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Sample records for brain tissues based

  1. Adaptive online learning based tissue segmentation of MR brain images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damkat, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aging population in the European Union and the US has increased the importance of research in neurodegenerative diseases. Imaging plays an essential role in this endeavor by providing insight to the intricate cellular and inter-cellular processes in living tissues that will otherwise be

  2. Fiber-based tissue identification for electrode placement in deep brain stimulation neurosurgery (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaoli, Damon T.; Lapointe, Nicolas; Goetz, Laurent; Parent, Martin; Prudhomme, Michel; Cantin, Léo.; Galstian, Tigran; Messaddeq, Younès.; Côté, Daniel C.

    2016-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation's effectiveness relies on the ability of the stimulating electrode to be properly placed within a specific target area of the brain. Optical guidance techniques that can increase the accuracy of the procedure, without causing any additional harm, are therefore of great interest. We have designed a cheap optical fiber-based device that is small enough to be placed within commercially available DBS stimulating electrodes' hollow cores and that is capable of sensing biological information from the surrounding tissue, using low power white light. With this probe we have shown the ability to distinguish white and grey matter as well as blood vessels, in vitro, in human brain samples and in vivo, in rats. We have also repeated the in vitro procedure with the probe inserted in a DBS stimulating electrode and found the results were in good agreement. We are currently validating a second fiber optic device, with micro-optical components, that will result in label free, molecular level sensing capabilities, using CARS spectroscopy. The final objective will be to use this data in real time, during deep brain stimulation neurosurgery, to increase the safety and accuracy of the procedure.

  3. MALDI mass spectrometry based molecular phenotyping of CNS glial cells for prediction in mammalian brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanrieder, Jørg; Wicher, Grzegorz; Bergquist, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    . Complementary proteomic experiments revealed the identity of these signature proteins that were predominantly expressed in the different glial cell types, including histone H4 for oligodendrocytes and S100-A10 for astrocytes. MALDI imaging MS was performed, and signature masses were employed as molecular...... tracers for prediction of oligodendroglial and astroglial localization in brain tissue. The different cell type specific protein distributions in tissue were validated using immunohistochemistry. ICMS of intact neuroglia is a simple and straightforward approach for characterization and discrimination...

  4. What lies beneath? Diffusion EAP-based study of brain tissue microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchelli, Mauro; Brusini, Lorenza; Andrés Méndez, C; Daducci, Alessandro; Granziera, Cristina; Menegaz, Gloria

    2016-08-01

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance signals convey information about tissue microstructure and cytoarchitecture. In the last years, many models have been proposed for recovering the diffusion signal and extracting information to constitute new families of numerical indices. Two main categories of reconstruction models can be identified in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (DMRI): ensemble average propagator (EAP) models and compartmental models. From both, descriptors can be derived for elucidating the underlying microstructural architecture. While compartmental models indices directly quantify the fraction of different cell compartments in each voxel, EAP-derived indices are only a derivative measure and the effect of the different microstructural configurations on the indices is still unclear. In this paper, we analyze three EAP indices calculated using the 3D Simple Harmonic Oscillator based Reconstruction and Estimation (3D-SHORE) model and estimate their changes with respect to the principal microstructural configurations. We take advantage of the state of the art simulations to quantify the variations of the indices with the simulation parameters. Analysis of in-vivo data correlates the EAP indices with the microstructural parameters obtained from the Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) model as a pseudo ground truth for brain data. Results show that the EAP derived indices convey information on the tissue microstructure and that their combined values directly reflect the configuration of the different compartments in each voxel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Photon Entanglement Through Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingyan; Galvez, Enrique J; Alfano, Robert R

    2016-12-20

    Photon entanglement, the cornerstone of quantum correlations, provides a level of coherence that is not present in classical correlations. Harnessing it by study of its passage through organic matter may offer new possibilities for medical diagnosis technique. In this work, we study the preservation of photon entanglement in polarization, created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, after one entangled photon propagates through multiphoton-scattering brain tissue slices with different thickness. The Tangle-Entropy (TS) plots show the strong preservation of entanglement of photons propagating in brain tissue. By spatially filtering the ballistic scattering of an entangled photon, we find that its polarization entanglement is preserved and non-locally correlated with its twin in the TS plots. The degree of entanglement correlates better with structure and water content than with sample thickness.

  6. Computational cell quantification in the human brain tissues based on hard x-ray phase-contrast tomograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieber, Simone E.; Bikis, Christos; Khimchenko, Anna; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Thalmann, Peter; Chicherova, Natalia; Rack, Alexander; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Zanette, Irene; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Cell visualization and counting plays a crucial role in biological and medical research including the study of neurodegenerative diseases. The neuronal cell loss is typically determined to measure the extent of the disease. Its characterization is challenging because the cell density and size already differs by more than three orders of magnitude in a healthy cerebellum. Cell visualization is commonly performed by histology and fluorescence microscopy. These techniques are limited to resolve complex microstructures in the third dimension. Phase- contrast tomography has been proven to provide sufficient contrast in the three-dimensional imaging of soft tissue down to the cell level and, therefore, offers the basis for the three-dimensional segmentation. Within this context, a human cerebellum sample was embedded in paraffin and measured in local phase-contrast mode at the beamline ID19 (ESRF, Grenoble, France) and the Diamond Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, Didcot, UK). After the application of Frangi-based filtering the data showed sufficient contrast to automatically identify the Purkinje cells and to quantify their density to 177 cells per mm3 within the volume of interest. Moreover, brain layers were segmented in a region of interest based on edge detection. Subsequently performed histological analysis validated the presence of the cells, which required a mapping from the two- dimensional histological slices to the three-dimensional tomogram. The methodology can also be applied to further tissue types and shows potential for the computational tissue analysis in health and disease.

  7. Automated brain tissue and myelin volumetry based on quantitative MR imaging with various in-plane resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andica, C; Hagiwara, A; Hori, M; Nakazawa, M; Goto, M; Koshino, S; Kamagata, K; Kumamaru, K K; Aoki, S

    2018-05-01

    Segmented brain tissue and myelin volumes can now be automatically calculated using dedicated software (SyMRI), which is based on quantification of R 1 and R 2 relaxation rates and proton density. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of SyMRI brain tissue and myelin volumetry using various in-plane resolutions. We scanned 10 healthy subjects on a 1.5T MR scanner with in-plane resolutions of 0.8, 2.0 and 3.0mm. Two scans were performed for each resolution. The acquisition time was 7-min and 24-sec for 0.8mm, 3-min and 9-sec for 2.0mm and 1-min and 56-sec for 3.0mm resolutions. The volumes of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), non-WM/GM/CSF (NoN), brain parenchymal volume (BPV), intracranial volume (ICV) and myelin were compared between in-plane resolutions. Repeatability for each resolution was then analyzed. No significant differences in volumes measured were found between the different in-plane resolutions, except for NoN between 0.8mm and 2.0mm and between 2.0mm and 3.0mm. The repeatability error value for the WM, GM, CSF, NoN, BPV and myelin volumes relative to ICV was 0.97%, 1.01%, 0.65%, 0.86%, 1.06% and 0.25% in 0.8mm; 1.22%, 1.36%, 0.73%, 0.37%, 1.18% and 0.35% in 2.0mm and 1.18%, 1.02%, 0.96%, 0.45%, 1.36%, and 0.28% in 3.0mm resolutions. SyMRI brain tissue and myelin volumetry with low in-plane resolution and short acquisition times is robust and has a good repeatability so could be useful for follow-up studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolomics studies in brain tissue: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Riano, Carolina; Garcia, Antonia; Barbas, Coral

    2016-10-25

    Brain is still an organ with a composition to be discovered but beyond that, mental disorders and especially all diseases that curse with dementia are devastating for the patient, the family and the society. Metabolomics can offer an alternative tool for unveiling new insights in the discovery of new treatments and biomarkers of mental disorders. Until now, most of metabolomic studies have been based on biofluids: serum/plasma or urine, because brain tissue accessibility is limited to animal models or post mortem studies, but even so it is crucial for understanding the pathological processes. Metabolomics studies of brain tissue imply several challenges due to sample extraction, along with brain heterogeneity, sample storage, and sample treatment for a wide coverage of metabolites with a wide range of concentrations of many lipophilic and some polar compounds. In this review, the current analytical practices for target and non-targeted metabolomics are described and discussed with emphasis on critical aspects: sample treatment (quenching, homogenization, filtration, centrifugation and extraction), analytical methods, as well as findings considering the used strategies. Besides that, the altered analytes in the different brain regions have been associated with their corresponding pathways to obtain a global overview of their dysregulation, trying to establish the link between altered biological pathways and pathophysiological conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Penetration and distribution of gadolinium-based contrast agents into the cerebrospinal fluid in healthy rats: a potential pathway of entry into the brain tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, Gregor; Frenzel, Thomas; Lohrke, Jessica; Pietsch, Hubertus [MR and CT Contrast Media Research, Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Lenhard, Diana Constanze [Charite, Institute of Vegetative Physiology, Berlin (Germany); Naganawa, Shinji [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    Signal hyperintensity on unenhanced MRI in certain brain regions has been reported after multiple administrations of some, but not all, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). One potential initial pathway of GBCA entry into the brain, infiltration from blood into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), was systematically evaluated in this preclinical study. GBCA infiltration and distribution in the CSF were investigated in healthy rats using repeated fluid-attenuated MRI up to 4 h after high-dose (1.8 mmol/kg) administration of six marketed and one experimental GBCA. Additionally, gadolinium measurements in CSF, blood and brain tissue samples (after 24 h) were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enhanced MRI signals in the CSF spaces with similar distribution kinetics were observed for all GBCAs. No substantial differences in the gadolinium concentrations among the marketed GBCAs were found in the CSF, blood or brain tissue. After 4.5 h, the concentration in the CSF was clearly higher than in blood but was almost completely cleared and lower than the brain tissue concentration after 24 h. In contrast to the brain signal hyperintensities, no differences in penetration and distribution into the CSF of healthy rats exist among the marketed GBCAs. (orig.)

  10. Penetration and distribution of gadolinium-based contrast agents into the cerebrospinal fluid in healthy rats: a potential pathway of entry into the brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, Gregor; Frenzel, Thomas; Lohrke, Jessica; Pietsch, Hubertus; Lenhard, Diana Constanze; Naganawa, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Signal hyperintensity on unenhanced MRI in certain brain regions has been reported after multiple administrations of some, but not all, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). One potential initial pathway of GBCA entry into the brain, infiltration from blood into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), was systematically evaluated in this preclinical study. GBCA infiltration and distribution in the CSF were investigated in healthy rats using repeated fluid-attenuated MRI up to 4 h after high-dose (1.8 mmol/kg) administration of six marketed and one experimental GBCA. Additionally, gadolinium measurements in CSF, blood and brain tissue samples (after 24 h) were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enhanced MRI signals in the CSF spaces with similar distribution kinetics were observed for all GBCAs. No substantial differences in the gadolinium concentrations among the marketed GBCAs were found in the CSF, blood or brain tissue. After 4.5 h, the concentration in the CSF was clearly higher than in blood but was almost completely cleared and lower than the brain tissue concentration after 24 h. In contrast to the brain signal hyperintensities, no differences in penetration and distribution into the CSF of healthy rats exist among the marketed GBCAs. (orig.)

  11. Penetration and distribution of gadolinium-based contrast agents into the cerebrospinal fluid in healthy rats: a potential pathway of entry into the brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Gregor; Frenzel, Thomas; Lohrke, Jessica; Lenhard, Diana Constanze; Naganawa, Shinji; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2017-07-01

    Signal hyperintensity on unenhanced MRI in certain brain regions has been reported after multiple administrations of some, but not all, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). One potential initial pathway of GBCA entry into the brain, infiltration from blood into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), was systematically evaluated in this preclinical study. GBCA infiltration and distribution in the CSF were investigated in healthy rats using repeated fluid-attenuated MRI up to 4 h after high-dose (1.8 mmol/kg) administration of six marketed and one experimental GBCA. Additionally, gadolinium measurements in CSF, blood and brain tissue samples (after 24 h) were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enhanced MRI signals in the CSF spaces with similar distribution kinetics were observed for all GBCAs. No substantial differences in the gadolinium concentrations among the marketed GBCAs were found in the CSF, blood or brain tissue. After 4.5 h, the concentration in the CSF was clearly higher than in blood but was almost completely cleared and lower than the brain tissue concentration after 24 h. In contrast to the brain signal hyperintensities, no differences in penetration and distribution into the CSF of healthy rats exist among the marketed GBCAs. • Gadolinium-based contrast agents can cross the blood-CSF barrier. • Fluid-attenuated MRI shows GBCA distribution with CSF flow. • GBCA structure and physicochemical properties do not impact CSF penetration and distribution. • GBCA clearance from CSF was almost complete within 24 h in rats. • CSF is a potential pathway of GBCA entry into the brain.

  12. Methodological issues in protein and lipidic expressions in brain tissue exposed to Co60 based on DESI/MALDI-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Matheus F.; Campos, Tarcísio P.R.; Augusti, Rodinei; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Vendramini, Pedro H.

    2017-01-01

    The present paper attempts to present some issues in the methodology of identifying lipid and protein changes in brain tissue induced by radiation. The goal was to address the analysis of the methodology and to investigate the feasibility of the generation of lipid/protein profiles of irradiated brain tissue, in order to identify radioinduced changes. Lipids and proteins are biomolecules with diverse structures and functionalities that participate in important intracellular processes. Changes in the lipid and the tissue protein profiles may indicate a cellular response to an external stimulus as well as the emergence of neoplasms or neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. DESI-MS is a convenient method for identifying lipids and their spatial distribution in tissue beyond analytical quantification. DESI-MS allows the creation of an image of several low lipid m/z classes. MALDI-MS has already been a method used in the study of macromolecules as structural, membrane, hormone, neuromediator and immunological peptides. Through a full-scan matrix scan, with a m/z spectrum between 500-1000 for lipids and with a mass spectrum of 1000-15000 Da for proteins, the molecular profile can be analyzed. Generated pixel shape 2D chemical image. The produced image allows to associate the tissue distribution of the lipids and proteins with their chemical profile identified, allowing the verification of the changes radioinduced. Radiation triggers intense oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals, causing DNA damage with consequent alterations in proteomics and cellular lipid explaining such changes in the lipid and protein expressions. The cellular morphophysiological changes are responsible for both the clonogenic inhibition and the induction of the apoptotic process. The images's production was directly dependent on the rigorous execution of the methodological procedures. Innumerable interferences could impair the image

  13. In Silico Neuro-Oncology: Brownian Motion-Based Mathematical Treatment as a Potential Platform for Modeling the Infiltration of Glioma Cells into Normal Brain Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Markos; Stamatakos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Intensive glioma tumor infiltration into the surrounding normal brain tissues is one of the most critical causes of glioma treatment failure. To quantitatively understand and mathematically simulate this phenomenon, several diffusion-based mathematical models have appeared in the literature. The majority of them ignore the anisotropic character of diffusion of glioma cells since availability of pertinent truly exploitable tomographic imaging data is limited. Aiming at enriching the anisotropy-enhanced glioma model weaponry so as to increase the potential of exploiting available tomographic imaging data, we propose a Brownian motion-based mathematical analysis that could serve as the basis for a simulation model estimating the infiltration of glioblastoma cells into the surrounding brain tissue. The analysis is based on clinical observations and exploits diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. Numerical simulations and suggestions for further elaboration are provided. PMID:26309390

  14. Induced current magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography of brain tissues based on the J-substitution algorithm: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Zhu Shanan; He Bin

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated induced current magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (IC-MREIT) by means of computer simulations. The J-substitution algorithm was implemented to solve the IC-MREIT reconstruction problem. By providing physical insight into the charge accumulating on the interfaces, the convergence characteristics of the reconstruction algorithm were analyzed. The simulation results conducted on different objects were well correlated with the proposed theoretical analysis. The feasibility of IC-MREIT to reconstruct the conductivity distribution of head-brain tissues was also examined in computer simulations using a multi-compartment realistic head model. The present simulation results suggest that IC-MREIT may have the potential to become a useful conductivity imaging technique.

  15. Rapid and prodium iodide-compatible optical clearing method for brain tissue based on sugar/sugar-alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Wang, Jianru; Feng, Wei; Xu, Jianyi; Zhu, Jingtan; Yao, Yingtao; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    The developed optical clearing methods show great potential for imaging of large-volume tissues, but these methods present some nonnegligible limitations such as complexity of implementation and long incubation times. In this study, we tried to screen out rapid optical clearing agents by means of molecular dynamical simulation and experimental demonstration. According to the optical clearing potential of sugar and sugar-alcohol, we further evaluated the improvement in the optical clearing efficacy of mouse brain samples, imaging depth, fluorescence preservation, and linear deformation. The results showed that drops of sorbitol, sucrose, and fructose could quickly make the mouse brain sample transparent within 1 to 2 min, and induce about threefold enhancement in imaging depth. The former two could evidently enhance the fluorescence intensity of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and prodium iodide (PI) nuclear dye. Fructose could significantly increase the fluorescence intensity of PI, but slightly decrease the fluorescence intensity of GFP. Even though the three agents caused some shrinkage in samples, the contraction in horizontal and longitudinal directions are almost the same.

  16. Pediatric brain tumors of neuroepithelial tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Politi, M.; Bergmann, M.; Pekrun, A.; Juergens, K.U.

    2014-01-01

    Tumors of neuroepithelial tissue represent the largest group of pediatric brain tumors by far and has therefore been divided into several discrete tumor subtypes each corresponding to a specific component of the neuropil. The neuropil contains several subtypes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and modified ependymal cells that form the choroid plexus. This review discusses the imaging aspects of the most common pediatric tumors of neuroepithelial tissue. (orig.) [de

  17. Brain Tissue Volumes and Perfusion Change with the Number of Optic Neuritis Attacks in Relapsing Neuromyelitis Optica: A Voxel-Based Correlation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Sánchez-Catasús

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies show that brain abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica (NMO are more frequent than earlier described. Yet, more research considering multiple aspects of NMO is necessary to better understand these abnormalities. A clinical feature of relapsing NMO (RNMO is that the incremental disability is attack-related. Therefore, association between the attack-related process and neuroimaging might be expected. On the other hand, the immunopathological analysis of NMO lesions has suggested that CNS microvasculature could be an early disease target, which could alter brain perfusion. Brain tissue volume changes accompanying perfusion alteration could also be expected throughout the attack-related process. The aim of this study was to investigate in RNMO patients, by voxel-based correlation analysis, the assumed associations between regional brain white (WMV and grey matter volumes (GMV and/or perfusion on one side, and the number of optic neuritis (ON attacks, myelitis attacks and/or total attacks on the other side. For this purpose, high resolution T1-weighted MRI and perfusion SPECT imaging were obtained in 15 RNMO patients. The results showed negative regional correlations of WMV, GMV and perfusion with the number of ON attacks, involving important components of the visual system, which could be relevant for the comprehension of incremental visual disability in RNMO. We also found positive regional correlation of perfusion with the number of ON attacks, mostly overlapping the brain area where the WMV showed negative correlation. This provides evidence that brain microvasculature is an early disease target and suggests that perfusion alteration could be important in the development of brain structural abnormalities in RNMO.

  18. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-04: Tissue Segmentation-Based MR Electron Density Mapping Method for MR-Only Radiation Treatment Planning of Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lee, Y [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ruschin, M [Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Karam, I [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Center, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sahgal, A [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Automatically derive electron density of tissues using MR images and generate a pseudo-CT for MR-only treatment planning of brain tumours. Methods: 20 stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) patients’ T1-weighted MR images and CT images were retrospectively acquired. First, a semi-automated tissue segmentation algorithm was developed to differentiate tissues with similar MR intensities and large differences in electron densities. The method started with approximately 12 slices of manually contoured spatial regions containing sinuses and airways, then air, bone, brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and eyes were automatically segmented using edge detection and anatomical information including location, shape, tissue uniformity and relative intensity distribution. Next, soft tissues - muscle and fat were segmented based on their relative intensity histogram. Finally, intensities of voxels in each segmented tissue were mapped into their electron density range to generate pseudo-CT by linearly fitting their relative intensity histograms. Co-registered CT was used as a ground truth. The bone segmentations of pseudo-CT were compared with those of co-registered CT obtained by using a 300HU threshold. The average distances between voxels on external edges of the skull of pseudo-CT and CT in three axial, coronal and sagittal slices with the largest width of skull were calculated. The mean absolute electron density (in Hounsfield unit) difference of voxels in each segmented tissues was calculated. Results: The average of distances between voxels on external skull from pseudo-CT and CT were 0.6±1.1mm (mean±1SD). The mean absolute electron density differences for bone, brain, CSF, muscle and fat are 78±114 HU, and 21±8 HU, 14±29 HU, 57±37 HU, and 31±63 HU, respectively. Conclusion: The semi-automated MR electron density mapping technique was developed using T1-weighted MR images. The generated pseudo-CT is comparable to that of CT in terms of anatomical position of

  19. Three-dimensional assessment of brain tissue morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bert; Germann, Marco; Jeanmonod, Daniel; Morel, Anne

    2006-08-01

    The microstructure of brain tissues becomes visible using different types of optical microscopy after the tissue sectioning. This preparation procedure introduces stress and strain in the anisotropic and inhomogeneous soft tissue slices, which are several 10 μm thick. Consequently, the three-dimensional dataset, generated out of the two-dimensional images with lateral submicrometer resolution, needs algorithms to correct the deformations, which can be significant for mellow tissue such as brain segments. The spatial resolution perpendicular to the slices is much worse with respect to the lateral sub-micrometer resolution. Therefore, we propose as complementary method the synchrotron-radiation-based micro computed tomography (SRμCT), which avoids any kind of preparation artifacts due to sectioning and histological processing and yields true micrometer resolution in the three orthogonal directions. The visualization of soft matter by the use of SRμCT, however, is often based on elaborate staining protocols, since the tissue exhibits (almost) the same x-ray absorption as the surrounding medium. Therefore, it is unexpected that human tissue from the pons and the medulla oblongata in phosphate buffer show several features such as the blood vessels and the inferior olivary nucleus without staining. The value of these tomograms lies especially in the precise non-rigid registration of the different sets of histological slices. Applications of this method to larger pieces of brain tissue, such as the human thalamus are planned in the context of stereotactic functional neurosurgery.

  20. Segmentation of Brain Tissues from Magnetic Resonance Images Using Adaptively Regularized Kernel-Based Fuzzy C-Means Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elazab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptively regularized kernel-based fuzzy C-means clustering framework is proposed for segmentation of brain magnetic resonance images. The framework can be in the form of three algorithms for the local average grayscale being replaced by the grayscale of the average filter, median filter, and devised weighted images, respectively. The algorithms employ the heterogeneity of grayscales in the neighborhood and exploit this measure for local contextual information and replace the standard Euclidean distance with Gaussian radial basis kernel functions. The main advantages are adaptiveness to local context, enhanced robustness to preserve image details, independence of clustering parameters, and decreased computational costs. The algorithms have been validated against both synthetic and clinical magnetic resonance images with different types and levels of noises and compared with 6 recent soft clustering algorithms. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithms are superior in preserving image details and segmentation accuracy while maintaining a low computational complexity.

  1. In Vivo Evaluation of Blood Based and Reference Tissue Based PET Quantifications of [11C]DASB in the Canine Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Van Laeken

    Full Text Available This first-in-dog study evaluates the use of the PET-radioligand [11C]DASB to image the density and availability of the serotonin transporter (SERT in the canine brain. Imaging the serotonergic system could improve diagnosis and therapy of multiple canine behavioural disorders. Furthermore, as many similarities are reported between several human neuropsychiatric conditions and naturally occurring canine behavioural disorders, making this tracer available for use in dogs also provide researchers an interesting non-primate animal model to investigate human disorders. Five adult beagles underwent a 90 minutes dynamic PET scan and arterial whole blood was sampled throughout the scan. For each ROI, the distribution volume (VT, obtained via the one- and two- tissue compartment model (1-TC, 2-TC and the Logan Plot, was calculated and the goodness-of-fit was evaluated by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC. For the preferred compartmental model BPND values were estimated and compared with those derived by four reference tissue models: 4-parameter RTM, SRTM2, MRTM2 and the Logan reference tissue model. The 2-TC model indicated in 61% of the ROIs a better fit compared to the 1-TC model. The Logan plot produced almost identical VT values and can be used as an alternative. Compared with the 2-TC model, all investigated reference tissue models showed high correlations but small underestimations of the BPND-parameter. The highest correlation was achieved with the Logan reference tissue model (Y = 0.9266 x + 0.0257; R2 = 0.9722. Therefore, this model can be put forward as a non-invasive standard model for future PET-experiments with [11C]DASB in dogs.

  2. Immunocapture-based fluorometric assay for the measurement of neprilysin-specific enzyme activity in brain tissue homogenates and cerebrospinal fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miners, J.S.; Verbeek, M.M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kehoe, P.G.; Love, S.

    2008-01-01

    Neprilysin, a zinc-metalloendopeptidase, has important roles in the physiology and pathology of many diseases such as hypertension, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. We have developed an immunocapture assay to measure the specific enzyme activity of neprilysin in brain tissue homogenates and

  3. Modelling Brain Tissue using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Tim Bjørn

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion MRI, or diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), is a technique that measures the restricted diffusion of water molecules within brain tissue. Different reconstruction methods quantify water-diffusion anisotropy in the intra- and extra-cellular spaces of the neural environment. Fibre tracking...... models then use the directions of greatest diffusion as estimates of white matter fibre orientation. Several fibre tracking algorithms have emerged in the last few years that provide reproducible visualizations of three-dimensional fibre bundles. One class of these algorithms is probabilistic...... the possibility of using high-field experimental MR scanners and long scanning times, thereby significantly improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and anatomical resolution. Moreover, many of the degrading effects observed in vivo, such as physiological noise, are no longer present. However, the post mortem...

  4. NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, David H.; Moeller, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    A method is described for measuring absorbed electromagnetic energy radiated from cell phone antennae into ex vivo brain tissue. NMR images the 3D thermal dynamics inside ex vivo bovine brain tissue and equivalent gel under exposure to power and irradiation time-varying radio frequency (RF) fields. The absorbed RF energy in brain tissue converts into Joule heat and affects the nuclear magnetic shielding and the Larmor precession. The resultant temperature increase is measured by the resonance frequency shift of hydrogen protons in brain tissue. This proposed application of NMR thermometry offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to characterize the hot spots from absorbed cell phone radiation in aqueous media and biological tissues. Specific absorption rate measurements averaged over 1 mg and 10 s in the brain tissue cover the total absorption volume. Reference measurements with fiber optic temperature sensors confirm the accuracy of the NMR thermometry. PMID:23248293

  5. Injury Response of Resected Human Brain Tissue In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, Ronald W. H.; Sluiter, Arja A.; Balesar, Rawien A.; Baaijen, Johannes C.; de Witt Hamer, Philip C.; Speijer, Dave; Li, Yichen; Swaab, Dick F.

    2015-01-01

    Brain injury affects a significant number of people each year. Organotypic cultures from resected normal neocortical tissue provide unique opportunities to study the cellular and neuropathological consequences of severe injury of adult human brain tissue in vitro. The in vitro injuries caused by

  6. Further Controversies About Brain Tissue Oxygenation Pressure-Reactivity After Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Morten; Donnelly, Joseph; Aries, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    arterial pressure and intracranial pressure. A new ORx index based on brain tissue oxygenation and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) has been proposed that similarly allows for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity. Conflicting results exist concerning its clinical utility. METHODS: Retrospective......BACKGROUND: Continuous monitoring of cerebral autoregulation is considered clinically useful due to its ability to warn against brain ischemic insults, which may translate to a relationship with adverse outcome. It is typically performed using the pressure reactivity index (PRx) based on mean...... analysis was performed in 85 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). ORx was calculated using three time windows of 5, 20, and 60 min. Correlation coefficients and individual "optimal CPP" (CPPopt) were calculated using both PRx and ORx, and relation to patient outcome investigated. RESULTS...

  7. Mechanical properties of brain tissue by indentation : interregional variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, van J.A.W.; Sande, van der T.P.J.; Hrapko, M.; Peters, G.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although many studies on the mechanical properties of brain tissue exist, some controversy concerning the possible differences in mechanical properties of white and gray matter tissue remains. Indentation experiments are conducted on white and gray matter tissue of various regions of the cerebrum

  8. Study on the Property Change of Rhizoma Coptidis and Its Ginger Juice Processed Products Based on 5-Ht Level and Brain Tissues Morphology of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lingyun; Tong, Hengli; Lv, Mu; Deng, Yufen

    2017-09-01

    According to the theory of traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), all Chinese materia medica need to be processed using Pao zhi which is a processing technology before being used in clinic. Ginger juice, made from dried or fresh ginger, is one of the main TCM processing accessories and always used to help change some Chinese materia medica’s properties for its warm or hot nature. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influence of ginger juice on Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) by determining 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) content and observing morphological changes in the harns tissue of rats. Raw Rhizoma Coptidis (RRC), fresh ginger juice processed Rhizoma Coptidis (FGJPRC), dried juice processed Rhizoma Coptidis (DGJPRC), dried ginger juice (DGJ) and fresh ginger juice (FGJ) were prepared using appropriate methods. Immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the distribution of 5-HT and fluorescence spectrophotometry was applied to determine 5-hydroxytryptamine content in the brain tissue of rats. 5 - HT in brain tissue of the rats of RRC group was distributed most densely, with the highest content. Compared to the blank group, RRC and different ginger processed RC groups could lead to increasing content of 5-HT in rat encephalon, and significant differences in RRC. Compared with the RRC, the 5-HT content in rat encephalon in DGJPRC, FGJPRC, FGJ and DGJ groups reduced, and DGJPRC, FGJPRC groups showed significant difference, FGJ and DGJ groups showed extreme significant differences. The research showed that processing with hot, warm accessories would moderate the cold nature of RC. The cold and hot nature of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica could be expressed by the difference of 5-HT contents and morphological changes of rats’ brain tissue. Simultaneously, the research showed the different excipient of ginger juice would have different effects on the processing of RC.

  9. A family of hyperelastic models for human brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, L. Angela; Budday, Silvia; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.; Kuhl, Ellen; Goriely, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Experiments on brain samples under multiaxial loading have shown that human brain tissue is both extremely soft when compared to other biological tissues and characterized by a peculiar elastic response under combined shear and compression/tension: there is a significant increase in shear stress with increasing axial compression compared to a moderate increase with increasing axial tension. Recent studies have revealed that many widely used constitutive models for soft biological tissues fail to capture this characteristic response. Here, guided by experiments of human brain tissue, we develop a family of modeling approaches that capture the elasticity of brain tissue under varying simple shear superposed on varying axial stretch by exploiting key observations about the behavior of the nonlinear shear modulus, which can be obtained directly from the experimental data.

  10. Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis for brain tissue identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsuwan, Jarunya; Muangsub, Tachapol; Yanatatsaneejit, Pattamawadee; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Kitkumthorn, Nakarin

    2018-05-01

    According to the tissue-specific methylation database (doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.09.060), methylation at CpG locus cg03096975 in EML2 has been preliminarily proven to be specific to brain tissue. In this study, we enlarged sample size and developed a technique for identifying brain tissue in aged samples. Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis-for EML2 (COBRA-EML2) technique was established and validated in various organ samples obtained from 108 autopsies. In addition, this technique was also tested for its reliability, minimal DNA concentration detected, and use in aged samples and in samples obtained from specific brain compartments and spinal cord. COBRA-EML2 displayed 100% sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing brain tissue from other tissues, showed high reliability, was capable of detecting minimal DNA concentration (0.015ng/μl), could be used for identifying brain tissue in aged samples. In summary, COBRA-EML2 is a technique to identify brain tissue. This analysis is useful in criminal cases since it can identify the vital organ tissues from small samples acquired from criminal scenes. The results from this analysis can be counted as a medical and forensic marker supporting criminal investigations, and as one of the evidences in court rulings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Methodological issues in protein and lipidic expressions in brain tissue exposed to Co{sup 60} based on DESI/MALDI-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Matheus F.; Campos, Tarcísio P.R.; Augusti, Rodinei, E-mail: matheus.soares@gmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: augusti.rodinei@gmail.com, E-mail: augusti@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Eberlin, Marcos N.; Vendramini, Pedro H., E-mail: eberlin@iqm.unicamp.br, E-mail: ph_vendramini@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Thompson Mass Spectroscopy Laboratory

    2017-07-01

    The present paper attempts to present some issues in the methodology of identifying lipid and protein changes in brain tissue induced by radiation. The goal was to address the analysis of the methodology and to investigate the feasibility of the generation of lipid/protein profiles of irradiated brain tissue, in order to identify radioinduced changes. Lipids and proteins are biomolecules with diverse structures and functionalities that participate in important intracellular processes. Changes in the lipid and the tissue protein profiles may indicate a cellular response to an external stimulus as well as the emergence of neoplasms or neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. DESI-MS is a convenient method for identifying lipids and their spatial distribution in tissue beyond analytical quantification. DESI-MS allows the creation of an image of several low lipid m/z classes. MALDI-MS has already been a method used in the study of macromolecules as structural, membrane, hormone, neuromediator and immunological peptides. Through a full-scan matrix scan, with a m/z spectrum between 500-1000 for lipids and with a mass spectrum of 1000-15000 Da for proteins, the molecular profile can be analyzed. Generated pixel shape 2D chemical image. The produced image allows to associate the tissue distribution of the lipids and proteins with their chemical profile identified, allowing the verification of the changes radioinduced. Radiation triggers intense oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals, causing DNA damage with consequent alterations in proteomics and cellular lipid explaining such changes in the lipid and protein expressions. The cellular morphophysiological changes are responsible for both the clonogenic inhibition and the induction of the apoptotic process. The images's production was directly dependent on the rigorous execution of the methodological procedures. Innumerable interferences could impair the image

  12. Spatial cluster analysis of nanoscopically mapped serotonin receptors for classification of fixed brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Michael; Silye, Rene; Göhring, Janett; Muresan, Leila; Schilcher, Kurt; Jacak, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    We present a cluster spatial analysis method using nanoscopic dSTORM images to determine changes in protein cluster distributions within brain tissue. Such methods are suitable to investigate human brain tissue and will help to achieve a deeper understanding of brain disease along with aiding drug development. Human brain tissue samples are usually treated postmortem via standard fixation protocols, which are established in clinical laboratories. Therefore, our localization microscopy-based method was adapted to characterize protein density and protein cluster localization in samples fixed using different protocols followed by common fluorescent immunohistochemistry techniques. The localization microscopy allows nanoscopic mapping of serotonin 5-HT1A receptor groups within a two-dimensional image of a brain tissue slice. These nanoscopically mapped proteins can be confined to clusters by applying the proposed statistical spatial analysis. Selected features of such clusters were subsequently used to characterize and classify the tissue. Samples were obtained from different types of patients, fixed with different preparation methods, and finally stored in a human tissue bank. To verify the proposed method, samples of a cryopreserved healthy brain have been compared with epitope-retrieved and paraffin-fixed tissues. Furthermore, samples of healthy brain tissues were compared with data obtained from patients suffering from mental illnesses (e.g., major depressive disorder). Our work demonstrates the applicability of localization microscopy and image analysis methods for comparison and classification of human brain tissues at a nanoscopic level. Furthermore, the presented workflow marks a unique technological advance in the characterization of protein distributions in brain tissue sections.

  13. Monocyte Trafficking, Engraftment, and Delivery of Nanoparticles and an Exogenous Gene into the Acutely Inflamed Brain Tissue - Evaluations on Monocyte-Based Delivery System for the Central Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-I Tong

    Full Text Available The ability of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM to travel towards chemotactic gradient, traverse tissue barriers, and accumulate precisely at diseased sites makes them attractive candidates as drug carriers and therapeutic gene delivery vehicles targeting the brain, where treatments are often hampered by the blockade of the blood brain barrier (BBB. This study was designed to fully establish an optimized cell-based delivery system using monocytes and MDM, by evaluating their homing efficiency, engraftment potential, as well as carriage and delivery ability to transport nano-scaled particles and exogenous genes into the brain, following the non-invasive intravenous (IV cell adoptive transfer in an acute neuroinflammation mouse model induced by intracranial injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides. We demonstrated that freshly isolated monocytes had superior inflamed-brain homing ability over MDM cultured in the presence of macrophage colony stimulating factor. In addition, brain trafficking of IV infused monocytes was positively correlated with the number of adoptive transferred cells, and could be further enhanced by transient disruption of the BBB with IV administration of Mannitol, Bradykinin or Serotonin right before cell infusion. A small portion of transmigrated cells was detected to differentiate into IBA-1 positive cells with microglia morphology in the brain. Finally, with the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles SHP30, the ability of nanoscale agent-carriage monocytes to enter the inflamed brain region was validated. In addition, lentiviral vector DHIV-101 was used to introduce green fluorescent protein (GFP gene into monocytes, and the exogenous GFP gene was detected in the brain at 48 hours following IV infusion of the transduced monocytes. All together, our study has set up the optimized conditions for the more-in-depth tests and development of monocyte-mediated delivery, and our data supported

  14. Facilitated assessment of tissue loss following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eHånell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI result in a progressive loss of brain tissue. The extent of tissue loss reflects the injury severity and can be measured to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of experimental treatments. Quantitation of tissue volumes is commonly performed using evenly spaced brain sections stained using routine histochemical methods and digitally captured. The brain tissue areas are then measured and the corresponding volumes are calculated using the distance between the sections. Measurements of areas are usually performed using a general purpose image analysis software and the results are then transferred to another program for volume calculations. To facilitate the measurement of brain tissue loss we developed novel algorithms which automatically separate the areas of brain tissue from the surrounding image background and identify the ventricles. We implemented these new algorithms by creating a new computer program (SectionToVolume which also has functions for image organization, image adjustments and volume calculations. We analyzed brain sections from mice subjected to severe focal TBI using both SectionToVolume and ImageJ, a commonly used image analysis program. The volume measurements made by the two programs were highly correlated and analysis using SectionToVolume required considerably less time. The inter-rater reliability was high. Given the extensive use of brain tissue loss measurements in TBI research, SectionToVolume will likely be a useful tool for TBI research. We therefore provide both the source code and the program as attachments to this article.

  15. Digital tissue and what it may reveal about the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Josh L; Lichtman, Jeff W

    2017-10-30

    Imaging as a means of scientific data storage has evolved rapidly over the past century from hand drawings, to photography, to digital images. Only recently can sufficiently large datasets be acquired, stored, and processed such that tissue digitization can actually reveal more than direct observation of tissue. One field where this transformation is occurring is connectomics: the mapping of neural connections in large volumes of digitized brain tissue.

  16. Determination of friction coefficient in unconfined compression of brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Badar; Destrade, Michel; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2012-10-01

    Unconfined compression tests are more convenient to perform on cylindrical samples of brain tissue than tensile tests in order to estimate mechanical properties of the brain tissue because they allow homogeneous deformations. The reliability of these tests depends significantly on the amount of friction generated at the specimen/platen interface. Thus, there is a crucial need to find an approximate value of the friction coefficient in order to predict a possible overestimation of stresses during unconfined compression tests. In this study, a combined experimental-computational approach was adopted to estimate the dynamic friction coefficient μ of porcine brain matter against metal platens in compressive tests. Cylindrical samples of porcine brain tissue were tested up to 30% strain at variable strain rates, both under bonded and lubricated conditions in the same controlled environment. It was established that μ was equal to 0.09±0.03, 0.18±0.04, 0.18±0.04 and 0.20±0.02 at strain rates of 1, 30, 60 and 90/s, respectively. Additional tests were also performed to analyze brain tissue under lubricated and bonded conditions, with and without initial contact of the top platen with the brain tissue, with different specimen aspect ratios and with different lubricants (Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS), Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Silicone). The test conditions (lubricant used, biological tissue, loading velocity) adopted in this study were similar to the studies conducted by other research groups. This study will help to understand the amount of friction generated during unconfined compression of brain tissue for strain rates of up to 90/s. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain tissue stiffness is a sensitive marker for acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzmann, Kathrin; Gautier, Hélène O B; Christ, Andreas F; Guck, Jochen; Káradóttir, Ragnhildur Thóra; Franze, Kristian

    2016-09-15

    Carbon dioxide overdose is frequently used to cull rodents for tissue harvesting. However, this treatment may lead to respiratory acidosis, which potentially could change the properties of the investigated tissue. Mechanical tissue properties often change in pathological conditions and may thus offer a sensitive generic readout for changes in biological tissues with clinical relevance. In this study, we performed force-indentation measurements with an atomic force microscope on acute cerebellar slices from adult rats to test if brain tissue undergoes changes following overexposure to CO2 compared to other methods of euthanasia. The pH significantly decreased in brain tissue of animals exposed to CO2. Concomitant with the drop in pH, cerebellar grey matter significantly stiffened. Tissue stiffening was reproduced by incubation of acute cerebellar slices in acidic medium. Tissue stiffness provides an early, generic indicator for pathophysiological changes in the CNS. Atomic force microscopy offers unprecedented high spatial resolution to detect such changes. Our results indicate that the stiffness particularly of grey matter strongly correlates with changes of the pH in the cerebellum. Furthermore, the method of tissue harvesting and preparation may not only change tissue stiffness but very likely also other physiologically relevant parameters, highlighting the importance of appropriate sample preparation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Coronaviruses in brain tissue from patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, R B; Lisby, G; Frederiksen, J L

    2001-01-01

    Brain tissue from 25 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS) and as controls brain tissue from 36 patients without neurological disease was tested for the presence of human coronaviral RNA. Four PCR assays with primers specific for N-protein of human coronavirus strain 229E...... and three PCR assays with primers specific for the nucleocapsid protein of human coronavirus strain OC43 were performed. Sporadic positive PCR assays were observed in both patients and controls in some of the PCR assays. However, these results were not reproducible and there was no difference...... in the proportion of positive signals from the MS patients compared to controls. Evidence for a chronic infection with the human coronaviruses strain 229E or OC43 in brain tissue from patients with MS or controls has not been found in this study....

  19. Aluminium in brain tissue in familial Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Ambreen; King, Andrew; Troakes, Claire; Exley, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    The genetic predispositions which describe a diagnosis of familial Alzheimer's disease can be considered as cornerstones of the amyloid cascade hypothesis. Essentially they place the expression and metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein as the main tenet of disease aetiology. However, we do not know the cause of Alzheimer's disease and environmental factors may yet be shown to contribute towards its onset and progression. One such environmental factor is human exposure to aluminium and aluminium has been shown to be present in brain tissue in sporadic Alzheimer's disease. We have made the first ever measurements of aluminium in brain tissue from 12 donors diagnosed with familial Alzheimer's disease. The concentrations of aluminium were extremely high, for example, there were values in excess of 10μg/g tissue dry wt. in 5 of the 12 individuals. Overall, the concentrations were higher than all previous measurements of brain aluminium except cases of known aluminium-induced encephalopathy. We have supported our quantitative analyses using a novel method of aluminium-selective fluorescence microscopy to visualise aluminium in all lobes of every brain investigated. The unique quantitative data and the stunning images of aluminium in familial Alzheimer's disease brain tissue raise the spectre of aluminium's role in this devastating disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  20. Astrocyte calcium signal and gliotransmission in human brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Marta; Perea, Gertrudis; Maglio, Laura; Pastor, Jesús; García de Sola, Rafael; Araque, Alfonso

    2013-05-01

    Brain function is recognized to rely on neuronal activity and signaling processes between neurons, whereas astrocytes are generally considered to play supportive roles for proper neuronal function. However, accumulating evidence indicates that astrocytes sense and control neuronal and synaptic activity, indicating that neuron and astrocytes reciprocally communicate. While this evidence has been obtained in experimental animal models, whether this bidirectional signaling between astrocytes and neurons occurs in human brain remains unknown. We have investigated the existence of astrocyte-neuron communication in human brain tissue, using electrophysiological and Ca(2+) imaging techniques in slices of the cortex and hippocampus obtained from biopsies from epileptic patients. Cortical and hippocampal human astrocytes displayed spontaneous Ca(2+) elevations that were independent of neuronal activity. Local application of transmitter receptor agonists or nerve electrical stimulation transiently elevated Ca(2+) in astrocytes, indicating that human astrocytes detect synaptic activity and respond to synaptically released neurotransmitters, suggesting the existence of neuron-to-astrocyte communication in human brain tissue. Electrophysiological recordings in neurons revealed the presence of slow inward currents (SICs) mediated by NMDA receptor activation. The frequency of SICs increased after local application of ATP that elevated astrocyte Ca(2+). Therefore, human astrocytes are able to release the gliotransmitter glutamate, which affect neuronal excitability through activation of NMDA receptors in neurons. These results reveal the existence of reciprocal signaling between neurons and astrocytes in human brain tissue, indicating that astrocytes are relevant in human neurophysiology and are involved in human brain function.

