the isomer of anti-FACBC, has been selectively synthesized and [(18)F] radiofluorinated in 52% decay-corrected yield using no-carrier-added [(18)F]fluoride. The key step in the synthesis of the desired isomer involved stereoselective reduction using lithium alkylborohydride/zinc chloride, which improved the ratio of anti-alcohol to syn-alcohol from 17:83 to 97:3. syn-FACBC 12 entered rat 9L gliosarcoma cells primarily via L-type amino acid transport in vitro with high uptake of 16% injected dose per 5 x 10(5) cells. Biodistribution studies in rats with 9L gliosarcoma brain tumors demonstrated high tumor to brain ratio of 12:1 at 30 min post injection. In this model, amino acid syn-[(18)F]FACBC 12 is a promising metabolically based radiotracer for positron emission tomography brain tumor imaging.

  12. An attempt toward objective assessment of brain tumor vascularization using susceptibility weighted imaging and dedicated computer program – a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a novel MRI sequence which demonstrates the susceptibility differences between adjacent tissues and it is promising to be a sequence useful in the assessment of brain tumors vascularity. The aim of our study was to demonstrate usefulness of SWI in evaluation of intratumoral vessels in comparison to CET1 sequence in a standardized, objective manner. 10 patients with supratentorial brain tumors were included in the study. All of them underwent conventional MRI examination with a 1,5 T scanner. SWI sequence was additionally performed using the following parameters: TR 49 ms,TE 40 ms. We used authors’ personal computer software – Vessels View, to assess the vessels number. Comparison of SWI and CET1 sequences was performed using our program. Analysis of all 26 ROIs demonstrated predominance of SWI in the amount of white pixels (vessel cross-sectional) and a similar number of elongated structures (blood vessels). To conclude, the results of this study are encouraging; they confirm the added value of SWI as an appropriate and useful sequence in the process of evaluation of intratumoral vascularity. Using our program significantly improved visualization of blood vessels in cerebral tumors. The Vessel View application assists radiologists in demonstrating the vessels and facilitates distinguishing them from adjacent tissues in the image

  13. Classification of Medical Brain Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Haiwei(潘海为); Li Jianzhong; Zhang Wei

    2003-01-01

    Since brain tumors endanger people's living quality and even their lives, the accuracy of classification becomes more important. Conventional classifying techniques are used to deal with those datasets with characters and numbers. It is difficult, however, to apply them to datasets that include brain images and medical history (alphanumeric data), especially to guarantee the accuracy. For these datasets, this paper combines the knowledge of medical field and improves the traditional decision tree. The new classification algorithm with the direction of the medical knowledge not only adds the interaction with the doctors, but also enhances the quality of classification. The algorithm has been used on real brain CT images and a precious rule has been gained from the experiments. This paper shows that the algorithm works well for real CT data.

  14. Regional and voxel-wise comparisons of blood flow measurements between dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carissa M; Pope, Whitney B; Zaw, Taryar; Qiao, Joe; Naeini, Kourosh M; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Wang, J J; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the regional and voxel-wise correlation between dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with brain tumors. Thirty patients with histologically verified brain tumors were evaluated in the current study. DSC-MRI was performed by first using a preload dose of gadolinium contrast, then collecting a dynamic image acquisition during a bolus of contrast, followed by posthoc contrast agent leakage correction. Pseudocontinuous ASL was collected using 30 pairs of tag and control acquisition using a 3-dimensional gradient-echo spin-echo (GRASE) acquisition. All images were registered to a high-resolution anatomical atlas. Average CBF measurements within regions of contrast-enhancement and T2 hyperintensity were evaluated between the two modalities. Additionally, voxel-wise correlation between CBF measurements obtained with DSC and ASL were assessed. Results demonstrated a positive linear correlation between DSC and ASL measurements of CBF when regional average values were compared; however, a statistically significant voxel-wise correlation was only observed in around 30-40% of patients. These results suggest DSC and ASL may provide regionally similar, but spatially different measurements of CBF.

  15. Intraoperative MRI in pediatric brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) has emerged as an important tool in guiding the surgical management of children with brain tumors. Recent advances have allowed utilization of high field strength systems, including 3-tesla MRI, resulting in diagnostic-quality scans that can be performed while the child is on the operating table. By providing information about the possible presence of residual tumor, it allows the neurosurgeon to both identify and resect any remaining tumor that is thought to be safely accessible. By fusing the newly obtained images with the surgical guidance software, the images have the added value of aiding in navigation to any residual tumor. This is important because parenchyma often shifts during surgery. It also gives the neurosurgeon insight into whether any immediate postoperative complications have occurred. If any complications have occurred, the child is already in the operating room and precious minutes lost in transport and communications are saved. In this article we review the three main approaches to an iMRI system design. We discuss the possible roles for iMRI during intraoperative planning and provide guidance to help radiologists and neurosurgeons alike in the collaborative management of these children. (orig.)

  16. Intraoperative MRI in pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhri, Asim F. [Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Siddiqui, Adeel [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Semmes-Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); St. Jude Children' s Hospital, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) has emerged as an important tool in guiding the surgical management of children with brain tumors. Recent advances have allowed utilization of high field strength systems, including 3-tesla MRI, resulting in diagnostic-quality scans that can be performed while the child is on the operating table. By providing information about the possible presence of residual tumor, it allows the neurosurgeon to both identify and resect any remaining tumor that is thought to be safely accessible. By fusing the newly obtained images with the surgical guidance software, the images have the added value of aiding in navigation to any residual tumor. This is important because parenchyma often shifts during surgery. It also gives the neurosurgeon insight into whether any immediate postoperative complications have occurred. If any complications have occurred, the child is already in the operating room and precious minutes lost in transport and communications are saved. In this article we review the three main approaches to an iMRI system design. We discuss the possible roles for iMRI during intraoperative planning and provide guidance to help radiologists and neurosurgeons alike in the collaborative management of these children. (orig.)

  17. Gene therapy for brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, K; Engelhard, H H

    2000-09-01

    "Gene therapy" can be defined as the transfer of genetic material into a patient's cells for therapeutic purposes. To date, a diverse and creative assortment of treatment strategies utilizing gene therapy have been devised, including gene transfer for modulating the immune system, enzyme prodrug ("suicide gene") therapy, oncolytic therapy, replacement/therapeutic gene transfer, and antisense therapy. For malignant glioma, gene-directed prodrug therapy using the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene was the first gene therapy attempted clinically. A variety of different strategies have now been pursued experimentally and in clinical trials. Although, to date, gene therapy for brain tumors has been found to be reasonably safe, concerns still exist regarding issues related to viral delivery, transduction efficiency, potential pathologic response of the brain, and treatment efficacy. Improved viral vectors are being sought, and potential use of gene therapy in combination with other treatments is being investigated.

  18. Clinical experience with image-guided robotic radiosurgery (the Cyberknife) in the treatment of brain and spinal cord tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.D.; Murphy, M.; Geis, P.; Martin, D.P.; Hancock, S.L.; Doty, J.R.; Adler, J.R. Jr. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Medical Center

    1998-11-01

    The Cyberknife is an image-guided ``frameless`` dedicated radiosurgical device. This instrument has several distinct advantages over frame-based systems, including improved patient comfort, increased treatment degrees of freedom, and the potential to target extracranial lesions. Clinical results thus far with respect to the treatment of malignant intracranial tumors has been promising. Additionally, the Cyberknife will likely revolutionize the application of radiosurgery to extracranial sites. A description of the components, treatment planning, and clinical results of the Cyberknife will be reviewed. (author)

  19. Effect of α-Methyl versus α-Hydrogen Substitution on Brain Availability and Tumor Imaging Properties of Heptanoic [F-18]Fluoroalkyl Amino Acids for Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Ahlem; Alyami, Wadha; Li, Aixiao; Yuan, Liya; Rich, Keith; McConathy, Jonathan

    2016-04-14

    Two [(18)F]fluoroalkyl substituted amino acids differing only by the presence or absence of a methyl group on the α-carbon, (S)-2-amino-7-[(18)F]fluoro-2-methylheptanoic acid ((S)-[(18)F]FAMHep, (S)-[(18)F]14) and (S)-2-amino-7-[(18)F]fluoroheptanoic acid ((S)-[(18)F]FAHep, (S)-[(18)F]15), were developed for brain tumor imaging and compared to the well-established system L amino acid tracer, O-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine ([(18)F]FET), in the delayed brain tumor (DBT) mouse model of high-grade glioma. Cell uptake, biodistribution, and PET/CT imaging studies showed differences in amino acid transport of these tracer by DBT cells. Recognition of (S)-[(18)F]15 but not (S)-[(18)F]14 by system L amino acid transporters led to approximately 8-10-fold higher uptake of the α-hydrogen substituted analogue (S)-[(18)F]15 in normal brain. (S)-[(18)F]15 had imaging properties similar to those of (S)-[(18)F]FET in the DBT tumor model while (S)-[(18)F]14 afforded higher tumor to brain ratios due to much lower uptake by normal brain. These results have important implications for the future development of α-alkyl and α,α-dialkyl substituted amino acids for brain tumor imaging.

  20. Human brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just as there have been dramatic advances in the molecular biology of the human brain in recent years, there also have been remarkable advances in brain imaging. This paper reports on the development and broad application of microscopic imaging techniques which include the autoradiographic localization of receptors and the measurement of glucose utilization by autoradiography. These approaches provide great sensitivity and excellent anatomical resolution in exploring brain organization and function. The first noninvasive external imaging of receptor distributions in the living human brain was achieved by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. Developments, techniques and applications continue to progress. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is also becoming important. Its initial clinical applications were in examining the structure and anatomy of the brain. However, more recent uses, such as MRI spectroscopy, indicate the feasibility of exploring biochemical pathways in the brain, the metabolism of drugs in the brain, and also of examining some of these procedures at an anatomical resolution which is substantially greater than that obtainable by PET scanning. The issues will be discussed in greater detail

  1. Tumor hypoxia and microscopic diffusion capacity in brain tumors: A comparison of {sup 62}Cu-Diacetyl-Bis (N4-Methylthiosemicarbazone) PET/CT and diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino-Shishikura, Ayako; Tateishi, Ukihide; Shibata, Hirofumi; Yoneyama, Tomohiro; Nishii, Toshiaki; Torii, Ikuo; Inoue, Tomio [Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Tateishi, Kensuke; Ohtake, Makoto; Kawahara, Nobutaka [Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Department of Neurosurgery, Yokohama (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between tumor hypoxia and microscopic diffusion capacity in primary brain tumors using {sup 62}Cu-Diacetyl-Bis (N4-Methylthiosemicarbazone) ({sup 62}Cu-ATSM) PET/CT and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI). This study was approved by the institutional human research committee and was HIPAA compliant, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. {sup 62}Cu-ATSM PET/CT and DWI were performed in a total of 40 primary brain tumors of 34 patients with low grade glioma (LGG, n = 13), glioblastoma (GBM, n = 20), and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, n = 7). {sup 62}Cu-ATSM PET/CT parameters and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained by DWI were compared. High intensity signals by {sup 62}Cu-ATSM PET/CT and DWI in patients with GBM and PCNSL, and low intensity signals in LGG patients were observed. An inverse correlation was found between maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}) and minimum ADC (ADC{sub min}) (r = -0.583, p < 0.0001), and between tumor/brain ratio (T/B{sub ratio}) and ADC{sub min} for all tumors (r = -0.532, p < 0.0001). Both SUV{sub max} and T/B{sub ratio} in GBM were higher than LGG (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001), and those in PCNSL were also higher than GBM (p = 0.033 and p = 0.044). The ADC{sub min} was lower in GBM (p = 0.011) and PCNSL (p = 0.01) than in LGG, while no significant difference was found between GBM and PCNSL (p = 0.90). Tumor hypoxia assessed by {sup 62}Cu-ATSM PET/CT correlated with microscopic diffusion capacity obtained by DWI in brain tumors. Both {sup 62}Cu-ATSM PET/CT and DWI were considered feasible imaging methods for grading glioma. However, {sup 62}Cu-ATSM PET/CT provided additional diagnostic information to differentiate between GBM and PCNSL. (orig.)

  2. Brain Tumor Detection Based On Mathematical Analysis and Symmetry Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narkhede Sachin G.,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation some of the challenging issues on brain magnetic resonance (MR image tumor segmentation caused by the weak correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI intensity and anatomical meaning. With the objective of utilizing more meaningful information to improve brain tumor segmentation, an approach which employs bilateral symmetry information as an additional feature for segmentation is proposed. This is motivated by potential performance improvement in the general automatic brain tumor segmentation systems which are important for many medical and scientific applications. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI segmentation is a complex problem in the field of medical imaging despite various presented methods. MR image of human brain can be divided into several sub-regions especially soft tissues such as gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid. Although edge information is the main clue in image segmentation, it can’t get a better result in analysis the content of images without combining other information. Our goal is to detect the position and boundary of tumors automatically. Experiments were conducted on real pictures, and the results show that the algorithm is flexible and convenient.

  3. Brain Tumors and Neurosurgeon Neuroradiologist Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Jalal Shokouhi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nToday the modality of choice for brain tumors is MRI with and without GD. "nGD injection needs during to stage T1, before injection and after injection for image subtracts to see the enhancement degree, detecting crystallized calcification, colloid and fat material also methemoglubin inside the tumor. "n- In case of thin layer seeding, GD MRI could be positive but T2 and FLAIR images could be negative "no mass effect". "n- For meningiomas if you do not want to inject contrast media please request plain CT SCAN that is stronger than non-contrasted MRI but GD MRI is the choice and better than both. "n- For small or micro-vestibular schwannoma do not request CT please request MRI with GD. "n- In craniopharyngioma request non-contrast CT with combination of MRI with and without GD. "n- For micro-adenoma request dynamic MRI "better than Dynamic CT" "n- please do not use axial CT and non-contrasted coronal CT for micro-adenoma". "n- Few infiltrative non-enhancing tumors need serial MRI to be differentiated from CVA. "n- For differentiation of tumor recurrency from radiotherapy necrosis MRS is necessary. "nOther lecture notes will be discussed in the round table.  

  4. Multiscale CNNs for Brain Tumor Segmentation and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liya; Jia, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    Early brain tumor detection and diagnosis are critical to clinics. Thus segmentation of focused tumor area needs to be accurate, efficient, and robust. In this paper, we propose an automatic brain tumor segmentation method based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). Traditional CNNs focus only on local features and ignore global region features, which are both important for pixel classification and recognition. Besides, brain tumor can appear in any place of the brain and be any size and shape in patients. We design a three-stream framework named as multiscale CNNs which could automatically detect the optimum top-three scales of the image sizes and combine information from different scales of the regions around that pixel. Datasets provided by Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) organized by MICCAI 2013 are utilized for both training and testing. The designed multiscale CNNs framework also combines multimodal features from T1, T1-enhanced, T2, and FLAIR MRI images. By comparison with traditional CNNs and the best two methods in BRATS 2012 and 2013, our framework shows advances in brain tumor segmentation accuracy and robustness. PMID:27069501

  5. Research of the multimodal brain-tumor segmentation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yisu; Chen, Wufan

    2015-12-01

    It is well-known that the number of clusters is one of the most important parameters for automatic segmentation. However, it is difficult to define owing to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue among different patients and the ambiguous boundaries of lesions. In this study, a nonparametric mixture of Dirichlet process (MDP) model is applied to segment the tumor images, and the MDP segmentation can be performed without the initialization of the number of clusters. A new nonparametric segmentation algorithm combined with anisotropic diffusion and a Markov random field (MRF) smooth constraint is proposed in this study. Besides the segmentation of single modal brain tumor images, we developed the algorithm to segment multimodal brain tumor images by the magnetic resonance (MR) multimodal features and obtain the active tumor and edema in the same time. The proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared with other approaches. The accuracy and computation time of our algorithm demonstrates very impressive performance.

  6. Functional Brain Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vessal

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: The historical evolution of concepts of the mind has had a tremendous impact on human civilization. Aside from Smith’s surgical papyrus, there exists practically no documentation down to the era of Hippocrates. While in Corpus, the seat of all sensations is put in the brain, there is an amazing regression, for many centuries thereafter notably influenced by Aristotle, to displace it to the heart. This erroneous diversion promulgated in De Anima with minor corrections by Galen, has per-petuated to our time when we say, for example, that we love something with our very hearts or “knowing by heart” when we mean to memorize something. Avicenna challenged many of Aristotle’s ideas in El-monnafs (psychology section of Al Shafa, paving the road for the later European Renaissance. Cartesian choice of pineal body as the seat of soul in the first half of the 7th century was a fundamental departure from brain-soul dichotomy. It was followed by Gall’s pseudo-science, phrenology, as the first attempt of brain mapping in ascribing “mental faculties” to the speculative “organs” of the brain. Brain mapping through Functional Brain Imaging has flourished ex-tensively in the past decades -starting from PET with later substitution by fMRI- as robust tools for interro-gating mysteries of the brain. With a surprising pace of development, Functional Brain Imaging heralds a welcome adjunct to the science of radiology in ex-ploring mind and human behavior. Given the multi-tude of appropriate MRI machines operating across the country, attention to this aspect of imaging can invigorate research in radiology and boost generation of knowledge in this rapidly growing field. Recent advances in MRI fast imaging, fMRI, as well as clini-cal and spectroscopic imaging with present clinical application and future trends are discussed.

  7. Cancer stem cells and brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Castillo, Ana; Aguilar Morante, Diana; Morales-García, José A.; Dorado, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Besides the role of normal stem cells in organogenesis, cancer stem cells are thought to be crucial for tumorigenesis. Most current research on human tumors is focused on molecular and cellular analysis of the bulk tumor mass. However, evidence in leukemia and, more recently, in solid tumors suggests that the tumor cell population is heterogeneous. In recent years, several groups have described the existence of a cancer stem cell population in different brain tumors. These neural cancer stem ...

  8. Nonlinear microscopy, infrared, and Raman microspectroscopy for brain tumor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tobias; Bergner, Norbert; Bielecki, Christiane; Krafft, Christoph; Akimov, Denis; Romeike, Bernd F. M.; Reichart, Rupert; Kalff, Rolf; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

    2011-02-01

    Contemporary brain tumor research focuses on two challenges: First, tumor typing and grading by analyzing excised tissue is of utmost importance for choosing a therapy. Second, for prognostication the tumor has to be removed as completely as possible. Nowadays, histopathology of excised tissue using haematoxylin-eosine staining is the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis of surgical pathology specimens. However, it is neither applicable in vivo, nor does it allow for precise tumor typing in those cases when only nonrepresentative specimens are procured. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy allow for very precise cancer analysis due to their molecular specificity, while nonlinear microscopy is a suitable tool for rapid imaging of large tissue sections. Here, unstained samples from the brain of a domestic pig have been investigated by a multimodal nonlinear imaging approach combining coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, second harmonic generation, and two photon excited fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, a brain tumor specimen was additionally analyzed by linear Raman and Fourier transform infrared imaging for a detailed assessment of the tissue types that is required for classification and to validate the multimodal imaging approach. Hence label-free vibrational microspectroscopic imaging is a promising tool for fast and precise in vivo diagnostics of brain tumors.

  9. Radiosensitized treatment of malignant brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloznelyte-Plesniene, Laima

    2003-12-01

    Around 12,000 deaths from glioblastoma occurs within the European Community annually. At present, the best available treatment for malignant brain tumors results in a median survival of patients of 15 months despite surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to review our results of radiosensitized treatment of malignant brain tumors.

  10. Bleomycin treatment of brain tumors: an evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnert, Mette; Gehl, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Bleomycin has been used in the treatment of brain tumors for over 30 years. Currently, we are evaluating electrochemotherapy (the use of electric pulses to enhance uptake of bleomycin) for patients with secondary brain tumors. We, therefore, reviewed the literature with specific reference...... to the tolerability and toxicity of bleomycin. Using the keywords 'brain' and 'bleomycin', a database search without date restriction was performed and over 500 articles were found. Twenty-five articles were used for this study based on relevance determined by: (i) clinical studies, (ii) use of bleomycin, and (iii......) direct injection into brain tissue or cysts. There were two main indications for the use of bleomycin directly into the brain: (i) cystic tumors in the form of craniopharyngiomas and (ii) solid brain tumors such as glioblastomas and astrocytomas. The most frequent adverse effects reported were transient...

  11. BRAIN TUMOR CLASSIFICATION USING NEURAL NETWORK BASED METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyani A. Bhawar*, Prof. Nitin K. Bhil

    2016-01-01

    MRI (Magnetic resonance Imaging) brain neoplasm pictures Classification may be a troublesome tasks due to the variance and complexity of tumors. This paper presents two Neural Network techniques for the classification of the magnetic resonance human brain images. The proposed Neural Network technique consists of 3 stages, namely, feature extraction, dimensionality reduction, and classification. In the first stage, we have obtained the options connected with tomography pictures victimization d...

  12. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  13. Cortical Plasticity in the Setting of Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisicaro, Ryan A; Jost, Ethan; Shaw, Katharina; Brennan, Nicole Petrovich; Peck, Kyung K; Holodny, Andrei I

    2016-02-01

    Cortical reorganization of function due to the growth of an adjacent brain tumor has clearly been demonstrated in a number of surgically proven cases. Such cases demonstrate the unmistakable implications for the neurosurgical treatment of brain tumors, as the cortical function may not reside where one may initially suspect based solely on the anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Consequently, preoperative localization of eloquent areas adjacent to a brain tumor is necessary, as this may demonstrate unexpected organization, which may affect the neurosurgical approach to the lesion. However, in interpreting functional MRI studies, the interpreting physician must be cognizant of artifacts, which may limit the accuracy of functional MRI in the setting of brain tumors. PMID:26848558

  14. Brain tumors in patients primarly treated psychiatrically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović-Ristić Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psychiatric symptoms are not rare manifestations of brain tumors. Brain tumors presented by symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, focal neurological signs, or convulsions are usually first seen by the neurologist or less frequently by the neurosurgeon in routine diagnostic procedures. On the other hand, when psychiatric symptoms are the first manifestation in “neurologically silent” brain tumors, the patients are sent to the psychiatrist for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms and brain tumors are left misdiagnosed for a long period of time. Case Report. We presented three patients with the diagnosed brain tumor where psychiatrist had been the first specialist to be consulted. In all three cases neurological examination was generally unremarkable with no focal signs or features of raised intracranial pressure. CT scan demonstrated right insular tumor in a female patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; right parietal temporal tumor in a patient with delusions and depression and left frontal tumor in a patient with history of alcohol dependency. Conclusion. Psychiatric symptoms/disorders in patients with brain tumors are not specific enough and can have the same clinical presentation as the genuine psychiatric disorder. Therefore, we emphasize the consideration of neuroimaging in patients with abrupt beginning of psychiatric symptoms, in those with a change in mental status, or when headaches suddenly appear or in cases of treatment resistant psychiatric disorders regardless the lack of neurological symptoms.

  15. DWI诊断小儿幕下脑肿瘤%Diffusion weighted imaging in diagnosis of infratentorial brain tumors in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭雪华; 何玲; 黄开平; 蔡金华; 刘波

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and ADC value in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of pediatric infratentorial brain tumors. Methods Fifty-eight patients with pediatric infratentorial brain tumors confirmed pathologically underwent conventional MR, contrast-enhanced MR and DWI, and the ADC value was calculated in the solid part of tumor. Results Among all 58 pediatric infratentorial brain tumors, there were 25 cases of medulloblastomas with ADC mean (6. 73± 1.55) × 10-4 mm2/s, 24 cases of astrocytomas ( Ⅰ - Ⅱ grade) with ADC mean (14.80±2. 61) × 10-4 mm2/s, 8 cases of ependymoma with ADC mean (11. 08±1.60) × 10-4 mm2/s, and 1 case of oligodendrocytes glioma with ADC (15. 10±2.73)× 10-4 mm2/s. F-test and t-test were used to analyze the ADC values of the first three kinds of tumors. Differences of ADC values among these three different types of tumors were statistically significant (P<0. 01). Conclusion The assessment of the DWI and ADC values in the solid part of pediatric infratentorial brain tumor provides a simple and reliable method for preoperative diagnosis and differential diagnosis of posterior fossa tumors,especially in differential diagnosis of medulloblastoma and astrocytoma.%目的 评价扩散加权成像(DWI)和表观扩散系数(ADC)值诊断及鉴别诊断小儿幕下脑肿瘤的价值.方法 58例经病理证实的幕下脑肿瘤患儿均接受常规MR平扫、增强和DWI扫描,并测量实质病变的ADC值.结果 髓母细胞瘤25例,ADC均值(6.73±1.55)×10-4 mm2/s;星形细胞瘤(Ⅰ~Ⅱ级)24例,ADC均值(14.80±2.61)×10-4 mm2/s;室管膜瘤8例,ADC均值(11.08±1.60)×10-4 mm2/s;少突胶质瘤1例,ADC均值(15.10±2.73)×10-4 mm2/s.对前三种肿瘤实质部分ADC值进行方差分析(F检验)和t检验,其ADC值差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 DWI及ADC值可评估小儿幕下脑肿瘤实质病变,是术前诊断及鉴别诊断后颅窝肿瘤的简单可靠的检查方

  16. MRI brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are expected to be allowed to request MRI scans for adults for selected clinically appropriate indications from November 2013 as part of the expansion of Medicare-funded MRI services announced by the Federal Government in 2011. This article aims to give a brief overview of MRI brain imaging relevant to GPs, which will facilitate explanation of scan findings and management planning with their patients. Basic imaging techniques, common findings and terminology are presented using some illustrative case examples.

  17. Analysis of the Setup Uncertainty and Margin of the Daily ExacTrac 6D Image Guide System for Patients with Brain Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se An Oh

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the setup uncertainties for brain sites when using BrainLAB's ExacTrac X-ray 6D system for daily pretreatment to determine the optimal planning target volume (PTV margin. Between August 2012 and April 2015, 28 patients with brain tumors were treated by daily image-guided radiotherapy using the BrainLAB ExacTrac 6D image guidance system of the Novalis-Tx linear accelerator. DUONTM (Orfit Industries, Wijnegem, Belgium masks were used to fix the head. The radiotherapy was fractionated into 27-33 treatments. In total, 844 image verifications were performed for 28 patients and used for the analysis. The setup corrections along with the systematic and random errors were analyzed for six degrees of freedom in the translational (lateral, longitudinal, and vertical and rotational (pitch, roll, and yaw dimensions. Optimal PTV margins were calculated based on van Herk et al.'s [margin recipe = 2.5∑ + 0.7σ - 3 mm] and Stroom et al.'s [margin recipe = 2∑ + 0.7σ] formulas. The systematic errors (∑ were 0.72, 1.57, and 0.97 mm in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical translational dimensions, respectively, and 0.72°, 0.87°, and 0.83° in the pitch, roll, and yaw rotational dimensions, respectively. The random errors (σ were 0.31, 0.46, and 0.54 mm in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical rotational dimensions, respectively, and 0.28°, 0.24°, and 0.31° in the pitch, roll, and yaw rotational dimensions, respectively. According to van Herk et al.'s and Stroom et al.'s recipes, the recommended lateral PTV margins were 0.97 and 1.66 mm, respectively; the longitudinal margins were 1.26 and 3.47 mm, respectively; and the vertical margins were 0.21 and 2.31 mm, respectively. Therefore, daily setup verifications using the BrainLAB ExacTrac 6D image guide system are very useful for evaluating the setup uncertainties and determining the setup margin.

  18. Analysis of the Setup Uncertainty and Margin of the Daily ExacTrac 6D Image Guide System for Patients with Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se An; Yea, Ji Woon; Kang, Min Kyu; Park, Jae Won; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the setup uncertainties for brain sites when using BrainLAB's ExacTrac X-ray 6D system for daily pretreatment to determine the optimal planning target volume (PTV) margin. Between August 2012 and April 2015, 28 patients with brain tumors were treated by daily image-guided radiotherapy using the BrainLAB ExacTrac 6D image guidance system of the Novalis-Tx linear accelerator. DUONTM (Orfit Industries, Wijnegem, Belgium) masks were used to fix the head. The radiotherapy was fractionated into 27-33 treatments. In total, 844 image verifications were performed for 28 patients and used for the analysis. The setup corrections along with the systematic and random errors were analyzed for six degrees of freedom in the translational (lateral, longitudinal, and vertical) and rotational (pitch, roll, and yaw) dimensions. Optimal PTV margins were calculated based on van Herk et al.'s [margin recipe = 2.5∑ + 0.7σ - 3 mm] and Stroom et al.'s [margin recipe = 2∑ + 0.7σ] formulas. The systematic errors (∑) were 0.72, 1.57, and 0.97 mm in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical translational dimensions, respectively, and 0.72°, 0.87°, and 0.83° in the pitch, roll, and yaw rotational dimensions, respectively. The random errors (σ) were 0.31, 0.46, and 0.54 mm in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical rotational dimensions, respectively, and 0.28°, 0.24°, and 0.31° in the pitch, roll, and yaw rotational dimensions, respectively. According to van Herk et al.'s and Stroom et al.'s recipes, the recommended lateral PTV margins were 0.97 and 1.66 mm, respectively; the longitudinal margins were 1.26 and 3.47 mm, respectively; and the vertical margins were 0.21 and 2.31 mm, respectively. Therefore, daily setup verifications using the BrainLAB ExacTrac 6D image guide system are very useful for evaluating the setup uncertainties and determining the setup margin. PMID:27019082

  19. Brain tumors and synchrotron radiation: new methods for mini-beams radiation therapy and treatment follow-up by functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative method of synchrotron radiation therapy, called mini-beams, was proposed by A. Dilmanian et al. in 2006. Mini-beams consists in tumor irradiation with monochromatic sub-millimetric x-ray beams spatially fractionated produced by a synchrotron source. To obtain a homogeneous dose in the target volume, an interleaving is realized using two orthogonal incidences. Adjacent healthy tissue is only partially irradiated by mini-beams, the areas between the beams only receive scattered radiation and therefore the energy deposited is 10 to 15 times lower than on one mini-beam axis, leading to a sparing effect of healthy tissue even when a high dose is deposited in the target volume. The thesis project is the development of this experimental method of monochromatic mini-beams, which involves the control of the irradiation geometry, the control of dosimetry and its modeling by Monte Carlo simulations. To evaluate the method, preclinical experiments on models of brain tumors implanted in rats (F98) are performed. Follow-up by anatomical and functional imaging is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. Functional imaging of cerebral perfusion (volume and cerebral blood flow, mean transit time of heavy elements) appears to be associated in the literature as a relevant method for monitoring prognostic. The key parameters of the cerebral vasculature are mainly studied in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), because of the harmlessness of this imaging modality. The relation between MRI signal and contrast agent concentration is very complex and no quantitative relationship is well known. Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography (SRCT) is an imaging modality with performances to measure absolute contrast agent concentration very close to the theoretical limits and can be used as gold-standard. The used pharmacokinetic models need as input parameters a contrast agent concentration versus time. A comparison of perfusion measurements between MRI and SRCT

  20. Evolution of Brain Tumor and Stability of Geometric Invariants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tawbe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to reconstruct and to calculate geometric invariants on brain tumors. The geometric invariants considered in the paper are the volume, the area, the discrete Gauss curvature, and the discrete mean curvature. The volume of a tumor is an important aspect that helps doctors to make a medical diagnosis. And as doctors seek a stable calculation, we propose to prove the stability of some invariants. Finally, we study the evolution of brain tumor as a function of time in two or three years depending on patients with MR images every three or six months.

  1. Congenital Brain Tumors, a Series of Seven Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Nejat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Congenital brain tumors are very rare. We review these tumors in patients younger than 2 months diagnosed in our Department. Material & Methods: Seven congenital brain tumors were diagnosed during five years. Clinical and radiological findings and prognosis are analyzed. Findings: The study included 5 female and two male infants. Two cases were diagnosed antenatally by means of ultrasonography. All patients presented with intracranial hypertension. The tumor was non-homogenous with cystic and solid components in all neuroimaging, except for the case with choroid plexus papilloma. Hydrocephalus was evident in all of them. Most findings were infra-tentorial lesions. There were three teratomas, one primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor, one ependymoblastoma and one choroid plexus papilloma. Six patients were operated on, with one intra-operative death. Two passed away postoperatively with aspiration pneumonia. One patient died due to complications of chemotherapy and another one due to tumor recurrence one year after surgery. Only the patient with choroid plexus papilloma is alive after 2 years. Conclusion: Today, the availability of noninvasive imaging procedures such as computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging has improved the diagnosis of congenital brain tumors. Inspite of development in prenatal diagnosis, appropriate pre and post operative management, the mortality associated with these tumors still remains high. The final prognosis in these patients is still discouraging despite early surgery and operative and anesthetic improvements. Choroid plexus papilloma accompanies the best prognosis, whereas teratoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors have the worst prognosis.

  2. 3-D in vivo brain tumor geometry study by scaling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Hoyos, F.; Martín-Landrove, M.

    2012-02-01

    A new method, based on scaling analysis, is used to calculate fractal dimension and local roughness exponents to characterize in vivo 3-D tumor growth in the brain. Image acquisition was made according to the standard protocol used for brain radiotherapy and radiosurgery, i.e., axial, coronal and sagittal magnetic resonance T1-weighted images, and comprising the brain volume for image registration. Image segmentation was performed by the application of the k-means procedure upon contrasted images. We analyzed glioblastomas, astrocytomas, metastases and benign brain tumors. The results show significant variations of the parameters depending on the tumor stage and histological origin.

  3. Electromagnetic brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present imaging methods of cerebral neuro-activity like brain functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) secondarily measure only average activities within a time of the second-order (low time-resolution). In contrast, the electromagnetic brain imaging (EMBI) directly measures the faint magnetic field (10-12-10-13 T) yielded by the cerebral activity with use of multiple arrayed sensors equipped on the head surface within a time of sub-millisecond order (high time-resolution). The sensor array technology to find the signal source from the measured data is common in wide areas like signal procession for radar, sonar, and epicenter detection by seismic wave. For estimating and reconstructing the active region in the brain in EMBI, the efficient method must be developed and this paper describes the direct and inverse problems concerned in signal and image processions of EMBI. The direct problem involves the cerebral magnetic field/lead field matrix and inverse problem for reconstruction of signal source, the MUSIC (multiple signal classification) algorithm, GLRT (generalized likelihood ratio test) scan, and adaptive beamformer. As an example, given are results of magnetic intensity changes (unit, fT) in the somatosensory cortex vs time (msec) measured by 160 sensors and of images reconstructed from EMBI and MRI during electric muscle afferent input from the hand. The real-time imaging is thus possible with EMBI and extremely, the EMBI image, the real-time cerebral signals, can inversely operate a machine, of which application directs toward the brain/machine interface development. (R.T.)

  4. The impact of dietary isoflavonoids on malignant brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehm, Tina; Fan, Zheng; Weiss, Ruth; Schwarz, Marc; Engelhorn, Tobias; Hore, Nirjhar; Doerfler, Arnd; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyüpoglu, Iiker Y; Savaskan, Nic E

    2014-08-01

    Poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options render malignant brain tumors one of the most devastating diseases in clinical medicine. Current treatment strategies attempt to expand the therapeutic repertoire through the use of multimodal treatment regimens. It is here that dietary fibers have been recently recognized as a supportive natural therapy in augmenting the body's response to tumor growth. Here, we investigated the impact of isoflavonoids on primary brain tumor cells. First, we treated glioma cell lines and primary astrocytes with various isoflavonoids and phytoestrogens. Cell viability in a dose-dependent manner was measured for biochanin A (BCA), genistein (GST), and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). Dose-response action for the different isoflavonoids showed that BCA is highly effective on glioma cells and nontoxic for normal differentiated brain tissues. We further investigated BCA in ex vivo and in vivo experimentations. Organotypic brain slice cultures were performed and treated with BCA. For in vivo experiments, BCA was intraperitoneal injected in tumor-implanted Fisher rats. Tumor size and edema were measured and quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In vascular organotypic glioma brain slice cultures (VOGIM) we found that BCA operates antiangiogenic and neuroprotective. In vivo MRI scans demonstrated that administered BCA as a monotherapy was effective in reducing significantly tumor-induced brain edema and showed a trend for prolonged survival. Our results revealed that dietary isoflavonoids, in particular BCA, execute toxicity toward glioma cells, antiangiogenic, and coevally neuroprotective properties, and therefore augment the range of state-of-the-art multimodal treatment approach. PMID:24898306

  5. Cognitive deficits in patients with brain tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Chao; BAO Wei-min; YANG Bo-jie; XIE Rong; CAO Xiao-yun; LUAN Shi-hai; MAO Ying

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the present status and progress of clinical research on the cognitive effects caused by different types of brain tumors and common treatments.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed articles published in English from 1990 to Febuary 2012.Research terms were "cognitive deficits" or "cognitive dysfunction".Study selection Articals including any information about brain tumor related cognitive deficits were selected.Results It is widely accepted that brain tumors and related treatments can impair cognitive function across manydomains,and can impact on patients' quality of life.Tumor localization,lateralization,surgery,drugs,radiotherapy and chemotherapy are all thought to be important factors in this process.However,some conflicting findings regarding brain tumor-related cognitive deficits have been reported.It can be difficult to determine the mechanism of these treatments,such as chemotherapy,antibiotics,antiepileptics,and steroids.Future research is needed to clarify these potential treatment effects.Conclusions Cognitive function is important for patients with brain tumor.Much more focus has been paid on this field.It should be regarded as an important prognostic index for the patients with brain tumor,and neuropsychological tests should be used in regular examinations.

  6. Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008479 Preliminary study of MR elastography in brain tumors. XU Lei(徐磊), et al.Neurosci Imaging Center, Beijing Tiantan Hosp, Capital Med Univ, Beijing 100050.Chin J Radiol 2008;42(6):605-608. Objective To investigate the potential values of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for evaluating the brain tumor consistency in vivo. Methods Fourteen patients with known solid brain tumor (5 male, 9 female; age range: 16-63 years)

  7. Tumor Extension in High-Grade Gliomas Assessed with Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Values and Lesion-to-Brain Ratios of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Fractional Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westen, D. van; Laett, J.; Englund, E.; Brockstedt, S.; Larsson, E.M. [Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Depts. of Radiology, of Medical Radiation Physics and of Pathology and Cytology

    2006-04-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) can distinguish tumor-infiltrated edema in gliomas from pure edema in meningiomas and metastases. Material and Methods: Thirty patients were studied: 18 WHO grade III or IV gliomas, 7 meningiomas, and 5 metastatic lesions. ADC and FA were determined from ROIs placed in peritumoral areas with T2-signal changes, adjacent normal appearing white matter (NAWM), and corresponding areas in the contralateral healthy brain. Values and lesion-to-brain ratios from gliomas were compared to those from meningiomas and metastases. Results: Values and lesion-to-brain ratios of ADC and FA in peritumoral areas with T2-signal changes did not differ between gliomas, meningiomas, and metastases (P = 0.40, P = 0.40, P = 0.61, P 0.34). Values of ADC and FA and the lesion-to-brain ratio of FA in the adjacent NAWM did not differ between tumor types (P = 0.74, P = 0.25, and P = 0.31). The lesion-to-brain ratio of ADC in the adjacent NAWM was higher in gliomas than in meningiomas and metastases (P = 0.004), but overlapped between tumor types. Conclusion: Values and lesion-to-brain ratios of ADC and FA in areas with T2-signal changes surrounding intracranial tumors and adjacent NAWM were not helpful for distinguishing pure edema from tumor-infiltrated edema when data from gliomas, meningiomas, and metastases were compared.

  8. Brain imaging and autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilbovicius, M. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM CEA 0205, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  9. Brain imaging and autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  10. Imaging of soft tissue tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Einarsdóttir, Hildur

    2003-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this project on soft tissue tumors, was to evaluate existing imaging methods and test new Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequences for diagnosis and assessment of cytotoxic therapy and to relate the imaging studies to cytology to explore the limitations of each procedure. Patients and method The studies were based on patients with a soft tissue lesion diagnosed and treated at the Orthopedic Tumor Service at the Karolinska Hospital 1990-2003. In 17...

  11. Similarity on neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in transgenic brain tumor mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Guanqun; Li, Qingquan; Peng, Gang; Ma, Jun; Fan, Hongwei; Li, Yingbin

    2013-01-01

    Although it is believed that glioma is derived from brain tumor stem cells, the source and molecular signal pathways of these cells are still unclear. In this study, we used stable doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse brain tumor models (c-myc+/SV40Tag+/Tet-on+) to explore the malignant trans-formation potential of neural stem cells by observing the differences of neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in the tumor models. Results showed that chromosome instability occurred in brain t...