  1. Investigation of elemental changes in brain tissues following excitotoxic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegele, Rainer; Howell, Nicholas R.; Callaghan, Paul D.; Pastuovic, Zeljko

    2013-01-01

    Recently the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe has been used for elemental mapping of thin brain tissue sections. The fact that a very small portion of the proton energy is used for X-ray excitation combined with small variations of the major element concentrations makes μ-PIXE imaging and GeoPIXE analysis a challenging task. Excitotoxic brain injury underlies the pathology of stroke and various neurodegenerative disorders. Large fluxes in Ca +2 cytosolic concentrations are a key feature of the initiation of this pathophysiological process. In order to understand if these modifications are associated with changes in the elemental composition, several brain sections have been mapped with μ-PIXE. Increases in Ca +2 cytosolic concentrations were indicative of the pathophysiological process continuing 1 week after an initiating neural insult. We were able to measure significant variations in K and Ca concentration distribution across investigated brain tissue. These variations correlate very well with physiological changes visible in the brain tissue. Moreover, the obtained μ-PIXE results clearly demonstrate that the elemental composition changes significantly correlate with brain drauma

  2. Investigation of elemental changes in brain tissues following excitotoxic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegele, Rainer, E-mail: rns@ansto.gov.au [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Howell, Nicholas R.; Callaghan, Paul D. [Life Sciences, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Pastuovic, Zeljko [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Recently the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe has been used for elemental mapping of thin brain tissue sections. The fact that a very small portion of the proton energy is used for X-ray excitation combined with small variations of the major element concentrations makes μ-PIXE imaging and GeoPIXE analysis a challenging task. Excitotoxic brain injury underlies the pathology of stroke and various neurodegenerative disorders. Large fluxes in Ca{sup +2} cytosolic concentrations are a key feature of the initiation of this pathophysiological process. In order to understand if these modifications are associated with changes in the elemental composition, several brain sections have been mapped with μ-PIXE. Increases in Ca{sup +2} cytosolic concentrations were indicative of the pathophysiological process continuing 1 week after an initiating neural insult. We were able to measure significant variations in K and Ca concentration distribution across investigated brain tissue. These variations correlate very well with physiological changes visible in the brain tissue. Moreover, the obtained μ-PIXE results clearly demonstrate that the elemental composition changes significantly correlate with brain drauma.

  3. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of implanted deep brain stimulation electrodes and brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabran, S R I; Saad, J H; Salama, M M A; Mansour, R R

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the electromagnetic modeling and simulation of an implanted Medtronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode using finite difference time domain (FDTD). The model is developed using Empire XCcel and represents the electrode surrounded with brain tissue assuming homogenous and isotropic medium. The model is created to study the parameters influencing the electric field distribution within the tissue in order to provide reference and benchmarking data for DBS and intra-cortical electrode development.

  4. Progression of thanatophagy in cadaver brain and heart tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz T. Javan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process for maintaining cellular homeostasis during both normal and stress conditions. Metabolic reprogramming in tissues of dead bodies is inevitable due to chronic ischemia and nutrient deprivation, which are well-known features that stimulate autophagy. Currently, it is not fully elucidated whether postmortem autophagy, also known as thanatophagy, occurs in dead bodies is a function of the time of death. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that thanatophagy would increase in proportion to time elapsed since death for tissues collected from cadavers. Brain and heart tissue from corpses at different time intervals after death were analyzed by Western blot. Densitometry analysis demonstrated that thanatophagy occurred in a manner that was dependent on the time of death. The autophagy-associated proteins, LC3 II, p62, Beclin-1 and Atg7, increased in a time-dependent manner in heart tissues. A potent inducer of autophagy, BNIP3, decreased in the heart tissues as time of death increased, whereas the protein levels increased in brain tissues. However, there was no expression of BNIP3 at extended postmortem intervals in both brain and heart samples. Collectively, the present study demonstrates for the first time that thanatophagy occurs in brain and heart tissues of cadavers in a time-dependent manner. Further, our data suggest that cerebral thanatophagy may occur in a Beclin-1- independent manner. This unprecedented study provides potential insight into thanatophagy as a novel method for the estimation of the time of death in criminal investigationsAbstract: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process for maintaining cellular homeostasis during both normal and stress conditions. Metabolic reprogramming in tissues of dead bodies is inevitable due to chronic ischemia and nutrient deprivation, which are well-known features that stimulate autophagy. Currently, it is not fully

  5. Effect of mild hypothermia on glucose metabolism and glycerol of brain tissue in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiong; LI Ai-lin; ZHI Da-shi; HUANG Hui-ling

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of mild hypothermia on glucose metabolism and glycerol of brain tissue in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) using clinical microdialysis.Methods: Thirty-one patients with STBI ( GCS ≤8) were randomly divided into hypothermic group (Group A) and control group (Group B). Microdialysis catheters were inserted into the cerebral cortex of perilesional and normal brain tissue. All samples were analyzed using CMA microdialysis analyzer.Results: In comparison with the control group, lactate/glucose ratio ( L/G) , lactate/pyruvate ratio ( L/P) and glycerol (Gly) in perilensional tissue were significantly decreased; L/P in normal brain tissue was significantly decreased. In control group, L/G, L/P and Gly in perilensional tissue were higher than that in normal brain tissue. In the hypothermic group, L/P in perilensional tissue was higher than that in relative normal brain.Conclusions: Mild hypothermia protects brain tissues by decreasing L/G, L/P and Gly in perilensional tissue and L/P in "normal brain" tissues. The energy crisis and membrane phospholipid degradation in perilensional tissue are easier to happen after traumatic brain injury, and mild hypothermia protects brain better in perilensional tissue than in normal brain tissue.

  6. Detection of Rabies Antigen in the Brain Tissues of Apparetly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabies is a serious public health hazard and recently outbreaks of the disease have been reported in three local government areas in Cross River State. Detection of rabies antigen in the brain tissues of apparently healthy dogs indicates the presence of rabies virus and this is a significant factor in the transmission and ...

  7. Effects of acupuncture on tissue oxygenation of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G S; Erdmann, W

    1978-04-01

    Acupuncture has been claimed to be effective in restoring consciousness in some comatose patients. Possible mechanisms to explain alleged acupuncture-induced arousal may include vasodilatory effects caused by smypathetic stimulation which leads to an augmentation of cerebral microcirculation and thereby improves oxygen supply to the brain tissue. Experiments were performed in ten albino rats (Wistar) employing PO2 microelectrodes which were inserted into the cortex through small burholes. Brain tissue PO2 was continuously recorded before, during, and after acupuncture. Stimulation of certain acupuncture points (Go-26) resulted in immediate increase of PO2 in the frontal cortex of the rat brain. This effect was reproducible and was comparable to that obtained with increase of inspiratory CO2 known to induce arterial vasodilatation and thus capillary perfusion pressure. The effect was more significant as compared to tissue PO2 increases obtained after increase in inspiratory oxygen concentration from 21% to 100%. It appears that acupuncture causes increased brain tissue perfusion which may be, at least in part, responsible for arousal of unconscious patients.

  8. Discovery of Undescribed Brain Tissue Changes Around Implanted Microelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshi Desai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-implantable microelectrode arrays are devicesdesigned to record or electrically stimulate the activity ofneurons in the brain. These devices hold the potential tohelp treat epilepsy, paralysis, blindness, and deafness, andalso provide researchers with insights into a varietyof neural processes, such as memory formation.While these devices have a very promising future,researchers are discovering that their long-termfunctionality is greatly limited by the brain’s naturalimmune response to foreign objects. To improve thefunctional lifetime of these devices, one solution lies infully characterizing and understanding this tissue response.Roles for microglia and astrocytes in this biologicalresponse have been characterized. However, changesto oligodendrocytes, cells that myelinate axons, remainpoorly understood. These cells provide insulationto the axons, which is required for proper neuralfunctioning. Here we report on the changes that occurwith oligodendrocyte processes in tissue aroundmicroelectrode implants in the brain.Six rats were surgically implanted with microelectrodearrays and allowed to recover for 1, 2, or 4 weeks.Subjects were then sacrificed and the brain tissue wasprocessed using our recently developed method, Device-Capture Histology. Immunohistochemistry and confocalmicroscopy was employed to assess the responsearound the device. Results indicated a decrease inoligodendrocyte density and a loss in typical directionalorientation of oligodendrocyte processes in tissue near thedevice. These results suggest alterations in the underlyingneuronal networks around these devices, which maygreatly impact the current functional utility of thesepromising devices.

  9. A Dirichlet process mixture model for brain MRI tissue classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, Adelino R

    2007-04-01

    Accurate classification of magnetic resonance images according to tissue type or region of interest has become a critical requirement in diagnosis, treatment planning, and cognitive neuroscience. Several authors have shown that finite mixture models give excellent results in the automated segmentation of MR images of the human normal brain. However, performance and robustness of finite mixture models deteriorate when the models have to deal with a variety of anatomical structures. In this paper, we propose a nonparametric Bayesian model for tissue classification of MR images of the brain. The model, known as Dirichlet process mixture model, uses Dirichlet process priors to overcome the limitations of current parametric finite mixture models. To validate the accuracy and robustness of our method we present the results of experiments carried out on simulated MR brain scans, as well as on real MR image data. The results are compared with similar results from other well-known MRI segmentation methods.

  10. Identification, tissue distribution and evaluation of brain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Food intake in vertebrates is a complex process involving ... this treatment has a stimulatory effect only for a short period of time. ... behaviour in fish is limited and based on a few species, and there is ... 2007) but little information about.

  11. Neonatal Brain Tissue Classification with Morphological Adaptation and Unified Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eBeare

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the distribution of brain tissue types (tissue classification in neonates is necessary for studying typical and atypical brain development, such as that associated with preterm birth, and may provide biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcomes. Compared with magnetic resonance images of adults, neonatal images present specific challenges that require the development of specialized, population-specific methods. This paper introduces MANTiS (Morphologically Adaptive Neonatal Tissue Segmentation, which extends the unified segmentation approach to tissue classification implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM software to neonates. MANTiS utilizes a combination of unified segmentation, template adaptation via morphological segmentation tools and topological filtering, to segment the neonatal brain into eight tissue classes: cortical gray matter, white matter, deep nuclear gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, hippocampus and amygdala. We evaluated the performance of MANTiS using two independent datasets. The first dataset, provided by the NeoBrainS12 challenge, consisted of coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born ≤30 weeks’ gestation acquired at 30 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5, coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5 and axial T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5. The second dataset, provided by the Washington University NeuroDevelopmental Research (WUNDeR group, consisted of T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born <30 weeks’ gestation acquired shortly after birth (n= 12, preterm infants acquired at term-equivalent age (n= 12, and healthy term-born infants (born ≥38 weeks’ gestation acquired within the first nine days of life (n= 12. For the NeoBrainS12 dataset, mean Dice scores comparing MANTiS with manual segmentations were all above 0.7, except for

  12. In Search of...Brain-Based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruer, John T.

    1999-01-01

    Debunks two ideas appearing in brain-based education articles: the educational significance of brain laterality (right brain versus left brain) and claims for a sensitive period of brain development in young children. Brain-based education literature provides a popular but misleading mix of fact, misinterpretation, and fantasy. (47 references (MLH)

  13. Microwave reflection, transmission, and absorption by human brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M. A.; Akhlaghipour, N.; Zarei, M.; Niknam, A. R.

    2018-04-01

    These days, the biological effects of electromagnetic (EM) radiations on the brain, especially in the frequency range of mobile communications, have caught the attention of many scientists. Therefore, in this paper, the propagation of mobile phone electromagnetic waves in the brain tissues is investigated analytically and numerically. The brain is modeled by three layers consisting of skull, grey and white matter. First, we have analytically calculated the microwave reflection, transmission, and absorption coefficients using signal flow graph technique. The effect of microwave frequency and variations in the thickness of layers on the propagation of microwave through brain are studied. Then, the penetration of microwave in the layers is numerically investigated by Monte Carlo method. It is shown that the analytical results are in good agreement with those obtained by Monte Carlo method. Our results indicate the absorbed microwave energy depends on microwave frequency and thickness of brain layers, and the absorption coefficient is optimized at a number of frequencies. These findings can be used for comparing the microwave absorbed energy in a child's and adult's brain.

  14. Analysis of sports related mTBI injuries caused by elastic wave propagation through brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Case

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive concussions and sub-concussions suffered by athletes have been linked to a series of sequelae ranging from traumatic encephalopathy to dementia pugilistica. A detailed finite element model of the human head was developed based on standard libraries of medical imaging. The model includes realistic material properties for the brain tissue, bone, soft tissue, and CSF, as well as the structure and properties of a protective helmet. Various impact scenarios were studied, with a focus on the strains/stresses and pressure gradients and concentrations created in the brain tissue due to propagation of waves produced by the impact through the complex internal structure of the human head. This approach has the potential to expand our understanding of the mechanism of brain injury, and to better assess the risk of delayed neurological disorders for tens of thousands of young athletes throughout the world.

  15. Characterization of a sequential pipeline approach to automatic tissue segmentation from brain MR Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Zujun; Huang, Su

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of gray matter and white matter in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is valuable for neuroradiology and clinical practice. Submission of large collections of MRI scans to pipeline processing is increasingly important. We characterized this process and suggest several improvements. To investigate tissue segmentation from brain MR images through a sequential approach, a pipeline that consecutively executes denoising, skull/scalp removal, intensity inhomogeneity correction and intensity-based classification was developed. The denoising phase employs a 3D-extension of the Bayes-Shrink method. The inhomogeneity is corrected by an improvement of the Dawant et al.'s method with automatic generation of reference points. The N3 method has also been evaluated. Subsequently the brain tissue is segmented into cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter and white matter by a generalized Otsu thresholding technique. Intensive comparisons with other sequential or iterative methods have been carried out using simulated and real images. The sequential approach with judicious selection on the algorithm selection in each stage is not only advantageous in speed, but also can attain at least as accurate segmentation as iterative methods under a variety of noise or inhomogeneity levels. A sequential approach to tissue segmentation, which consecutively executes the wavelet shrinkage denoising, scalp/skull removal, inhomogeneity correction and intensity-based classification was developed to automatically segment the brain tissue into CSF, GM and WM from brain MR images. This approach is advantageous in several common applications, compared with other pipeline methods. (orig.)

  16. Cells in human postmortem brain tissue slices remain alive for several weeks in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, Ronald W. H.; Hermens, Wim T. J. M. C.; Dijkhuizen, PaulaA; ter Brake, Olivier; Baker, Robert E.; Salehi, Ahmad; Sluiter, Arja A.; Kok, Marloes J. M.; Muller, Linda J.; Verhaagen, Joost; Swaab, Dick F.

    2002-01-01

    Animal models for human neurological and psychiatric diseases only partially mimic the underlying pathogenic processes. Therefore, we investigated the potential use of cultured postmortem brain tissue from adult neurological patients and controls. The present study shows that human brain tissue

  17. Using autopsy brain tissue to study alcohol-related brain damage in the genomic age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre at the University of Sydney, Australia, is one of the few human brain banks dedicated to the study of the effects of chronic alcoholism. The bank was affiliated in 1994 as a member of the National Network of Brain Banks and also focuses on schizophrenia and healthy control tissue. Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide, manifesting in such conditions as fetal alcohol syndrome, adolescent binge drinking, alcohol dependency, and alcoholic neurodegeneration. The latter is also referred to as alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). The study of postmortem brain tissue is ideally suited to determining the effects of long-term alcohol abuse, but it also makes an important contribution to understanding pathogenesis across the spectrum of alcohol misuse disorders and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases. Tissue from the bank has contributed to 330 peer-reviewed journal articles including 120 related to alcohol research. Using the results of these articles, this review chronicles advances in alcohol-related brain research since 2003, the so-called genomic age. In particular, it concentrates on transcriptomic approaches to the pathogenesis of ARBD and builds on earlier reviews of structural changes (Harper et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:951) and proteomics (Matsumoto et al. Expert Rev Proteomics 2007;4:539). Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Improvement of Brain Tissue Oxygenation by Inhalation of Carbogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashkanian, M.; Borghammer, P.; Gjedde, A.

    2008-01-01

    tomography (PET) to measure CBF and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) during inhalation of test gases (O(2), CO(2), carbogen and atmospheric air) in 10 healthy volunteers. Arterial blood gases were recorded during administration of each gas. The data were analyzed with volume-of-interest and voxel...... is sufficient for optimal oxygenation of healthy brain tissue, whereas carbogen induces concomitant increases of CBF and Sa(O2)....

  19. Blood brain barrier and brain tissue injury by Gd-DTPA in uremia-induced rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Seob; Huh, Ki Yeong; Han, Jin Yeong; Lee, Yong Chul; Eun, Choong Gi; Yang, Yeong Il

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the morphological changes in the blood brain barrier and neighbouring brain tissue caused by Gd-DTPA in uremia-induced rabbits. Bilateral renal arteries and veins of ten rabbits were ligated. Gd-DTPA(0.2mmol/kg) was intravenously injected into seven rabbits immediately after ligation. After MRI, they were sacrificed 2 or 3 days after ligation in order to observe light and electron microscopic changes in the blood brain barrier and brain tissue. MRI findings were normal, except for enhancement of the superior and inferior sagittal sinuses on T1 weighted images in uremia-induced rabbits injected with Gd-DTPA. On light microscopic examination, these rabbits showed perivascular edema and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression: electron microscopic examination showed separation of tight junctions of endothelial cells, duplication/rarefaction of basal lamina, increased lysosomes of neurons with neuronal death, demyelination of myelin, and extravasation of red blood cells. Uremia-induced rabbits injected with Gd-DTPA showed more severe changes than those without Gd-DTPA injection. Injuries to the blood brain barrier and neighbouring brain tissue were aggravated by Gd-DTPA administration in uremia-induced rabbits. These findings appear to be associated with the neurotoxicity of Gd-DTPA

  20. A Hybrid Hierarchical Approach for Brain Tissue Segmentation by Combining Brain Atlas and Least Square Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiri, Keyvan; Kazemi, Kamran; Dehghani, Mohammad Javad; Helfroush, Mohammad Sadegh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new semi-automatic brain tissue segmentation method based on a hybrid hierarchical approach that combines a brain atlas as a priori information and a least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM). The method consists of three steps. In the first two steps, the skull is removed and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is extracted. These two steps are performed using the toolbox FMRIB's automated segmentation tool integrated in the FSL software (FSL-FAST) developed in Oxford Centre for functional MRI of the brain (FMRIB). Then, in the third step, the LS-SVM is used to segment grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM). The training samples for LS-SVM are selected from the registered brain atlas. The voxel intensities and spatial positions are selected as the two feature groups for training and test. SVM as a powerful discriminator is able to handle nonlinear classification problems; however, it cannot provide posterior probability. Thus, we use a sigmoid function to map the SVM output into probabilities. The proposed method is used to segment CSF, GM and WM from the simulated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Brainweb MRI simulator and real data provided by Internet Brain Segmentation Repository. The semi-automatically segmented brain tissues were evaluated by comparing to the corresponding ground truth. The Dice and Jaccard similarity coefficients, sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the quantitative validation of the results. The quantitative results show that the proposed method segments brain tissues accurately with respect to corresponding ground truth. PMID:24696800

  1. The national DBS brain tissue network pilot study: need for more tissue and more standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedam-Mai, V; Krock, N; Ullman, M; Foote, K D; Shain, W; Smith, K; Yachnis, A T; Steindler, D; Reynolds, B; Merritt, S; Pagan, F; Marjama-Lyons, J; Hogarth, P; Resnick, A S; Zeilman, P; Okun, M S

    2011-08-01

    Over 70,000 DBS devices have been implanted worldwide; however, there remains a paucity of well-characterized post-mortem DBS brains available to researchers. We propose that the overall understanding of DBS can be improved through the establishment of a Deep Brain Stimulation-Brain Tissue Network (DBS-BTN), which will further our understanding of DBS and brain function. The objectives of the tissue bank are twofold: (a) to provide a complete (clinical, imaging and pathological) database for DBS brain tissue samples, and (b) to make available DBS tissue samples to researchers, which will help our understanding of disease and underlying brain circuitry. Standard operating procedures for processing DBS brains were developed as part of the pilot project. Complete data files were created for individual patients and included demographic information, clinical information, imaging data, pathology, and DBS lead locations/settings. 19 DBS brains were collected from 11 geographically dispersed centers from across the U.S. The average age at the time of death was 69.3 years (51-92, with a standard deviation or SD of 10.13). The male:female ratio was almost 3:1. Average post-mortem interval from death to brain collection was 10.6 h (SD of 7.17). The DBS targets included: subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus interna, and ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus. In 16.7% of cases the clinical diagnosis failed to match the pathological diagnosis. We provide neuropathological findings from the cohort, and perilead responses to DBS. One of the most important observations made in this pilot study was the missing data, which was approximately 25% of all available data fields. Preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility and utility of creating a National DBS-BTN resource for the scientific community. We plan to improve our techniques to remedy omitted clinical/research data, and expand the Network to include a larger donor pool. We will enhance sample preparation to

  2. Effects of tissue susceptibility on brain temperature mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudsley, Andrew A; Goryawala, Mohammed Z; Sheriff, Sulaiman

    2017-02-01

    A method for mapping of temperature over a large volume of the brain using volumetric proton MR spectroscopic imaging has been implemented and applied to 150 normal subjects. Magnetic susceptibility-induced frequency shifts in gray- and white-matter regions were measured and included as a correction in the temperature mapping calculation. Additional sources of magnetic susceptibility variations of the individual metabolite resonance frequencies were also observed that reflect the cellular-level organization of the brain metabolites, with the most notable differences being attributed to changes of the N-Acetylaspartate resonance frequency that reflect the intra-axonal distribution and orientation of the white-matter tracts with respect to the applied magnetic field. These metabolite-specific susceptibility effects are also shown to change with age. Results indicate no change of apparent brain temperature with age from 18 to 84 years old, with a trend for increased brain temperature throughout the cerebrum in females relative for males on the order of 0.1°C; slightly increased temperatures in the left hemisphere relative to the right; and a lower temperature of 0.3°C in the cerebellum relative to that of cerebral white-matter. This study presents a novel acquisition method for noninvasive measurement of brain temperature that is of potential value for diagnostic purposes and treatment monitoring, while also demonstrating limitations of the measurement due to the confounding effects of tissue susceptibility variations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Global Proteomic Analysis of Brain Tissues in Transient Ischemia Brain Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiann-Hwa Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion injury resulting from arterial occlusion or hypotension in patients leads to tissue hypoxia with glucose deprivation, which causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and neuronal death. A proteomic approach was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins in the brain of rats following a global ischemic stroke. The mechanisms involved the action in apoptotic and ER stress pathways. Rats were treated with ischemia-reperfusion brain injuries by the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery. The cortical neuron proteins from the stroke animal model (SAM and the control rats were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE to purify and identify the protein profiles. Our results demonstrated that the SAM rats experienced brain cell death in the ischemic core. Fifteen proteins were expressed differentially between the SAM rats and control rats, which were assayed and validated in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, the set of differentially expressed, down-regulated proteins included catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT and cathepsin D (CATD, which are implicated in oxidative stress, inflammatory response and apoptosis. After an ischemic stroke, one protein spot, namely the calretinin (CALB2 protein, showed increased expression. It mediated the effects of SAM administration on the apoptotic and ER stress pathways. Our results demonstrate that the ischemic injury of neuronal cells increased cell cytoxicity and apoptosis, which were accompanied by sustained activation of the IRE1-alpha/TRAF2, JNK1/2, and p38 MAPK pathways. Proteomic analysis suggested that the differential expression of CALB2 during a global ischemic stroke could be involved in the mechanisms of ER stress-induced neuronal cell apoptosis, which occurred via IRE1-alpha/TRAF2 complex formation, with activation of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Based on these results, we also provide the molecular evidence supporting the ischemia

  4. Segmenting Brain Tissues from Chinese Visible Human Dataset by Deep-Learned Features with Stacked Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryosection brain images in Chinese Visible Human (CVH dataset contain rich anatomical structure information of tissues because of its high resolution (e.g., 0.167 mm per pixel. Fast and accurate segmentation of these images into white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid plays a critical role in analyzing and measuring the anatomical structures of human brain. However, most existing automated segmentation methods are designed for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging data, and they may not be applicable for cryosection images due to the imaging difference. In this paper, we propose a supervised learning-based CVH brain tissues segmentation method that uses stacked autoencoder (SAE to automatically learn the deep feature representations. Specifically, our model includes two successive parts where two three-layer SAEs take image patches as input to learn the complex anatomical feature representation, and then these features are sent to Softmax classifier for inferring the labels. Experimental results validated the effectiveness of our method and showed that it outperformed four other classical brain tissue detection strategies. Furthermore, we reconstructed three-dimensional surfaces of these tissues, which show their potential in exploring the high-resolution anatomical structures of human brain.

  5. Raman molecular imaging of brain frozen tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Rachel E; Auner, Gregory W; Rosenblum, Mark L; Mikkelsen, Tom; Yurgelevic, Sally M; Raghunathan, Aditya; Poisson, Laila M; Kalkanis, Steven N

    2014-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides a molecular signature of the region being studied. It is ideal for neurosurgical applications because it is non-destructive, label-free, not impacted by water concentration, and can map an entire region of tissue. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the meaningful spatial molecular information provided by Raman spectroscopy for identification of regions of normal brain, necrosis, diffusely infiltrating glioma and solid glioblastoma (GBM). Five frozen section tissues (1 normal, 1 necrotic, 1 GBM, and 2 infiltrating glioma) were mapped in their entirety using a 300-µm-square step size. Smaller regions of interest were also mapped using a 25-µm step size. The relative concentrations of relevant biomolecules were mapped across all tissues and compared with adjacent hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, allowing identification of normal, GBM, and necrotic regions. Raman peaks and peak ratios mapped included 1003, 1313, 1431, 1585, and 1659 cm(-1). Tissue maps identified boundaries of grey and white matter, necrosis, GBM, and infiltrating tumor. Complementary information, including relative concentration of lipids, protein, nucleic acid, and hemoglobin, was presented in a manner which can be easily adapted for in vivo tissue mapping. Raman spectroscopy can successfully provide label-free imaging of tissue characteristics with high accuracy. It can be translated to a surgical or laboratory tool for rapid, non-destructive imaging of tumor margins.

  6. Assessment of Autophagy in Neurons and Brain Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Cuesta, Irene; Diez, Héctor; Ordoñez, Lara; Wandosell, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a complex process that controls the transport of cytoplasmic components into lysosomes for degradation. This highly conserved proteolytic system involves dynamic and complex processes, using similar molecular elements and machinery from yeast to humans. Moreover, autophagic dysfunction may contribute to a broad spectrum of mammalian diseases. Indeed, in adult tissues, where the capacity for regeneration or cell division is low or absent (e.g., in the mammalian brain), the accumulation of proteins/peptides that would otherwise be recycled or destroyed may have pathological implications. Indeed, such changes are hallmarks of pathologies, like Alzheimer’s, Prion or Parkinson’s disease, known as proteinopathies. However, it is still unclear whether such dysfunction is a cause or an effect in these conditions. One advantage when analysing autophagy in the mammalian brain is that almost all the markers described in different cell lineages and systems appear to be present in the brain, and even in neurons. By contrast, the mixture of cell types present in the brain and the differentiation stage of such neurons, when compared with neurons in culture, make translating basic research to the clinic less straightforward. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe and discuss the methods available to monitor autophagy in neurons and in the mammalian brain, a process that is not yet fully understood, focusing primarily on mammalian macroautophagy. We will describe some general features of neuronal autophagy that point to our focus on neuropathologies in which macroautophagy may be altered. Indeed, we centre this review around the hypothesis that enhanced autophagy may be able to provide therapeutic benefits in some brain pathologies, like Alzheimer’s disease, considering this pathology as one of the most prevalent proteinopathies. PMID:28832529

  7. Brain tissue segmentation using q-entropy in multiple sclerosis magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, P.R.B.; Brum, D.G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurociencias e Ciencias do Comportamento; Santos, A. C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Clinica Medica; Murta-Junior, L.O.; Araujo, D.B. de, E-mail: murta@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2010-01-15

    The loss of brain volume has been used as a marker of tissue destruction and can be used as an index of the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we tested a new method for tissue segmentation based on pixel intensity threshold using generalized Tsallis entropy to determine a statistical segmentation parameter for each single class of brain tissue. We compared the performance of this method using a range of different q parameters and found a different optimal q parameter for white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the conclusion that the differences in structural correlations and scale invariant similarities present in each tissue class can be accessed by generalized Tsallis entropy, obtaining the intensity limits for these tissue class separations. In order to test this method, we used it for analysis of brain magnetic resonance images of 43 patients and 10 healthy controls matched for gender and age. The values found for the entropic q index were 0.2 for cerebrospinal fluid, 0.1 for white matter and 1.5 for gray matter. With this algorithm, we could detect an annual loss of 0.98% for the patients, in agreement with literature data. Thus, we can conclude that the entropy of Tsallis adds advantages to the process of automatic target segmentation of tissue classes, which had not been demonstrated previously. (author)

  8. Brain tissue segmentation using q-entropy in multiple sclerosis magnetic resonance images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.B. Diniz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of brain volume has been used as a marker of tissue destruction and can be used as an index of the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we tested a new method for tissue segmentation based on pixel intensity threshold using generalized Tsallis entropy to determine a statistical segmentation parameter for each single class of brain tissue. We compared the performance of this method using a range of different q parameters and found a different optimal q parameter for white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the conclusion that the differences in structural correlations and scale invariant similarities present in each tissue class can be accessed by generalized Tsallis entropy, obtaining the intensity limits for these tissue class separations. In order to test this method, we used it for analysis of brain magnetic resonance images of 43 patients and 10 healthy controls matched for gender and age. The values found for the entropic q index were 0.2 for cerebrospinal fluid, 0.1 for white matter and 1.5 for gray matter. With this algorithm, we could detect an annual loss of 0.98% for the patients, in agreement with literature data. Thus, we can conclude that the entropy of Tsallis adds advantages to the process of automatic target segmentation of tissue classes, which had not been demonstrated previously.

  9. Brain tissue segmentation using q-entropy in multiple sclerosis magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, P.R.B.; Brum, D.G.; Santos, A. C.; Murta-Junior, L.O.; Araujo, D.B. de

    2010-01-01

    The loss of brain volume has been used as a marker of tissue destruction and can be used as an index of the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we tested a new method for tissue segmentation based on pixel intensity threshold using generalized Tsallis entropy to determine a statistical segmentation parameter for each single class of brain tissue. We compared the performance of this method using a range of different q parameters and found a different optimal q parameter for white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the conclusion that the differences in structural correlations and scale invariant similarities present in each tissue class can be accessed by generalized Tsallis entropy, obtaining the intensity limits for these tissue class separations. In order to test this method, we used it for analysis of brain magnetic resonance images of 43 patients and 10 healthy controls matched for gender and age. The values found for the entropic q index were 0.2 for cerebrospinal fluid, 0.1 for white matter and 1.5 for gray matter. With this algorithm, we could detect an annual loss of 0.98% for the patients, in agreement with literature data. Thus, we can conclude that the entropy of Tsallis adds advantages to the process of automatic target segmentation of tissue classes, which had not been demonstrated previously. (author)

  10. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MICROWAVE RADIATION ON BRAIN TISSUE IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Đinđić

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to microwave radiation induces multiple organ dysfunctions, especially in CNS.The aim of this work was investigation of biological effects of microwave radiation on rats' brain and determination of increased oxidative stress as a possible pathogenetic's mechanism.Wis tar rats 3 months old were divided in experimental (4 female and 4 male animal and control group (5 female and 4 male. This experimental group was constantly exposed to a magnetic field of 5 mG. We simulated using of mobile phones 30 min every day. The source of NIR emitted MF that was similar to mobile phones at 900 MHz. The rats were killed after 2 months. Biological effects were determined by observation of individual and collective behavior and body mass changes. Lipid per oxidation was determined by measuring quantity of malondialdehyde (MDA in brain homogenate.The animals in experimental group exposed to EMF showed les weight gain. The most important observations were changing of basic behavior models and expression of aggressive or panic behavior. The content of MDA in brain tissue is singificantly higher (1.42 times in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields (3,82±0.65 vs. control 2.69±0.42 nmol/mg proteins, p<0.01.Increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation after exposition in EM fields induced disorders of function and structure of brain.

  11. An analytical model for nanoparticles concentration resulting from infusion into poroelastic brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzichelli, G; Di Michele, F; Sinibaldi, E

    2016-02-01

    We consider the infusion of a diluted suspension of nanoparticles (NPs) into poroelastic brain tissue, in view of relevant biomedical applications such as intratumoral thermotherapy. Indeed, the high impact of the related pathologies motivates the development of advanced therapeutic approaches, whose design also benefits from theoretical models. This study provides an analytical expression for the time-dependent NPs concentration during the infusion into poroelastic brain tissue, which also accounts for particle binding onto cells (by recalling relevant results from the colloid filtration theory). Our model is computationally inexpensive and, compared to fully numerical approaches, permits to explicitly elucidate the role of the involved physical aspects (tissue poroelasticity, infusion parameters, NPs physico-chemical properties, NP-tissue interactions underlying binding). We also present illustrative results based on parameters taken from the literature, by considering clinically relevant ranges for the infusion parameters. Moreover, we thoroughly assess the model working assumptions besides discussing its limitations. While not laying any claims of generality, our model can be used to support the development of more ambitious numerical approaches, towards the preliminary design of novel therapies based on NPs infusion into brain tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating temperature changes of brain tissue due to induced heating of cell phone waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worries have recently been increased in the absorption of radiofrequency waves and their destructing effects on human health by increasing use of cell phones (mobile phones. This study performed to determine the thermal changes due to mobile phone radio frequency waves in gray and white brain tissue. Methods: This study is an empirical study, where the thermal changes of electromagnetic waves resulted from cell phones (900 MHZ, specific absorption rate for head 1.18 w/kg on the 15 brain tissue of a cow were analyzed in a compartment with three different thickness of 2 mm, 12 mm, and 22 mm, for 15 min. The Lutron thermometer (model: MT-917 with 0.01°C precision was used for measuring the tissue temperature. For each thickness was measured three times. Data analysis is done by Lutron and MATLAB software packages. Results: In confronting of the tissue with the cell phone, the temperature was increased by 0.53°C in the 2 mm thickness that is the gray matter of the brain, increased by 0.99°C in the 12 mm thickness, and also increased by 0.92°C in the 22 mm thickness. Brain temperature showed higher rates than the base temperature after 15 min of confrontation with cell phone waves in all the three thicknesses. Conclusions: Cell phone radiated radio frequency waves were effective on increasing brain tissue temperature, and this temperature increase has cumulative effect on the tissue, being higher, for some time after the confrontation than the time with no confrontation.

  13. Effect of dexmedetomidine combined with propofol on brain tissue damage in brain glioma resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of dexmedetomidine combined with propofol on brain tissue damage in brain glioma resection.Methods: A total of 74 patients who received brain glioma resection in our hospital between May 2014 and December 2016 were selected and randomly divided into Dex group and control group who received dexmedetomidine intervention and saline intervention before induction respectively. Serum brain tissue damage marker, PI3K/AKT/iNOS and oxidation reaction molecule contents as well as cerebral oxygen metabolism index levels were determined before anesthesia (T0), at dura mater incision (T1), immediately after recovery (T2) and 24 h after operation (T3).Results: Serum NSE, S100B, MBP, GFAP, PI3K, AKT, iNOS and MDA contents as well as AVDO2 and CERO2 levels of both groups at T2 and T3 were significantly higher than those at T0 and T1 while serum SOD and CAT contents as well as SjvO2levels were significantly lower than those at T0 and T1, and serum NSE, S100B, MBP, GFAP, PI3K, AKT, iNOS and MDA contents as well as AVDO2 and CERO2 levels of Dex group at T2 and T3 were significantly lower than those of control group while serum SOD and CAT contents as well as SjvO2 levels were significantly higher than those of control group.Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine combined with propofol can reduce the brain tissue damage in brain glioma resection.

  14. Efficient Cargo Delivery into Adult Brain Tissue Using Short Cell-Penetrating Peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caghan Kizil

    Full Text Available Zebrafish brains can regenerate lost neurons upon neurogenic activity of the radial glial progenitor cells (RGCs that reside at the ventricular region. Understanding the molecular events underlying this ability is of great interest for translational studies of regenerative medicine. Therefore, functional analyses of gene function in RGCs and neurons are essential. Using cerebroventricular microinjection (CVMI, RGCs can be targeted efficiently but the penetration capacity of the injected molecules reduces dramatically in deeper parts of the brain tissue, such as the parenchymal regions that contain the neurons. In this report, we tested the penetration efficiency of five known cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs and identified two- polyR and Trans - that efficiently penetrate the brain tissue without overt toxicity in a dose-dependent manner as determined by TUNEL staining and L-Plastin immunohistochemistry. We also found that polyR peptide can help carry plasmid DNA several cell diameters into the brain tissue after a series of coupling reactions using DBCO-PEG4-maleimide-based Michael's addition and azide-mediated copper-free click reaction. Combined with the advantages of CVMI, such as rapidness, reproducibility, and ability to be used in adult animals, CPPs improve the applicability of the CVMI technique to deeper parts of the central nervous system tissues.

  15. Piezosurgery prevents brain tissue damage: an experimental study on a new rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlíková, G; Foltán, R; Burian, M; Horká, E; Adámek, S; Hejčl, A; Hanzelka, T; Sedý, J

    2011-08-01

    Piezosurgery is a promising meticulous system for bone cutting, based on ultrasound microvibrations. It is thought that the impact of piezosurgery on the integrity of soft tissue is generally low, but it has not been examined critically. The authors undertook an experimental study to evaluate the brain tissue response to skull bone removal using piezosurgery compared with a conventional drilling method. In Wistar male rats, a circular bone window was drilled to the parietal bone using piezosurgery on one side and a conventional bone drill on the other side. The behavioural performance of animals was evaluated using the motor BBB test and sensory plantar test. The brains of animals were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology. The results of MRI showed significantly increased depth and width of the brain lesion in the region of conventional drilling compared with the region where piezosurgery was used. Cresylviolet and NF 160 staining confirmed these findings. There was no significant difference in any of the behavioural tests between the two groups. In conclusion, piezosurgery is a safe method for the performance of osteotomy in close relation to soft tissue, including an extremely injury-sensitive tissue such as brain. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Myoglobin Expression in Chelonia mydas Brain, Heart and Liver Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RINI PUSPITANINGRUM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the underpinning physiology and biochemistry of animals is essential to properly understand the impact of anthropogenic changes and natural catastrophes upon the conservation of endangered species. An observation on the tissue location of the key respiratory protein, myoglobin, now opens up new opportunities for understanding how hypoxia tolerance impacts on diving lifestyle in turtles. The respiratory protein, myoglobin has functions other than oxygen binding which are involved in hypoxia tolerance, including metabolism of reactive oxygen species and of the vascular function by metabolism of nitric oxide. Our work aims to determine whether myoglobin expression in the green turtle exists in multiple non muscle tissues and to confirm the hypothesis that reptiles also have a distributed myoglobin expression which is linked to the hypoxiatolerant trait. This initial work in turtle hatch Chelonia mydas confirms the presence of myoglobin transcriptin brain, heart and liver tissues. Furthermore, it will serve as a tool for completing the sequence and generating an in situ hybridization probe for verifying of cell location in expressing tissues.

  17. Myoglobin Expression in Chelonia mydas Brain, Heart and Liver Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RINI PUSPITANINGRUM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the underpinning physiology and biochemistry of animals is essential to properly understand the impact of anthropogenic changes and natural catastrophes upon the conservation of endangered species. An observation on the tissue location of the key respiratory protein, myoglobin, now opens up new opportunities for understanding how hypoxia tolerance impacts on diving lifestyle in turtles. The respiratory protein, myoglobin has functions other than oxygen binding which are involved in hypoxia tolerance, including metabolism of reactive oxygen species and of the vascular function by metabolism of nitric oxide. Our work aims to determine whether myoglobin expression in the green turtle exists in multiple non muscle tissues and to confirm the hypothesis that reptiles also have a distributed myoglobin expression which is linked to the hypoxia-tolerant trait. This initial work in turtle hatch Chelonia mydas confirms the presence of myoglobin transcriptin brain, heart and liver tissues. Furthermore, it will serve as a tool for completing the sequence and generating an in situ hybridization probe for verifying of cell location in expressing tissues.

  18. Tumor sterilization dose and radiation induced change of the brain tissue in radiotherapy of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Maki, Yutaka; Takano, Shingo

    1987-01-01

    Ninety-seven patients with brain tumors (38 gliomas, 26 brain metastases, 18 sellar tumors, 15 others) were treated by cobalt gamma ray or proton radiotherapy. In this study, normal brain injury due to radiation was analysed in terms of time-dose-fractionation (TDF), nominal standard dose (NSD) by the Ellis formula and NeuNSD by a modification in which the N exponent was -0.44 and the T exponent was -0.06. Their calculated doses were analysed in relationship to the normal brain radiation induced change (RIC) and the tumor sterilization dose. All brain tumors with an exception of many patients with brain metastases were received a surgical extirpation subtotally or partially prior to radiotherapy. And all patients with glioma and brain metastasis received also immuno-chemotherapy in the usual manner during radiotherapy. The calculated dose expressed by NeuNSD and TDF showed a significant relationship between a therapeutic dose and a postradiation time in terms of the appearance of RIC. It was suggested that RIC was caused by a dose over 800 in NeuNSD and a dose over 70 in TDF. Furthermore, it was suggested that an aged patient and a patient who had the vulnerable brain tissue to radiation exposure in the irradiated field had the high risk of RIC. On the other hand, our results suggested that the tumor sterilization dose should be over 1,536 NeuNSD and the irradiated method should be further considered in addition to the radiobiological concepts for various brain tumors. (author)

  19. Position of probe determines prognostic information of brain tissue PO2 in severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Lucido L; Pillai, Shibu; Cruz, Jovany; Li, Xiaoqi; Julia, H; Gopinath, Shankar; Robertson, Claudia S

    2012-06-01

    Monitoring brain tissue PO2 (PbtO2) is part of multimodality monitoring of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, PbtO2 measurement is a sampling of only a small area of tissue surrounding the sensor tip. To examine the effect of catheter location on the relationship between PbtO2 and neurological outcome. A total of 405 patients who had PbtO2 monitoring as part of standard management of severe traumatic brain injury were studied. The relationships between probe location and resulting PbtO2 and outcome were examined. When the probe was located in normal brain, PbtO2 averaged 30.8 ± 18.2 compared with 25.6 ± 14.8 mm Hg when placed in abnormal brain (P < .001). Factors related to neurological outcome in the best-fit logistic regression model were age, PbtO2 probe position, postresuscitation motor Glasgow Coma Scale score, and PbtO2 trend pattern. Although average PbtO2 was significantly related to outcome in univariate analyses, it was not significant in the final logistic model. However, the interaction between PbtO2 and probe position was statistically significant. When the PbtO2 probe was placed in abnormal brain, the average PbtO2 was higher in those with a favorable outcome, 28.8 ± 12.0 mm Hg, compared with those with an unfavorable outcome, 19.5 ± 13.7 mm Hg (P = .01). PbtO2 and outcome were not related when the probe was placed in normal-appearing brain. These results suggest that the location of the PbtO2 probe determines the PbtO2 values and the relationship of PbtO2 to neurological outcome.

  20. Exploration of the R code-based mathematical model for PMI estimation using profiling of RNA degradation in rat brain tissue at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianlong; Pan, Hui; Zeng, Yan; Lv, Yehui; Zhang, Heng; Xue, Aimin; Jiang, Jieqing; Ma, Kaijun; Chen, Long

    2015-12-01

    Precise estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is crucial in some criminal cases. This study aims to find some optimal markers for PMI estimation and build a mathematical model that could be used in various temperature conditions. Different mRNA and microRNA markers in rat brain samples were detected using real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR at 12 time points within 144 h postmortem and at temperatures of 4, 15, 25, and 35 °C. Samples from 36 other rats were used to verify the animal mathematical model. Brain-specific mir-9 and mir-125b are effective endogenous control markers that are not affected by PMI up to 144 h postmortem under these temperatures, whereas the commonly used U6 is not a suitable endogenous control in this study. Among all the candidate markers, ΔCt (β-actin) has the best correlation coefficient with PMI and was used to build a new model using R software which can simultaneously manage both PMI and temperature parameters. This animal mathematical model is verified using samples from 36 other rats and shows increased accuracy for higher temperatures and longer PMI. In this study, β-actin was found to be an optimal marker to estimate PMI and some other markers were found to be suitable to act as endogenous controls. Additionally, we have used R code software to build a model of PMI estimation that could be used in various temperature conditions.