  12. Imaging tumors of the patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadei, R., E-mail: roberto.casadei@ior.it [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Kreshak, J., E-mail: j.kreshak@yahoo.com [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Rinaldi, R. [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, E., E-mail: eugenio.rimondi@ior.it [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Bianchi, G., E-mail: giuseppe.bianchi@ior.it [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Alberghini, M., E-mail: marco.alberghini@ior.it [Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Ruggieri, P. [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Vanel, D., E-mail: daniel.vanel@ior.it [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Background: Patellar tumors are rare; only a few series have been described in the literature and radiographic diagnosis can be challenging. We reviewed all patellar tumors at one institution and reviewed the literature. Materials and methods: In an evaluation of the database at one institution from 1916 to 2009, 23,000 bone tumors were found. Of these, 41 involved the patella. All had imaging studies and microscopic diagnostic confirmation. All medical records, imaging studies, and pathology were reviewed. Results: There were 15 females and 26 males, ranging from 8 to 68 years old (average 30). There were 30 benign tumors; eight giant cell tumors, eight chondroblastomas, seven osteoid osteomas, two aneurysmal bone cysts, two ganglions, one each of chondroma, exostosis, and hemangioma. There were 11 malignant tumors: five hemangioendotheliomas, three metastases, one lymphoma, one plasmacytoma, and one angiosarcoma. Conclusion: Patellar tumors are rare and usually benign. As the patella is an apophysis, the most frequent lesions are giant cell tumor in the adult and chondroblastoma in children. Osteoid osteomas were frequent in our series and easily diagnosed. Metastases are the most frequent malignant diagnoses in the literature; in our series malignant vascular tumors were more common. These lesions are often easily analyzed on radiographs. CT and MR define better the cortex, soft tissue extension, and fluid levels. This study presents the imaging patterns of the more common patellar tumors in order to help the radiologist when confronted with a lesion in this location.

  13. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aghighi

    Full Text Available Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO are promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. USPIO mediated proton relaxation rate enhancement is strongly dependent on compartmentalization of the agent and can vary depending on their intracellular or extracellular location in the tumor microenvironment. We compared the T1- and T2-enhancement pattern of intracellular and extracellular USPIO in mouse models of cancer and pilot data from patients. A better understanding of these MR signal effects will enable non-invasive characterizations of the composition of the tumor microenvironment.Six 4T1 and six MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors were grown in mice and imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. R1 relaxation rates were calculated for different tumor types and different tumor areas and compared with histology. The transendothelial leakage rate of ferumoxytol was obtained by our measured relaxivity of ferumoxytol and compared between different tumor types, using a t-test. Additionally, 3 patients with malignant sarcomas were imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. T1- and T2-enhancement patterns were compared with histopathology in a descriptive manner as a proof of concept for clinical translation of our observations.4T1 tumors showed central areas of high signal on T1 and low signal on T2 weighted MR images, which corresponded to extracellular nanoparticles in a necrotic core on histopathology. MMTV-PyMT tumors showed little change on T1 but decreased signal on T2 weighted images, which correlated to compartmentalized nanoparticles in tumor associated macrophages. Only 4T1 tumors demonstrated significantly increased R1 relaxation rates of the tumor core compared to the tumor periphery (p<0.001. Transendothelial USPIO leakage was significantly higher for 4T1 tumors (3.4±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100cm3 compared to MMTV-PyMT tumors (1.0±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100 cm3. Likewise, ferumoxytol imaging in patients showed similar findings with

  14. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Kou, Zhifeng; Iraji, Armin

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy; however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrated both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. ...

  15. Oncogenic extracellular vesicles in brain tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Asti, Esterina; Garnier, Delphine; Lee, Tae H; Montermini, Laura; Meehan, Brian; Rak, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    The brain is a frequent site of neoplastic growth, including both primary and metastatic tumors. The clinical intractability of many brain tumors and their distinct biology are implicitly linked to the unique microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS) and cellular interactions within. Among the most intriguing forms of cellular interactions is that mediated by membrane-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Their biogenesis (vesiculation) and uptake by recipient cells serves as a unique mechanism of intercellular trafficking of complex biological messages including the exchange of molecules that cannot be released through classical secretory pathways, or that are prone to extracellular degradation. Tumor cells produce EVs containing molecular effectors of several cancer-related processes such as growth, invasion, drug resistance, angiogenesis, and coagulopathy. Notably, tumor-derived EVs (oncosomes) also contain oncogenic proteins, transcripts, DNA, and microRNA (miR). Uptake of this material may change properties of the recipient cells and impact the tumor microenvironment. Examples of transformation-related molecules found in the cargo of tumor-derived EVs include the oncogenic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII), tumor suppressors (PTEN), and oncomirs (miR-520g). It is postulated that EVs circulating in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of brain tumor patients may be used to decipher molecular features (mutations) of the underlying malignancy, reflect responses to therapy, or molecular subtypes of primary brain tumors [e.g., glioma or medulloblastoma (MB)]. It is possible that metastases to the brain may also emit EVs with clinically relevant oncogenic signatures. Thus, EVs emerge as a novel and functionally important vehicle of intercellular communication that can mediate multiple biological effects. In addition, they provide a unique platform to develop molecular biomarkers in brain malignancies. PMID:22934045

  16. Similarity on neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in transgenic brain tumor mouse models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanqun Qiao; Qingquan Li; Gang Peng; Jun Ma; Hongwei Fan; Yingbin Li

    2013-01-01

    Although it is believed that glioma is derived from brain tumor stem cells, the source and molecular signal pathways of these cells are stil unclear. In this study, we used stable doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse brain tumor models (c-myc+/SV40Tag+/Tet-on+) to explore the malignant trans-formation potential of neural stem cells by observing the differences of neural stem cel s and brain tumor stem cells in the tumor models. Results showed that chromosome instability occurred in brain tumor stem cells. The numbers of cytolysosomes and autophagosomes in brain tumor stem cells and induced neural stem cel s were lower and the proliferative activity was obviously stronger than that in normal neural stem cells. Normal neural stem cells could differentiate into glial fibril ary acidic protein-positive and microtubule associated protein-2-positive cells, which were also negative for nestin. However, glial fibril ary acidic protein/nestin, microtubule associated protein-2/nestin, and glial fibril ary acidic protein/microtubule associated protein-2 double-positive cells were found in induced neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cel s. Results indicate that induced neural stem cells are similar to brain tumor stem cells, and are possibly the source of brain tumor stem cells.

  17. Tumors of the corpus callosum: imaging diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the imaging features of tumors in the corpus callosum. Methods: Different imaging data of 25 tumors in the corpus callosum were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Of the 25 cases, 2 cases were anaplastic astrocytomas, 7 cases were glioblastomas, 10 cases were malignant lymphomas, 1 case for each in the following tumors: low grade astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma, lipoma, and metastatic tumor. The lesion's size varied from 7 cm to 0.5 cm. These lesions were usually iso-or hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyper-in- tense on T1-weighted images with focal necrosis, and showed ring-like or 'butterfly sign' enhancement after administration of contract medium. Lipoma showed hypodensity on CT with attenuation value of -85 HU. Glioblastomas and malignant lymphomas usually infiltrated into cerebral ventricles and brain parenchyma. Conclusions: Tumors of the corpus callosum have characteristic imaging features. MRI exam before surgery is helpful for the surgical excision. (authors)

  18. Recent developments in brain tumor predisposing syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Gunnar; Andersson, Ulrika; Melin, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    The etiologies of brain tumors are in the most cases unknown, but improvements in genetics and DNA screening have helped to identify a wide range of brain tumor predisposition disorders. In this review we are discussing some of the most common predisposition disorders, namely: neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2, schwannomatosis, rhabdoid tumor predisposition disorder, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin), tuberous sclerosis complex, von Hippel-Lindau, Li-Fraumeni and Turcot syndromes. Recent findings from the GLIOGENE collaboration and the newly identified glioma causing gene POT1, will also be discussed. Genetics. We will describe these disorders from a genetic and clinical standpoint, focusing on the difference in clinical symptoms depending on the underlying gene or germline mutation. Central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Most of these disorders predispose the carriers to a wide range of symptoms. Herein, we will focus particularly on tumors affecting the CNS and discuss improvements of targeted therapy for the particular disorders. PMID:26634384

  19. (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/Computed Tomography for Primary Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen Segtnan, Eivind; Hess, Søren; Grupe, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Structural imaging with computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging is the mainstay in primary diagnosis of primary brain tumors, but these modalities depend on morphologic appearance and an intact blood-brain barrier, and important aspects of tumor biology are not addressed. Such issues may...... be alleviated by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and FDG-PET/CT imaging, which may provide clinically important information with regard to primary differentiation between tumor types, initial staging and risk stratification, therapy planning, response evaluation, and recurrence detection. This article...... describes some of the potential contemporary applications of FDG and PET in primary brain tumors....

  20. The therapy of infantile malignant brain tumors: current status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalifa, Chantal; Grill, Jacques

    2005-12-01

    Malignant brain tumors are not uncommon in infants as their occurrence before the age of three represents 20-25% of all malignant brain tumors in childhood [1]. Genetic predisposition to infantile malignant brain tumors are known in Gorlin syndrome for example who present with desmoplastic medulloblastoma in about 5% of the affected patients. In addition, sequelae from tumor and its treatment are more severe at this age [2]. Thus, malignant brain tumors represent a true therapeutic challenge in neuro-oncology. Before the era of modern imaging and modern neurosurgery these malignant brain tumors were misdiagnosed or could not benefit of the surgical procedures as well as older children because of increased risks in this age group. Since the end of the 80s, noninvasive imaging procedures produce accurate diagnosis of brain tumors and improvement in neurosurgery, neuroanesthesia and perioperative intensive care permit safe tumor resections or at least biopsies. Consequently, the pediatric oncologists are more often confronted with very young children who need a complementary treatment. Before the development of specific approaches for this age group, these children received the same kind of treatment than the older children did, but their survival and quality of life were significantly worse. The reasons of these poor results were probably due in part to the fear of late effects induced by radiation therapy, leading to decrease the necessary doses of irradiation which increased treatment failures without avoiding treatment related complications [3]. At the end of the 80s, pilot studies were performed using postoperative chemotherapy in young medulloblastoma patients. Van Eys treated 12 selected children with medulloblastoma with MOPP regimen and without irradiation; 8 of them were reported to be long term survivors [4]. Subsequently, the pediatric oncology cooperative groups studies have designed therapeutic trials for very young children with malignant brain tumors

  1. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Target Volume Delineation in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning for Brain Tumors Using Localized Region-Based Active Contour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical application of a robust semiautomatic image segmentation method to determine the brain target volumes in radiation therapy treatment planning. Methods and Materials: A local robust region-based algorithm was used on MRI brain images to study the clinical target volume (CTV) of several patients. First, 3 oncologists delineated CTVs of 10 patients manually, and the process time for each patient was calculated. The averages of the oncologists’ contours were evaluated and considered as reference contours. Then, to determine the CTV through the semiautomatic method, a fourth oncologist who was blind to all manual contours selected 4-8 points around the edema and defined the initial contour. The time to obtain the final contour was calculated again for each patient. Manual and semiautomatic segmentation were compared using 3 different metric criteria: Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance. A comparison also was performed between volumes obtained from semiautomatic and manual methods. Results: Manual delineation processing time of tumors for each patient was dependent on its size and complexity and had a mean (±SD) of 12.33 ± 2.47 minutes, whereas it was 3.254 ± 1.7507 minutes for the semiautomatic method. Means of Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance between manual contours were 0.84 ± 0.02, 2.05 ± 0.66 cm, and 0.78 ± 0.15 cm, and they were 0.82 ± 0.03, 1.91 ± 0.65 cm, and 0.7 ± 0.22 cm between manual and semiautomatic contours, respectively. Moreover, the mean volume ratio (=semiautomatic/manual) calculated for all samples was 0.87. Conclusions: Given the deformability of this method, the results showed reasonable accuracy and similarity to the results of manual contouring by the oncologists. This study shows that the localized region-based algorithms can have great ability in determining the CTV and can be appropriate alternatives for manual approaches in brain cancer

  3. Brain Tumor Segmentation Using a Generative Model with an RBM Prior on Tumor Shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agn, Mikael; Puonti, Oula; Rosenschöld, Per Munck af;

    2016-01-01

    the use of the intensity information in the training images. Experiments on public benchmark data of patients suffering from low- and high-grade gliomas show that the method performs well compared to current state-of-the-art methods, while not being tied to any specific imaging protocol.......In this paper, we present a fully automated generative method for brain tumor segmentation in multi-modal magnetic resonance images. The method is based on the type of generative model often used for segmenting healthy brain tissues, where tissues are modeled by Gaussian mixture models combined...

  4. Brain tumor and Gliadel wafer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Panigrahi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a rapidly progressive and extremely fatal form of brain tumor with poor prognosis. It is the most common type of primary brain tumor. Even with the most aggressive conventional treatment that comprises surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, most patients die within a year of diagnosis. Developments in molecular and cell biology have led to better understanding of tumor development, leading to novel treatment strategies including biological therapy and immunotherapy to combat the deadly disease. Targeted drug delivery strategies to circumvent the blood-brain barrier have shown efficiency in clinical trials. Gliadel wafer is a new approach to the treatment of glioblastoma, which involves controlled release delivery of carmustine from biodegradable polymer wafers. It has shown promising results and provides a silver lining for glioblastoma patients.

  5. Delayed contrast extravasation MRI for depicting tumor and non-tumoral tissues in primary and metastatic brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leor Zach

    Full Text Available The current standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Recent studies suggest that nearly half of the patients with early radiological deterioration post treatment do not suffer from tumor recurrence but from pseudoprogression. Similarly, a significant number of patients with brain metastases suffer from radiation necrosis following radiation treatments. Conventional MRI is currently unable to differentiate tumor progression from treatment-induced effects. The ability to clearly differentiate tumor from non-tumoral tissues is crucial for appropriate patient management. Ten patients with primary brain tumors and 10 patients with brain metastases were scanned by delayed contrast extravasation MRI prior to surgery. Enhancement subtraction maps calculated from high resolution MR images acquired up to 75 min after contrast administration were used for obtaining stereotactic biopsies. Histological assessment was then compared with the pre-surgical calculated maps. In addition, the application of our maps for prediction of progression was studied in a small cohort of 13 newly diagnosed GBM patients undergoing standard chemoradiation and followed up to 19.7 months post therapy. The maps showed two primary enhancement populations: the slow population where contrast clearance from the tissue was slower than contrast accumulation and the fast population where clearance was faster than accumulation. Comparison with histology confirmed the fast population to consist of morphologically active tumor and the slow population to consist of non-tumoral tissues. Our maps demonstrated significant correlation with perfusion-weighted MR data acquired simultaneously, although contradicting examples were shown. Preliminary results suggest that early changes in the fast volumes may serve as a predictor for time to progression. These preliminary results suggest that

  6. [Chemotherapy for brain tumors in adult patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, M

    2008-02-01

    Chemotherapy has become a third major treatment option for patients with brain tumors, in addition to surgery and radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of gliomas is no longer limited to recurrent disease. Temozolomide has become the standard of care in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Several ongoing trials seek to define the role of chemotherapy in the primary care of other gliomas. Some of these studies are no longer only based on histological diagnoses, but take into consideration molecular markers such as MGMT promoter methylation and loss of genetic material on chromosomal arms 1p and 19q. Outside such clinical trials chemotherapy is used in addition to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic astrocytoma, medulloblastoma or germ cell tumors, or as an alternative to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors or low-grade gliomas. In contrast, there is no established role for chemotherapy in other tumors such as ependymomas, meningiomas or neurinomas. Primary cerebral lymphomas are probably the only brain tumors which can be cured by chemotherapy alone and only by chemotherapy. The chemotherapy of brain metastases follows the recommendations for the respective primary tumors. Further, strategies of combined radiochemotherapy using mainly temozolomide or topotecan are currently explored. Leptomeningeal metastases are treated by radiotherapy or systemic or intrathecal chemotherapy depending on their pattern of growth. PMID:18253773

  7. Functional brain imaging; Funktionelle Hirnbildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizewski, E.R. [Medizinische Universitaet Innsbruck, Universitaetsklinik fuer Neuroradiologie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-02-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive method that has become one of the major tools for understanding human brain function and in recent years has also been developed for clinical applications. Changes in hemodynamic signals correspond to changes in neuronal activity with good spatial and temporal resolution in fMRI. Using high-field MR systems and increasingly dedicated statistics and postprocessing, activated brain areas can be detected and superimposed on anatomical images. Currently, fMRI data are often combined in multimodal imaging, e. g. with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequences. This method is helping to further understand the physiology of cognitive brain processes and is also being used in a number of clinical applications. In addition to the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, this article deals with the construction of fMRI investigations, selection of paradigms and evaluation in the clinical routine. Clinically, this method is mainly used in the planning of brain surgery, analyzing the location of brain tumors in relation to eloquent brain areas and the lateralization of language processing. As the BOLD signal is dependent on the strength of the magnetic field as well as other limitations, an overview of recent developments is given. Increases of magnetic field strength (7 T), available head coils and advances in MRI analytical methods have led to constant improvement in fMRI signals and experimental design. Especially the depiction of eloquent brain regions can be done easily and quickly and has become an essential part of presurgical planning. (orig.) [German] Mittlerweile ist die funktionelle MRT (fMRT) eine Methode, die nicht mehr nur in der neurowissenschaftlichen Routine verwendet wird. Die fMRT ermoeglicht die nichtinvasive Darstellung der Hirnaktivitaet in guter raeumlicher und zeitlicher Aufloesung unter Ausnutzung der Durchblutungsaenderung aufgrund der erhoehten Nervenzellaktivitaet. Unter

  8. Maleic anhydride proton sponge as a novel MALDI matrix for the visualization of small molecules (<250 m/z) in brain tumors by routine MALDI ToF imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampà, M; Lissel, M B; Patschkowski, T; Fuchser, J; Hans, V H; Gembruch, O; Bednarz, H; Niehaus, K

    2016-08-14

    A novel vacuum stable proton sponge, 4-maleicanhydridoproton sponge (MAPS), was prepared and applied as the matrix in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI) of an aggressive brain tumor tissue (glioblastoma multiforme). Ionic maps of lactate, 2-hydroxyglutarate and chloride anions (m/z 89, 147, 35, respectively) were obtained using a routine MALDI ToF mass spectrometer. PMID:27419250

  9. The delivery of BCNU to brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C C; Li, J; Teo, C S; Lee, T

    1999-08-27

    This paper reports the development of three-dimensional simulations to study the effect of various factors on the delivery of 1-3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) to brain tumors. The study yields information on the efficacy of various delivery methods, and the optimal location of polymer implantation. Two types of drug deliveries, namely, systemic administration and controlled release from polymers, were simulated using fluid dynamics analysis package (FIDAP) to predict the temporal and spatial variation of drug distribution. Polymer-based delivery provides higher mean concentration, longer BCNU exposure time and reduced systemic toxicity than bolus injection. Polymer implanted in the core gives higher concentration of drug in both the core and viable zone than the polymer in the viable zone case. The penetration depth of BCNU is very short. This is because BCNU can get drained out of the system before diffusing to any appreciable distance. Since transvascular permeation is the dominant means of BCNU delivery, the interstitial convection has minor effect because of the extremely small transvascular Peclet number. The reaction of BCNU with brain tissues reduces the drug concentration in all regions and its effect increases with rate constant. The implantation of BCNU/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVAc) matrix at the lumen of the viable zone immediately following the surgical removal of 80% of the tumor may be an effective treatment for the chemotherapy of brain tumors. The present study provides a quantitative examination on the working principle of Gliadel wafer for the treatment of brain tumors.

  10. MicroRNA and Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were first described in 1993 by Lee and colleagues, and the term microRNA was only introduced in 2001 in a set of three articles in Science[1]. One of the biggest surprises in the past few years has been the emergence of miRNAs as a major new class of gene expression regulators. Recent studies suggest that miRNA alterations are involved in the initiation and progression of human cancer. The brain tumor,glioblastoma multiforme, is the most malignant and deadly form of gliomas.The prognosis is poor and the median survival with combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy is only 14.6 months. With the discovery of miRNA, the miRNA profiles may become useful biomarkers for brain tumor diagnostics,and miRNA therapy could be a powerful tool for brain tumor prevention and therapeutics. This review outlines the background of miRNA and its expression and therapeutic potential for brain tumors.

  11. Technological progress in radiation therapy for brain tumors

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vernimmen, Frederik Jozef

    2014-01-01

    To achieve a good therapeutic ratio the radiation dose to the tumor should be as high as possible with the lowest possible dose to the surrounding normal tissue. This is especially the case for brain tumors. Technological ad- vancements in diagnostic imaging, dose calculations, and radiation delivery systems, combined with a better un- derstanding of the pathophysiology of brain tumors have led to improvements in the therapeutic results. The widely used technology of delivering 3-D conformal therapy with photon beams (gamma rays) produced by Li-near Accelerators has progressed into the use of Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Particle beams have been used for several decades for radiotherapy because of their favorable depth dose characteristics. The introduction of clinically dedicated proton beam therapy facilities has improved the access for cancer patients to this treatment. Proton therapy is of particular interest for pediatric malignancies. These technical improvements are further enhanced by the evolution in tumor physiology imaging which allows for improved delineation of the tumor. This in turn opens the potential to adjust the radiation dose to maximize the radiobiological effects. The advances in both imaging and radiation therapy delivery will be discussed.

  12. Radiosurgery-induced brain tumor. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaido, T; Hoshida, T; Uranishi, R; Akita, N; Kotani, A; Nishi, N; Sakaki, T

    2001-10-01

    The authors describe a case of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) associated with previous gamma knife radiosurgery for a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM). A 14-year-old boy had undergone radiosurgery for an AVM, which was performed using a 201-source 60Co gamma knife system at another institution. The maximum and margin radiation doses used in the procedure were 40 and 20 Gy, respectively. One year after radiosurgery, the patient noticed onset of mild left hemiparesis due to radiation necrosis. Six and one-half years after radiosurgery, at the age of 20 years, the patient experienced an attack of generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed the existence of a brain tumor in the right parietal lobe. The patient underwent an operation and the histological diagnosis of the lesion was GBM. Ten months following the operation, that is, 99 months postradiosurgery, this patient died. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a neoplasm induced by radiosurgery for an AVM and the second case in which it occurred following radiosurgery for intracranial disease.

  13. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Kou; Armin Iraji

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy;however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrat-ed both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. However, the large scale brain network alterations after TBI are still unknown, and the ifeld is still short of proper means on how to guide the choice of TBI rehabilitation or treat-ment plan to promote brain plasticity. The authors also point out the new direction of brain plas-ticity investigation.

  14. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Zhifeng; Iraji, Armin

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy; however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrated both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. However, the large scale brain network alterations after TBI are still unknown, and the field is still short of proper means on how to guide the choice of TBI rehabilitation or treatment plan to promote brain plasticity. The authors also point out the new direction of brain plasticity investigation. PMID:25206874

  15. Dynamic Quantitative T1 Mapping in Orthotopic Brain Tumor Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Herrmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human brain tumors such as glioblastomas are typically detected using conventional, nonquantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques, such as T2-weighted and contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI. In this manuscript, we tested whether dynamic quantitative T1 mapping by MRI can localize orthotopic glioma tumors in an objective manner. Quantitative T1 mapping was performed by MRI over multiple time points using the conventional contrast agent Optimark. We compared signal differences to determine the gadolinium concentration in tissues over time. The T1 parametric maps made it easy to identify the regions of contrast enhancement and thus tumor location. Doubling the typical human dose of contrast agent resulted in a clearer demarcation of these tumors. Therefore, T1 mapping of brain tumors is gadolinium dose dependent and improves detection of tumors by MRI. The use of T1 maps provides a quantitative means to evaluate tumor detection by gadolinium-based contrast agents over time. This dynamic quantitative T1 mapping technique will also enable future quantitative evaluation of various targeted MRI contrast agents.

  16. Brain tumors in childhood; Hirntumoren im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinzig, M.; Gasser, J.; Hausegger, K.A. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt, Kinderradiologie RZI, Klagenfurt (Austria); Jauk, B. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt, Abt. fuer Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde, Klagenfurt (Austria)

    2008-10-15

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid neoplasms in childhood and the second most common malignancies after leukemia in the pediatric age group. Supratentorial tumors are more common in children younger than 2 years old and in adolescents, whereas in patients between 2 and 12 years of age brain tumors originating in the posterior fossa dominate. This implies a relationship between the type of tumor, its location and the age of the patient, which has to be considered in differential diagnoses. Medulloblastoma represents the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood. In the posterior fossa medulloblastomas are approximately as frequent as astrocytomas. Supratentorial astrocytomas are by far the main tumor type. In this report some typical CNS neoplasms in children are discussed and their neuroradiological features are demonstrated. (orig.) [German] Hirntumoren sind die haeufigsten soliden Tumoren des Kindesalters und repraesentieren nach den Leukaemien die zweithaeufigsten malignen Erkrankungen bei Kindern. Waehrend bei Kleinkindern und Adoleszenten supratentorielle Hirntumoren ueberwiegen, ist bei Patienten zwischen 2 und 12 Jahren haeufiger die hintere Schaedelgrube Ursprungsort dieser Malignome. Daraus geht hervor, dass gewisse Tumortypen eine gewisse Alterspraedilektion aufweisen, was neben der radiologischen Morphologie der Raumforderung fuer differenzialdiagnostische Ueberlegungen ueberaus hilfreich sein kann. Das Medulloblastom ist das haeufigste ZNS-Malignom des Kindesalters und repraesentiert zusammen mit zerebellaeren Astrozytomen auch den haeufigsten Tumortyp der hinteren Schaedelgrube. Supratentoriell stehen die Astrozytome ganz im Vordergrund. In dieser Arbeit werden einige typische kindliche infra- und supratentorielle Hirntumoren diskutiert und ihre neuroradiologischen Merkmale dargestellt. (orig.)

  17. Malignant brain tumor treatments and hyperbaric oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohshi, Kiyotaka [Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Malignant brain tumor treatment and hyperbaric oxygenation: Combined hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) therapy and radiation therapy of malignant gliomas is reviewed. Malignant glioma tissue is hypoxic, and the efficacy of radiation therapy is increased by raising the oxygen density in glioma tissue. Residual tumor was reduced by a radiation dose of approximately 40 Gy in many cases when radiation therapy was begun within 15 minutes after HBO. In the experiment in animal models with different hypoxic fractions (HFs) of cells (SCCVII and 9L gliosarcoma), the tumor reduction effect was more significant in the SCCVII model, which has a higher HF. When the SCCVII model was irradiated within 30 minutes after HBO, the improvement effect was more significant (1.60-1.78 times) than by irradiation alone. HBO was effective in the treatment of radionecrosis of the brain. However, there were some cases in which radionecrosis progressed when the HBO treatments were discontinued, and the optimal duration of HBO treatment should be determined. It is difficult to differentiate between radionecrosis and tumor recurrence after radiosurgery of a malignant intracranial tumor. When no lesion reduction is observed in response to HBO treatment and steroid administration for about one month, the lesion is concluded to be a recurrence of the tumor, and additional irradiation should be performed. HBO treatment in combination with chemotherapy is also discussed. (K.H.)

  18. System a amino acid transport-targeted brain and systemic tumor PET imaging agents 2-amino-3-[18 F]fluoro-2-methylpropanoic acid and 3-[18 F]fluoro-2-methyl-2-(methylamino)propanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Amino acid based radiotracers target tumor cells through increased uptake by membrane-associated amino acid transport (AAT) systems. In the present study, four structurally related non-natural 18 F-labeled amino acids, (R)- and (S)-[18 F]FAMP 1 and (R)- and (S)-[18 F]MeFAMP 2 have been prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo for their potential utility in brain and systemic tumor imaging based upon primarily system A transport with positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: The transport of enantiomers of [18 F]FAMP 1 and [18 F]MeFAMP 2 was measured through in vitro uptake assays in human derived cancer cells including A549 (lung), DU145 (prostate), SKOV3 (ovary), MDA MB468 (breast) and U87 (brain) in the presence and absence of amino acid transporter inhibitors. The in vivo biodistribution of these tracers was evaluated using tumor mice xenografts at 15, 30, 60 and 120 min post injection. Results: All four tracers showed moderate to high levels of uptake (1–9%ID/5 × 105 cells) by the cancer cell lines tested in vitro. AAT cell inhibition assays demonstrated that (R)-[18 F]1 and (S)-[18 F]1 entered these tumor cells via mixed AATs, likely but not limited to system A and system L. In contrast, (R)-[18 F]2 and (S)-[18 F]2 showed high selectivity for system A AAT. Similar to the results of in vitro cell studies, the tumor uptake of all four tracers was good to high and persisted over the 2 hours time course of in vivo studies. The accumulation of these tracers was higher in tumor than most normal tissues including blood, brain, muscle, bone, heart, and lung, and the tracers with the highest in vitro selectivity for system A AAT generally demonstrated the best tumor imaging properties. Higher uptake of these tracers was observed in the pancreas, kidney and spleen compared to tumors. Conclusions: These preclinical studies demonstrate good imaging properties in a wide range of tumors for all four amino acids evaluated with (R)-[18 F]2 having the

  19. Targeted Toxins in Brain Tumor Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A. Hall

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Targeted toxins, also known as immunotoxins or cytotoxins, are recombinant molecules that specifically bind to cell surface receptors that are overexpressed in cancer and the toxin component kills the cell. These recombinant proteins consist of a specific antibody or ligand coupled to a protein toxin. The targeted toxins bind to a surface antigen or receptor overexpressed in tumors, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor or interleukin-13 receptor. The toxin part of the molecule in all clinically used toxins is modified from bacterial or plant toxins, fused to an antibody or carrier ligand. Targeted toxins are very effective against cancer cells resistant to radiation and chemotherapy. They are far more potent than any known chemotherapy drug. Targeted toxins have shown an acceptable profile of toxicity and safety in early clinical studies and have demonstrated evidence of a tumor response. Currently, clinical trials with some targeted toxins are complete and the final results are pending. This review summarizes the characteristics of targeted toxins and the key findings of the important clinical studies with targeted toxins in malignant brain tumor patients. Obstacles to successful treatment of malignant brain tumors include poor penetration into tumor masses, the immune response to the toxin component and cancer heterogeneity. Strategies to overcome these limitations are being pursued in the current generation of targeted toxins.

  20. Comparison of two brain tumor-localizing MRI agent. GD-BOPTA and GD-DTPA. MRI and ICP study of rat brain tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we compared the behavior of Gd-BOPTA as a brain tumor selective contrast agent with Gd-DTPA in a common dose of 0.1 mmol/kg. We performed a MRI study using those two agent as contrast material, and we measured tissue Gd-concentrations by ICP-AES. As a result, Gd-BOPTA showed a better MRI enhancement in brain tumor. ICP showed significantly greater uptake of Gd-BOPTA in tumor samples, at all time course peaked at 5 minutes after administration, Gd being retained for a longer time in brain tumor till 2 hours, without rapid elimination as Gd-DTPA. We conclude that Gd-BOPTA is a new useful contrast material for MR imaging in brain tumor and an effective absorption agent for neutron capture therapy for further research. (author)

  1. Stereotactic interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of oligodendroglial brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the treatment of oligodendroglial brain tumors with interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) using 125iodine seeds (125I) and analyzed prognostic factors. Between January 1991 and December 2010, 63 patients (median age 43.3 years, range 20.8-63.4 years) suffering from oligodendroglial brain tumors were treated with 125I IBT either as primary, adjuvantly after incomplete resection, or as salvage therapy after tumor recurrence. Possible prognostic factors influencing disease progression and survival were retrospectively investigated. The actuarial 2-, 5-, and 10-year overall and progression-free survival rates after IBT for WHO II tumors were 96.9, 96.9, 89.8 % and 96.9, 93.8, 47.3 %; for WHO III tumors 90.3, 77, 54.9 % and 80.6, 58.4, 45.9 %, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete remission in 2 patients, partial remission in 13 patients, stable disease in 17 patients and tumor progression in 31 patients. Median time to progression for WHO II tumors was 87.6 months and for WHO III tumors 27.8 months. Neurological status improved in 10 patients and remained stable in 20 patients, while 9 patients deteriorated. There was no treatment-related mortality. Treatment-related morbidity was transient in 11 patients. WHO II, KPS ≥ 90 %, frontal location, and tumor surface dose > 50 Gy were associated with increased overall survival (p ≤ 0.05). Oligodendroglioma and frontal location were associated with a prolonged progression-free survival (p ≤ 0.05). Our study indicates that IBT achieves local control rates comparable to surgery and radio-/chemotherapy treatment, is minimally invasive, and safe. Due to the low rate of side effects, IBT may represent an attractive option as part of a multimodal treatment schedule, being supplementary to microsurgery or as a salvage therapy after chemotherapy and conventional irradiation. (orig.)

  2. Extracellular Vesicles in Brain Tumor Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Asti, Esterina; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Lee, Tae Hoon; Rak, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    Brain tumors can be viewed as multicellular 'ecosystems' with increasingly recognized cellular complexity and systemic impact. While the emerging diversity of malignant disease entities affecting brain tissues is often described in reference to their signature alterations within the cellular genome and epigenome, arguably these cell-intrinsic changes can be regarded as hardwired adaptations to a variety of cell-extrinsic microenvironmental circumstances. Conversely, oncogenic events influence the microenvironment through their impact on the cellular secretome, including emission of membranous structures known as extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs serve as unique carriers of bioactive lipids, secretable and non-secretable proteins, mRNA, non-coding RNA, and DNA and constitute pathway(s) of extracellular exit of molecules into the intercellular space, biofluids, and blood. EVs are also highly heterogeneous as reflected in their nomenclature (exosomes, microvesicles, microparticles) attempting to capture their diverse origin, as well as structural, molecular, and functional properties. While EVs may act as a mechanism of molecular expulsion, their non-random uptake by heterologous cellular recipients defines their unique roles in the intercellular communication, horizontal molecular transfer, and biological activity. In the central nervous system, EVs have been implicated as mediators of homeostasis and repair, while in cancer they may act as regulators of cell growth, clonogenicity, angiogenesis, thrombosis, and reciprocal tumor-stromal interactions. EVs produced by specific brain tumor cell types may contain the corresponding oncogenic drivers, such as epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) in glioblastoma (and hence are often referred to as 'oncosomes'). Through this mechanism, mutant oncoproteins and nucleic acids may be transferred horizontally between cellular populations altering their individual and collective phenotypes. Oncogenic pathways

  3. Efficient multilevel brain tumor segmentation with integrated bayesian model classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, J J; Sharon, E; Dube, S; El-Saden, S; Sinha, U; Yuille, A

    2008-05-01

    We present a new method for automatic segmentation of heterogeneous image data that takes a step toward bridging the gap between bottom-up affinity-based segmentation methods and top-down generative model based approaches. The main contribution of the paper is a Bayesian formulation for incorporating soft model assignments into the calculation of affinities, which are conventionally model free. We integrate the resulting model-aware affinities into the multilevel segmentation by weighted aggregation algorithm, and apply the technique to the task of detecting and segmenting brain tumor and edema in multichannel magnetic resonance (MR) volumes. The computationally efficient method runs orders of magnitude faster than current state-of-the-art techniques giving comparable or improved results. Our quantitative results indicate the benefit of incorporating model-aware affinities into the segmentation process for the difficult case of glioblastoma multiforme brain tumor. PMID:18450536

  4. FCM Clustering Algorithms for Segmentation of Brain MR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita K. Dubey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of brain disorders requires accurate tissue segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR brain images which is very important for detecting tumors, edema, and necrotic tissues. Segmentation of brain images, especially into three main tissue types: Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF, Gray Matter (GM, and White Matter (WM, has important role in computer aided neurosurgery and diagnosis. Brain images mostly contain noise, intensity inhomogeneity, and weak boundaries. Therefore, accurate segmentation of brain images is still a challenging area of research. This paper presents a review of fuzzy c-means (FCM clustering algorithms for the segmentation of brain MR images. The review covers the detailed analysis of FCM based algorithms with intensity inhomogeneity correction and noise robustness. Different methods for the modification of standard fuzzy objective function with updating of membership and cluster centroid are also discussed.

  5. Brain Tumor Database, a free relational database for collection and analysis of brain tumor patient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamino, Maurizio; Hamilton, David J; Castelletti, Lara; Barletta, Laura; Castellan, Lucio

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we describe the development and utilization of a relational database designed to manage the clinical and radiological data of patients with brain tumors. The Brain Tumor Database was implemented using MySQL v.5.0, while the graphical user interface was created using PHP and HTML, thus making it easily accessible through a web browser. This web-based approach allows for multiple institutions to potentially access the database. The BT Database can record brain tumor patient information (e.g. clinical features, anatomical attributes, and radiological characteristics) and be used for clinical and research purposes. Analytic tools to automatically generate statistics and different plots are provided. The BT Database is a free and powerful user-friendly tool with a wide range of possible clinical and research applications in neurology and neurosurgery. The BT Database graphical user interface source code and manual are freely available at http://tumorsdatabase.altervista.org.

  6. Identifying brain neoplasms using dye-enhanced multimodal confocal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Dennis; Snuderl, Matija; Sheth, Sameer; Kwon, Churl-Su; Frosch, Matthew P.; Curry, William; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2012-02-01

    Brain tumors cause significant morbidity and mortality even when benign. Completeness of resection of brain tumors improves quality of life and survival; however, that is often difficult to accomplish. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using multimodal confocal imaging for intraoperative detection of brain neoplasms. We have imaged different types of benign and malignant, primary and metastatic brain tumors. We correlated optical images with histopathology and evaluated the possibility of interpreting confocal images in a manner similar to pathology. Surgical specimens were briefly stained in 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) and imaged using a multimodal confocal microscope. Reflectance and fluorescence signals of MB were excited at 642 nm. Fluorescence emission of MB was registered between 670 and 710 nm. After imaging, tissues were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. The results of comparison demonstrate good correlation between fluorescence images and histopathology. Reflectance images provide information about morphology and vascularity of the specimens, complementary to that provided by fluorescence images. Multimodal confocal imaging has the potential to aid in the intraoperative detection of microscopic deposits of brain neoplasms. The application of this technique may improve completeness of resection and increase patient survival.

  7. Imaging of brain tumors in AIDS patients by means of dual-isotope thallium-201 and technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De La Pena, R.C.; Ketonen, L.; Villanueva-Meyer, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Texas, Galveston (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the use of dual-isotope thallium-201 (Tl) and technetium-99m sestamibi (sestamibi) simultaneous acquisition in brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) for the differentiation between brain lymphoma and benign central nervous system (CNS) lesions in AIDS patients. Thirty-six consecutive patients with enhancing mass lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were included in the study. SPET of the brain was performed to obtain simultaneous Tl and sestamibi images. Regions-of-interest were drawn around the lesion and on the contralateral side to calculate uptake ratios. The final diagnosis was reached by pathologic findings in 17 patients and clinical and/or MR follow-up in 19 patients. Of the 36 patients, 11 had brain lymphoma, 1 glioblastoma multiforme, 15 toxoplasmosis and 9 other benign CNS lesions. Correlation between SPET and the final diagnosis revealed in 10 true-positive, 23 true-negative, 1 false-positive and 2 false-negative studies. All patients with toxoplasmosis had negative scans. A patient with a purulent infection had positive scans. Tl and sestamibi scans were concordant in every lesion. The same lesions that took up Tl were also visualized with sestamibi. However, sestamibi scans showed higher lesion-to-normal tissue uptake ratios (3.7{+-}1.8) compared with those of Tl (2.3{+-}0.8, P<0.002). Simultaneous acquisition of Tl and sestamibi can help differentiate CNS lymphoma from benign brain lesions in AIDS patients. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 34 refs.