  1. Zika Virus RNA Replication and Persistence in Brain and Placental Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeneck, Demi B.; Martines, Roosecelis B.; Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Ermias, Yokabed; Estetter, Lindsey B.C.; Suzuki, Tadaki; Ritter, Jana; Keating, M. Kelly; Hale, Gillian; Gary, Joy; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Lambert, Amy; Lanciotti, Robert; Oduyebo, Titilope; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Bolaños, Fernando; Saad, Edgar Alberto Parra; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Zaki, Sherif R.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is causally linked with congenital microcephaly and may be associated with pregnancy loss. However, the mechanisms of Zika virus intrauterine transmission and replication and its tropism and persistence in tissues are poorly understood. We tested tissues from 52 case-patients: 8 infants with microcephaly who died and 44 women suspected of being infected with Zika virus during pregnancy. By reverse transcription PCR, tissues from 32 (62%) case-patients (brains from 8 infants with microcephaly and placental/fetal tissues from 24 women) were positive for Zika virus. In situ hybridization localized replicative Zika virus RNA in brains of 7 infants and in placentas of 9 women who had pregnancy losses during the first or second trimester. These findings demonstrate that Zika virus replicates and persists in fetal brains and placentas, providing direct evidence of its association with microcephaly. Tissue-based reverse transcription PCR extends the time frame of Zika virus detection in congenital and pregnancy-associated infections. PMID:27959260

  2. State-of-the-Art Methods for Brain Tissue Segmentation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dora, Lingraj; Agrawal, Sanjay; Panda, Rutuparna; Abraham, Ajith

    2017-01-01

    Brain tissue segmentation is one of the most sought after research areas in medical image processing. It provides detailed quantitative brain analysis for accurate disease diagnosis, detection, and classification of abnormalities. It plays an essential role in discriminating healthy tissues from lesion tissues. Therefore, accurate disease diagnosis and treatment planning depend merely on the performance of the segmentation method used. In this review, we have studied the recent advances in brain tissue segmentation methods and their state-of-the-art in neuroscience research. The review also highlights the major challenges faced during tissue segmentation of the brain. An effective comparison is made among state-of-the-art brain tissue segmentation methods. Moreover, a study of some of the validation measures to evaluate different segmentation methods is also discussed. The brain tissue segmentation, content in terms of methodologies, and experiments presented in this review are encouraging enough to attract researchers working in this field.

  3. Expression and relevant research of MGMT and XRCC1 gene in differentgrades of brain glioma and normal brain tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Fei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore and analyze expression and relevant research of MGMT and XRCC1 gene in different grades of brain glioma and normal brain tissues. Methods: 52 cases of patients with brain glioma treated in our hospital from December 2013 to December 2014, and 50 cases of normal brain-tissue patients with intracranial hypertension were selected, and proceeding test to the surgical resection of brain tissue of the above patients to determine its MGMT and XRCC1 protein content, sequentially to record the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 of both groups. Grading of tumors to brain glioma after operation was carried out, and the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 gene in brain tissues of different patients was analyzed and compared;finally the contingency tables of X2 test was used to analyze the correlation of XRCC1and MGMT. Results:Positive rate of MGMT expression in normal brain tissue was 2%,while positive rate of MGMT expression in brain glioma was 46.2%,which was obviously higher than that in normal brain tissues (χ2=26.85, P0.05), which had no statistical significance. There were 12 cases of patients whose MGMT protein expression was positive and XRCC1 protein expression was positive; there were 18 cases of patients whose MGMT protein expression was negative and XRCC1 protein expression was negative. Contingency tables of X2 test was used to analyze the correlation of XRCC1 and MGMT, which indicated that the expression of XRCCI and MGMT in brain glioma had no correlation (r=0.9%, P=0.353), relevancy of both was r=0.9%. Conclusions: Positive rate of the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 in brain glioma was obviously higher than that in normal brain tissues, but the distribution of different grades of brain glioma had no obvious difference, and MGMT and XRCC1 expression had no obvious correlation, which needed further research.

  4. Neural stem cells encapsulated in a functionalized self-assembling peptide hydrogel for brain tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Ming-Hong; Chang, Wen-Han; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Wang, Tzu-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Brain injury is almost irreparable due to the poor regenerative capability of neural tissue. Nowadays, new therapeutic strategies have been focused on stem cell therapy and supplying an appropriate three dimensional (3D) matrix for the repair of injured brain tissue. In this study, we specifically linked laminin-derived IKVAV motif on the C-terminal to enrich self-assembling peptide RADA(16) as a functional peptide-based scaffold. Our purpose is providing a functional self-assembling peptide 3D hydrogel with encapsulated neural stem cells to enhance the reconstruction of the injured brain. The physiochemical properties reported that RADA(16)-IKVAV can self-assemble into nanofibrous morphology with bilayer β-sheet structure and become gelationed hydrogel with mechanical stiffness similar to brain tissue. The in vitro results showed that the extended IKVAV sequence can serve as a signal or guiding cue to direct the encapsulated neural stem cells (NSCs) adhesion and then towards neuronal differentiation. Animal study was conducted in a rat brain surgery model to demonstrate the damage in cerebral neocortex/neopallium loss. The results showed that the injected peptide solution immediately in situ formed the 3D hydrogel filling up the cavity and bridging the gaps. The histological analyses revealed the RADA(16)-IKVAV self-assembling peptide hydrogel not only enhanced survival of encapsulated NSCs but also reduced the formation of glial astrocytes. The peptide hydrogel with IKVAV extended motifs also showed the support of encapsulated NSCs in neuronal differentiation and the improvement in brain tissue regeneration after 6 weeks post-transplantation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Severe blood-brain barrier disruption and surrounding tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Friedman, Beth; Cheng, Qun; Tsai, Phil; Schim, Erica; Kleinfeld, David; Lyden, Patrick D

    2009-12-01

    Blood-brain barrier opening during ischemia follows a biphasic time course, may be partially reversible, and allows plasma constituents to enter brain and possibly damage cells. In contrast, severe vascular disruption after ischemia is unlikely to be reversible and allows even further extravasation of potentially harmful plasma constituents. We sought to use simple fluorescent tracers to allow wide-scale visualization of severely damaged vessels and determine whether such vascular disruption colocalized with regions of severe parenchymal injury. Severe vascular disruption and ischemic injury was produced in adult Sprague Dawley rats by transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1, 2, 4, or 8 hours, followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (2 MDa) was injected intravenously before occlusion. After perfusion-fixation, brain sections were processed for ultrastructure or fluorescence imaging. We identified early evidence of tissue damage with Fluoro-Jade staining of dying cells. With increasing ischemia duration, greater quantities of high molecular weight dextran-fluorescein isothiocyanate invaded and marked ischemic regions in a characteristic pattern, appearing first in the medial striatum, spreading to the lateral striatum, and finally involving cortex; maximal injury was seen in the mid-parietal areas, consistent with the known ischemic zone in this model. The regional distribution of the severe vascular disruption correlated with the distribution of 24-hour 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride pallor (r=0.75; P<0.05) and the cell death marker Fluoro-Jade (r=0.86; P<0.05). Ultrastructural examination showed significantly increased areas of swollen astrocytic foot process and swollen mitochondria in regions of high compared to low leakage, and compared to contralateral homologous regions (ANOVA P<0.01). Dextran extravasation into the basement membrane and surrounding tissue increased significantly from 2 to 8 hours of

  6. Suitable reference tissues for quantitative susceptibility mapping of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Sina; Schneider, Till M; Emmerich, Julian; Freitag, Martin T; Ziener, Christian H; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Ladd, Mark E; Laun, Frederik B

    2017-07-01

    Since quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) quantifies magnetic susceptibility relative to a reference value, a suitable reference tissue has to be available to compare different subjects and stages of disease. To find such a suitable reference tissue for QSM of the brain, melanoma patients with and without brain metastases were measured. Twelve reference regions were chosen and assessed for stability of susceptibility values with respect to multiple intra-individual and inter-individual measurements, age, and stage of disease. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the internal capsule and one region in the splenium of the corpus callosum are the regions with the smallest standard deviations of the mean susceptibility value. The mean susceptibility is 0.010 ± 0.014 ppm for CSF in the atrium of the lateral ventricles (csf post ), -0.060 ± 0.019 ppm for the posterior limb of the internal capsule (ci2), and -0.008 ± 0.019 ppm for the splenium of the corpus callosum. csf post and ci2 show nearly no dependence on age or stage of disease, whereas some other regions, e.g., the red nucleus, show moderate dependence on age or disease. The internal capsule and CSF appear to be the most suitable reference regions for QSM of the brain in the melanoma patients studied. Both showed virtually no dependence on age or disease and small variations among patients. Magn Reson Med 78:204-214, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Effect of pheniramine maleate on reperfusion injury in brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yürekli, Ismail; Gökalp, Orhan; Kiray, Müge; Gökalp, Gamze; Ergüneş, Kazım; Salman, Ebru; Yürekli, Banu Sarer; Satoğlu, Ismail Safa; Beşir, Yüksel; Cakır, Habib; Gürbüz, Ali

    2013-12-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of methylprednisolone (Pn), which is a potent anti-inflammatory agent, and pheniramine maleate (Ph), which is an antihistaminic with some anti-inflammatory effects, on reperfusion injury in brain developing after ischemia of the left lower extremity of rats. Twenty-eight randomly selected male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 was the control group, Group 2 was the sham group (I/R), Rats in Group 3 were subjected to I/R and given Ph, and rats in Group 4 were subjected to I/R and given Pn. A tourniquet was applied at the level of left groin region of subjects in the I/R group after induction of anesthesia. One h of ischemia was performed with no drug administration. In the Ph group, half of a total dose of 10 mg/kg Ph was administered intraperitoneally before ischemia and the remaining half before reperfusion. In the Pn group, subjects received a single dose of 50 mg/kg Pn intraperitoneally at the 30th min of ischemia. Brains of all subjects were removed after 24 h for examination. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of the prefrontal cortex were significantly lower in the Ph group than in the I/R group (p<0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities were found to be significantly higher in the Ph group than in the I/R group (p<0.05). Histological examination demonstrated that Ph had protective effects against I/R injury developing in the brain tissue. Ph has a protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury created experimentally in rat brains.

  8. Decomposing the Hounsfield unit: probabilistic segmentation of brain tissue in computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmling, A; Wersching, H; Berger, K; Knecht, S; Groden, C; Nölte, I

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to present and evaluate a standardized technique for brain segmentation of cranial computed tomography (CT) using probabilistic partial volume tissue maps based on a database of high resolution T1 magnetic resonance images (MRI). Probabilistic tissue maps of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were derived from 600 normal brain MRIs (3.0 Tesla, T1-3D-turbo-field-echo) of 2 large community-based population studies (BiDirect and SEARCH Health studies). After partial tissue segmentation (FAST 4.0), MR images were linearly registered to MNI-152 standard space (FLIRT 5.5) with non-linear refinement (FNIRT 1.0) to obtain non-binary probabilistic volume images for each tissue class which were subsequently used for CT segmentation. From 150 normal cerebral CT scans a customized reference image in standard space was constructed with iterative non-linear registration to MNI-152 space. The inverse warp of tissue-specific probability maps to CT space (MNI-152 to individual CT) was used to decompose a CT image into tissue specific components (GM, WM, CSF). Potential benefits and utility of this novel approach with regard to unsupervised quantification of CT images and possible visual enhancement are addressed. Illustrative examples of tissue segmentation in different pathological cases including perfusion CT are presented. Automated tissue segmentation of cranial CT images using highly refined tissue probability maps derived from high resolution MR images is feasible. Potential applications include automated quantification of WM in leukoaraiosis, CSF in hydrocephalic patients, GM in neurodegeneration and ischemia and perfusion maps with separate assessment of GM and WM.

  9. Identification of Multipotent Stem Cells in Human Brain Tissue Following Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebayashi, Kotaro; Tanaka, Yasue; Nakano-Doi, Akiko; Sakuma, Rika; Kamachi, Saeko; Shirakawa, Manabu; Uchida, Kazutaka; Kageyama, Hiroto; Takagi, Toshinori; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Matsuyama, Tomohiro; Nakagomi, Takayuki

    2017-06-01

    Perivascular regions of the brain harbor multipotent stem cells. We previously demonstrated that brain pericytes near blood vessels also develop multipotency following experimental ischemia in mice and these ischemia-induced multipotent stem cells (iSCs) can contribute to neurogenesis. However, it is essential to understand the traits of iSCs in the poststroke human brain for possible applications in stem cell-based therapies for stroke patients. In this study, we report for the first time that iSCs can be isolated from the poststroke human brain. Putative iSCs were derived from poststroke brain tissue obtained from elderly stroke patients requiring decompressive craniectomy and partial lobectomy for diffuse cerebral infarction. Immunohistochemistry showed that these iSCs were localized near blood vessels within poststroke areas containing apoptotic/necrotic neurons and expressed both the stem cell marker nestin and several pericytic markers. Isolated iSCs expressed these same markers and demonstrated high proliferative potential without loss of stemness. Furthermore, isolated iSCs expressed other stem cell markers, such as Sox2, c-myc, and Klf4, and differentiated into multiple cells in vitro, including neurons. These results show that iSCs, which are likely brain pericyte derivatives, are present within the poststroke human brain. This study suggests that iSCs can contribute to neural repair in patients with stroke.

  10. Colorization and automated segmentation of human T2 MR brain images for characterization of soft tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Attique

    Full Text Available Characterization of tissues like brain by using magnetic resonance (MR images and colorization of the gray scale image has been reported in the literature, along with the advantages and drawbacks. Here, we present two independent methods; (i a novel colorization method to underscore the variability in brain MR images, indicative of the underlying physical density of bio tissue, (ii a segmentation method (both hard and soft segmentation to characterize gray brain MR images. The segmented images are then transformed into color using the above-mentioned colorization method, yielding promising results for manual tracing. Our color transformation incorporates the voxel classification by matching the luminance of voxels of the source MR image and provided color image by measuring the distance between them. The segmentation method is based on single-phase clustering for 2D and 3D image segmentation with a new auto centroid selection method, which divides the image into three distinct regions (gray matter (GM, white matter (WM, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF using prior anatomical knowledge. Results have been successfully validated on human T2-weighted (T2 brain MR images. The proposed method can be potentially applied to gray-scale images from other imaging modalities, in bringing out additional diagnostic tissue information contained in the colorized image processing approach as described.

  11. Quantification of brain tissue through incorporation of partial volume effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Howard D.; Santago, Peter, II; Snyder, Wesley E.

    1992-06-01

    This research addresses the problem of automatically quantifying the various types of brain tissue, CSF, white matter, and gray matter, using T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. The method employs a statistical model of the noise and partial volume effect and fits the derived probability density function to that of the data. Following this fit, the optimal decision points can be found for the materials and thus they can be quantified. Emphasis is placed on repeatable results for which a confidence in the solution might be measured. Results are presented assuming a single Gaussian noise source and a uniform distribution of partial volume pixels for both simulated and actual data. Thus far results have been mixed, with no clear advantage being shown in taking into account partial volume effects. Due to the fitting problem being ill-conditioned, it is not yet clear whether these results are due to problems with the model or the method of solution.

  12. Brain insulin controls adipose tissue lipolysis and lipogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Thomas; O’Hare, James; Diggs-Andrews, Kelly; Schweiger, Martina; Cheng, Bob; Lindtner, Claudia; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Vempati, Prashant; Su, Kai; Dighe, Shveta; Milsom, Thomas; Puchowicz, Michelle; Scheja, Ludger; Zechner, Rudolf; Fisher, Simon J.; Previs, Stephen F.; Buettner, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY White adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (DM2). Unrestrained WAT lipolysis results in increased fatty acid release leading to insulin resistance and lipotoxicity, while impaired de novo lipogenesis in WAT decreases the synthesis of insulin sensitizing fatty acid species like palmitoleate. Here we show that insulin infused into the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of Sprague Dawley rats increases WAT lipogenic protein expression, and inactivates hormone sensitive lipase (Hsl) and suppresses lipolysis. Conversely, mice that lack the neuronal insulin receptor exhibit unrestrained lipolysis and decreased de novo lipogenesis in WAT. Thus, brain and in particular hypothalamic insulin action play a pivotal role in WAT functionality. PMID:21284985

  13. Brain Tissue Oxygen: In Vivo Monitoring with Carbon Paste Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Lowry

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this communication we review selected experiments involving the use ofcarbon paste electrodes (CPEs to monitor and measure brain tissue O2 levels in awakefreely-moving animals. Simultaneous measurements of rCBF were performed using the H2clearance technique. Voltammetric techniques used include both differential pulse (O2 andconstant potential amperometry (rCBF. Mild hypoxia and hyperoxia produced rapidchanges (decrease and increase respectively in the in vivo O2 signal. Neuronal activation(tail pinch and stimulated grooming produced similar increases in both O2 and rCBFindicating that CPE O2 currents provide an index of increases in rCBF when such increasesexceed O2 utilization. Saline injection produced a transient increase in the O2 signal whilechloral hydrate produced slower more long-lasting changes that accompanied the behavioralchanges associated with anaesthesia. Acetazolamide increased O2 levels through an increasein rCBF.

  14. Measuring the linear and nonlinear elastic properties of brain tissue with shear waves and inverse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Li, Guoyang; Qian, Lin-Xue; Liang, Si; Destrade, Michel; Cao, Yanping

    2015-10-01

    We use supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI) technique to measure not only the linear but also the nonlinear elastic properties of brain matter. Here, we tested six porcine brains ex vivo and measured the velocities of the plane shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force at different states of pre-deformation when the ultrasonic probe is pushed into the soft tissue. We relied on an inverse method based on the theory governing the propagation of small-amplitude acoustic waves in deformed solids to interpret the experimental data. We found that, depending on the subjects, the resulting initial shear modulus [Formula: see text] varies from 1.8 to 3.2 kPa, the stiffening parameter [Formula: see text] of the hyperelastic Demiray-Fung model from 0.13 to 0.73, and the third- [Formula: see text] and fourth-order [Formula: see text] constants of weakly nonlinear elasticity from [Formula: see text]1.3 to [Formula: see text]20.6 kPa and from 3.1 to 8.7 kPa, respectively. Paired [Formula: see text] test performed on the experimental results of the left and right lobes of the brain shows no significant difference. These values are in line with those reported in the literature on brain tissue, indicating that the SSI method, combined to the inverse analysis, is an efficient and powerful tool for the mechanical characterization of brain tissue, which is of great importance for computer simulation of traumatic brain injury and virtual neurosurgery.

  15. Real-time changes in brain tissue oxygen during endovascular treatment of cerebral vasospasm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune; Bache, Søren; Stavngaard, Trine

    2015-01-01

    pressure (PtiO₂) in target parenchyma. However, during the intervention, dangerously low levels of brain tissue oxygen, leading to cerebral infarction, may occur. Thus, no clinical improvement was seen in two of the patients and a dramatic worsening was observed in the third patient. Because the decrease...... minute-by-minute changes in brain tissue oxygen during balloon angioplasty and intraarterial administration of vasodilators in three patients.Our results confirm that endovascular intervention is capable of not only resolving angiographic vasospasm, but also of normalizing values of brain tissue oxygen...... in brain tissue oxygen was seen after administration of vasopressor agents, this may be a contributing factor....

  16. Navigation with a passive brain based interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Werkhoven, P.J.; Thurlings, M.E.; Brouwer, A.-M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) for navigation. The system is based on detecting brain signals that are elicited by tactile stimulation on the torso indicating the desired direction.

  17. Extracting morphologies from third harmonic generation images of structurally normal human brain tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhiqing; Kuzmin, Nikolay V.; Groot, Marie Louise; de Munck, Jan C.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: The morphologies contained in 3D third harmonic generation (THG) images of human brain tissue can report on the pathological state of the tissue. However, the complexity of THG brain images makes the usage of modern image processing tools, especially those of image filtering,

  18. Characterisation of new monoclonal antibodies reacting with prions from both human and animal brain tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Bergström, Ann-Louise; Ohm, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    spongiform encephalopathy (bovine brain), scrapie (ovine brain) and experimental scrapie in hamster and in mice. The antibodies were also used for PET-blotting in which PrPSc blotted from brain tissue sections onto a nitrocellulose membrane is visualized with antibodies after protease and denaturant...

  19. Application of Quantitative MRI for Brain Tissue Segmentation at 1.5 T and 3.0 T Field Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Janne; Blystad, Ida; Engström, Maria; Warntjes, Jan B. M.; Lundberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain tissue segmentation of white matter (WM), grey matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are important in neuroradiological applications. Quantitative Mri (qMRI) allows segmentation based on physical tissue properties, and the dependencies on MR scanner settings are removed. Brain tissue groups into clusters in the three dimensional space formed by the qMRI parameters R1, R2 and PD, and partial volume voxels are intermediate in this space. The qMRI parameters, however, depend on the main magnetic field strength. Therefore, longitudinal studies can be seriously limited by system upgrades. The aim of this work was to apply one recently described brain tissue segmentation method, based on qMRI, at both 1.5 T and 3.0 T field strengths, and to investigate similarities and differences. Methods In vivo qMRI measurements were performed on 10 healthy subjects using both 1.5 T and 3.0 T MR scanners. The brain tissue segmentation method was applied for both 1.5 T and 3.0 T and volumes of WM, GM, CSF and brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) were calculated on both field strengths. Repeatability was calculated for each scanner and a General Linear Model was used to examine the effect of field strength. Voxel-wise t-tests were also performed to evaluate regional differences. Results Statistically significant differences were found between 1.5 T and 3.0 T for WM, GM, CSF and BPF (p3.0 T. The mean differences between 1.5 T and 3.0 T were -66 mL WM, 40 mL GM, 29 mL CSF and -1.99% BPF. Voxel-wise t-tests revealed regional differences of WM and GM in deep brain structures, cerebellum and brain stem. Conclusions Most of the brain was identically classified at the two field strengths, although some regional differences were observed. PMID:24066153

  20. Hemodynamic measurements in deep brain tissues of humans by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Oda, Motoki; Yamaki, Etsuko; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Yamashita, Daisuke; Yoshimoto, Kenji; Homma, Shu; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    Using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS), we measured the human head in transmittance mode to obtain the optical properties, tissue oxygenation, and hemodynamics of deep brain tissues in 50 healthy adult volunteers. The right ear canal was irradiated with 3-wavelengths of pulsed light (760, 795, and 835nm), and the photons passing through the human head were collected at the left ear canal. Optical signals with sufficient intensity could be obtained from 46 of the 50 volunteers. By analyzing the temporal profiles based on the photon diffusion theory, we successfully obtained absorption coefficients for each wavelength. The levels of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2), deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb), total hemoglobin (tHb), and tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) were then determined by referring to the hemoglobin spectroscopic data. Compared with the SO2 values for the forehead measurements in reflectance mode, the SO2 values of the transmittance measurements of the human head were approximately 10% lower, and tHb values of the transmittance measurements were always lower than those of the forehead reflectance measurements. Moreover, the level of hemoglobin and the SO2 were strongly correlated between the human head measurements in transmittance mode and the forehead measurements in the reflectance mode, respectively. These results demonstrated a potential application of this TRS system in examining deep brain tissues of humans.

  1. Microfluidic systems for stem cell-based neural tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahdi; Bahrami, Sajad; Mirshekari, Hamed; Basri, Seyed Masoud Moosavi; Nik, Amirala Bakhshian; Aref, Amir R; Akbari, Mohsen; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-07-05

    Neural tissue engineering aims at developing novel approaches for the treatment of diseases of the nervous system, by providing a permissive environment for the growth and differentiation of neural cells. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems provide a closer biomimetic environment, and promote better cell differentiation and improved cell function, than could be achieved by conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture systems. With the recent advances in the discovery and introduction of different types of stem cells for tissue engineering, microfluidic platforms have provided an improved microenvironment for the 3D-culture of stem cells. Microfluidic systems can provide more precise control over the spatiotemporal distribution of chemical and physical cues at the cellular level compared to traditional systems. Various microsystems have been designed and fabricated for the purpose of neural tissue engineering. Enhanced neural migration and differentiation, and monitoring of these processes, as well as understanding the behavior of stem cells and their microenvironment have been obtained through application of different microfluidic-based stem cell culture and tissue engineering techniques. As the technology advances it may be possible to construct a "brain-on-a-chip". In this review, we describe the basics of stem cells and tissue engineering as well as microfluidics-based tissue engineering approaches. We review recent testing of various microfluidic approaches for stem cell-based neural tissue engineering.

  2. Hyperspectral imaging solutions for brain tissue metabolic and hemodynamic monitoring: past, current and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Luca; Lange, Frédéric; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2018-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technologies have been used extensively in medical research, targeting various biological phenomena and multiple tissue types. Their high spectral resolution over a wide range of wavelengths enables acquisition of spatial information corresponding to different light-interacting biological compounds. This review focuses on the application of HSI to monitor brain tissue metabolism and hemodynamics in life sciences. Different approaches involving HSI have been investigated to assess and quantify cerebral activity, mainly focusing on: (1) mapping tissue oxygen delivery through measurement of changes in oxygenated (HbO2) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin; and (2) the assessment of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) to estimate oxygen consumption by brain tissue. Finally, we introduce future perspectives of HSI of brain metabolism, including its potential use for imaging optical signals from molecules directly involved in cellular energy production. HSI solutions can provide remarkable insight in understanding cerebral tissue metabolism and oxygenation, aiding investigation on brain tissue physiological processes.

  3. Brain-Based Learning. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What does brain-based research say about how adolescents learn? The 1990s was declared as the Decade of the Brain by President Bush and Congress. With the advancement of MRIs (Magnetic Resonance Imagining) and PET (positron emission tomography) scans, it has become much easier to study live healthy brains. As a result, the concept of…

  4. The Credentials of Brain-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the current fashion for brain-based learning, in which value-laden claims about learning are grounded in neurophysiology. It argues that brain science cannot have the authority about learning that some seek to give it. It goes on to discuss whether the claim that brain science is relevant to learning involves a category…

  5. Sex-specific differences in transcriptome profiles of brain and muscle tissue of the tropical gar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbin, Kayla M; Quackenbush, Corey R; Taylor, Kyle; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Kelley, Joanna L

    2017-04-07

    The tropical gar (Atractosteus tropicus) is the southernmost species of the seven extant species of gar fishes in the world. In Mexico and Central America, the species is an important food source due to its nutritional quality and low price. Despite its regional importance and increasing concerns about overexploitation and habitat degradation, basic genetic information on the tropical gar is lacking. Determining genetic information on the tropical gar is important for the sustainable management of wild populations, implementation of best practices in aquaculture settings, evolutionary studies of ancient lineages, and an understanding of sex-specific gene expression. In this study, the transcriptome of the tropical gar was sequenced and assembled de novo using tissues from three males and three females using Illumina sequencing technology. Sex-specific and highly differentially expressed transcripts in brain and muscle tissues between adult males and females were subsequently identified. The transcriptome was assembled de novo resulting in 80,611 transcripts with a contig N50 of 3,355 base pairs and over 168 kilobases in total length. Male muscle, brain, and gonad as well as female muscle and brain were included in the assembly. The assembled transcriptome was annotated to identify the putative function of expressed transcripts using Trinotate and SwissProt, a database of well-annotated proteins. The brain and muscle datasets were then aligned to the assembled transcriptome to identify transcripts that were differentially expressed between males and females. The contrast between male and female brain identified 109 transcripts from 106 genes that were significantly differentially expressed. In the muscle comparison, 82 transcripts from 80 genes were identified with evidence for significant differential expression. Almost all genes identified as differentially expressed were sex-specific. The differentially expressed transcripts were enriched for genes involved in

  6. Advanced biomaterial strategies to transplant preformed micro-tissue engineered neural networks into the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. P.; Struzyna, L. A.; Murphy, P. L.; Adewole, D. O.; Kuo, E.; Cullen, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Connectome disruption is a hallmark of many neurological diseases and trauma with no current strategies to restore lost long-distance axonal pathways in the brain. We are creating transplantable micro-tissue engineered neural networks (micro-TENNs), which are preformed constructs consisting of embedded neurons and long axonal tracts to integrate with the nervous system to physically reconstitute lost axonal pathways. Approach. We advanced micro-tissue engineering techniques to generate micro-TENNs consisting of discrete populations of mature primary cerebral cortical neurons spanned by long axonal fascicles encased in miniature hydrogel micro-columns. Further, we improved the biomaterial encasement scheme by adding a thin layer of low viscosity carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to enable needle-less insertion and rapid softening for mechanical similarity with brain tissue. Main results. The engineered architecture of cortical micro-TENNs facilitated robust neuronal viability and axonal cytoarchitecture to at least 22 days in vitro. Micro-TENNs displayed discrete neuronal populations spanned by long axonal fasciculation throughout the core, thus mimicking the general systems-level anatomy of gray matter—white matter in the brain. Additionally, micro-columns with thin CMC-coating upon mild dehydration were able to withstand a force of 893 ± 457 mN before buckling, whereas a solid agarose cylinder of similar dimensions was predicted to withstand less than 150 μN of force. This thin CMC coating increased the stiffness by three orders of magnitude, enabling needle-less insertion into brain while significantly reducing the footprint of previous needle-based delivery methods to minimize insertion trauma. Significance. Our novel micro-TENNs are the first strategy designed for minimally invasive implantation to facilitate nervous system repair by simultaneously providing neuronal replacement and physical reconstruction of long-distance axon pathways in the brain

  7. Fetal brain extracellular matrix boosts neuronal network formation in 3D bioengineered model of cortical brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Disha; Chwalek, Karolina; Stuntz, Emily; Pouli, Dimitra; Du, Chuang; Tang-Schomer, Min; Georgakoudi, Irene; Black, Lauren D; Kaplan, David L

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) constituting up to 20% of the organ volume is a significant component of the brain due to its instructive role in the compartmentalization of functional microdomains in every brain structure. The composition, quantity and structure of ECM changes dramatically during the development of an organism greatly contributing to the remarkably sophisticated architecture and function of the brain. Since fetal brain is highly plastic, we hypothesize that the fetal brain ECM may contain cues promoting neural growth and differentiation, highly desired in regenerative medicine. Thus, we studied the effect of brain-derived fetal and adult ECM complemented with matricellular proteins on cortical neurons using in vitro 3D bioengineered model of cortical brain tissue. The tested parameters included neuronal network density, cell viability, calcium signaling and electrophysiology. Both, adult and fetal brain ECM as well as matricellular proteins significantly improved neural network formation as compared to single component, collagen I matrix. Additionally, the brain ECM improved cell viability and lowered glutamate release. The fetal brain ECM induced superior neural network formation, calcium signaling and spontaneous spiking activity over adult brain ECM. This study highlights the difference in the neuroinductive properties of fetal and adult brain ECM and suggests that delineating the basis for this divergence may have implications for regenerative medicine.

  8. Mechanical properties of porcine brain tissue in vivo and ex vivo estimated by MR elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertler, Charlotte A; Okamoto, Ruth J; Schmidt, John L; Badachhape, Andrew A; Johnson, Curtis L; Bayly, Philip V

    2018-03-01

    The mechanical properties of brain tissue in vivo determine the response of the brain to rapid skull acceleration. These properties are thus of great interest to the developers of mathematical models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) or neurosurgical simulations. Animal models provide valuable insight that can improve TBI modeling. In this study we compare estimates of mechanical properties of the Yucatan mini-pig brain in vivo and ex vivo using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) at multiple frequencies. MRE allows estimations of properties in soft tissue, either in vivo or ex vivo, by imaging harmonic shear wave propagation. Most direct measurements of brain mechanical properties have been performed using samples of brain tissue ex vivo. It has been observed that direct estimates of brain mechanical properties depend on the frequency and amplitude of loading, as well as the time post-mortem and condition of the sample. Using MRE in the same animals at overlapping frequencies, we observe that porcine brain tissue in vivo appears stiffer than porcine brain tissue samples ex vivo at frequencies of 100 Hz and 125 Hz, but measurements show closer agreement at lower frequencies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain Metastasis in Bone and Soft Tissue Cancers: A Review of Incidence, Interventions, and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Shweikeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone and soft tissue malignancies account for a small portion of brain metastases. In this review, we characterize their incidence, treatments, and prognosis. Most of the data in the literature is based on case reports and small case series. Less than 5% of brain metastases are from bone and soft tissue sarcomas, occurring most commonly in Ewing’s sarcoma, malignant fibrous tumors, and osteosarcoma. Mean interval from initial cancer diagnosis to brain metastasis is in the range of 20–30 months, with most being detected before 24 months (osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, chordoma, angiosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma, some at 24–36 months (malignant fibrous tumors, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and alveolar soft part sarcoma, and a few after 36 months (chondrosarcoma and liposarcoma. Overall mean survival ranges between 7 and 16 months, with the majority surviving < 12 months (Ewing’s sarcoma, liposarcoma, malignant fibrous tumors, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, angiosarcoma and chordomas. Management is heterogeneous involving surgery, radiosurgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. While a survival advantage may exist for those given aggressive treatment involving surgical resection, such patients tended to have a favorable preoperative performance status and minimal systemic disease.

  10. Elemental composition of 'normal' and Alzheimer brain tissue by INA and PIXE analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, J.D.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Instrumental methods based on the nuclear and atomic properties of the elements have been used for many years to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials for biomedical, industrial and environmental applications. These methods offer high sensitivity for accurate trace element measurements, suffer few interfering or competing effects. Present no blank problems and are convenient for both research and routine analyses. The present article describes the use of two trace element techniques. Firstly the use of activation of stable nuclei irradiated by neutrons in the core of a low power research reactor as a means of detection of elements through the resulting gamma-rays emitted. Secondly, the observations of the interactions of energetic ion beams with the material in order to identify elemental species. Over recent years there has been some interest in determining the elemental composition of 'normal' and Alzheimer affected brain tissue, however literature findings are inconsistent. Possible reasons for discrepancies need to be identified for further progress to be made. Here, post-mortem tissue samples, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, London, were taken from the frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobes of both hemispheres of brains from 13 'normal' and 19 Alzheimer subjects. The elemental composition of the samples was determined using the analytical techniques of INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis), RBS (Rutherford back-scattering) and PIXE (particle induced x-ray emission). The principal findings are summarised here. (author)

  11. Ionic charge transport between blockages: Sodium cation conduction in freshly excised bulk brain tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emin, David, E-mail: emin@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Akhtari, Massoud [Semple Institutes for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ellingson, B. M. [Department of Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mathern, G. W. [Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We analyze the transient-dc and frequency-dependent electrical conductivities between blocking electrodes. We extend this analysis to measurements of ions’ transport in freshly excised bulk samples of human brain tissue whose complex cellular structure produces blockages. The associated ionic charge-carrier density and diffusivity are consistent with local values for sodium cations determined non-invasively in brain tissue by MRI (NMR) and diffusion-MRI (spin-echo NMR). The characteristic separation between blockages, about 450 microns, is very much shorter than that found for sodium-doped gel proxies for brain tissue, >1 cm.

  12. MR brain scan tissues and structures segmentation: local cooperative Markovian agents and Bayesian formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherrer, B.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate magnetic resonance brain scan segmentation is critical in a number of clinical and neuroscience applications. This task is challenging due to artifacts, low contrast between tissues and inter-individual variability that inhibit the introduction of a priori knowledge. In this thesis, we propose a new MR brain scan segmentation approach. Unique features of this approach include (1) the coupling of tissue segmentation, structure segmentation and prior knowledge construction, and (2) the consideration of local image properties. Locality is modeled through a multi-agent framework: agents are distributed into the volume and perform a local Markovian segmentation. As an initial approach (LOCUS, Local Cooperative Unified Segmentation), intuitive cooperation and coupling mechanisms are proposed to ensure the consistency of local models. Structures are segmented via the introduction of spatial localization constraints based on fuzzy spatial relations between structures. In a second approach, (LOCUS-B, LOCUS in a Bayesian framework) we consider the introduction of a statistical atlas to describe structures. The problem is reformulated in a Bayesian framework, allowing a statistical formalization of coupling and cooperation. Tissue segmentation, local model regularization, structure segmentation and local affine atlas registration are then coupled in an EM framework and mutually improve. The evaluation on simulated and real images shows good results, and in particular, a robustness to non-uniformity and noise with low computational cost. Local distributed and cooperative MRF models then appear as a powerful and promising approach for medical image segmentation. (author)

  13. Real time analysis of brain tissue by direct combination of ultrasonic surgical aspiration and sonic spray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Karl-Christian; Balog, Júlia; Szaniszló, Tamás; Szalay, Dániel; Mezey, Géza; Dénes, Júlia; Bognár, László; Oertel, Matthias; Takáts, Zoltán

    2011-10-15

    Direct combination of cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) and sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry is presented. A commercially available ultrasonic surgical device was coupled to a Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (V-EASI) source by directly introducing liquified tissue debris into the Venturi air jet pump. The Venturi air jet pump was found to efficiently nebulize the suspended tissue material for gas phase ion production. The ionization mechanism involving solely pneumatic spraying was associated with that of sonic spray ionization. Positive and negative ionization spectra were obtained from brain and liver samples reflecting the primary application areas of the surgical device. Mass spectra were found to feature predominantly complex lipid-type constituents of tissues in both ion polarity modes. Multiply charged peptide anions were also detected. The influence of instrumental settings was characterized in detail. Venturi pump geometry and flow parameters were found to be critically important in ionization efficiency. Standard solutions of phospholipids and peptides were analyzed in order to test the dynamic range, sensitivity, and suppression effects. The spectra of the intact tissue specimens were found to be highly specific to the histological tissue type. The principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based data analysis method was developed for real-time tissue identification in a surgical environment. The method has been successfully tested on post-mortem and ex vivo human samples including astrocytomas, meningeomas, metastatic brain tumors, and healthy brain tissue. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. X-ray micro-tomography for investigations of brain tissues on cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimchenko, Anna; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Thalmann, Peter; Zanette, Irene; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Bikis, Christos; Hipp, Alexander; Hieber, Simone E.; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    X-ray imaging in absorption contrast mode is well established for hard tissue visualization. However, performance for lower density materials is limited due to a reduced contrast. Our aim is three-dimensional (3D) characterization of micro-morphology of human brain tissues down to (sub-)cellular resolution within a laboratory environment. Using the laboratory-based microtomography (μCT) system nanotom m (GE Sensing and Inspection Technologies GmbH, Wunstorf, Germany) and synchrotron radiation at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, Didcot, UK), we have acquired 3D data with a resolution down to 0.45 μm for visualization of a human cerebellum specimen down to cellular level. We have shown that all selected modalities, namely laboratory-based absorption contrast micro-tomography (LBμCT), synchrotron radiation based in-line single distance phase contrast tomography (SDPR) and synchrotron radiation based single-grating interferometry (GI), can reach cellular resolution for tissue samples with a size in the mm-range. The results are discussed qualitatively in comparison to optical microscopy of haematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained sections. As phase contrast yields to a better data quality for soft tissues and in order to overcome restrictions of limited beamline access for phase contrast measurements, we have equipped the μCT system nanotom m with a double-grating phase contrast set-up. Preliminary experimental results of a knee sample consisting of a bony part and a cartilage demonstrate that phase contrast data exhibits better quality compared to absorption contrast. Currently, the set-up is under adjustment. It is expected that cellular resolution would also be achieved. The questions arise (1) what would be the quality gain of laboratory-based phase contrast in comparison to laboratory-based absorption contrast tomography and (2) could laboratory-based phase contrast data provide comparable results to synchrotron radiation based

  15. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  16. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from......Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  17. Use of flow cytometry for high-throughput cell population estimates in fixed brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Young

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The numbers and types of cells in an area of cortex define its function. Therefore it is essential to characterize the numbers and distributions of total cells in areas of the cortex, as well as to identify numbers of subclasses of neurons and glial cells. To date, the large size of the primate brain and the lack of innovation in cell counting methods have been a roadblock to obtaining high-resolution maps of cell and neuron density across the cortex in humans and non-human primates. Stereological counting methods and the isotropic fractionator are valuable tools for estimating cell numbers, but are better suited to smaller, well-defined brain structures or to cortex as a whole. In the present study, we have extended our flow-cytometry based counting method, the flow fractionator (Collins et al., 2010a, to include high-throughput total cell population estimates in homogenized cortical samples. We demonstrate that our method produces consistent, accurate and repeatable cell estimates quickly. The estimates we report are in excellent agreement with estimates for the same samples obtained using a Neubauer chamber and a fluorescence microscope. We show that our flow cytometry-based method for total cell estimation in homogenized brain tissue is more efficient and more precise than manual counting methods. The addition of automated nuclei counting to our flow fractionator method allows for a fully automated, rapid characterization of total cells and neuronal and non-neuronal populations in human and non-human primate brains, providing valuable data to further our understanding of the functional organization of normal, aging and diseased brains.

  18. The Identification of Aluminum in Human Brain Tissue Using Lumogallion and Fluorescence Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Ambreen; King, Andrew; Troakes, Claire; Exley, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum in human brain tissue is implicated in the etiologies of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. While methods for the accurate and precise measurement of aluminum in human brain tissue are widely acknowledged, the same cannot be said for the visualization of aluminum. Herein we have used transversely-heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to measure aluminum in the brain of a donor with Alzheimer’s disease, and we have developed and validated fluorescence microscopy and the fluor lumogallion to show the presence of aluminum in the same tissue. Aluminum is observed as characteristic orange fluorescence that is neither reproduced by other metals nor explained by autofluorescence. This new and relatively simple method to visualize aluminum in human brain tissue should enable more rigorous testing of the aluminum hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease (and other neurological conditions) in the future. PMID:27472886

  19. The adult brain tissue response to hollow fiber membranes of varying surface architecture with or without cotransplanted cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning

    A variety of biomaterials have been chronically implanted into the central nervous system (CNS) for repair or therapeutic purposes. Regardless of the application, chronic implantation of materials into the CNS induces injury and elicits a wound healing response, eventually leading to the formation of a dense extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich scar tissue that is associated with the segregation of implanted materials from the surrounding normal tissue. Often this reaction results in impaired performance of indwelling CNS devices. In order to enhance the performance of biomaterial-based implantable devices in the CNS, this thesis investigated whether adult brain tissue response to implanted biomaterials could be manipulated by changing biomaterial surface properties or further by utilizing the biology of co-transplanted cells. Specifically, the adult rat brain tissue response to chronically implanted poly(acrylonitrile-vinylchloride) (PAN-PVC) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) of varying surface architecture were examined temporally at 2, 4, and 12 weeks postimplantation. Significant differences were discovered in the brain tissue response to the PAN-PVC HFMs of varying surface architecture at 4 and 12 weeks. To extend this work, whether the soluble factors derived from a co-transplanted cellular component further affect the brain tissue response to an implanted HFM in a significant way was critically exploited. The cells used were astrocytes, whose ability to influence scar formation process following CNS injury by physical contact with the host tissue had been documented in the literature. Data indicated for the first time that astrocyte-derived soluble factors ameliorate the adult brain tissue reactivity toward HFM implants in an age-dependent manner. While immature astrocytes secreted soluble factors that suppressed the brain tissue reactivity around the implants, mature astrocytes secreted factors that enhanced the gliotic response. These findings prove the feasibility

  20. Brain-Based Learning and Standards-Based Elementary Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecki, Loretta R.; Schiller, Ellen

    This paper explains how brain-based learning has become an area of interest to elementary school science teachers, focusing on the possible relationships between, and implications of, research on brain-based learning to the teaching of science education standards. After describing research on the brain, the paper looks at three implications from…

  1. Sleep is not just for the brain: transcriptional responses to sleep in peripheral tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Anafi, Ron C; Pellegrino, Renata; Shockley, Keith R; Romer, Micah; Tufik, Sergio; Pack, Allan I

    2013-01-01

    Background Many have assumed that the primary function of sleep is for the brain. We evaluated the molecular consequences of sleep and sleep deprivation outside the brain, in heart and lung. Using microarrays we compared gene expression in tissue from sleeping and sleep deprived mice euthanized at the same diurnal times. Results In each tissue, nearly two thousand genes demonstrated statistically significant differential expression as a function of sleep/wake behavioral state. To mitigate the...

  2. The post-synaptic density of human postmortem brain tissues: an experimental study paradigm for neuropsychiatric illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gyu Hahn

    Full Text Available Recent molecular genetics studies have suggested various trans-synaptic processes for pathophysiologic mechanisms of neuropsychiatric illnesses. Examination of pre- and post-synaptic scaffolds in the brains of patients would greatly aid further investigation, yet such an approach in human postmortem tissue has yet to be tested. We have examined three methods using density gradient based purification of synaptosomes followed by detergent extraction (Method 1 and the pH based differential extraction of synaptic membranes (Methods 2 and 3. All three methods separated fractions from human postmortem brains that were highly enriched in typical PSD proteins, almost to the exclusion of pre-synaptic proteins. We examined these fractions using electron microscopy (EM and verified the integrity of the synaptic membrane and PSD fractions derived from human postmortem brain tissues. We analyzed protein composition of the PSD fractions using two dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS and observed known PSD proteins by mass spectrometry. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblot studies revealed that expected protein-protein interactions and certain posttranscriptional modulations were maintained in PSD fractions. Our results demonstrate that PSD fractions can be isolated from human postmortem brain tissues with a reasonable degree of integrity. This approach may foster novel postmortem brain research paradigms in which the stoichiometry and protein composition of specific microdomains are examined.

  3. Evaluation of tissue-equivalent materials to be used as human brain tissue substitute in dosimetry for diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C.C., E-mail: cassio.c.ferreira@gmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil); Ximenes Filho, R.E.M., E-mail: raimundoximenes@hotmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil); Vieira, J.W., E-mail: jwvieira@br.inter.ne [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Pernambuco (CEFET-PE), Av. Professor Luiz Freire, 500 Curado, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco, Universidade de Pernambuco (EPP/UPE), Rua Benfica, 455, Madalena, CEP 50720-001, Recife (Brazil); Tomal, A., E-mail: alessandratomal@pg.ffclrp.usp.b [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP 14040-90 (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.b [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP 14040-90 (Brazil); Garcia, C.A.B., E-mail: cgarcia@ufs.b [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil); Maia, A.F., E-mail: afmaia@ufs.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    Tissue-equivalent materials to be used as substitutes for human brain tissue in dosimetry for diagnostic radiology have been investigated in terms of calculated total mass attenuation coefficient ({mu}/{rho}), calculated mass energy-absorption coefficient ({mu}{sub en}/{rho}) and absorbed dose. Measured linear attenuation coefficients ({mu}) have been used for benchmarking the calculated total mass attenuation coefficient ({mu}/{rho}). The materials examined were bolus, nylon (registered) , orange articulation wax, red articulation wax, PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), bees wax, paraffin I, paraffin II, pitch and water. The results show that water is the best substitute for brain among the materials investigated. The average percentage differences between the calculated {mu}/{rho} and {mu}{sub en}/{rho} coefficients for water and those for brain were 1.0% and 2.5%, respectively. Absorbed doses determined by Monte Carlo methods confirm water as being the best brain substitute to be used in dosimetry for diagnostic radiology, showing maximum difference of 0.01%. Additionally this study showed that PMMA, a material often used for the manufacturing of head phantoms for computed tomography, cannot be considered to be a suitable substitute for human brain tissue in dosimetry.

  4. Closed Loop Brain Model of Neocortical Information Based Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eKozloski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe an information based exchange' model of brain function that ascribes to neocortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus distinct network functions. The model allows us to analyze whole brain system set point measures, such as the rate and heterogeneity of transitions in striatum and neocortex, in the context of neuromodulation and other perturbations. Our closed-loop model is grounded in neuroanatomical observations, proposing a novel Grand Loop through neocortex, and invokes different forms of plasticity at specific tissue interfaces and their principle cell synapses to achieve these transitions. By implementing a system for maximum information based exchange of action potentials between modeled neocortical areas, we observe changes to these measures in simulation. We hypothesize that similar dynamic set points and modulations exist in the brain's resting state activity, and that different modifications to information based exchange may shift the risk profile of different component tissues, resulting in different neurodegenerative diseases. This model is targeted for further development using IBM's Neural Tissue Simulator, which allows scalable elaboration of networks, tissues, and their neural and synaptic components towards ever greater complexity and biological realism.

  5. Immunocytochemistry of formalin-fixed human brain tissues: microwave irradiation of free-floating sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiurba, R A; Spooner, E T; Ishiguro, K; Takahashi, M; Yoshida, R; Wheelock, T R; Imahori, K; Cataldo, A M; Nixon, R A

    1998-01-01

    antigens. Theory and practice of microwave antigen retrieval are covered extensively in the handbook Microwave Cookbook for Microscopists. A concise overview of microwave methods in the neurosciences has been published, and clinical applications have been reviewed. In this context, it should be noted that fresh tissues may be stabilized for immunocytochemistry by reversible, non-chemical binding processes such as cryosectioning after microwave treatment and freeze-drying. Thus, it may be possible to enhance immunostaining for some antigens by microwave irradiation of unfixed as well as fixed specimens. Parameters to be optimized for microwave retrieval of specific antigens include temperature, irradiation time, tissue buffer composition, salt concentration, and pH. Temperature, irradiation time, and pH are key variables. With this in mind, an optimal method was developed for retrieval of a wide variety of antigens in human brain tissues. Typical microwave protocols employ elevated temperatures that may reach 100 degrees C, where denaturation causes irreversible uncoiling and disruption of protein secondary and tertiary structures. Under these conditions, stable covalent bonds securing methylene crosslinks between polypeptides remain intact, but more reactive links formed by Schiff bases may be hydrolyzed. Resultant conformational changes presumably expose buried loops of continuous amino acids and protruding regions, increasing accessibility of their epitopes. Protein denaturation seems to be a reasonable explanation for the effects of microwaves on antigen retrieval. This idea is supported by the observation that denaturing solutions such as 6 M urea increase immunoreactivity of some antigens. Still, the molecular basis of these effects remains unresolved, in part due to the complex chemistry of formaldehyde reactions with tissue constituents. Indeed, some methylene bridges between similar groups such as NH2 and NH may be hydrolyzed by washing fixed tissues in distilled

  6. Comparison of the dynamic behaviour of brain tissue and two model materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, D.W.A.; Bovendeerd, P.H.M.; Peters, G.W.M.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Paas, M.H.J.W.; Bree, van J.L.M.J.; Brands, D.W.A.

    1999-01-01

    Linear viscoelastic material parameters of porcine brain tissue and two brain substitute/ materials for use in mechanical head models (edible bone gelatin and dielectric silicone gel) were determined in small deformation, oscillatory shear experiments. Frequencies to 1000 Hertz could be obtained

  7. Purification of cells from fresh human brain tissue: primary human glial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mizee, Mark R; van der Poel, Marlijn; Huitinga, I.; Huitinga, I.; Webster, M.J.

    2018-01-01

    In order to translate the findings obtained from postmortem brain tissue samples to functional biologic mechanisms of central nervous system disease, it will be necessary to understand how these findings affect the different cell populations in the brain. The acute isolation and analysis of pure

  8. Imaging cellular and subcellular structure of human brain tissue using micro computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimchenko, Anna; Bikis, Christos; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Joita-Pacureanu, Alexandra-Teodora; Thalmann, Peter; Deyhle, Hans; Osmani, Bekim; Chicherova, Natalia; Hieber, Simone E.; Cloetens, Peter; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Schulz, Georg; Müller, Bert

    2017-09-01

    Brain tissues have been an attractive subject for investigations in neuropathology, neuroscience, and neurobiol- ogy. Nevertheless, existing imaging methodologies have intrinsic limitations in three-dimensional (3D) label-free visualisation of extended tissue samples down to (sub)cellular level. For a long time, these morphological features were visualised by electron or light microscopies. In addition to being time-consuming, microscopic investigation includes specimen fixation, embedding, sectioning, staining, and imaging with the associated artefacts. More- over, optical microscopy remains hampered by a fundamental limit in the spatial resolution that is imposed by the diffraction of visible light wavefront. In contrast, various tomography approaches do not require a complex specimen preparation and can now reach a true (sub)cellular resolution. Even laboratory-based micro computed tomography in the absorption-contrast mode of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human cerebellum yields an image contrast comparable to conventional histological sections. Data of a superior image quality was obtained by means of synchrotron radiation-based single-distance X-ray phase-contrast tomography enabling the visualisation of non-stained Purkinje cells down to the subcellular level and automated cell counting. The question arises, whether the data quality of the hard X-ray tomography can be superior to optical microscopy. Herein, we discuss the label-free investigation of the human brain ultramorphology be means of synchrotron radiation-based hard X-ray magnified phase-contrast in-line tomography at the nano-imaging beamline ID16A (ESRF, Grenoble, France). As an example, we present images of FFPE human cerebellum block. Hard X-ray tomography can provide detailed information on human tissues in health and disease with a spatial resolution below the optical limit, improving understanding of the neuro-degenerative diseases.

  9. Prognostic value of changes in brain tissue oxygen pressure before and after decompressive craniectomy following severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubillo, Santiago T; Parrilla, Dácil M; Blanco, José; Morera, Jesús; Dominguez, Jaime; Belmonte, Felipe; López, Patricia; Molina, Ismael; Ruiz, Candelaria; Clemente, Francisco J; Godoy, Daniel A

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE In severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), the effects of decompressive craniectomy (DC) on brain tissue oxygen pressure (PbtO 2 ) and outcome are unclear. The authors aimed to investigate whether changes in PbtO 2 after DC could be used as an independent prognostic factor. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective, observational study at 2 university hospital ICUs. The study included 42 patients who were admitted with isolated moderate or severe TBI and underwent intracranial pressure (ICP) and PbtO 2 monitoring before and after DC. The indication for DC was an ICP higher than 25 mm Hg refractory to first-tier medical treatment. Patients who underwent primary DC for mass lesion evacuation were excluded. However, patients were included who had undergone previous surgery as long as it was not a craniectomy. ICP/PbtO 2 monitoring probes were located in an apparently normal area of the most damaged hemisphere based on cranial CT scanning findings. PbtO 2 values were routinely recorded hourly before and after DC, but for comparisons the authors used the first PbtO 2 value on ICU admission and the number of hours with PbtO 2 areas under the curve for the mean PbtO 2 values at 12 and 24 hours after DC were 0.878 (95% CI 0.75-1, p areas of the most damaged hemisphere, have independent prognostic value for the 6-month outcome in TBI patients.

  10. Polyploidization of glia in neural development links tissue growth to blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unhavaithaya, Yingdee; Orr-Weaver, Terry L

    2012-01-01

    Proper development requires coordination in growth of the cell types composing an organ. Many plant and animal cells are polyploid, but how these polyploid tissues contribute to organ growth is not well understood. We found the Drosophila melanogaster subperineurial glia (SPG) to be polyploid, and ploidy is coordinated with brain mass. Inhibition of SPG polyploidy caused rupture of the septate junctions necessary for the blood-brain barrier. Thus, the increased SPG cell size resulting from polyploidization is required to maintain the SPG envelope surrounding the growing brain. Polyploidization likely is a conserved strategy to coordinate tissue growth during organogenesis, with potential vertebrate examples.

  11. In vivo multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantelhardt, Sven R; Kalasauskas, Darius; König, Karsten; Kim, Ella; Weinigel, Martin; Uchugonova, Aisada; Giese, Alf

    2016-05-01

    High resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging differentiates glioma from adjacent brain in native tissue samples ex vivo. Presently, multiphoton tomography is applied in clinical dermatology and experimentally. We here present the first application of multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging for in vivo imaging on humans during a neurosurgical procedure. We used a MPTflex™ Multiphoton Laser Tomograph (JenLab, Germany). We examined cultured glioma cells in an orthotopic mouse tumor model and native human tissue samples. Finally the multiphoton tomograph was applied to provide optical biopsies during resection of a clinical case of glioblastoma. All tissues imaged by multiphoton tomography were sampled and processed for conventional histopathology. The multiphoton tomograph allowed fluorescence intensity- and fluorescence lifetime imaging with submicron spatial resolution and 200 picosecond temporal resolution. Morphological fluorescence intensity imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging of tumor-bearing mouse brains and native human tissue samples clearly differentiated tumor and adjacent brain tissue. Intraoperative imaging was found to be technically feasible. Intraoperative image quality was comparable to ex vivo examinations. To our knowledge we here present the first intraoperative application of high resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumors in situ. It allowed in vivo identification and determination of cell density of tumor tissue on a cellular and subcellular level within seconds. The technology shows the potential of rapid intraoperative identification of native glioma tissue without need for tissue processing or staining.

  12. Study on Material Parameters Identification of Brain Tissue Considering Uncertainty of Friction Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fengjiao; Zhang, Guanjun; Liu, Jie; Wang, Shujing; Luo, Xu; Zhu, Feng

    2017-10-01

    Accurate material parameters are critical to construct the high biofidelity finite element (FE) models. However, it is hard to obtain the brain tissue parameters accurately because of the effects of irregular geometry and uncertain boundary conditions. Considering the complexity of material test and the uncertainty of friction coefficient, a computational inverse method for viscoelastic material parameters identification of brain tissue is presented based on the interval analysis method. Firstly, the intervals are used to quantify the friction coefficient in the boundary condition. And then the inverse problem of material parameters identification under uncertain friction coefficient is transformed into two types of deterministic inverse problem. Finally the intelligent optimization algorithm is used to solve the two types of deterministic inverse problems quickly and accurately, and the range of material parameters can be easily acquired with no need of a variety of samples. The efficiency and convergence of this method are demonstrated by the material parameters identification of thalamus. The proposed method provides a potential effective tool for building high biofidelity human finite element model in the study of traffic accident injury.

  13. HIV-1 phylogenetic analysis shows HIV-1 transits through the meninges to brain and peripheral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Susanna L; Gray, Rebecca R; Salemi, Marco; Huysentruyt, Leanne C; McGrath, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Brain infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been investigated in many reports with a variety of conclusions concerning the time of entry and degree of viral compartmentalization. To address these diverse findings, we sequenced HIV-1 gp120 clones from a wide range of brain, peripheral and meningeal tissues from five patients who died from several HIV-1 associated disease pathologies. High-resolution phylogenetic analysis confirmed previous studies that showed a significant degree of compartmentalization in brain and peripheral tissue subpopulations. Some intermixing between the HIV-1 subpopulations was evident, especially in patients that died from pathologies other than HIV-associated dementia. Interestingly, the major tissue harboring virus from both the brain and peripheral tissues was the meninges. These results show that (1) HIV-1 is clearly capable of migrating out of the brain, (2) the meninges are the most likely primary transport tissues, and (3) infected brain macrophages comprise an important HIV reservoir during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of the Distance Relationship Between Localized Serotonin Receptors and Glia Cells on Fluorescence Microscopy Images of Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacak, Jaroslaw; Schaller, Susanne; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan M

    2015-08-01

    We here present two new methods for the characterization of fluorescent localization microscopy images obtained from immunostained brain tissue sections. Direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy images of 5-HT1A serotonin receptors and glial fibrillary acidic proteins in healthy cryopreserved brain tissues are analyzed. In detail, we here present two image processing methods for characterizing differences in receptor distribution on glial cells and their distribution on neural cells: One variant relies on skeleton extraction and adaptive thresholding, the other on k-means based discrete layer segmentation. Experimental results show that both methods can be applied for distinguishing classes of images with respect to serotonin receptor distribution. Quantification of nanoscopic changes in relative protein expression on particular cell types can be used to analyze degeneration in tissues caused by diseases or medical treatment.

  15. Brain tissues atrophy is not always the best structural biomarker of physiological aging: A multimodal cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Andrea; Caligiuri, Maria Eugenia; Péran, Patrice; Sabatini, Umberto; Cosentino, Carlo; Amato, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a voxel-based multiple regression analysis of different magnetic resonance image modalities, including anatomical T1-weighted, T2* relaxometry, and diffusion tensor imaging. Quantitative parameters sensitive to complementary brain tissue alterations, including morphometric atrophy, mineralization, microstructural damage, and anisotropy loss, were compared in a linear physiological aging model in 140 healthy subjects (range 20-74 years). The performance of different predictors and the identification of the best biomarker of age-induced structural variation were compared without a priori anatomical knowledge. The best quantitative predictors in several brain regions were iron deposition and microstructural damage, rather than macroscopic tissue atrophy. Age variations were best resolved with a combination of markers, suggesting that multiple predictors better capture age-induced tissue alterations. These findings highlight the importance of a combined evaluation of multimodal biomarkers for the study of aging and point to a number of novel applications for the method described.

  16. Cell and tissue kinetics of the subependymal layer in mouse brain following heavy charged particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    The following studies investigate the cellular response and cell population kinetics of the subependymal layer in the mouse brain exposed to heavy charged particle irradiation. Partial brain irradiation with helium and neon ions was confined to one cortex of the brain. Both the irradiated and the unirradiated contralateral cortex showed similar disturbances of the cell and tissue kinetics in the subependymal layers. The irradiated hemisphere exhibited histological damage, whereas the unirradiated side appeared normal histologically. The decrease in the values of the labeling indices 1 week after charged particle irradiation was dose- and ion-dependent. Mitotic indices 1 week after 10 and 25 Gy helium and after 10 Gy neon were the same as those seen in the control mice. Analysis of cell kinetics 1 week after 10 Gy helium and 10 Gy neon irradiation suggests the presence of a progenitor subpopulation that is proliferating with a shorter cell cycle. Comparison of the responses to the different charged particle beams indicates that neon ions are more effective in producing direct cellular damage than the helium ions, but the surviving proliferating cells several divisions later continue to maintain active cell renewal. Based on the 1 week post-irradiation H 3 -TdR labeling indices, a rough estimate of the RBE for neon ions is at least 2.5 when compared to helium ions

  17. Revisiting the Logan plot to account for non-negligible blood volume in brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schain, Martin; Fazio, Patrik; Mrzljak, Ladislav; Amini, Nahid; Al-Tawil, Nabil; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl; Bronzova, Juliana; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Sampaio, Christina; Halldin, Christer; Varrone, Andrea

    2017-08-18

    Reference tissue-based quantification of brain PET data does not typically include correction for signal originating from blood vessels, which is known to result in biased outcome measures. The bias extent depends on the amount of radioactivity in the blood vessels. In this study, we seek to revisit the well-established Logan plot and derive alternative formulations that provide estimation of distribution volume ratios (DVRs) that are corrected for the signal originating from the vasculature. New expressions for the Logan plot based on arterial input function and reference tissue were derived, which included explicit terms for whole blood radioactivity. The new methods were evaluated using PET data acquired using [ 11 C]raclopride and [ 18 F]MNI-659. The two-tissue compartment model (2TCM), with which signal originating from blood can be explicitly modeled, was used as a gold standard. DVR values obtained for [ 11 C]raclopride using the either blood-based or reference tissue-based Logan plot were systematically underestimated compared to 2TCM, and for [ 18 F]MNI-659, a proportionality bias was observed, i.e., the bias varied across regions. The biases disappeared when optimal blood-signal correction was used for respective tracer, although for the case of [ 18 F]MNI-659 a small but systematic overestimation of DVR was still observed. The new method appears to remove the bias introduced due to absence of correction for blood volume in regular graphical analysis and can be considered in clinical studies. Further studies are however required to derive a generic mapping between plasma and whole-blood radioactivity levels.

  18. Determination of trace elements in human brain tissues using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, R.E.P.; Jacob-Filho, W.; Grinberg, L.T.; Ferretti, R.E.L.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was applied to assess trace element concentrations in brain tissues from normal (n = 21) and demented individuals (n = 21) of both genders aged more than 50 years. Concentrations of the elements Br, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined. Comparisons were made between the results obtained for the hippocampus and frontal cortex tissues, as well as, those obtained in brains of normal and demented individuals. Certified reference materials, NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 1577b Bovine Liver were analyzed for quality of the analytical results. (author)

  19. Computer modeling the boron compound factor in normal brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Huiskamp, R.; Wheeler, F.J.; Griebenow, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The macroscopic distribution of borocaptate sodium (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH or BSH) in normal tissues has been determined and can be accurately predicted from the blood concentration. The compound para-borono-phenylalanine (p-BPA) has also been studied in dogs and normal tissue distribution has been determined. The total physical dose required to reach a biological isoeffect appears to increase directly as the proportion of boron capture dose increases. This effect, together with knowledge of the macrodistribution, led to estimates of the influence of the microdistribution of the BSH compound. This paper reports a computer model that was used to predict the compound factor for BSH and p-BPA and, hence, the equivalent radiation in normal tissues. The compound factor would need to be calculated for other compounds with different distributions. This information is needed to design appropriate normal tissue tolerance studies for different organ systems and/or different boron compounds

  20. Prostacyclin infusion may prevent secondary damage in pericontusional brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinstrup, Peter; Nordström, Carl-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Prostacyclin is a potent vasodilator, inhibitor of leukocyte adhesion, and platelet aggregation, and has been suggested as therapy for cerebral ischemia. A case of focal traumatic brain lesion that was monitored using intracerebral microdialysis, and bedside analysis and display is reported here........ When biochemical signs of cerebral ischemia progressed, i.v. infusion of prostacyclin was started....

  1. Mechanical properties of brain tissue: characterisation and constitutive modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, van J.A.W.; Hrapko, M.; Peters, G.W.M.; Kamkin, A.; Kiseleva, I.

    2009-01-01

    The head is often considered as the most critical region of the human body for life-threatening injuries sustained in accidents. In order to develop effective protective measures, a better understanding of the process of injury development in the brain is required. Finite Element (FE) models are

  2. A method for measuring brain partial pressure of oxygen in unanesthetized unrestrained subjects: the effect of acute and chronic hypoxia on brain tissue PO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Prado, E; Natah, Siraj; Srinivasan, Sathyanarayanan; Dunn, Jeff F

    2010-11-30

    The level of tissue oxygenation provides information related to the balance between oxygen delivery, oxygen utilization, tissue reactivity and morphology during physiological conditions. Tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PtO(2)) is influenced by the use of anesthesia or restraint. These factors may impact the absolute level of PtO(2). In this study we present a novel fiber optic method to measure brain PtO(2). This method can be used in unanesthetized, unrestrained animals, provides absolute values for PO(2), has a stable calibration, does not consume oxygen and is MRI compatible. Brain PtO(2) was studied during acute hypoxia, as well as before and after 28 days of high altitude acclimatization. A sensor was chronically implanted in the frontal cortex of eight Wistar rats. It is comprised of a fiber optic probe with a tip containing material that fluoresces with an oxygen dependent lifetime. Brain PtO(2) declines by 80% and 76% pre- and post-acclimatization, respectively, when the fraction of inspired oxygen declines from 0.21 to 0.08. In addition, a linear relationship between brain PtO(2) and inspired O(2) levels was demonstrated r(2)=0.98 and r(2)=0.99 (pre- and post-acclimatization). Hypoxia acclimatization resulted in an increase in the overall brain PtO(2) by approximately 35%. This paper demonstrates the use of a novel chronically implanted fiber optic based sensor for measuring absolute PtO(2). It shows a very strong linear relationship in awake animals between inspired O(2) and tissue O(2), and shows that there is a proportional increase in PtO(2) over a range of inspired values after exposure to chronic hypoxia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eNitzsche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams were acquired on a 1.5T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight, age and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM and white (WM matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM. Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and body weight explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species.

  4. Cell and tissue kinetics of the subependymal layer in mouse brain following heavy charged particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manley, N.B.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Alpen, E.L.

    1988-12-01

    The following studies investigate the cellular response and cell population kinetics of the subependymal layer in the mouse brain exposed to heavy charged particle irradiation. Partial brain irradiation with helium and neon ions was confined to one cortex of the brain. Both the irradiated and the unirradiated contralateral cortex showed similar disturbances of the cell and tissue kinetics in the subependymal layers. The irradiated hemisphere exhibited histological damage, whereas the unirradiated side appeared normal histologically. This study concerns the cell population and cell cycle kinetics of the subependymal layer in the mouse brain, and the effects of charged particle irradiations on this cell population. Quantitative high resolution autoradiography was used to study the kinetic parameters in this cell layer. This study should help in understanding the effects of these high-energy heavy ions on normal mammalian brain tissue. The response of the mammalian brain exposure to charged particle ionizing radiation may be extremely variable. It varies from minimal physiological changes to overt tissue necrosis depending on a number of factors such as: the administered dose, dose-rate, the volume of the irradiated tissue, and the biological end-point being examined.

  5. Utilization of 14C-tyrosine in brain and peripheral tissues of developmentally protein malnourished rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.; Leahy, J.P.; McConville, F.; Morgane, P.J.; Resnick, O.

    1978-01-01

    Prior studies of developmentally protein malnourished rats have reported substantial changes in brain and peripheral utilization of 14 C-leucine, 14 C-phenylalanine, and 14 C-tryptophan. In the present study rats born to dams fed a low protein diet (8% casein) compared to the offspring of control rats fed a normal diet (25% casein) showed few significant differences in the uptake and incorporation of 14 C-tyrosine into brain and peripheral tissues from birth to age 21 days. At birth, the 8% casein pups exhibited significant decreases in brain and peripheral tissue incorporation of tracer only at short post-injection times (10 and 20 min), but not at longer intervals (90 and 180 min). During ontogenetic development (Days 5-21), the 8% casein rats showed significant increases in uptake of 14 C-tyrosine into the brain and peripheral tissues on Day 11 and a significantly higher percent incorporation of tracer into brain protein on Day 21 as compared to the 25% casein rats. For the most part, there were no significant changes in incorporation of radioactivity in peripheral tissues for the 2 diet groups on these post-birth days. Overall, the data indicates that developmental protein malnutrition causes relatively fewer changes in brain and peripheral utilization of the semi-essential amino acid tyrosine than those observed in previous studies with essential amino acids

  6. Frequency-dependent viscoelastic parameters of mouse brain tissue estimated by MR elastography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, E H; Bayly, P V [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St Louis, 1 Brookings Drive, Campus Box 1185, Saint Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Garbow, J R, E-mail: clayton@wustl.edu, E-mail: garbow@wustl.edu, E-mail: pvb@wustl.edu [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Washington University in St Louis, 4525 Scott Avenue, Campus Box 8227, Saint Louis, MO 63110 (United States)

    2011-04-21

    Viscoelastic properties of mouse brain tissue were estimated non-invasively, in vivo, using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) at 4.7 T to measure the dispersive properties of induced shear waves. Key features of this study include (i) the development and application of a novel MR-compatible actuation system which transmits vibratory motion into the brain through an incisor bar, and (ii) the investigation of the mechanical properties of brain tissue over a 1200 Hz bandwidth from 600-1800 Hz. Displacement fields due to propagating shear waves were measured during continuous, harmonic excitation of the skull. This protocol enabled characterization of the true steady-state patterns of shear wave propagation. Analysis of displacement fields obtained at different frequencies indicates that the viscoelastic properties of mouse brain tissue depend strongly on frequency. The average storage modulus (G') increased from approximately 1.6 to 8 kPa over this range; average loss modulus (G'') increased from approximately 1 to 3 kPa. Both moduli were well approximated by a power-law relationship over this frequency range. MRE may be a valuable addition to studies of disease in murine models, and to pre-clinical evaluations of therapies. Quantitative measurements of the viscoelastic parameters of brain tissue at high frequencies are also valuable for modeling and simulation of traumatic brain injury.

  7. Brain tissue analysis of impacts to American football helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Andrew; Kendall, Marshall; Cournoyer, Janie; Karton, Clara; Oeur, R Anna; Dawson, Lauren; Hoshizaki, T Blaine

    2018-02-01

    Concussion in American football is a prevalent concern. Research has been conducted examining frequencies, location, and thresholds for concussion from impacts. Little work has been done examining how impact location may affect risk of concussive injury. The purpose of this research was to examine how impact site on the helmet and type of impact, affects the risk of concussive injury as quantified using finite element modelling of the human head and brain. A linear impactor was used to impact a helmeted Hybrid III headform in several locations and using centric and non-centric impact vectors. The resulting dynamic response was used as input for the Wayne State Brain Injury Model to determine the risk of concussive injury by utilizing maximum principal strain as the predictive variable. The results demonstrated that impacts that occur primarily to the side of the head resulted in higher magnitudes of strain in the grey and white matter, as well as the brain stem. Finally, commonly worn American football helmets were used in this research and significant risk of injury was incurred for all impacts. These results suggest that improvements in American football helmets are warranted, in particular for impacts to the side of the helmet.

  8. Changes in Lecithin Concentration in the Human Brain Tissue in Some Neurodegenerative Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, A.; Mihaljevic, M.; Hasanbasic, D.; Rukavina, D.; Sofic, E.

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of a possible increase in oxidative stress or deterioration of nerve cells during aging, in some states neurodegeneration was demonstrated by multiple biochemical deficiency, especially deficiency of cholesterol and lecithin in brain regions. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the concentration of lecithin in different regions of brain tissue (MC - motor cortex, NC - nucleus caudates, GT - temporal gyrus) dissected postmortem from people with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT), and persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) as compared to people who died without these diseases (C). Spectrophotometric determination of lecithin in 18 postmortem brain tissue regions collected from of 12 persons with SDAT, in 11 postmortem brain tissue regions of 8 persons with PD and in 18 postmortem brain tissue regions of 8 control persons, was performed by enzymatic method. The content of lecithin in MC: 14.4 mg/g fresh tissue (f.t.) and GT: 13.1 mg/g (f.t.) for SDAT was significantly reduced (p < 0.01) by about 30 %, compared to control where there was: 21.6 mg/g (f.t.) in MC and 18.3 mg/g (f.t.) in the GT estimated. In all regions of the brain of PD patients, the content of lecithin was decreased by about 12 % compared to control, but without statistical significance. These results suggest that changes in the content of lecithin in these regions of brain tissue might affect the changes in the membrane potential and cell degeneration. (author)

  9. Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962): A pioneer in human brain tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zottoli, Steven J; Seyfarth, Ernst-August

    2018-05-16

    The ability to maintain human brain explants in tissue culture was a critical step in the use of these cells for the study of central nervous system disorders. Ross G. Harrison (1870-1959) was the first to successfully maintain frog medullary tissue in culture in 1907, but it took another 38 years before successful culture of human brain tissue was accomplished. One of the pioneers in this achievement was Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962). Hogue was born into a Quaker family in 1883 in West Chester, Pennsylvania, and received her undergraduate degree from Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland. Research with the developmental biologist Theodor Boveri (1862-1915) in Würzburg, Germany, resulted in her Ph.D. (1909). Hogue transitioned from studying protozoa to the culture of human brain tissue in the 1940s and 1950s, when she was one of the first to culture cells from human fetal, infant, and adult brain explants. We review Hogue's pioneering contributions to the study of human brain cells in culture, her putative identification of progenitor neuroblast and/or glioblast cells, and her use of the cultures to study the cytopathogenic effects of poliovirus. We also put Hogue's work in perspective by discussing how other women pioneers in tissue culture influenced Hogue and her research.

  10. Trace element determinations in brain tissues from normal and clinically demented individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Leite, Renata E.P.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Ferretti, Renata E.L.; Suemoto, Claudia; Pasqualucci, Carlos A.; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Studies on trace element levels in human brains under normal and pathological conditions have indicated a possible correlation between some trace element concentrations and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, analysis of brain tissues was carried out to investigate if there are any differences in elemental concentrations between brain tissues from a normal population above 50 years of age presenting Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) equal to zero (CDR=0) and that cognitively affected population ( CDR=3). The tissues were dissected, ground, freeze-dried and then analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated in a neutron flux at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for Br, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma ray activities were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The one-way ANOVA test (p< 0.05) was used to compare the results. All the elements determined in the hippocampus brain region presented differences between the groups presenting CDR=0 and CDR=3. In the case of frontal region only the elements Na, Rb and Zn showed differences between these two groups. These findings proved the correlation between elemental levels present in brain tissues neurodegenerative diseases. Biological standard reference materials SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue and SRM 1577b Bovine Liver analyzed for quality control indicated good accuracy and precision of the results. (author)

  11. Brain slice on a chip: opportunities and challenges of applying microfluidic technology to intact tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Williams, Justin C; Johnson, Stephen M

    2012-06-21

    Isolated brain tissue, especially brain slices, are valuable experimental tools for studying neuronal function at the network, cellular, synaptic, and single channel levels. Neuroscientists have refined the methods for preserving brain slice viability and function and converged on principles that strongly resemble the approach taken by engineers in developing microfluidic devices. With respect to brain slices, microfluidic technology may 1) overcome the traditional limitations of conventional interface and submerged slice chambers and improve oxygen/nutrient penetration into slices, 2) provide better spatiotemporal control over solution flow/drug delivery to specific slice regions, and 3) permit successful integration with modern optical and electrophysiological techniques. In this review, we highlight the unique advantages of microfluidic devices for in vitro brain slice research, describe recent advances in the integration of microfluidic devices with optical and electrophysiological instrumentation, and discuss clinical applications of microfluidic technology as applied to brain slices and other non-neuronal tissues. We hope that this review will serve as an interdisciplinary guide for both neuroscientists studying brain tissue in vitro and engineers as they further develop microfluidic chamber technology for neuroscience research.

  12. Gadolinium Deposition in Human Brain Tissues after Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging in Adult Patients without Intracranial Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert J; McDonald, Jennifer S; Kallmes, David F; Jentoft, Mark E; Paolini, Michael A; Murray, David L; Williamson, Eric E; Eckel, Laurence J

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To determine whether gadolinium deposits in neural tissues of patients with intracranial abnormalities following intravenous gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) exposure might be related to blood-brain barrier integrity by studying adult patients with normal brain pathologic characteristics. Materials and Methods After obtaining antemortem consent and institutional review board approval, the authors compared postmortem neuronal tissue samples from five patients who had undergone four to 18 gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) examinations between 2005 and 2014 (contrast group) with samples from 10 gadolinium-naive patients who had undergone at least one MR examination during their lifetime (control group). All patients in the contrast group had received gadodiamide. Neuronal tissues from the dentate nuclei, pons, globus pallidus, and thalamus were harvested and analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and light microscopy to quantify, localize, and assess the effects of gadolinium deposition. Results Tissues from the four neuroanatomic regions of gadodiamide-exposed patients contained 0.1-19.4 μg of gadolinium per gram of tissue in a statistically significant dose-dependent relationship (globus pallidus: ρ = 0.90, P = .04). In contradistinction, patients in the control group had undetectable levels of gadolinium with ICP-MS. All patients had normal brain pathologic characteristics at autopsy. Three patients in the contrast group had borderline renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate the contrast group was localized to the capillary endothelium and neuronal interstitium and, in two cases, within the nucleus of the cell. Conclusion Gadolinium deposition in neural tissues after GBCA administration occurs in the absence of intracranial abnormalities that might affect the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. These findings

  13. The brain modulates insulin sensitivity in multiple tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlevliet, Edwin T.; Coomans, Claudia P.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin sensitivity is determined by direct effects of circulating insulin on metabolically active tissues in combination with indirect effects of circulating insulin, i.e. via the central nervous system. The dose-response effects of insulin differ between the various physiological effects of

  14. Development of an experimental model of brain tissue heterotopia in the lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quemelo, Paulo Roberto Veiga; Sbragia, Lourenço; Peres, Luiz Cesar

    2007-01-01

    Summary The presence of heterotopic brain tissue in the lung is a rare abnormality. The cases reported thus far are usually associated with neural tube defects (NTD). As there are no reports of experimental models of NTD that present this abnormality, the objective of the present study was to develop a surgical method of brain tissue heterotopia in the lung. We used 24 pregnant Swiss mice divided into two groups of 12 animals each, denoted 17GD and 18GD according to the gestational day (GD) when caesarean section was performed to collect the fetuses. Surgery was performed on the 15th GD, one fetus was removed by hysterectomy and its brain tissue was cut into small fragments and implanted in the lung of its litter mates. Thirty-four live fetuses were obtained from the 17GD group. Of these, eight (23.5%) were used as control (C), eight (23.5%) were sham operated (S) and 18 (52.9%) were used for pulmonary brain tissue implantation (PBI). Thirty live fetuses were obtained from the females of the 18GD group. Of these, eight (26.6%) were C, eight (26.6%) S and 14 (46.6%) were used for PBI. Histological examination of the fetal trunks showed implantation of GFAP-positive brain tissue in 85% of the fetuses of the 17GD group and in 100% of those of the 18GD group, with no significant difference between groups for any of the parameters analysed. The experimental model proved to be efficient and of relatively simple execution, showing complete integration of the brain tissue with pulmonary and pleural tissue and thus representing a model that will permit the study of different aspects of cell implantation and interaction. PMID:17877535

  15. Gene expression profiles help identify the Tissue of Origin for metastatic brain cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VandenBerg Scott R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic brain cancers are the most common intracranial tumor and occur in about 15% of all cancer patients. In up to 10% of these patients, the primary tumor tissue remains unknown, even after a time consuming and costly workup. The Pathwork® Tissue of Origin Test (Pathwork Diagnostics, Redwood City, CA, USA is a gene expression test to aid in the diagnosis of metastatic, poorly differentiated and undifferentiated tumors. It measures the expression pattern of 1,550 genes in these tumors and compares it to the expression pattern of a panel of 15 known tumor types. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Tissue of Origin Test in the diagnosis of primary sites for metastatic brain cancer patients. Methods Fifteen fresh-frozen metastatic brain tumor specimens of known origins met specimen requirements. These specimens were entered into the study and processed using the Tissue of Origin Test. Results were compared to the known primary site and the agreement between the two results was assessed. Results Fourteen of the fifteen specimens produced microarray data files that passed all quality metrics. One originated from a tissue type that was off-panel. Among the remaining 13 cases, the Tissue of Origin Test accurately predicted the available diagnosis in 12/13 (92.3% cases. Discussion This study demonstrates the accuracy of the Tissue of Origin Test when applied to predict the tissue of origin of metastatic brain tumors. This test could be a very useful tool for pathologists as they classify metastatic brain cancers.

  16. Sleep is not just for the brain: transcriptional responses to sleep in peripheral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anafi, Ron C; Pellegrino, Renata; Shockley, Keith R; Romer, Micah; Tufik, Sergio; Pack, Allan I

    2013-05-30

    Many have assumed that the primary function of sleep is for the brain. We evaluated the molecular consequences of sleep and sleep deprivation outside the brain, in heart and lung. Using microarrays we compared gene expression in tissue from sleeping and sleep deprived mice euthanized at the same diurnal times. In each tissue, nearly two thousand genes demonstrated statistically significant differential expression as a function of sleep/wake behavioral state. To mitigate the influence of an artificial deprivation protocol, we identified a subset of these transcripts as specifically sleep-enhanced or sleep-repressed by requiring that their expression also change over the course of unperturbed sleep. 3% and 6% of the assayed transcripts showed "sleep specific" changes in the lung and heart respectively. Sleep specific transcripts in these tissues demonstrated highly significant overlap and shared temporal dynamics. Markers of cellular stress and the unfolded protein response were reduced during sleep in both tissues. These results mirror previous findings in brain. Sleep-enhanced pathways reflected the unique metabolic functions of each tissue. Transcripts related to carbohydrate and sulfur metabolic processes were enhanced by sleep in the lung, and collectively favor buffering from oxidative stress. DNA repair and protein metabolism annotations were significantly enriched among the sleep-enhanced transcripts in the heart. Our results also suggest that sleep may provide a Zeitgeber, or synchronizing cue, in the lung as a large cluster of transcripts demonstrated systematic changes in inter-animal variability as a function of both sleep duration and circadian time. Our data support the notion that the molecular consequences of sleep/wake behavioral state extend beyond the brain to include peripheral tissues. Sleep state induces a highly overlapping response in both heart and lung. We conclude that sleep enhances organ specific molecular functions and that it has a

  17. White matter segmentation by estimating tissue optical attenuation from volumetric OCT massive histology of whole rodent brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Joël.; Castonguay, Alexandre; Lesage, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    A whole rodent brain was imaged using an automated massive histology setup and an Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) microscope. Thousands of OCT volumetric tiles were acquired, each covering a size of about 2.5x2.5x0.8 mm3 with a sampling resolution of 4.9x4.9x6.5 microns. This paper shows the techniques for reconstruction, attenuation compensation and segmentation of the sliced brains. The tile positions within the mosaic were evaluated using a displacement model of the motorized stage and pairwise coregistration. Volume blending was then performed by solving the 3D Laplace equation, and consecutive slices were assembled using the cross-correlation of their 2D image gradient. This reconstruction algorithm resulted in a 3D map of optical reflectivity for the whole brain at micrometric resolution. OCT tissue slices were then used to estimate the local attenuation coefficient based on a single scattering photon model. The attenuation map obtained exhibits a high contrast for all white matter fibres, regardless of their orientation. The tissue optical attenuation from the intrinsic OCT reflectivity contributes to better white matter tissue segmentation. The combined 3D maps of reflectivity and attenuation is a step toward the study of white matter at a microscopic scale for the whole brain in small animals.

  18. Regulatory T cells ameliorate tissue plasminogen activator-induced brain haemorrhage after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Leilei; Li, Peiying; Zhu, Wen; Cai, Wei; Liu, Zongjian; Wang, Yanling; Luo, Wenli; Stetler, Ruth A; Leak, Rehana K; Yu, Weifeng; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Jun; Chen, Gang; Hu, Xiaoming

    2017-07-01

    Delayed thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may exacerbate blood-brain barrier breakdown after ischaemic stroke and lead to lethal haemorrhagic transformation. The immune system is a dynamic modulator of stroke response, and excessive immune cell accumulation in the cerebral vasculature is associated with compromised integrity of the blood-brain barrier. We previously reported that regulatory T cells, which function to suppress excessive immune responses, ameliorated blood-brain barrier damage after cerebral ischaemia. This study assessed the impact of regulatory T cells in the context of tPA-induced brain haemorrhage and investigated the underlying mechanisms of action. The number of circulating regulatory T cells in stroke patients was dramatically reduced soon after stroke onset (84 acute ischaemic stroke patients with or without intravenous tPA treatment, compared to 115 age and gender-matched healthy controls). Although stroke patients without tPA treatment gradually repopulated the numbers of circulating regulatory T cells within the first 7 days after stroke, post-ischaemic tPA treatment led to sustained suppression of regulatory T cells in the blood. We then used the murine suture and embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion models of stroke to investigate the therapeutic potential of adoptive regulatory T cell transfer against tPA-induced haemorrhagic transformation. Delayed administration of tPA (10 mg/kg) resulted in haemorrhagic transformation in the ischaemic territory 1 day after ischaemia. When regulatory T cells (2 × 106/mouse) were intravenously administered immediately after delayed tPA treatment in ischaemic mice, haemorrhagic transformation was significantly decreased, and this was associated with improved sensorimotor functions. Blood-brain barrier disruption and tight junction damages were observed in the presence of delayed tPA after stroke, but were mitigated by regulatory T cell transfer. Mechanistic

  19. Three-dimensional structure of brain tissue at submicrometer resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiga, Rino; Mizutani, Ryuta, E-mail: ryuta@tokai-u.jp [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Inomoto, Chie; Takekoshi, Susumu; Nakamura, Naoya; Tsuboi, Akio; Osawa, Motoki [Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Arai, Makoto; Oshima, Kenichi; Itokawa, Masanari [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Setagaya, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Terada, Yasuko; Suzuki, Yoshio [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    Biological objects are composed of submicrometer structures such as cells and organelles that are essential for their functions. Here, we report on three-dimensional X-ray visualization of cells and organelles at resolutions up to 100 nm by imaging microtomography (micro-CT) equipped with Fresnel zone plate optics. Human cerebral tissue, fruit fly cephalic ganglia, and Escherichia coli bacteria labeled with high atomic-number elements were embedded in epoxy resin and subjected to X-ray microtomography at the BL37XU and BL47XU beamlines of the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. The obtained results indicated that soft tissue structures can be visualized with the imaging microtomography.

  20. Metabolism of [14C] testosterone by human foetal and brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.S.; Hall, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    The metabolism of [ 14 C] testosterone in vitro by various areas of the human foetal brain has been studied and compared with that of an adult brain. The predominant metabolites were 5α-dihydrotestosterone and 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol, and also androstenedione, and all areas of the foetal brain showed similar activity. In the foetal pituitary gland, the activity of 5α-reductase was less prominent than that of 17β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase. Small quantities of oestradiol-17 β were produced from testosterone by the hypothalamus, temporal lobe and amygdala only, and no aromatization could be detected in the pituitary gland. 5α-Reductase activity was much lower in adult brain tissues and no oestradiol was identified in adult temporal lobe tissue. (author)

  1. Frequency dependence of complex moduli of brain tissue using a fractional Zener model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohandel, M; Sivaloganathan, S; Tenti, G; Darvish, K

    2005-01-01

    Brain tissue exhibits viscoelastic behaviour. If loading times are substantially short, static tests are not sufficient to determine the complete viscoelastic behaviour of the material, and dynamic test methods are more appropriate. The concept of complex modulus of elasticity is a powerful tool for characterizing the frequency domain behaviour of viscoelastic materials. On the other hand, it is well known that classical viscoelastic models can be generalized by means of fractional calculus to describe more complex viscoelastic behaviour of materials. In this paper, the fractional Zener model is investigated in order to describe the dynamic behaviour of brain tissue. The model is fitted to experimental data of oscillatory shear tests of bovine brain tissue to verify its behaviour and to obtain the material parameters

  2. Porous titanium bases for osteochondral tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nover, Adam B.; Lee, Stephanie L.; Georgescu, Maria S.; Howard, Daniel R.; Saunders, Reuben A.; Yu, William T.; Klein, Robert W.; Napolitano, Anthony P.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering of osteochondral grafts may offer a cell-based alternative to native allografts, which are in short supply. Previous studies promote the fabrication of grafts consisting of a viable cell-seeded hydrogel integrated atop a porous, bone-like metal. Advantages of the manufacturing process have led to the evaluation of porous titanium as the bone-like base material. Here, porous titanium was shown to support the growth of cartilage to produce native levels of Young’s modulus, using a clinically relevant cell source. Mechanical and biochemical properties were similar or higher for the osteochondral constructs compared to chondral-only controls. Further investigation into the mechanical influence of the base on the composite material suggests that underlying pores may decrease interstitial fluid pressurization and applied strains, which may be overcome by alterations to the base structure. Future studies aim to optimize titanium-based tissue engineered osteochondral constructs to best match the structural architecture and strength of native grafts. Statement of Significance The studies described in this manuscript follow up on previous studies from our lab pertaining to the fabrication of osteochondral grafts that consist of a bone-like porous metal and a chondrocyte-seeded hydrogel. Here, tissue engineered osteochondral grafts were cultured to native stiffness using adult chondrocytes, a clinically relevant cell source, and a porous titanium base, a material currently used in clinical implants. This porous titanium is manufactured via selective laser melting, offering the advantages of precise control over shape, pore size, and orientation. Additionally, this manuscript describes the mechanical influence of the porous base, which may have applicability to porous bases derived from other materials. PMID:26320541

  3. Contribution Of Brain Tissue Oxidative Damage In Hypothyroidism-associated Learning and Memory Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Baghcheghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain is a critical target organ for thyroid hormones, and modifications in memory and cognition happen with thyroid dysfunction. The exact mechanisms underlying learning and memory impairments due to hypothyroidism have not been understood yet. Therefore, this review was aimed to compress the results of previous studies which have examined the contribution of brain tissues oxidative damage in hypothyroidism-associated learning and memory impairments.