  8. Photodynamic Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Jiro

    2016-04-15

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium together with a semiconductor laser was approved in Japan in October 2003 as a less invasive therapy for early-stage lung cancer. The author believes that the principle of PDT would be applicable for controlling the invading front of malignant brain tumors and verified its efficacy through experiments using glioma cell lines and glioma xenograft models. An investigator-initiated clinical study was jointly conducted with Tokyo Women's Medical University with the support of the Japan Medical Association. Patient enrollment was started in May 2009 and a total of 27 patients were enrolled by March 2012. Of 22 patients included in efficacy analysis, 13 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma showed progression-free survival of 12 months, progression-free survival at the site of laser irradiation of 20 months, 1-year survival of 100%, and overall survival of 24.8 months. In addition, the safety analysis of the 27 patients showed that adverse events directly related to PDT were mild. PDT was approved in Japan for health insurance coverage as a new intraoperative therapy with the indication for malignant brain tumors in September 2013. Currently, the post-marketing investigation in the accumulated patients has been conducted, and the preparation of guidelines, holding training courses, and dissemination of information on the safe implementation of PDT using web sites and videos, have been promoted. PDT is expected to be a breakthrough for the treatment of malignant glioma as a tumor cell-selective less invasive therapy for the infiltrated functional brain area. PMID:26888042

  9. Use of in vivo proton MR spectroscopy to monitor the response of brain tumors to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares the differences in proton MR spectra between normal brain and brain tumors as they respond to radiation therapy. The MESA three-dimensional technique was used to acquire proton MR spectra on five volunteers of five brain tumor patients undergoing radiation treatment. The brain tumor patients underwent MR spectroscopy before, twice during, and after treatment. All patients and volunteers underwent MR imaging to localize the spectroscopy voxels. The area of the brain imaged in each patient was matched by a similar area in a volunteer. The spectra were analyzed to determine the peak heights and peak height ratios of the metabolites choline, creatine, lactate, and NAA

  10. Positron Scanner for Locating Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankowitz, S.; Robertson, J. S.; Higinbotham, W. A.; Rosenblum, M. J.

    1962-03-01

    A system is described that makes use of positron emitting isotopes for locating brain tumors. This system inherently provides more information about the distribution of radioactivity in the head in less time than existing scanners which use one or two detectors. A stationary circular array of 32 scintillation detectors scans a horizontal layer of the head from many directions simultaneously. The data, consisting of the number of counts in all possible coincidence pairs, are coded and stored in the memory of a Two-Dimensional Pulse-Height Analyzer. A unique method of displaying and interpreting the data is described that enables rapid approximate analysis of complex source distribution patterns. (auth)

  11. Detection of brain tumors using fluorescence diffuse optical tomography and nanoparticles as contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Pierre-Yves; Genevois, Coralie; Koenig, Anne; Heinrich, Emilie; Texier, Isabelle; Couillaud, Franck

    2012-12-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence-enhanced diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) is used to localize tumors in mice using fluorescent nanoparticles as a blood pool contrast agent. The infrared dye DiR is loaded in the lipid core of nontargeted nanoparticles (DiR-lipidots) and injected systemically via the tail vein in mice bearing U87 tumors. Distribution and time-course of DiR-lipidots are followed using in vivo fluorescence reflectance imaging and reveal enhanced fluorescent signal within the subcutaneous tumors up to seven days due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Tumor growth into the brain is followed using bioluminescent imaging, and tumor localization is further determined by magnetic resonance imaging. The fDOT provides three-dimensional fluorescent maps that allow for consistent localization for both subcutaneous and brain tumors.

  12. Linear-accelerator-based stereotactic irradiation for metastatic brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Katsui, Kuniaki; Yoshida, Atsushi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    2003-05-01

    To assess the safety and availability of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for metastatic brain tumors, we reviewed 54 consecutive cases with a total of 118 brain metastases treated with linear-accelerator-based stereotactic irradiation (STI). Nineteen patients with a total of 27 brain tumors that were larger than 3 cm or close to critical normal tissues were treated with SRT. The marginal dose of SRT was 15-21 Gy (median 21 Gy) in 3 fractions for 3 days. The median marginal dose of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was 20 Gy. Effective rates of imaging studies were 72.7% and 94.4%, and those of clinical symptoms were 46.7% and 55.6% for SRT and SRS, respectively. One-year and two-year survival rates of SRT were 40.9% and 17.6%, respectively, and the median follow-up period was 6.4 months. The one-year survival rate of SRS was 32.7%, with a median follow-up of 4.6 months. Fourteen cases (7 cases each) had recurrent tumors at STI sites. Early complications were observed in one case of SRT and 8 cases of SRS, and late complications occurred in 3 cases of SRS. There were no significant differences among effective rates, survival rates, median follow-up times, recurrence rates, and complications between SRT and SRS. We concluded that SRT is a safe, effective therapy for large or eloquent area metastases. (author)

  13. Spectroscopy of brain tumors; Spektroskopie bei Hirntumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, Peter; Lanfermann, Heinrich [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Pilatus, Ulrich [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2008-09-15

    Metabolic imaging with NMR-spectroscopy has become a diagnostic tool that is used for the examination of cerebral pathologies. It is a non-invasive technique, which can detect and quantify biochemical changes. This paper describes the history of NMR-spectroscopy, its technical basis and possible areas of use for tumor diagnostics. An overview of the literature is given and upcoming developments are mentioned. (orig.)

  14. An integrative view on sex differences in brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tao; Plutynski, Anya; Ward, Stacey; Rubin, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in human health and disease can range from undetectable to profound. Differences in brain tumor rates and outcome are evident in males and females throughout the world and regardless of age. These observations indicate that fundamental aspects of sex determination can impact the biology of brain tumors. It is likely that optimal personalized approaches to the treatment of male and female brain tumor patients will require recognizing and understanding the ways in which the biol...

  15. Fetal antigen 2 in primary and secondary brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H B; Teisner, B; Schrøder, H D;

    1991-01-01

    Immunohistochemical deposition and distribution of fetal antigen 2 (FA2) was examined in normal brain tissue and in primary and metastatic tumors of the brain. In normal brain tissue FA2 was exclusively found linearly around the vessels, along pia and in arachnoidea. A similar localization was seen...... in primary brain tumors except in gliosarcoma where FA2 was distributed diffusely in the sarcoma region and was absent in the glioma region. In metastatic carcinoma with tumor stroma a diffuse staining reaction was seen in the stroma and with a basement membrane (BM) like staining at the tumor cell....../stroma interface. Intracytoplasmic FA2 staining of the tumor cells was seen in areas without tumor stroma. In metastatic melanoma a BM like FA2 staining was seen around and between individual tumor cells. The staining patterns seen in the metastatic tumors were in accordance with that of the corresponding primary...

  16. Halofuginone Inhibits Angiogenesis and Growth in Implanted Metastatic Rat Brain Tumor Model-an MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinat Abramovitch

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis; therefore, efforts are made to develop specific angiogenic inhibitors. Halofuginone (HF is a potent inhibitor of collagen type α1(I. In solid tumor models, HF has a potent antitumor and antiangiogenic effect in vivo, but its effect on brain tumors has not yet been evaluated. By employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, we monitored the effect of HF on tumor progression and vascularization by utilizing an implanted malignant fibrous histiocytoma metastatic rat brain tumor model. Here we demonstrate that treatment with HF effectively and dose-dependently reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis. On day 13, HF-treated tumors were fivefold smaller than control (P < .001. Treatment with HF significantly prolonged survival of treated animals (142%; P = .001. In HF-treated rats, tumor vascularization was inhibited by 30% on day 13 and by 37% on day 19 (P < .05. Additionally, HF treatment inhibited vessel maturation (P = .03. Finally, in HF-treated rats, we noticed the appearance of a few clusters of satellite tumors, which were distinct from the primary tumor and usually contained vessel cores. This phenomenon was relatively moderate when compared to previous reports of other antiangiogenic agents used to treat brain tumors. We therefore conclude that HF is effective for treatment of metastatic brain tumors.

  17. Functional Brain Imaging: A Comprehensive Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Sarraf, Saman

    2016-01-01

    Functional brain imaging allows measuring dynamic functionality in all brain regions. It is broadly used in clinical cognitive neuroscience as, well as in research. It will allow the observation of neural activities in the brain simultaneously. From the beginning when functional brain imaging was initiated by the mapping of brain functions proposed by phrenologists, many scientists were asking why we need to image brain functionality since we have already structural information. Simply, their important question was including a great answer. Functional information of the human brain would definitely complement structural information, helping to have a better understanding of what is happening in the brain. This paper, which could be useful to those who have an interest in functional brain imaging, such as engineers, will present a quick review of modalities used in functional brain imaging. We will concentrate on the most used techniques in functional imaging which are functional magnetic resonance imaging (fM...

  18. Neural Network Based Augmented Reality for Detection of Brain Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Mithun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development in technology opened the door of fiction and reached reality. Major medical applications deals on robot-assisted surgery and image guided surgery. Because of this, substantial research is going on to implement Augmented Reality (AR in instruments which incorporate the surgeon’s intuitive capabilities. Augmented reality is the grouping of virtual entity or 3D stuffs which are overlapped on live camera feed information. The decisive aim of augmented reality is to enhancing the virtual video and a 3D object onto a real world on which it will raise the person’s conceptual understanding of the subject. In this paper we described a solution for initial prediction of tumour cells in MRI images of human brain using image processing technique the output of which will be the 3D slicedimage of the human brain. The sliced image is then virtually embedded on the top of human head during the time of surgery so that the surgeon can exactly locate the spot to be operated. Before augmenting the 3D sliced image Artificial neural network is used to select the appropriate image that contains tumor automatically in order to make the system more efficient.

  19. Biphasic modeling of brain tumor biomechanics and response to radiation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Stelios; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2016-06-14

    Biomechanical forces are central in tumor progression and response to treatment. This becomes more important in brain cancers where tumors are surrounded by tissues with different mechanical properties. Existing mathematical models ignore direct mechanical interactions of the tumor with the normal brain. Here, we developed a clinically relevant model, which predicts tumor growth accounting directly for mechanical interactions. A three-dimensional model of the gray and white matter and the cerebrospinal fluid was constructed from magnetic resonance images of a normal brain. Subsequently, a biphasic tissue growth theory for an initial tumor seed was employed, incorporating the effects of radiotherapy. Additionally, three different sets of brain tissue properties taken from the literature were used to investigate their effect on tumor growth. Results show the evolution of solid stress and interstitial fluid pressure within the tumor and the normal brain. Heterogeneous distribution of the solid stress exerted on the tumor resulted in a 35% spatial variation in cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, the model predicted that distant from the tumor, normal tissues still undergo significant deformations while it was found that intratumoral fluid pressure is elevated. Our predictions relate to clinical symptoms of brain cancers and present useful tools for therapy planning. PMID:27086116

  20. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance reconstruction images before and after surgical therapy of spontaneous canine brain tumors Imagens de reconstrução tri-dimensional por ressonância magnética antes e depois de tratamento cirúrgico de tumores cerebrais espontâneos caninos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Carlos Canola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Specific software was used for reconstruction of spontaneous intracranial tumor volume from magnetic resonance images (MRI in three dogs. Histopathologically confirmed meningioma, cystic meningioma, and choroid plexus tumors were evaluated before and after surgery. The software allowed the whole-volume segmentation of the skin, brain, tumor, edema, and cyst. Manipulation of the three-dimensional images (3D allowed visualization of all anatomical structures, aided clinical understanding, surgical planning, and treatment monitoring.Um programa de computador específico foi utilizado para reconstrução do volume tumoral intracraniano espontâneo por imagens de ressonância magnética (IRM em três cães. Tumores histopatologicamente confirmados como meningioma, meningioma cístico e tumor do plexo coróide foram avaliados antes e após cirurgia. O programa de computador permitiu a segmentação por completo da pele, do cérebro, do tumor, do edema e do cisto. A manipulação das imagens tridimensionais permitiu a visibilização de todas as estruturas anatômicas, além da compreensão clínica, do planejamento cirúrgico e da monitorização do tratamento.

  1. Management of childhood brain tumors: consensus report by the Pediatric Hematology Oncology (PHO) Chapter of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sunil; Yadav, Satya Prakash; Suri, Vaishali; Patir, Rana; Kurkure, Purna; Kellie, Stewart; Sachdeva, Anupam

    2011-12-01

    Brain tumors are the second most common childhood tumors and remain the leading cause of cancer related deaths in children. Appropriate diagnosis and management of these tumors are essential to improve survival. There are no clinical practical guidelines available for the management of brain tumors in India. This document is a consensus report prepared after a National Consultation on Pediatric Brain Tumors held in Delhi on 06 Nov 2008. The meeting was attended by eminent experts from all over the country, in the fields of Neurosurgery, Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Oncology, Neuropathology, Diagnostic Imaging, Pediatric Endocrinology and Allied Health Professionals. This article highlights that physicians looking after children with brain tumors should work as part of a multidisciplinary team to improve the survival, quality of life, neuro-cognitive outcomes and standards of care for children with brain tumors. Recommendations for when to suspect, diagnostic workup, initial management, long-term follow up and specific management of individual tumors are outlined.

  2. Imaging the Addicted Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Joanna S.; Volkow, Nora D.; Kassed, Cheryl A; Chang, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques enable researchers to observe drug actions and consequences as they occur and persist in the brains of abusing and addicted individuals. This article presents the five most commonly used techniques, explains how each produces images, and describes how researchers interpret them. The authors give examples of key findings illustrating how each technique has extended and deepened our knowledge of the neurobiological bases of drug abuse and addiction, and they address po...

  3. Therapeutic vaccines for malignant brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Gustafson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael P Gustafson1, Keith L Knutson2, Allan B Dietz11Division of Transfusion Medicine; 2Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Malignant gliomas are the most common and aggressive form of brain tumors. Current therapy consists of surgical resection, followed by radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy. Despite these treatments, the prognosis for patients is poor. As such, investigative therapies including tumor vaccines have targeted this devastating condition. Recent clinical trials involving immunotherapy, specifically dendritic cell (DC based vaccines, have shown promising results. Overall, these vaccines are well tolerated with few documented side effects. In many patients receiving vaccines, tumor progression was delayed and the median overall survival of these patients was prolonged. Despite these encouraging results, several factors have limited the efficacy of DC vaccines. Here we discuss the potential of DC vaccines as adjuvant therapy and current obstacles of generating highly pure and potent DC vaccines in the context of malignant glioma. Taken together, the results from earlier clinical studies justify additional clinical trials aimed at improving the efficacy of DC vaccines.Keywords: malignant glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, vaccine, immunotherapy, dendritic cells

  4. Biodistribution of ultra small gadolinium-based nanoparticles as theranostic agent: application to brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladi, Imen; Duc, Géraldine Le; Kryza, David; Berniard, Aurélie; Mowat, Pierre; Roux, Stéphane; Taleb, Jacqueline; Bonazza, Pauline; Perriat, Pascal; Lux, François; Tillement, Olivier; Billotey, Claire; Janier, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Gadolinium-based nanoparticles are novel objects with interesting physical properties, allowing their use for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Gadolinium-based nanoparticles were imaged following intravenous injection in healthy rats and rats grafted with 9L gliosarcoma tumors using magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphic imaging. Quantitative biodistribution using gamma-counting of each sampled organ confirmed that these nanoparticles were rapidly cleared essentially by renal excretion. Accumulation of these nanoparticles in 9L gliosarcoma tumors implanted in the rat brain was quantitated. This passive and long-duration accumulation of gadolinium-based nanoparticles in tumor, which is related to disruption of the blood-brain barrier, is in good agreement with the use of these nanoparticles as radiosensitizers for brain tumors.

  5. Atypical pyogenic brain abscess evaluation by diffusion-weighted imaging: diagnosis with multimodality MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Ulus, Ozden Sila; Berkman, Mehmet Zafer; Kocagoz, Sesin; Karaarslan, Ercan

    2015-10-01

    Whether a brain abscess is apparent by imaging depends on the stage of the abscess at the time of imaging, as well as the etiology of the infection. Because conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is limited in its ability to distinguish brain abscesses from necrotic tumors, advanced techniques are required. The management of these two disease entities differs and can potentially affect the clinical outcome. We report a case having atypical imaging features of a pyogenic brain abscess on advanced MRI, in particular, on diffusion-weighted and perfusion imaging, in a patient with osteosarcoma undergoing chemotherapy.

  6. Minireview of Stereoselective Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Donald F.; Jakobsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Stereoselectivity is a fundamental principle in living systems. Stereoselectivity reflects the dependence of molecular processes on the spatial orientation of constituent atoms. Stereoselective processes govern many aspects of brain function and direct the course of many psychotropic drugs. Today......, modern imaging techniques such as SPECT and PET provide a means for studying stereoselective processes in the living brain. Chemists have prepared numerous radiolabelled stereoisomers for use in SPECT and PET in order to explore various molecular processes in the living brain of anesthetized laboratory...... animals and awake humans. The studies have demonstrated how many aspects of neurotransmission consist of crucial stereoselective events that can affect brain function in health and disease. Here, we present a brief account of those findings in hope of stimulating further interest in the vital topic....

  7. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Primary Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-min Wang

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been used to treat primary brain tumors as standard primary and/or adjunctive therapies for decades. It is difficult for conventional radiotherapy to deliver a lethal dose of radiation to the tumors while sparing surrounding normal brain due to complicated structures and multifunction in human brain. With the understanding of radiation physics and computer technology, a number of novel and more precise radiotherapies have been developed in recent years. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of these strategies. The use of IMRT in the treatment of primary brain tumors is being increasing nowadays. It shows great promise for some of primary brain tumors and also presents some problems, This review highlights current IMRT in the treatment of mainly primary brain tumors.

  8. Photodynamic therapy for implanted VX2 tumor in rabbit brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Feng, Hua; Lin, Jiangkai; Zhu, Gang; Chen, Zhi; Li, Cong-yan

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect and the safety of single photodynamic therapy (PDT) with hematoporphyrin derivative produced in China, 60 New Zealand adult rabbits with VX2 tumor implanted into the brain were divided randomly into non-PDT-group and PDT-group. 36 rabbits of the PDT-group were performed photodynamic therapy. The survival time, neurological deteriorations, intracranial pressure (ICP), histology, pathology, tumor volume and brain water content were measured. Other 12 rabbits were received hematoporphyrin derivative and light irradiation of the normal brain. The ICP, histology, pathology, and brain water content were measured. The result indicated that Simple PDT may elongate the average survival time of the rabbits with VX2 tumors significantly; kill tumor cells; cause transient brain edema and increase ICP, but it is safe to be used in treating brain tumor.

  9. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaHu; Wei-PingZhang; LeiZhang; ZhongChen; Er-QingWei

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is one of the aquaporins (AQPs), a water channel family. In the brain, AQP4 is expressed in astroeyte foot processes, and plays an important role in water homeostasis and in the formation of brain edema. In our study, AQP4 expression in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or different brain tumors was detected

  10. Awake brain tumor resection during pregnancy: Decision making and technical nuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingzhong; Han, Seunggu J; Rollins, Mark D; Gelb, Adrian W; Chang, Edward F

    2016-02-01

    The co-occurrence of primary brain tumor and pregnancy poses unique challenges to the treating physician. If a rapidly growing lesion causes life-threatening mass effect, craniotomy for tumor debulking becomes urgent. The choice between awake craniotomy versus general anesthesia becomes complicated if the tumor is encroaching on eloquent brain because considerations pertinent to both patient safety and oncological outcome, in addition to fetal wellbeing, are involved. A 31-year-old female at 30 weeks gestation with twins presented to our hospital seeking awake craniotomy to resect a 7 × 6 × 5 cm left frontoparietal brain tumor with 7 mm left-to-right subfalcine herniation on imaging that led to word finding difficulty, dysfluency, right upper extremity paralysis, and right lower extremity weakness. She had twice undergone tumor debulking under general anesthesia during the same pregnancy at an outside hospital at 16 weeks and 28 weeks gestation. There were considerations both for and against awake brain tumor resection over surgery under general anesthesia. The decision-making process and the technical nuances related to awake brain tumor resection in this neurologically impaired patient are discussed. Awake craniotomy benefits the patient who harbors a tumor that encroaches on the eloquent brain by allowing a greater extent of resection while preserving the language and sensorimotor function. It can be successfully done in pregnant patients who are neurologically impaired. The patient should be motivated and well informed of the details of the process. A multidisciplinary and collaborative effort is also crucial. PMID:26498092

  11. Disseminated lesions of the central nervous system in course of pediatric brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) are, apart from leukemia, the most frequent malignant disorders in the childhood. Among the brain tumors, those of poorly differentiated cells - give metastatic lesions to the CNS. The aim of the paper was to evaluate the features of CT and MR images detecting dissemination of the primary brain tumors. From 1993 to 2005 in the Department of Radiology of the Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital - Research Institute, the disseminations to CNS were observed in 35 children who were previously operated for primary brain tumors. CT and MR examinations of the brain were performed in all patients (22 males and 13 females; age: 5 mo - 18 y) and MR imaging of the spinal cord was done in 18 children. Multiple metastases to the cerebral structures were detected more often (in 23 patients - 66%) as compared to single lesions. The most frequent disseminations were observed in patients with diagnosis of medulloblastoma - 13 children, PNET - 4 and pineoblastoma - 3 patients. Twelve children had single metastatic tumors (out of the primary neoplasm location): in the course of medulloblastoma - 6, and PNET - 2 patients. Eighteen MR examinations of the spinal canal showed disseminations of the brain tumors in 9 children; concomitant metastatic nodules in the brain were detected in 4 patients. CT and MR imaging of the CNS enables evaluating the dissemination of primary brain tumors in children. Any asymptomatic progression of the primary neoplastic disease may be detected by means of control diagnostic imaging, which reveals the tumor spread. Especially in patients with medulloblastoma and pineoblastoma, the spine MR imaging with gadolinium is mandatory. (author)

  12. Bone Mineral Density Reduction Following Irradiation of Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Total body bone mineral density (TBBMD was measured by X-ray absorptiometry in 46 brain tumor patients aged from 3.8 to 28.7 years (mean 14.9 y at a mean of 6.4 y (range 1.4-14.8 y after end of treatment for brain tumor.

  13. Anticonvulsant therapy in brain-tumor related epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröscher Walter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The lifetime risk of patients with brain tumors to have focal epileptic seizures is 10-100%; the risk depends on different histology. Specific guidelines for drug treatment of brain tumor-related seizures have not yet been established.

  14. Diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumors in clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.S. Gorlia (Thierry)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAccording to the Central Brain Registry Of The United States (CBTRUS) statistical report (February 2012) the incidence rate of all primary non malignant and malignant brain and central nervous system tumors is 19.89 cases per 100.000 (11.58 for non-malignant tumors and 7.31 for malignant

  15. Brain Imaging in Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith A.; Fox, Nick C.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Klunk, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Imaging has played a variety of roles in the study of Alzheimer disease (AD) over the past four decades. Initially, computed tomography (CT) and then magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used diagnostically to rule out other causes of dementia. More recently, a variety of imaging modalities including structural and functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral metabolism with fluoro-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) and amyloid tracers such as Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB) have shown characteristic changes in the brains of patients with AD, and in prodromal and even presymptomatic states that can help rule-in the AD pathophysiological process. No one imaging modality can serve all purposes as each have unique strengths and weaknesses. These modalities and their particular utilities are discussed in this article. The challenge for the future will be to combine imaging biomarkers to most efficiently facilitate diagnosis, disease staging, and, most importantly, development of effective disease-modifying therapies. PMID:22474610

  16. AN ANN BASED BRAIN ABNORMALITY DETECTION USING MR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Kulhalli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Main purpose of this paper is to design, implement and evaluate a strong automatic diagnostic system that increases the accuracy of tumor diagnosis in brain using MR images. This presented work classifies the brain tissues as normal or abnormal automatically, using computer vision. This saves lot of radiologist time to carryout monotonous repeated job. The acquired MR images are processed using image preprocessing techniques. The preprocessed images are then segmented, and the various features are extracted. The extracted features are fed to the artificial neural network as input that trains the network using error back propagation algorithm for correct decision making.

  17. Evaluation of brain tumor using technetium-99m-tetrofosmin SPECT. Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99m-Tetrofosmin (TF) is the tracer for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). It is commercially available in Japan and covered by Japanese health insurance only for ischemic heart diseases. In other countries, TF has been used for imaging of various brain tumors. We examined TF SPECT in patients with brain tumor and compared the image findings with other radiological image findings. The study population included 11 patients (4 men and 7 women) aged 48-87 years. The histological tumor diagnoses were as follows: glioblastoma multiforme (GBM; n=7), anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (n=1), meningioma (n=1), and metastasis (n=2). SPECT images were acquired using multidetector SPECT camera (E.CAM, Siemens) at 15 min and 3 h after intravenous injection of 740MBq of TF or 74MBq of Thallium chloride (Tl). The tracer uptakes of TF and Tl were almost similar. Both TF and Tl delayed SPECT images showed hot uptake in the tumors of GBM patients. In meningioma patients, both TF and Tl early images showed hot uptake, whereas the tracers were washed out in delayed images. TF SPECT images were clearer than Tl SPECT images. There was physiological uptake of TF in the normal choroid plexus; this finding helps in understanding the spatial correlation between the tumors and ventricles. No side effects with TF injection were observed. TF SPECT is better and more useful than Tl SPECT to diagnose location, extent, malignancy, and viability of tumors as well as the effects of anticancer therapies. (author)

  18. Retrieval of Brain Tumors by Adaptive Spatial Pooling and Fisher Vector Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Yang, Wei; Huang, Meiyan; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Yujia; Yang, Ru; Zhao, Jie; Feng, Yanqiu; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2016-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) techniques have currently gained increasing popularity in the medical field because they can use numerous and valuable archived images to support clinical decisions. In this paper, we concentrate on developing a CBIR system for retrieving brain tumors in T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI images. Specifically, when the user roughly outlines the tumor region of a query image, brain tumor images in the database of the same pathological type are expected to be returned. We propose a novel feature extraction framework to improve the retrieval performance. The proposed framework consists of three steps. First, we augment the tumor region and use the augmented tumor region as the region of interest to incorporate informative contextual information. Second, the augmented tumor region is split into subregions by an adaptive spatial division method based on intensity orders; within each subregion, we extract raw image patches as local features. Third, we apply the Fisher kernel framework to aggregate the local features of each subregion into a respective single vector representation and concatenate these per-subregion vector representations to obtain an image-level signature. After feature extraction, a closed-form metric learning algorithm is applied to measure the similarity between the query image and database images. Extensive experiments are conducted on a large dataset of 3604 images with three types of brain tumors, namely, meningiomas, gliomas, and pituitary tumors. The mean average precision can reach 94.68%. Experimental results demonstrate the power of the proposed algorithm against some related state-of-the-art methods on the same dataset. PMID:27273091

  19. A study of ICAM expression in brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hoon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Hong, Seok Il [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the possibility of using sICAM-1 as a marker for follow-up of treatment. The micro-ELISA method was adopted. The brain stem gliomas showed positive results in 67%. Overall, 23% of brain tumors showed positive results. It is possible that we can use sICAM-1 as a marker for metastatic brain tumors, and measurement after radiation therapy is not reliable. 6 refs. (Author) (Author).

  20. Comparison of Swallowing Functions Between Brain Tumor and Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Dae Hwan; Chun, Min Ho; Lee, Sook Joung; Song, Yoon Bum

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the swallowing functions according to the lesion locations between brain tumor and stroke patients. Methods Forty brain tumor patients and the same number of age-, lesion-, and functional status-matching stroke patients were enrolled in this study. Before beginning the swallowing therapy, swallowing function was evaluated in all subjects by videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Brain lesions were classified as either supratentorial or in-fratentorial. We evaluated the follo...

  1. Patients With Brain Tumors: Who Receives Postacute Occupational Therapy Services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vincy; Xiong, Chen; Colantonio, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Data on the utilization of occupational therapy among patients with brain tumors have been limited to those with malignant tumors and small samples of patients outside North America in specialized palliative care settings. We built on this research by examining the characteristics of patients with brain tumors who received postacute occupational therapy services in Ontario, Canada, using health care administrative data. Between fiscal years 2004-2005 and 2008-2009, 3,199 patients with brain tumors received occupational therapy services in the home care setting after hospital discharge; 12.4% had benign brain tumors, 78.2% had malignant brain tumors, and 9.4% had unspecified brain tumors. However, patients with benign brain tumors were older (mean age=63.3 yr), and a higher percentage were female (65.2%). More than 90% of patients received in-home occupational therapy services. Additional research is needed to examine the significance of these differences and to identify factors that influence access to occupational therapy services in the home care setting.

  2. Fueling and imaging brain activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald A Dienel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models.

  3. How do brain tumors alter functional connectivity? : A magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartolomei, Fabrice; Bosma, Ingeborg; Klein, Martin; Baayen, Johannes C; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Postma, Tjeerd J; Heimans, Jan J; van Dijk, Bob W; de Munck, Jan C; de Jongh, Arent; Cover, Keith S; Stam, Cornelis J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that brain tumors interfere with normal brain function by disrupting functional connectivity of brain networks. METHODS: Functional connectivity was assessed by computing the synchronization likelihood in a broad band (0.5-60Hz) or in the g

  4. Ex vivo brain tumor analysis using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Marcel; Krug, Robin; Welp, Hubert; Schmieder, Kirsten; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2016-03-01

    A big challenge during neurosurgeries is to distinguish between healthy tissue and cancerous tissue, but currently a suitable non-invasive real time imaging modality is not available. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a potential technique for such a modality. OCT has a penetration depth of 1-2 mm and a resolution of 1-15 μm which is sufficient to illustrate structural differences between healthy tissue and brain tumor. Therefore, we investigated gray and white matter of healthy central nervous system and meningioma samples with a Spectral Domain OCT System (Thorlabs Callisto). Additional OCT images were generated after paraffin embedding and after the samples were cut into 10 μm thin slices for histological investigation with a bright field microscope. All samples were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. In all cases B-scans and 3D images were made. Furthermore, a camera image of the investigated area was made by the built-in video camera of our OCT system. For orientation, the backsides of all samples were marked with blue ink. The structural differences between healthy tissue and meningioma samples were most pronounced directly after removal. After paraffin embedding these differences diminished. A correlation between OCT en face images and microscopy images can be seen. In order to increase contrast, post processing algorithms were applied. Hence we employed Spectroscopic OCT, pattern recognition algorithms and machine learning algorithms such as k-means Clustering and Principal Component Analysis.

  5. Research on Perfusion CT in Rabbit Brain Tumor Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the vascular characteristics of tumors and normal tissue using perfusion CT in the rabbit brain tumor model. The VX2 carcinoma concentration of 1 x 107 cells/ml(0.1 ml) was implanted in the brain of nine New Zealand white rabbits (weight: 2.4 kg-3.0 kg, mean: 2.6 kg). The perfusion CT was scanned when the tumors were grown up to 5 mm. The tumor volume and perfusion value were quantitatively analyzed by using commercial workstation (advantage windows workstation, AW, version 4.2, GE, USA). The mean volume of implanted tumors was 316±181 mm3, and the biggest and smallest volumes of tumor were 497 mm3 and 195 mm3, respectively. All the implanted tumors in rabbits are single-nodular tumors, and intracranial metastasis was not observed. In the perfusion CT, cerebral blood volume (CBV) were 74.40±9.63, 16.8±0.64, 15.24±3.23 ml/100g in the tumor core, ipsilateral normal brain, and contralateral normal brain, respectively (p≤0.05). In the cerebral blood flow (CBF), there were significant differences between the tumor core and both normal brains (p≤0.05), but no significant differences between ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains (962.91±75.96 vs. 357.82±12.82 vs. 323.19±83.24 ml/100g/min). In the mean transit time (MTT), there were significant differences between the tumor core and both normal brains (p≤0.05), but no significant differences between ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains (4.37±0.19 vs. 3.02±0.41 vs. 2.86±0.22 sec). In the permeability surface (PS), there were significant differences among the tumor core, ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains (47.23±25.44 vs. 14.54±1.60 vs. 6.81±4.20 ml/100g/min)(p≤0.05). In the time to peak (TTP) were no significant differences among the tumor core, ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains. In the positive enhancement integral (PEI), there were significant differences among the tumor core, ipsilateral and contralateral brains (61.56±16.07 vs. 12.58±2.61 vs. 8.26±5

  6. Research on Perfusion CT in Rabbit Brain Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Bon Chul; Kwak, Byung Kook; Jung, Ji Sung [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chung Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    We investigated the vascular characteristics of tumors and normal tissue using perfusion CT in the rabbit brain tumor model. The VX2 carcinoma concentration of 1 x 10{sup 7} cells/ml(0.1 ml) was implanted in the brain of nine New Zealand white rabbits (weight: 2.4 kg-3.0 kg, mean: 2.6 kg). The perfusion CT was scanned when the tumors were grown up to 5 mm. The tumor volume and perfusion value were quantitatively analyzed by using commercial workstation (advantage windows workstation, AW, version 4.2, GE, USA). The mean volume of implanted tumors was 316{+-}181 mm{sup 3}, and the biggest and smallest volumes of tumor were 497 mm{sup 3} and 195 mm{sup 3}, respectively. All the implanted tumors in rabbits are single-nodular tumors, and intracranial metastasis was not observed. In the perfusion CT, cerebral blood volume (CBV) were 74.40{+-}9.63, 16.8{+-}0.64, 15.24{+-}3.23 ml/100g in the tumor core, ipsilateral normal brain, and contralateral normal brain, respectively (p{<=}0.05). In the cerebral blood flow (CBF), there were significant differences between the tumor core and both normal brains (p{<=}0.05), but no significant differences between ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains (962.91{+-}75.96 vs. 357.82{+-}12.82 vs. 323.19{+-}83.24 ml/100g/min). In the mean transit time (MTT), there were significant differences between the tumor core and both normal brains (p{<=}0.05), but no significant differences between ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains (4.37{+-}0.19 vs. 3.02{+-}0.41 vs. 2.86{+-}0.22 sec). In the permeability surface (PS), there were significant differences among the tumor core, ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains (47.23{+-}25.44 vs. 14.54{+-}1.60 vs. 6.81{+-}4.20 ml/100g/min)(p{<=}0.05). In the time to peak (TTP) were no significant differences among the tumor core, ipsilateral and contralateral normal brains. In the positive enhancement integral (PEI), there were significant differences among the tumor core, ipsilateral and

  7. Image based modeling of tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghdadi, N; Soltani, M; Niroomand-Oscuii, H; Ghalichi, F

    2016-09-01

    Tumors are a main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the efforts of the clinical and research communities, little has been achieved in the past decades in terms of improving the treatment of aggressive tumors. Understanding the underlying mechanism of tumor growth and evaluating the effects of different therapies are valuable steps in predicting the survival time and improving the patients' quality of life. Several studies have been devoted to tumor growth modeling at different levels to improve the clinical outcome by predicting the results of specific treatments. Recent studies have proposed patient-specific models using clinical data usually obtained from clinical images and evaluating the effects of various therapies. The aim of this review is to highlight the imaging role in tumor growth modeling and provide a worthwhile reference for biomedical and mathematical researchers with respect to tumor modeling using the clinical data to develop personalized models of tumor growth and evaluating the effect of different therapies.

  8. Disappearance of enhancement of brain tumor in contrast CT scan after excessively high dosage of dexamethasone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of steroid administration was studied as suggested by CT findings in 5 cases of brain tumor. In the CT image 72 hours after administration of dexamethasone 96 mg/d, contrast enhancement (CE) disappeared nearly completely in 3 cases of malignant glioma, and the indentification of tumor image on CT became difficult. Two cases of pinealoblastoma and low grade astrocytoma, respectively, showed only a little decrease of CE. From the CT images of 201 cases, the correlation between peritumoral edema and CE was that both were strong in glioblastoma, the former stronger in metastatic brain tumor, the latter stronger in meningioma, and both weak in low grade glioma and medulloblastoma. Steroid administration is indicated in tumors supposed to have little vascular pooling and strong extravascular accumulation of a contrast medium from the mechanism of CE in CT, and marked suppression of permeability with excessively high dosage seems to be noted as the change of CT findings. (J.P.N.)

  9. Finite element modeling of haptic thermography: A novel approach for brain tumor detection during minimally invasive neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Goughari, Moslem; Mojra, Afsaneh

    2015-10-01

    Intraoperative Thermal Imaging (ITI) is a novel neuroimaging method that can potentially locate tissue abnormalities and hence improves surgeon's diagnostic ability. In the present study, thermography technique coupled with artificial tactile sensing method called "haptic thermography" is utilized to investigate the presence of an abnormal object as a tumor with an elevated temperature relative to the normal tissue in the brain. The brain tissue is characterized as a hyper-viscoelastic material to be descriptive of mechanical behavior of the brain tissue during tactile palpation. Based on a finite element approach, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data of a patient diagnosed to have a brain tumor is utilized to simulate and analyze the capability of haptic thermography in detection and localization of brain tumor. Steady-state thermal results prove that temperature distribution is an appropriate outcome of haptic thermography for the superficial tumors while heat flux distribution can be used as an extra thermal result for deeply located tumors. PMID:26590456

  10. Pediatric Brain Tumors: Genomics and Epigenomics Pave the Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontebasso, Adam M; Jabado, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Primary malignant brain tumors remain a disproportionate cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. A number of studies exploring the cancer genome of brain tumors across ages using integrated genetics and epigenetics and next-generation sequencing technologies have recently emerged. This has led to considerable advances in the understanding of the basic biology and pathogenesis of brain tumors, including the most malignant and common variants in children: gliomas and medulloblastoma. Notably, studies of pediatric brain tumors have identified unexpected oncogenic pathways implicated in tumorigenesis. These range from a single pathway/molecule defect such as abnormalities of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, considered to be a hallmark of pilocytic astrocytomas, to alterations in the epigenome as a critical component altered in many subgroups of high-grade brain tumors. Importantly, the type, timing, and spatial clustering of these molecular alterations provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the respective brain tumor they target and critical markers for therapy that will help refine pathological grading. We summarize these novel findings in pediatric brain tumors, which also are put in the context of the evolving notion of molecular pathology, now a mandated tool for proper classification and therapy assignment in the clinical setting.

  11. Evaluation of therapeutic effects of radiosurgery using 99 Tcm-MIBI brain SPECT in patients with brain tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yi-xiang; SHI Wei-min; PENG Wu-he

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of radiosurgery on brain tumor using 99Tcm-MIBI brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods : Fifteen normal volunteers and 49patients with brain tumor underwent 99Tcm-MIBI brain SPECT, and the tumor to non-tumor ratio (T/N)was calculated and compared before and after radiosurgery. The patients were regrouped according to different schedules for postoperative reexamination, and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 99Tcm-MIBI SPECT evaluated against that of conventional CT and magnetic resonance imaging. Results: After radiosurgery, the lesions were reduced or even disappeared in 22 cases, and tumor remnants or recurrence were found in 27 cases. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 99Tcm-MIBI brain SPECT were 85.2%, 68. 2% and 77.6%,respectively. The sensitivity of postoperative 99Tcm-MIBI brain SPECT at 5.8 months was 92%, significantly higher than that at 3.1 months (89%, u=2. 2545, P<0. 05), and its accuracy was also higher than those at3. 1 months (u=2. 5927, P<0. 05) and at 9. 4 months (u=2. 1760, P<0. 05). The preoperative T/N ratio averaged 9.5±7. 6, significantly lowered to 2.9±5.1 postoperatively (t=4. 4373, P<0. 001). T/N ratio of recurrence group was remarkably higher than those of tumor remnants group (t=2. 1496, P<0. 05), edema group (t= 9. 2186, P<0. 001) and cicatrization group (t= 6. 3906, P<0. 001). Conclusion: 99Tcm-MIBI brain SPECT is more accurate than CT in distinguishing tumor residuals from benign lesions such as edema and cicatrization. At about 6 months after radiosurgery, 99Tcm-MIBI SPECT can obtain optimal diagnostic effects.