  4. Brain tissues volume measurements from 2D MRI using parametric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, A. A.; Toropova, O. A.; Litovka, Yu. V.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the paper is to propose a fully automated method of volume assessment of structures within human brain. Our statistical approach uses maximum interdependency principle for decision making process of measurements consistency and unequal observations. Detecting outliers performed using maximum normalized residual test. We propose a statistical model which utilizes knowledge of tissues distribution in human brain and applies partial data restoration for precision improvement. The approach proposes completed computationally efficient and independent from segmentation algorithm used in the application.

  5. Development and Tissue Origins of the Mammalian Cranial Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, S.; Bamforth, S. D.; Olsen, B. R.; Morriss-Kay, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    The vertebrate cranial base is a complex structure composed of bone, cartilage and other connective tissues underlying the brain; it is intimately connected with development of the face and cranial vault. Despite its central importance in craniofacial development, morphogenesis and tissue origins of the cranial base have not been studied in detail in the mouse, an important model organism. We describe here the location and time of appearance of the cartilages of the chondrocranium. We also examine the tissue origins of the mouse cranial base using a neural crest cell lineage cell marker, Wnt1-Cre/R26R, and a mesoderm lineage cell marker, Mesp1-Cre/R26R. The chondrocranium develops between E11 and E16 in the mouse, beginning with development of the caudal (occipital) chondrocranium, followed by chondrogenesis rostrally to form the nasal capsule, and finally fusion of these two parts via the midline central stem and the lateral struts of the vault cartilages. X-Gal staining of transgenic mice from E8.0 to 10 days post-natal showed that neural crest cells contribute to all of the cartilages that form the ethmoid, presphenoid, and basisphenoid bones with the exception of the hypochiasmatic cartilages. The basioccipital bone and non-squamous parts of the temporal bones are mesoderm derived. Therefore the prechordal head is mostly composed of neural crest-derived tissues, as predicted by the New Head Hypothesis. However, the anterior location of the mesoderm-derived hypochiasmatic cartilages, which are closely linked with the extra-ocular muscles, suggests that some tissues associated with the visual apparatus may have evolved independently of the rest of the “New Head”. PMID:18680740

  6. Prompt gamma-ray spectrometry for measurement of B-10 concentration in brain tissue and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Kitamura, Katsuji; Kobayashi, Toru; Matsumoto, Keizo; Hatanaka, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    Boron-10 (B-10) concentration in the brain tissue and blood was measured continuously for 24 hours after injection of the B-10 compound in live rabbits using prompt gamma-ray spectrometry. Following injection of B-10 compound (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH, 50mg/kg) dissolved in physiological saline, B-10 concentration was continuously measured in the brain tissue. Intermittently the concentration of B-10 in blood and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) was also measured. In 10 minutes after the injection of B-10 compound, the level of B-10 concentration reached the peak of 400-500 ppm in blood and 20-30 ppm in the normal brain tissue. In 60 minutes the level of B-10 concentration rapidly decreased and then a gradual decline was observed. The value was 15-30 ppm at 3 hours after injection, 5-10 ppm at 6 hours and 2-5 ppm at 24 hours in the blood. The concentration in the brain tissue was 3-8 ppm at 3 hours, 2-5 ppm at 6 hours and below 1.5 ppm at 24 hours. B-10 concentration in cerebro-spinal fluid was below 1 ppm. B-10 concentration was also measured in the brain tumor and blood in the human cases at boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). These data studied by prompt gamma-ray spectrometry are very important and useful to decide the irradiation time. (author)

  7. Effects of acupuncture on tissue-oxygenation of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G S; Erdmann, W

    1977-01-01

    Acupuncture has been claimed to be effective in restoring consciousness in some comatose patients. Possible mechanisms to explain alleged acupuncture-induced arousal may include vasodilatory effects caused by sympathetic stimulation which leads to an augmentation of cerebral microcirculation and thereby improves oxygen supply to the brain tissue. Experiments were performed in ten albino rats (Wistar) employing PO2 microelectrodes which were inserted into the cortex of the animals through small burholes. Brain tissue PO2 was continuously recorded before, during, and after acupuncture. Stimulation of certain acupuncture loci (Go-26) resulted in immediate increase of PO2 in the frontal cortex of the rat brain. This effect was reproducible. The effect was comparable to that obtained with increase of inspiratory CO2 known to induce arterial vasodilatation and thus capillary perfusion pressure. The effect was more significant as compared to tissue PO2 increases obtained after increase of inspiratory oxygen concentration from 21% to 100%. It appears that acupuncture causes an increase of brain tissue perfusion which may be, at least in part, responsible for arousal of unconscious patients. Dilatation of cerebral vascular vessels and improvement of autoregulation in the brain by acupuncture stimulation may also explain the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of migraine headache.

  8. The expression and significance of tyrosine hydroxylase in the brain tissue of Parkinsons disease rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yuan; Lian, Yajun; Ma, Yunqing; Wu, Chuanjie; Zheng, Yake; Xie, Nanchang

    2017-01-01

    The expression and significance of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in brain tissue of rats with Parkinson's disease (PD) were explored and analyzed. A total of 120 clean-grade and healthy adult Wistar rats weighing 180–240 g were randomly divided equally into four groups according to the random number table method. Rats were sacrificed before and after the model establishment for 3, 6 or 8 weeks. The number of revolutions in rats was observed and the relative expression of TH mRNA in brain tissue w...

  9. Characterizing the optical properties of human brain tissue with high numerical aperture optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Magnain, Caroline; Sakadžić, Sava; Fischl, Bruce; Boas, David A

    2017-12-01

    Quantification of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be useful in evaluating structural characteristics and pathological changes. Previous studies primarily used an exponential model to analyze low numerical aperture (NA) OCT measurements and obtain the total attenuation coefficient for biological tissue. In this study, we develop a systematic method that includes the confocal parameter for modeling the depth profiles of high NA OCT, when the confocal parameter cannot be ignored. This approach enables us to quantify tissue optical properties with higher lateral resolution. The model parameter predictions for the scattering coefficients were tested with calibrated microsphere phantoms. The application of the model to human brain tissue demonstrates that the scattering and back-scattering coefficients each provide unique information, allowing us to differentially identify laminar structures in primary visual cortex and distinguish various nuclei in the midbrain. The combination of the two optical properties greatly enhances the power of OCT to distinguish intricate structures in the human brain beyond what is achievable with measured OCT intensity information alone, and therefore has the potential to enable objective evaluation of normal brain structure as well as pathological conditions in brain diseases. These results represent a promising step for enabling the quantification of tissue optical properties from high NA OCT.

  10. The Neuroprotective Effect of Cornus mas on Brain Tissue of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Francik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas is a valuable source of phenolic antioxidants. Flavonoid derivatives as nonenzymatic antioxidants are important in the pathophysiology of many diseases including neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease or heart disease. In this study, we examined the effect of an addition of freeze-dried fruit of cornelian cherry on three types of diets: control diet, fructose diet, and diet enriched in fats (high-fat diet. This effect was studied by determining the following antioxidant parameters in both brain tissue and plasma in rats: catalase, ferric reducing ability of plasma, paraoxonase, protein carbonyl groups, and free thiol groups. Results indicate that both fructose diet and high-fat diet affect the antioxidant capacity of the organism. Furthermore, an addition of cornelian cherry resulted in increased activity of catalase in brain tissue, while in plasma it caused the opposite effect. In turn, with regard to paraoxonase activity in both brain tissue and plasma, it had a stimulating effect. Adding cornelian cherry to the tested diets increased the activity of PON in both tested tissues. Moreover, protective effect of fruits of this plant was observed in the process of oxidation of proteins by decreasing levels of protein carbonyl groups and thiol groups in brain tissue as well as in plasma.

  11. MR imaging of brain tissue changes in acute and chronic solvent intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinck, P.A.; Nilsen, G.; Kvaerness, J.

    1988-01-01

    Acute and chronic intoxication with solvents is found both as an occupational hazard and as self-inflicted in addicts to solvent. Objective demonstration of such brain tissue changes is difficult with conventional imaging methods, and in most cases findings are negative. In a preliminary study, the brains of eight patients (aged 28-62 years) exposed to aggressive solvents for 1-27 years were examined with magnetic resonance imaging. All of the patients showed brain atrophy of varying extent, and seven of eight patients (all except the youngest and least exposed) had brain lesions that somewhat resembled dymyelinating changes (focal and confluent periventricular and deep white matter lesions, brain stem and cerebellar lesions); one patient showed cloudy, poorly defined lesions

  12. Spectroscopic method for determination of the absorption coefficient in brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Johannes D.

    2010-09-01

    I use Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements to characterize a probe with adjacent optical fibres for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during stereotactic surgery in the brain. Simulations and measurements have been fitted to a modified Beer-Lambert model for light transport in order to be able to quantify chromophore content based on clinically measured spectra in brain tissue. It was found that it is important to take the impact of the light absorption into account when calculating the apparent optical path length, lp, for the photons in order to get good estimates of the absorption coefficient, μa. The optical path length was found to be well fitted to the equation lp=a+b ln(Is)+c ln(μa)+d ln(Is)ln(μa), where Is is the reflected light intensity for scattering alone (i.e., zero absorption). Although coefficients a-d calculated in this study are specific to the probe used here, the general form of the equation should be applicable to similar probes.

  13. Gene expression changes with age in skin, adipose tissue, blood and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Daniel; Viñuela, Ana; Davies, Matthew N; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Parts, Leopold; Knowles, David; Brown, Andrew A; Hedman, Asa K; Small, Kerrin S; Buil, Alfonso; Grundberg, Elin; Nica, Alexandra C; Di Meglio, Paola; Nestle, Frank O; Ryten, Mina; Durbin, Richard; McCarthy, Mark I; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Weale, Michael E; Bataille, Veronique; Spector, Tim D

    2013-07-26

    Previous studies have demonstrated that gene expression levels change with age. These changes are hypothesized to influence the aging rate of an individual. We analyzed gene expression changes with age in abdominal skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and lymphoblastoid cell lines in 856 female twins in the age range of 39-85 years. Additionally, we investigated genotypic variants involved in genotype-by-age interactions to understand how the genomic regulation of gene expression alters with age. Using a linear mixed model, differential expression with age was identified in 1,672 genes in skin and 188 genes in adipose tissue. Only two genes expressed in lymphoblastoid cell lines showed significant changes with age. Genes significantly regulated by age were compared with expression profiles in 10 brain regions from 100 postmortem brains aged 16 to 83 years. We identified only one age-related gene common to the three tissues. There were 12 genes that showed differential expression with age in both skin and brain tissue and three common to adipose and brain tissues. Skin showed the most age-related gene expression changes of all the tissues investigated, with many of the genes being previously implicated in fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial activity, cancer and splicing. A significant proportion of age-related changes in gene expression appear to be tissue-specific with only a few genes sharing an age effect in expression across tissues. More research is needed to improve our understanding of the genetic influences on aging and the relationship with age-related diseases.

  14. Optical scatter imaging of cellular and mitochondrial swelling in brain tissue models of stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee James

    2001-08-01

    The severity of brain edema resulting from a stroke can determine a patient's survival and the extent of their recovery. Cellular swelling is the microscopic source of a significant part of brain edema. Mitochondrial swelling also appears to be a determining event in the death or survival of the cells that are injured during a stroke. Therapies for reducing brain edema are not effective in many cases and current treatments of stroke do not address mitochondrial swelling at all. This dissertation is motivated by the lack of a complete understanding of cellular swelling resulting from stroke and the lack of a good method to begin to study mitochondrial swelling resulting from stroke in living brain tissue. In this dissertation, a novel method of detecting mitochondrial and cellular swelling in living hippocampal slices is developed and validated. The system is used to obtain spatial and temporal information about cellular and mitochondrial swelling resulting from various models of stroke. The effect of changes in water content on light scatter and absorption are examined in two models of brain edema. The results of this study demonstrate that optical techniques can be used to detect changes in water content. Mie scatter theory, the theoretical basis of the dual- angle scatter ratio imaging system, is presented. Computer simulations based on Mie scatter theory are used to determine the optimal angles for imaging. A detailed account of the early systems is presented to explain the motivations for the system design, especially polarization, wavelength and light path. Mitochondrial sized latex particles are used to determine the system response to changes in scattering particle size and concentration. The dual-angle scatter ratio imaging system is used to distinguish between osmotic and excitotoxic models of stroke injury. Such distinction cannot be achieved using the current techniques to study cellular swelling in hippocampal slices. The change in the scatter ratio is

  15. Proteomics analyses for the global proteins in the brain tissues of different human prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qi; Chen, Li-Na; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Xiao, Kang; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Cao; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Tian, Chan; Gao, Chen; Wang, Jing; Han, Jun; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Proteomics changes of brain tissues have been described in different neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, the brain proteomics of human prion disease remains less understood. In the study, the proteomics patterns of cortex and cerebellum of brain tissues of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, and G114V genetic CJD were analyzed with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation combined with multidimensional liquid chromatography and MS analysis, with the brains from three normal individuals as controls. Global protein profiling, significant pathway, and functional categories were analyzed. In total, 2287 proteins were identified with quantitative information both in cortex and cerebellum regions. Cerebellum tissues appeared to contain more up- and down-regulated proteins (727 proteins) than cortex regions (312 proteins) of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, and G114V genetic CJD. Viral myocarditis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, lysosome, oxidative phosphorylation, protein export, and drug metabolism-cytochrome P450 were the most commonly affected pathways of the three kinds of diseases. Almost coincident biological functions were identified in the brain tissues of the three diseases. In all, data here demonstrate that the brain tissues of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, and G114V genetic CJD have obvious proteomics changes at their terminal stages, which show the similarities not only among human prion diseases but also with other neurodegeneration diseases. This is the first study to provide a reference proteome map for human prion diseases and will be helpful for future studies focused on potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and therapy of human prion diseases. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Study into penetration speed during laser cutting of brain tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Z; Sami, M; Patiroglu, T

    1998-01-01

    The applications of CO2 continuous-wave lasers in neurosurgery have become important in recent years. Theoretical considerations of laser applicability in medicine are subsequently confirmed experimentally. To obtain precision operation in the laser cutting process, further theoretical developments and experimental studies need to be conducted. Consequently, in the present study, the heat transfer mechanism taking place during laser-tissue interaction is introduced using Fourier theory. The results obtained from the theoretical model are compared with the experimental results. In connection with this, an experiment is designed to measure the penetration speed during the laser cutting process. The measurement is carried out using an optical method. It is found that both results for the penetration speed obtained from the theory and experiment are in a good agreement.

  17. Application of single- and dual-energy CT brain tissue segmentation to PET monitoring of proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Bianca; Landry, Guillaume; Schwarz, Florian; Tessonnier, Thomas; Kamp, Florian; Dedes, George; Thieke, Christian; Würl, Matthias; Kurz, Christopher; Ganswindt, Ute; Verhaegen, Frank; Debus, Jürgen; Belka, Claus; Sommer, Wieland; Reiser, Maximilian; Bauer, Julia; Parodi, Katia

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the ability of single and dual energy computed tomography (SECT, DECT) to estimate tissue composition and density for usage in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of irradiation induced β + activity distributions. This was done to assess the impact on positron emission tomography (PET) range verification in proton therapy. A DECT-based brain tissue segmentation method was developed for white matter (WM), grey matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The elemental composition of reference tissues was assigned to closest CT numbers in DECT space (DECTdist). The method was also applied to SECT data (SECTdist). In a validation experiment, the proton irradiation induced PET activity of three brain equivalent solutions (BES) was compared to simulations based on different tissue segmentations. Five patients scanned with a dual source DECT scanner were analyzed to compare the different segmentation methods. A single magnetic resonance (MR) scan was used for comparison with an established segmentation toolkit. Additionally, one patient with SECT and post-treatment PET scans was investigated. For BES, DECTdist and SECTdist reduced differences to the reference simulation by up to 62% when compared to the conventional stoichiometric segmentation (SECTSchneider). In comparison to MR brain segmentation, Dice similarity coefficients for WM, GM and CSF were 0.61, 0.67 and 0.66 for DECTdist and 0.54, 0.41 and 0.66 for SECTdist. MC simulations of PET treatment verification in patients showed important differences between DECTdist/SECTdist and SECTSchneider for patients with large CSF areas within the treatment field but not in WM and GM. Differences could be misinterpreted as PET derived range shifts of up to 4 mm. DECTdist and SECTdist yielded comparable activity distributions, and comparison of SECTdist to a measured patient PET scan showed improved agreement when compared to SECTSchneider. The agreement between predicted and measured PET

  18. Effects of cadmium and copper on sialic acid levels in blood and brain tissues of Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utku Güner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu on sialic acid levels of brain and blood tissues of Cyprinus carpio. Methods: Adult carps were exposed to 0.1, 0.5 mg/L Cu, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L Cd and 0.1 mg/ L Cu+0.1 mg/L Cd under static experiment conditions for 1 week. At the end of exposure period, heavy metal accumulations and sialic acid levels in blood and brain tissues of the test animals were analyzed. Results: Cu and Cd accumulated in tissues in a dramatically increasing dose-dependent manner. Sialic acids level of the fish exposed to 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L Cu and Cd and control grups for 1 week were 0.834, 1.427, 0.672, 0.934, 2.968, 4.714 mg/mL respectively. The results also showed that Cu has an antagonistic effect on tissue sialic acid level. Conclusions: We propose that Cd and Cu make a complex with sialic acids of membranes in the tissues researched. This complex between metal ions and sialic acid migth account for the cellular toxicity based on Cu and Cd.

  19. Is human blood a good surrogate for brain tissue in transcriptional studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg Leonard H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since human brain tissue is often unavailable for transcriptional profiling studies, blood expression data is frequently used as a substitute. The underlying hypothesis in such studies is that genes expressed in brain tissue leave a transcriptional footprint in blood. We tested this hypothesis by relating three human brain expression data sets (from cortex, cerebellum and caudate nucleus to two large human blood expression data sets (comprised of 1463 individuals. Results We found mean expression levels were weakly correlated between the brain and blood data (r range: [0.24,0.32]. Further, we tested whether co-expression relationships were preserved between the three brain regions and blood. Only a handful of brain co-expression modules showed strong evidence of preservation and these modules could be combined into a single large blood module. We also identified highly connected intramodular "hub" genes inside preserved modules. These preserved intramodular hub genes had the following properties: first, their expression levels tended to be significantly more heritable than those from non-preserved intramodular hub genes (p -90; second, they had highly significant positive correlations with the following cluster of differentiation genes: CD58, CD47, CD48, CD53 and CD164; third, a significant number of them were known to be involved in infection mechanisms, post-transcriptional and post-translational modification and other basic processes. Conclusions Overall, we find transcriptome organization is poorly preserved between brain and blood. However, the subset of preserved co-expression relationships characterized here may aid future efforts to identify blood biomarkers for neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases when brain tissue samples are unavailable.

  20. Dextran and gelatin based photocrosslinkable tissue adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Nie, Jun; Yang, Dongzhi

    2012-11-06

    A two-component tissue adhesive based on biocompatible and bio-degradable polymers (oxidized urethane dextran (Dex-U-AD) and gelatin) was prepared and photocrosslinked under the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The adhesive could adhere to surface of gelatin, which simulated the human tissue steadily. The structures of above Dex-U-AD were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and XRD. The adhesion property of result products was evaluated by lap-shear test. The maximum adhesion strength could reach to 4.16±0.72 MPa which was significantly higher than that of fibrin glue. The photopolymerization process of Dex-U-AD/gelatin was monitored by real time infrared spectroscopy (RTIR). It took less than 5 min to complete the curing process. The cytotoxicity of Dex-U-AD/gelatin also was evaluated which indicated that Dex-U-AD/gelatin gels were nontoxic to L929 cell. The relationship between all the above-mentioned properties and degree of oxidization of Dex-U-AD was assessed. The obtained products have the potential to serve as tissue adhesive in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Respiratory difficulty caused by an ectopic brain tissue mass in the neck of a two-month-old baby: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboud Mohammed J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Neuroglial heterotopia, heterotopic brain tissue, or differentiated neural tissue outside the cranial vault is uncommon, and these anomalies most commonly occur in the nasal cavity. Case presentation We report a case of rare pure cystic heterotopic brain tissue in a two-month-old Caucasian baby girl that presented as a large cystic neck mass and was confused with a cystic hygroma. Her mother reported a progressive increase in the size of this swelling and mild respiratory difficulty when the girl was sleeping. A computed tomography scan of the brain and neck showed a large heterogeneous mass extending from the base of the skull to the left submandibular region; a cystic component was also noted. Our patient under went total excision of the cystic mass and prevention of airway obstruction by a left submandibular approach. The final gross pathology diagnosis was heterotopic brain tissue. Conclusions Pure cystic neck heterotopic brain tissue lesions are very uncommon, and a preoperative diagnosis of this lesion is difficult. Brain heterotopia is a rare, benign condition that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the neonatal head and neck mass.

  2. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping of Human Brain Reflects Spatial Variation in Tissue Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Bing; Liu, Chunlei

    2011-01-01

    Image phase from gradient echo MRI provides a unique contrast that reflects brain tissue composition variations, such as iron and myelin distribution. Phase imaging is emerging as a powerful tool for the investigation of functional brain anatomy and disease diagnosis. However, the quantitative value of phase is compromised by its nonlocal and orientation dependent properties. There is an increasing need for reliable quantification of magnetic susceptibility, the intrinsic property of tissue. In this study, we developed a novel and accurate susceptibility mapping method that is also phase-wrap insensitive. The proposed susceptibility mapping method utilized two complementary equations: (1) the Fourier relationship of phase and magnetic susceptibility; and (2) the first-order partial derivative of the first equation in the spatial frequency domain. In numerical simulation, this method reconstructed the susceptibility map almost free of streaking artifact. Further, the iterative implementation of this method allowed for high quality reconstruction of susceptibility maps of human brain in vivo. The reconstructed susceptibility map provided excellent contrast of iron-rich deep nuclei and white matter bundles from surrounding tissues. Further, it also revealed anisotropic magnetic susceptibility in brain white matter. Hence, the proposed susceptibility mapping method may provide a powerful tool for the study of brain physiology and pathophysiology. Further elucidation of anisotropic magnetic susceptibility in vivo may allow us to gain more insight into the white matter microarchitectures. PMID:21224002

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose tissue, liver, and brain from nine stillborns of varying gestational ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; Muskiet, FAJ; Van Der Paauw, CG; Essed, CE; Boersma, ER

    We analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in s.c. adipose tissue, liver, and brain of nine fetuses who died in utero. Their median (range) gestational ages and birth weights were 34 (17-40) wk and 2050 (162-3225) g. Three fetuses were small for gestational age. The levels of PCB congener nos.

  4. Immunological Detection of Rabies Virus in Brain Tissues of Infected Dogs by Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Mantik Astawa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish an immunological detection of rabies virus in tissues of infected dogs, monoclonalantibodies (mAbs against rabies virus (RV were produced. The mAbs were produced by fusion of mielomacells with the lymphocytes of mice immunized with RV. The mAbs produced were then characterized andused for the detection of rabies virus in brain tissues of infected dogs. Six mAbs designated CC6, EG4,DG10, BB12, CA9 dan EB5 were used in this study. In Western blotting test, some mAbs reacted with 66KDa which is the glycoprotein of the virus. In immunoperoxidase, 2 mAbs (CC6 and DG10 detected RVin the brain of infected dogs. By direct immunoflourescence, flourescence isotyocyanate (FITC labelledDG10 mAbs detected RV in fresh and formaldehyde fixed brain tissues. RV was detected in 12 infecteddogs but not in normal uninfected dogs. In this study it was confirmed that rabies virus can be detected inthe brain tissues of infected dogs by monoclonal antibodies.

  5. Are brain and heart tissue prone to the development of thiamine deficiency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Astrid; Larkin, James R.; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Thornalley, Paul J.; Navis, Gerjan; van Goor, Harry; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    Thiamine deficiency is a continuing problem leading to beriberi and Wernicke's encephalopathy. The symptoms of thiamine deficiency develop in the heart, brain and neuronal tissue. Yet, it is unclear how rapid thiamine deficiency develops and which organs are prone to development of thiamine

  6. Mercury speciation in brain tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Anke; Kwan, Michael; Chan, Hing Man

    2012-04-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxicant that has been found at elevated concentrations in the Arctic ecosystem. Little is known about its internal dose in wildlife such as polar bears. We measured concentrations of mercury (Hg) in three different brain regions (cerebellum, frontal lobe and brain stem) of 24 polar bears collected from the Nunavik, Canada between 2000 and 2003. Speciation of Hg was measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (HPLC-ICP-MS). Concentrations of mean total Hg in brain tissue were up to 625 times lower (0.28 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) in frontal lobe, 0.23 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1) dw in cerebellum and 0.12 ± 0.0 3mg kg(-1) dw in brain stem) than the mean total Hg concentration previously reported in polar bear liver collected from Eastern Baffin Island. Methylmercury (MeHg) accounted for 100% of the Hg found in all three brain regions analyzed. These results suggest that polar bear might reduce the toxic effects of Hg by limiting the uptake into the brain and/or decrease the rate of demethylation so that Hg can be excreted from the brain more easily. The toxicokinetics and the blood-brain-barrier mechanisms of polar bears are still unknown and further research is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency alters levels of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid in brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Jadavji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR is an enzyme key regulator in folate metabolism. Deficiencies in MTHFR result in increased levels of homocysteine, which leads to reduced levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM. In the brain, SAM donates methyl groups to catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, which is involved in neurotransmitter analysis. Using the MTHFR-deficient mouse model the purpose of this study was to investigate levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and amino acid levels in brain tissue. MTHFR deficiency affected levels of both glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid in within the cerebellum and hippocampus. Mthfr−/− mice had reduced levels of glutamate in the amygdala and γ-aminobutyric acid in the thalamus. The excitatory mechanisms of homocysteine through activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor in brain tissue might alter levels of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid.

  8. Protection of cortex by overlying meninges tissue during dynamic indentation of the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacManus, David B; Pierrat, Baptiste; Murphy, Jeremiah G; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2017-07-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a recent focus of biomedical research with a growing international effort targeting material characterization of brain tissue and simulations of trauma using computer models of the head and brain to try to elucidate the mechanisms and pathogenesis of TBI. The meninges, a collagenous protective tri-layer, which encloses the entire brain and spinal cord has been largely overlooked in these material characterization studies. This has resulted in a lack of accurate constitutive data for the cranial meninges, particularly under dynamic conditions such as those experienced during head impacts. The work presented here addresses this lack of data by providing for the first time, in situ large deformation material properties of the porcine dura-arachnoid mater composite under dynamic indentation. It is demonstrated that this tissue is substantially stiffer (shear modulus, μ=19.10±8.55kPa) and relaxes at a slower rate (τ 1 =0.034±0.008s, τ 2 =0.336±0.077s) than the underlying brain tissue (μ=6.97±2.26kPa, τ 1 =0.021±0.007s, τ 2 =0.199±0.036s), reducing the magnitudes of stress by 250% and 65% for strains that arise during indentation-type deformations in adolescent brains. We present the first mechanical analysis of the protective capacity of the cranial meninges using in situ micro-indentation techniques. Force-relaxation tests are performed on in situ meninges and cortex tissue, under large strain dynamic micro-indentation. A quasi-linear viscoelastic model is used subsequently, providing time-dependent mechanical properties of these neural tissues under loading conditions comparable to what is experienced in TBI. The reported data highlights the large differences in mechanical properties between these two tissues. Finite element simulations of the indentation experiments are also performed to investigate the protective capacity of the meninges. These simulations show that the meninges protect the underlying brain tissue

  9. Effect of ketamine on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in brain tissues following brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zangong Zhou; Xiangyu Ji; Li Song; Jianfang Song; Shiduan Wang; Yanwei Yin

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is closely related to the formation of brain edema. Neuronal apoptosis plays an important part in the conversion of swelled neuron following traumatic brain injury. At present, the studies on the protective effect of ketamine on brain have involved in its effect on aquaporin-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissues following brain injury in rats.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of ketamine on AQP-4 expression and neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissue following rat brain injury, and analyze the time-dependence of ketamine in the treatment of brain injury.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design, controlled animal trial.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology, the Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University.MATERIALS: Totally 150 rats of clean grade, aged 3 months, were involved and randomized into control group and ketamine-treated group, with 75 rats in each. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups separately at 6,12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after injury, with 15 rats at each time point. Main instruments and reagents:homemade beat machine, ketamine hydrochloride (Hengrui Pharmaceutical Factory, Jiangsu), rabbit anti-rat AQP-4 polyclonal antibody, SABC immunohistochemical reagent kit and TUNEL reagent kit (Boster Co.,Ltd.,Wuhan).METHODS: This trial was carried out in the Institute of Cerebrovascular Disease, Medical College of Qingdao University during March 2005 to February 2006. A weight-dropping rat model of brain injury was created with Feeney method. The rats in the ketamine-treated group were intraperitoneally administered with 50 g/L ketamine (120 mg/kg) one hour after injury, but ketamine was replaced by normal saline in the control group. In each subgroup, the water content of cerebral hemisphere was measured in 5 rats chosen randomly. The left 10 rats in each subgroup were transcardiacally perfused with ketamine, then the brain tissue was made into paraffin sections and stained by haematoxylin and eosin. Neuronal

  10. Contrast medium enhancement of soft tissues and brain in CT examinations of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlicek, M.

    2000-11-01

    CT is an x-ray based method which shows less contrast for soft tissue as has been known from radiography. Therefore, it is necessary to use intravenously administered iodine contrast media to detect and localize tumors, fistulas or other pathologic lesions. Usually contrast medium is administered manually which yields random patterns of media distribution due to varying application pressure during varying administration time, therefore enhancement of parenchymous organs could not be used to the optimum extent. The use of an automatic injection pump guarantees the necessary constancy during the examination procedure to undoubtedly detect pathologic enhancement of organs in the CT-image as known from human medicine. The standards which are expected of the injection pump and the contrast media are: a good contrast enhancement, a good accumulation in the examined organs, an accumulation, which lasts long enough during the diagnostic phase, and a rapid excretion without side effects. Because of the short scan time of the modern CT-scanner, the best contrast enhancement can be administered by a short bolus injection, which can be applied by the automatic injection pump with a defined flow and a defined quantity of contrast media. This guarantees a good enhancement in the chosen region for the duration of the scan. The main aim of this study is to find a standardized flow and quantity of contrast media for defined regions and organs considering the speed of the scanner. In a subsequent step, the existing scan-protocols are then updated using the newly found information. This study showed, that CT examination of the head and brain in middle-sized dogs can be administered with a flow of 0.5 ml/s and a dose of 2 ml of contrast medium per kg weight. The contrast enhancement of the brain is caused by the enhancement of the vessels, the parenchym is free of contrast media - brain shows a low increase of density. Only if the blood-brain-barrier is destroyed, it is possible that

  11. Contrast medium enhancement of soft tissues and brain in CT examinations of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlicek, M.

    2000-11-01

    CT is a x-ray based method which shows less contrast for soft tissue as has been known from radiography. Therefore, it is necessary to use intravenously administered iodine contrast media to detect and localize tumors, fistulas or other pathologic lesions. Usually contrast medium is administered manually which yields random patterns of media distribution due to varying application pressure during varying administration time, therefore enhancement of parenchymous organs could not be used to the optimum extent. The use of an automatic injection pump guarantees the necessary constancy during the examination procedure to undoubtedly detect pathologic enhancement of organs in the CT-image as known from human medicine. The standards which are expected of the injection pump and the contrast media are: a good contrast enhancement, a good accumulation in the examined organs, an accumulation, which lasts long enough during the diagnostic phase, and a rapid excretion without side effects. Because of the short scan time of the modern CT-scanner, the best contrast enhancement can be administered by a short bolus injection, which can be applied by the automatic injection pump with a defined flow and a defined quantity of contrast media. This guarantees a good enhancement in the chosen region for the duration of the scan. The main aim of this study is to find a standardized flow and quantity of contrast media for defined regions and organs considering the speed of the scanner. In a subsequent step, the existing scan-protocols are then updated using the newly found information. This study showed, that CT examination of the head and brain in middle-sized dogs can be administered with a flow of 0.5 ml/s and a dose of 2 ml of contrast medium per kg weight. The contrast enhancement of the brain is caused by the enhancement of the vessels, the parenchym is free of contrast media - brain shows a low increase of density. Only if the blood-brain-barrier is destroyed, it is possible that

  12. Carnosine supplementation protects rat brain tissue against ethanol-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel Turkcu, Ummuhani; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Biberoglu, Gursel; Mertoglu Caglar, Oznur

    2010-06-01

    Ethanol causes oxidative stress and tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of antioxidant carnosine on the oxidative stress induced by ethanol in the rat brain tissue. Forty male rats were divided equally into four groups as control, carnosine (CAR), ethanol (EtOH), and ethanol plus carnosine (EtOH + CAR). Rats in the control group (n = 10) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.9% saline; EtOH group (n = 10) with 2 g/kg/day ethanol, CAR group (n = 10) received carnosine at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day and EtOH + CAR group (n = 10) received carnosine (orally) and ethanol (i.p.). All animals were sacrificed using ketamine and brain tissues were removed. Malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PCO) and tissue carnosine levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured. Endogenous CAR levels in the rat brain tissue specimens were significantly increased in the CAR and EtOH groups when compared to the control animals. MDA and PCO levels in the EtOH group were significantly increased as compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). CAR treatment also decreased MDA levels in the CAR group as compared to the control group. Increased SOD activities were obtained in the EtOH + CAR group as compared to the control (P < 0.05). CAR levels in the rat brain were significantly increased in the CAR, EtOH and CAR + EtOH groups when compared to the control animals. These findings indicated that carnosine may appear as a protective agent against ethanol-induced brain damage.

  13. Effects of variation in cerebral haemodynamics during aneurysm surgery on brain tissue oxygen and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kett-White, R; Hutchinson, P J; Czosnyka, M; al-Rawi, P; Gupta, A; Pickard, J D; Kirkpatrick, P J

    2002-01-01

    This study explores the sensitivities of multiparameter tissue gas sensors and microdialysis to variations in blood pressure, CSF drainage and to well-defined periods of ischaemia accompanying aneurysm surgery, and their predictive value for infarction. A Neurotrend sensor [brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PBO2), carbon dioxide (PBCO2), brain pH (pHB) and temperature] and microdialysis catheter were inserted into the appropriate vascular territory prior to craniotomy. Baseline data showed a clear correlation between PBO2 and mean arterial pressure (MAP) below a threshold of 80 mmHg. PBO2 improved with CSF drainage in 20 out of 28 (Wilcoxon: P sensors can be sensitive to acute ischaemia. Microdialysis shows potential in the detection of metabolic changes during tissue hypoxia.

  14. Distribution of soya-saponin in brain and peripheral tissue after peritoneal injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shigong; Wang Jianchun; Zhang Peiyin

    1997-01-01

    125 I-soya-saponin was prepared to study the distribution of soya-saponin in body of rat, as well as in different areas of brain when peritoneal injection. The results showed that the peak value of radioactive soya-saponin in all tissue appeared at 30 min after peritoneal injection. There were higher radioactivities in brain and suprarene comparing with other organs. The highest radioactivity was seen in hypothalamus among the every brain areas. It is a first report that soyasaponin can pass through the blood brain barrier when peripheral injection. The result also supported the opinion that soyasaponin might act on the hypothalamus and central regulation of cardiovascular system. Another finding was that soyasaponin also showed a higher affinity with adrenal gland, which indicated that the soyasaponin might possess of peripheral effect for regulation of cardiovascular system as well

  15. Effect of decimeter waves on brain and surrounding tissue temperature (experimental study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikova, S.N.; Malyshev, V.L.; Balakyreva, V.N.; Gorban' , L.G.

    Temperature changes in brain and surrounding tissue evoked by decimeter waves (DMW) were studied on phantoms (wood shavings wetted with physiological solution), rabbits and dogs under light nembutal anesthesia and on animal cadavers. The data obtained showed that living organisms, in contrast to phantoms, exhibited a response to heat generation of DMW; this was manifested by maintenance of the temperature at certain level or by a tendency to lower it after about a 10 min exposure to DMW. Thus it was shown that there is a functional cooling system in living organisms: increased local blood flow and a specialized cooling system for the brain. Rabbits showed considerably higher brain temperature elevation than the experimental dogs. Overall, the brain temperature upon exposure to DMW depended on the intensity and duration of DMW action as well as on the state of circulating cooling system of the animals. 4 references, 4 figures.

  16. ICG-assisted blood vessel detection during stereotactic neurosurgery: simulation study on excitation power limitations due to thermal effects in human brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, Adrian; Göbel, Werner; Sroka, Ronald; Stepp, Herbert

    2014-09-01

    Intraoperative blood vessel detection based on intraluminal indocyanin-green (ICG) would allow to minimize the risk of blood vessel perforation during stereotactic brain tumor biopsy. For a fiber-based approach compatible with clinical conditions, the maximum tolerable excitation light power was derived from simulations of the thermal heat load on the tissue. Using the simulation software LITCIT, the temperature distribution in human brain tissue was calculated as a function of time for realistic single-fiber probes (0.72mm active diameter, numerical aperture 0.35, optional focusing to 0.29mm diameter) and for the optimum ICG excitation wavelength of 785nm. The asymptotic maximum temperature in the simulated tissue region was derived for different radiant fluxes at the distal fiber end. Worst case values were assumed for all other parameters. In addition to homogeneous (normal and tumor) brain tissue with homogeneous blood perfusion, models with localized extra blood vessels incorporated ahead of the distal fiber end were investigated. If one demands that destruction of normal brain tissue must be excluded by limiting the tissue heating to 42°C, then the radiant flux at the distal fiber end must be limited to 33mW with and 43mW without focusing. When considering extra blood vessels of 0.1mm diameter incorporated into homogeneously perfused brain tissue, the tolerable radiant flux is reduced to 22mW with and 32mW without focusing. The threshold value according to legal laser safety regulations for human skin tissue is 28.5mW. For the envisaged modality of blood vessel detection, light power limits for an application-relevant fiber configuration were determined and found to be roughly consistent with present legal regulations for skin tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy of brain tissue with higher ranking data classification for biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohling, Christoph; Bocklitz, Thomas; Duarte, Alex S.; Emmanuello, Cinzia; Ishikawa, Mariana S.; Dietzeck, Benjamin; Buckup, Tiago; Uckermann, Ortrud; Schackert, Gabriele; Kirsch, Matthias; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Motzkus, Marcus

    2017-06-01

    Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (MCARS) microscopy was carried out to map a solid tumor in mouse brain tissue. The border between normal and tumor tissue was visualized using support vector machines (SVM) as a higher ranking type of data classification. Training data were collected separately in both tissue types, and the image contrast is based on class affiliation of the single spectra. Color coding in the image generated by SVM is then related to pathological information instead of single spectral intensities or spectral differences within the data set. The results show good agreement with the H&E stained reference and spontaneous Raman microscopy, proving the validity of the MCARS approach in combination with SVM.

  18. Learning-based meta-algorithm for MRI brain extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Wang, Li; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-segmentation-and-fusion method has been widely used for brain extraction, tissue segmentation, and region of interest (ROI) localization. However, such studies are hindered in practice by their computational complexity, mainly coming from the steps of template selection and template-to-subject nonlinear registration. In this study, we address these two issues and propose a novel learning-based meta-algorithm for MRI brain extraction. Specifically, we first use exemplars to represent the entire template library, and assign the most similar exemplar to the test subject. Second, a meta-algorithm combining two existing brain extraction algorithms (BET and BSE) is proposed to conduct multiple extractions directly on test subject. Effective parameter settings for the meta-algorithm are learned from the training data and propagated to subject through exemplars. We further develop a level-set based fusion method to combine multiple candidate extractions together with a closed smooth surface, for obtaining the final result. Experimental results show that, with only a small portion of subjects for training, the proposed method is able to produce more accurate and robust brain extraction results, at Jaccard Index of 0.956 +/- 0.010 on total 340 subjects under 6-fold cross validation, compared to those by the BET and BSE even using their best parameter combinations.

  19. Multichannel optical brain imaging to separate cerebral vascular, tissue metabolic, and neuronal effects of cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hugang; Luo, Zhongchi; Yuan, Zhijia; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2012-02-01

    Characterization of cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation metabolic changes, as well neuronal function is of great importance to study of brain functions and the relevant brain disorders such as drug addiction. Compared with other neuroimaging modalities, optical imaging techniques have the potential for high spatiotemporal resolution and dissection of the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV), and hemoglobing oxygenation and intracellular Ca ([Ca2+]i), which serves as markers of vascular function, tissue metabolism and neuronal activity, respectively. Recently, we developed a multiwavelength imaging system and integrated it into a surgical microscope. Three LEDs of λ1=530nm, λ2=570nm and λ3=630nm were used for exciting [Ca2+]i fluorescence labeled by Rhod2 (AM) and sensitizing total hemoglobin (i.e., CBV), and deoxygenated-hemoglobin, whereas one LD of λ1=830nm was used for laser speckle imaging to form a CBF mapping of the brain. These light sources were time-sharing for illumination on the brain and synchronized with the exposure of CCD camera for multichannel images of the brain. Our animal studies indicated that this optical approach enabled simultaneous mapping of cocaine-induced changes in CBF, CBV and oxygenated- and deoxygenated hemoglobin as well as [Ca2+]i in the cortical brain. Its high spatiotemporal resolution (30μm, 10Hz) and large field of view (4x5 mm2) are advanced as a neuroimaging tool for brain functional study.

  20. The importance of brain banks for molecular neuropathological research: The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedova, Irina; Harding, Antony; Sheedy, Donna; Garrick, Therese; Sundqvist, Nina; Hunt, Clare; Gillies, Juliette; Harper, Clive G

    2009-01-01

    New developments in molecular neuropathology have evoked increased demands for postmortem human brain tissue. The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre (TRC) at The University of Sydney has grown from a small tissue collection into one of the leading international brain banking facilities, which operates with best practice and quality control protocols. The focus of this tissue collection is on schizophrenia and allied disorders, alcohol use disorders and controls. This review highlights changes in TRC operational procedures dictated by modern neuroscience, and provides examples of applications of modern molecular techniques to study the neuropathogenesis of many different brain disorders.

  1. The cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume: a comparative study between beagle dogs and mongrel dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sheng; Shi Haibin; Hu Weixing; Zu Qingquan; Lu Shanshan; Xu Xiaoquan; Sun Lei; Li Linsun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the differences of cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume between beagle and mongrel dogs by using angiography and MR scanning. Methods: A total of 40 dogs, including 20 beagle dogs (beagle group) and 20 mongrel dogs (mongrel group), were enrolled in this study. Under general anesthesia, all dogs were examined with cerebral angiography and MR scanning. The cerebrovascular structure was evaluated with angiography via selective catheterization of aortic arch, bilateral external cerebral arteries (ECA), maxillary arteries, internal cerebral arteries (ICA) and vertebral arteries separately. The diameters of the ICA, middle cerebral artery (MCA), rostral cerebral artery (RCA), the anastomosis channel ICA and ECA, and basilar artery (BA) were measured at the similar point of each dog. Meanwhile the volumes of the brain tissue were calculated in coronal T2 view of MR scanning. The statistical analysis was performed among the weight of dogs, the diameter of arteries and the volume of brain tissue. The differences in the diameters and brain tissue volume were compared between the two groups. Results: No obvious variations in the cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume were found in these dogs. One mongrel dog was excluded from this study because of the severe stenosis of ICA. The mean weight of 20 beagle dogs and 19 mongrel dogs was (12.81±1.29) kg and (12.85±1.12) kg, respectively. The diameters of the ICA, MCA, RCA, the anastomosis channel between ICA and ECA and BA in beagle group were (1.26±0.07) mm, (0.90±0.05) mm, (0.58±0.07) mm, (0.55±0.07) mm and (0.95±0.06) mm, respectively. These parameters in mongrel group were (1.27±0.07) mm, (0.92±0.05) mm, (0.59±0.06) mm, (0.67±0.07) mm and (0.94±0.05) mm, respectively. The volume of brain in two groups was (76232.33±5018.51) mm 3 and (71863.96±4626.87) mm 3 , respectively. There were no obvious correlation among the body weight, the cerebrovascular diameters and brain

  2. Optical histology: a method to visualize microvasculature in thick tissue sections of mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin J Moy

    Full Text Available The microvasculature is the network of blood vessels involved in delivering nutrients and gases necessary for tissue survival. Study of the microvasculature often involves immunohistological methods. While useful for visualizing microvasculature at the µm scale in specific regions of interest, immunohistology is not well suited to visualize the global microvascular architecture in an organ. Hence, use of immunohistology precludes visualization of the entire microvasculature of an organ, and thus impedes study of global changes in the microvasculature that occur in concert with changes in tissue due to various disease states. Therefore, there is a critical need for a simple, relatively rapid technique that will facilitate visualization of the microvascular network of an entire tissue.The systemic vasculature of a mouse is stained with the fluorescent lipophilic dye DiI using a method called "vessel painting". The brain, or other organ of interest, is harvested and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. The organ is then sliced into 1 mm sections and optically cleared, or made transparent, using FocusClear, a proprietary optical clearing agent. After optical clearing, the DiI-labeled tissue microvasculature is imaged using confocal fluorescence microscopy and adjacent image stacks tiled together to produce a depth-encoded map of the microvasculature in the tissue slice. We demonstrated that the use of optical clearing enhances both the tissue imaging depth and the estimate of the vascular density. Using our "optical histology" technique, we visualized microvasculature in the mouse brain to a depth of 850 µm.Presented here are maps of the microvasculature in 1 mm thick slices of mouse brain. Using combined optical clearing and optical imaging techniques, we devised a methodology to enhance the visualization of the microvasculature in thick tissues. We believe this technique could potentially be used to generate a three-dimensional map of the

  3. Sleep is not just for the brain: transcriptional responses to sleep in peripheral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Many have assumed that the primary function of sleep is for the brain. We evaluated the molecular consequences of sleep and sleep deprivation outside the brain, in heart and lung. Using microarrays we compared gene expression in tissue from sleeping and sleep deprived mice euthanized at the same diurnal times. Results In each tissue, nearly two thousand genes demonstrated statistically significant differential expression as a function of sleep/wake behavioral state. To mitigate the influence of an artificial deprivation protocol, we identified a subset of these transcripts as specifically sleep-enhanced or sleep-repressed by requiring that their expression also change over the course of unperturbed sleep. 3% and 6% of the assayed transcripts showed “sleep specific” changes in the lung and heart respectively. Sleep specific transcripts in these tissues demonstrated highly significant overlap and shared temporal dynamics. Markers of cellular stress and the unfolded protein response were reduced during sleep in both tissues. These results mirror previous findings in brain. Sleep-enhanced pathways reflected the unique metabolic functions of each tissue. Transcripts related to carbohydrate and sulfur metabolic processes were enhanced by sleep in the lung, and collectively favor buffering from oxidative stress. DNA repair and protein metabolism annotations were significantly enriched among the sleep-enhanced transcripts in the heart. Our results also suggest that sleep may provide a Zeitgeber, or synchronizing cue, in the lung as a large cluster of transcripts demonstrated systematic changes in inter-animal variability as a function of both sleep duration and circadian time. Conclusion Our data support the notion that the molecular consequences of sleep/wake behavioral state extend beyond the brain to include peripheral tissues. Sleep state induces a highly overlapping response in both heart and lung. We conclude that sleep enhances organ specific

  4. Effects of different concentrations of pollen extract on brain tissues of Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fuat Gulhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antioxidant capacities of pollen extract applied at different concentrations on biochemical parameters in brain tissues of rainbow trouts. Methods: The effective concentration of pollen was determined with some biochemical parameters in brain tissues of fish treated at various concentrations of the pollen extract (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/L for 96 h. The malondialdehyde levels, total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, oxidative stress index and amounts of total free sulfhydryl groups were analyzed in fish brain. Results: The malondialdehyde levels decreased in groups of 0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/L pollen-treated compared to control group (P<0.05. The highest level of total antioxidant status (P<0.05 and the lowest value (P<0.05 of the total oxidant status was 10 mg/L concentration of pollen. Oxidative stress index and level of sulfhydryl groups showed lowest values (P<0.05 in 10 mg/L pollen treated group compared with control group. Conclusions: To apply the pollen to fish reduces the detrimental effects and modulates oxidative status via activating antioxidant defense systems at brain tissue. As a result, pollen can be added up to 10 mg/L to the medium of rainbow trout to improve health of fish.

  5. The average baboon brain: MRI templates and tissue probability maps from 89 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Scott A; Marie, Damien; Roth, Muriel; Lacoste, Romain; Nazarian, Bruno; Bertello, Alice; Coulon, Olivier; Anton, Jean-Luc; Meguerditchian, Adrien

    2016-05-15

    The baboon (Papio) brain is a remarkable model for investigating the brain. The current work aimed at creating a population-average baboon (Papio anubis) brain template and its left/right hemisphere symmetric version from a large sample of T1-weighted magnetic resonance images collected from 89 individuals. Averaging the prior probability maps output during the segmentation of each individual also produced the first baboon brain tissue probability maps for gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid. The templates and the tissue probability maps were created using state-of-the-art, freely available software tools and are being made freely and publicly available: http://www.nitrc.org/projects/haiko89/ or http://lpc.univ-amu.fr/spip.php?article589. It is hoped that these images will aid neuroimaging research of the baboon by, for example, providing a modern, high quality normalization target and accompanying standardized coordinate system as well as probabilistic priors that can be used during tissue segmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Elemental analysis of the frontal lobe of 'normal' brain tissue and that affected by Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, J.D.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    'Normal' brain tissue and brain tissue affected by Alzheimer's disease has been taken from the frontal lobe of both hemispheres and their elemental compositions in terms of major, minor and trace elements compared. Brain samples were obtained from the MRC Alzheimer's Disease Brain Bank, London. 25 samples were taken from 18 individuals (5 males and 13 females) of mean age 79.9 ± 7.3 years with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease and 26 samples from 15 individuals (8 males and 7 females) of mean age 71.8 ± 13.0 years with no pathological sings of Alzheimer's disease ('normals'). The elemental concentration of the samples were determined by the techniques of Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analysis, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Sc, Fe, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Cs were detected by INAA and significant differences in concentrations were found between concentrations in normal and Alzheimer tissue for the elements. Na, Cl, K, Se, Br and Rb, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cd were detected by PIXE analysis and significant differences found for the elements P, S, Cl, K and Ca. (author)

  7. Effect of naturally mouldy wheat or fungi administration on metallothioneins level in brain tissues of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasatkova, Anna; Krizova, Sarka; Krystofova, Olga; Adam, Vojtech; Zeman, Ladislav; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine level of metallothioneins (MTs) in brain tissues of rats administered by feed mixtures with different content of mouldy wheat or fungi. Selected male laboratory rats of Wistar albino at age of 28 days were used in our experiments. The rats were administered by feed mixtures with different content of vitamins, naturally mouldy wheat or fungi for 28 days. At the very end of the experiment, the animals were put to death and brains were sampled. MT level was determined by differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. We found that MTs' level in brain tissues from rats administered by standard feed mixtures was significantly higher compared to the level of MTs in rats supplemented by vitamins. Further we studied the effect of supplementation of naturally mouldy wheat on MTs level in rats. In mouldy wheat we detected the presence of following fungi species: Mucor spp., Absidia spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. Moreover we also identified and quantified following mycotoxins - deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T2-toxin and aflatoxins. Level of MTs determined in rats treated with 33 or 66% of mouldy wheat was significantly lower compared to control ones. On the other hand rats treated with 100% of mouldy wheat had less MTs but not significantly. Supplementation of vitamins to rats fed by mouldy wheat had adverse effect on MTs level compared to rats with no other supplementation by vitamins. Moreover vitamins supplementation has no effect on MTs level in brain tissues of rats treated or non-treated with Ganoderma lucidum L. Both mycotoxins and vitamins have considerable effect on level of MTs in brain tissues. It can be assumed that the administered substances markedly influence redox metabolism, which could negatively influence numerous biochemical pathways including those closely related with MTs.

  8. Systemic delivery of blood-brain barrier-targeted polymeric nanoparticles enhances delivery to brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier-Sawyer, Jennifer K; Deng, Yang; Seo, Young-Eun; Cheng, Christopher J; Zhang, Junwei; Quijano, Elias; Saltzman, W Mark

    2015-01-01

    Delivery of therapeutic agents to the central nervous system is a significant challenge, hindering progress in the treatment of diseases such as glioblastoma. Due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), therapeutic agents do not readily transverse the brain endothelium to enter the parenchyma. Previous reports suggest that surface modification of polymer nanoparticles (NPs) can improve their ability to cross the BBB, but it is unclear whether the observed enhancements in transport are large enough to enhance therapy. In this study, we synthesized two degradable polymer NP systems surface-modified with ligands previously suggested to improve BBB transport, and tested their ability to cross the BBB after intravenous injection in mice. All the NP preparations were able to cross the BBB, although generally in low amounts (brain uptake (∼0.8% of the injected dose): a block copolymer of polylactic acid and hyperbranched polyglycerol, surface modified with adenosine (PLA-HPG-Ad). PLA-HPG-Ad NPs provided controlled release of camptothecin, killing U87 glioma cells in culture. When administered intravenously in mice with intracranial U87 tumors, they failed to increase survival. These results suggest that enhancing NP transport across the BBB does not necessarily yield proportional pharmacological effects.

  9. In vivo evidence of methamphetamine induced attenuation of brain tissue oxygenation as measured by EPR oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, John; Yang, Yirong; Purvis, Rebecca; Weatherwax, Theodore; Rosen, Gerald M.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-01

    Abuse of methamphetamine (METH) is a major and significant societal problem in the US, as a number of studies have suggested that METH is associated with increased cerebrovascular events, hemorrhage or vasospasm. Although cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in METH-induced toxicity are not completely understood, changes in brain O2 may play an important role and contribute to METH-induced neurotoxicity including dopaminergic receptor degradation. Given that O2 is the terminal electron acceptor for many enzymes that are important in brain function, the impact of METH on brain tissue pO2 in vivo remains largely uncharacterized. This study investigated striatal tissue pO2 changes in male C57BL/6 mice (16–20g) following METH administration using EPR oximetry, a highly sensitive modality to measure pO2 in vivo, in situ and in real time. We demonstrate that 20 min after a single injection of METH (8 mg/kg i.v.), the striatal pO2 was reduced to 81% of the pretreatment level and exposure to METH for 3 consecutive days further attenuated striatal pO2 to 64%. More importantly, pO2 did not recover fully to control levels even 24 hrs after administration of a single dose of METH. and continual exposure to METH exacerbates the condition. We also show a reduction in cerebral blood flow associated with a decreased brain pO2 indicating an ischemic condition. Our findings suggests that administration of METH can attenuate brain tissue pO2, which may lead to hypoxic insult, thus a risk factor for METH-induced brain injury and the development of stroke in young adults. PMID:24412707

  10. Neutrophil depletion reduces edema formation and tissue loss following traumatic brain injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenne Ellinor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain edema as a result of secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major clinical concern. Neutrophils are known to cause increased vascular permeability leading to edema formation in peripheral tissue, but their role in the pathology following TBI remains unclear. Methods In this study we used controlled cortical impact (CCI as a model for TBI and investigated the role of neutrophils in the response to injury. The outcome of mice that were depleted of neutrophils using an anti-Gr-1 antibody was compared to that in mice with intact neutrophil count. The effect of neutrophil depletion on blood-brain barrier function was assessed by Evan's blue dye extravasation, and analysis of brain water content was used as a measurement of brain edema formation (24 and 48 hours after CCI. Lesion volume was measured 7 and 14 days after CCI. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess cell death, using a marker for cleaved caspase-3 at 24 hours after injury, and microglial/macrophage activation 7 days after CCI. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric data. Results Neutrophil depletion did not significantly affect Evan's blue extravasation at any time-point after CCI. However, neutrophil-depleted mice exhibited a decreased water content both at 24 and 48 hours after CCI indicating reduced edema formation. Furthermore, brain tissue loss was attenuated in neutropenic mice at 7 and 14 days after injury. Additionally, these mice had a significantly reduced number of activated microglia/macrophages 7 days after CCI, and of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells 24 h after injury. Conclusion Our results suggest that neutrophils are involved in the edema formation, but not the extravasation of large proteins, as well as contributing to cell death and tissue loss following TBI in mice.

  11. Brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen predicts the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury under mild hypothermia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun H

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hongtao Sun,1,* Maohua Zheng,2,* Yanmin Wang,1 Yunfeng Diao,1 Wanyong Zhao,1 Zhengjun Wei1 1Sixth Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Logistics University of People’s Armed Police Force, Tianjin, 2Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and changes of brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PbtO2 in the course of mild hypothermia treatment (MHT for treating severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI. Methods: There were 68 cases with sTBI undergoing MHT. PbtO2, intracranial pressure (ICP, jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP were continuously monitored, and clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale score. Results: Of 68 patients with sTBI, PbtO2, SjvO2, and CPP were obviously increased, but decreased ICP level was observed throughout the MHT. PbtO2 and ICP were negatively linearly correlated, while there was a positive linear correlation between PbtO2 and SjvO2. Monitoring CPP and SjvO2 was performed under normal circumstances, and a large proportion of patients were detected with low PbtO2. Decreased PbtO2 was also found after MHT. Conclusion: Continuous PbtO2 monitoring could be introduced to evaluate the condition of regional cerebral oxygen metabolism, thereby guiding the clinical treatment and predicting the outcome. Keywords: severe traumatic brain injury, hypothermia, brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen, therapy

  12. Can fruits and vegetables be used as substitute phantoms for normal human brain tissues in magnetic resonance imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramoto, Daisuke; Ushioda, Yuichi; Sasaki, Ayaka; Sakurai Yuki; Nagahama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Manami; Sugimori, Hiroyuki; Sakata, Motomichi

    2013-01-01

    Various custom-made phantoms designed to optimize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences have been created and subsequently reported in Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT). However, custom-made phantoms that correctly match the T 1 -value and T 2 -values of human brain tissue (gray matter and white matter) cannot be made easily or quickly. The aim of this project was to search for alternative materials, such as fruits and vegetables, for optimizing MRI sequences. The following eight fruits and vegetables were investigated: apple, tomato, melon, apple mango (Mangifera indica), banana, avocado, peach, and eggplant. Their potential was studied for use in modeling phantoms of normal human brain tissues. MRI (T 1 - and T 2 -weighted sequences) was performed on the human brain and the fruits and vegetables using various concentrations of contrast medium (gadolinium) in the same size tubes as the custom-made phantom. The authors compared the signal intensity (SI) in human brain tissue (gray matter and white matter) with that of the fruits and the custom-made phantom. The T 1 and T 2 values were measured for banana tissue and compared with those for human brain tissue in the literature. Our results indicated that banana tissue is similar to human brain tissue (both gray matter and white matter). Banana tissue can thus be employed as an alternative phantom for the human brain for the purpose of MRI. (author)

  13. In vivo evidence of methamphetamine induced attenuation of brain tissue oxygenation as measured by EPR oximetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, John; Yang, Yirong; Purvis, Rebecca; Weatherwax, Theodore; Rosen, Gerald M.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-01

    Abuse of methamphetamine (METH) is a major and significant societal problem in the US, as a number of studies have suggested that METH is associated with increased cerebrovascular events, hemorrhage or vasospasm. Although cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in METH-induced toxicity are not completely understood, changes in brain O 2 may play an important role and contribute to METH-induced neurotoxicity including dopaminergic receptor degradation. Given that O 2 is the terminal electron acceptor for many enzymes that are important in brain function, the impact of METH on brain tissue pO 2 in vivo remains largely uncharacterized. This study investigated striatal tissue pO 2 changes in male C57BL/6 mice (16–20 g) following METH administration using EPR oximetry, a highly sensitive modality to measure pO 2 in vivo, in situ and in real time. We demonstrate that 20 min after a single injection of METH (8 mg/kg i.v.), the striatal pO 2 was reduced to 81% of the pretreatment level and exposure to METH for 3 consecutive days further attenuated striatal pO 2 to 64%. More importantly, pO 2 did not recover fully to control levels even 24 h after administration of a single dose of METH and continual exposure to METH exacerbates the condition. We also show a reduction in cerebral blood flow associated with a decreased brain pO 2 indicating an ischemic condition. Our findings suggests that administration of METH can attenuate brain tissue pO 2 , which may lead to hypoxic insult, thus a risk factor for METH-induced brain injury and the development of stroke in young adults. - Highlights: • Explored striatal tissue pO 2 in vivo after METH administration by EPR oximetry. • pO 2 was reduced by 81% after a single dose and 64% after 3 consecutive daily doses. • pO 2 did not recover fully to control levels even 24 h after a single dose. • Decrease in brain tissue pO 2 may be associated with a decrease in CBF. • Administration of methamphetamine may lead to hypoxic

  14. In vivo evidence of methamphetamine induced attenuation of brain tissue oxygenation as measured by EPR oximetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, John, E-mail: jmweaver@salud.unm.edu [Center of Biomedical Research Excellence, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Yang, Yirong [Center of Biomedical Research Excellence, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Purvis, Rebecca [Center of Biomedical Research Excellence, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Weatherwax, Theodore [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Rosen, Gerald M. [Center for Biomedical Engineering and Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Center for EPR Imaging In Vivo Physiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Liu, Ke Jian [Center of Biomedical Research Excellence, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Abuse of methamphetamine (METH) is a major and significant societal problem in the US, as a number of studies have suggested that METH is associated with increased cerebrovascular events, hemorrhage or vasospasm. Although cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in METH-induced toxicity are not completely understood, changes in brain O{sub 2} may play an important role and contribute to METH-induced neurotoxicity including dopaminergic receptor degradation. Given that O{sub 2} is the terminal electron acceptor for many enzymes that are important in brain function, the impact of METH on brain tissue pO{sub 2}in vivo remains largely uncharacterized. This study investigated striatal tissue pO{sub 2} changes in male C57BL/6 mice (16–20 g) following METH administration using EPR oximetry, a highly sensitive modality to measure pO{sub 2}in vivo, in situ and in real time. We demonstrate that 20 min after a single injection of METH (8 mg/kg i.v.), the striatal pO{sub 2} was reduced to 81% of the pretreatment level and exposure to METH for 3 consecutive days further attenuated striatal pO{sub 2} to 64%. More importantly, pO{sub 2} did not recover fully to control levels even 24 h after administration of a single dose of METH and continual exposure to METH exacerbates the condition. We also show a reduction in cerebral blood flow associated with a decreased brain pO{sub 2} indicating an ischemic condition. Our findings suggests that administration of METH can attenuate brain tissue pO{sub 2}, which may lead to hypoxic insult, thus a risk factor for METH-induced brain injury and the development of stroke in young adults. - Highlights: • Explored striatal tissue pO{sub 2}in vivo after METH administration by EPR oximetry. • pO{sub 2} was reduced by 81% after a single dose and 64% after 3 consecutive daily doses. • pO{sub 2} did not recover fully to control levels even 24 h after a single dose. • Decrease in brain tissue pO{sub 2} may be associated with a decrease in

  15. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  16. Development of acute hydrocephalus does not change brain tissue mechanical properties in adult rats, but in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Alice C; Jugé, Lauriane; Bilston, Lynne E; Cheng, Shaokoon

    2017-01-01

    Regional changes in brain stiffness were previously demonstrated in an experimental obstructive hydrocephalus juvenile rat model. The open cranial sutures in the juvenile rats have influenced brain compression and mechanical properties during hydrocephalus development and the extent by which closed cranial sutures in adult hydrocephalic rat models affect brain stiffness in-vivo remains unclear. The aims of this study were to determine changes in brain tissue mechanical properties and brain structure size during hydrocephalus development in adult rat with fixed cranial volume and how these changes were related to brain tissue deformation. Hydrocephalus was induced in 9 female ten weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting 60 μL of a kaolin suspension (25%) into the cisterna magna under anaesthesia. 6 sham-injected age-matched female SD rats were used as controls. MR imaging (9.4T, Bruker) was performed 1 day before and then at 3 days post injection. T2-weighted anatomical MR images were collected to quantify ventricle and brain tissue cross-sectional areas. MR elastography (800 Hz) was used to measure the brain stiffness (G*, shear modulus). Brain tissue in the adult hydrocephalic rats was more compressed than the juvenile hydrocephalic rats because the skulls of the adult hydrocephalic rats were unable to expand like the juvenile rats. In the adult hydrocephalic rats, the cortical gray matter thickness and the caudate-putamen cross-sectional area decreased (Spearman, P hydrocephalus is complex and is not solely dependent on brain tissue deformation. Further studies on the interactions between brain tissue stiffness, deformation, tissue oedema and neural damage are necessary before MRE can be used as a tool to track changes in brain biomechanics in hydrocephalus.

  17. A new microcontroller-based human brain hypothermia system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapidere, Metin; Ahiska, Raşit; Güler, Inan

    2005-10-01

    Many studies show that artificial hypothermia of brain in conditions of anesthesia with the rectal temperature lowered down to 33 degrees C produces pronounced prophylactic effect protecting the brain from anoxia. Out of the methods employed now in clinical practice for reducing the oxygen consumption by the cerebral tissue, the most efficacious is craniocerebral hypothermia (CCH). It is finding even more extensive application in cardiovascular surgery, neurosurgery, neurorenimatology and many other fields of medical practice. In this study, a microcontroller-based designed human brain hypothermia system (HBHS) is designed and constructed. The system is intended for cooling and heating the brain. HBHS consists of a thermoelectric hypothermic helmet, a control and a power unit. Helmet temperature is controlled by 8-bit PIC16F877 microcontroller which is programmed using MPLAB editor. Temperature is converted to 10-bit digital and is controlled automatically by the preset values which have been already entered in the microcontroller. Calibration is controlled and the working range is tested. Temperature of helmet is controlled between -5 and +46 degrees C by microcontroller, with the accuracy of +/-0.5 degrees C.

  18. Research on terahertz properties of rat brain tissue sections during dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Gangqiang; Liang, Jianfeng; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhao, Xianghui; Chang, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Biological tissue sections are always kept in a system purged with dry nitrogen for the measurement of terahertz spectrum. However, the injected nitrogen will cause dehydration of tissue sections, which will affect the accuracy of spectrum measurement. In this paper, terahertz time-domain spectrometer is used to measure the terahertz spectra of rat brain tissue sections during dehydration. The changes of terahertz properties, including terahertz transmittance, refractive index and extinction coefficient during dehydration are also analyzed. The amplitudes of terahertz time-domain spectra increase gradually during the dehydration process. Besides, the terahertz properties show obvious changes during the dehydration process. All the results indicate that the injected dry nitrogen has a significant effect on the terahertz spectra and properties of tissue sections. This study contributes to further research and application of terahertz technology in biomedical field.

  19. Changes in oxygen partial pressure of brain tissue in an animal model of obstructive apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Marta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment is one of the main consequences of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and is usually attributed in part to the oxidative stress caused by intermittent hypoxia in cerebral tissues. The presence of oxygen-reactive species in the brain tissue should be produced by the deoxygenation-reoxygenation cycles which occur at tissue level during recurrent apneic events. However, how changes in arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 during repetitive apneas translate into oxygen partial pressure (PtO2 in brain tissue has not been studied. The objective of this study was to assess whether brain tissue is partially protected from intermittently occurring interruption of O2 supply during recurrent swings in arterial SpO2 in an animal model of OSA. Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g were used. Sixteen rats were anesthetized and non-invasively subjected to recurrent obstructive apneas: 60 apneas/h, 15 s each, for 1 h. A control group of 8 rats was instrumented but not subjected to obstructive apneas. PtO2 in the cerebral cortex was measured using a fast-response oxygen microelectrode. SpO2 was measured by pulse oximetry. The time dependence of arterial SpO2 and brain tissue PtO2 was carried out by Friedman repeated measures ANOVA. Results Arterial SpO2 showed a stable periodic pattern (no significant changes in maximum [95.5 ± 0.5%; m ± SE] and minimum values [83.9 ± 1.3%]. By contrast, brain tissue PtO2 exhibited a different pattern from that of arterial SpO2. The minimum cerebral cortex PtO2 computed during the first apnea (29.6 ± 2.4 mmHg was significantly lower than baseline PtO2 (39.7 ± 2.9 mmHg; p = 0.011. In contrast to SpO2, the minimum and maximum values of PtO2 gradually increased (p 2 were significantly greater relative to baseline and the first apnea dip, respectively. Conclusions These data suggest that the cerebral cortex is partially protected from intermittently occurring interruption of

  20. Cerebral oxygenation in contusioned vs. nonlesioned brain tissue: monitoring of PtiO2 with Licox and Paratrend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafzadeh, A S; Kiening, K L; Bardt, T F; Schneider, G H; Unterberg, A W; Lanksch, W R

    1998-01-01

    Brain tissue PO2 in severely head injured patients was monitored in parallel with two different PO2-microsensors (Licox and Paratrend). Three different locations of sensor placement were chosen: (1) both catheters into non lesioned tissue (n = 3), (2) both catheters into contusioned tissue (n = 2), and (3) one catheter (Licox) into pericontusional versus one catheter (Paratrend) into non lesioned brain tissue (n = 2). Mean duration of PtiO2-monitoring with both microsensors in parallel was 68.1 hours. Brain tissue PO2 varied when measured in lesioned and nonlesioned tissue. In non lesioned tissue both catheters closely correlated (delta Licox/Paratrend: mean PtiO2 delta lesioned/non lesioned: mean PtiO2: 10.3 mm Hg). In contusioned brain tissue PtiO2 was always below the "hypoxic threshold" of 10 mm Hg, independent of the type of microsensor used. During a critical reduction in cerebral perfusion pressure (PO2, only increased PtiO2 when measured in pericontusional and nonlesioned brain. To recognize critical episodes of hypoxia or ischemia, PtiO2-monitoring of cerebral oxygenation is recommended in nonlesioned brain tissue.

  1. Epileptic rat brain tissue analyzed by 2D correlation Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacharz, Julia; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Zięba-Palus, Janina; Lewandowski, Marian H.; Kowalski, Rafał; Palus, Katarzyna; Chrobok, Łukasz; Moskal, Paulina; Birczyńska, Malwina; Sozańska, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Absence epilepsy is the neurological disorder characterized by the pathological spike-and wave discharges present in the electroencephalogram, accompanying a sudden loss of consciousness. Experiments were performed on brain slices obtained from young male WAG/Rij rats (2-3 weeks old), so that they were sampled before the appearance of brain-damaging seizures symptoms. Two differing brain areas of the rats' brain tissue were studied: the somatosensory cortex (Sc) and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (DLG). The Raman spectra of the fresh brain scraps, kept during measurements in artificial cerebrospinal fluid, were collected using as an excitation source 442 nm, 514.5 nm, 785 nm and 1064 nm laser line. The average spectra were analyzed by 2D correlation method regarding laser line as an external perturbation. In 2D synchronous spectra positive auto-peaks corresponding to the Cdbnd C stretching and amide I band vibrations show maxima at 1660 cm- 1 and 1662 cm- 1 for Sc and DLG, respectively. The prominent auto-peak at 2937 cm- 1, originated from the CH3 mode in DLG brain area, seems to indicate the importance of methylation, considered to be significant in epileptogenesis. Synchronous and asynchronous correlations peaks, glutamic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), appear in Sc and DLG, respectively. In the 1730-1600 cm- 1 range occur cross-peaks which appearance might be triggered by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) activation.

  2. Effects of the Variation in Brain Tissue Mechanical Properties on the Intracranial Response of a 6-Year-Old Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shihai; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiangnan; Ruan, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue mechanical properties are of importance to investigate child head injury using finite element (FE) method. However, these properties used in child head FE model normally vary in a large range in published literatures because of the insufficient child cadaver experiments. In this work, a head FE model with detailed anatomical structures is developed from the computed tomography (CT) data of a 6-year-old healthy child head. The effects of brain tissue mechanical properties on traumatic brain response are also analyzed by reconstruction of a head impact on engine hood according to Euro-NCAP testing regulation using FE method. The result showed that the variations of brain tissue mechanical parameters in linear viscoelastic constitutive model had different influences on the intracranial response. Furthermore, the opposite trend was obtained in the predicted shear stress and shear strain of brain tissues caused by the variations of mentioned parameters.

  3. Effects of the Variation in Brain Tissue Mechanical Properties on the Intracranial Response of a 6-Year-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihai Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tissue mechanical properties are of importance to investigate child head injury using finite element (FE method. However, these properties used in child head FE model normally vary in a large range in published literatures because of the insufficient child cadaver experiments. In this work, a head FE model with detailed anatomical structures is developed from the computed tomography (CT data of a 6-year-old healthy child head. The effects of brain tissue mechanical properties on traumatic brain response are also analyzed by reconstruction of a head impact on engine hood according to Euro-NCAP testing regulation using FE method. The result showed that the variations of brain tissue mechanical parameters in linear viscoelastic constitutive model had different influences on the intracranial response. Furthermore, the opposite trend was obtained in the predicted shear stress and shear strain of brain tissues caused by the variations of mentioned parameters.

  4. Quantitative analysis of transcranial and intraparenchymal light penetration in human cadaver brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, Clark E; DeLapp, Scott; Jacques, Steven; Anders, Juanita

    2015-04-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) also known as low-level light therapy has been used successfully for the treatment of injury and disease of the nervous system. The use of PBM to treat injury and diseases of the brain requires an in-depth understanding of light propagation through tissues including scalp, skull, meninges, and brain. This study investigated the light penetration gradients in the human cadaver brain using a Transcranial Laser System with a 30 mm diameter beam of 808 nm wavelength light. In addition, the wavelength-dependence of light scatter and absorbance in intraparenchymal brain tissue using 660, 808, and 940 nm wavelengths was investigated. Intact human cadaver heads (n = 8) were obtained for measurement of light propagation through the scalp/skull/meninges and into brain tissue. The cadaver heads were sectioned in either the transverse or mid-sagittal. The sectioned head was mounted into a cranial fixture with an 808 nm wavelength laser system illuminating the head from beneath with either pulsed-wave (PW) or continuous-wave (CW) laser light. A linear array of nine isotropic optical fibers on a 5 mm pitch was inserted into the brain tissue along the optical axis of the beam. Light collected from each fiber was delivered to a multichannel power meter. As the array was lowered into the tissue, the power from each probe was recorded at 5 mm increments until the inner aspect of the dura mater was reached. Intraparenchymal light penetration measurements were made by delivering a series of wavelengths (660, 808, and 940 nm) through a separate optical fiber within the array, which was offset from the array line by 5 mm. Local light penetration was determined and compared across the selected wavelengths. Unfixed cadaver brains provide good anatomical localization and reliable measurements of light scatter and penetration in the CNS tissues. Transcranial application of 808 nm wavelength light penetrated the scalp, skull, meninges, and brain

  5. Linear-fitting-based similarity coefficient map for tissue dissimilarity analysis in -w magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shao-De; Wu Shi-Bin; Xie Yao-Qin; Wang Hao-Yu; Wei Xin-Hua; Chen Xin; Pan Wan-Long; Hu Jiani

    2015-01-01

    Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM) aims to improve the morphological evaluation of weighted magnetic resonance imaging However, how to interpret the generated SCM map is still pending. Moreover, is it probable to extract tissue dissimilarity messages based on the theory behind SCM? The primary purpose of this paper is to address these two questions. First, the theory of SCM was interpreted from the perspective of linear fitting. Then, a term was embedded for tissue dissimilarity information. Finally, our method was validated with sixteen human brain image series from multi-echo . Generated maps were investigated from signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and perceived visual quality, and then interpreted from intra- and inter-tissue intensity. Experimental results show that both perceptibility of anatomical structures and tissue contrast are improved. More importantly, tissue similarity or dissimilarity can be quantified and cross-validated from pixel intensity analysis. This method benefits image enhancement, tissue classification, malformation detection and morphological evaluation. (paper)

  6. The Effects on Antioxidant Enzyme Systems in Rat Brain Tissues of Lead Nitrate and Mercury Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Baş, Hatice; Kalender, Suna; Karaboduk, Hatice; Apaydın, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of lead nitrate and mercury chloride in brain tissues of Wistar rats. Mercury chloride (0.02 mg/kg bw) and lead nitrate (45 mg/kg bw) were administered orally for 28 days rats. The mercury chloride and lead nitrate treated animals were exhibited a significant inhibition of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutation peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities and increasing of malondialdehyde levels. In our present study mercury c...

  7. Piezosurgery prevents brain tissue damage: an experimental study on a new rat model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, G.; Foltán, R.; Burian, M.; Horká, E.; Adámek, S.; Hejčl, Aleš; Hanzelka, T.; Šedý, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 8 (2011), s. 840-844 ISSN 0901-5027 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GAP304/10/0320 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538 Program:1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : piezosurgery * brain * tissue damage Subject RIV: FJ - Surgery incl. Transplants; FH - Neurology (UEM-P) Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2011

  8. [Correlation between RNA Expression Level and Early PMI in Human Brain Tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Y H; Ma, K J; Li, Z H; Gu, J; Bao, J Y; Yang, Z F; Gao, J; Zeng, Y; Tao, L; Chen, L

    2016-08-01

    To explore the correlation between the expression levels of several RNA markers in human brain tissue and early postmortem interval (PMI). Twelve individuals with known PMI (range from 4.3 to 22.5 h) were selected and total RNA was extracted from brain tissue. Eight commonly used RNA markers were chosen including β -actin, GAPDH, RPS29, 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA, U6 snRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b, and the expression levels were detected in brain tissue by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The internal reference markers with stable expression in early PMI were screened using geNorm software and the relationship between its expression level and some relevant factors such as age, gender and cause of death were analyzed. RNA markers normalized by internal reference were inserted into the mathematic model established by previous research for PMI estimation using R software. Model quality was judged by the error rate calculated with estimated PMI. 5S rRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b showed quite stable expression and their expression levels had no relation with age, gender and cause of death. The error rate of estimated PMI using β -actin was 24.6%, while GAPDH was 41.0%. 5S rRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b are suitable as internal reference markers of human brain tissue owing to their stable expression in early PMI. The expression level of β -actin correlates well with PMI, which can be used as an additional index for early PMI estimation. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  9. Cavitation Induced Structural and Neural Damage in Live Brain Tissue Slices: Relevance to TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-29

    objective of this project is to determine the conditions conducive for cavitation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and corresponding tissue injury in 2-D brain...the radius of an isolated spherical bubble in an infinite, incompressible liquid is given by Where, R is the instantaneous bubble radius, which can...by the pressure transducer placed in the test chamber, and PR is the pressure in the liquid at the boundary of the bubble. The measurable bubble

  10. Anomalous frequency-dependent ionic conductivity of lesion-laden human-brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emin, David; Akhtari, Massoud; Fallah, Aria; Vinters, Harry V.; Mathern, Gary W.

    2017-10-01

    We study the effect of lesions on our four-electrode measurements of the ionic conductivity of (˜1 cm3) samples of human brain excised from patients undergoing pediatric epilepsy surgery. For most (˜94%) samples, the low-frequency ionic conductivity rises upon increasing the applied frequency. We attributed this behavior to the long-range (˜0.4 mm) diffusion of solvated sodium cations before encountering intrinsic impenetrable blockages such as cell membranes, blood vessels, and cell walls. By contrast, the low-frequency ionic conductivity of some (˜6%) brain-tissue samples falls with increasing applied frequency. We attribute this unusual frequency-dependence to the electric-field induced liberation of sodium cations from traps introduced by the unusually severe pathology observed in samples from these patients. Thus, the anomalous frequency-dependence of the ionic conductivity indicates trap-producing brain lesions.

  11. Determination of nitrosourea compounds in brain tissue by gas chromatography and electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenbusch, S J; Colvin, O M; Anderson, J H

    1995-07-01

    A relatively simple, high-sensitivity gas chromatographic assay is described for nitrosourea compounds, such as BCNU [1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea] and MeCCNU [1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea], in small biopsy samples of brain and other tissues. After extraction with ethyl acetate, secondary amines in BCNU and MeCCNU are derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride. Compounds are separated and quantitated by gas chromatography using a capillary column with temperature programming and an electron capture detector. Standard curves of BCNU indicate a coefficient of variance of 0.066 +/- 0.018, a correlation coefficient of 0.929, and an extraction efficiency from whole brain of 68% with a minimum detectable amount of 20 ng in 5-10 mg samples. The assay has been facile and sensitive in over 1000 brain biopsy specimens after intravenous and intraarterial infusions of BCNU.

  12. Automatic quantification of mitochondrial fragmentation from two-photon microscope images of mouse brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihavainen, E; Kislin, M; Toptunov, D; Khiroug, L; Ribeiro, A S

    2015-12-01

    The morphology of mitochondria can inform about their functional state and, thus, about cell vitality. For example, fragmentation of the mitochondrial network is associated with many diseases. Recent advances in neuronal imaging have enabled the observation of mitochondria in live brains for long periods of time, enabling the study of their dynamics in animal models of diseases. To aid these studies, we developed an automatic method, based on supervised learning, for quantifying the degree of mitochondrial fragmentation in tissue images acquired via two-photon microscopy from transgenic mice, which exclusively express Enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) under Thy1 promoter, targeted to the mitochondrial matrix in subpopulations of neurons. We tested the method on images prior to and after cardiac arrest, and found it to be sensitive to significant changes in mitochondrial morphology because of the arrest. We conclude that the method is useful in detecting morphological abnormalities in mitochondria and, likely, in other subcellular structures as well. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. [Acid-base equilibrium and the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabary, O; Boussofara, M; Grimaud, D

    1994-01-01

    In physiological conditions, the regulation of acid-base balance in brain maintains a noteworthy stability of cerebral pH. During systemic metabolic acid-base imbalances cerebral pH is well controlled as the blood/brain barrier is slowly and poorly permeable to electrolytes (HCO3- and H+). Cerebral pH is regulated by a modulation of the respiratory drive, triggered by the early alterations of interstitial fluid pH, close to medullary chemoreceptors. As blood/brain barrier is highly permeable to Co2, CSF pH is corrected in a few hours, even in case of severe metabolic acidosis and alkalosis. Conversely, during ventilatory acidosis and alkalosis the cerebral pH varies in the same direction and in the same range than blood pH. Therefore, the brain is better protected against metabolic than ventilatory acid-base imbalances. Ventilatory acidosis and alkalosis are able to impair cerebral blood flow and brain activity through interstitial pH alterations. During respiratory acidosis, [HCO3-] increases in extracellular fluids to control cerebral pH by two main ways: a carbonic anhydrase activation at the blood/brain and blood/CSF barriers level and an increase in chloride shift in glial cells (HCO3- exchanged for Cl-). During respiratory alkalosis, [HCO3-] decreases in extracellular fluids by the opposite changes in HCO3- transport and by an increase in lactic acid synthesis by cerebral cells. The treatment of metabolic acidosis with bicarbonates may induce a cerebral acidosis and worsen a cerebral oedema during ketoacidosis. Moderate hypocapnia carried out to treat intracranial hypertension is mainly effective when cerebral blood flow is high and vascular CO2 reactivity maintained. Hypocapnia may restore an altered cerebral blood flow autoregulation. Instrumental hypocapnia requires a control of cerebral perfusion pressure and cerebral arteriovenous difference for oxygen, to select patients for whom this kind of treatment may be of benefit, to choose the optimal level of

  14. Imaging Nicotine in Rat Brain Tissue by Use of Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Thomas, Mathew; Carson, James P.; Smith, Jordan N.; Timchalk, Charles; Laskin, Julia

    2013-01-15

    Imaging mass spectrometry offers simultaneous detection of drugs, drug metabolites and endogenous substances in a single experiment. This is important when evaluating effects of a drug on a complex organ system such as the brain, where there is a need to understand how regional drug distribution impacts function. Nicotine is an addictive drug and its action in the brain is of high interest. Here we use nanospray desorption electrospray ionization, nano-DESI, imaging to discover the localization of nicotine in rat brain tissue after in vivo administration of nicotine. Nano-DESI is a new ambient technique that enables spatially-resolved analysis of tissue samples without special sample pretreatment. We demonstrate high sensitivity of nano-DESI imaging that enables detection of only 0.7 fmole nicotine per pixel in the complex brain matrix. Furthermore, by adding deuterated nicotine to the solvent, we examined how matrix effects, ion suppression, and normalization affect the observed nicotine distribution. Finally, we provide preliminary results suggesting that nicotine localizes to the hippocampal substructure called dentate gyrus.

  15. 2D correlation Raman microspectroscopy of chosen parts of rat's brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zięba-Palus, J.; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, A.; Sacharz, J.; Lewandowski, M. H.; Palus, K.; Chrobok, Ł.; Kowalski, R.; Moskal, P.; Birczyńska, M.; Sozańska, Agnieszka

    2017-11-01

    Raman spectra of two areas of Wistar rat brain tissue, tissue that are linked functionally to one another -the somatosensory cortex (Sc) and the dorsolateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (DLG)- excited with 442 nm, 514.5 nm, 785 nm and 1064 nm laser lines- were studied. No fixation method was used to preserve samples taken from the precisely defined anatomical areas of the brain. The brain slides were kept in artificial cerebrospinal fluid during the measurements. Averaged spectra were analyzed using the 2D correlation method. The varying wavelength/energy of the excitation laser was regarded as an external stimulus. 2D correlation analysis resolved differences between Sc and DLG in the range of 1800-1000 cm-1 and also in the hetero-spectral regions of about 1800-1200 cm-1 and 3100-2500 cm-1. Auto-peaks at 1659 cm-1 and 1666 cm-1 characterize the phase of the constituent lipid clusters with proteins and cholesterol in Sc and cholesterol in DLG, respectively. Appearing cross-peaks indicate the correlations with different phospholipids structures and protein bands and also cholesterol for Sc and DLG, respectively. Asynchronous spectra distinguish between areas of the brain due to the presence of neurotransmitters.

  16. Super resolution imaging of genetically labelled synapses in Drosophila brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ayumi Spühler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding synaptic connectivity and plasticity within brain circuits and their relationship to learning and behavior is a fundamental quest in neuroscience. Visualizing the fine details of synapses using optical microscopy remains however a major technical challenge. Super resolution microscopy opens the possibility to reveal molecular features of synapses beyond the diffraction limit. With direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, dSTORM, we image synaptic proteins in the brain tissue of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Super resolution imaging of brain tissue harbors difficulties due to light scattering and the density of signals. In order to reduce out of focus signal, we take advantage of the genetic tools available in the Drosophila and have fluorescently tagged synaptic proteins expressed in only a small number of neurons. These neurons form synapses within the calyx of the mushroom body, a distinct brain region involved in associative memory formation. Our results show that super resolution microscopy, in combination with genetically labelled synaptic proteins, is a powerful tool to investigate synapses in a quantitative fashion providing an entry point for studies on synaptic plasticity during learning and memory formation

  17. Super Resolution Imaging of Genetically Labeled Synapses in Drosophila Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spühler, Isabelle A; Conley, Gaurasundar M; Scheffold, Frank; Sprecher, Simon G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding synaptic connectivity and plasticity within brain circuits and their relationship to learning and behavior is a fundamental quest in neuroscience. Visualizing the fine details of synapses using optical microscopy remains however a major technical challenge. Super resolution microscopy opens the possibility to reveal molecular features of synapses beyond the diffraction limit. With direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, dSTORM, we image synaptic proteins in the brain tissue of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Super resolution imaging of brain tissue harbors difficulties due to light scattering and the density of signals. In order to reduce out of focus signal, we take advantage of the genetic tools available in the Drosophila and have fluorescently tagged synaptic proteins expressed in only a small number of neurons. These neurons form synapses within the calyx of the mushroom body, a distinct brain region involved in associative memory formation. Our results show that super resolution microscopy, in combination with genetically labeled synaptic proteins, is a powerful tool to investigate synapses in a quantitative fashion providing an entry point for studies on synaptic plasticity during learning and memory formation.

  18. Brain Tissue PO2 Measurement During Normoxia and Hypoxia Using Two-Photon Phosphorescence Lifetime Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kui; Boas, David A; Sakadžić, Sava; LaManna, Joseph C

    2017-01-01

    Key to the understanding of the principles of physiological and structural acclimatization to changes in the balance between energy supply (represented by substrate and oxygen delivery, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation) and energy demand (initiated by neuronal activity) is to determine the controlling variables, how they are sensed and the mechanisms initiated to maintain the balance. The mammalian brain depends completely on continuous delivery of oxygen to maintain its function. We hypothesized that tissue oxygen is the primary sensed variable. In this study two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) was used to determine and define the tissue oxygen tension field within the cerebral cortex of mice to a cortical depth of between 200-250 μm under normoxia and acute hypoxia (FiO 2  = 0.10). High-resolution images can provide quantitative distributions of oxygen and intercapillary oxygen gradients. The data are best appreciated by quantifying the distribution histogram that can then be used for analysis. For example, in the brain cortex of a mouse, at a depth of 200 μm, tissue oxygen tension was mapped and the distribution histogram was compared under normoxic and mild hypoxic conditions. This powerful method can provide for the first time a description of the delivery and availability of brain oxygen in vivo.