  12. A correlative study on the functional disturbances and the organic changes in patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a total of 132 patients with supratentorial tumors, tumor localization, pathology, and the presence of low density area surrounding the tumor were examined in relation to cerebral function, using conventional EEG, topographic EEG, computed tomography (CT), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For superficial tumors, meningioma had less EEG abnormalities than glioma, regardless of the presence of low density area. Slow wave focus as shown by topographic EEG corresponded well with tumor localization detected on CT. For deep-seated tumors, topographic EEG showed diffuse δ waves and θ waves along the median. In 7 patients with meningioma, there was no uniform cerebral blood flow within the tumor; however, low blood flow surrounding the tumor was detected on CT, regardless of the presence of low density area. In 4 patients with intra-axial tumors, low blood flow was detected both within and surrounding the tumor. Location of tumors, as detected on CT, was well coincident with areas of decreased local cerebral blood flow and slow waves, as detected on topographic EEG. MRI was more reliable than CT in disclosing brain tumors, peritumoral edemas, and involvement of brain stem. (Namekawa, K)

  13. Cilengitide in Treating Children With Refractory Primary Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  14. Pre Operative Brain Mapping with Functional MRI in Patient with Brain Tumors: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Hooshmand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI plays a significant role in pre-neurosurgical planning at present. FMRI is a possible candidate to replace invasive methods for determination of the language dominant hemisphere and cortical areas associated with language and memory. We used this method to explore language and motor functions in healthy volunteers before creating standard paradigms for Persian language. In this study, we used the standard protocol of language and motor brain mapping in patients harboring brain tumors."nPatients and Methods: Ten patients with brain tumor were included in this study. Each subject performed three to five language related tasks during fMRI scan and also one motor related task. These tasks included; "Word Generation" (WG, "Object Naming" (ON, and "Word Reading" (WR, "Word Production" (WP and "Reverse Word Reading" (RWR. They also performed the thumb apposition task for activating primary sensory-motor areas. Fifteen continuous slices were acquired, and data analysis was carried out using FSL 4.1. After evaluating the individual results, the lateralization index (LI for each subject-task was calculated and the dominant hemisphere for language production was reported. Also localization of critical language areas in the cerebral cortex was performed and the coordinates of epicenter for language production in Broca's area was calculated."nResults: We found that WP, RWR, and WG activate language related areas in the dominant hemisphere robustly in patients with brain tumors and can predict the dominant hemisphere along with eloquent language cortices. However, ON and WR fail to delineate these activation areas optimally. In addition, the results reveal that higher activation intensities are obtained by WP in the frontal lobe including Broca's area, whereas RWR leads to the highest LI among all examined tasks. In patients harboring brain tumors, precise lateralization and

  15. Improving the accuracy of brain tumor surgery via Raman-based technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollon, Todd; Lewis, Spencer; Freudiger, Christian W.; Xie, X. Sunney; Orringer, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in the surgical management of brain tumors, achieving optimal surgical results and identification of tumor remains a challenge. Raman spectroscopy, a laser-based technique that can be used to nondestructively differentiate molecules based on the inelastic scattering of light, is being applied toward improving the accuracy of brain tumor surgery. Here, the authors systematically review the application of Raman spectroscopy for guidance during brain tumor surgery. Raman spectroscopy can differentiate normal brain from necrotic and vital glioma tissue in human specimens based on chemical differences, and has recently been shown to differentiate tumor-infiltrated tissues from noninfiltrated tissues during surgery. Raman spectroscopy also forms the basis for coherent Raman scattering (CRS) microscopy, a technique that amplifies spontaneous Raman signals by 10,000-fold, enabling real-time histological imaging without the need for tissue processing, sectioning, or staining. The authors review the relevant basic and translational studies on CRS microscopy as a means of providing real-time intraoperative guidance. Recent studies have demonstrated how CRS can be used to differentiate tumor-infiltrated tissues from noninfiltrated tissues and that it has excellent agreement with traditional histology. Under simulated operative conditions, CRS has been shown to identify tumor margins that would be undetectable using standard bright-field microscopy. In addition, CRS microscopy has been shown to detect tumor in human surgical specimens with near-perfect agreement to standard H & E microscopy. The authors suggest that as the intraoperative application and instrumentation for Raman spectroscopy and imaging matures, it will become an essential component in the neurosurgical armamentarium for identifying residual tumor and improving the surgical management of brain tumors. PMID:26926067

  16. Imaging of pancreatic tumors; Diagnostik von Pankreastumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Juchems, Markus [Universitaetklinik Ulm (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2010-12-15

    Ductal adenocarcinoma is the most frequent solid tumor of the pancreas. This tumor has distinct features including early obstruction of the pancreatic duct, diminished enhancement after administration of contrast material due to desmoplastic growth, high propensity to infiltrate adjacent structures and to metastasize into the liver and the peritoneum. Hormone active endocrine tumors cause specific clinical symptoms. Imaging is aimed at localization of these hypervascular tumors. Non hormone active tumors are most frequently malignant and demonstrate very varying features. Cystic pancreatic tumors are increasingly detected by means of cross sectional imaging. Exact classification can be achieved with knowledge of the macropathology and considering clinical presentation as well as age and gender of the patients. (orig.)

  17. Quantitative imaging of brain chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We can now measure how chemicals affect different regions of the human brain. One area involves the study of drugs - in-vivo neuro-pharmacology; another involves the study of toxic chemical effects - in vivo neurotoxicology. The authors approach is to label drugs with positron-emitting radioactive tracers - chiefly carbon-11 with a half-life of 20 minutes and fluorine-18 with a half-life of 110 minutes. The labeled drugs are injected intravenously and a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner is used to map out the distribution of the radioactivity within the brain from the moment of injection until about 90 minutes later. Mathematical models are used to calculate receptor concentrations and the affinity of the receptors for the injected radioactive tracer. By means of PET scanning, they look at cross sections or visual slices throughout the human brain, obtaining computer-generated images in any plane. The authors are investigating the functions of specific drugs or specific receptors, as well as looking at the metabolic activity in different parts of the brain as revealed in glucose metabolism. For example, the authors are studying opiate receptors in patients with a variety of conditions: those who suffer from chronic pain, those who are congenitally insensitive to pain and drug addicts. They are studying patients with schizophrenia, tardive dyskinesia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, depressed patients and sex-offenders. They are relating the state of the neurotransmitter/neuroreceptor systems to behavior. In essence, they believe that they can now examine in living human beings what relates the structure of the brain to the function of the mind that is chemistry

  18. Air pollution from traffic and risk for brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana J;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Air pollution is an established lung carcinogen, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution also negatively affects the brain. We have previously reported an association between air pollution and risk of brain tumors in a cohort study based on only 95 cases. We set out to replic......PURPOSE: Air pollution is an established lung carcinogen, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution also negatively affects the brain. We have previously reported an association between air pollution and risk of brain tumors in a cohort study based on only 95 cases. We set out...... to replicate that finding in a large nationwide case-control study. METHODS: We identified all 4,183 adult brain tumor cases in Denmark in the years 2000-2009 and 8,018 risk set sampled population controls matched on gender and year of birth. We extracted residential address histories and estimated mean...... and risk of brain tumors which was found in our previous study. The suggestion of an increased brain tumor risk at high exposures merits further attention as does the differing results according to tumor morphology....

  19. Clinical application of several tumor imaging agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Neoplasms is one of the main diseases for harming health.It is difficult to prevent the neoplasms because the factors of bringing out them are complex.To raise survival rate the early diagnosis of tumors is very important.Radionuclide imaging is useful to detect recurrent or residual diseaseand to identificate benign or malignant tumor.Several tumorimaging agents as following have clinical significance indiagnosing tumors.

  20. SPECT quantitation of cobalt-57 bleomycin delivery to human brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly developed and validated noninvasive quantitative SPECT method was used to measure the in vivo uptake of [57Co]bleomycin (Co-bleo) in 13 human brain tumors and the uptake of [/sup 99m/Tc]glucoheptonate (GH) in 23 brain tumors. Significant differences in tumor uptake were found. The tumor concentration over time, the tumor to blood radioactivity at 30 min and the tumor cumulative concentration of radioactivity showed marked differences even between tumors with the same histology. Only a weak correlation was found between tumor concentration of Co-bleo and of GH. Therefore, a simple imaging agent such as GH cannot, at the present time, serve as an indicator of individual tumor uptake and further experience with other agents is still necessary. Contrary to the generally held view, no correlation was found between the concentration of drug in the blood and its tumor concentration. It is suggested, therefore, that the level of a drug in the blood cannot be used as a criterion of the amount that will penetrate the tumor. Direct SPECT measurement of the concentration of the drug in the tumor itself should be performed. The bioavailability of a drug is critical in order for it to exert it tumoricidal effect. The results, showing marked differences in uptake between brain tumors, suggest that before chemotherapy is administered, uptake of the chemotherapeutic drug in the individual tumor to be treated should be assessed and comparisons should be made between the uptake of a series of drugs to determine which drug would be most efficacious on the basis of its uptake as well as its tumor cell killing potential

  1. Atlas to patient registration with brain tumor based on a mesh-free method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Idanis; Boulanger, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Brain atlas to patient registration in the presence of tumors is a challenging task because its presence cause brain structure deformations and introduce large intensity variation between the affected areas. This large dissimilarity affects the results of traditional registration methods based on intensity or shape similarities. In order to overcome these problems, we propose a novel method that brings closer the atlas and the patient's image by simulating the mechanical behavior of brain deformation under a tumor pressure. The proposed method use a mesh-free total Lagrangian Explicit Dynamic algorithm for the simulation of atlas deformation and a data driven model of the tumor using multi-modal MRI segmentation. Experimental results look structurally very similar to the patient's image and outperform two of the top ranking algorithms.

  2. Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [Department of Neurosurgery, Kagawa National Children' s Hospital, Kagawa 765-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: ynakagawa0517@yahoo.co.jp; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Department of Research Reactor, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaragi 319-1195 (Japan); Nakagawa, Yoshiaki [Department of Medical Informatics, Post Graduated School, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    It is very difficult to treat the patients with malignant brain tumor in children, especially under 3 years, because the conventional irradiation cannot be applied due to the damage of normal brain tissue. However, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has tumor selectivity such that it can make damage only in tumor cells. We evaluated the clinical results and courses in patients with malignant glioma under 15 years. Among 183 patients with brain tumors treated by our group using BSH-based intra-operative BNCT, 23 patients were under 15 years. They included 4 patients under 3 years. There were 3 glioblastomas (GBM), 6 anaplastic astrocytomas(AAS), 7 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), 6 pontine gliomas and 1 anaplastic ependymoma. All GBM and PNET patients died due to CSF and/or CNS dissemination without local tumor regrowth. All pontine glioma patients died due to regrowth of the tumor. Four of 6 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 anaplastic ependymoma patients alive without tumor recurrence. BNCT can be applied to malignant brain tumors in children, especially under 3 years instead of conventional radiation. Although it can achieve the local control in the primary site, it cannot prevent CSF dissemination in patients with glioblastoma.

  3. Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation and brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain has been categorized into the low risk group of radiogenic tumors. However, recent epidemiologic studies on the cancer risks among children who received repeated CT scans, radiotherapies and A-bomb have revealed that low-to-moderate dose of ionizing radiation is effective to induce brain tumors. Ionizing radiation is more strongly associated with risk for meningiomas and schwannomas compared to gliomas. While risk of meningiomas is independent of age at the time of exposure, that of gliomas is profoundly high after neonatal and infantile exposures. Inherited susceptibility to brain tumors is suggested by family history or cancer prone syndromes. People with certain gene mutations such as RB, NF1 or PTCH1 are associated with enhanced cancer risk after radiotherapies. Genetic polymorphism of cancer-related genes on brain tumor risk deserves further investigation. (author)

  4. From reverse transcription to human brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrenko V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase from avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV was the subject of the study, from which the investi- gations of the Department of biosynthesis of nucleic acids were started. Production of AMV in grams quantities and isolation of AMV reverse transcriptase were established in the laboratory during the seventies of the past cen- tury and this initiated research on the cDNA synthesis, cloning and investigation of the structure and functions of the eukaryotic genes. Structures of salmon insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF family genes and their transcripts were determined during long-term investigations. Results of two modern techniques, microarray-ba- sed hybridization and SAGE, were used for the identification of the genes differentially expressed in astrocytic gliomas and human normal brain. Comparison of SAGE results on the genes overexpressed in glioblastoma with the results of microarray analysis revealed a limited number of common genes. 105 differentially expressed genes, common to both methods, can be included in the list of candidates for the molecular typing of glioblastoma. The first experiments on the classification of glioblastomas based on the data of the 20 genes expression were conducted by using of artificial neural network analysis. The results of these experiments showed that the expression profiles of these genes in 224 glioblastoma samples and 74 normal brain samples could be according to the Koho- nen’s maps. The CHI3L1 and CHI3L2 genes of chitinase-like cartilage protein were revealed among the most overexpressed genes in glioblastoma, which could have prognostic and diagnostic potential. Results of in vitro experiments demonstrated that both proteins, CHI3L1 and CHI3L2, may initiate the phosphorylation of ERK1/ ERK2 and AKT kinases leading to the activation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling cascades in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, human glioblastoma U87MG, and U373 cells. The new human cell line

  5. 功能磁共振成像/弥散张量成像图像融合:脑肿瘤治疗术前计划新方法%Image fusion of functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging: a new method of pretreatment planning for patient with brain tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志; 郭悦; 陈敏; 崔壮; 高鸿; 周诚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop and test an image fusion software(fDf,fMRI/DTI fusion) which can overlap the anatomical(T1WI images), functional MRI(fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging( DTI) sim-ultaneously for preoperational evaluation of patients' tumor. Methods fMRI with bilateral hands grasp move-ment and DTI were performed using GE 1. 5 T magnetic resonance system on 10 subjects (5 healthy volun-teers and S patients with brain tumor,of which 3 were metastases, 1 was cavernous hemangioma and 1 was gli-oma). All data were input to the personal computer and off-line postprocessing of fMRI and DTI data was per-formed using SPM5 and Volume-One software package to visualize the activated functional cortex areas and corticospinal tracts. fDf was used to import the fMRI and structural images to Volume-One to show them sim-ultaneously. Results Brain functional activation maps and diffusion tensor fiber tracking images were ob-tained in all five healthy volunteers and four patients except one who suffered from left hemiplegia. The func-tional activation maps and the fiber tracking images were successfully fused by the fDf software,where the ac-tivations areas and the white matter fiber were displayed together. The fusion images of healthy volunteers showed the hand motion areas and corresponding corticospinal tracts, while that of the patients display the re-lationship of the eloquent cortex and peritumoral fiber tracts, which were useful in guiding the treatments for the surgeons and radiotherapists. It only took hours to present the fused images to the neurosurgeons or the ra-diotherapists. Conclusions All the results confirm that the image fusion software work well for all the data.It is an easy,free and fast way to realize the image fusion. The neurosurgeon and radiotherapist consider the software were very helpful for preoperative planning.

  6. Imaging spectrum of gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binit Sureka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs were first described by Clark and Mazur in 1983 for smooth muscle neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract differentiating them from leiomyoma, leiomyosarcomas and neurogenic tumors. GISTs can arise from the bowel, peritoneum, omentum or retroperitoneum. This article reviews the computed tomography imaging features of primary GISTs, response to treatment and highlights data on predicting the outcome to chemotherapeutic drugs on imaging.

  7. MR to CT Registration of Brains using Image Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Snehashis; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Prince, Jerry L.; Lee, Junghoon

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the standard imaging modality for patient dose calculation for radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) is used along with CT to identify brain structures due to its superior soft tissue contrast. Registration of MR and CT is necessary for accurate delineation of the tumor and other structures, and is critical in radiotherapy planning. Mutual information (MI) or its variants are typically used as a similarity metric to register MRI to CT. However, u...

  8. Proteomic and immunologic analyses of brain tumor exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Graner, Michael W.; Alzate, Oscar; Dechkovskaia, Angelika M.; Keene, Jack D.; Sampson, John H; Mitchell, Duane A; Bigner, Darell D.

    2009-01-01

    Brain tumors are horrific diseases with almost universally fatal outcomes; new therapeutics are desperately needed and will come from improved understandings of glioma biology. Exosomes are endosomally derived 30–100 nm membranous vesicles released from many cell types into the extracellular milieu; surprisingly, exosomes are virtually unstudied in neuro-oncology. These microvesicles were used as vaccines in other tumor settings, but their immunological significance is unevaluated in brain tu...

  9. FDTD analysis of a noninvasive hyperthermia system for brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoob Sulafa M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperthermia is considered one of the new therapeutic modalities for cancer treatment and is based on the difference in thermal sensitivity between healthy tissues and tumors. During hyperthermia treatment, the temperature of the tumor is raised to 40–45°C for a definite period resulting in the destruction of cancer cells. This paper investigates design, modeling and simulation of a new non-invasive hyperthermia applicator system capable of effectively heating deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors using inexpensive, simple, and easy to fabricate components without harming surrounding healthy brain tissues. Methods The proposed hyperthermia applicator system is composed of an air filled partial half ellipsoidal chamber, a patch antenna, and a head model with an embedded tumor at an arbitrary location. The irradiating antenna is placed at one of the foci of the hyperthermia chamber while the center of the brain tumor is placed at the other focus. The finite difference time domain (FDTD method is used to compute both the SAR patterns and the temperature distribution in three different head models due to two different patch antennas at a frequency of 915 MHz. Results The obtained results suggest that by using the proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system it is feasible to achieve sufficient and focused energy deposition and temperature rise to therapeutic values in deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors without harming surrounding healthy tissue. Conclusions The proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system proved suitable for raising the temperature in tumors embedded in the brain to therapeutic values by carefully selecting the systems components. The operator of the system only needs to place the center of the brain tumor at a pre-specified location and excite the antenna at a single frequency of 915 MHz. Our study may provide a basis for a clinical applicator prototype capable of heating brain tumors.

  10. Gd-DOTA enhancement of cerebral and spinal tumors on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of Gd-DOTA as a contrast agent in MR imaging to improve the diagnosis of cerebral and spinal tumors was assessed in 20 patients, ten with brain tumors and ten with spinal tumors. Imaging was performed with a 0.5-T Magniscan 5000 unit. T1-weighted (spin-echo and gradient-echo) and T2-weighted (spin-echo) images were acquired before and after intravenous injection of Gd-DOTA, 0.1 mmol/kg. On T1-weighted images, Gd-DOTA enhanced sites of presumed disruption of the blood-brain barrier. This made some brain tumors more conspicuous and helped target biopsies, but did not reveal any additional lesions. On the other hand, the use of Gd-DOTA significantly improved the reliability of spinal tumor imaging compared to imaging performed without contrast agent, allowing delineation of abnormalities on T1-weighted images, which frequently contain fewer artifacts than the most sensitive T2-weighted images. Images obtained with Gd-DOTA could be used by the physician to rule out residual tumor after surgery and to assess recurrences. Additional work should be done to discover whether spinal tumor exploration with MR imaging could include solely T1-weighted sequences, performed before and after contrast agent administration, without T2-weighted sequences

  11. Targeted Doxorubicin Delivery to Brain Tumors via Minicells: Proof of Principle Using Dogs with Spontaneously Occurring Tumors as a Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A MacDiarmid

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic chemotherapy can be very effective for the treatment of cancer but toxicity on normal tissues often limits patient tolerance and often causes long-term adverse effects. The objective of this study was to assist in the preclinical development of using modified, non-living bacterially-derived minicells to deliver the potent chemotherapeutic doxorubicin via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR targeting. Specifically, this study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of EGFR targeted, doxorubicin loaded minicells (designated EGFRminicellsDox to deliver doxorubicin to spontaneous brain tumors in 17 companion dogs; a comparative oncology model of human brain cancers.EGFRminicellsDox were administered weekly via intravenous injection to 17 dogs with late-stage brain cancers. Biodistribution was assessed using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Anti-tumor response was determined using MRI, and blood samples were subject to toxicology (hematology, biochemistry and inflammatory marker analysis. Targeted, doxorubicin-loaded minicells rapidly localized to the core of brain tumors. Complete resolution or marked tumor regression (>90% reduction in tumor volume were observed in 23.53% of the cohort, with lasting anti-tumor responses characterized by remission in three dogs for more than two years. The median overall survival was 264 days (range 49 to 973. No adverse clinical, hematological or biochemical effects were observed with repeated administration of EGFRminicellsDox (30 to 98 doses administered in 10 of the 17 dogs.Targeted minicells loaded with doxorubicin were safely administered to dogs with late stage brain cancer and clinical activity was observed. These findings demonstrate the strong potential for clinical applications of targeted, doxorubicin-loaded minicells for the effective treatment of patients with brain cancer. On this basis, we have designed a Phase 1 clinical study of

  12. Targeted Doxorubicin Delivery to Brain Tumors via Minicells: Proof of Principle Using Dogs with Spontaneously Occurring Tumors as a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDiarmid, Jennifer A.; Langova, Veronika; Bailey, Dale; Pattison, Scott T.; Pattison, Stacey L.; Christensen, Neil; Armstrong, Luke R.; Brahmbhatt, Vatsala N.; Smolarczyk, Katarzyna; Harrison, Matthew T.; Costa, Marylia; Mugridge, Nancy B.; Sedliarou, Ilya; Grimes, Nicholas A.; Kiss, Debra L.; Stillman, Bruce; Hann, Christine L.; Gallia, Gary L.; Graham, Robert M.; Brahmbhatt, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Background Cytotoxic chemotherapy can be very effective for the treatment of cancer but toxicity on normal tissues often limits patient tolerance and often causes long-term adverse effects. The objective of this study was to assist in the preclinical development of using modified, non-living bacterially-derived minicells to deliver the potent chemotherapeutic doxorubicin via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting. Specifically, this study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of EGFR targeted, doxorubicin loaded minicells (designated EGFRminicellsDox) to deliver doxorubicin to spontaneous brain tumors in 17 companion dogs; a comparative oncology model of human brain cancers. Methodology/Principle Findings EGFRminicellsDox were administered weekly via intravenous injection to 17 dogs with late-stage brain cancers. Biodistribution was assessed using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Anti-tumor response was determined using MRI, and blood samples were subject to toxicology (hematology, biochemistry) and inflammatory marker analysis. Targeted, doxorubicin-loaded minicells rapidly localized to the core of brain tumors. Complete resolution or marked tumor regression (>90% reduction in tumor volume) were observed in 23.53% of the cohort, with lasting anti-tumor responses characterized by remission in three dogs for more than two years. The median overall survival was 264 days (range 49 to 973). No adverse clinical, hematological or biochemical effects were observed with repeated administration of EGFRminicellsDox (30 to 98 doses administered in 10 of the 17 dogs). Conclusions/Significance Targeted minicells loaded with doxorubicin were safely administered to dogs with late stage brain cancer and clinical activity was observed. These findings demonstrate the strong potential for clinical applications of targeted, doxorubicin-loaded minicells for the effective treatment of patients with brain cancer. On

  13. Location of brain tumor intersecting white matter tracts predicts patient prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickevicius, Nikolai J; Carle, Alexander B; Bluemel, Trevor; Santarriaga, Stephanie; Schloemer, Fallon; Shumate, Derrick; Connelly, Jennifer; Schmainda, Kathleen M; LaViolette, Peter S

    2015-11-01

    Brain tumor cells invade adjacent normal brain along white matter (WM) bundles of axons. We therefore hypothesized that the location of tumor intersecting WM tracts would be associated with differing survival. This study introduces a method, voxel-wise survival analysis (VSA), to determine the relationship between the location of brain tumor intersecting WM tracts and patient prognosis. 113 primary glioblastoma (GBM) patients were retrospectively analyzed for this study. Patient specific tumor location, defined by contrast-enhancement, was combined with diffusion tensor imaging derived tractography to determine the location of axons intersecting tumor enhancement (AXITEs). VSA was then used to determine the relationship between the AXITE location and patient survival. Tumors intersecting the right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), right and left cortico-spinal tract (CST), and corpus callosum (CC) were associated with decreased overall survival. Tumors intersecting the CST, body of the CC, right ATR, posterior IFOF, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus are associated with decreased progression-free survival (PFS), while tumors intersecting the right genu of the CC and anterior IFOF are associated with increased PFS. Patients with tumors intersecting the ATR, IFOF, CST, or CC had significantly improved survival prognosis if they were additionally treated with bevacizumab. This study demonstrates the usefulness of VSA by locating AXITEs associated with poor prognosis in GBM patients. This information should be included in patient-physician conversations, therapeutic strategy, and clinical trial design. PMID:26376654

  14. A Comparison of Two Human Brain Tumor Segmentation Methods for MRI Data

    CERN Document Server

    Egger, Jan; Bauer, Miriam H A; Kuhnt, Daniela; Carl, Barbara; Freisleben, Bernd; Kolb, Andreas; Nimsky, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The most common primary brain tumors are gliomas, evolving from the cerebral supportive cells. For clinical follow-up, the evaluation of the preoperative tumor volume is essential. Volumetric assessment of tumor volume with manual segmentation of its outlines is a time-consuming process that can be overcome with the help of computerized segmentation methods. In this contribution, two methods for World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV glioma segmentation in the human brain are compared using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patient data from the clinical routine. One method uses balloon inflation forces, and relies on detection of high intensity tumor boundaries that are coupled with the use of contrast agent gadolinium. The other method sets up a directed and weighted graph and performs a min-cut for optimal segmentation results. The ground truth of the tumor boundaries - for evaluating the methods on 27 cases - is manually extracted by neurosurgeons with several years of experience in the resection of glio...

  15. Optically enhanced blood-brain-barrier crossing of plasmonic-active nanoparticles in preclinical brain tumor animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Wilson, Christy M.; Li, Shuqin; Fales, Andrew M.; Liu, Yang; Grant, Gerald; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-02-01

    Nanotechnology provides tremendous biomedical opportunities for cancer diagnosis, imaging, and therapy. In contrast to conventional chemotherapeutic agents where their actual target delivery cannot be easily imaged, integrating imaging and therapeutic properties into one platform facilitates the understanding of pharmacokinetic profiles, and enables monitoring of the therapeutic process in each individual. Such a concept dubbed "theranostics" potentiates translational research and improves precision medicine. One particular challenging application of theranostics involves imaging and controlled delivery of nanoplatforms across blood-brain-barrier (BBB) into brain tissues. Typically, the BBB hinders paracellular flux of drug molecules into brain parenchyma. BBB disrupting agents (e.g. mannitol, focused ultrasound), however, suffer from poor spatial confinement. It has been a challenge to design a nanoplatform not only acts as a contrast agent but also improves the BBB permeation. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of plasmonic gold nanoparticles as both high-resolution optical contrast agent and focalized tumor BBB permeation-inducing agent. We specifically examined the microscopic distribution of nanoparticles in tumor brain animal models. We observed that most nanoparticles accumulated at the tumor periphery or perivascular spaces. Nanoparticles were present in both endothelial cells and interstitial matrices. This study also demonstrated a novel photothermal-induced BBB permeation. Fine-tuning the irradiating energy induced gentle disruption of the vascular integrity, causing short-term extravasation of nanomaterials but without hemorrhage. We conclude that our gold nanoparticles are a powerful biocompatible contrast agent capable of inducing focal BBB permeation, and therefore envision a strong potential of plasmonic gold nanoparticle in future brain tumor imaging and therapy.

  16. MR imaging of gestational trophoblastic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Bum; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Hak Hee; Lee, Eun Ja; Lee, Jae Hee; Song, Ha Hun; Kim, Taek Geun; Ro, Sang Chun; Jee, Mi Kyung; Chung, Jae Geun [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-15

    To evaluate the MR findings of gestational trophoblastic tumor(GTT) in correlation with pathological results. Nine patients who confirmed the diagnosis (four choriocarcinomas and five invasive moles) constituted the basis of our study. Pathologic specimens were taken from the tumors corresponding to the regions of interest on MR images The MR images were analyzed in respect of the morphology and signal intensity of the tumors, uterine and adnexal vascularity, and the adnexal lesion. The MR findings of four choriocarcinomas were well-defined, hemorrhagic masses with central necrosis; the masses were hyperintense on T1-weighted images. In contrast, the five invasive moles showed irregular and permeative masses with densely enhanced solid components and tiny cystic lesion. The trophoblstic proliferation, coagulation necrosis, and molar villi had variable signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images. Our results suggest that MR imaging is a promising tool for noninvasive morphologic analysis of GTTS.

  17. Brain tumor classification and segmentation using sparse coding and dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Al-Shaikhli, Saif Dawood; Yang, Michael Ying; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel fully automatic framework for multi-class brain tumor classification and segmentation using a sparse coding and dictionary learning method. The proposed framework consists of two steps: classification and segmentation. The classification of the brain tumors is based on brain topology and texture. The segmentation is based on voxel values of the image data. Using K-SVD, two types of dictionaries are learned from the training data and their associated ground truth segmentation: feature dictionary and voxel-wise coupled dictionaries. The feature dictionary consists of global image features (topological and texture features). The coupled dictionaries consist of coupled information: gray scale voxel values of the training image data and their associated label voxel values of the ground truth segmentation of the training data. For quantitative evaluation, the proposed framework is evaluated using different metrics. The segmentation results of the brain tumor segmentation (MICCAI-BraTS-2013) database are evaluated using five different metric scores, which are computed using the online evaluation tool provided by the BraTS-2013 challenge organizers. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves an accurate brain tumor classification and segmentation and outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26351901

  18. Brain tumor classification and segmentation using sparse coding and dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Al-Shaikhli, Saif Dawood; Yang, Michael Ying; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel fully automatic framework for multi-class brain tumor classification and segmentation using a sparse coding and dictionary learning method. The proposed framework consists of two steps: classification and segmentation. The classification of the brain tumors is based on brain topology and texture. The segmentation is based on voxel values of the image data. Using K-SVD, two types of dictionaries are learned from the training data and their associated ground truth segmentation: feature dictionary and voxel-wise coupled dictionaries. The feature dictionary consists of global image features (topological and texture features). The coupled dictionaries consist of coupled information: gray scale voxel values of the training image data and their associated label voxel values of the ground truth segmentation of the training data. For quantitative evaluation, the proposed framework is evaluated using different metrics. The segmentation results of the brain tumor segmentation (MICCAI-BraTS-2013) database are evaluated using five different metric scores, which are computed using the online evaluation tool provided by the BraTS-2013 challenge organizers. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves an accurate brain tumor classification and segmentation and outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  19. Tl-201 and Tc-99m-Sestamibi SPECT for brain tumor detection: Comparison using MRI coregistration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcourt, J.; Itti, L.; Chang, L. [UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    Tl-201 (Tl) brain SPECT has been validated for the differential diagnosis of high versus low grade gliomas and recurrence versus radiation necrosis. We compared this technique to Tc-99m-Sestamibi (MIBI) SPECT in 9 patients (pts) with brain tumors using MRI coregistration. Pts were injected with 4 mCi of Tl and brain SPECT was performed using a dedicated brain system. This was immediately following by an injection of 20 mCi of MIBI and a brain SPECT using the same camera and with the pt in the same position. Four pts were studied for the diagnosis of radiation necrosis vs. tumor recurrence (2 had biopsy proven recurrence); 5 pts were studied for primary tumor evaluation: 2 meningiomas, 1 oligodendroglioma, 1 low-grade astrocytoma, 1 cysticercosis. Coregistration was performed for every pt by 3D surface fitting of the inner skull MIBI contour to the MRI brain surface extracted automatically. ROIs were drawn on the MRI and applied to the coregistered MIBI and Tl images for tumor to non-tumor ratios T/NT calculations. There was a tight correlation between MIBI and Tl T/NT (r-0.96) and a 1.5 threshold separated radiation necrosis from recurrence and low from high grade primary tumors. Therefore, the data already available on Tl brain tumor imaging can be used with MIBI SPECT with the advantage of a better image quality (2.5 to 4 times more counts).

  20. Imaging of childhood inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguz, Berna; Ozcan, Hatice Nursun; Omay, Burak; Ozgen, Burce; Haliloglu, Mithat [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Altindag / Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-10-15

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare benign neoplasm and most commonly involves the lung but occurs in extrapulmonary locations. To present imaging findings in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors in children based on a single-centre experience. We retrospectively reviewed CT and MRI findings of children diagnosed with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in a single institution. We identified 15 children (range: 1-17 years) with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The tumor was localized to the lung (n = 5), mediastinum (n = 3), trachea (n = 1), bronchus (n = 1), abdomen (n = 2) and orbit (n = 3). All the extraorbital tumors were solid masses with homogeneous or heterogeneous enhancement. Four lung tumors and one posterior mediastinal tumor contained calcification. Local recurrence following surgical removal occurred in two children with invasion of the esophagus and of the left atrium in one. Localized masses were seen in all children with orbital tumour. Two of these had episcleritis and perineuritis; one had episcleritis, tendonitis, perineuritis, myositis and dacryoadenitis. The locations and imaging features of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are variable. (orig.)

  1. Crossing the barrier: treatment of brain tumors using nanochain particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karathanasis, Efstathios; Ghaghada, Ketan B

    2016-09-01

    Despite advancements in surgery and radiotherapy, the aggressive forms of brain tumors, such as gliomas, are still uniformly lethal with current therapies offering only palliation complicated by significant toxicities. Gliomas are characteristically diffuse with infiltrating edges, resistant to drugs and nearly inaccessible to systemic therapies due to the brain-tumor barrier. Currently, aggressive efforts are underway to further understand brain-tumor's microenvironment and identify brain tumor cell-specific regulators amenable to pharmacologic interventions. While new potent agents are continuously becoming available, efficient drug delivery to brain tumors remains a limiting factor. To tackle the drug delivery issues, a multicomponent chain-like nanoparticle has been developed. These nanochains are comprised of iron oxide nanospheres and a drug-loaded liposome chemically linked into a 100-nm linear, chain-like assembly with high precision. The nanochain possesses a unique ability to scavenge the tumor endothelium. By utilizing effective vascular targeting, the nanochains achieve rapid deposition on the vascular bed of glioma sites establishing well-distributed drug reservoirs on the endothelium of brain tumors. After reaching the target sites, an on-command, external low-power radiofrequency field can remotely trigger rapid drug release, due to mechanical disruption of the liposome, facilitating widespread and effective drug delivery into regions harboring brain tumor cells. Integration of the nanochain delivery system with the appropriate combination of complementary drugs has the potential to unfold the field and allow significant expansion of therapies for the disease where success is currently very limited. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:678-695. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1387 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  2. Crossing the barrier: treatment of brain tumors using nanochain particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karathanasis, Efstathios; Ghaghada, Ketan B

    2016-09-01

    Despite advancements in surgery and radiotherapy, the aggressive forms of brain tumors, such as gliomas, are still uniformly lethal with current therapies offering only palliation complicated by significant toxicities. Gliomas are characteristically diffuse with infiltrating edges, resistant to drugs and nearly inaccessible to systemic therapies due to the brain-tumor barrier. Currently, aggressive efforts are underway to further understand brain-tumor's microenvironment and identify brain tumor cell-specific regulators amenable to pharmacologic interventions. While new potent agents are continuously becoming available, efficient drug delivery to brain tumors remains a limiting factor. To tackle the drug delivery issues, a multicomponent chain-like nanoparticle has been developed. These nanochains are comprised of iron oxide nanospheres and a drug-loaded liposome chemically linked into a 100-nm linear, chain-like assembly with high precision. The nanochain possesses a unique ability to scavenge the tumor endothelium. By utilizing effective vascular targeting, the nanochains achieve rapid deposition on the vascular bed of glioma sites establishing well-distributed drug reservoirs on the endothelium of brain tumors. After reaching the target sites, an on-command, external low-power radiofrequency field can remotely trigger rapid drug release, due to mechanical disruption of the liposome, facilitating widespread and effective drug delivery into regions harboring brain tumor cells. Integration of the nanochain delivery system with the appropriate combination of complementary drugs has the potential to unfold the field and allow significant expansion of therapies for the disease where success is currently very limited. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:678-695. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1387 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26749497

  3. Characterizing intraocular tumors with photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Xue, Yafang; Gursel, Zeynep; Slimani, Naziha; Wang, Xueding; Demirci, Hakan

    2016-03-01

    Intraocular tumors are life-threatening conditions. Long-term mortality from uveal melanoma, which accounts for 80% of primary intraocular tumors, could be as high as 25% depending on the size, ciliary body involvement and extraocular extension. The treatments of intraocular tumors include eye-sparing approaches such as radiotherapy and thermotherapy, and the more aggressive enucleation. The accurate diagnosis of intraocular tumors is thereby critical in the management and follow-up of the patients. The diagnosis of intraocular tumors is usually based on clinical examination with acoustic backscattering based ultrasonography. By analyzing the high frequency fluctuations within the ultrasound (US) signals, microarchitecture information inside the tumor can be characterized. However, US cannot interrogate the histochemical components formulating the microarchitecture. One representative example is the inability of US imaging (and other contemporary imaging modalities as well) in differentiating nevoid and melanoma cells as the two types of cells possesses similar acoustic backscattering properties. Combining optical and US imaging, photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode both the microarchitecture and histochemical component information in biological tissue. This study attempts to characterize ocular tumors by analyzing the high frequency signal components in the multispectral PA images. Ex vivo human eye globes with melanoma and retinoblastoma tumors were scanned using less than 6 mJ per square centimeters laser energy with tunable range of 600-1700 nm. A PA-US parallel imaging system with US probes CL15-7 and L22-14 were used to acquire the high frequency PA signals in real time. Preliminary results show that the proposed method can identify uveal melanoma against retinoblastoma tumors.

  4. Stereotactic interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of oligodendroglial brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Majdoub, Faycal; Neudorfer, Clemens; Maarouf, Mohammad [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); University of Witten/Herdecke, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Center of Neurosurgery, Cologne-Merheim Medical Center (CMMC), Cologne (Germany); Blau, Tobias; Deckert, Martina [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Neuropathology, Cologne (Germany); Hellmich, Martin [University Hospital of Cologne, Institute of Statistics, Informatics and Epidemiology, Cologne (Germany); Buehrle, Christian [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); Sturm, Volker [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); University Hospital of Wurzburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    We evaluated the treatment of oligodendroglial brain tumors with interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) using {sup 125}iodine seeds ({sup 125}I) and analyzed prognostic factors. Between January 1991 and December 2010, 63 patients (median age 43.3 years, range 20.8-63.4 years) suffering from oligodendroglial brain tumors were treated with {sup 125}I IBT either as primary, adjuvantly after incomplete resection, or as salvage therapy after tumor recurrence. Possible prognostic factors influencing disease progression and survival were retrospectively investigated. The actuarial 2-, 5-, and 10-year overall and progression-free survival rates after IBT for WHO II tumors were 96.9, 96.9, 89.8 % and 96.9, 93.8, 47.3 %; for WHO III tumors 90.3, 77, 54.9 % and 80.6, 58.4, 45.9 %, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete remission in 2 patients, partial remission in 13 patients, stable disease in 17 patients and tumor progression in 31 patients. Median time to progression for WHO II tumors was 87.6 months and for WHO III tumors 27.8 months. Neurological status improved in 10 patients and remained stable in 20 patients, while 9 patients deteriorated. There was no treatment-related mortality. Treatment-related morbidity was transient in 11 patients. WHO II, KPS ≥ 90 %, frontal location, and tumor surface dose > 50 Gy were associated with increased overall survival (p ≤ 0.05). Oligodendroglioma and frontal location were associated with a prolonged progression-free survival (p ≤ 0.05). Our study indicates that IBT achieves local control rates comparable to surgery and radio-/chemotherapy treatment, is minimally invasive, and safe. Due to the low rate of side effects, IBT may represent an attractive option as part of a multimodal treatment schedule, being supplementary to microsurgery or as a salvage therapy after chemotherapy and conventional irradiation. (orig.) [German] Die Behandlung oligodendroglialer Hirntumoren durch die interstitielle Brachytherapie

  5. Differentiation of brain abscesses from glioblastomas and metastatic brain tumors: comparisons of diagnostic performance of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging before and after mathematic contrast leakage correction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hong Toh

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic performance of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI before and after mathematic contrast leakage correction in differentiating pyogenic brain abscesses from glioblastomas and/or metastatic brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cerebral blood volume (CBV, leakage-corrected CBV and leakage coefficient K2 were measured in enhancing rims, perifocal edema and contralateral normal appearing white matter (NAWM of 17 abscesses, 19 glioblastomas and 20 metastases, respectively. The CBV and corrected CBV were normalized by dividing the values in the enhancing rims or edema to those of contralateral NAWM. For each study group, a paired t test was used to compare the K2 of the enhancing rims or edema with those of NAWM, as well as between CBV and corrected CBV of the enhancing rims or edema. ANOVA was used to compare CBV, corrected CBV and K2 among three lesion types. The diagnostic performance of CBV and corrected CBV was assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. RESULTS: The CBV and correction CBV of enhancing rim were 1.45±1.17 and 1.97±1.01 for abscesses, 3.85±2.19 and 4.39±2.33 for glioblastomas, and 2.39±0.90 and 2.97±0.78 for metastases, respectively. The CBV and corrected CBV in the enhancing rim of abscesses were significantly lower than those of glioblastomas and metastases (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively. In differentiating abscesses from glioblastomas and metastases, the AUC values of corrected CBV (0.822 were slightly higher than those of CBV (0.792. CONCLUSIONS: Mathematic leakage correction slightly increases the diagnostic performance of CBV in differentiating pyogenic abscesses from necrotic glioblastomas and cystic metastases. Clinically, DSC perfusion MRI may not need mathematic leakage correction in differentiating abscesses from glioblastomas and/or metastases.

  6. PET tracer for imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a radiolabelled peptide-based compound for diagnostic imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). The compound may thus be used for diagnosis of malignant diseases. The compound is particularly useful for imaging of somatostatin overexpression in tumors, wherein the compound...

  7. Development in NMR spiral imaging and application to the assessment of the permeability of the blood-brain barrier on 2 models of brain tumors; Developpements en imagerie RMN spirale et application a la caracterisation de la permeabilite de la barriere hemato-encephalique sur deux modeles de tumeurs intracerebrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumont, M

    2007-12-15

    The results presented in this work were obtained as part of methodological developments in magnetic resonance imaging. First of all, the setting of the rapid imaging technique using a k-space sampling scheme along a variable density spiral is described. Numerical simulations were used to optimize the acquisitions parameters and to compare different reconstruction techniques. An original approach to calibrate the k-space trajectory was proposed. Then, spiral imaging was used to implement a method to measure the blood brain barrier permeability to Gd-DOTA. This protocol was combined to blood volume and vessel size index measurements using Sinerem. The results obtained highlighted differences between the microvascular parameters measured on C6 and RG2 tumor models. The presence of Sinerem induces a mean decrease of the transfer constant across the vascular wall (Ktrans), in the tumor, of 24 per cent. This study also showed extravasation of the Sinerem, during the first two hours after the product injection, only in the RG2 tumors. (author)

  8. Brain Image Representation and Rendering: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudassar Raza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain image representation and rendering processes are basically used for evaluation, development and investigation consent experimental examination and formation of brain images of a variety of modalities that includes the major brain types like MEG, EEG, PET, MRI, CT or microscopy. So, there is a need to conduct a study to review the existing work in this area. This paper provides a review of different existing techniques and methods regarding the brain image representation and rendering. Image Rendering is the method of generating an image by means of a model, through computer programs. The basic purpose of brain image representation and rendering processes is to analyze the brain images precisely in order to effectively diagnose and examine the diseases and problems. The basic objective of this study is to evaluate and discuss different techniques and approaches proposed in order to handle different brain imaging types. The paper provides a short overview of different methods, in the form of advantages and limitations, presented in the prospect of brain image representation and rendering along with their sub categories proposed by different authors.

  9. Update on imaging diagnosis of adrenal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging diagnosis of adrenal tumors is increasingly frequent. Characterization and differentiation of benign adenomas and malignant injures is very important, mainly in the patient with malignant or functioning disease. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography allowed greater precision in characterizing and differentiating the adrenal masses in a non-invasive way. This review explained the physiological principles supporting these techniques, its advantages and restrictions. The main characteristics of the most frequent adrenal tumor images were described, in addition to submitting an algorithm for the use of these diagnostic means

  10. Imaging of cerebritis, encephalitis, and brain abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Tanya J; Hughes, Marion; Arabi, Mohammad; Shah, Gaurang V

    2012-11-01

    Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of brain abscess, pyogenic infection, and encephalitis. The role of CT and MRI in the diagnosis and management of pyogenic brain abscess and its complications is reviewed. The imaging appearances of several common and select uncommon infectious encephalitides are reviewed. Common causes of encephalitis in immunocompromised patients, and their imaging appearances, are also discussed. When combined with CSF, serologic studies and patient history, imaging findings can suggest the cause of encephalitis. PMID:23122258

  11. MR spectroscopy in children: protocols and pitfalls in non-tumorous brain pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jacques F. [University Children' s Hospital Basel (UKBB), Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) delivers information about cell content and metabolism in a noninvasive manner. The diagnostic strength of MRS lies in its evaluation of pathologies in combination with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRS in children has been most widely used to evaluate brain conditions like tumors, infections, metabolic diseases or learning disabilities and especially in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This article reviews some basic theoretical considerations, routine procedures, protocols and pitfalls and will illustrate the range of spectrum alterations occurring in some non-tumorous pediatric brain pathologies. (orig.)

  12. Synchrotron supported DEI/KES of a brain tumor in an animal model: The search for a microimaging modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, K. A.; Schültke, E.; Menk, R. H.; Siu, K.; Pavlov, K.; Kelly, M.; McLoughlin, G.; Beveridge, T.; Tromba, G.; Juurlink, B. H.; Chapman, D.; Rigon, L.; Griebel, R. W.

    2005-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the commonest and most aggressive primary brain tumor in humans. The high rate of tumor recurrence results in a poor prognosis despite multimodality treatment. One reason for high rate of recurrence is the invasive nature of the tumor into the surrounding normal brain tissue or multifocal occurrence at sites remote from that of the primary tumor establishment. Existing imaging demonstrates the primary tumor but fail to show the residual tumor microaggregates left behind following initial treatment. In this study, we employed diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) in an attempt to find an imaging modality that will provide visualization of residual disease that is not be apparent on MRI or CT scans.

  13. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography for ex vivo brain tumor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Marcel; Krug, Robin; Jaedicke, Volker; Stroop, Ralf; Schmieder, Kirsten; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2015-07-01

    Non-contact imaging methods to distinguish between healthy tissue and brain tumor tissue during surgery would be highly desirable but are not yet available. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technology with a resolution around 1-15 μm and a penetration depth of 1-2 mm that may satisfy the demands. To analyze its potential, we measured ex vivo human brain tumor tissue samples from 10 patients with a Spectral Domain OCT system (Thorlabs Callisto: center wavelength of 930 nm) and compared the results with standard histology. In detail, three different measurements were made for each sample. First the sample was measured directly after surgery. Then it was embedded in paraffin (also H and E staining) and examined for the second time. At last, the slices of each paraffin block cut by the pathology were measured. Each time a B-scan was created and for a better comparison with the histology a 3D image was generated, in order to get the corresponding en face images. In both, histopathological diagnosis and the analysis of the OCT images, different types of brain tumor showed difference in structure. This has been affirmed by two blinded investigators. Nevertheless the difference between two images of samples taken directly after surgery is less distinct. To enhance the contrast in the images further, we employ Spectroscopic OCT and pattern recognition algorithms and compare these results to the histopathological standard.

  14. Noninvasive detection of temozolomide in brain tumor xenografts by magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Y.; Holm, David Alberg; Okollie, B.;

    2010-01-01

    MG human brain cancer. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the low-molecular-weight contrast agent, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (GdDTPA), was used to evaluate tumor vascular parameters. Carbon-13-labeled TMZ ([C-13]TMZ, 99%) was intraperitoneally administered at a dose...... experiments demonstrated slower recovery of MRI signal following an intravenous bolus injection of GdDTPA, higher vascular flow and volume obtained by T-2*-weighted MRI, as well as enhanced uptake of the contrast agent in the brain tumor compared with normal brain detected by T-1-weighted MRI. These data...... detection of drug directly in the tumor can be critically important for accessing, predicting, and eventually improving effectiveness of therapy. In this study, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to detect an anticancer agent, temozolomide (TMZ), in vivo in murine xenotransplants of U87...

  15. Childhood kidney tumors - the relevance of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidney tumors represent 6.2% of malignant tumors in children. History, clinical course and radiological findings are necessary elements in the differential diagnosis of the different renal tumors. In the case of nephroblastoma, chemotherapy is based solely on the radiological diagnosis without prior histology. In therapy-optimizing studies of the Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, preoperative chemotherapy is performed. Therapy monitoring is performed in the course of and after preoperative chemotherapy to verify tumor response. Radiological staging plays a significant role in deciding on further treatment and in operative planning. Three-dimensional visualization of the abdominal situs can assist preoperative planning. In summary, diagnostic imaging in renal tumors in children plays a role in differential diagnosis, staging, monitoring of therapy, and surgical planning. (orig.)

  16. A Generative Probabilistic Model and Discriminative Extensions for Brain Lesion Segmentation - With Application to Tumor and Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menze, Bjoern H.; Van Leemput, Koen; Lashkari, Danial;

    2016-01-01

    jointly from the image data. It delineates lesion areas individually in each channel, allowing for differences in lesion appearance across modalities, an important feature of many brain tumor imaging sequences. We also propose discriminative model extensions to map the output of the generative model...... patient scans, and multimodal brain images of patients with acute and subacute ischemic stroke. We find the generative model that has been designed for tumor lesions to generalize well to stroke images, and the extended discriminative-discriminative model to be one of the top ranking methods in the BRATS...

  17. Visualization of brain tumor using I-123-vascular endothelial growth factor scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Aim:Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major angiogenic factor. VEGF receptors have been shown to be overexpressed in a variety of tumor vessels including glioblastoma, which may provide the molecular basis for a successful use of radiolabeled VEGF as tumor angiogenesis tracer. In this study we investigated the usefulness of 1231- VEGF as angiogenesis tracer for imaging brain tumors in vivo. Methods and Results: SPECT examinations were performed 30 minutes and 18 hours after intravenous application of 1231-VEGF (191 ± 15 MBq) in 20 patients with brain tumor. Glioblastomas were visualized in 7 of 8 patients (88 %) shortly after application of 1231- VEGF and were still clearly shown 18 hours post injection. Negative scan results were obtained in one patient with a small glioblastoma size (diameter <2.0 cm) and in 3 patients with benign glioma as well as in 5 patients with glioblastoma after receiving radiotherapy and for chemotherapy. Weak positive results were obtained in 3 patients with brain lymphoma or other tumors. No side effects were observed in patients after administration of 1231- VEG F. Conclusion: Our results indicate that 1231- VEGF scintigraphy may be useful to visualize the angiogenesis of brain tumors and to monitor the treatment response.

  18. Linking brain imaging signals to visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchman, Andrew E; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2013-11-01

    The rapid advances in brain imaging technology over the past 20 years are affording new insights into cortical processing hierarchies in the human brain. These new data provide a complementary front in seeking to understand the links between perceptual and physiological states. Here we review some of the challenges associated with incorporating brain imaging data into such "linking hypotheses," highlighting some of the considerations needed in brain imaging data acquisition and analysis. We discuss work that has sought to link human brain imaging signals to existing electrophysiological data and opened up new opportunities in studying the neural basis of complex perceptual judgments. We consider a range of approaches when using human functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify brain circuits whose activity changes in a similar manner to perceptual judgments and illustrate these approaches by discussing work that has studied the neural basis of 3D perception and perceptual learning. Finally, we describe approaches that have sought to understand the information content of brain imaging data using machine learning and work that has integrated multimodal data to overcome the limitations associated with individual brain imaging approaches. Together these approaches provide an important route in seeking to understand the links between physiological and psychological states.

  19. Brain tumor segmentation in MR slices using improved GrowCut algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chunhong; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Liang; Shi, Zhifeng; Mao, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The detection of brain tumor from MR images is very significant for medical diagnosis and treatment. However, the existing methods are mostly based on manual or semiautomatic segmentation which are awkward when dealing with a large amount of MR slices. In this paper, a new fully automatic method for the segmentation of brain tumors in MR slices is presented. Based on the hypothesis of the symmetric brain structure, the method improves the interactive GrowCut algorithm by further using the bounding box algorithm in the pre-processing step. More importantly, local reflectional symmetry is used to make up the deficiency of the bounding box method. After segmentation, 3D tumor image is reconstructed. We evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method on MR slices with synthetic tumors and actual clinical MR images. Result of the proposed method is compared with the actual position of simulated 3D tumor qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition, our automatic method produces equivalent performance as manual segmentation and the interactive GrowCut with manual interference while providing fully automatic segmentation.

  20. Imaging diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the feature of solitary fibrous tumor on CT and MRI. Methods: The clinical and imaging data A of 10 cases with pathologically confirmed solitary fibrous tumor analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent un-enhanced and dual-phase enhanced CT scanning, and post-processing reconstruction were done in 7 cases. 5 cases underwent plain enhanced MRI simultaneously. Results: The tumor located in pleural in 5 cases, lung in 2 cases, retroperitoneal in 2 cases, peritoneum in 1 cases. The diameter of tumor was of 5.5-27 cm range. The boundary was clear in 8 cases not in 2 cases. The density was even in 6 cases, and with cystic necrosis in 5 cases. The solid components of tumor was homogeneous enhanced lightly to moderately with continued strengthen in parenchymal phase. Obviously enhancement was found in 1 case and calcification appeared in 1 case. Conclusion: Imaging findings solitary fibrous tumor are characteristic. CT and MRI have a great diagnostic and differential diagnostic value in solitary fibrous tumor. (authors)

  1. Multidrug resistance (MDR) in brain tumors; its clinical importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. Z. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia (United States); Park, C. H.; Kim, S. M.; Cho, K. K.; Bai, M. S.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W.; Jin, Y. M.; Kim, Y. S. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    MDR is one of the important factors affecting chemotherapy in high grade brain malignancies. Especially it affects commonly used agents such as vincristine, VP16, VM26, and cisplatin. MDR1 gene encoded P-glycoprotein (Pgp) prevents intratumoral retention of such drugs by expelling them at the plasma membrance of brain tumor cells. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate MDR in various brain tumors including metastatic tumors including metastatic tumors by dual isotope SPECT, Northern blotting or immunohistochemical staining (IHCS) using JSB-1 monoclonal antibody against MDR1 gene encoded Pgp. Twenty one patients with various brain tumors of primary, secondary, and recurrent tumors were included from 2 institutions. Whenever possible, surgical specimen from these patients were obtained to study MDR. SPET was performed with a tripple head system (Trionix, Twinsburg, Ohio or MultiSPECT 3, Siemens). Three millicuries of {sup 201}Tl chloride and 20 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi were adminstered and SPET was performed in about 15 min. Nineteen percent of patients had MIBI (-) and Tl (+) suggesting MDR (+). MIBI tumor uptake was higher in recurrence (6.67 +/- 1.3) than the stable original tumors (3.12 +/-0.77) (For {sup 201}Tl, 3.65 +/-2.2 Vs 1.5 +/-0.41). Three recurrent gliomas biopsied showed positive blotting and these patients failed several courses of chemotherapy. Six patients with various tumors such as oligodendroglioma, meningioma, recurrent G-M (2), and astrocytoma (2) were studied by IHCS, Weakly positive MDR was seen in one recurrent G-M and an astrocytoma case. Positive MDR was seen in the other recurrent G-M and a meningioma. In conclusion, MDR in brain tumors is detected successfully by dual isotope SPECT studies in a limited number of patients. MDR in benign brain tumors has no clinical significance since they are cured by surgical removal. However, we believe its presence in metastatic and high grade especially recurrent tumors is an

  2. Multi-fractal texture features for brain tumor and edema segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, S.; Iftekharuddin, K. M.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we propose a fully automatic brain tumor and edema segmentation technique in brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. Different brain tissues are characterized using the novel texture features such as piece-wise triangular prism surface area (PTPSA), multi-fractional Brownian motion (mBm) and Gabor-like textons, along with regular intensity and intensity difference features. Classical Random Forest (RF) classifier is used to formulate the segmentation task as classification of these features in multi-modal MRIs. The segmentation performance is compared with other state-of-art works using a publicly available dataset known as Brain Tumor Segmentation (BRATS) 2012 [1]. Quantitative evaluation is done using the online evaluation tool from Kitware/MIDAS website [2]. The results show that our segmentation performance is more consistent and, on the average, outperforms other state-of-the art works in both training and challenge cases in the BRATS competition.

  3. Brain Tumor Detection Based on Bilateral Symmetry Information

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin, Narkhede; Shah, Deven; Khairnar, Vaishali; Kadu, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Advances in computing technology have allowed researchers across many fields of endeavor to collect and maintain vast amounts of observational statistical data such as clinical data,biological patient data,data regarding access of web sites,financial data,and the like.Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI)segmentation is a complex problem in the field of medical imaging despite various presented methods.MR image of human brain can be divided into several sub regions especially soft tissues suc...

  4. Assessment of serum L-fucose in brain tumor cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glycosylation of altered tumor cell in relation to cellular heterogeneity in human intracranial tumors remains relatively unexposed. Serum protein-bound carbohydrate, L-Fucose is reported to be overexpressed during tumor progression by many investigators. Therefore, there is a need to determine the diagnostic, prognostic, functional significance of glycoprotein elevations in various cases of tumors. Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility of serum L-fucose in patients with brain tumor. Materials and Methods: Serum glyco-conjugate levels were estimated in 99 patients with brain tumors. Estimation of L-fucose was carried out colorimetrically by the method of Winzler using cysteine hydrochloride. Results: There was a significant increase in L-fucose level in most of the patients. In the posttreatment cases, the L-fucose levels were apparently low compared to preoperative values. Conclusion: Our results showed that the rise in serum L-fucose may be used as a general marker for brain tumors in addition to other markers.

  5. Molecular Imaging of Tumors Using a Quantitative T1 Mapping Technique via Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Herrmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM with molecular imaging agents would allow for the specific localization of brain tumors. Prior studies using T1-weighted MR imaging demonstrated that the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 molecular imaging agent labeled heterotopic xenograft models of brain tumors more intensely than non-specific contrast agents using conventional T1-weighted imaging techniques. In this study, we used a dynamic quantitative T1 mapping strategy to more objectively compare intra-tumoral retention of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent over time in comparison to non-targeted control agents. Our results demonstrate that the targeted SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent, a scrambled-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 control agent, and the non-specific clinical contrast agent Optimark™ all enhanced flank tumors of human glioma cells with similar maximal changes on T1 mapping. However, the retention of the agents differs. The non-specific agents show significant recovery within 20 min by an increase in T1 while the specific agent SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 is retained in the tumors and shows little recovery over 60 min. The retention effect is demonstrated by percent change in T1 values and slope calculations as well as by calculations of gadolinium concentration in tumor compared to muscle. Quantitative T1 mapping demonstrates the superior binding and retention in tumors of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent over time compared to the non-specific contrast agent currently in clinical use.

  6. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: A rare brain tumor not to be misdiagnosed

    OpenAIRE

    Sukheeja, Deepti; Mehta, Jayanti

    2016-01-01

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET) is a recently described, morphologically unique, and surgically curable low-grade brain tumor which is included in the latest WHO classification as neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumor. It is usually seen in children and young adults. The importance of this particular entity is that it is a surgically curable neuroepithelial neoplasm. When recognized, the need for adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is obviated. We hereby present a case repo...

  7. Application Of Fuzzy System In Segmentation Of MRI Brain Tumor

    CERN Document Server

    Rajya, Mrigank; Sheoran, Swati

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation of images holds an important position in the area of image processing. It becomes more important whi le typically dealing with medical images where presurgery and post surgery decisions are required for the purpose of initiating and speeding up the recovery process. Segmentation of 3-D tumor structures from magnetic resonance images (MRI) is a very challenging problem due to the variability of tumor geometry and intensity patterns. Level set evolution combining global smoothness with the flexibility of topology changes offers significant advantages over the conventional statistical classification followed by mathematical morphology. Level set evolution with constant propagation needs to be initialized either completely inside or outside the tumor and can leak through weak or missing boundary parts. Replacing the constant propagation term by a statistical force overcomes these limitations and results in a convergence to a stable solution. Using MR images presenting tumors, probabilities for backgr...

  8. Brain MR imaging in dietarily treated phenylketonuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breysem, L. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Smet, M.H. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Johannik, K. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Hecke, P. van [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Francois, B. [L. Willems Inst., Diepenbeek (Belgium); Wilms, G. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, H. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Marchal, G. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Jaeken, J. [Dept. of Pediatrics, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Demaerel, P. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    1994-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is the most efficient imaging modality to evaluate brain gray and white matter of patients with metabolic diseases. The main purpose of our study was to investigate the relation between brain MRI abnormalities and the phenylalanine (phe) and tyrosine (tyr) blood levels in 38 phenylketonuria (PKU) patients. Increased periventricular white matter intensity on T2-weighted brain images was the only pathologic finding in 24 patients. Brain MRI abnormalities were scored (4) and correlated with the individual mean phe and phe/tyr levels during 1 year preceding MR examination and with phe tolerance. The residual activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase was defined for each patient by an oral phe tolerance. The appearance of MRI abnormalities on brain T2-weighted images correlates with a threshold mean phe level (averaged over the year preceding the examination). (orig.)

  9. Comparison of brain activation to purposefully activate a tool in healthy subjects and brain tumor patients using fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the functional organization of the human brain involved in tool-manipulation. Blood Oxygen Level Dependent was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging in seventeen right-handed healthy volunteers and two brain tumor patients during two tool-manipulation tasks: simulated tightening a bolt with a screwdriver (Simulation), and tightening a bolt with a screwdriver (Real). Subjects performed the experiment without watching the tasks. Bilateral pre-supplementary motor areas, bilateral cerebellar posterior lobes, right ventral premotor area, right calcarine sulcus, and cerebellar vermis were activated during Real but not during Simulation tasks in healthy volunteers. In addition, brain tumor patients activated the prefrontal areas. Our results suggest that the human brain mechanisms for tool-manipulation have a neural-network comprised of presupplementary motor area, ventral premotor area, and bilateral cerebellar posterior lobes. In the patients with brain dusfurction diee to tumors, activation at the prefrontal area provided function compensation without motor paralysis. (author)

  10. Photon spectrum and absorbed dose in brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Monte Carlo methods a BOMAB phantom inside a treatment hall with a brain tumor nearby the pituitary gland was treated with photons produced by a Varian 6 MV linac. The photon spectrum and the absorbed dose were calculated in the tumor, pituitary gland and the head. The treatment beam was collimated to illuminate only the tumor volume; however photons were noticed in the gland. Photon fluence reaching the tumor is 78.1 times larger than the fluence in the pituitary gland, on the other hand the absorbed dose in the tumor is 188 times larger than the dose in the gland because photons that reach the pituitary gland are scattered, by the head and the tumor, through Compton effect. (Author)

  11. Photon spectrum and absorbed dose in brain tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva S, A. [General Electric Healthcare, Antonio Dovali Jaime 70, Torre A 3er. piso, Col. Santa Fe, 01210 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria No. 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Using Monte Carlo methods a BOMAB phantom inside a treatment hall with a brain tumor nearby the pituitary gland was treated with photons produced by a Varian 6 MV linac. The photon spectrum and the absorbed dose were calculated in the tumor, pituitary gland and the head. The treatment beam was collimated to illuminate only the tumor volume; however photons were noticed in the gland. Photon fluence reaching the tumor is 78.1 times larger than the fluence in the pituitary gland, on the other hand the absorbed dose in the tumor is 188 times larger than the dose in the gland because photons that reach the pituitary gland are scattered, by the head and the tumor, through Compton effect. (Author)

  12. Modeling tumor-associated edema in gliomas during anti-angiogenic therapy and its impact on imageable tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eHawkins-Daarud

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of primary brain tumor is predominantly assessed with gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted (T1Gd and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Pixel intensity enhancement on the T1Gd image is understood to correspond to the gadolinium contrast agent leaking from the tumor-induced neovasculature, while hyperintensity on the T2/FLAIR images corresponds with edema and infiltrated tumor cells. None of these modalities directly show tumor cells; rather, they capture abnormalities in the microenvironment caused by the presence of tumor cells. Thus, assessing disease response after treatments impacting the microenvironment remains challenging through the obscuring lens of MR imaging. Anti-angiogenic therapies have been used in the treatment of gliomas with spurious results ranging from no apparent response to significant imaging improvement with the potential for extremely diffuse patterns of tumor recurrence on imaging and autopsy. Anti-angiogenic treatment normalizes the vasculature, effectively decreasing vessel permeability and thus reducing tumor-induced edema, drastically altering T2-weighted MRI. We extend a previously developed mathematical model of glioma growth to explicitly incorporate edema formation allowing us to directly characterize and potentially predict the effects of anti-angiogenics on imageable tumor growth. A comparison of simulated glioma growth and imaging enhancement with and without bevacizumab supports the current understanding that anti-angiogenic treatment can serve as a surrogate for steroids and the clinically-driven hypothesis that anti-angiogenic treatment may not have any significant effect on the growth dynamics of the overall tumor-cell populations. However, the simulations do illustrate a potentially large impact on the level of edematous extracellular fluid, and thus on what would be imageable on T2/FLAIR MR for tumors with lower proliferation rates.

  13. Quantum dot loaded immunomicelles for tumor imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levchenko Tatyana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optical imaging is a promising method for the detection of tumors in animals, with speed and minimal invasiveness. We have previously developed a lipid coated quantum dot system that doubles the fluorescence of PEG-grafted quantum dots at half the dose. Here, we describe a tumor-targeted near infrared imaging agent composed of cancer-specific monoclonal anti-nucleosome antibody 2C5, coupled to quantum dot (QD-containing polymeric micelles, prepared from a polyethylene glycol/phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE conjugate. Its production is simple and involves no special equipment. Its imaging potential is great since the fluorescence intensity in the tumor is twofold that of non-targeted QD-loaded PEG-PE micelles at one hour after injection. Methods Para-nitrophenol-containing (5% PEG-PE quantum dot micelles were produced by the thin layer method. Following hydration, 2C5 antibody was attached to the PEG-PE micelles and the QD-micelles were purified using dialysis. 4T1 breast tumors were inoculated subcutaneously in the flank of the animals. A lung pseudometastatic B16F10 melanoma model was developed using tail vein injection. The contrast agents were injected via the tail vein and mice were depilated, anesthetized and imaged on a Kodak Image Station. Images were taken at one, two, and four hours and analyzed using a methodology that produces normalized signal-to-noise data. This allowed for the comparison between different subjects and time points. For the pseudometastatic model, lungs were removed and imaged ex vivo at one and twenty four hours. Results The contrast agent signal intensity at the tumor was double that of the passively targeted QD-micelles with equally fast and sharply contrasted images. With the side views of the animals only tumor is visible, while in the dorsal view internal organs including liver and kidney are visible. Ex vivo results demonstrated that the agent detects melanoma nodes in a lung

  14. Expression of iron-related genes in human brain and brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britton Robert S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defective iron homeostasis may be involved in the development of some diseases within the central nervous system. Although the expression of genes involved in normal iron balance has been intensively studied in other tissues, little is known about their expression in the brain. We investigated the mRNA levels of hepcidin (HAMP, HFE, neogenin (NEO1, transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC, transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2, and hemojuvelin (HFE2 in normal human brain, brain tumors, and astrocytoma cell lines. The specimens included 5 normal brain tissue samples, 4 meningiomas, one medulloblastoma, 3 oligodendrocytic gliomas, 2 oligoastrocytic gliomas, 8 astrocytic gliomas, and 3 astrocytoma cell lines. Results Except for hemojuvelin, all genes studied had detectable levels of mRNA. In most tumor types, the pattern of gene expression was diverse. Notable findings include high expression of transferrin receptor 1 in the hippocampus and medulla oblongata compared to other brain regions, low expression of HFE in normal brain with elevated HFE expression in meningiomas, and absence of hepcidin mRNA in astrocytoma cell lines despite expression in normal brain and tumor specimens. Conclusion These results indicate that several iron-related genes are expressed in normal brain, and that their expression may be dysregulated in brain tumors.

  15. CADrx for GBM Brain Tumors: Predicting Treatment Response from Changes in Diffusion-Weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Brown

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop a computer-aided therapeutic response (CADrx system for early prediction of drug treatment response for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM brain tumors with diffusion weighted (DW MR images. In conventional Macdonald assessment, tumor response is assessed nine weeks or more post-treatment. However, we will investigate the ability of DW-MRI to assess response earlier, at five weeks post treatment. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC map, calculated from DW images, has been shown to reveal changes in the tumor’s microenvironment preceding morphologic tumor changes. ADC values in treated brain tumors could theoretically both increase due to the cell kill (and thus reduced cell density and decrease due to inhibition of edema. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of features that quantify changes from pre- and post-treatment tumor ADC histograms to detect treatment response. There are three parts to this study: first, tumor regions were segmented on T1w contrast enhanced images by Otsu’s thresholding method, and mapped from T1w images onto ADC images by a 3D region of interest (ROI mapping tool using DICOM header information; second, ADC histograms of the tumor region were extracted from both pre- and five weeks post-treatment scans, and fitted by a two-component Gaussian mixture model (GMM. The GMM features as well as standard histogram-based features were extracted. Finally, supervised machine learning techniques were applied for classification of responders or non-responders. The approach was evaluated with a dataset of 85 patients with GBM under chemotherapy, in which 39 responded and 46 did not, based on tumor volume reduction. We compared adaBoost, random forest and support vector machine classification algorithms, using ten-fold cross validation, resulting in the best accuracy of 69.41% and the corresponding area under the curve (Az of 0.70.

  16. Clinical Evaluation of a Fully-automatic Segmentation Method for Longitudinal Brain Tumor Volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Raphael; Knecht, Urspeter; Loosli, Tina; Bauer, Stefan; Slotboom, Johannes; Wiest, Roland; Reyes, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Information about the size of a tumor and its temporal evolution is needed for diagnosis as well as treatment of brain tumor patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of a fully-automatic segmentation method, called BraTumIA, for longitudinal brain tumor volumetry by comparing the automatically estimated volumes with ground truth data acquired via manual segmentation. Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging data of 14 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma encompassing 64 MR acquisitions, ranging from preoperative up to 12 month follow-up images, was analysed. Manual segmentation was performed by two human raters. Strong correlations (R = 0.83–0.96, p < 0.001) were observed between volumetric estimates of BraTumIA and of each of the human raters for the contrast-enhancing (CET) and non-enhancing T2-hyperintense tumor compartments (NCE-T2). A quantitative analysis of the inter-rater disagreement showed that the disagreement between BraTumIA and each of the human raters was comparable to the disagreement between the human raters. In summary, BraTumIA generated volumetric trend curves of contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing T2-hyperintense tumor compartments comparable to estimates of human raters. These findings suggest the potential of automated longitudinal tumor segmentation to substitute manual volumetric follow-up of contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing T2-hyperintense tumor compartments. PMID:27001047

  17. Evaluation of brain metastases with dynamic susceptibility-contrast MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the characteristics of dynamic susceptibility-contrast (DSC) MR perfusion curves, color images and perfusion values in pre-operative brain metastasis. Methods: Twenty- eight brain metastases underwent DSC MR perfusion imaging by using a first-pass T2* echo-planar sequence. The patients' data were transferred to on-line workstation. Time-signal intensity curves, color perfusion maps and rCBV, rMTT values in both tumor parenchyma and peri-tumor edema were analyzed, and independent t- test was used and P0.05). Conclusion: Different originated brain metastases have nearly same characteristics in DSC MR perfusion imaging. (authors)

  18. Gonadal status in male survivors following childhood brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, M; Lassen, S; Poulsen, H S;

    2001-01-01

    The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males......The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males...

  19. Training stem cells for treatment of malignant brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengwen; Calvin; Li; Mustafa; H; Kabeer; Long; T; Vu; Vic; Keschrumrus; Hong; Zhen; Yin; Brent; A; Dethlefs; Jiang; F; Zhong; John; H; Weiss; William; G; Loudon

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of malignant brain tumors remains a challenge. Stem cell technology has been applied in the treatment of brain tumors largely because of the ability of some stem cells to infiltrate into regions within the brain where tumor cells migrate as shown in preclinical studies. However, not all of these efforts can translate in the effective treatment that improves the quality of life for pa-tients. Here, we perform a literature review to identify the problems in the field. Given the lack of efficacy of most stem cell-based agents used in the treatment of malignant brain tumors, we found that stem cell distribution(i.e., only a fraction of stem cells applied capable of targeting tumors) are among the limiting factors. We provide guidelines for potential improvements in stem cell distribution. Specifically, we use an engineered tissue graft platform that replicates the in vivo microenvironment, and provide our data to validate that this culture platform is viable for producing stem cells that have better stem cell distribution than with the Petri dish culture system.

  20. Clinical features of depressive disorders in patients with brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogorenko V.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the structure of psychopathology and clinical features of depressive disorders in patients with brain oncopathology. Polymorphic mental disorders of various clinical content and severity in most cases not only are comorbid to oncological pathology of the brain, but most often are the first clinical signs of early tumors. The study was conducted using the following methods: clinical psychiatric, questionnaire Simptom Check List- 90 -Revised-SCL- 90 -R, Luscher test and mathematical processing methods. Sample included 175 patients with brain tumors with non-psychotic level of mental disorders. The peculiarities of mental disorders and psychopathological structure of nonpsychotic depressive disorders have been a clinical option of cancer debut in patients with brain tumors. We found that nonpsychotic depression is characterized by polymorphism and syndromal incompletion; this causes ambiguity of diagnoses interpretation on stages of diagnostic period. Features of depressive symptoms depending on the signs of malignancy / nonmalignancy of brain tumor were defined.

  1. Dysphagia outcomes in patients with brain tumors undergoing inpatient rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesling, Michele; Brady, Susan; Jensen, Mary; Nickell, Melissa; Statkus, Donna; Escobar, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare functional dysphagia outcomes following inpatient rehabilitation for patients with brain tumors with that of patients following a stroke. Group 1 (n = 24) consisted of consecutive admissions to the brain injury program with the diagnosis of brain tumor and dysphagia. Group 2 (n = 24) consisted of matched, consecutive admissions, with the diagnosis of acute stroke and dysphagia. Group 2 was matched for age, site of lesion, and initial composite cognitive FIM score. The main outcome measures for this study included the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) National Outcome Measurement System (NOMS) swallowing scale, length of stay, hospital charges, and medical complications. Results showed that swallowing gains made by both groups as evaluated by the admission and discharge ASHA NOMS levels were considered to be statistically significant. The differences for length of stay, total hospital charges, and speech charges between the two groups were not considered to be statistically significant. Three patients in the brain tumor group (12.5%) demonstrated dysphagia complications of either dehydration or pneumonia during their treatment course as compared to 0% in the stroke group. This study confirms that functional dysphagia gains can be achieved for patients with brain tumors undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and that they should be afforded the same type and intensity of rehabilitation for their swallowing that is provided to patients following a stroke.

  2. Image Processing Technique for Brain Abnormality Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Anwar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging is expensive and very much sophisticated because of proprietary software and expert personalities. This paper introduces an inexpensive, user friendly general-purpose image processing tool and visualization program specifically designed in MATLAB to detect much of the brain disorders as early as possible. The application provides clinical and quantitative analysis of medical images. Minute structural difference of brain gradually results in major disorders such as schizophrenia, Epilepsy, inherited speech and language disorder, Alzheimer's dementia etc. Here the main focusing is given to diagnose the disease related to the brain and its psychic nature (Alzheimer’s disease.

  3. MR imaging of intracranial germ cell tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tsutomu; Akakura, Yukari (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1994-04-01

    MRI of 13 patients with intracranial germ cell tumor (GCT) was performed with a 1.5 T superconductive scanner. T1-and T2-weighted images (T1WI and T2WI) and Gd-DTPA-enhanced T1-weighted images (Gd-T1WI) were obtained. On T1WI and T2WI, five germinomas and one teratoma were homogeneously isointense with gray matter. Two germinomas with cystic component exhibited markedly hypointense and hyperintense areas, respectively. Three teratomas were heterogeneous on both sequences due to cystic portion, fat, and hemorrhage. Yolk sac tumor (YST) was isointense on T1WI and heterogeneous on T2WI. On Gd-T1WI, five germinomas and YST were homogeneously enhanced. All but one of the others were heterogeneously enhanced. There were increased AFP in YST and increased HCG in malignant teratoma. Differential diagnosis of GCT may be possible with MRI. However, tumor markers should be taken into consideration. (author).

  4. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes expressing IOT-10 marker. An immunohistochemical study of a series of 185 brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, M; Vaquero, J; Coca, S; Oya, S; Garcia, N

    1993-04-01

    The presence of IOT-10-positive lymphocytes among the tumor-infiltrating-lymphocyte (TIL) population was studied in a series of 185 brain tumors. In most of the tumors, IOT-10-positive lymphocytes were identified, but generally they were scarce and masked among the tumor cells, suggesting that NK-cells exercise a poor participation in the tissular response against brain tumors. Isolated tumor cells showing IOT-10-positivity were found in low-grade astrocytomas, neurinomas and medulloblastomas. IOT-10-positivity on both tumor neuropil and tumor cells was considered a characteristic finding in oligodendrogliomas. The number of IOT-10-positive NK-cells in brain metastases and in cerebellar hemangioblastomas was comparatively greater than in other types of brain tumor. Since in brain metastases, the presence of IOT-10-positive NK-cells can be related to the tissular response to an extracerebral malignancy, their considerable presence in cerebellar hemangioblastomas is an enigmatic finding that deserves further attention.

  5. Brain tumors induced in rats by human adenovirus type 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murao,Tsuyoshi

    1974-02-01

    Full Text Available Oncogenesis of human adenovirus type 12 in the brain of rats was examined. Newborn rats of Sprague-Dawley and Donryu strains were injected intracranially with human adenovirus type 12. The incidence of intracranial tumors was 91% (30/33 in SpragueDawley and 56% (14/25 in Donryu rats. Except for one tumor nodule located in the parietal cortex of a Sprague.Dawley rat, all tumors developed in the paraventricular areas or in the meninges. Tumors were quite similar histologically to those induced in hamsters and mice resembling the undifferentiated human brain tumors such as medulloblastoma, ependymoblastoma and embryonic gliomas. From the histological features and primary sites of tumor development, it is suggested that the tumors in the brain of rats induced by adenovirus type 12 originate from the embryonic cells in the paraventricular area and also from the undifferentiated supporting cells of the peripheral nerves in the leptomeninges.

  6. Staging Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, coordination, and ability to walk normally, and how well the muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This may also be called a neuro ...

  7. Pathology, treatment and management of posterior fossa brain tumors in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, K.; Siegel, K.R.

    1988-04-01

    Brain tumors are the second most common childhood malignancy. Between 1975 and 1985, 462 newly diagnosed patients were treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; 207 (45%) tumors arose in the posterior fossa and 255 (55%) appeared supratentorially. A wide variety of histological subtypes were seen, each requiring tumor-specific treatment approaches. These included primitive neuroectodermal tumor (n = 86, 19%), astrocytoma (n = 135, 30%), brainstem glioma (n = 47, 10%), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 32, 7%), and ependymoma (n = 30, 6%). Because of advances in diagnostic abilities, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, between 60% and 70% of these patients are alive today. Diagnostic tools such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allow for better perioperative management and follow-up, while the operating microscope, CO/sub 2/ laser, cavitron ultrasonic aspirator and neurosurgical microinstrumentation allow for more extensive and safer surgery. Disease specific treatment protocols, utilizing radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, have made survival common in tumors such as medulloblastoma. As survival rates increase, cognitive, endocrinologic and psychologic sequelae become increasingly important. The optimal management of children with brain tumors demands a multidisciplinary approach, best facilitated by a neuro-oncology team composed of multiple subspecialists. This article addresses incidence, classification and histology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, pre-, intra- and postoperative management, long-term effects and the team approach in posterior fossa tumors in childhood. Management of specific tumor types is included as well. 57 references.

  8. Brain imaging in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundel, Manon; Kappelle, L Jaap; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2014-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Brain imaging may provide important clues about underlying processes. This review focuses on the relationship between T2DM and brain abnormalities assessed with different imaging techniques: both structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, as well as positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography. Compared to people without diabetes, people with T2DM show slightly more global brain atrophy, which increases gradually over time compared with normal aging. Moreover, vascular lesions are seen more often, particularly lacunar infarcts. The association between T2DM and white matter hyperintensities and microbleeds is less clear. T2DM has been related to diminished cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity, particularly in more advanced disease. Diffusion tensor imaging is a promising technique with respect to subtle white matter involvement. Thus, brain imaging studies show that T2DM is associated with both degenerative and vascular brain damage, which develops slowly over the course of many years. The challenge for future studies will be to further unravel the etiology of brain damage in T2DM, and to identify subgroups of patients that will develop distinct progressive brain damage and cognitive decline.

  9. Real-time multi-modality imaging of Glioblastoma tumor resection and recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Hingtgen, Shawn; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Farrar, Christian; Duebgen, Matthias; Martinez-Quintanilla, Jordi; Bhere, Deepak; Shah, Khalid

    2012-01-01

    The lack of relevant pre-clinical animal models incorporating the clinical scenario of GBM resection and recurrence has contributed significantly to the inability to successfully treat the devastating brain tumor Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). A multi-modality imaging approach that allows real-time assessment of tumor resection during surgery and non-invasive detection of post-operative tumor volumes is urgently needed. In this study, we report the development and implementation of an optical...

  10. Aerobic Glycolysis as a Marker of Tumor Aggressiveness: Preliminary Data in High Grade Human Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei G. Vlassenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Glucose metabolism outside of oxidative phosphorylation, or aerobic glycolysis (AG, is a hallmark of active cancer cells that is not directly measured with standard 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET. In this study, we characterized tumor regions with elevated AG defined based on PET measurements of glucose and oxygen metabolism. Methods. Fourteen individuals with high-grade brain tumors underwent structural MR scans and PET measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF, oxygen (CMRO2 and glucose (CMRGlu metabolism, and AG, using 15O-labeled CO, O2 and H2O, and FDG, and were compared to a normative cohort of 20 age-matched individuals. Results. Elevated AG was observed in most high-grade brain tumors and it was associated with decreased CMRO2 and CBF, but not with significant changes in CMRGlu. Elevated AG was a dramatic and early sign of tumor growth associated with decreased survival. AG changes associated with tumor growth were differentiated from the effects of nonneoplastic processes such as epileptic seizures. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that high-grade brain tumors exhibit elevated AG as a marker of tumor growth and aggressiveness. AG may detect areas of active tumor growth that are not evident on conventional FDG PET.