  19. Diagnostic value of MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate level in identifying children with mitochondrial disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsing, Roelineke J.; Strating, Kim [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Child Neurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Koning, Tom J. de [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Groningen (Netherlands); Sijens, Paul E. [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of children with or without neurometabolic disease is used for the first time for quantitative assessment of brain tissue lactate signals, to elaborate on previous suggestions of MRS-detected lactate as a marker of mitochondrial disease. Multivoxel MRS of a transverse plane of brain tissue cranial to the ventricles was performed in 88 children suspected of having neurometabolic disease, divided into 'definite' (n = 17, ≥1 major criteria), 'probable' (n = 10, ≥2 minor criteria), 'possible' (n = 17, 1 minor criterion) and 'unlikely' mitochondrial disease (n = 44, none of the criteria). Lactate levels, expressed in standardized arbitrary units or relative to creatine, were derived from summed signals from all voxels. Ten 'unlikely' children with a normal neurological exam served as the MRS reference subgroup. For 61 of 88 children, CSF lactate values were obtained. MRS lactate level (>12 arbitrary units) and the lactate-to-creatine ratio (L/Cr >0.22) differed significantly between the definite and the unlikely group (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively). MRS L/Cr also differentiated between the probable and the MRS reference subgroup (p = 0.03). No significant group differences were found for CSF lactate. MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate levels can serve as diagnostic marker for identifying mitochondrial disease in children. (orig.)

  20. Diagnostic value of MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate level in identifying children with mitochondrial disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsing, Roelineke J.; Strating, Kim; Koning, Tom J. de; Sijens, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of children with or without neurometabolic disease is used for the first time for quantitative assessment of brain tissue lactate signals, to elaborate on previous suggestions of MRS-detected lactate as a marker of mitochondrial disease. Multivoxel MRS of a transverse plane of brain tissue cranial to the ventricles was performed in 88 children suspected of having neurometabolic disease, divided into 'definite' (n = 17, ≥1 major criteria), 'probable' (n = 10, ≥2 minor criteria), 'possible' (n = 17, 1 minor criterion) and 'unlikely' mitochondrial disease (n = 44, none of the criteria). Lactate levels, expressed in standardized arbitrary units or relative to creatine, were derived from summed signals from all voxels. Ten 'unlikely' children with a normal neurological exam served as the MRS reference subgroup. For 61 of 88 children, CSF lactate values were obtained. MRS lactate level (>12 arbitrary units) and the lactate-to-creatine ratio (L/Cr >0.22) differed significantly between the definite and the unlikely group (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively). MRS L/Cr also differentiated between the probable and the MRS reference subgroup (p = 0.03). No significant group differences were found for CSF lactate. MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate levels can serve as diagnostic marker for identifying mitochondrial disease in children. (orig.)

  1. Peptide based hydrogels for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranny, H.R.; Schneider, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Peptide hydrogels are potentially ideal scaffolds for tissue repair and regeneration due to their ability to mimic natural extra cellular matrix. The 20 amino acid peptide HPL8 (H2N- VKVKVKVKVDPP TKVKVKVKV-CONH2), has been shown to fold and self-assemble into a rigid hydrogel based on Environmental cues such as pH, salt, and temperature. Due to its environmental responsiveness, hydrogel assembly can be induced by cell culture media, allowing for 3D encapsulation of osteogenic cells. Initially, 20 cultures of MC3T3 cells proved that the hydrogel is nontoxic and sustains cellular attachment in the absence of serum proteins without altering the physical properties of the hydrogel. The cell-material structure relationship in normal and pathological conditions was further investigated by 3D encapsulation. Cell were viable for 3 weeks and grew in clonogenic spheroids. Characterization of the proliferation, differentiation and constitutive expression of various osteoblastic markers was performed using spectrophotometric methods. The well-defined, fibrillar nanostructure of the hydrogel directs the attachment and attachment and growth of osteoblast cells and dictates the mineralization of hydroxyapatite in a manner similar to bone. This study will enable control over the interaction of cellular systems with the peptide hydrogel with designs for biomedical applications of bone repair. (author)

  2. Photothermal effect of infrared lasers on ex vivo lamb brain tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgürün, Baturay; Gülsoy, Murat

    2018-02-01

    Here, the most suitable infrared laser for a neurosurgery operation is suggested, among 1940-nm thulium fiber, 1470-nm diode, 1070-nm ytterbium fiber and 980-nm diode lasers. Cortical and subcortical ex-vivo lamb brain tissues are exposed to the laser light with the combinations of some laser parameters such as output power, energy density, operation mode (continuous and pulsed-modulated) and operation time. In this way, the greatest ablation efficiency associated with the best neurosurgical laser type can be defined. The research can be divided into two parts; pre-dosimetry and dosimetry studies. The former is used to determine safe operation zones for the dosimetry study by defining coagulation and carbonization onset times for each of the brain tissues. The latter is the main part of this research, and both tissues are exposed to laser irradiation with various energy density levels associated with the output power and operation time. In addition, photo-thermal effects are compared for two laser operation modes, and then coagulation and ablation diameters to calculate the ablation efficiency are measured under a light microscope. Consequently, results are compared graphically and statistically, and it is found that thulium and 1470-nm diode lasers can be utilized as subcortical and cortical tissue ablator devices, respectively.

  3. Expression of defective measles virus genes in brain tissues of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baczko, K.; Liebert, U.G.; Billeter, M.; Cattaneo, R.; Budka, H.; Ter Meulen, V.

    1986-01-01

    The persistence of measles virus in selected areas of the brains of four patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was characterized by immunohistological and biochemical techniques. The five measles virus structural proteins were never simultaneously detectable in any of the bran sections. Nucleocapsid proteins and phosphoproteins were found in every diseased brain area, whereas hemagglutinin protein was detected in two cases, fusion protein was detected in three cases, and matrix protein was detected in only one case. Also, it could be shown that the amounts of measles virus RNA in the brains differed from patient to patient and in the different regions investigated. In all patients, plus-strand RNAs specific for these five viral genes could be detected. However, the amounts of fusion and hemagglutinin mRNAs were low compared with the amounts in lytically infected cells. The presence of particular measles virus RNAs in SSPE-infected brains did not always correlate with mRNA activity. In in vitro translations, the matrix protein was produced in only one case, and the hemagglutinin protein was produced in none. These results indicate that measles virus persistence in SSPE is correlated with different defects of several genes which probably prevent assembly of viral particles in SSPE-infected brain tissue

  4. Changes in Rat Brain Tissue Microstructure and Stiffness during the Development of Experimental Obstructive Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugé, Lauriane; Pong, Alice C.; Bongers, Andre; Sinkus, Ralph; Bilston, Lynne E.; Cheng, Shaokoon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding neural injury in hydrocephalus and how the brain changes during the course of the disease in-vivo remain unclear. This study describes brain deformation, microstructural and mechanical properties changes during obstructive hydrocephalus development in a rat model using multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Hydrocephalus was induced in eight Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) by injecting a kaolin suspension into the cisterna magna. Six sham-injected rats were used as controls. MR imaging (9.4T, Bruker) was performed 1 day before, and at 3, 7 and 16 days post injection. T2-weighted MR images were collected to quantify brain deformation. MR elastography was used to measure brain stiffness, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted to observe brain tissue microstructure. Results showed that the enlargement of the ventricular system was associated with a decrease in the cortical gray matter thickness and caudate-putamen cross-sectional area (P hydrocephalus development, increased space between the white matter tracts was observed in the CC+PVWM (P hydrocephalus development. PMID:26848844

  5. Systematic profiling of spatiotemporal tissue and cellular stiffness in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Misato; Kataoka, Noriyuki; Toida, Kazunori; Kosodo, Yoichi

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates the significance of the physical properties of the niche in influencing the behavior, growth and differentiation of stem cells. Among the physical properties, extracellular stiffness has been shown to have direct effects on fate determination in several cell types in vitro. However, little evidence exists concerning whether shifts in stiffness occur in vivo during tissue development. To address this question, we present a systematic strategy to evaluate the shift in stiffness in a developing tissue using the mouse embryonic cerebral cortex as an experimental model. We combined atomic force microscopy measurements of tissue and cellular stiffness with immunostaining of specific markers of neural differentiation to correlate the value of stiffness with the characteristic features of tissues and cells in the developing brain. We found that the stiffness of the ventricular and subventricular zones increases gradually during development. Furthermore, a peak in tissue stiffness appeared in the intermediate zone at E16.5. The stiffness of the cortical plate showed an initial increase but decreased at E18.5, although the cellular stiffness of neurons monotonically increased in association with the maturation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. These results indicate that tissue stiffness cannot be solely determined by the stiffness of the cells that constitute the tissue. Taken together, our method profiles the stiffness of living tissue and cells with defined characteristics and can therefore be utilized to further understand the role of stiffness as a physical factor that determines cell fate during the formation of the cerebral cortex and other tissues. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Soft-tissue reactions following irradiation of primary brain and pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglan, R.J.; Marks, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-nine patients who received radiation therapy for a primary brain or pituitary tumor were studied for radiation-induced soft-tissue reactions of the cranium, scalp, ears and jaw. The frequency of these reactions was studied as a function of: the radiation dose 5 mm below the skin surface, dose distribution, field size and fraction size. Forty percent of patients had complete and permanent epilation, while 21% had some other soft-tissue complication, including: scalp swelling-6%, external otitis-6%, otitis media-5%, ear swelling-4%, etc. The frequency of soft-tissue reactions correlates directly with the radiation dose at 5 mm below the skin surface. Patients treated with small portals ( 2 ) had few soft-tissue reactions. The dose to superficial tissues, and hence the frequency of soft-tissue reactions can be reduced by: (1) using high-energy megavoltage beams; (2) using equal loading of beams; and (3) possibly avoiding the use of electron beams

  7. Antioxidant Role of Pomegranates on Liver and Brain Tissues of Rats Exposed to an Organophosphorus Insecticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Elmonem, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicities of organophosphorus insecticides cause oxidative damage on many organs such as the liver and brain due to generation of reactive oxygen species. Pomegranate is among the richest fruit in poly - phenols. The aim of this study was to compare between the antioxidant strength of pomegranate juice (PJ) and pomegranate molasses (PM) and their effects on alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein (TP) in liver and levels of malondialdehyde (MAD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) in rat liver and brain tissues exposed to 1/10 LD 50 diazinon (DI). Six groups each of 6 male albino rats were used comprising control, DI, PJ, PM, PJ + DI and PM + DI for 15 days. The activities of ALT, AST, and TP concentration in liver have been increased due to treatment of rats with DI. These increases restored to normalcy when rats were supplemented with PJ or PM with DI. The results demonstrate that treatment with DI induced significant increase in MDA and NO concentrations and significant decrease in GSH levels of liver and brain tissues. The administration of PJ or PM along with DI significant decrease in MDA and NO levels and significant increase in GSH level compared to DI-group. The present study suggest that PJ or PM has a potential protective effect as it can elevate antioxidant defense system, lessens induced oxidative dam - ages and protect the brain and liver tissue against DI-induced toxicity. In addition, comaring PJ with PM it was noticed that PJ had higher antioxidant activity as evidenced by increased GSH content and decreased NO level in the liver by greater extend than PM.

  8. New aspects of fenestrated vasculature and tissue dynamics in the sensory circumventricular organs of adult brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji eMiyata

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The blood–brain barrier (BBB generally consists of endothelial tight junction barriers that prevent the free entry of blood-derived substances, thereby maintaining the extracellular environment of the brain. However, the circumventricular organs (CVOs, which are located along the midlines of the brain ventricles, lack these endothelial barriers and have fenestrated capillaries; therefore, they have a number of essential functions, including the transduction of information between the blood circulation and brain. Previous studies have demonstrated the extensive contribution of the CVOs to body fluid and thermal homeostasis, energy balance, the chemoreception of blood-derived substances, and neuroinflammation. In this review, recent advances have been discussed in fenestrated capillary characterization and dynamic tissue reconstruction accompanied by angiogenesis and neurogliogenesis in the sensory CVOs of adult brains. The sensory CVOs, including the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT, subfornical organ (SFO, and area postrema (AP, have size-selective and heterogeneous vascular permeabilities. Astrocyte-/tanycyte-like neural stem cells (NSCs sense blood- and cerebrospinal fluid-derived information through the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, a mechanical/osmotic receptor, Toll-like receptor 4, a lipopolysaccharide receptor, and Nax, a Na-sensing Na channel. They also express tight junction proteins and densely and tightly surround mature neurons to protect them from blood-derived neurotoxic substances, indicating that the NSCs of the CVOs perform BBB functions while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into new neurons and glial cells. In addition to neurogliogenesis, the density of fenestrated capillaries is regulated by angiogenesis, which is accompanied by the active proliferation and sprouting of endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling may be involved in angiogenesis and

  9. Effects of compression injury on brain mitochondrial and tissue viability evaluated by a multiparametric monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Bachbut, Galit; Mayevsky, Avraham

    2008-02-01

    Neurosurgical procedures involve brain compression created by retractors. Although it is clear that retractors are causing damage to the brain tissue, the pathophysiology of the retraction was not investigated in details. In the present study we used the multiparametric monitoring approach for real time evaluation of mitochondrial function, hemodynamic, ionic and electrical activities monitored contralaterally to the retractor placement on the brain. The aims of the study were to test the effects of retractor size and severity of the compression on the degree of damage to the cerebral tissue. A special probe was lowered towards the cerebral cortex, (2mm and 4mm in depth) using a micromanipulator. Compression lasted for 30 minutes, than the retractor was elevated back to its initial position and monitoring continued for two hours. Additionally, two sizes of retractors were used 6mm and 3mm in diameter, the 3mm retractor included an intracranial pressure (ICP) probe. The results show that the combination of a large retractor with the depth of 4mm yielded high mortality rate (62%) of the rats while the use of a smaller retractor decreased significantly the percentage of mortality. Also, compression to the depth of 4mm increased tissue injury as compared to 2mm depth. In conclusion, the present study raises the importance and significance of multiparametric monitoring, and not only ICP and cerebral blood flow of the areas nearby the retractor position and not only the retraction site, as well as the effect of the retractor size on the damage induced to the cerebral tissue.

  10. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  11. Brain tissue strains vary with head impact location: A possible explanation for increased concussion risk in struck versus striking football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Benjamin S; Gabler, Lee F; Panzer, Matthew B; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2018-03-29

    On-field football helmet impacts over a large range of severities have caused concussions in some players but not in other players. One possible explanation for this variability is the struck player's helmet impact location. We examined the effect of impact location on regional brain tissue strain when input energy was held constant. Laboratory impacts were performed at 12 locations distributed over the helmet and the resulting head kinematics were simulated in two finite element models of the brain: the Simulated Injury Monitor and the Global Human Body Model Consortium brain model. Peak kinematics, injury metrics and brain strain varied significantly with impact location. Differences in impact location explained 33 to 37% of the total variance in brain strain for the whole brain and cerebrum, considerably more than the variance explained by impact location for the peak resultant head kinematics (8 to 23%) and slightly more than half of the variance explained by the difference in closing speed (57 to 61%). Both finite element models generated similar strain results, with minor variations for impacts that generated multi-axial rotations, larger variations in brainstem strains for some impact locations and a small bias for the cerebellum. Based on this experimental and computational simulation study, impact location on the football helmet has a large effect on regional brain tissue strain. We also found that the lowest strains consistently occurred in impacts to the crown and forehead, helmet locations commonly associated with the striking player. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Applying Brain-Based Learning Principles to Athletic Training Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Debbie I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To present different concepts and techniques related to the application of brain-based learning principles to Athletic Training clinical education. Background: The body of knowledge concerning how our brains physically learn continues to grow. Brain-based learning principles, developed by numerous authors, offer advice on how to…

  13. Neuroprotection and enhanced neurogenesis by extract from the tropical plant Knema laurina after inflammatory damage in living brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häke, Ines; Schönenberger, Silvia; Neumann, Jens; Franke, Katrin; Paulsen-Merker, Katrin; Reymann, Klaus; Ismail, Ghazally; Bin Din, Laily; Said, Ikram M; Latiff, A; Wessjohann, Ludger; Zipp, Frauke; Ullrich, Oliver

    2009-01-03

    Inflammatory reactions in the CNS, resulting from a loss of control and involving a network of non-neuronal and neuronal cells, are major contributors to the onset and progress of several major neurodegenerative diseases. Therapeutic strategies should therefore keep or restore the well-controlled and finely-tuned balance of immune reactions, and protect neurons from inflammatory damage. In our study, we selected plants of the Malaysian rain forest by an ethnobotanic survey, and investigated them in cell-based-assay-systems and in living brain tissue cultures in order to identify anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. We found that alcoholic extracts from the tropical plant Knema laurina (Black wild nutmeg) exhibited highly anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in cell culture experiments, reduced NO- and IL-6-release from activated microglia cells dose-dependently, and protected living brain tissue from microglia-mediated inflammatory damage at a concentration of 30 microg/ml. On the intracellular level, the extract inhibited ERK-1/2-phosphorylation, IkB-phosphorylation and subsequently NF-kB-translocation in microglia cells. K. laurina belongs to the family of Myristicaceae, which have been used for centuries for treatment of digestive and inflammatory diseases and is also a major food plant of the Giant Hornbill. Moreover, extract from K. laurina promotes also neurogenesis in living brain tissue after oxygen-glucose deprivation. In conclusion, extract from K. laurina not only controls and limits inflammatory reaction after primary neuronal damage, it promotes moreover neurogenesis if given hours until days after stroke-like injury.

  14. Effect of MgSO4 on the contents of Ca2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue of rats with radiation-induced acute brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wenjia; Cui Fengmei; Liu Ping; He Chao; Tu Yu; Wang Lili

    2009-01-01

    The work is to explore the protection of magnesium sulfate(MgSO 4 ) on radiation-induced acute brain injury. Thirty six mature Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of control, experimental control and experimental therapy group. The whole brains of SD rats of experimental control and experimental therapy group were irradiated with a dose of 20 Gy using 6 MeV electron beam. MgSO 4 was injected into the abdomen of experimental therapy rats group 1 day before, immediately and continue for 5 days after irradiation respectively. The brain tissues were taken on 3, 10, 17 and 24 d after irradiation. Ca 2+ content in brain cell was measured by laser scanning confocal microscopy, and the NO content in brain tissue was detected by the method of nitric acid reductase. Compared with the blank control group, the contents of Ca 2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue of the experimental control group increase (P 4 used in early stage can inhibit the contents of Ca 2+ in brain cell and NO in brain tissue after radiation-induced acute brain injury. It means that MgSO 4 has a protective effect on radiation-induced acute brain injury. (authors)

  15. High affinity, ligand specific uptake of complexed copper-67 by brain tissue incubated in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnea, A.; Hartter, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Copper is an essential metal that is highly concentrated in the brain. The blood, the sole source of tissue Cu, contains 16-20 μM Cu, of which >95% is complexed to proteins and 2 was 10 times greater than that of CuAlbumin or Cu(II). Within the range of 0.2-150μM Cu, multiple uptake sites for CuHis were apparent. Increasing the molar ratio of His:Cu had a differential effect on Cu uptake: enhancing uptake at [Cu] 1 μM. Thus, using a His:Cu ratio of 1000, they observed a high affinity process exhibiting saturating and half saturating values of 5 μM and 1.5 μM Cu, respectively; using a His:Cu ratio of 2, they observed a low affinity process exhibiting saturating and half-saturating values of 100 μM and 40 μM Cu, respectively. Both processes required thermic but not metabolic energy, suggestive of facilitated diffusion. Considering the blood brain barrier for proteins, CuHis appears to be the major substrate for Cu uptake by neuronal tissue. They demonstrate the existence of a ligand specific, high affinity (apparent Km about 1.5 μM Cu) uptake process for CuHis in the brain, operative at the physiological concentration range of CuHis and histidine

  16. The Influence of Adipose Tissue on Brain Development, Cognition, and Risk of Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letra, Liliana; Santana, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    The brain is a highly metabolic organ and thus especially vulnerable to changes in peripheral metabolism, including those induced by obesity-associated adipose tissue dysfunction. In this context, it is likely that the development and maturation of neurocognitive circuits may also be affected and modulated by metabolic environmental factors, beginning in utero. It is currently recognized that maternal obesity, either pre-gestational or gestational, negatively influences fetal brain development and elevates the risk of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring. During infancy and adolescence, obesity remains a limiting factor for healthy neurodevelopment, especially affecting executive functions but also attention, visuospatial ability, and motor skills. In middle age, obesity seems to induce an accelerated brain aging and thus may increase the risk of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. In this chapter we review and discuss experimental and clinical evidence focusing on the influence of adipose tissue dysfunction on neurodevelopment and cognition across lifespan, as well as some possible mechanistic links, namely the role of the most well studied adipokines.

  17. Distribution of dearomatised white spirit in brain, blood, and fat tissue after repeated exposure of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, A.; Lam, Henrik Rye; Gullstrand, E.

    1999-01-01

    Petroleum products with low content of aromatics have been increasingly used during the past years. This study investigates tissue disposition of dearomatised white spirit. In addition, brain neurotransmitter concentrations were measured. Male rats were exposed by inhalation to 0, 400 (2.29 mg....../l), or 800 p.p.m. (4.58 mg/l) of dearomatised white spirit, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week up to 3 weeks. Five rats from each group were sacrificed immediately after the exposure for 1, 2, or 3 weeks and 2, 4, 6, or 24 hr after the end of 3 weeks' exposure. After 3 weeks of exposure the concentration of total white...... spirit was 1.5 and 5.6 mg/kg in blood; 7.1 and 17.1 mg/kg in brain; 432 and 1452 mg/kg in fat tissue at the exposure levels of 400 and 800 p.p.m., respectively. The concentrations of n-nonane, n-decane, n-undecane, and total white spirit in blood and brain were not affected by the duration of exposure...

  18. Tissues segmentation based on multi spectral medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Wang, Ying

    2017-11-01

    Each band image contains the most obvious tissue feature according to the optical characteristics of different tissues in different specific bands for multispectral medical images. In this paper, the tissues were segmented by their spectral information at each multispectral medical images. Four Local Binary Patter descriptors were constructed to extract blood vessels based on the gray difference between the blood vessels and their neighbors. The segmented tissue in each band image was merged to a clear image.

  19. A simple method for measuring glucose utilization of insulin-sensitive tissues by using the brain as a reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Iyo, Masaomi; Fukushi, Kiyoshi; Irie, Toshiaki

    1994-01-01

    A simple method, without measurement of the plasma input function, to obtain semiquantitative values of glucose utilization in tissues other than the brain with radioactive deoxyglucose is reported. The brain, in which glucose utilization is essentially insensitive to plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, was used as an internal reference. The effects of graded doses of oral glucose loading (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/g body weight) on insulin-sensitive tissues (heart, muscle and fat tissue) were studied in the rat. By using the brain-reference method, dose-dependent increases in glucose utilization were clearly shown in all the insulin-sensitive tissues examined. The method seems to be of value for measurement of glucose utilization using radioactive deoxyglucose and positron emission tomography in the heart or other insulin-sensitive tissues, especially during glucose loading. (orig.)

  20. Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information from a Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods for Brain Tissue Preservation Validated by Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, and X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Daniel F; Walker, Ellen M; Gignac, Paul M; Martinez, Anais; Negishi, Kenichiro; Lieb, Carl S; Greenbaum, Eli; Khan, Arshad M

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity hotspots, which harbor more endemic species than elsewhere on Earth, are increasingly threatened. There is a need to accelerate collection efforts in these regions before threatened or endangered species become extinct. The diverse geographical, ecological, genetic, morphological, and behavioral data generated from the on-site collection of an individual specimen are useful for many scientific purposes. However, traditional methods for specimen preparation in the field do not permit researchers to retrieve neuroanatomical data, disregarding potentially useful data for increasing our understanding of brain diversity. These data have helped clarify brain evolution, deciphered relationships between structure and function, and revealed constraints and selective pressures that provide context about the evolution of complex behavior. Here, we report our field-testing of two commonly used laboratory-based techniques for brain preservation while on a collecting expedition in the Congo Basin and Albertine Rift, two poorly known regions associated with the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot. First, we found that transcardial perfusion fixation and long-term brain storage, conducted in remote field conditions with no access to cold storage laboratory equipment, had no observable impact on cytoarchitectural features of lizard brain tissue when compared to lizard brain tissue processed under laboratory conditions. Second, field-perfused brain tissue subjected to prolonged post-fixation remained readily compatible with subsequent immunohistochemical detection of neural antigens, with immunostaining that was comparable to that of laboratory-perfused brain tissue. Third, immersion-fixation of lizard brains, prepared under identical environmental conditions, was readily compatible with subsequent iodine-enhanced X-ray microcomputed tomography, which facilitated the non-destructive imaging of the intact brain within its skull. In summary, we have validated

  1. Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information from a Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods for Brain Tissue Preservation Validated by Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, and X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F Hughes

    Full Text Available Biodiversity hotspots, which harbor more endemic species than elsewhere on Earth, are increasingly threatened. There is a need to accelerate collection efforts in these regions before threatened or endangered species become extinct. The diverse geographical, ecological, genetic, morphological, and behavioral data generated from the on-site collection of an individual specimen are useful for many scientific purposes. However, traditional methods for specimen preparation in the field do not permit researchers to retrieve neuroanatomical data, disregarding potentially useful data for increasing our understanding of brain diversity. These data have helped clarify brain evolution, deciphered relationships between structure and function, and revealed constraints and selective pressures that provide context about the evolution of complex behavior. Here, we report our field-testing of two commonly used laboratory-based techniques for brain preservation while on a collecting expedition in the Congo Basin and Albertine Rift, two poorly known regions associated with the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot. First, we found that transcardial perfusion fixation and long-term brain storage, conducted in remote field conditions with no access to cold storage laboratory equipment, had no observable impact on cytoarchitectural features of lizard brain tissue when compared to lizard brain tissue processed under laboratory conditions. Second, field-perfused brain tissue subjected to prolonged post-fixation remained readily compatible with subsequent immunohistochemical detection of neural antigens, with immunostaining that was comparable to that of laboratory-perfused brain tissue. Third, immersion-fixation of lizard brains, prepared under identical environmental conditions, was readily compatible with subsequent iodine-enhanced X-ray microcomputed tomography, which facilitated the non-destructive imaging of the intact brain within its skull. In summary, we

  2. Effects of isomers of apomorphines on dopamine receptors in striatal and limbic tissue of rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, N.S.; Baldessarini, R.J.; Bromley, S.; Neumeyer, J.L.

    1985-09-16

    The optical isomers of apomorphine (APO) and N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) were interacted with three biochemical indices of dopamine (Da) receptors in extrapyramidal and limbic preparations of rat brain tissues. There were consistent isomeric preferences for the R(-) configuration of both DA analogs in stimulation adenylate cyclase (D-1 sites) and in competing for high affinity binding of /sup 3/H-spiroperidol (D-2 sites) and of /sup 3/H-ADTN (DA agonist binding sites) in striatal tissue, with lesser isomeric differences in the limbic tissue. The S(+) apomorphines did not inhibit stimulation of adenylate cyclase by DA. The tendency for greater activity of higher apparent affinity of R(-) apomorphines in striatum may reflect the evidently greater abundance of receptor sites in that region. There were only small regional differences in interactions of the apomorphine isomers with all three receptor sites, except for a strong preference of (-)NPA for striatal D-2 sites. These results do not parallel our recent observations indicating potent and selective antidopaminergic actions of S(+) apomorphines in the rat limbic system. They suggest caution in assuming close parallels between current biochemical functional, especially behavioral, methods of evaluating dopamine receptors of mammalian brain.

  3. Brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen predicts the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury under mild hypothermia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongtao; Zheng, Maohua; Wang, Yanmin; Diao, Yunfeng; Zhao, Wanyong; Wei, Zhengjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and changes of brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PbtO2) in the course of mild hypothermia treatment (MHT) for treating severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). There were 68 cases with sTBI undergoing MHT. PbtO2, intracranial pressure (ICP), jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were continuously monitored, and clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale score. Of 68 patients with sTBI, PbtO2, SjvO2, and CPP were obviously increased, but decreased ICP level was observed throughout the MHT. PbtO2 and ICP were negatively linearly correlated, while there was a positive linear correlation between PbtO2 and SjvO2. Monitoring CPP and SjvO2 was performed under normal circumstances, and a large proportion of patients were detected with low PbtO2. Decreased PbtO2 was also found after MHT. Continuous PbtO2 monitoring could be introduced to evaluate the condition of regional cerebral oxygen metabolism, thereby guiding the clinical treatment and predicting the outcome.

  4. Multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography of the brain reveals tissue degeneration in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Fehlner, Andreas; Sack, Ingolf; Pache, Florence; Lacheta, Anna; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Brandt, Alexander; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Ruprecht, Klemens; Braun, Juergen; Paul, Friedemann; Wuerfel, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Application of multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (MMRE) of the brain parenchyma in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) compared to age matched healthy controls (HC). 15 NMOSD patients and 17 age- and gender-matched HC were examined using MMRE. Two three-dimensional viscoelastic parameter maps, the magnitude G* and phase angle φ of the complex shear modulus were reconstructed by simultaneous inversion of full wave-field data in 1.9-mm isotropic resolution at 7 harmonic drive frequencies from 30 to 60 Hz. In NMOSD patients, a significant reduction of G* was observed within the white matter fraction (p = 0.017), predominantly within the thalamic regions (p = 0.003), compared to HC. These parameters exceeded the reduction in brain volume measured in patients versus HC (p = 0.02 whole-brain volume reduction). Volumetric differences in white matter fraction and the thalami were not detectable between patients and HC. However, phase angle φ was decreased in patients within the white matter (p = 0.03) and both thalamic regions (p = 0.044). MMRE reveals global tissue degeneration with accelerated softening of the brain parenchyma in patients with NMOSD. The predominant reduction of stiffness is found within the thalamic region and related white matter tracts, presumably reflecting Wallerian degeneration. (orig.)

  5. Multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography of the brain reveals tissue degeneration in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology with Experimental Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Fehlner, Andreas; Sack, Ingolf [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Pache, Florence [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology with Experimental Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Lacheta, Anna; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Brandt, Alexander [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Bellmann-Strobl, Judith [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Ruprecht, Klemens [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology with Experimental Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Braun, Juergen [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institute of Medical Informatics, Berlin (Germany); Paul, Friedemann [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology with Experimental Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Wuerfel, Jens [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC AG), Basel (Switzerland)

    2017-05-15

    Application of multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (MMRE) of the brain parenchyma in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) compared to age matched healthy controls (HC). 15 NMOSD patients and 17 age- and gender-matched HC were examined using MMRE. Two three-dimensional viscoelastic parameter maps, the magnitude G* and phase angle φ of the complex shear modulus were reconstructed by simultaneous inversion of full wave-field data in 1.9-mm isotropic resolution at 7 harmonic drive frequencies from 30 to 60 Hz. In NMOSD patients, a significant reduction of G* was observed within the white matter fraction (p = 0.017), predominantly within the thalamic regions (p = 0.003), compared to HC. These parameters exceeded the reduction in brain volume measured in patients versus HC (p = 0.02 whole-brain volume reduction). Volumetric differences in white matter fraction and the thalami were not detectable between patients and HC. However, phase angle φ was decreased in patients within the white matter (p = 0.03) and both thalamic regions (p = 0.044). MMRE reveals global tissue degeneration with accelerated softening of the brain parenchyma in patients with NMOSD. The predominant reduction of stiffness is found within the thalamic region and related white matter tracts, presumably reflecting Wallerian degeneration. (orig.)

  6. Proposals for best-quality immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded brain tissue slides in forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautz, Florian; Dreßler, Jan; Stassart, Ruth; Müller, Wolf; Ondruschka, Benjamin

    2018-01-03

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become an integral part in forensic histopathology over the last decades. However, the underlying methods for IHC vary greatly depending on the institution, creating a lack of comparability. The aim of this study was to assess the optimal approach for different technical aspects of IHC, in order to improve and standardize this procedure. Therefore, qualitative results from manual and automatic IHC staining of brain samples were compared, as well as potential differences in suitability of common IHC glass slides. Further, possibilities of image digitalization and connected issues were investigated. In our study, automatic staining showed more consistent staining results, compared to manual staining procedures. Digitalization and digital post-processing facilitated direct analysis and analysis for reproducibility considerably. No differences were found for different commercially available microscopic glass slides regarding suitability of IHC brain researches, but a certain rate of tissue loss should be expected during the staining process.

  7. Astrocyte cultures derived from human brain tissue express angiotensinogen mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milsted, A.; Barna, B.P.; Ransohoff, R.M.; Brosnihan, K.B.; Ferrario, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have identified human cultured cell lines that are useful for studying angiotensinogen gene expression and its regulation in the central nervous system. A model cell system of human central nervous system origin expressing angiotensinogen has not previously been available. Expression of angiotensinogen mRNA appears to be a basal property of noninduced human astrocytes, since astrocytic cell lines derived from human glioblastomas or nonneoplastic human brain tissue invariably produced angiotensinogen mRNA. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that angiotensinogen mRNA production was not limited to a subpopulation of astrocytes because >99% of cells in these cultures contained angiotensinogen mRNA. These cell lines will be useful in studies of the molecular mechanisms controlling angiotensin synthesis and the role of biologically active angiotensin in the human brain by allowing the authors to examine regulation of expression of the renin-angiotensin system in human astrocyte cultures

  8. Scintigraphic assessment of vascularity and blood-tissue barrier of human brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Front, D.

    1978-01-01

    Assessment of vascularity and blood-tissue barrier was performed by sequential scintigraphy in 43 patients with brain tumours. The blood-tumour barrier was evaluated by use of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, and vascularity using sup(99m)Tc-labelled red blood cells. Three groups of tumours were found: tumours with low vascularity and permeable barrier, tumours with high vascularity and permeable barrier, and tumours with low vascularity and relatively impermeable barrier. The first group indicates that when vessels are permeable, there may be a rapid penetration of large amounts of pertechnetate into the tumour even when vascularity is not increased. In the other two groups penetration of pertechnetate into the tumour is affected by vascularity, as it determines the total area where passage of the radiopharmaceutical takes place. It is suggested that the permeability of the blood-tumour barrier and the amount of vascularity may have an effect on the success of chemotherapy in brain tumours. (author)

  9. Differences in supratentorial white matter diffusion after radiotherapy - New biomarker of normal brain tissue damage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravn, Soeren; Jens Broendum Froekaer, Jens [Dept. of Radiology, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)], e-mail: sorl@rn.dk; Holmberg, Mats [Dept. of Oncology, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Soerensen, Preben [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Carl, Jesper [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2013-10-15

    Introduction: Therapy-induced injury to normal brain tissue is a concern in the treatment of all types of brain tumours. The purpose of this study was to investigate if magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could serve as a potential biomarker for the assessment of radiation-induced long-term white matter injury. Material and methods: DTI- and T1-weighted images of the brain were obtained in 19 former radiotherapy patients [nine men and 10 women diagnosed with astrocytoma (4), pituitary adenoma (6), meningioma (8) and craniopharyngioma (1), average age 57.8 (range 35-71) years]. Average time from radiotherapy to DTI scan was 4.6 (range 2.0-7.1) years. NordicICE software (NIC) was used to calculate apparent diffusion coefficient maps (ADC-maps). The co-registration between T1 images and ADC-maps were done using the auto function in NIC. The co-registration between the T1 images and the patient dose plans were done using the auto function in the treatment planning system Eclipse from Varian. Regions of interest were drawn on the T1-weighted images in NIC based on iso curves from Eclipse. Data was analysed by t-test. Estimates are given with 95 % CI. Results: A mean ADC difference of 4.6(0.3;8.9) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.03 was found between paired white matter structures with a mean dose difference of 31.4 Gy. Comparing the ADC-values of the areas with highest dose from the paired data (dose > 33 Gy) with normal white matter (dose < 5 Gy) resulted in a mean dose difference of 44.1 Gy and a mean ADC difference of 7.87(3.15;12.60) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.003. Following results were obtained when looking at differences between white matter mean ADC in average dose levels from 5 to 55 Gy in steps of 10 Gy with normal white matter mean ADC: 5 Gy; 1.91(-1.76;5.58) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.29; 15 Gy; 5.81(1.53;10.11) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.01; 25 Gy; 5.80(2.43;9.18) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.002; 35 Gy; 5.93(2.89;8.97) X 10

  10. An electromechanical based deformable model for soft tissue simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yongmin; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2009-11-01

    Soft tissue deformation is of great importance to surgery simulation. Although a significant amount of research efforts have been dedicated to simulating the behaviours of soft tissues, modelling of soft tissue deformation is still a challenging problem. This paper presents a new deformable model for simulation of soft tissue deformation from the electromechanical viewpoint of soft tissues. Soft tissue deformation is formulated as a reaction-diffusion process coupled with a mechanical load. The mechanical load applied to a soft tissue to cause a deformation is incorporated into the reaction-diffusion system, and consequently distributed among mass points of the soft tissue. Reaction-diffusion of mechanical load and non-rigid mechanics of motion are combined to govern the simulation dynamics of soft tissue deformation. An improved reaction-diffusion model is developed to describe the distribution of the mechanical load in soft tissues. A three-layer artificial cellular neural network is constructed to solve the reaction-diffusion model for real-time simulation of soft tissue deformation. A gradient based method is established to derive internal forces from the distribution of the mechanical load. Integration with a haptic device has also been achieved to simulate soft tissue deformation with haptic feedback. The proposed methodology does not only predict the typical behaviours of living tissues, but it also accepts both local and large-range deformations. It also accommodates isotropic, anisotropic and inhomogeneous deformations by simple modification of diffusion coefficients.

  11. Amyloid Precursor Protein and Proinflammatory Changes Are Regulated in Brain and Adipose Tissue in a Murine Model of High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Kendra L.; Floden, Angela M.; Adhikari, Ramchandra; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Combs, Colin K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Middle age obesity is recognized as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) although a mechanistic linkage remains unclear. Based upon the fact that obese adipose tissue and AD brains are both areas of proinflammatory change, a possible common event is chronic inflammation. Since an autosomal dominant form of AD is associated with mutations in the gene coding for the ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein, amyloid precursor protein (APP) and recent evidence demonstrates increased APP levels in adipose tissue during obesity it is feasible that APP serves some function in both disease conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine whether diet-induced obesity produced proinflammatory changes and altered APP expression in brain versus adipose tissue, 6 week old C57BL6/J mice were maintained on a control or high fat diet for 22 weeks. Protein levels and cell-specific APP expression along with markers of inflammation and immune cell activation were compared between hippocampus, abdominal subcutaneous fat and visceral pericardial fat. APP stimulation-dependent changes in macrophage and adipocyte culture phenotype were examined for comparison to the in vivo changes. Conclusions/Significance Adipose tissue and brain from high fat diet fed animals demonstrated increased TNF-α and microglial and macrophage activation. Both brains and adipose tissue also had elevated APP levels localizing to neurons and macrophage/adipocytes, respectively. APP agonist antibody stimulation of macrophage cultures increased specific cytokine secretion with no obvious effects on adipocyte culture phenotype. These data support the hypothesis that high fat diet-dependent obesity results in concomitant pro-inflammatory changes in brain and adipose tissue that is characterized, in part, by increased levels of APP that may be contributing specifically to inflammatory changes that occur. PMID:22276186

  12. Pediatric brain tumors of neuroepithelial tissue; Hirntumoren des neuroepithelialen Gewebes im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Politi, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany); Bergmann, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Institut fuer Klinische Neuropathologie, Bremen (Germany); Pekrun, A. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, paed. Haematologie/Onkologie, Neonatologie, Bremen (Germany); Juergens, K.U. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, ZEMODI-Zentrum fuer moderne Diagnostik, MRT, Nuklearmedizin und PET-CT, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Tumors of neuroepithelial tissue represent the largest group of pediatric brain tumors by far and has therefore been divided into several discrete tumor subtypes each corresponding to a specific component of the neuropil. The neuropil contains several subtypes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and modified ependymal cells that form the choroid plexus. This review discusses the imaging aspects of the most common pediatric tumors of neuroepithelial tissue. (orig.) [German] Tumoren des neuroepithelialen Gewebes stellen die mit Abstand groesste Gruppe der paediatrischen Hirntumoren dar und werden je nach deren Ursprung in diversen Subtypen unterteilt. Das Neuropil beinhaltet diverse Subtypen von Gliazellen: Astrozyten, Oligodendrozyten, ependymale Zellen und modifizierte ependymale Zellen, die den Plexus choroideus formen. In diesem Review werden die bildgebenden Aspekte mittels CT und MRT der haeufigsten Tumoren des neuroepithelialen Gewebes diskutiert. (orig.)

  13. Differential Temporal Evolution Patterns in Brain Temperature in Different Ischemic Tissues in a Monkey Model of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain temperature is elevated in acute ischemic stroke, especially in the ischemic penumbra (IP. We attempted to investigate the dynamic evolution of brain temperature in different ischemic regions in a monkey model of middle cerebral artery occlusion. The brain temperature of different ischemic regions was measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS, and the evolution processes of brain temperature were compared among different ischemic regions. We found that the normal (baseline brain temperature of the monkey brain was 37.16°C. In the artery occlusion stage, the mean brain temperature of ischemic tissue was 1.16°C higher than the baseline; however, this increase was region dependent, with 1.72°C in the IP, 1.08°C in the infarct core, and 0.62°C in the oligemic region. After recanalization, the brain temperature of the infarct core showed a pattern of an initial decrease accompanied by a subsequent increase. However, the brain temperature of the IP and oligemic region showed a monotonously and slowly decreased pattern. Our study suggests that in vivo measurement of brain temperature could help to identify whether ischemic tissue survives.

  14. Detection of hepatitis C virus sequences in brain tissue obtained in recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Hugo E; Laskus, Tomasz; Radkowski, Marek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Balan, Vijay; Douglas, David D; Harrison, M Edwyn; Mulligan, David C; Olden, Kevin; Adair, Debra; Rakela, Jorge

    2002-11-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C frequently report tiredness, easy fatigability, and depression. The aim of this study is to determine whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication could be found in brain tissue in patients with hepatitis C and depression. We report two patients with recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation who also developed severe depression. One patient died of multiorgan failure and the other, septicemia caused by Staphylococcus aureussis. Both patients had evidence of severe hepatitis C recurrence with features of cholestatic fibrosing hepatitis. We were able to study samples of their central nervous system obtained at autopsy for evidence of HCV replication. The presence of HCV RNA-negative strand, which is the viral replicative form, was determined by strand-specific Tth-based reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Viral sequences were compared by means of single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing. HCV RNA-negative strands were found in subcortical white matter from one patient and cerebral cortex from the other patient. HCV RNA-negative strands amplified from brain tissue differed by several nucleotide substitutions from serum consensus sequences in the 5' untranslated region. These findings support the concept of HCV neuroinvasion, and we speculate that it may provide a biological substrate to neuropsychiatric disorders observed in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The exact lineage of cells permissive for HCV replication and the possible interaction between viral replication and cerebral function that may lead to depression remain to be elucidated.

  15. Brain-Based Education: Its Pedagogical Implications and Research Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxman, Kumar; Chin, Yap Kueh

    2010-01-01

    The brain, being the organ of learning, must be understood if classrooms are to be places of meaningful learning. Understanding the brain has the potential to alter the foundation of education, transform traditional classrooms to interactive learning environments and promote better instructional approaches amongst teachers. Brain-based education…

  16. Touch-based Brain Computer Interfaces: State of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Brouwer, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) rely on the user's brain activity to control equipment or computer devices. Many BCIs are based on imagined movement (called active BCIs) or the fact that brain patterns differ in reaction to relevant or attended stimuli in comparison to irrelevant or unattended

  17. Quantifying brain tissue volume in multiple sclerosis with automated lesion segmentation and filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesion filling has been successfully applied to reduce the effect of hypo-intense T1-w Multiple Sclerosis (MS lesions on automatic brain tissue segmentation. However, a study of fully automated pipelines incorporating lesion segmentation and lesion filling on tissue volume analysis has not yet been performed. Here, we analyzed the % of error introduced by automating the lesion segmentation and filling processes in the tissue segmentation of 70 clinically isolated syndrome patient images. First of all, images were processed using the LST and SLS toolkits with different pipeline combinations that differed in either automated or manual lesion segmentation, and lesion filling or masking out lesions. Then, images processed following each of the pipelines were segmented into gray matter (GM and white matter (WM using SPM8, and compared with the same images where expert lesion annotations were filled before segmentation. Our results showed that fully automated lesion segmentation and filling pipelines reduced significantly the % of error in GM and WM volume on images of MS patients, and performed similarly to the images where expert lesion annotations were masked before segmentation. In all the pipelines, the amount of misclassified lesion voxels was the main cause in the observed error in GM and WM volume. However, the % of error was significantly lower when automatically estimated lesions were filled and not masked before segmentation. These results are relevant and suggest that LST and SLS toolboxes allow the performance of accurate brain tissue volume measurements without any kind of manual intervention, which can be convenient not only in terms of time and economic costs, but also to avoid the inherent intra/inter variability between manual annotations.