  11. Multimodal Brain-Tumor Segmentation Based on Dirichlet Process Mixture Model with Anisotropic Diffusion and Markov Random Field Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-tumor segmentation is an important clinical requirement for brain-tumor diagnosis and radiotherapy planning. It is well-known that the number of clusters is one of the most important parameters for automatic segmentation. However, it is difficult to define owing to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue among different patients and the ambiguous boundaries of lesions. In this study, a nonparametric mixture of Dirichlet process (MDP model is applied to segment the tumor images, and the MDP segmentation can be performed without the initialization of the number of clusters. Because the classical MDP segmentation cannot be applied for real-time diagnosis, a new nonparametric segmentation algorithm combined with anisotropic diffusion and a Markov random field (MRF smooth constraint is proposed in this study. Besides the segmentation of single modal brain-tumor images, we developed the algorithm to segment multimodal brain-tumor images by the magnetic resonance (MR multimodal features and obtain the active tumor and edema in the same time. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using 32 multimodal MR glioma image sequences, and the segmentation results are compared with other approaches. The accuracy and computation time of our algorithm demonstrates very impressive performance and has a great potential for practical real-time clinical use.

  12. Comparison of Hybrid Codes for MRI Brain Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Soundarya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, medical images are compressed in a lossless manner in order to preserve details and to avoid wrong diagnosis. But this leads to a lower compression rate. Therefore, our aim is to improve the compression ratio by means of hybrid coding the MRI brain (tumor images. Hence we consider Region of Interest (ROI normally the abnormal region in the image and compress it without loss to achieve high compression ratio in par with maintaining high image quality and the Non-Region of Interest (Non-ROI of the image is compressed in a lossy manner. This study discusses two simple hybrid coding techniques (Hybrid A and Hybrid B on MRI human brain tumor image datasets. Also we evaluate their performance by comparing them with the standard lossless technique JPEG 2000 in terms of Compression Ratio (CR and Peak to Signal Noise Ratio (PSNR. Both hybrid codes have resulted in computationally economical scheme producing higher compression ratio than existing JPEG2000 and also meets the legal requirement of medical image archiving. The results obtained prove that our proposed hybrid schemes outperform existing schemes.

  13. Effect of tumor resection on the characteristics of functional brain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Douw, L.; Hernández, J.M.; Reijneveld, J.C.; Stam, C.J.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2010-01-01

    Brain functioning such as cognitive performance depends on the functional interactions between brain areas, namely, the functional brain networks. The functional brain networks of a group of patients with brain tumors are measured before and after tumor resection. In this work, we perform a weighted

  14. American brain tumor patients treated with BNCT in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laramore, G.E.; Griffin, B.R.; Spence, A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish and maintain a database for patients from the United States who have received BNCT in Japan for malignant gliomas of the brain. This database will serve as a resource for the DOE to aid in decisions relating to BNCT research in the United States, as well as assisting the design and implementation of clinical trials of BNCT for brain cancer patients in this country. The database will also serve as an information resource for patients with brain tumors and their families who are considering this form of therapy.

  15. Comparing implementations of magnetic-resonance-guided fluorescence molecular tomography for diagnostic classification of brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2010-09-01

    Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) systems coupled to conventional imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography provide unique opportunities to combine data sets and improve image quality and content. Yet, the ideal approach to combine these complementary data is still not obvious. This preclinical study compares several methods for incorporating MRI spatial prior information into FMT imaging algorithms in the context of in vivo tissue diagnosis. Populations of mice inoculated with brain tumors that expressed either high or low levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were imaged using an EGF-bound near-infrared dye and a spectrometer-based MRI-FMT scanner. All data were spectrally unmixed to extract the dye fluorescence from the tissue autofluorescence. Methods to combine the two data sets were compared using student's t-tests and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Bulk fluorescence measurements that made up the optical imaging data set were also considered in the comparison. While most techniques were able to distinguish EGFR(+) tumors from EGFR(-) tumors and control animals, with area-under-the-curve values=1, only a handful were able to distinguish EGFR(-) tumors from controls. Bulk fluorescence spectroscopy techniques performed as well as most imaging techniques, suggesting that complex imaging algorithms may be unnecessary to diagnose EGFR status in these tissue volumes.

  16. Cyclosporin safety in a simplified rat brain tumor implantation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco H. C. Felix

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain cancer is the second neurological cause of death. A simplified animal brain tumor model using W256 (carcinoma 256, Walker cell line was developed to permit the testing of novel treatment modalities. Wistar rats had a cell tumor solution inoculated stereotactically in the basal ganglia (right subfrontal caudate. This model yielded tumor growth in 95% of the animals, and showed absence of extracranial metastasis and systemic infection. Survival median was 10 days. Estimated tumor volume was 17.08±6.7 mm³ on the 7th day and 67.25±19.8 mm³ on 9th day post-inoculation. Doubling time was 24.25 h. Tumor growth induced cachexia, but no hematological or biochemical alterations. This model behaved as an undifferentiated tumor and can be promising for studying tumor cell migration in the central nervous system. Dexamethasone 3.0 mg/kg/day diminished significantly survival in this model. Cyclosporine 10 mg/kg/day administration was safely tolerated.

  17. Dexamethasone alleviates tumor-associated brain damage and angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Fan

    Full Text Available Children and adults with the most aggressive form of brain cancer, malignant gliomas or glioblastoma, often develop cerebral edema as a life-threatening complication. This complication is routinely treated with dexamethasone (DEXA, a steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with pleiotropic action profile. Here we show that dexamethasone reduces murine and rodent glioma tumor growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of DEXA are already capable of inhibiting glioma cell proliferation and at higher levels induce cell death. Further, the expression of the glutamate antiporter xCT (system Xc-; SLC7a11 and VEGFA is up-regulated after DEXA treatment indicating early cellular stress responses. However, in human gliomas DEXA exerts differential cytotoxic effects, with some human glioma cells (U251, T98G resistant to DEXA, a finding corroborated by clinical data of dexamethasone non-responders. Moreover, DEXA-resistant gliomas did not show any xCT alterations, indicating that these gene expressions are associated with DEXA-induced cellular stress. Hence, siRNA-mediated xCT knockdown in glioma cells increased the susceptibility to DEXA. Interestingly, cell viability of primary human astrocytes and primary rodent neurons is not affected by DEXA. We further tested the pharmacological effects of DEXA on brain tissue and showed that DEXA reduces tumor-induced disturbances of the microenvironment such as neuronal cell death and tumor-induced angiogenesis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that DEXA inhibits glioma cell growth in a concentration and species-dependent manner. Further, DEXA executes neuroprotective effects in brains and reduces tumor-induced angiogenesis. Thus, our investigations reveal that DEXA acts pleiotropically and impacts tumor growth, tumor vasculature and tumor-associated brain damage.

  18. Disruption of White Matter Integrity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors: Correlates with Long-Term Intellectual Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    King, Tricia Z.; Liya Wang; Hui Mao

    2015-01-01

    Background Although chemotherapy and radiation treatment have contributed to increased survivorship, treatment-induced brain injury has been a concern when examining long-term intellectual outcomes of survivors. Specifically, disruption of brain white matter integrity and its relationship to intellectual outcomes in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors needs to be better understood. Methods Fifty-four participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging in addition to structural MRI and an in...

  19. Imaging findings of solitary fibrous tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the imaging characteristics of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Methods: This study included 11 cases with SFT proved by pathological results. The imaging manifestations were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed in comparison with surgical and pathological results. Among them, 8 patients underwent CT plain scan (1/8) or enhanced scan (7/8), 4 patients underwent MR plain scan (2/4) or enhanced scan (2/4), and only 1 patient underwent both CT and MR scan. Results: (1) SFT were located in the thoracic cavity(2/11), abdominal and pelvis (5/11), and somatic soft tissues (4/11). The average tumor size was 11.8 cm (2.5 to 23.0 cm). Among them, 4 tumors were round or ellipse, and 7 tumors were irregular. Eight tumors had well-defined contours,and the others showed ill-defined contours. (2) On CT scan, all SFTs showed inhomogeneous density with low density areas. Calcification was seen in I case,and hemorrhagic foci were detected in 2 cases. (3) On MR scan, all SFTs showed intermediate signal intensity on T1WI. Three tumors were slightly hyperintense and the other was hypointense on T2WI. All of them were rich of vascular signal voids. Three tumors,including 2 tumors with scattered long T1 and T2 signal and 1 tumor in the liver with hyperintense haemorrhage, displayed inhomogeneous mixed signal.One tumor in the orbit showed homogeneous signal. (4) On enhanced scan, 9 tumors showed irregular enhancement with multiple circuitous vessels in the arterial phase, and continuous or progressive enhancement with patch non-enhanced areas in the venous phase. (5) Histologically, SFTs were composed of juxtaposed hyper- and hypo-cellular spindle cells, dense collagenous stroma and numerous thin-walled blood vessels with a staghorn configuration. Conclusion: The possibility of SFT should be considered when a single soft tissue mass with sharp border, inhomogeneous density is detected, especially with inhomogeneous enhancement maintaining in the venous phase

  20. Transferrin receptor-targeted theranostic gold nanoparticles for photosensitizer delivery in brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Suraj; Novak, Thomas; Miller, Kayla; Zhu, Yun; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Broome, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is not only inefficient, but also nonspecific to brain stroma. These are major limitations in the effective treatment of brain cancer. Transferrin peptide (Tfpep) targeted gold nanoparticles (Tfpep-Au NPs) loaded with the photodynamic pro-drug, Pc 4, have been designed and compared with untargeted Au NPs for delivery of the photosensitizer to brain cancer cell lines. In vitro studies of human glioma cancer lines (LN229 and U87) overexpressing the transferrin receptor (TfR) show a significant increase in cellular uptake for targeted conjugates as compared to untargeted particles. Pc 4 delivered from Tfpep-Au NPs clusters within vesicles after targeting with the Tfpep. Pc 4 continues to accumulate over a 4 hour period. Our work suggests that TfR-targeted Au NPs may have important therapeutic implications for delivering brain tumor therapies and/or providing a platform for noninvasive imaging.

  1. MR imaging of intradural extramedullary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.H.; Holtaas, S.; Larsson, E.M. (Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1992-05-01

    Thirty-one consecutive intradual extramedullary spinal tumors examined with MR at 0.3 T were reviewed. In 13 of the patients myelography had been performed. There were 11 patients with meningeoma, 14 with neuroma, one ependymoma, 3 metastases, and 2 lipomas. All tumours were surgically removed and verified by histology. The intradural extramedullary location of the tumors was accurately assessed by MR imaging in all patients and by myelography in 10 of 13. The MR diagnoses were in accordance with the histologic findings in 74% of cases. Compression of the spinal cord of cauda equina with widening of the subarachnoid space above and below the mass or outward displacement of epidural fat was characteristic of the intradural extramedullary tumors. The signal intensity of meningeoma as well as neuroma was slightly lower or equal to that of the cord on T1-weighted images, and equal to or higher than cord signal on T2-weighted images. Neuroma had a lower signal intensity on T1-weighted images and a higher signal intensity on T2-weighted images than meningeoma. Meningeoma appeared more homogeneous than neuroma and had a broad base towards the dura. (orig.).

  2. Brain hyaluronan binding protein inhibits tumor growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高锋; 曹曼林; 王蕾

    2004-01-01

    Background Great efforts have been made to search for the angiogenic inhibitors in avascular tissues. Several proteins isolated from cartilage have been proved to have anti-angiogenic or anti-tumour effects. Because cartilage contains a great amount of hyaluronic acid (HA) oligosaccharides and abundant HA binding proteins (HABP), therefore, we speculated that HABP might be one of the factors regulating vascularization in cartilage or anti-angiogenesis in tumours. The purpose of this research was to evaluale the effects of hyaluronan binding protein on inhibiting tumour growth both in vivo and vitro. Methods A unique protein termed human brain hyaluronan (HA) binding protein (b-HABP) was cloned from human brain cDNA library. MDA-435 human breast cancer cell line was chosen as a transfectant. The in vitro underlying mechanisms were investigated by determining the possibilities of MDA-435/b-HABP colony formation on soft agar, the effects of the transfectant on the proliferation of endothelial cells and the expression levels of caspase 3 and FasL from MDA-435/b-HABP. The in vivo study included tumour growth on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken embryos and nude mice. Results Colony formation assay revealed that the colonies formed by MDA-435/b-HABP were greatly reduced compared to mock transfectants. The conditioned media from MDA-435/b-HABP inhibited the growth of endothelial cells in culture. Caspase 3 and FasL expressions were induced by MDA-435/b-HABP. The size of tumours of MDA-435/b-HABP in both CAM and nude mice was much smaller than that of MDA-435 alone. Conclusions Human brain hyaluronan binding protein (b-HABP) may represent a new kind of naturally existing anti-tumour substance. This brain-derived glycoprotein may block tumour growth by inducing apoptosis of cancer cells or by decreasing angiogenesis in tumour tissue via inhibiting proliferation of endothelial cells.

  3. Application of nanoparticles in brain tumor treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Caruso, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Despite progress in surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, an effective treatment of gliomas does not yet exist. This new monograph in the ASME-Momentum Press series on Biomedical & Nanomedical Technologies book shows how nanotechnology could be used both to improve the treatment efficacy and to reduce the adverse side effects. It will explain how nanotechnology-based approaches to targeted delivery of drugs across the brain-blood barrier may potentially be engineered to carry out specific functions as needed.

  4. A CLINICAL STUDY FOR EVALUATING EARLY RADIOTHERAPY EFFECT IN PATIENTS WITH BRAIN TUMOR USING 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming; ZHANG Yong-xue; ZHANG Cheng-gang; LAN Sheng-min; WANG Zhong-min; ZHANG Xiu-fu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early radiotherapy effect using 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT in patients with brain tumors. Methods: Twenty-one patients with brain tumors who were treated by radiotherapy were studied. KPS grade, tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT , tumor size on MRI, and ratio of T/N (tumor counts/sec over normal brain tissue counts/sec) were investigated before ,during and after radiotherapy. Results: The average tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT and MRI was 11.34(5.88 cm2, 9.46(5.66 cm2, respectively before radiotherapy. The tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT was not in accordance with to that on MRI (P<0.05). KPS grade, tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT and ratio of T/N had significance differences before, during and after radiotherapy (P<0.05), but the tumor size on MRI imaging had no significance differences before, during and after radiotherapy (P>0.05). The rate of symptom improvement was 80% during radiotherapy and 100% after radiotherapy. The rates of imaging remission based on the brain tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT, MRI and T/N were 75%, 15%, and 80%, respectively during radiotherapy. The agreement rates between imaging remission diagnosed by those three methods and symptom improvement were 70%, 40%, and 60% respectively during radiotherapy. The rates of imaging remission based on the brain tumor sizes on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT, MRI and T/N were 100%, 25%, and 95% respectively after radiotherapy. The agreement rates between imaging remission diagnosed by those three methods and symptoms improvement were 100%, 20%, and 95% respectively after radiotherapy. Conclusion: The tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT is a valuable tool for evaluating early radiotherapy effect of brain tumor in process of radiotherapy. T/N is not a feasible method in evaluating radiotherapy effect of brain tumor because it may show elevation unrelated to the curative effect during radiotherapy.

  5. An Improved Image Mining Technique For Brain Tumour Classification Using Efficient Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendran, P

    2010-01-01

    An improved image mining technique for brain tumor classification using pruned association rule with MARI algorithm is presented in this paper. The method proposed makes use of association rule mining technique to classify the CT scan brain images into three categories namely normal, benign and malign. It combines the low level features extracted from images and high level knowledge from specialists. The developed algorithm can assist the physicians for efficient classification with multiple keywords per image to improve the accuracy. The experimental result on prediagnosed database of brain images showed 96 percent and 93 percent sensitivity and accuracy respectively.

  6. Radiotherapy combined with Tegafur (FT-207s) for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has anti-tumor effects as an anti-metabolite, but it cannot pass the Blood-Brain-Barrier (BBB). FT-207 a masked-compound of 5-FU, is easily lipid soluble and is able to pass the BBB. Twenty eight patients of primary brain tumor and 8 patients of metastatic brain tumor were treated with irradiation combined with 750 mg of FT-207 suppository. Twenty four patients of primary brain tumor were treated only with irradiation as control. The mean survival time was 20.4 +- 11.8 months for the combined therapy group and 17.6 +- 8.6 months for the control. The concentration of FT-207 and 5-FU in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was investigated after administration of 750 mg of FT-207 suppository per annum. The maximum concentration of FT-207 and of 5-FU in serum was 20.4 +- 11.8 mcg/ml and 0.06 +- 0.02 mcg/ml, respectively. There were observed several side effects, such as anorexia, nausea, exanthema and etc. These side effects were not so great as to interrupt the therapy at the dose level of 750 mg of FT-207. However, at the dose of 1500 mg, one case showed disturbance of consciousness, to which attention should be called. (author)

  7. Genetic abnormality predicts benefit for a rare brain tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    A clinical trial has shown that addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy leads to a near doubling of median survival time in patients with a form of brain tumor (oligodendroglioma) that carries a chromosomal abnormality called the 1p19q co-deletion.

  8. What Are Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tissues and cells, which can develop into different types of tumors. Neurons (nerve cells): These are the most important cells ... as long as several feet. Unlike many other types of cells that can grow and divide to repair damage from injury or disease, neurons in the brain and spinal cord largely stop ...

  9. Life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crom, Deborah B; Li, Zhenghong; Brinkman, Tara M; Hudson, Melissa M; Armstrong, Gregory T; Neglia, Joseph; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-01-01

    Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors experience multiple, significant, lifelong deficits as a consequence of their malignancy and therapy. Current survivorship literature documents the substantial impact such impairments have on survivors' physical health and quality of life. Psychosocial reports detail educational, cognitive, and emotional limitations characterizing survivors as especially fragile, often incompetent, and unreliable in evaluating their circumstances. Anecdotal data suggest some survivors report life experiences similar to those of healthy controls. The aim of our investigation was to determine whether life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors differs from that of healthy controls and to identify potential predictors of life satisfaction in survivors. This cross-sectional study compared 78 brain tumor survivors with population-based matched controls. Chi-square tests, t tests, and linear regression models were used to investigate patterns of life satisfaction and identify potential correlates. Results indicated that life satisfaction of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors was similar to that of healthy controls. Survivors' general health expectations emerged as the primary correlate of life satisfaction. Understanding life satisfaction as an important variable will optimize the design of strategies to enhance participation in follow-up care, reduce suffering, and optimize quality of life in this vulnerable population.

  10. Brain MR imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial injuries represent the most severe manifestation of child abuse. CT of the brain is the current standard for evaluation of these infants; however, MR imaging offers several potential advantages. MR imaging and CT were performed in ten infants who suffered intracranial trauma owing to child abuse. CT was slightly better at demonstrating subarachnoid hemorrhage and had definite advantages for defining fractures. MR imaging was superior in the demonstration of subacute extraaxial hemorrhage, deep brain injuries owing to shearing effects from shaking, and anoxic injuries. MR imaging has a definite complementary role in the evaluation of acute intracranial trauma in child abuse victims

  11. Usefulness of Permeability Map by Perfusion MRI of Brain Tumor the Grade Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to assess how effective the permeability ratio and relative cerebral blood volume ratio are to tumor through perfusion MRI by measuring and reflecting the grade assessment and differential diagnosis and the permeability and relative cerebral blood volume of contrast media plunged from blood vessel into organ due to breakdown of blood-brain barrier in cerebral. Subject and Method : Subject of study was 29 patients whose diagnosis were confirmed by biopsy after surgery and 550 (11 slice x 50 image) perfusion MRI were used to make image of relative cerebral blood volume with the program furnished on instrument. The other method was to transmit to private computer and the image analysis was made additionally by making image of relative cerebral blood volume-reformulated singular value decomposition, rCBV-rSVD and permeability using IDL.6.2. In addition, Kruskal-wallis test tonggyein non numerical average by a comparative analysis of brain tumors Results : The rCBV ratio (Functool PF; GE Medical Systems and IDL 6.2 program by analysis) and permeability ratio of tumors were as follows; high grade glioma(n=4), (14.75, 19.25) 13.13. low grade astrocytoma(n=5) (14.80, 15.90) 11.60, glioblastoma(n=5) (10.90, 18.60), 22.00, metastasis(n=6) (11.00, 15.08). 22.33. meningioma(n=6) (18.58, 7.67), 5.58. oliogodendroglioma(n=3) (23.33, 16.33, 15.67. Conclusion : It was not easy to classify the grade with the relative cerebral blood volume ratio measured by using the relative cerebral blood image by type of tumors, however, permeability ratio measured by permeability image revealed that the higher the grade of tumor, the higher the measured permeability ratio, showing the assessment of tumor grade is more effective to differential diagnosis.

  12. Usefulness of Permeability Map by Perfusion MRI of Brain Tumor the Grade Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Dongsan Hospital, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo Young [GE Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyuk Won [Dept. of Radiology, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    This study was conducted to assess how effective the permeability ratio and relative cerebral blood volume ratio are to tumor through perfusion MRI by measuring and reflecting the grade assessment and differential diagnosis and the permeability and relative cerebral blood volume of contrast media plunged from blood vessel into organ due to breakdown of blood-brain barrier in cerebral. Subject and Method : Subject of study was 29 patients whose diagnosis were confirmed by biopsy after surgery and 550 (11 slice x 50 image) perfusion MRI were used to make image of relative cerebral blood volume with the program furnished on instrument. The other method was to transmit to private computer and the image analysis was made additionally by making image of relative cerebral blood volume-reformulated singular value decomposition, rCBV-rSVD and permeability using IDL.6.2. In addition, Kruskal-wallis test tonggyein non numerical average by a comparative analysis of brain tumors Results : The rCBV ratio (Functool PF; GE Medical Systems and IDL 6.2 program by analysis) and permeability ratio of tumors were as follows; high grade glioma(n=4), (14.75, 19.25) 13.13. low grade astrocytoma(n=5) (14.80, 15.90) 11.60, glioblastoma(n=5) (10.90, 18.60), 22.00, metastasis(n=6) (11.00, 15.08). 22.33. meningioma(n=6) (18.58, 7.67), 5.58. oliogodendroglioma(n=3) (23.33, 16.33, 15.67. Conclusion : It was not easy to classify the grade with the relative cerebral blood volume ratio measured by using the relative cerebral blood image by type of tumors, however, permeability ratio measured by permeability image revealed that the higher the grade of tumor, the higher the measured permeability ratio, showing the assessment of tumor grade is more effective to differential diagnosis.

  13. 3-Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided tumor resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, W.A. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Depts. of Neurosurgery; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiology; University of Minnesota Medical Center (MMC), Minneapolis, MN (United States); Truwit, C.L. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics; Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Neurology; Hennepin Country Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-12-15

    Objective: We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of using 3-tesla (T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to guide brain tumor resection. Material and methods: From February 2004 to March 2006, fMRI was performed on 13 patients before surgical resection. Functional imaging was used to identify eloquent cortices for motor (8), speech (3), and motor and speech (2) activation using two different 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. Surgical resection was accomplished using a 1.5-T intraoperative MR system. Appropriate MR scan sequences were performed intraoperatively to determine and maximize the extent of the surgical resection. Results: Tumors included six oligodendrogliomas, three meningiomas, two astrocytomas and two glioblastomas multiforme. The fMRI data was accurate in all cases. After surgery, two patients had hemiparesis, two had worsening of their speech, and one had worsening of speech and motor function. Neurological function returned to normal in all patients within 1 month. Complete resections were possible in 10 patients (77%). Two patients had incomplete resections because of the proximity of their tumors to functional areas. Biopsy was performed in another patient with an astrocytoma in the motor strip. Conclusion: 3-T fMRI was accurate for locating neurologic function before tumor resection near eloquent cortex. (orig.)

  14. Therapeutic Potential of Curcumin for the Treatment of Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Neil V.

    2016-01-01

    Brain malignancies currently carry a poor prognosis despite the current multimodal standard of care that includes surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. As new therapies are desperately needed, naturally occurring chemical compounds have been studied for their potential chemotherapeutic benefits and low toxicity profile. Curcumin, found in the rhizome of turmeric, has extensive therapeutic promise via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative properties. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo data have shown it to be an effective treatment for brain tumors including glioblastoma multiforme. These effects are potentiated by curcumin's ability to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest, activation of apoptotic pathways, induction of autophagy, disruption of molecular signaling, inhibition of invasion, and metastasis and by increasing the efficacy of existing chemotherapeutics. Further, clinical data suggest that it has low toxicity in humans even at large doses. Curcumin is a promising nutraceutical compound that should be evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of human brain tumors.

  15. Creation and evaluation of complementary composite three-dimensional image in various brain diseases. An application of three-dimensional brain SPECT image and three-dimensional CT image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Shibata, Iekado; Mito, Toshiaki; Sugo, Nobuo [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop 3D composite images for use in functional and anatomical evaluation of various cerebral pathologies. Imaging studies were performed in normal volunteers, patients with hydrocephalus and patients with brain tumor (meningioma and metastatic tumor) using a three-detector SPECT system (Prism 3000) and helical CT scanner (Xvigor). {sup 123}I-IMP was used in normal volunteers and patients with hydrocephalus, and {sup 201}TLCL in patients with brain tumor. An Application Visualization System-Medical Viewer (AVS-MV) was used on a workstation (Titan 2) to generate 3D images. A new program was developed by synthesizing surface rendering and volume rendering techniques. The clinical effects of shunt operations were successfully evaluated in patients with hydrocephalus by means of translucent 3D images of the deep brain. Changes in the hypoperfusion area around the cerebral ventricle were compared with morphological changes in the cerebral ventricle on CT. In addition to the information concerning the characteristics of brain tumors and surrounding edemas, hemodynamic changes and changeable hypoperfusion areas around the tumors were visualized on 3D composite CT and SPECT images. A new method of generating 3D composite images of CT and SPECT was developed by combining graphic data from different systems on the same workstation. Complementary 3D composite images facilitated quantitative analysis of brain volume and functional analysis in various brain diseases. (author)

  16. High-resolution brain tumor visualization using three-dimensional x-ray phase contrast tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, F; Bunk, O; David, C; Bech, M; Le Duc, G; Bravin, A; Cloetens, P

    2007-12-01

    We report on significant advances and new results concerning a recently developed method for grating-based hard x-ray phase tomography. We demonstrate how the soft tissue sensitivity of the technique is increased and show in vitro tomographic images of a tumor bearing rat brain sample, without use of contrast agents. In particular, we observe that the brain tumor and the white and gray brain matter structure in a rat's cerebellum are clearly resolved. The results are potentially interesting from a clinical point of view, since a similar approach using three transmission gratings can be implemented with more readily available x-ray sources, such as standard x-ray tubes. Moreover, the results open the way to in vivo experiments in the near future. PMID:18029984

  17. Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms in Egyptian Cases with Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cytokines are proposed to play important roles in brain tumor biology as well as neuro degeneration or impaired neuronal function. Objectives: This work aimed to check the association of polymorphisms of cytokine genes in Egyptian cases with brain tumors. Methods: This work included 45 cases affected by brain tumors diagnosed as 24 benign and 21 malignant. Their median age was 45 years, and they were 20 males and 25 females. These cases were taken randomly from the Neurosurgery Department of Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt. Case genotypes were compared to 98 healthy unrelated controls from the same locality. DNA was amplified using PCR utilizing sequence specific primers (SSP) for detection of polymorphisms related to TNF-a-308 (G/A), IL-10-1082 (G/A), IL-6-174 (G/C) and IL-1Ra (VNTR) genes. Results: Cases affected with benign brain tumors showed a significant higher frequency of IL-10-1082 A/A [odds ratio (OR=8.0), p<0.001] and IL-6-174 C/C (OR=6.3, p=0.002) homozygous genotypes as compared to controls. Malignant cases, on the other hand, showed significantly higher frequency of IL-6-174 C/C (OR =4.8, p=0.002) homozygous genotype and TNF-a-308 A/A (OR=4.9, p<0.001) homozygous genotype when compared to controls. In the meantime, all cases showed no significant difference regarding the distribution of IL-1Ra VNTR genotype polymorphism compared to controls. Conclusions: Cytokine gene polymorphisms showed a pattern of association with brain tumors which may have potential impact on family counseling and disease management.

  18. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor ; MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the characteristic MR imaging findings of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). We retrospectively reviewed MR images and pathologic findings of seven patients (five male and two female, mean age 22) with surgically proven DNTs. We analyzed the location, size, configuration, signal intensity and contrast enhancement of nodules and accompanying calcifications, surrounding edema and calvarial changes. All tumors were located in the cortical and subcortical portions of the temporal lobes. Most tumors showed small well-demarcated gyriform cystic nodules with almost the same signal intensity as that of the cerebropinal fluid. Nodule margins were more sharply delineated on T2 than on T1-weighted images because on the former the peripheral portion of nodules shows high signal intensity. None of the patiens showed surrounding edema or mass effect. On contrast-enhanced study, one of five patients showed subtle peripheral enhancement. Two patients showed included dense calcified nodules adjacent to cystic nodules, and two showed overlying calvarial thinning. Multiple small gyriform intracortical cystic nodules and occasional dense nodular calcifications are the characteristic findings of DNTs, and these may be differentiated from other focal lesions in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with the help of MR imaging

  19. Chemo-radiotherapy for malignant brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochi, Masato; Ushio, Yukitaka [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    Malignant gliomas: Randomized clinical trials conducted in the USA showed that radiotherapy plus chemotherapy with nitrosoureas offered a long-term survival advantage to patients younger than 60 years old with malignant gliomas. Combination chemotherapy, such as procarbazine/CCNU/vincristine (PCV) must be tested further, and intra-arterial chemotherapy with nitrosoureas offered no survival advantage. Combination chemotherapy with PCV showed efficacy for patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma. Medulloblastoma: The addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy improved the survival of patients with poor risk medulloblastoma, and may reduce the required craniospinal radiation dose in patients with good risk medulloblastoma. Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL): Combination of chemotherapy with high-dose MTX and radiotherapy improved survival of patients with PCNSL; however, the neurotoxicity produced by this treatment modality is a serious problem in older patients. Intracranial germ cell tumors: The addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy may produce long term survival with good quality of life in patients with germinoma. Neoadjuvant therapy consisting of chemotherapy and radiotherapy followed by complete surgical excision improved survival of patients with intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumors. (author)

  20. Novel optical system for neonatal brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Zhou, Shuoming; Nioka, Shoko; Chance, Britton; Anday, Endla; Ravishankar, Sudha; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, Maria

    1999-03-01

    A highly portable, fast, safe and affordable imaging system that provides interpretable images of brain function in full- and pre-term neonates within a few seconds has been applied to neonates with normal and pathological states. We have used a uniquely sensitive optical tomography system, termed phased array, which has revealed significant functional responses, particularly to parietal stimulation in neonate brain. This system can indicate the blood concentration and oxygenation change during the parietal brain activation in full- and pre-term neonates. The preliminary clinical results, especially a longitudinal study of a cardiac arrest neonate, suggest a variety of future applications.

  1. Anti-angiogenic therapy in pediatric brain tumors : An effective strategy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Mariska; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.; Hoving, Eelco W.; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Brain tumors are still the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality among children, despite different therapeutic options including neurosurgery, chemotherapy and radiation. As angiogenesis is highly crucial in brain tumor growth and progression, numerous clinical trials evaluating diverse an

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.H.; Nathanson, J.A.; Fox, A.J.; Pelz, D.M.; Lownie, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    In order to demonstrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the brain in patients with clinical brain death, high-field MRI was performed on 5 patients using conventional T1-weighted and T2-weighted imaging. The study showed MRI exhibited similar features for all of the patients, features which were not found in MRI of comatose patients who were not clinically brain dead. It was stated that up to now the most important limitation in MRI of patients with suspected brain death has been the extreme difficulty of moving them out of the intensive care setting. If this problem can be overcome, and it appears possible with with the advent of MRI-compatible ventilators and noninvasive monitoring, MRI could become an excellent alternative for confirming clinical diagnosis of brain death for such patients. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  3. MRI Brain Image Segmentation based on Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Evelin Sujji, Y.V.S. Lakshmi, G. Wiselin Jiji

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Medical Image processing is one of the mostchallenging topics in research field. The mainobjective of image segmentation is to extract variousfeatures of the image that are used foranalysing,interpretation and understanding of images.Medical Resonance Image plays a major role inMedical diagnostics. Image processing in MRI ofbrain is highlyessential due to accurate detection ofthe type of brain abnormality which can reduce thechance of fatal result. This paper outlines anefficient image segmentation technique that candistinguish the pathological tissues such asedemaandtumourfrom thenormal tissues such as WhiteMatter(WM,GreyMatter(GM, andCerebrospinal Fluid(CSF. Thresholding is simplerand most commonly used techniques in imagesegmentation. This technique can be used to detectthe contour of thetumourin brain.

  4. Radiation treatment of brain tumors: Concepts and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, J.E. (Loyola Univ. of Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has demonstrated clinical value for a multitude of CNS tumors. Application of the different physical modalities available has made it possible for the radiotherapist to concentrate the radiation in the region of the tumor with relative sparing of the surrounding normal tissues. Correlation of radiation dose with effect on cranial soft tissues, normal brain, and tumor has shown increasing effect with increasing dose. By using different physical modalities to alter the distribution of radiation dose, it is possible to increase the dose to the tumor and reduce the dose to the normal tissues. Alteration of the volume irradiated and the dose delivered to cranial soft tissues, normal brain, and tumor are strategies that have been effective in improving survival and decreasing complications. The quest for therapeutic gain using hyperbaric oxygen, neutrons, radiation sensitizers, chemotherapeutic agents, and BNCT has met with limited success. Both neoplastic and normal cells are affected simultaneously by all modalities of treatment, including ionizing radiation. Consequently, one is unable to totally depopulate a tumor without irreversibly damaging the normal tissues. In the case of radiation, it is the brain that limits delivery of curative doses, and in the case of chemical additives, it is other organ systems, such as bone marrow, liver, lung, kidneys, and peripheral nerves. Thus, the major obstacle in the treatment of malignant gliomas is our inability to preferentially affect the tumor with the modalities available. Until it is possible to directly target the neoplastic cell without affecting so many of the adjacent normal cells, the quest for therapeutic gain will go unrealized.72 references.

  5. Brain and nervous system (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complicated and interconnected functions of the body and mind. Motor, sensory cognitive and autonomic function are all coordinated and driven by the brain and nerves. As people age, nerve cells deteriorated ...

  6. Magnetoencephalography,Magnetic Source Imaging and Brain Tumor%脑磁图、磁源成像和脑肿瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍

    2005-01-01

    脑磁图作为一种无创性记录大脑生物磁场的新技术,能相对直接反映神经元的活动状态;并且可将采集到的脑磁信号分析结果重叠到MRI图像上,从而将生理功能和解剖结构融合在一起,这一技术又称为磁源成像(magnetic source imaging,MSI).MSI不仅能够准确地提供癫痫灶及所需要功能区的定位信息,而且可使临床神经外科医生更好地了解肿瘤与癫痫灶、肿瘤与功能区的关系,以便在术前制定出合理有效的手术计划.本文对脑磁图、MSI及其在脑肿瘤方面的应用做一简单综述.

  7. Caring for the brain tumor patient: Family caregiver burden and unmet needs

    OpenAIRE

    Schubart, Jane R.; Kinzie, Mable B.; Farace, Elana

    2008-01-01

    The rapid onset and progression of a brain tumor, cognitive and behavioral changes, and uncertainty surrounding prognosis are issues well known to health practitioners in neuro-oncology. We studied the specific challenges that family caregivers face when caring for patients experiencing the significant neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders associated with brain tumors. We selected 25 family caregivers of adult brain tumor patients to represent the brain tumor illness trajectory (crisis...

  8. How Are Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body. Unlike a regular x-ray, a CT scan creates detailed images of the soft tissues in the body. For ... line while he or she is in the CT scanner. The scan creates detailed images of the blood vessels in the brain, which ...

  9. Utility of resting fMRI and connectivity in patients with brain tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Manglore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resting state (task independent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI has opened a new avenue in cognitive studies and has found practical clinical applications. Materials and Methods: Resting fMRI analysis was performed in six patients with brain tumor in the motor cortex. For comparison, task-related mapping of the motor cortex was done. Connectivity analysis to study the connections and strength of the connections between the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, and primary somatosensory cortex on the affected side was also performed and compared with the contralateral normal side and the controls. Results: Resting fMRI in patients with brain tumor in the motor cortex mapped the motor cortex in a task-free state and the results were comparable to the motor task paradigm. Decreased connectivity on the tumor-affected side was observed, as compared to the unaffected side. Conclusion: Resting fMRI and connectivity analysis are useful in the presurgical evaluation of patients with brain tumors and may help in uncooperative or pediatric patients. They can also prognosticate the postoperative outcome. This method also has significant applications due to the ease of image acquisition.

  10. NIH Conference. Brain imaging: aging and dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brain imaging techniques of positron emission tomography using [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and computed tomography, together with neuropsychological tests, were used to examine overall brain function and anatomy in three study populations: healthy men at different ages, patients with presumptive Alzheimer's disease, and adults with Down's syndrome. Brain glucose use did not differ with age, whereas an age-related decrement in gray matter volume was found on computed tomographic assessment in healthy subjects. Memory deficits were found to precede significant reductions in brain glucose utilization in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia. Furthermore, differences between language and visuoconstructive impairments in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease were related to hemispheric asymmetry of brain metabolism. Brain glucose utilization was found to be significantly elevated in young adults with Down's syndrome, compared with controls. The importance of establishing strict criteria for selecting control subjects and patients is explained in relation to the findings

  11. Experimental research for tumor VIP receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the possibility of radioactive labelled vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) for tumor VIP receptor imaging. 125I-VIP was prepared by chloramine-T method, and purified by Sephadex G-50 column chromatography. The bioactivity and stability of 125I-VIP were measured by silica 60 F254 TLC and competition test to SGC7901 cell in vitro. The biodistribution of 125I-VIP was studied in the nude mice bearing tumor. The results showed that labelled rate of 125I was 73.8%, the specific activity was 18.2 PBq/mol, the radiochemical purity (RCP) was over 98% and remained 96.3% after 48 days stored at -80 degree C. The specific binding of 125I-VIP to the SGC7901 cell was inhibited by VIP in dose dependence in the competition experiment. The radioactivity of tumor was higher than that of muscles in all phases (P<0.05-0.01), the peak activity of tumor occurred at 30 min (3.58 +- 0.48ID%/g) and the peak ratio of T/N occurred at 60 min after the injection. The activity of lungs was obviously higher than that of blood, the intestine was always in low level. Most of the activity in the body was mainly eliminated from kidney. The present study demonstrated that the radioactive labelled VIP is a promising agent for tumor VIP receptor scintigraphy

  12. Nuclear Image Analysis Study of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Meeja; Baek, Taehwa; Baek, Jongho; Son, Hyunjin; Kang, Dongwook; Kim, Jooheon; Lee, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a subjective disagreement about nuclear chromatin in the field of pathology. Objective values of red, green, and blue (RGB) light intensities for nuclear chromatin can be obtained through a quantitative analysis using digital images. Methods We examined 10 cases of well differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum, small cell lung carcinomas, and moderately differentiated squamous cell lung carcinomas respectively. For each case, we selected 30 representative cells a...

  13. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  14. New developments in the imaging of brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given for the imaging techniques of brains. Separate paragraphs are devoted to echography, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Special attention is payed to new developments such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy used for metabolic processes. (R.B.) 11 refs

  15. Advantages in functional imaging of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter eMier

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As neuronal pathologies cause only minor morphological alterations, molecular imaging techniques are a prerequisite for the study of diseases of the brain. The development of molecular probes that specifically bind biochemical markers and the advances of instrumentation have revolutionized the possibilities to gain insight into the human brain organization and beyond this visualize structure-function and brain-behavior relationships. The review describes the development and current applications of functional brain imaging techniques with a focus on applications in psychiatry. A historical overview of the development of functional imaging is followed by the portrayal of the principles and applications of positron emission tomography (PET and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, two key molecular imaging techniques that have revolutionized the ability to image molecular processes in the brain. In the juxtaposition of PET and fMRI in hybrid PET/MRI scanners enhances the significance of both modalities for research in neurology and psychiatry and might pave the way for a new area of personalized medicine.

  16. Interstitial radiotherapy using photon radiosurgery system for brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Osami; Iseki, Hiroshi; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Takakura, Kintomo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The photon radiosurgery system is a miniature X ray generator that can be placed stereotactically and intraoperatively into intracranial tumors to deliver a single fraction of high dose interstitial irradiation. This battery powered device produces low energy X ray photons in a spherical and symmetrical pattern at the probe tip. Dose rates of up to 200 cGy/Mim are possibly allowing for the administration of 20 Gy to a lesion 3 cm in diameter in less than 1 hr. Background exposure is minimal and no special shielding of the patient or health care personnel is required. Thirty-two patients with brain tumor were treated in this method. There were no adverse effects. During the follow-up period of l-28 months, 3 of 4 patients with metastatic brain tumor died in several months after this treatment. Five recurrent cases of 21 patients with malignant glioma died in several months. We concluded interstitial radiotherapy using photon radiosurgery system for brain tumors is useful. (author)

  17. Brain tumor stem cells as research and treatment targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most malignant forms of human cancer. Despite intensive treatment, the mean survival of GBM patients remains about 1 year. Recent cancer studies revealed that cancer tissues are pathologically heterogeneous and only a small population of cells has the specific ability to reinitiate cancer. This small cell population is called cancer stem cells (CSCs); in brain tumors these are known as brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs). The identification of BTSCs yielded new insights into chemo- and radioresistance, by which BTSCs can survive selectively and initiate recurrence. Research focused on BTSCs as treatment targets may contribute to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. Clinical and basic research studies gradually led to improved outcomes in patients with brain tumors. Stupp et al. reported a mean survival of 14.6 months in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients treated with radiotherapy plus temozolomide and 12.1 months in those subjected to radiotherapy alone. Earlier cancer therapies primarily targeted rapidly dividing cells but not minor populations of slowly dividing cells that contain BTSCs. Accumulating evidence suggests that BTSCs may represent an excellent tool for discovering new strategies to treat GBM patients. In this review, we present evidence supporting the CSC model of tumor progression, and discuss difficulties encountered in CSC research and experimental and therapeutic implications. (author)

  18. Perfusion harmonic imaging of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Volker H.; Seidel, Guenter; Wiesmann, Martin; Meyer, Karsten; Aach, Til

    2003-05-01

    The fast visualisation of cerebral microcirculation supports diagnosis of acute cerebrovascular diseases. However, the commonly used CT/MRI-based methods are time consuming and, moreover, costly. Therefore we propose an alternative approach to brain perfusion imaging by means of ultrasonography. In spite of the low signal/noise-ratio of transcranial ultrasound and the high impedance of the skull, flow images of cerebral blood flow can be derived by capturing the kinetics of appropriate contrast agents by harmonic ultrasound image sequences. In this paper we propose three different methods for human brain perfusion imaging, each of which yielding flow images indicating the status of the patient's cerebral microcirculation by visualising local flow parameters. Bolus harmonic imaging (BHI) displays the flow kinetics of bolus injections, while replenishment (RHI) and diminution harmonic imaging (DHI) compute flow characteristics from contrast agent continuous infusions. RHI measures the contrast agents kinetics in the influx phase and DHI displays the diminution kinetics of the contrast agent acquired from the decay phase. In clinical studies, BHI- and RHI-parameter images were found to represent comprehensive and reproducible distributions of physiological cerebral blood flow. For DHI it is shown, that bubble destruction and hence perfusion phenomena principally can be displayed. Generally, perfusion harmonic imaging enables reliable and fast bedside imaging of human brain perfusion. Due to its cost efficiency it complements cerebrovascular diagnostics by established CT/MRI-based methods.

  19. AUTOMATED CLASSIFICATION AND SEGREGATION OF BRAIN MRI IMAGES INTO IMAGES CAPTURED WITH RESPECT TO VENTRICULAR REGION AND EYE-BALL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arunkumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI images of the brain are used for detection of various brain diseases including tumor. In such cases, classification of MRI images captured with respect to ventricular and eye ball regions helps in automated location and classification of such diseases. The methods employed in the paper can segregate the given MRI images of brain into images of brain captured with respect to ventricular region and images of brain captured with respect to eye ball region. First, the given MRI image of brain is segmented using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm, which is an optimized algorithm for MRI image segmentation. The algorithm proposed in the paper is then applied on the segmented image. The algorithm detects whether the image consist of a ventricular region or an eye ball region and classifies it accordingly.

  20. Pediatric brain tumors of neuroepithelial tissue; Hirntumoren des neuroepithelialen Gewebes im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Politi, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany); Bergmann, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Institut fuer Klinische Neuropathologie, Bremen (Germany); Pekrun, A. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, paed. Haematologie/Onkologie, Neonatologie, Bremen (Germany); Juergens, K.U. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, ZEMODI-Zentrum fuer moderne Diagnostik, MRT, Nuklearmedizin und PET-CT, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Tumors of neuroepithelial tissue represent the largest group of pediatric brain tumors by far and has therefore been divided into several discrete tumor subtypes each corresponding to a specific component of the neuropil. The neuropil contains several subtypes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and modified ependymal cells that form the choroid plexus. This review discusses the imaging aspects of the most common pediatric tumors of neuroepithelial tissue. (orig.) [German] Tumoren des neuroepithelialen Gewebes stellen die mit Abstand groesste Gruppe der paediatrischen Hirntumoren dar und werden je nach deren Ursprung in diversen Subtypen unterteilt. Das Neuropil beinhaltet diverse Subtypen von Gliazellen: Astrozyten, Oligodendrozyten, ependymale Zellen und modifizierte ependymale Zellen, die den Plexus choroideus formen. In diesem Review werden die bildgebenden Aspekte mittels CT und MRT der haeufigsten Tumoren des neuroepithelialen Gewebes diskutiert. (orig.)

  1. Segmentation of liver tumors on CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is dedicated to 3D segmentation of liver tumors in CT images. This is a task of great clinical interest since it allows physicians benefiting from reproducible and reliable methods for segmenting such lesions. Accurate segmentation would indeed help them during the evaluation of the lesions, the choice of treatment and treatment planning. Such a complex segmentation task should cope with three main scientific challenges: (i) the highly variable shape of the structures being sought, (ii) their similarity of appearance compared with their surrounding medium and finally (iii) the low signal to noise ratio being observed in these images. This problem is addressed in a clinical context through a two step approach, consisting of the segmentation of the entire liver envelope, before segmenting the tumors which are present within the envelope. We begin by proposing an atlas-based approach for computing pathological liver envelopes. Initially images are pre-processed to compute the envelopes that wrap around binary masks in an attempt to obtain liver envelopes from estimated segmentation of healthy liver parenchyma. A new statistical atlas is then introduced and used to segmentation through its diffeomorphic registration to the new image. This segmentation is achieved through the combination of image matching costs as well as spatial and appearance prior using a multi-scale approach with MRF. The second step of our approach is dedicated to lesions segmentation contained within the envelopes using a combination of machine learning techniques and graph based methods. First, an appropriate feature space is considered that involves texture descriptors being determined through filtering using various scales and orientations. Then, state of the art machine learning techniques are used to determine the most relevant features, as well as the hyper plane that separates the feature space of tumoral voxels to the ones corresponding to healthy tissues. Segmentation is then

  2. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging of Tumor Metabolic Markers for Cancer Diagnosis, Metabolic Phenotyping, and Characterization of Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhong He

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells display heterogeneous genetic characteristics, depending on the tumor dynamic microenvironment. Abnormal tumor vasculature and poor tissue oxygenation generate a fraction of hypoxic tumor cells that have selective advantages in metastasis and invasion and often resist chemo- and radiation therapies. The genetic alterations acquired by tumors modify their biochemical pathways, which results in abnormal tumor metabolism. An elevation in glycolysis known as the “Warburg effect” and changes in lipid synthesis and oxidation occur. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has been used to study tumor metabolism in preclinical animal models and in clinical research on human breast, brain, and prostate cancers. This technique can identify specific genetic and metabolic changes that occur in malignant tumors. Therefore, the metabolic markers, detectable by MRS, not only provide information on biochemical changes but also define different metabolic tumor phenotypes. When combined with the contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, which has a high sensitivity for cancer diagnosis, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI improves the diagnostic specificity of malignant human cancers and is becoming an important clinical tool for cancer management and care. This article reviews the MRSI techniques as molecular imaging methods to detect and quantify metabolic changes in various tumor tissue types, especially in extracranial tumor tissues that contain high concentrations of fat. MRI/MRSI methods have been used to characterize tumor microenvironments in terms of blood volume and vessel permeability. Measurements of tissue oxygenation and glycolytic rates by MRS also are described to illustrate the capability of the MR technology in probing molecular information non-invasively in tumor tissues and its important potential for studying molecular mechanisms of human cancers in physiological conditions.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of a brain abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 13 patients with brain abscesses, and the alternation of MRI findings, as correlated with the progression of brain-abscess formation, was reviewed. In the cerebritis stage, spin-echo images showed a high intensity, and inversion-recovery images, a low intensity, due to inflammation and edema. The spin-echo images were very sensitive in delineating the brain edema; however, it was difficult to distinguish the inflammation from the surrounding edema. In the capsule stage, due to the accumulation of purulent material, the central necrotic area was demonstrated as a low-intensity area, while the capsule of the abscess was revealed as an iso-intensity ring on the inversion-recovery images. The central necrotic area also decreased in intensity on spin-echo images in the later period of this stage. With contrast enhancement (Gd-DTPA), the SR image showed the capsule as a high-intensity ring. MRI was found to be a useful method for estimating the process of the formation of a brain abscess. (author)

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of a brain abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikawa, Akihiro; Kagawa, Mizuo; Yatoh, Seiji; Izawa, Masahiro; Ujiie, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Jun; Onda, Hideaki; Kitamura, Kohichi

    1988-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 13 patients with brain abscesses, and the alternation of MRI findings, as correlated with the progression of brain-abscess formation, was reviewed. In the cerebritis stage, spin-echo images showed a high intensity, and inversion-recovery images, a low intensity, due to inflammation and edema. The spin-echo images were very sensitive in delineating the brain edema; however, it was difficult to distinguish the inflammation from the surrounding edema. In the capsule stage, due to the accumulation of purulent material, the central necrotic area was demonstrated as a low-intensity area, while the capsule of the abscess was revealed as an iso-intensity ring on the inversion-recovery images. The central necrotic area also decreased in intensity on spin-echo images in the later period of this stage. With contrast enhancement (Gd-DTPA), the SR image showed the capsule as a high-intensity ring. MRI was found to be a useful method for estimating the process of the formation of a brain abscess.

  5. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: A rare brain tumor not to be misdiagnosed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukheeja, Deepti; Mehta, Jayanti

    2016-01-01

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET) is a recently described, morphologically unique, and surgically curable low-grade brain tumor which is included in the latest WHO classification as neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumor. It is usually seen in children and young adults. The importance of this particular entity is that it is a surgically curable neuroepithelial neoplasm. When recognized, the need for adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is obviated. We hereby present a case report of an 8-year-old male child who presented with intractable seizures and parieto-occipital space occupying lesion. Histologically, the tumor exhibited features of WHO grade I dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor which was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. PMID:27057233

  6. Contrast-enhanced three-dimensional computed tomography of brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Deguchi, Jun; Arai, Motohiro; Tanaka, Hideo; Ohta, Tomio; Narabayashi, Isamu [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of contrast-enhanced spiral (helical) scanning computed tomography (CT) in patients with various brain tumors, a non ionic contrast medium was injected intravenously in ten patients with meningioma, five with vestibular schwannoma, and five with pituitary adenoma. Images were taken by spiral scan at an X-ray beam width of 1 or 2 mm. The volume data obtained were combined at 0.5-1 mm intervals for the three-dimensional (3-D) image reconstruction, by the volume rendering method. Each image was separated by CT number into bone, blood vessel, contrast-enhanced tumor, and cerebral parenchyma. In some subjects, a pair of images was reconstructed to allow stereoscopic viewing at a parallax angle of 6 degrees. Three-dimensional relationship between tumors and other structures was easily understood, permitting pre-operative prediction of the operative field and also a view of the area after tumor excision. The present method surpassed conventional CT techniques in terms of clarity of the 3-D relationship, and surpassed MRI and MRA in terms of clarity of relationship between the tumor and skull. These results confirm that this method appears to be applicable in routine clinical situations with minimal invasiveness, high degree of safety, and short examination time. (author)

  7. Collecting and Storing Blood and Brain Tumor Tissue Samples From Children With Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  8. Brain imaging, genetics and emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, Andre; Swart, Marte; van Rijn, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the published evidence on genetically driven variation in neurotransmitter function and brain circuits involved in emotion. Several studies point to a role of the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism in amygdala activation during emotion perception. We also discuss other po

  9. New Experimental Model of Brain Tumors in Brains of Adult Immunocompetent Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Baklaushev, Vladimir P.; Kavsan, Vadym M.; Balynska, Olena V; Yusubalieva, Gaukhar M.; Abakumov, Maxim A.; Chekhonin, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Xenograft models, namely heterotransplantation of human cancer cells or tumor biopsies into immunodeficient rodents are the major preclinical approach for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. However, in these models the animals must be used only after the severe systemic immune suppression in order to ensure graft survival. Thus, additional new human brain tumor models without immune suppression of the recipient rodent may be required. Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory o...

  10. Generating text from functional brain images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco ePereira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that it is possible to take brain images acquired during viewing of a scene and reconstruct an approximation of the scene from those images. Here we show that it is also possible to generate text about the mental content reflected in brain images. We began with images collected as participants read names of concrete items (e.g., "Apartment" while also seeing line drawings of the item named. We built a model of the mental semantic representation of concrete concepts from text data and learned to map aspects of such representation to patterns of activation in the corresponding brain image. In order to validate this mapping, without accessing information about the items viewed for left-out individual brain images, we were able to generate from each one a collection of semantically pertinent words (e.g., "door," "window" for "Apartment". Furthermore, we show that the ability to generate such words allows us to perform a classification task and thus validate our method quantitatively.

  11. MR imaging of regional late brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports, to complement current knowledge on brain development, late regional brain maturation assessed with quantitative MR imaging. Axial and coronal head spin-echo (SE) images were obtained in 60 healthy individuals aged 5--56 years, with a double-echo, flow compensated imaging sequence obtained with a 1.5-T Magnetom spectroscopy and imaging system. T2-weighted images were calculated from the intensity differences in SE images at echo times (TEs) of 15 and 90 msec (TR = 2.5 second). The mean T2 values were determined at 16 sites in each cerebral hemisphere. T2 values of the six frontal subcortical white matter (FSCWM) sites and of the internal capsule (IC) were evaluated. Mean T2 values in the IC decreased until age 10 years, whereas this decrease continued in the FSCWM past age 15 years before reaching a plateau. Differential age-dependent patterns of mean T2 values emerged between the six FSCWM sites. The spread of T2 values varied at different sites independent of the age of the individuals. T2- values have previously been shown to reflect the status of brain development. The authors' data on the six FSCWM sites and the IC extend these findings to specific substructures of the brain. Interindividual variations and technical issues are responsible for the observed spread of data

  12. IMAGING THE BRAIN AS SCHIZOPHRENIA DEVELOPS: DYNAMIC & GENETIC BRAIN MAPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul; Rapoport, Judith L; Cannon, Tyrone D; Toga, Arthur W

    2002-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic, debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects 0.2-2% of the population worldwide. Often striking without warning in the late teens or early twenties, its symptoms include auditory and visual hallucinations, psychotic outbreaks, bizarre or disordered thinking, depression and social withdrawal. To combat the disease, new antipsychotic drugs are emerging; these atypical neuroleptics target dopamine and serotonin pathways in the brain, offering increased therapeutic efficacy with fewer side effects. Despite their moderate success in controlling some patients' symptoms, little is known about the causes of schizophrenia, and what triggers the disease. Its peculiar age of onset raises key questions: What physical changes occur in the brain as a patient develops schizophrenia? Do these deficits spread in the brain, and can they be opposed? How do they relate to psychotic symptoms? As risk for the disease is genetically transmitted, do a patient's relatives exhibit similar brain changes? Recent advances in brain imaging and genetics provide exciting insight on these questions. Neuroimaging can now chart the emergence and progression of deficits in the brain, providing an exceptionally sharp scalpel to dissect the effects of genetic risk, environmental triggers, and susceptibility genes. Visualizing the dynamics of the disease, these techniques also offer new strategies to evaluate drugs that combat the unrelenting symptoms of schizophrenia.

  13. Four-view spect brain imaging detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that with increasing use of single photon radiopharmaceuticals for brain imaging, there is a growing demand for efficient, economical SPECT brain imaging instrumentation. This new multiple view imaging detector design has the sensitivity advantages of an array of four discrete cameras, but functions essentially like a single camera head. Four separate flat crystals are surrounded with PMT's which perform as a single array for photon event detection. Unique windows on adjoining crystal edges are coupled to corner light pipe/PMT assemblies. Reduced edge packing range, and sharing of corner PMT's allows a compact assembly volume, even with 3 inch PMT's. The imaging volume is approximately a 23 centimeter cube, and the imaging electronics are nearly the same as used in a single 64 PMT gamma camera

  14. Distribution of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua HU; Er-qing WEI; Gao CHEN; Jian-min ZHANG; Wei-ping ZHANG; Lei ZHANG; Qiu-fu GE; Hong-tian YAO; Wei DING; Zhong CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine the distribution of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 (CysLT2),one of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptors, in human brains with traumatic injury and tumors. Methods: Brain specimens were obtained from patients who underwent brain surgery. CysLT2 in brain tissues was examined using immunohistochemical analysis. Results: CysLT2 was expressed in the smooth muscle cells (not in the endothelial cells) of arteries and veins. CysLT2 was also expressed in the granulocytes in both vessels and in the brain parenchyma. In addition, CysLT2 was detected in neuron- and glial-appearing cells in either the late stages of traumatic injury or in the area surrounding the tumors. Microvessels regenerated 8 d after trauma and CysLT2 expression was recorded in their endothelial cells.Conclusion: CysLT2 is distributed in vascular smooth muscle cells and granulocytes, and brain trauma and tumor can induce its expression in vascular endothelial cells and in a number of other cells.

  15. Imaging Findings of Scrotal Tumors in Children: A Pictorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Hee [Kang-Dong Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jee Eun [Gachon University, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Sungkyunkwan University, Samsung Medical Center, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dal Mo [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The diagnosis of scrotal tumors in children can be challenging because of the rarity, vague symptoms, and varied imaging features of the tumors. The pathology and frequency of scrotal tumors that occur in children are different from tumors that arise in adults. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate the imaging findings of scrotal tumors in children with pathological correlations. In addition, we present the clinical manifestations that are valuable for a differential diagnosis. Familiarity with the imaging findings and clinical manifestations of pediatric scrotal tumors may be helpful in making an accurate diagnosis and providing proper patient management

  16. Heavy metals and epigenetic alterations in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffo, Maria; Caruso, Gerardo; Fata, Giuseppe La; Barresi, Valeria; Visalli, Maria; Venza, Mario; Venza, Isabella

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metals and their derivatives can cause various diseases. Numerous studies have evaluated the possible link between exposure to heavy metals and various cancers. Recent data show a correlation between heavy metals and aberration of genetic and epigenetic patterns. From a literature search we noticed few experimental and epidemiological studies that evaluate a possible correlation between heavy metals and brain tumors. Gliomas arise due to genetic and epigenetic alterations of glial cells. Changes in gene expression result in the alteration of the cellular division process. Epigenetic alterations in brain tumors include the hypermethylation of CpG group, hypomethylation of specific genes, aberrant activation of genes, and changes in the position of various histones. Heavy metals are capable of generating reactive oxygen assumes that key functions in various pathological mechanisms. Alteration of homeostasis of metals could cause the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and induce DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and alteration of proteins. In this study we summarize the possible correlation between heavy metals, epigenetic alterations and brain tumors. We report, moreover, the review of relevant literature. PMID:25646073

  17. Quantitative bioluminescence imaging of mouse tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jen-Chieh; Kung, Andrew L

    2015-01-05

    Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) has become an essential technique for preclinical evaluation of anticancer therapeutics and provides sensitive and quantitative measurements of tumor burden in experimental cancer models. For light generation, a vector encoding firefly luciferase is introduced into human cancer cells that are grown as tumor xenografts in immunocompromised hosts, and the enzyme substrate luciferin is injected into the host. Alternatively, the reporter gene can be expressed in genetically engineered mouse models to determine the onset and progression of disease. In addition to expression of an ectopic luciferase enzyme, bioluminescence requires oxygen and ATP, thus only viable luciferase-expressing cells or tissues are capable of producing bioluminescence signals. Here, we summarize a BLI protocol that takes advantage of advances in hardware, especially the cooled charge-coupled device camera, to enable detection of bioluminescence in living animals with high sensitivity and a large dynamic range.

  18. Brain 'imaging' in the Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluzzi, Alessandro; Belli, Antonio; Bain, Peter; Viva, Laura

    2007-12-01

    During the Renaissance, a period of 'rebirth' for humanities and science, new knowledge and speculation began to emerge about the function of the human body, replacing ancient religious and philosophical dogma. The brain must have been a fascinating mystery to a Renaissance artist, but some speculation existed at that time on the function of its parts. Here we show how revived interest in anatomy and life sciences may have influenced the figurative work of Italian and Flemish masters, such as Rafael, Michelangelo and David. We present a historical perspective on the artists and the period in which they lived, their fascination for human anatomy and its symbolic use in their art. Prior to the 16th century, knowledge of the brain was limited and influenced in a dogmatic way by the teachings of Galen(1) who, as we now know, conducted his anatomical studies not on humans but on animals.(2) Nemesus, Bishop of Emesa, in around the year 400 was one of the first to attribute mental faculties to the brain, specifically to the ventricles. He identified two anterior (lateral) ventricles, to which he assigned perception, a middle ventricle responsible for cognition and a posterior ventricle for memory.(2,3) After a long period of stasis in the Middle Ages, Renaissance scholars realized the importance of making direct observations on dissected cadavers. Between 1504 and 1507, Leonardo da Vinci conducted experiments to reveal the anatomy of the ventricular system in the brain. He injected hot wax through a tube thrust into the ventricular cavities of an ox and then scraped the overlying brain off, thus obtaining, in a simple but ingenious way, an accurate cast of the ventricles.(2,4) Leonardo shared the belief promoted by scholarly Christians that the ventricles were the abode of rational soul. We have several examples of hidden symbolism in Renaissance paintings, but the influence of phrenology and this rudimentary knowledge of neuroanatomy on artists of that period is under

  19. Computed tomographic aspects of primary brain tumors in dogs and cats; Aspectos tomograficos de tumores cerebrais primarios em caes e gatos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Zardo, Karen Maciel; Santos, Debora Rodrigues dos; Silva, Luciana Carandina da; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: viviam.babicsak@gmail.com [Setor de Diagnostico por Imagem - FMVZ - UNESP/Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the years, the Veterinary Medicine has made great advances, enabling thus the diagnosis of many diseases. As a result of this new situation, there was an increased expectation of life of animals resulting in an increase in the number of clinical care of older animals. Thus, diseases considered unusual in the past, begin to be diagnosed more frequently, as is the case of brain damage. Recently, computed tomography has been widely used in Brazil as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of several diseases. This noninvasive imaging technique allows the identification and evaluation of lesions of central nervous tissue such as brain tumors. This provides information about the size, shape and location of the lesion, in addition to the magnitude of compression and invasion of adjacent structures by the tumor and its side effects (such as the peritumoral edema and hydrocephalus). The image obtained from computed tomography may suggest the presence of a certain type brain tumor, data of great importance for the prognosis and treatment of the animal. This review covers the computed tomography aspects of primary brain tumors such as meningiomas, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, choroid plexus tumors and ependymomas. However, despite the computed tomography provide much information about the changes inside the skull; no way replace histopathological examination in determining the definitive diagnosis. (author)

  20. Functional brain imaging - baric and clinical questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advancing biological knowledge of disease processes plays a central part in the progress of modern psychiatry. An essential contribution comes from the functional and structural brain imaging techniques (CT, MRI, SPECT, PET). Their application is important for biological oriented research in psychiatry and there is also a growing relevance in clinical aspects. This development is taken into account by recent diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry. The capabilities and limitations of functional brain imaging in the context of research and clinic will be presented and discussed by examples and own investigations. (orig.)

  1. Changes in liver mitochondrial plasticity induced by brain tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debien Emilie

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating data suggest that liver is a major target organ of systemic effects observed in the presence of a cancer. In this study, we investigated the consequences of the presence of chemically induced brain tumors in rats on biophysical parameters accounting for the dynamics of water in liver mitochondria. Methods Tumors of the central nervous system were induced by intraveinous administration of ethylnitrosourea (ENU to pregnant females on the 19th day of gestation. The mitochondrial crude fraction was isolated from the liver of each animal and the dynamic parameters of total water and its macromolecule-associated fraction (structured water, H2Ost were calculated from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR measurements. Results The presence of a malignant brain tumor induced a loss of water structural order that implicated changes in the physical properties of the hydration shells of liver mitochondria macromolecules. This feature was linked to an increase in the membrane cholesterol content, a way to limit water penetration into the bilayer and then to reduce membrane permeability. As expected, these alterations in mitochondrial plasticity affected ionic exchanges and led to abnormal features of mitochondrial biogenesis and caspase activation. Conclusion This study enlightens the sensitivity of the structured water phase in the liver mitochondria machinery to external conditions such as tumor development at a distant site. The profound metabolic and functional changes led to abnormal features of ion transport, mitochondrial biogenesis and caspase activation.

  2. Testicular tumors: oncologic imaging and diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extreme radiosensitivity of testicular seminomas plus recent advances in chemotherapy for nonseminomatous tumors and for advanced seminomas have made long term survival possible in the large majority of patients with testis cancer. Since choice of therapy is determined by tumor histology and extent of disease, accurate clinical staging is critical. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and chest is the imaging procedure of choice for staging testis cancer. Clinical staging accuracy of 80 to 90% can be achieved using CT in combination with radio-immunoassays for β-HCG and AFP. Ultrasonography (US), while less sensitive and specific than CT for determining nodal status, may be useful in thin patients with sparse retroperitoneal fat. Lymphangiography should be reserved for Stage I patients in whom elective treatment of the retroperitoneum is not planned. Follow-up should include serial radioimmunoassays for serum AFP and β-HCG and periodic CT examinations of the abdomen and chest. In addition, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging and radionuclide imaging following injection of radioactively labelled antibodies to AFP and β-HCG are new techniques which offer great promise for the future

  3. Multiclass imbalance learning:Improving classification of pediatric brain tumors from magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zarinabad, Niloufar; Wilson, Martin P; Gill, Simrandip K.; Manias, Karen A; Davies, Nigel P; Peet, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Classification of pediatric brain tumors from (1) H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can aid diagnosis and management of brain tumors. However, varied incidence of the different tumor types leads to imbalanced class sizes and introduces difficulties in classifying rare tumor groups. This study assessed different imbalanced multiclass learning techniques and compared the use of complete spectra and quantified metabolite profiles for classification of three main childhood brain tu...

  4. Dye-Enhanced Multimodal Confocal Imaging of Brain Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Dennis; Snuderl, Matija; Sheth, Sameer; Curry, William; Yaroslavsky, Anna

    2011-04-01

    Background and Significance: Accurate high resolution intraoperative detection of brain tumors may result in improved patient survival and better quality of life. The goal of this study was to evaluate dye enhanced multimodal confocal imaging for discriminating normal and cancerous brain tissue. Materials and Methods: Fresh thick brain specimens were obtained from the surgeries. Normal and cancer tissues were investigated. Samples were stained in methylene blue and imaged. Reflectance and fluorescence signals were excited at 658nm. Fluorescence emission and polarization were registered from 670 nm to 710 nm. The system provided lateral resolution of 0.6 μm and axial resolution of 7 μm. Normal and cancer specimens exhibited distinctively different characteristics. H&E histopathology was processed from each imaged sample. Results and Conclusions: The analysis of normal and cancerous tissues indicated clear differences in appearance in both the reflectance and fluorescence responses. These results confirm the feasibility of multimodal confocal imaging for intraoperative detection of small cancer nests and cells.

  5. Thermal dosimetry studies of ultrasonically induced hyperthermia in normal dog brain and in experimental brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a series of 16 acute experiments on pentobarbital anesthetized dogs, thermal distributions generated by ultrasonic heating using a 1 MHz PZT transducer were compared with intensity distributions mapped in a test tank. Relatively flat distributions from 1 to 3 cm have been mapped in normal dog brain using ''shaped'' intensity distributions generated from ultrasonic emission patterns which are formed by the interaction between compressional, transverse and flexural modes activated within the crystal. In contrast, these same intensity distributions generated marked temperature variations in 3 malignant brain tumors presumably due to variations in tumor blood flow. The results of this study suggest that a practical clinical system for uniform heating of large tumor volumes with varying volumes and geometries is not an achievable goal. The author's laboratory is developing a scanning ultrasonic rapid hyperthermia treatment system which will be able to sequentially heat small volume of tumor tissue either to temperatures which will sterilize tumor or to a more conventional thermal dose. Time-temperature studies of threshold for thermal damage in normal dog brain are currently in progress

  6. Fetal dose estimates for radiotherapy of brain tumors during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine clinically the fetal dose from irradiation of brain tumors during pregnancy and to quantitate the components of fetal dose using phantom measurements. Methods and Materials: Two patients received radiotherapy during pregnancy for malignant brain tumors. Case 1 was treated with opposed lateral blocked 10 x 15 cm fields and case 2 with 6 x 6 cm bicoronal wedged arcs, using 6 MV photons. Fetal dose was measured clinically and confirmed with phantom measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Further phantom measurements quantitated the components of scattered dose. Results: For case 1, both clinical and phantom measurements estimated fetal dose to be 0.09% of the tumor dose, corresponding to a total fetal dose of 0.06 Gy for a tumor dose of 68.0 Gy. Phantom measurements estimated that internal scatter contributed 20% of the fetal dose, leakage 20%, collimator scatter 33%, and block scatter 27%. For case 2, clinical and phantom measurements estimated fetal dose to be 0.04% of the tumor dose, corresponding to a total fetal dose of 0.03 Gy for a tumor dose of 78.0 Gy. Leakage contributed 74% of the fetal dose, internal scatter 13%, collimator scatter 9%, and wedge scatter 4%. Conclusions: When indicated, brain tumors may be irradiated to high dose during pregnancy resulting in fetal exposure < 0.10 Gy, conferring an increased but acceptable risk of leukemia in the child, but no other deleterious effects to the fetus after the fourth week of gestation. For our particular field arrangements and linear accelerators, internal scatter contributed a small component of fetal dose compared to leakage and scatter from the collimators and blocks, and 18 MV photons resulted in a higher estimated fetal dose than 6 MV photons due to increased leakage and collimator scatter. These findings are not universal, but clinical and phantom TLD measurements estimate fetal dose accurately for energies < 10 MV and should be taken for each pregnant patient

  7. Image reconstruction for brain CT slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建明; 施鹏飞

    2004-01-01

    Different modalities in biomedical images, like CT, MRI and PET scanners, provide detailed cross-sectional views of human anatomy. This paper introduces three-dimensional brain reconstruction based on CT slices. It contains filtering, fuzzy segmentation, matching method of contours, cell array structure and image animation. Experimental results have shown its validity. The innovation is matching method of contours and fuzzy segmentation algorithm of CT slices.

  8. Simultaneous imaging of MR angiographic image and brain surface image using steady-state free precession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takane, Atsushi; Tsuda, Munetaka (Hitachi Ltd., Katsuta, Ibaraki (Japan)); Koizumi, Hideaki; Koyama, Susumu; Yoshida, Takeyuki

    1993-09-01

    Synthesis of a brain surface image and an angiographic image representing brain surface vasculatures can be useful for pre-operational contemplation of brain surgery. Both brain surface images and brain surface vasculature images were successfully acquired simultaneously utilizing both FID signals and time-reversed FID signals created under steady-state free precession (SSFP). This simultaneous imaging method has several advantages. No positional discrepancies between both images and prolongation of scan time are anticipated because of concurrent acquisition of the two kinds of image data. Superimposition and stereo-display of both images enable understanding of their spatial relationship, and therefore afford a useful means for pre-operational simulation of brain surgery. (author).

  9. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  10. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  11. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  12. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  13. Assessment of functional status in children with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty children treated for brain tumors between 1978 - 1985 at Kurume university hospital were evaluated for alternation in intellectual, emotional, and social function. They were 15 males and 15 females, aged 3 to 16 years, on the averaged 1.7 years after treatment. Twenty-eight children had no neurological deficits and 2 children had slight neurological deficits. It was possible for twenty-eight children to be evaluated for intelligence quotient by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-revised and Tanaka-Binet. The median score and standard deviation of intelligence quotient (IQ) test in children with brain tumors were as follows; verbal IQ: 84 ± 16, performance IQ: 77 ± 20, full scale IQ: 80 ± 20. There children with brain tumors obtained significant low IQ scores than children (t-test, P < 0.01). Twenty-one (72 %) children showed subnormal IQ scores (IQ < 90) and 7 children showed normal IQ scores (IQ ≥ 90). Concerning social and emotional function, twelve children (45.7 %) showed abnormal behaviour. The median scores and standard deviation of IQ scores in cranial irradiated patients were as follows; verbal IQ: 79 ± 13, performance IQ: 71 ± 15, full scale IQ: 71 ± 14. Especially, ten of twelve cranial irradiated patients showed subnormal IQ scores. Also, cranial irradiated patients obtained significant low IQ scores than non-cranial irradiated patients (t-test, P < 0.05). Serial evaluation of three cranial irradiated patients revealed further deterioration without recurrence of tumor and hydrocephalus. The results are discussed to: (1) the effects and mechanism of cranial irradiation on cognitive development: (2) the relationship between cognitive dysfunction and irradiation methods. The effects and mechanism of cranial irradiation on cognitive dysfunction is considered to be not only injury of cortex but also injury of fiber tracts. Also, cognitive dysfunction is apt to be related to age of irradiated patients. (J.P.N.)

  14. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Franzese, Ciro; Navarria, Pierina; Scorsetti, Marta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Grimaldi, Marco [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Simonelli, Matteo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Medical Oncology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Bello, Lorenzo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Neurosurgery, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  15. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  16. Simulating ‘structure-function’ patterns of malignant brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansury, Yuri; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2004-01-01

    Rapid growth and extensive tissue infiltration are characteristics of highly malignant neuroepithelial brain tumors. Very little is known, however, about the existence of structure-function relationships in these types of neoplasm. Therefore, using a previously developed two-dimensional agent-based model, we have investigated the emergent patterns of multiple tumor cells that proliferate and migrate on an adaptive grid lattice, driven by a local-search mechanism and guided by the presence of distinct environmental conditions. Numerical results indicate a strong correlation between the fractal dimensions of the tumor surface and the average velocity of the tumor's spatial expansion. In particular, when the so called ‘beaten-path advantage’ intensifies, i.e., rising ‘mechanical rewards’ for cells to follow each other along preformed pathways, it results in an increase of the tumor system's fractal dimensions leading to a concomitant acceleration of its spatial expansion. Whereas cell migration is the dominant phenotype responsible for the more extensive branching patterns exhibiting higher fractal dimensions, cell proliferation appears to become more active primarily at lower fracticality associated with stronger mechanical confinements. Implications of these results for experimental and clinical cancer research are discussed.

  17. The prognostic value of tumor necrosis in patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective study investigated the outcome of patients with brain metastases after radiosurgery with special emphasis on prognostic impact of visible intratumoral necrosis on survival and local control. From 1998 through 2008, 149 patients with brain metastases from solid tumors were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy at Luebeck University. Median age was 58.4 years with 11%, 78%, 10% in recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classes I, II, III, respectively. 70% had 1 metastasis, 29% 2-3 metastases, 2 patients more than 3 metastases, 71% active extracranial disease. Median volume of metastatic lesions was 4.7 cm3, median radiosurgery dose 22 Gy (single fraction). 71% of patients received additional whole-brain irradiation (WBI). All patients were analyzed regarding survival, local, distant failure and prognostic factors, side effects and changes in neurologic symptoms after radiotherapy. The type of contrast-enhancement in MR imaging was also analyzed; metastatic lesions were classified as containing necrosis if they appeared as ring-enhancing with central areas of no or minimal contrast enhancement. Median survival was 7.0 months with 1-year and 5-year survival rates of 33% and 0.4%, respectively. Tumor necrosis (ring-enhancement) was visible on pretreatment MRI scans in 56% of all lesions and lesions with necrosis were larger than non-necrotic lesions (6.7 cm3 vs. 3.2 cm3, p = 0.01). Patients with tumor necrosis had a median survival of 5.4 months, patients without tumor necrosis 7.2 months. Local control rate in the irradiated volume was 70%, median survival without local failure 17.8 months. Control in the brain outside the irradiated volume was 60%, median survival without distant failure 14.0 months. Significant prognostic factors for overall survival were KPS (p = 0.001), presence of tumor necrosis on pretreatment MRI (p = 0.001) with RPA-class and WBI reaching marginal significance (each p = 0.05). Prognostic impact of tumor necrosis remained

  18. The fibrinolytic system facilitates tumor cell migration across the blood-brain barrier in experimental melanoma brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with metastatic tumors to the brain have a very poor prognosis. Increased metastatic potential has been associated with the fibrinolytic system. We investigated the role of the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin in tumor cell migration across brain endothelial cells and growth of brain metastases in an experimental metastatic melanoma model. Metastatic tumors to the brain were established by direct injection into the striatum or by intracarotid injection of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in C57Bl mice. The role of plasminogen in the ability of human melanoma cells to cross a human blood-brain barrier model was studied on a transwell system. Wild type mice treated with the plasmin inhibitor epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and plg-/- mice developed smaller tumors and survived longer than untreated wild type mice. Tumors metastasized to the brain of wild type mice treated with EACA and plg-/- less efficiently than in untreated wild type mice. No difference was observed in the tumor growth in any of the three groups of mice. Human melanoma cells were able to cross the human blood-brain barrier model in a plasmin dependent manner. Plasmin facilitates the development of tumor metastasis to the brain. Inhibition of the fibrinolytic system could be considered as means to prevent tumor metastasis to the brain

  19. Modelling Brain Tissue using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Tim Bjørn

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion MRI, or diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), is a technique that measures the restricted diffusion of water molecules within brain tissue. Different reconstruction methods quantify water-diffusion anisotropy in the intra- and extra-cellular spaces of the neural environment. Fibre tracking...... be used. Within a two year period, no statistical inter- or intra-brain difference in the diffusion coefficient was found in perfusion fixated minipig brains. However, a decreasing tendency in the diffusion coefficient was found at the last time points about 24 months post mortem and might be explained...... experiment. This includes the selection of independent anatomical data to be used to derive a gold standard, the selection of a gyrated animal model in place of the human brain, objective selection of the seed region to initiate, and a waypoint region to constrain the tractography results....

  20. Brain Imaging Studies of Developmental Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Roger J.

    2001-01-01

    A review of research on brain imaging of developmental stuttering concludes that findings increasingly point to a failure of normal temporal lobe activation during speech that may either contribute to (or is the result of) a breakdown in the sequencing of processing among premotor regions implicated in phonologic planning. (Contains references.)…

  1. Tumor-Like Lesions of the Brain in MRI and CT-scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Bakhshandehpour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a variety of non-neoplastic pathologies that may present with a mass effect and/or abnormal enhancement, thus simulating neoplasia. "nMaterials and Methods: We collected 77 cases of various tumor mimics from teaching files of three institutions. All patients presented with intra- and/or extra–axial lesions and imaging findings that could, potentially, mimic brain neoplasia. "nResults: Assessment of central nervous system pathology may be very challenging. The usual description of mass effect and abnormal enhancement, typical of brain neoplasia, can also be shared by a variety of non-neoplastic etiologies. Radiologists should be familiar with these tumor mimics, and shold be included as differential diagnoses. We categorized and these non-neoplastic lesions, which could potentially mimic extra-and/or intra- axial brain tumors, into the following groups: "n1 Normal variant (giant (tumefactive perivascular spaces "n2 Infection (tuberculosis, cysticercosis, and fungal lesions "n3 Syndromes (NF1, Rosai-Dorfman Syndrome, Lhermitte-Duclos, Krabbe Disease (adult type. "n4 Vascular lesions (vascular malformations, aneurysms and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis "n5 Autoimmune and inflammatory processes (MS, ADEM, encephalitis, sarcoidosis and PML "n6 Idiopathic (idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis "n7 Congenital brain lesions (cortical dysgenesis and heterotopias "n8 Miscellaneous (postictal brain lesions "nConclusion: In this paper, we present a large collection of non-neoplastic tumor mimics. Awareness, understanding, and recognition of these mimics may permit the radiologist to play a significant role in the prevention of unwanted surgical interventions or extensive diagnostic evaluation procedures.  

  2. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors with radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radiolabeled cholesterols in 1969 as precursors of adrenocortical steroid production allowed the first noninvasive imaging of the adrenal cortices. FDA-NDA approval in 1984 should allow routine use of these agents in most hospitals. NP-59 is most commonly used in the diagnosis and management of Cushing syndrome; the second most common use is in the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. It is also helpful in the differential diagnosis of adrenal and ovarian hyperandrogenism and hirsutism, and is the only noninvasive method of detecting unilateral adrenocortical hypofunction. The newest and most popular use is in the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic masses in the region of the adrenal gland discovered incidentally with CT scan (incidentalomas). In this situation, the NP-59 scan can define whether the tumor is in the adrenal gland and if it is functional or nonfunctional. The authors believe that, in the future, radiolabeled enzyme inhibitors might offer better diagnostic imaging of the adrenal cortex, although these agents will probably not be available for routine use for some time. The development of a radioiodinated guanethidine analog, 131I-MIBG, has allowed differentiation of normal adrenal medullary function from bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia before the development of hypertension or tachycardia, diagnostic increases in plasma or urinary catecholamines, or abnormal CT scans. The search for a pheochromocytoma should begin with 131I-MIBG scintigraphy. While over 90% of primary pheochromocytomas occur in the abdomen, neither a survey of the abdomen nor the finding of a single tumor should conclude the search

  3. Radiosurgery in the management of pediatric brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raco, A; Raimondi, A J; D'Alonzo, A; Esposito, V; Valentino, V

    2000-05-01

    A total of 114 patients with benign and malignant intracranial tumors were treated by Valentino at the Flaminia Radiosurgical Center using a Philips 6-MeV linear accelerator between 1987 and 1995. The tumor locations break down as follows: 36 in the cerebral hemispheres, 14 in the region of the hypothalamus/optic chiasm, 21 in the III ventricle/pineal region, 3 in the basal ganglia, 27 in the posterior fossa, 13 in the brain stem. Seventy-nine patients had multivariate/combined treatment consisting of surgery or biopsy followed by chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or radiosurgery. Thirty-five were not operated on or biopsied but were treated primarily by radiosurgery, which was associated with chemotherapy and conventional radiotherapy. The short- and long-term results were evaluated separately for each pathology in an attempt to derive guidelines for future treatment. For tumors of the pineal region, we are of the opinion that radiosurgery is the treatment of choice in children and that more than one-third of patients can be cured by this means. The remaining patients require surgery and/or chemotherapy in addition. For medulloblastomas radiosurgery may be useful to control local recurrence if coupled with chemotherapy. In the case of ependymomas, partly because of the extreme malignancy of the lesions in our series, radiosurgery did not succeed in controlling local recurrence. We fear that limiting treatment to radiosurgery, rather than prescribing conventional radiotherapy when indicated, could permit CNS seeding. For craniopharyngiomas radiosurgery proved useful for controlling solid remnants. In glial tumors radiosurgery helped either to "sterilize" the tumor bed after removal or to treat remnants of the lesions in critical areas; for diffuse brain stem gliomas it should be considered the treatment of choice.

  4. Analysis of Dynamic Brain Imaging Data

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, P

    1998-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques for probing brain function, including functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, intrinsic and extrinsic contrast optical imaging, and magnetoencephalography, generate large data sets with complex content. In this paper we develop appropriate techniques of analysis and visualization of such imaging data, in order to separate the signal from the noise, as well as to characterize the signal. The techniques developed fall into the general category of multivariate time series analysis, and in particular we extensively use the multitaper framework of spectral analysis. We develop specific protocols for the analysis of fMRI, optical imaging and MEG data, and illustrate the techniques by applications to real data sets generated by these imaging modalities. In general, the analysis protocols involve two distinct stages: `noise' characterization and suppression, and `signal' characterization and visualization. An important general conclusion of our study is the utility of a frequency-based repres...

  5. MR imaging of acute hemorrhagic brain infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six patients with acute hemorrhagic brain infarct were imaged using spin-echo (SE) pulse sequences on a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner. Including two patients with repeated MR imaging, a total of eight examinations, all performed within 15 days after stroke, were analyzed retrospectively. Four patients revealed massive hemorrhages in the basal ganglia or cerebellum and three cases demonstrated multiple linear hemorrhages in the cerebral cortex. On T1-weighted images, hemorrhages were either mildly or definitely hyperintense relative to gray matter, while varied from mildly hypointense to hyperintense on T2-weighted images. T1-weighted images were superior to T2-weighted images in detection of hemorrhgage. CT failed to detect hemorrhage in two of five cases: indicative of MR superiority to CT in the diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic infarcts. (author)

  6. MR imaging of acute hemorrhagic brain infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Ohnari, Norihiro; Ohno, Masato (Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    Six patients with acute hemorrhagic brain infarct were imaged using spin-echo (SE) pulse sequences on a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner. Including two patients with repeated MR imaging, a total of eight examinations, all performed within 15 days after stroke, were analyzed retrospectively. Four patients revealed massive hemorrhages in the basal ganglia or cerebellum and three cases demonstrated multiple linear hemorrhages in the cerebral cortex. On T1-weighted images, hemorrhages were either mildly or definitely hyperintense relative to gray matter, while varied from mildly hypointense to hyperintense on T2-weighted images. T1-weighted images were superior to T2-weighted images in detection of hemorrhgage. CT failed to detect hemorrhage in two of five cases: indicative of MR superiority to CT in the diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic infarcts. (author).

  7. Preclinical validation of electrochemotherapy as an effective treatment for brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm-Larsen, Birgit; Iversen, Helle K; Ibsen, Per;

    2011-01-01

    eliminated by electrochemotherapy with a novel electrode device developed for use in the brain. By using this method, the cytotoxicity of bleomycin can be augmented more than 300-fold because of increased permeabilization and more direct passage of drug to the cytosol, enabling highly efficient local tumor...... treatment. Bleomycin was injected intracranially into male rats inoculated with rat glia-derived tumor cells 2 weeks before the application of the electrical field (32 pulses, 100 V, 0.1 ms, and 1 Hz). In this model, where presence of tumor was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before treatment...... treated area, which MRI and histology showed to contain a fluid-filled cavity. In a long-range survival study, treatment side effects seemed to be minimal, with normal rat behavior observed after electrochemotherapy. Our findings suggest that electrochemotherapy may offer a safe and effective new tool to...

  8. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Breast: Imaging Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eun Deok [Department of Clinical Pathology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu 480-717 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Kyun [Department of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu 480-717 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Soo [Department of Surgery, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu 480-717 (Korea, Republic of); Whang, In Yong [Department of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu 480-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Focal neuroendocrine differentiation can be found in diverse histological types of breast tumors. However, the term, neuroendocrine breast tumor, indicates the diffuse expression of neuroendocrine markers in more than 50% of the tumor cell population. The imaging features of neuroendocrine breast tumor have not been accurately described due to extreme rarity of this tumor type. We present a case of a pathologically confirmed, primary neuroendocrine breast tumor in a 42-year-old woman, with imaging findings difficult to be differentiated from that of invasive ductal carcinoma.

  9. Exploratory case-control study of brain tumors in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exploratory study of brain tumors in adults was carried out using 215 cases diagnosed in Southern Ontario between 1979 and 1982, with an individually matched, hospital control series. Significantly elevated risks were observed for reported use of spring water, drinking of wine, and consumption of pickled fish, together with a significant protective effect for the regular consumption of any of several types of fruit. While these factors are consistent with a role for N-nitroso compounds in the etiology of these tumors, for several other factors related to this hypothesis, no association was observed. Occupation in the rubber industry was associated with a significant relative risk of 9.0, though no other occupational associations were seen. Two previously unreported associations were with smoking nonfilter cigarettes with a significant trend and with the use of hair dyes or sprays. The data do not support an association between physical head trauma requiring medical attention and risk of brain tumors and indicate that exposure to ionizing radiation and vinyl chloride monomer does not contribute any appreciable fraction of attributable risk in the population studied. The findings warrant further detailed investigation in future epidemiologic studies

  10. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kawabata, Shinji; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Ono, Koji

    2016-07-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting.

  11. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIYATAKE, Shin-Ichi; KAWABATA, Shinji; HIRAMATSU, Ryo; KUROIWA, Toshihiko; SUZUKI, Minoru; KONDO, Natsuko; ONO, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting. PMID:27250576

  12. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kawabata, Shinji; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Ono, Koji

    2016-07-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting. PMID:27250576

  13. Therapeutic Potential of Curcumin for the Treatment of Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil V. Klinger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain malignancies currently carry a poor prognosis despite the current multimodal standard of care that includes surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. As new therapies are desperately needed, naturally occurring chemical compounds have been studied for their potential chemotherapeutic benefits and low toxicity profile. Curcumin, found in the rhizome of turmeric, has extensive therapeutic promise via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative properties. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo data have shown it to be an effective treatment for brain tumors including glioblastoma multiforme. These effects are potentiated by curcumin’s ability to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest, activation of apoptotic pathways, induction of autophagy, disruption of molecular signaling, inhibition of invasion, and metastasis and by increasing the efficacy of existing chemotherapeutics. Further, clinical data suggest that it has low toxicity in humans even at large doses. Curcumin is a promising nutraceutical compound that should be evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of human brain tumors.

  14. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  15. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  16. Feasibility of noninvasive ultrasound delivery for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, Kullervo; McDannold, Nathan; Clement, Greg; White, Jason; Treat, Lisa; Yin, Xiangtao; Jolesz, Ferenc; Sheikov, Nickolai; Vykhodtseva, Natalia

    2005-04-01

    The objective of our research during the past few years has been to develop multichannel ultrasound phased arrays for noninvasive brain interventions. We have been successful in developing methods for correcting the skull induced beam distortions and thus, are able to produce sharp focusing through human skulls. This method is now being tested for thermal ablation of tumors, with results from animal studies demonstrating feasibility. In addition, the ability of ultrasound to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) locally has been explored in animal models. The results suggest that the transcranial ultrasound exposures can induce BBB opening such that therapeutic agents can be localized in the brain. This tool is especially powerful since the beam can be guided by MR images, thus providing anatomical or functional targeting. This talk will review our current status in this research, which ultimately aims for the clinical use of this methodology.

  17. Automatic segmentation of brain images: selection of region extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Leiguang; Kulikowski, Casimir A.; Mezrich, Reuben S.

    1991-07-01

    In automatically analyzing brain structures from a MR image, the choice of low level region extraction methods depends on the characteristics of both the target object and the surrounding anatomical structures in the image. The authors have experimented with local thresholding, global thresholding, and other techniques, using various types of MR images for extracting the major brian landmarks and different types of lesions. This paper describes specifically a local- binary thresholding method and a new global-multiple thresholding technique developed for MR image segmentation and analysis. The initial testing results on their segmentation performance are presented, followed by a comparative analysis of the two methods and their ability to extract different types of normal and abnormal brain structures -- the brain matter itself, tumors, regions of edema surrounding lesions, multiple sclerosis lesions, and the ventricles of the brain. The analysis and experimental results show that the global multiple thresholding techniques are more than adequate for extracting regions that correspond to the major brian structures, while local binary thresholding is helpful for more accurate delineation of small lesions such as those produced by MS, and for the precise refinement of lesion boundaries. The detection of other landmarks, such as the interhemispheric fissure, may require other techniques, such as line-fitting. These experiments have led to the formulation of a set of generic computer-based rules for selecting the appropriate segmentation packages for particular types of problems, based on which further development of an innovative knowledge- based, goal directed biomedical image analysis framework is being made. The system will carry out the selection automatically for a given specific analysis task.

  18. Fast optical imaging of human brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Gratton

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Great advancements in brain imaging during the last few decades have opened a large number of new possibilities for neuroscientists. The most dominant methodologies (electrophysiological and magnetic resonance-based methods emphasize temporal and spatial information, respectively. However, theorizing about brain function has recently emphasized the importance of rapid (within 100 ms or so interactions between different elements of complex neuronal networks. Fast optical imaging, and in particular the event-related optical signal (EROS, a technology that has emerged over the last 15 years may provide descriptions of localized (to sub-cm level brain activity with a temporal resolution of less than 100 ms. The main limitations of EROS are its limited penetration, which allows us to image cortical structures not deeper than 3 cm from the surface of the head, and its low signal-to-noise ratio. Advantages include the fact that EROS is compatible with most other imaging methods, including electrophysiological, magnetic resonance, and trans-cranial magnetic stimulation techniques, with which can be recorded concurrently. In this paper we present a summary of the research that has been conducted so far on fast optical imaging, including evidence for the possibility of recording neuronal signals with this method, the properties of the signals, and various examples of applications to the study of human cognitive neuroscience. Extant issues, controversies, and possible future developments are also discussed.

  19. Automated delineation of brain structures in patients undergoing radiotherapy for primary brain tumors: From atlas to dose–volume histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To implement and evaluate a magnetic resonance imaging atlas-based automated segmentation (MRI-ABAS) procedure for cortical and sub-cortical grey matter areas definition, suitable for dose-distribution analyses in brain tumor patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT). Patients and methods: 3T-MRI scans performed before RT in ten brain tumor patients were used. The MRI-ABAS procedure consists of grey matter classification and atlas-based regions of interest definition. The Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) algorithm was applied to structures manually delineated by four experts to generate the standard reference. Performance was assessed comparing multiple geometrical metrics (including Dice Similarity Coefficient – DSC). Dosimetric parameters from dose–volume-histograms were also generated and compared. Results: Compared with manual delineation, MRI-ABAS showed excellent reproducibility [median DSCABAS = 1 (95% CI, 0.97–1.0) vs. DSCMANUAL = 0.90 (0.73–0.98)], acceptable accuracy [DSCABAS = 0.81 (0.68–0.94) vs. DSCMANUAL = 0.90 (0.76–0.98)], and an overall 90% reduction in delineation time. Dosimetric parameters obtained using MRI-ABAS were comparable with those obtained by manual contouring. Conclusions: The speed, reproducibility, and robustness of the process make MRI-ABAS a valuable tool for investigating radiation dose–volume effects in non-target brain structures providing additional standardized data without additional time-consuming procedures

  20. Thresholding magnetic resonance images of human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-mao HU; Wieslaw L NOWINSKI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, methods are proposed and validated to determine low and high thresholds to segment out gray matter and white matter for MR images of different pulse sequences of human brain. First, a two-dimensional reference image is determined to represent the intensity characteristics of the original three-dimensional data. Then a region of interest of the reference image is determined where brain tissues are present. The non-supervised fuzzy c-means clustering is employed to determine: the threshold for obtaining head mask, the low threshold for T2-weighted and PD-weighted images, and the high threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Supervised range-constrained thresholding is employed to determine the low threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Thresholding based on pairs of boundary pixels is proposed to determine the high threshold for T2- and PD-weighted images. Quantification against public data sets with various noise and inhomogeneity levels shows that the proposed methods can yield segmentation robust to noise and intensity inhomogeneity. Qualitatively the proposed methods work well with real clinical data.

  1. Proton and carbon ion radiotherapy for primary brain tumors and tumors of the skull base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephanie E.; Kessel, Kerstin; Habermehl, Daniel; Debus, Jurgen [Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany)], e-mail: Stephanie.Combs@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Haberer, Thomas [Heidelberger Ionenstrahl Therapiezentrum (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Jaekel, Oliver [Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberger Ionenstrahl Therapiezentrum (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    To analyze clinical concepts, toxicity and treatment outcome in patients with brain and skull base tumors treated with photons and particle therapy. Material and methods: In total 260 patients with brain tumors and tumors of the skull base were treated at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT). Patients enrolled in and randomized within prospective clinical trials as well as bony or soft tissue tumors are not included in this analysis. Treatment was delivered as protons, carbon ions, or combinations of photons and a carbon ion boost. All patients are included in a tight follow-up program. The median follow-up time is 12 months (range 2-39 months). Results: Main histologies included meningioma (n = 107) for skull base lesions, pituitary adenomas (n = 14), low-grade gliomas (n = 51) as well as high-grade gliomas (n = 55) for brain tumors. In all patients treatment could be completed without any unexpected severe toxicities. No side effects > CTC Grade III were observed. To date, no severe late toxicities were observed, however, for endpoints such as secondary malignancies or neuro cognitive side effects follow-up time still remains too short. Local recurrences were mainly seen in the group of high-grade gliomas or atypical meningiomas; for benign skull base meningiomas, to date, no recurrences were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: The specific benefit of particle therapy will potentially reduce the risk of secondary malignancies as well as improve neuro cognitive outcome and quality of life (QOL); thus, longer follow-up will be necessary to confirm these endpoints. Indication-specific trials on meningiomas and gliomas are underway to elucidate the role of protons and carbon ions in these indications.

  2. Visceral Afferent Pathways and Functional Brain Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart W.G. Derbyshire

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of functional imaging to study painful sensations has generated considerable interest regarding insight into brain dysfunction that may be responsible for functional pain such as that suffered in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. This review provides a brief introduction to the development of brain science as it relates to pain processing and a snapshot of recent functional imaging results with somatic and visceral pain. Particular emphasis is placed on current hypotheses regarding dysfunction of the brain-gut axis in IBS patients. There are clear and interpretable differences in brain activation following somatic as compared with visceral noxious sensation. Noxious visceral distension, particularly of the lower gastrointestinal tract, activates regions associated with unpleasant affect and autonomic responses. Noxious somatic sensation, in contrast, activates regions associated with cognition and skeletomotor responses. Differences between IBS patients and control subjects, however, were far less clear and interpretable. While this is in part due to the newness of this field, it also reflects weaknesses inherent within the current understanding of IBS. Future use of functional imaging to examine IBS and other functional disorders will be more likely to succeed by describing clear theoretical and clinical endpoints.

  3. Identifying the needs of brain tumor patients and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvataneni, Rupa; Polley, Mei-Yin; Freeman, Teresa; Lamborn, Kathleen; Prados, Michael; Butowski, Nicholas; Liu, Raymond; Clarke, Jennifer; Page, Margaretta; Rabbitt, Jane; Fedoroff, Anne; Clow, Emelia; Hsieh, Emily; Kivett, Valerie; Deboer, Rebecca; Chang, Susan

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the needs of brain tumor patients and their caregivers to provide improved health services to these populations. Two different questionnaires were designed for patients and caregivers. Both questionnaires contained questions pertaining to three realms: disease symptoms/treatment, health care provider, daily living/finances. The caregivers' questionnaires contained an additional domain on emotional needs. Each question was evaluated for the degree of importance and satisfaction. Exploratory analyses determined whether baseline characteristics affect responder importance or satisfaction. Also, areas of high agreement/disagreement in satisfaction between the participating patient-caregiver pairs were identified. Questions for which >50% of the patients and caregivers thought were "very important" but >30% were dissatisfied include: understanding the cause of brain tumors, dealing with patients' lower energy, identifying healthful foods and activities for patients, telephone access to health care providers, information on medical insurance coverage, and support from their employer. In the emotional realm, caregivers identified 9 out of 10 items as important but need further improvement. Areas of high disagreement in satisfaction between participating patient-caregiver pairs include: getting help with household chores (P value = 0.006) and finding time for personal needs (P value < 0.001). This study provides insights into areas to improve services for brain tumor patients and their caregivers. The caregivers' highest amount of burden is placed on their emotional needs, emphasizing the importance of providing appropriate medical and psychosocial support for caregivers to cope with emotional difficulties they face during the patients' treatment process.

  4. MR imaging of the fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, Orit A. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Fetal MRI is clinically performed to evaluate the brain in cases where an abnormality is detected by prenatal sonography. These most commonly include ventriculomegaly, abnormalities of the corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. Fetal MRI is also increasingly performed to evaluate fetuses who have normal brain findings on prenatal sonogram but who are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental abnormalities, such as complicated monochorionic twin pregnancies. This paper will briefly discuss the common clinical conditions imaged by fetal MRI as well as recent advances in fetal MRI research. (orig.)

  5. Criteria for the evaluation of brachytherapy for malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty two patients with recurrent or unresectable malignant brain tumors were treated by interstitial brachytherapy with Ir-192 seeds. After-loading catheters were stereotactically implanted under local anesthesia using a Brown-Roberts-wells (BRW) CT guided stereotactic system. The response to the therapy was followed by serial CT and MRI scans and evaluated three months after implantation by the standard criteria for the evaluation of chemotherapy because there is no set of criteria available for radiation therapy. After interstitial brachytherapy, the most commonly observed CT and MRI finding was central low attenuation, that is, the central enhanced tumor replaced by the radiation necrosis. Three months after the treatment, these findings were observed in 23 patients out of 32 patients on the CT and MRI. We observed complete response (CR) in 6 of 32 patients, partial response (PR) in 9, no change (NC) in 7 and progressive disease (PD) in 9. In 6 CR patients, the tumor disappeared by three months after treatment. In 15 patients of 17 NC and PD patients, the central low attenuation was observed and their prognosis was better than those without central necrosis. The results suggested the standard criteria for the evaluation of chemotherapy, such as CR, PR etc, cannot be applicable to our series because the tumor mass replaced by necrotic tissue and remained as a mass lesion in most cases and new criteria in consideration of this low attenuation on CT and MRI will be needed for the evaluation of brachytherapy on neuroimagings. (author)

  6. WAVELET STATISTICAL TEXTURE FEATURES WITH ORTHOGONAL OPERATORS TUMOUR CLASSIFICATION IN MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING BRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors medically also called neoplasms are an abnormal mass of tissue resulting from uncontrolled proliferation or division of cells occurring in the human body. If such growth is located in the brain then it is called as brain tumor. Identification of such tumors is a major challenge in the field of medical science. Early identification of tumors prove to be critical as serious consequences can be averted. Its threat level depends on a combination of various factors like the type of tumor, its location, its size and its developmental stage. Tumor can occur in any part of the body. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI technique is mainly used for analyzing the brain, as the images produced are of high precision and applicability. The main objective of this study is to classify the brain MRI dataset for the existence or non existence of tumors. The proposed method uses Two Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform (2D-DWT for pre-processing and further classification with orthogonal operators and SVM. The usage of 2D-DWT for pre-processing improves the classification accuracy by 2% when compared to the existing classification techniques.

  7. Combined therapy of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subjects were 52 patients (5-78 years, average 51.4 years) with primary brain tumor treated in 4 institutes in Chugoku and Shikoku districts during 3 years from April 1991. Histopathologically, the subject diseases were glioblastoma in 16, well differentiated glioblastoma in 19, brain primary lymphoma in 9, and malignant meningioma in 5. In the glioblastoma group, 14 received surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy at the first admission. Three patients who survived more than 1 year and 6 patients who died within 1 year were compared. No significant difference was observed in terms of radiotherapy between the both groups. In the astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma groups, 16 patients received radiotherapy and chemotherapy as the initial treatment, and 14 underwent several course of maintenance therapy. In the comparison between 7 patients who died within 3 years from the first treatment and 9 patients surviving more than 3 years, no significant difference was observed in terms of radiation doses. (S.Y.)

  8. Phenylalanine-coupled solid lipid nanoparticles for brain tumor targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharya, Parul; Jain, Ashish; Gulbake, Arvind; Shilpi, Satish; Jain, Ankit; Hurkat, Pooja [Dr. Hari Singh Gour University, Pharmaceutical Research Projects Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India); Majumdar, Subrata [Bose Institute, Division of Molecular Medicine (India); Jain, Sanjay K., E-mail: drskjainin@yahoo.com [Dr. Hari Singh Gour University, Pharmaceutical Research Projects Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India)

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the targeting potential of amino acid (phenylalanine)-coupled solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) loaded with ionically complexed doxorubicin HCl (Dox). Ionic complexation was used to enhance the loading efficiency and release characteristics of water soluble form of Dox. l-Type amino acid transporters (LAT1) are highly expressed on blood brain barrier as well as on many brain cancer cells, thus targeting LAT1 using phenylalanine improved anticancer activity of prepared nanocarrier. The phenylalanine-coupled SLN were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. The particle size of the resulting SLN was found to be in the range of 163.3 ± 5.2 to 113.0 ± 2.6 nm, with a slightly negative surface charge. In ex vivo study on C6 glioma cell lines, the cellular cytotoxicity of the SLN was highly increased when coupled with phenylalanine. In addition, stealthing sheath of PEG present on the surface of the SLN enhanced the cellular uptake of the SLN on C6 glioma cell line. Results of biodistribution and fluorescence studies clearly revealed that phenylalanine-coupled SLN could deliver high amount of drug into the brain tumor cells and showed the brain-targeting potential.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pituitary Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is currently considered a major keystone of the diagnosis of diseases of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal region. However, the relatively small size of the pituitary gland, its location deep at the skull base and the numerous physiological variants present in this area impede the precise assessment of the anatomical structures and, particularly, of the pituitary gland itself. The diagnosis of the often tiny lesions of this region--such as pituitary microadenomas--is then difficult if the MRI technology is not optimized and if potential artifacts and traps are not recognized. Advanced MRI technology can not only depict small lesions with greater reliability, but also help in the differential diagnosis of large tumors. In these, defining the presence or absence of invasion is a particularly important task. This review describes and illustrates the radiological diagnosis of the different tumors of the sellar region, from the common prolactinomas, nonfunctioning adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts, to the less frequent and more difficult to detect corticotroph pituitary adenomas in Cushing's disease, and other neoplastic and nonneoplastic entities. Finally, some hints are given to facilitate the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions. PMID:27003878

  10. FTIR spectro-imaging of collagen scaffold formation during glioma tumor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Razia; Chien, Chia-Chi; Chen, Hsiang-Hsin; Bobroff, Vladimir; Moenner, Michel; Javerzat, Sophie; Hwu, Yeukuang; Petibois, Cyril

    2013-11-01

    Evidence has recently emerged that solid and diffuse tumors produce a specific extracellular matrix (ECM) for division and diffusion, also developing a specific interface with microvasculature. This ECM is mainly composed of collagens and their scaffolding appears to drive tumor growth. Although collagens are not easily analyzable by UV-fluorescence means, FTIR imaging has appeared as a valuable tool to characterize collagen contents in tissues, specially the brain, where ECM is normally devoid of collagen proteins. Here, we used FTIR imaging to characterize collagen content changes in growing glioma tumors. We could determine that C6-derived solid tumors presented high content of triple helix after 8-11 days of growth (typical of collagen fibrils formation; 8/8 tumor samples; 91 % of total variance), and further turned to larger α-helix (days 12-15; 9/10 of tumors; 94 % of variance) and β-turns (day 18-21; 7/8 tumors; 97 % of variance) contents, which suggest the incorporation of non-fibrillar collagen types in ECM, a sign of more and more organized collagen scaffold along tumor progression. The growth of tumors was also associated to the level of collagen produced (P collagen scaffolding is a major event accompanying the angiogenic shift and faster tumor growth in solid glioma phenotypes. PMID:24068168

  11. P03.09PHARMACOLOGICAL MODULATION OF BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER: FUTURE STRATEGY FOR TREATMENT OF BRAIN TUMORS

    OpenAIRE

    Sardi, I.; Cardellicchio, S.; Iorio, A.L.; da Ros, M.; la Marca, G.; Giunti, L.; Massimino, M.; L. Genitori

    2014-01-01

    A prerequisite for the efficacy of chemotherapy is that it reaches the tumor mass at a therapeutic concentration. In brain tumors this phenomenon is hampered by the presence of the blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits the spread of chemotherapeutic agents within the brain. It is lately emerged as this Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) phenomenon is explained through the cooperation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2), two “gatekeeper" transporters th...

  12. Brain Tumor Extraction from T1- Weighted MRI using Co-clustering and Level Set Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Satheesh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to propose effective technique for tumor extraction from T1-weighted magnetic resonance brain images with combination of co-clustering and level set methods. The co-clustering is the effective region based segmentation technique for the brain tumor extraction but have a drawback at the boundary of tumors. While, the level set without re-initialization which is good edge based segmentation technique but have some drawbacks in providing initial contour. Therefore, in this paper the region based co-clustering and edge-based level set method are combined through initially extracting tumor using co-clustering and then providing the initial contour to level set method, which help in cancelling the drawbacks of co-clustering and level set method. The data set of five patients, where one slice is selected from each data set is used to analyze the performance of the proposed method. The quality metrics analysis of the proposed method is proved much better as compared to level set without re-initialization method.

  13. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors with radionuclide imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beierwaltes, W.H.; Sisson, J.C.; Shapiro, B.

    1984-01-01

    The development of radiolabeled cholesterols in 1969 as precursors of adrenocortical steroid production allowed the first noninvasive imaging of the adrenal cortices. FDA-NDA approval in 1984 should allow routine use of these agents in most hospitals. NP-59 is most commonly used in the diagnosis and management of Cushing syndrome; the second most common use is in the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. It is also helpful in the differential diagnosis of adrenal and ovarian hyperandrogenism and hirsutism, and is the only noninvasive method of detecting unilateral adrenocortical hypofunction. The newest and most popular use is in the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic masses in the region of the adrenal gland discovered incidentally with CT scan (incidentalomas). In this situation, the NP-59 scan can define whether the tumor is in the adrenal gland and if it is functional or nonfunctional. The authors believe that, in the future, radiolabeled enzyme inhibitors might offer better diagnostic imaging of the adrenal cortex, although these agents will probably not be available for routine use for some time. The development of a radioiodinated guanethidine analog, /sup 131/I-MIBG, has allowed differentiation of normal adrenal medullary function from bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia before the development of hypertension or tachycardia, diagnostic increases in plasma or urinary catecholamines, or abnormal CT scans. The search for a pheochromocytoma should begin with /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy. While over 90% of primary pheochromocytomas occur in the abdomen, neither a survey of the abdomen nor the finding of a single tumor should conclude the search.

  14. Perfusion MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopy in a case of dysembryroplastic neuroepithelial tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang; LI Kun-cheng; CHEN Li; LU De-hong; ZHANG Guo-jun; LI Yong-jie

    2005-01-01

    @@ Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs), which were first described by Daumas-Duport in 1988, are one of rare benign tumors usually associated with medically intractable seizures which date from childhood.1 The clinical, pathologic and neuroradiologic findings of DNT have been described.2 Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology allow the acquisition of cerebral microcirculation parameters by perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) and brain metabolic indices by MR spectroscopy (MRS). Several studies have shown the utility of PWI and MRS can improve the diagnostic accuracy of brain tumor,3 we combine the two techniques to evaluate a case with DNT and suggest that wider application of these techniques is warranted.

  15. Combined MRI and MRS improves pre-therapeutic diagnoses of pediatric brain tumors over MRI alone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiroishi, Mark S.; Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles/Keck School of Medicine of USC, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles/Keck School of Medicine of USC, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Moore, Kevin R. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gilles, Floyd H. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles/Keck School of Medicine of USC, Department of Pathology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio [All Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles/Keck School of Medicine of USC, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The specific goal of this study was to determine whether the inclusion of MRS had a measureable and positive impact on the accuracy of pre-surgical MR examinations of untreated pediatric brain tumors over that of MRI alone in clinical practice. Final imaging reports of 120 pediatric patients with newly detected brain tumors who underwent combined MRI/MRS examinations were retrospectively reviewed. Final pathology was available in all cases. Group A comprised 60 subjects studied between June 2001 and January 2005, when MRS was considered exploratory and radiologists utilized only conventional MRI to arrive at a diagnosis. For group B, comprising 60 subjects studied between January 2005 and March 2008, the radiologists utilized information from both MRI and MRS. Furthermore, radiologists revisited group A (blind review, time lapse >4 years) to determine whether the additional information from MRS would have altered their interpretation. Sixty-three percent of patients in group A were diagnosed correctly, whereas in 10 % the report was partially correct with the final tumor type mentioned (but not mentioned as most likely tumor), while in 27 % of cases the reports were wrong. For group B, the diagnoses were correct in 87 %, partially correct in 5 %, and incorrect in 8 % of the cases, which is a significant improvement (p < 0.005). Re-review of combined MRI and MRS of group A resulted 87 % correct, 7 % partially correct, and 7 % incorrect diagnoses, which is a significant improvement over the original diagnoses (p < 0.05). Adding MRS to conventional MRI significantly improved diagnostic accuracy in preoperative pediatric patients with untreated brain tumors. (orig.)

  16. The role of Intravenous Levetiracetam in Treatment of Seizures in Brain Tumor Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ekokobe eFonkem; Paul eBricker; Diana eMungall; Jose eAceves; Eromata eEbwe; Wei eTang; Batool F. Kirmani

    2013-01-01

    Levetiracetam, tradename Keppra, is a new second generation antiepileptic drug that is being used increasingly in brain tumor patients. In patients suffering with brain tumors, seizures are one of the leading neurologic complications seen in more than 30% of patients. Levetiracetam is a pyrollidine-derivative drug, which has a unique mechanism of action. Unlike other antiepileptic drugs, Levetiracetam is proposed to bind to a synaptic vesicle protein inhibiting calcium release. Brain tumor...

  17. [Untoward side effects of chemoradiotherapy in children with malignant brain tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, S K; Begun, I V; Spivak, L V; Radiuk, K A; Papkevich, I I; Savich, T V; Pershaĭ, E B; Vashkevich, T I; Aleĭnikova, O V

    2002-01-01

    Untoward side-effects of chemoradiotherapy were compared in 48 children treated for brain tumors and those in remission lasting from less than 12 months to 11 years. The investigation concerned disturbances in the neurologic, endocrine, cardiovascular, urinary, hepatobiliary and psychic systems; neurologic ones proved the most frequent. No cases of heart failure were reported among patients with brain tumors during remission. Hormonal study revealed inhibited thyroid function in brain tumor sufferers. PMID:12455363

  18. Advances in brain imaging of neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fu-yong; TAO Wei; LI Yong-jie

    2008-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on the use of brain imaging,including functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI), positron emission tomography(PET),magnetic resonance spectroscopy(MRS)and voxel-based morphometry(VBM)in investigation of the activity in diverse brain regions that creates and modulates chronic neuropathic pain. Data sources English literatures from January 1,2000 to July 31,2007 that examined human brain activity in chronic neuropathic pain were accessed through MEDLINE/CD ROM,using PET,fMRI,VBM,MRS and receptor binding. Study selection Published articles about the application of fMRI,PET,VBM,MRS and chronic neuropathic pain were selected. Data extraction Data were mainly extracted from 40 representative articles as the research basis. Results The PET studies suggested that spontaneous neuropathic pain is associated with changes in thalamic activity. Both PET and fMRI have been used to investigate the substrate of allodynia.The VBM demonstrated that brain structural changes are involved in chronic neuropathic pain,which is not seen in a matched control group.However,the results obtained had a large variety,which may be due to different pain etiology,pain distribution,lesion tomography,symptoms and stimulation procedures. Conclusions Application of the techniques of brain imaging plays a very important role in the study of structural and functional reorganization In patients with neuropathic pain.However,a unique"pain matrix" has not been defined.Future studies should be conducted using a prospective longitudinal research design,which would guarantee the control for many confounding factors.

  19. Optimized Discretization Schemes For Brain Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    USHA RANI.N,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In medical image processing active contour method is the important technique in segmenting human organs. Geometric deformable curves known as levelsets are widely used in segmenting medical images. In this modeling , evolution of the curve is described by the basic lagrange pde expressed as a function of space and time. This pde can be solved either using continuous functions or discrete numerical methods.This paper deals with the application of numerical methods like finite diffefence and TVd-RK methods for brain scans. The stability and accuracy of these methods are also discussed. This paper also deals with the more accurate higher order non-linear interpolation techniques like ENO and WENO in reconstructing the brain scans like CT,MRI,PET and SPECT is considered.

  20. Treatment-related changes in functional connectivity in brain tumor patients : a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douw, Linda; Baayen, Hans; Bosma, Ingeborg; Klein, Martin; Vandertop, Peter; Heimans, Jan; Stam, Kees; de Munck, Jan; Reijneveld, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    Widespread disturbances in resting state functional connectivity between remote brain areas have been demonstrated in patients with brain tumors. Functional connectivity has been associated with neurocognitive deficits in these patients. Thus far, it is unknown how (surgical) treatment affects funct

  1. Metastatic Brain Tumors: A Retrospective Review in East Azarbyjan (Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinat Miabi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A set of one hundred and twenty nine patients with known primary malignancy and suspected brain metastasis was reviewed in present study. The patients were selected among patients presented to the MRI section of Imam Khomeini Hospital or a private MRI center in Tabriz (Iran. Primary tumor site, clinical manifestations, number and site of lesions were identified in this patient population. The primary tumor site was breast in 55 patients (42.6%, followed by lung (40.3%, kidney (7.7%, colorectal (4.6%, lymphoma (3.1% and melanoma (1.5%. Most patients were presented with features of increased intracranial pressure (headaches and vomiting, seizures and focal neurologic signs. Single brain metastasis occurred in 16.3% of patients, while multiple lesions accounted for 83.7% of patients. Ninety seven patients had supratentorial metastases (75.2%. Twenty cases (15.5% had metastases in both compartments. Infratentorial lesions were observed only in twelve patients (9.3%.

  2. Is outpatient brain tumor surgery feasible in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Mazda K; Bernstein, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The current trend in all fields of surgery is towards less invasive procedures with shorter hospital stays. The reasons for this change include convenience to patients, optimal resource utilization, and cost saving. Technological advances in neurosurgery, aided by improvements in anesthesia, have resulted in surgery that is faster, simpler, and safer with excellent perioperative recovery. As a result of improved outcomes, some centers are performing brain tumor surgery on an outpatient basis, wherein patients arrive at the hospital the morning of their procedure and leave the hospital the same evening, thus avoiding an overnight stay in the hospital. In addition to the medical benefits of the outpatient procedure, its impact on patient satisfaction is substantial. The economic benefits are extremely favorable for the patient, physician, as well as the hospital. In high volume centers, a day surgery program can exist alongside those for elective and emergency surgeries, providing another pathway for patient care. However, due to skepticism surrounding the medicolegal aspects, and how radical the concept at first sounds, these procedures have not gained widespread popularity. We provide an overview of outpatient brain tumor surgery in the western world, discussing the socioeconomic, medicolegal, and ethical issues related to its adaptability in a developing nation. PMID:27625225

  3. Endocrine abnormalities after radiation therapy for brain tumors in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aida, Toshimitsu; Sugimoto, Shinji; Abe, Hiroshi; Fujieda, Kenji; Matsuura, Nobuo (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-12-01

    Endocrine evaluations were performed in 5 children, previously treated for brain tumors which did not directly involve the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, who had received cranial irradiation 2 to 4 years earlier. Their rate of growth was considerably reduced during the year following the completion of cranial irradiation. Impaired growth hormone (GH) responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) were observed in all 6 and to an arginine tolerance test (ATT) in 5 children. Three children had a prolonged response of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH). The remaining pituitary functions were essentially normal. Four children received human GH therapy. The growth rate of each was improved by GH therapy, but 2 of the 4 were still short with a standing height standard deviation score (SDS) below 2. Close monitoring of the growth and hormonal status of children with brain tumors treated with cranial irradiation is necessary, and the timing of the initiation of GH therapy is very important for partial or complete restoration of the normal growth rate. (author).

  4. Combined local blood–brain barrier opening and systemic methotrexate for the treatment of brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Itzik; Last, David; Guez, David; Sharabi, Shirley; Elhaik Goldman, Shirin; Lubitz, Irit; Daniels, Dianne; Salomon,Sharona; Tamar, Gregory; Tamir, Tzur; Mardor, Ronni; Fridkin, Mati; Shechter, Yoram; Mardor, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Despite aggressive therapy, existing treatments offer poor prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme patients, in part due to poor penetration of most drugs across the blood–brain barrier (BBB). We propose a minimal-invasive combined treatment approach consisting of local BBB disruption in the tumor in parallel to systemic drug administration. Local BBB disruption is obtained by convection-enhanced delivery of a novel BBB disruption agent, enabling efficient/targeted delivery of the systemically ...

  5. Modelling Brain Tissue using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Dyrby, Tim Bjørn; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion MRI, or diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), is a technique that measures the restricted diffusion of water molecules within brain tissue. Different reconstruction methods quantify water-diffusion anisotropy in the intra- and extra-cellular spaces of the neural environment. Fibre tracking models then use the directions of greatest diffusion as estimates of white matter fibre orientation. Several fibre tracking algorithms have emerged in the last few years that provide reproducible visu...

  6. Thermoacoustic tomography arising in brain imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanov, Plamen

    2010-01-01

    We study the mathematical model of thermoacoustic and photoacoustic tomography when the sound speed has