  18. Primary microglia isolation from mixed glial cell cultures of neonatal rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamashiro, Tami T; Dalgard, Clifton Lee; Byrnes, Kimberly R

    2012-08-15

    Microglia account for approximately 12% of the total cellular population in the mammalian brain. While neurons and astrocytes are considered the major cell types of the nervous system, microglia play a significant role in normal brain physiology by monitoring tissue for debris and pathogens and maintaining homeostasis in the parenchyma via phagocytic activity. Microglia are activated during a number of injury and disease conditions, including neurodegenerative disease, traumatic brain injury, and nervous system infection. Under these activating conditions, microglia increase their phagocytic activity, undergo morpohological and proliferative change, and actively secrete reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, often activating a paracrine or autocrine loop. As these microglial responses contribute to disease pathogenesis in neurological conditions, research focused on microglia is warranted. Due to the cellular heterogeneity of the brain, it is technically difficult to obtain sufficient microglial sample material with high purity during in vivo experiments. Current research on the neuroprotective and neurotoxic functions of microglia require a routine technical method to consistently generate pure and healthy microglia with sufficient yield for study. We present, in text and video, a protocol to isolate pure primary microglia from mixed glia cultures for a variety of downstream applications. Briefly, this technique utilizes dissociated brain tissue from neonatal rat pups to produce mixed glial cell cultures. After the mixed glial cultures reach confluency, primary microglia are mechanically isolated from the culture by a brief duration of shaking. The microglia are then plated at high purity for experimental study. The principle and protocol of this methodology have been described in the literature. Additionally, alternate methodologies to isolate primary microglia are well described. Homogenized brain tissue may be separated

  19. Chitosan based nanofibers in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagangadharan, K; Dhivya, S; Selvamurugan, N

    2017-11-01

    Bone tissue engineering involves biomaterials, cells and regulatory factors to make biosynthetic bone grafts with efficient mineralization for regeneration of fractured or damaged bones. Out of all the techniques available for scaffold preparation, electrospinning is given priority as it can fabricate nanostructures. Also, electrospun nanofibers possess unique properties such as the high surface area to volume ratio, porosity, stability, permeability and morphological similarity to that of extra cellular matrix. Chitosan (CS) has a significant edge over other materials and as a graft material, CS can be used alone or in combination with other materials in the form of nanofibers to provide the structural and biochemical cues for acceleration of bone regeneration. Hence, this review was aimed to provide a detailed study available on CS and its composites prepared as nanofibers, and their associated properties found suitable for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamic, mating-induced gene expression changes in female head and brain tissues of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirling Emma J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila melanogaster females show changes in behavior and physiology after mating that are thought to maximize the number of progeny resulting from the most recent copulation. Sperm and seminal fluid proteins induce post-mating changes in females, however, very little is known about the resulting gene expression changes in female head and central nervous system tissues that contribute to the post-mating response. Results We determined the temporal gene expression changes in female head tissues 0-2, 24, 48 and 72 hours after mating. Females from each time point had a unique post-mating gene expression response, with 72 hours post-mating having the largest number of genes with significant changes in expression. At most time points, genes expressed in the head fat body that encode products involved in metabolism showed a marked change in expression. Additional analysis of gene expression changes in dissected brain tissues 24 hours post-mating revealed changes in transcript abundance of many genes, notably, the reduced transcript abundance of genes that encode ion channels. Conclusions Substantial changes occur in the regulation of many genes in female head tissues after mating, which might underlie aspects of the female post-mating response. These results provide new insights into the physiological and metabolic changes that accompany changes in female behaviors.

  1. Cell Membrane Tracking in Living Brain Tissue Using Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John; Kolb, Ilya; Forest, Craig R; Rozell, Christopher J

    2018-04-01

    Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is widely used for observing unstained biological samples that are otherwise optically transparent. Combining this optical technique with machine vision could enable the automation of many life science experiments; however, identifying relevant features under DIC is challenging. In particular, precise tracking of cell boundaries in a thick ( ) slice of tissue has not previously been accomplished. We present a novel deconvolution algorithm that achieves the state-of-the-art performance at identifying and tracking these membrane locations. Our proposed algorithm is formulated as a regularized least squares optimization that incorporates a filtering mechanism to handle organic tissue interference and a robust edge-sparsity regularizer that integrates dynamic edge tracking capabilities. As a secondary contribution, this paper also describes new community infrastructure in the form of a MATLAB toolbox for accurately simulating DIC microscopy images of in vitro brain slices. Building on existing DIC optics modeling, our simulation framework additionally contributes an accurate representation of interference from organic tissue, neuronal cell-shapes, and tissue motion due to the action of the pipette. This simulator allows us to better understand the image statistics (to improve algorithms), as well as quantitatively test cell segmentation and tracking algorithms in scenarios, where ground truth data is fully known.

  2. A flocking based method for brain tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Ramon; Rivera, Mariano; Ramirez-Manzanares, Alonso

    2014-04-01

    We propose a new method to estimate axonal fiber pathways from Multiple Intra-Voxel Diffusion Orientations. Our method uses the multiple local orientation information for leading stochastic walks of particles. These stochastic particles are modeled with mass and thus they are subject to gravitational and inertial forces. As result, we obtain smooth, filtered and compact trajectory bundles. This gravitational interaction can be seen as a flocking behavior among particles that promotes better and robust axon fiber estimations because they use collective information to move. However, the stochastic walks may generate paths with low support (outliers), generally associated to incorrect brain connections. In order to eliminate the outlier pathways, we propose a filtering procedure based on principal component analysis and spectral clustering. The performance of the proposal is evaluated on Multiple Intra-Voxel Diffusion Orientations from two realistic numeric diffusion phantoms and a physical diffusion phantom. Additionally, we qualitatively demonstrate the performance on in vivo human brain data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Two-dimensional zymography differentiates gelatinase isoforms in stimulated microglial cells and in brain tissues of acute brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanyan; Meng, Fanjun; Chen, Zhenzhou; Tomlinson, Brittany N; Wesley, Jennifer M; Sun, Grace Y; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Sowers, James R; Cui, Jiankun; Gu, Zezong

    2015-01-01

    Excessive activation of gelatinases (MMP-2/-9) is a key cause of detrimental outcomes in neurodegenerative diseases. A single-dimension zymography has been widely used to determine gelatinase expression and activity, but this method is inadequate in resolving complex enzyme isoforms, because gelatinase expression and activity could be modified at transcriptional and posttranslational levels. In this study, we investigated gelatinase isoforms under in vitro and in vivo conditions using two-dimensional (2D) gelatin zymography electrophoresis, a protocol allowing separation of proteins based on isoelectric points (pI) and molecular weights. We observed organomercuric chemical 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate-induced activation of MMP-2 isoforms with variant pI values in the conditioned medium of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. Studies with murine BV-2 microglial cells indicated a series of proform MMP-9 spots separated by variant pI values due to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The MMP-9 pI values were shifted after treatment with alkaline phosphatase, suggesting presence of phosphorylated isoforms due to the proinflammatory stimulation. Similar MMP-9 isoforms with variant pI values in the same molecular weight were also found in mouse brains after ischemic and traumatic brain injuries. In contrast, there was no detectable pI differentiation of MMP-9 in the brains of chronic Zucker obese rats. These results demonstrated effective use of 2D zymography to separate modified MMP isoforms with variant pI values and to detect posttranslational modifications under different pathological conditions.

  4. Improving the accuracy of brain tumor surgery via Raman-based technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollon, Todd; Lewis, Spencer; Freudiger, Christian W; Sunney Xie, X; Orringer, Daniel A

    2016-03-01

    Despite advances in the surgical management of brain tumors, achieving optimal surgical results and identification of tumor remains a challenge. Raman spectroscopy, a laser-based technique that can be used to nondestructively differentiate molecules based on the inelastic scattering of light, is being applied toward improving the accuracy of brain tumor surgery. Here, the authors systematically review the application of Raman spectroscopy for guidance during brain tumor surgery. Raman spectroscopy can differentiate normal brain from necrotic and vital glioma tissue in human specimens based on chemical differences, and has recently been shown to differentiate tumor-infiltrated tissues from noninfiltrated tissues during surgery. Raman spectroscopy also forms the basis for coherent Raman scattering (CRS) microscopy, a technique that amplifies spontaneous Raman signals by 10,000-fold, enabling real-time histological imaging without the need for tissue processing, sectioning, or staining. The authors review the relevant basic and translational studies on CRS microscopy as a means of providing real-time intraoperative guidance. Recent studies have demonstrated how CRS can be used to differentiate tumor-infiltrated tissues from noninfiltrated tissues and that it has excellent agreement with traditional histology. Under simulated operative conditions, CRS has been shown to identify tumor margins that would be undetectable using standard bright-field microscopy. In addition, CRS microscopy has been shown to detect tumor in human surgical specimens with near-perfect agreement to standard H & E microscopy. The authors suggest that as the intraoperative application and instrumentation for Raman spectroscopy and imaging matures, it will become an essential component in the neurosurgical armamentarium for identifying residual tumor and improving the surgical management of brain tumors.

  5. MR-based attenuation correction in brain PET based on UTE sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabello, Jorge; Nekolla, Stephan G; Ziegler, Sibylle I [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    Attenuation correction (AC) in brain PET/MR has recently emerged as one of the challenging tasks in the PET/MR field. It has been shown that to ignore the attenuation produced by bone can lead to errors ranging from 5-30% in regions close to bone structures. Since the information provided by the MR signal is not directly related to tissue attenuation, alternative methods have to be developed. Signal from bone tissue is difficult to measure given its short transverse relaxation time (T2). Ultrashort-echo time (UTE) pulse sequences were developed to measure signal from tissues with short T2. A combination of two consecutive UTE echoes has been used in several works to measure signal from bone tissue. The first echo is able to measure signal from bone tissue in addition to soft tissue, while the second echo contains most of the soft tissue contained in the first echo but not bone. In this work we extract the attenuation information from the difference between the logarithm of two images obtained after applying two consecutive UTE pulse sequences using the mMR scanner (Siemens Healthcare). Subsequently, image processing techniques are applied to reduce the noise and extract air cavities within the head. The resulting image is converted to linear attenuation coefficients, generating what is known as µ-map, to be used during reconstruction. For comparison purposes PET/CT scans of the same patients were acquired prior to the PET/MR scan. Additional µ-maps obtained for comparison were extracted from a Dixon sequence (used in clinical routine) and an additional µ-map calculated by the scanner based on UTE pulse sequences. Preliminary quantitative results measured in the cerebellum, using the value obtained with CT-based AC as reference, show differences of 34% without AC, 13% using the Dixon-based and UTE-based provided by the scanner, and 0.8% with the AC strategy presented here.

  6. Altered expression of BDNF, BDNF pro-peptide and their precursor proBDNF in brain and liver tissues from psychiatric disorders: rethinking the brain?liver axis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, B; Ren, Q; Zhang, J-c; Chen, Q-X; Hashimoto, K

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. The precursor proBDNF is converted to mature BDNF and BDNF pro-peptide, the N-terminal fragment of proBDNF; however, the precise function of these proteins in psychiatric disorders is unknown. We sought to determine whether expression of these proteins is altered in the brain and peripheral tissues from patients with psychiatric disorders. We measured protein expression of proBDNF, mature BDNF...

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging-three-dimensional printing technology fabricates customized scaffolds for brain tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Fu; Chong Chen; Sai Zhang; Ming-liang Zhao; Xiao-hong Li; Zhe Qin; Chao Xu; Xu-yi Chen; Rui-xin Li; Li-na Wang; Ding-wei Peng; Hong-tao Sun; Yue Tu

    2017-01-01

    Conventional fabrication methods lack the ability to control both macro- and micro-structures of generated scaffolds. Three-dimensional printing is a solid free-form fabrication method that provides novel ways to create customized scaffolds with high precision and accuracy. In this study, an electrically controlled cortical impactor was used to induce randomized brain tissue defects. The overall shape of scaffolds was designed using rat-specific anatomical data obtained from magnetic resonance imaging, and the internal structure was created by computer- aided design. As the result of limitations arising from insufficient resolution of the manufacturing process, we magnified the size of the cavity model prototype five-fold to successfully fabricate customized collagen-chitosan scaffolds using three-dimensional printing. Results demonstrated that scaffolds have three-dimensional porous structures, high porosity, highly specific surface areas, pore connectivity and good internal characteristics. Neural stem cells co-cultured with scaffolds showed good viability, indicating good biocompatibility and biodegradability. This technique may be a promising new strategy for regenerating complex damaged brain tissues, and helps pave the way toward personalized medicine.

  8. Some positive effects of pine oil on brain tissue in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, E.; Keser, S.; Yilmiz, O.

    2016-01-01

    Pine oil has antiseptic, expectorant and antioxidant properties and has been used for treatment of rheumatism, respiratory and urinary system and skin diseases. We aimed to determine protective effects of pine oil (PO) on the lipid-soluble vitamins, cholesterol, GSH, total protein, MDA, fatty acid levels of brain tissue of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control (C), streptozotocin (STZ), streptozotocin+pine oil (PO) groups. Streptozotocin was injected intraperitoneally single dose (65 mg/kg) to the STZ and PO groups for inducing of diabetes. To the PO group 1 mg/kg dose pine oil was intraperitoneally injected every next day. While the GSH and total protein were significantly decreased in the Streptozotocin (STZ) group, their levels were protected in PO group. MDA level was significantly increased in STZ group, its level significantly decreased in the PO group. Our results showed that PO has a positive effect on the GSH, total protein, and MDA levels in the brain tissue of diabetic rats. The PO and STZ administrations were affected by levels of some important fatty acids. The decrease in the MDA level and observed protecting effects can be attributed to PO extract, because it contains some important phytochemical constituents. (author)

  9. Robust volume assessment of brain tissues for 3-dimensional fourier transformation MRI via a novel multispectral technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Wen Chai

    Full Text Available A new TRIO algorithm method integrating three different algorithms is proposed to perform brain MRI segmentation in the native coordinate space, with no need of transformation to a standard coordinate space or the probability maps for segmentation. The method is a simple voxel-based algorithm, derived from multispectral remote sensing techniques, and only requires minimal operator input to depict GM, WM, and CSF tissue clusters to complete classification of a 3D high-resolution multislice-multispectral MRI data. Results showed very high accuracy and reproducibility in classification of GM, WM, and CSF in multislice-multispectral synthetic MRI data. The similarity indexes, expressing overlap between classification results and the ground truth, were 0.951, 0.962, and 0.956 for GM, WM, and CSF classifications in the image data with 3% noise level and 0% non-uniformity intensity. The method particularly allows for classification of CSF with 0.994, 0.961 and 0.996 of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in images data with 3% noise level and 0% non-uniformity intensity, which had seldom performed well in previous studies. As for clinical MRI data, the quantitative data of brain tissue volumes aligned closely with the brain morphometrics in three different study groups of young adults, elderly volunteers, and dementia patients. The results also showed very low rates of the intra- and extra-operator variability in measurements of the absolute volumes and volume fractions of cerebral GM, WM, and CSF in three different study groups. The mean coefficients of variation of GM, WM, and CSF volume measurements were in the range of 0.03% to 0.30% of intra-operator measurements and 0.06% to 0.45% of inter-operator measurements. In conclusion, the TRIO algorithm exhibits a remarkable ability in robust classification of multislice-multispectral brain MR images, which would be potentially applicable for clinical brain volumetric analysis and explicitly promising

  10. Fluoride Alteration of [3H]Glucose Uptake in Wistar Rat Brain and Peripheral Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Anna; Kuter, Katarzyna; Żelazko, Aleksandra; Głogowska-Gruszka, Anna; Świętochowska, Elżbieta; Nowak, Przemysław

    2017-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of postnatal fluoride intake on [3H]glucose uptake and transport in rat brain and peripheral tissues. Sodium fluoride (NaF) in a concentration of 10 or 50 ppm was added to the drinking water of adult Wistar rats. The control group received distilled water. After 4 weeks, respective plasma fluoride levels were 0.0541 ± 0.0135 μg/ml (control), 0.0596 ± 0.0202 μg/ml (10 ppm), and 0.0823 ± 0.0199 μg/ml (50 ppm). Although plasma glucose levels were not altered in any group, the plasma insulin level in the fluoride (50 ppm) group was elevated (0.72 ± 0.13 μg/ml) versus the control group (0.48 ± 0.24 μg/ml) and fluoride (10 ppm) group. In rats receiving fluoride for 4 weeks at 10 ppm in drinking water, [3H]glucose uptake was unaltered in all tested parts of the brain. However, in rats receiving fluoride at 50 ppm, [3H]glucose uptake in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus with hypothalamus was elevated, versus the saline group. Fluoride intake had a negligible effect on [3H]glucose uptake by peripheral tissues (liver, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, atrium, aorta, kidney, visceral tissue, lung, skin, oral mucosa, tongue, salivary gland, incisor, molars, and jawbone). In neither fluoride group was glucose transporter proteins 1 (GLUT 1) or 3 (GLUT 3) altered in frontal cortex and striatum versus control. On the assumption that increased glucose uptake (by neural tissue) reasonably reflects neuronal activity, it appears that fluoride damage to the brain results in a compensatory increase in glucose uptake and utilization without changes in GLUT 1 and GLUT 3 expression.

  11. Alginate based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, J.F.A.; Valente, T.A.M. [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Alves, P.; Ferreira, P. [CIEPQPF, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Silva, A. [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespaciais, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Correia, I.J., E-mail: icorreia@ubi.pt [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal)

    2012-12-01

    The design and production of scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration is yet unable to completely reproduce the native bone properties. In the present study new alginate microparticle and microfiber aggregated scaffolds were produced to be applied in this area of regenerative medicine. The scaffolds' mechanical properties were characterized by thermo mechanical assays. Their morphological characteristics were evaluated by isothermal nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The density of both types of scaffolds was determined by helium pycnometry and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Furthermore, scaffolds' cytotoxic profiles were evaluated in vitro by seeding human osteoblast cells in their presence. The results obtained showed that scaffolds have good mechanical and morphological properties compatible with their application as bone substitutes. Moreover, scaffold's biocompatibility was confirmed by the observation of cell adhesion and proliferation after 5 days of being seeded in their presence and by non-radioactive assays. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design and production of scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microparticle and microfiber alginate scaffolds were produced through a particle aggregation technique; Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scaffolds' mechanically and biologically properties were characterized through in vitro studies;.

  12. Fiber optic based multiparametric spectroscopy in vivo: Toward a new quantitative tissue vitality index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutai-Asis, Hofit; Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Deutsch, Assaf; Mayevsky, Avraham

    2006-02-01

    In our previous publication (Mayevsky et al SPIE 5326: 98-105, 2004) we described a multiparametric fiber optic system enabling the evaluation of 4 physiological parameters as indicators of tissue vitality. Since the correlation between the various parameters may differ in various pathophysiological conditions there is a need for an objective quantitative index that will integrate the relative changes measured in real time by the multiparametric monitoring system into a single number-vitality index. Such an approach to calculate tissue vitality index is critical for the possibility to use such an instrument in clinical environments. In the current presentation we are reporting our preliminary results indicating that calculation of an objective tissue vitality index is feasible. We used an intuitive empirical approach based on the comparison between the calculated index by the computer and the subjective evaluation made by an expert in the field of physiological monitoring. We used the in vivo brain of rats as an animal model in our current studies. The rats were exposed to anoxia, ischemia and cortical spreading depression and the responses were recorded in real time. At the end of the monitoring session the results were analyzed and the tissue vitality index was calculated offline. Mitochondrial NADH, tissue blood flow and oxy-hemoglobin were used to calculate the vitality index of the brain in vivo, where each parameter received a different weight, in each experiment type based on their significance. It was found that the mitochondrial NADH response was the main factor affected the calculated vitality index.

  13. Antioxidant effect of sericin in brain and peripheral tissues of oxidative stress induced hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meetali Deori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antioxidant effect of crude sericin extract (CSE from Antheraea assamenisis (Aa in high cholesterol fed rats. Investigation was conducted by administering graded oral dose of 0.25 and 0.5 gm/kg body weight (b.w./day of CSE for a period of 28 days. Experiments were conducted in 30 rats and were divided into five groups: normal control (NC, high cholesterol fed (HCF, HCF + 0.065 gm/kg b.w./day fenofibrate (FF, HCF + sericin 0.25 gm/kg b.w./day (LSD and HCF + sericin 0.5 gm/kg b.w./day (HSD. In brain, heart, liver, serum and kidney homogenates nitric oxide (NO, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, protein carbonyl content (PCC, superoxide dismutase (SOD, reduced glutathione (GSH was measured. LSD treatment prevented the alterations in GSH and PCC levels in hypercholesterolemic (HyC brain tissue homogenates of rats. CSE lowers the serum total cholesterol level in HyC rats by promoting fecal cholesterol (FC excretion. CSE increases FC level by promoting inhibition of cholesterol absorption in intestine. The endogenous antioxidant reduced significantly and the oxidative stress (OS marker TBARS level increases significantly in the peripheral tissue of HCF rats. However, the administration of LSD and HSD exhibited a good antioxidant activity by reducing the TBARS level and increasing the endogenous antioxidant in peripheral tissue. In addition, a histological examination revealed loss of normal liver and kidney architecture in cholesterol fed rats which were retained in sericin treated groups. The findings of this study suggested that CSE improves hypercholesterolemia in rats fed a HyC diet. Clinical relevance of this effect of CSE seems worthy of further studies.

  14. Stem cell homing-based tissue engineering using bioactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinxian; Sun, Binbin; Yi, Chengqing; Mo, Xiumei

    2017-06-01

    Tissue engineering focuses on repairing tissue and restoring tissue functions by employing three elements: scaffolds, cells and biochemical signals. In tissue engineering, bioactive material scaffolds have been used to cure tissue and organ defects with stem cell-based therapies being one of the best documented approaches. In the review, different biomaterials which are used in several methods to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds were explained and show good properties (biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mechanical properties etc.) for cell migration and infiltration. Stem cell homing is a recruitment process for inducing the migration of the systemically transplanted cells, or host cells, to defect sites. The mechanisms and modes of stem cell homing-based tissue engineering can be divided into two types depending on the source of the stem cells: endogenous and exogenous. Exogenous stem cell-based bioactive scaffolds have the challenge of long-term culturing in vitro and for endogenous stem cells the biochemical signal homing recruitment mechanism is not clear yet. Although the stem cell homing-based bioactive scaffolds are attractive candidates for tissue defect therapies, based on in vitro studies and animal tests, there is still a long way before clinical application.

  15. A semi-automated measuring system of brain diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in patients with multiple sclerosis based on the integration of coregistration and tissue segmentation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revenaz, Alfredo; Ruggeri, Massimiliano; Laganà, Marcella; Bergsland, Niels; Groppo, Elisabetta; Rovaris, Marco; Fainardi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) abnormalities in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are currently measured by a complex combination of separate procedures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide a reliable method for reducing analysis complexity and obtaining reproducible results. We implemented a semi-automated measuring system in which different well-known software components for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis are integrated to obtain reliable measurements of DWI and PWI disturbances in MS. We generated the Diffusion/Perfusion Project (DPP) Suite, in which a series of external software programs are managed and harmonically and hierarchically incorporated by in-house developed Matlab software to perform the following processes: 1) image pre-processing, including imaging data anonymization and conversion from DICOM to Nifti format; 2) co-registration of 2D and 3D non-enhanced and Gd-enhanced T1-weighted images in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) space; 3) lesion segmentation and classification, in which FLAIR lesions are at first segmented and then categorized according to their presumed evolution; 4) co-registration of segmented FLAIR lesion in T1 space to obtain the FLAIR lesion mask in the T1 space; 5) normal appearing tissue segmentation, in which T1 lesion mask is used to segment basal ganglia/thalami, normal appearing grey matter (NAGM) and normal appearing white matter (NAWM); 6) DWI and PWI map generation; 7) co-registration of basal ganglia/thalami, NAGM, NAWM, DWI and PWI maps in previously segmented FLAIR space; 8) data analysis. All these steps are automatic, except for lesion segmentation and classification. We developed a promising method to limit misclassifications and user errors, providing clinical researchers with a practical and reproducible tool to measure DWI and PWI changes in MS

  16. Aluminium and Gamma Irradiation Induced Oxidative Damage in Brain Tissue of Male Rats - Protective Role of Ferulic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, S.Z.; Hanafi, N.; Noaman, E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study was carried out to investigate the potential role of ferulic acid (FA) against Aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ), γ- radiation either alone or combination induced oxidative stress in brain tissue of Wistar rats. The period of the experiment was eight weeks. Animals were administrated by aluminium chloride at a dose of 8.5 mg/kg/day and exposed to a single dose (4 Gy) of γ-radiation. FA was administered orally (50 mg/Kg body weight)/day. Histopathological observations and myeloid protein distribution were recorded in brain tissue. Induction of oxidative stress was recorded after all exposures. Brain tissue of AlCl 3 and γ- irradiation treatments either alone or combined revealed many altered changes and myeloid protein distribution. Also a decrease in serotonin concentration was recorded. An increase in Malonaldialdahyde (MDA) and acetylcholinesterase activity and percentage of saturated fatty acids in plasma and brain tissue was recorded. Reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in blood and brain showed a significant decrease. Treatment of AlCl 3 loaded animals by FA showed simple atrophy as shrunken morphology saw in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and a decrease in myeloid protein deposition. FA treatment of AlCl 3 loaded or irradiated animals represented a significant increase in serotonin concentration and ameliorated affects on oxidative stress markers, acetylcholinesterase activity and percentage of saturated fatty acids in plasma and brain tissue. In conclusion FA has a role in reducing the oxidative stress of AlCl 3 and γ- irradiation on brain tissue of rats

  17. Regular aerobic exercise correlates with reduced anxiety and incresed levels of irisin in brain and white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Nazan; Yuksel, Oguz; Kizildag, Servet; Yuce, Zeynep; Gumus, Hikmet; Karakilic, Aslı; Guvendi, Guven; Koc, Basar; Kandis, Sevim; Ates, Mehmet

    2018-05-29

    We have recently shown that regular voluntary aerobic exercised rats have low levels of anxiety. Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine that is produced by many tissues; and the role it plays in anxiolytic behavior is unknown. In this study we aimed to investigate the correlation between anxiety like behavior and irisin levels following regular voluntary aerobic exercise in male mice. We've have shown that anxiety levels decreased in exercised mice, while irisin levels increased in the brain, brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue, kidney, and pancreas tissues. No significant difference of irisin levels in the liver, muscle and serum were detected in the exercise group, when compared to controls. In addition, there was a strong positive correlation between brain irisin levels and activity in middle area of open field test and in the open arms of elevated plus maze test; both which are indicators of low anxiety levels. Our results suggest that decrease in anxiolytic behavior due to regular voluntary exercise may be associated with locally produced brain irisin. White adipose tissue irisin levels also correlated very strongly with low anxiety. However, no serum irisin increase was detected, ruling out the possibility of increased peripheral irisin levels affecting the brain via the bloodstream. Further research is necessary to explain the mechanisms of which peripheral and central irisin effects anxiety and the brain region affected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Brain physiological state evaluated by real-time multiparametric tissue spectroscopy in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayevsky, Avraham; Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Kutai-Asis, Hofit; Deutsch, Assaf; Jaronkin, Alex

    2004-07-01

    The significance of normal mitochondrial function in cellular energy homeostasis as well as its involvement in acute and chronic neurodegenerative disease was reviewed recently (Nicholls & Budd. Physiol Rev. 80: 315-360, 2000). Nevertheless, monitoring of mitochondrial function in vivo and real time mode was not used by many investigators and is very rare in clinical practice. The main principle tool available for the evaluation of mitochondrial function is the monitoring of NADH fluorescence. In order to interpret correctly the changes in NADH redox state in vivo, it is necessary to correlate this signal to other parameters, reflecting O2 supply to the brain. Therefore, we have developed and applied a multiparametric optical monitoring system, by which microcirculatory blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation is measured, together with mitochondrial NADH fluorescence. Since the calibration of these signals is not in absolute units, the simultaneous monitoring provide a practical tool for the interpretation of brain functional state under various pathophysiological conditions. The monitoring system combines a time-sharing fluorometer-reflectometer for the measurement of NADH fluorescence and hemoglobin oxygenation as well as a laser Doppler flowmeter for the recording of microcirculatory blood flow. A combined fiber optic probe was located on the surface of the brain using a skull cemented cannula. Rats and gerbils were exposed to anoxia, ischemia and spreading depression and the functional state of the brain was evaluated. The results showed a clear correlation between O2 supply/demand as well as, energy balance under the various pathophysiological conditions. This monitoring approach could be adapted to clinical monitoring of tissue vitality.

  19. Ontology-based, Tissue MicroArray oriented, image centered tissue bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viti Federica

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue MicroArray technique is becoming increasingly important in pathology for the validation of experimental data from transcriptomic analysis. This approach produces many images which need to be properly managed, if possible with an infrastructure able to support tissue sharing between institutes. Moreover, the available frameworks oriented to Tissue MicroArray provide good storage for clinical patient, sample treatment and block construction information, but their utility is limited by the lack of data integration with biomolecular information. Results In this work we propose a Tissue MicroArray web oriented system to support researchers in managing bio-samples and, through the use of ontologies, enables tissue sharing aimed at the design of Tissue MicroArray experiments and results evaluation. Indeed, our system provides ontological description both for pre-analysis tissue images and for post-process analysis image results, which is crucial for information exchange. Moreover, working on well-defined terms it is then possible to query web resources for literature articles to integrate both pathology and bioinformatics data. Conclusions Using this system, users associate an ontology-based description to each image uploaded into the database and also integrate results with the ontological description of biosequences identified in every tissue. Moreover, it is possible to integrate the ontological description provided by the user with a full compliant gene ontology definition, enabling statistical studies about correlation between the analyzed pathology and the most commonly related biological processes.

  20. Some growth factors in neoplastic tissues of brain tumors of different histological structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pathologic angiogenesis is typical for angiogenic diseases including tumor growth. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, transforming growth factor alpha and beta (which are also known as “triggers” of angiogenesis, and other factors (Gacche, Meshram, 2013; Nijaguna et al., 2015 play a special role in its development. Evaluation of the important mechanisms of angiogenesis in physiological and pathological conditions remains to be a subject of heightened interest for the past 30 years. It is known that VEGF A is the main trigger of growing blood vessels into the tumor tissue. This is specific mitogen signal for endothelial cells that triggers the mechanisms of cell division and migration. VEGF-induced tumor vasculature has a number of structural and functional features that provide growth and progression of tumors, including increased permeability of blood vessels and their chaotic arrangement.Objective: to study in comparative aspect the level of certain growth factors in the following tissues: glioblastomas, brain metastasis of the breast cancer, meningiomas as well as corresponding peritumoral areas.Materials and methods. Tissue samples were obtained from 56 patients admitted to the surgical treatment in Rostov Research Institute of Oncology: 24 patients had glioblastomas, 19 patients had brain metastasis of the breast cancer, 13 patients with meningiomas without peritumoral edema. Histological control was carried out in all cases. Age of patients ranged from 35 to 72 years. The level of growth factor was detected in the samples of tumor tissue and regions immediately adjacent to the tumor foci (peritumoral area by the method of immunoassay and using standard test systems. The following growth factor were detected: VEGF-A and its receptors VEGF-R1 (BenderMedSystem, Austria, VEGF-C and its receptor VEGF-R3 (BenderMedSystem, Austria, EGF (Biosource, USA, IFR-1 and IFR-2 (Mediagnost, USA, TGF

  1. A discriminative model-constrained EM approach to 3D MRI brain tissue classification and intensity non-uniformity correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wels, Michael; Hornegger, Joachim; Zheng Yefeng; Comaniciu, Dorin; Huber, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We describe a fully automated method for tissue classification, which is the segmentation into cerebral gray matter (GM), cerebral white matter (WM), and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and intensity non-uniformity (INU) correction in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes. It combines supervised MRI modality-specific discriminative modeling and unsupervised statistical expectation maximization (EM) segmentation into an integrated Bayesian framework. While both the parametric observation models and the non-parametrically modeled INUs are estimated via EM during segmentation itself, a Markov random field (MRF) prior model regularizes segmentation and parameter estimation. Firstly, the regularization takes into account knowledge about spatial and appearance-related homogeneity of segments in terms of pairwise clique potentials of adjacent voxels. Secondly and more importantly, patient-specific knowledge about the global spatial distribution of brain tissue is incorporated into the segmentation process via unary clique potentials. They are based on a strong discriminative model provided by a probabilistic boosting tree (PBT) for classifying image voxels. It relies on the surrounding context and alignment-based features derived from a probabilistic anatomical atlas. The context considered is encoded by 3D Haar-like features of reduced INU sensitivity. Alignment is carried out fully automatically by means of an affine registration algorithm minimizing cross-correlation. Both types of features do not immediately use the observed intensities provided by the MRI modality but instead rely on specifically transformed features, which are less sensitive to MRI artifacts. Detailed quantitative evaluations on standard phantom scans and standard real-world data show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. They also demonstrate relative superiority in comparison to other state-of-the-art approaches to this kind of computational task: our method achieves average

  2. Tissue-based map of the human proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlén, Mathias; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M.

    2015-01-01

    Resolving the molecular details of proteome variation in the different tissues and organs of the human body will greatly increase our knowledge of human biology and disease. Here, we present a map of the human tissue proteome based on an integrated omics approach that involves quantitative transc...

  3. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  4. Subcortical Brain Morphology in Schizophrenia : Descriptive analysis based on MRI findings of subcortical brain volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Gunleiksrud, Sindre

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate magnetic resonance images (MR) from patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects for difference in brain morphology with focus on subcortical brain volumes. Method: The study compared fourteen subcortical brain structure volumes of 96 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=81) or schizoaffective disorder (n=15) with 106 healthy control subjects. Volume measures were obtained using voxel-based morphometry (FreeSurfer software suite) of ...

  5. Biodegradable Polymer-Based Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sultana, Naznin

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses the principles, methods and applications of biodegradable polymer based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The general principle of bone tissue engineering is reviewed and the traditional and novel scaffolding materials, their properties and scaffold fabrication techniques are explored. By acting as temporary synthetic extracellular matrices for cell accommodation, proliferation, and differentiation, scaffolds play a pivotal role in tissue engineering. This book does not only provide the comprehensive summary of the current trends in scaffolding design but also presents the new trends and directions for scaffold development for the ever expanding tissue engineering applications.

  6. Template based rodent brain extraction and atlas mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimin Huang; Jiaqi Zhang; Zhiping Lin; Su Huang; Yuping Duan; Zhongkang Lu

    2016-08-01

    Accurate rodent brain extraction is the basic step for many translational studies using MR imaging. This paper presents a template based approach with multi-expert refinement to automatic rodent brain extraction. We first build the brain appearance model based on the learning exemplars. Together with the template matching, we encode the rodent brain position into the search space to reliably locate the rodent brain and estimate the rough segmentation. With the initial mask, a level-set segmentation and a mask-based template learning are implemented further to the brain region. The multi-expert fusion is used to generate a new mask. We finally combine the region growing based on the histogram distribution learning to delineate the final brain mask. A high-resolution rodent atlas is used to illustrate that the segmented low resolution anatomic image can be well mapped to the atlas. Tested on a public data set, all brains are located reliably and we achieve the mean Jaccard similarity score at 94.99% for brain segmentation, which is a statistically significant improvement compared to two other rodent brain extraction methods.

  7. Effect of Brain Tumor Presence During Radiation on Tissue Toxicity: Transcriptomic and Metabolic Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawaski, Janice A; Sabek, Omaima M; Voicu, Horatiu; Eastwood Leung, Hon-Chiu; Gaber, M Waleed

    2017-11-15

    Radiation therapy (RT) causes functional and transcriptomic changes in the brain; however, most studies have been carried out in normal rodent brains. Here, the long-term effect of irradiation and tumor presence during radiation was investigated. Male Wistar rats ∼7 weeks old were divided into 3 groups: sham implant, RT+sham implant, and RT+tumor implant (C6 glioma). Hypofractionated irradiation (8 or 6 Gy/day for 5 days) was localized to a 1-cm strip of cranium starting 5 days after implantation, resulting in complete tumor regression and prolonged survival. Biopsy of tissue was performed in the implant area 65 days after implantation. RNA was hybridized to GeneChip Rat Exon 1.0 ST array. Data were analyzed using significant analysis of microarrays and ingenuity pathway analysis. 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) imaging was performed in the implantation site 65 to 70 days after implantation using a 9.4 T Biospec magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a quadrature rat brain array. Immunohistochemical staining for astrogliosis, HMG-CoA synthase 2, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine was performed at ∼65 days after implantation. Eighty-four genes had a false discovery rate <3.5%. We compared RT+tumor implant with RT+sham implant animals. The tumor presence affected networks associated with cancer/cell morphology/tissue morphology. 1 H-MRS showed significant reduction in taurine levels (P<.04) at the implantation site in both groups. However, the RT+tumor group also showed significant increase in levels of neurotransmitter GABA (P=.02). Hippocampal taurine levels were only significantly reduced in the RT+tumor group (P=.03). HMG-CoA synthase 2, GABA and taurine levels were confirmed using staining. Glial fibrillary acidic protein staining demonstrated a significant increase in inflammation that was heightened in the RT+tumor group. Our data indicate that tumor presence during radiation significantly affects long-term functional

  8. Evaluation of a deep learning approach for the segmentation of brain tissues and white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeskops, Pim; de Bresser, Jeroen; Kuijf, Hugo J; Mendrik, Adriënne M; Biessels, Geert Jan; Pluim, Josien P W; Išgum, Ivana

    2018-01-01

    brain abnormalities and motion artefacts. In conclusion, this study shows that a convolutional neural network-based segmentation method can accurately segment brain tissues and WMH in MR images of older patients with varying degrees of brain abnormalities and motion artefacts.

  9. Segmentation of Brain MRI Using SOM-FCM-Based Method and 3D Statistical Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current medical imaging systems provide excellent spatial resolution, high tissue contrast, and up to 65535 intensity levels. Thus, image processing techniques which aim to exploit the information contained in the images are necessary for using these images in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD systems. Image segmentation may be defined as the process of parcelling the image to delimit different neuroanatomical tissues present on the brain. In this paper we propose a segmentation technique using 3D statistical features extracted from the volume image. In addition, the presented method is based on unsupervised vector quantization and fuzzy clustering techniques and does not use any a priori information. The resulting fuzzy segmentation method addresses the problem of partial volume effect (PVE and has been assessed using real brain images from the Internet Brain Image Repository (IBSR.

  10. An experimental study on the mechanical properties of rat brain tissue using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi

    2014-07-01

    There are different stress-strain definitions to measure the mechanical properties of the brain tissue. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be employed to measure the mechanical properties of the brain tissue at both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. It is worth knowing that an optimize stress-strain definition of the brain tissue at different loading directions may have implications for neuronavigation and surgery simulation through haptic devices. This study is aimed to conduct a comparative study on different results are given by the various definitions of stress-strain and to recommend a specific definition when testing brain tissues. Prepared cylindrical samples are excised from the parietal lobes of rats' brains and experimentally tested by applying load on both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) are used to determine the elastic modulus, maximum stress and strain. The highest non-linear stress-strain relation is observed for the Almansi-Hamel strain definition and it may overestimate the elastic modulus at different stress definitions at both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. The Green-St. Venant strain definition fails to address the non-linear stress-strain relation using different definitions of stress and triggers an underestimation of the elastic modulus. The results suggest the application of the true stress-true strain definition for characterization of the brain tissues mechanics since it gives more accurate measurements of the tissue's response using the instantaneous values.

  11. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintjes, E M; Narr, K L; van der Kouwe, A J W; Molteno, C D; Pirnia, T; Gutman, B; Woods, R P; Thompson, P M; Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6-11.0 years) and controls (n = 16, 9.5-11.0 years). Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1) the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2) the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3) the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4) the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA) regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  12. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Meintjes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6–11.0 years and controls (n = 16, 9.5–11.0 years. Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1 the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2 the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3 the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4 the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  13. The Brains behind Brain-Based Research: The Tale of Two Postsecondary Online Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuckin, Dawn; Ladhani, Mubeen

    2010-01-01

    This paper is written from the perspective of two postsecondary students who realized the implications for brain-based learning in the online environment. This paper explores the relationship between online learning in regards to how the brain generates meaning and understanding, the role of emotions, the collaborative construction of knowledge,…

  14. Signifikansi Brain Based Learning Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini

    OpenAIRE

    Jazariyah

    2017-01-01

    This study based on the reality of learning in the early childhood level and the system has not noticed the potential of the brain learners. The potential and the working system of the brain is very important in early childhood. This paper aims to reveal the importance of brain-based learning in Early Childhood Education (ECD). The problem in this study is what the nature of early childhood education and how to use the potential and work system of the brain in early childhood learning. This s...

  15. Amyloid structure exhibits polymorphism on multiple length scales in human brain tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiliang; Costantino, Isabel; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Fischetti, Robert F.; Hyman, Bradley; Frosch, Matthew; Gomez-Isla, Teresa; Makowski, Lee

    2016-09-15

    Although aggregation of Aβ amyloid fibrils into plaques in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), the correlation between amyloid burden and severity of symptoms is weak. One possible reason is that amyloid fibrils are structurally polymorphic and different polymorphs may contribute differentially to disease. However, the occurrence and distribution of amyloid polymorphisms in human brain is poorly documented. Here we seek to fill this knowledge gap by using X-ray microdiffraction of histological sections of human tissue to map the abundance, orientation and structural heterogeneities of amyloid within individual plaques; among proximal plaques and in subjects with distinct clinical histories. A 5 µ x-ray beam was used to generate diffraction data with each pattern arising from a scattering volume of only ~ 450 µ3 , making possible collection of dozens to hundreds of diffraction patterns from a single amyloid plaque. X-ray scattering from these samples exhibited all the properties expected for scattering from amyloid. Amyloid distribution was mapped using the intensity of its signature 4.7 Å reflection which also provided information on the orientation of amyloid fibrils across plaques. Margins of plaques exhibited a greater degree of orientation than cores and orientation around blood vessels frequently appeared tangential. Variation in the structure of Aβ fibrils is reflected in the shape of the 4.7 Å peak which usually appears as a doublet. Variations in this peak correspond to differences between the structure of amyloid within cores of plaques and at their periphery. Examination of tissue from a mismatch case - an individual with high plaque burden but no overt signs of dementia at time of death - revealed a diversity of structure and spatial distribution of amyloid that is distinct from typical AD cases. We demonstrate the existence of structural polymorphisms among amyloid within and among plaques of a single individual and suggest

  16. [Influence of mastication on the amount of hemoglobin in human brain tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, A

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of mastication on the amount of hemoglobin in human brain tissue. Nine healthy volunteers (6 males and 3 females) participated in this study. They underwent two tasks: 1) at rest, 2) gum-chewing. In seven of the nine (4 males and 3 females), experimental occlusal interference was applied to the first molar of the mandibule on the habitual masticatory side. They underwent the gum-chewing task. To evaluate the amount of hemoglobin, both the hemoglobin oxygenation state and blood volume during gum-chewing were measured in the frontal region, using near-infrared spectroscopy. The amount of total-hemoglobin (blood volume) and oxyhemoglobin of subjects significantly increased during gum-chewing (p experimental occlusal interference was imposed on the subject, the amount of them significantly decreased compared with subjects without experimental occlusal interference (p < 0.05). The results suggested that increases of cerebral blood flow in the frontal region were not due to the mandibular movement, and that human brain activity caused by mastication was not only in the cortical masticatory area but also in the frontal region.

  17. Potential of stem cell based therapy and tissue engineering in the regeneration of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Yihua; Tsang, Kent K S; Zhang Han

    2006-01-01

    The insufficiency of self-repair and regeneration of the central nervous system (CNS) leads to difficulty of rehabilitation of the injured brain. In the past few decades, the significant progress in cell therapy and tissue engineering has contributed to the functional recovery of the CNS to a great extent. The present review focuses on the potential role of stem cell based therapy and tissue engineering in the regeneration of the CNS. (topical review)

  18. Increasing pro-survival factors within whole brain tissue of Sprague Dawley rats via intracerebral administration of modified valproic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Bates

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neural tissue exposure to valproic acid (VPA increases several pro-survival phospho-proteins that can be used as biomarkers for indicating a beneficial drug response (pAktSer473, pGSK3βSer9, pErk1/2Thr202/Tyr204. Unfortunately, targeting VPA to neural tissue is a problem due to severe asymmetrical distribution, wherein the drug tends to remain in peripheral blood rather than localizing within the brain. Intracerebral delivery of an amide-linked VPA–PEG conjugate could address these issues by enhancing retention and promoting cerebro-global increases in pro-survival phospho-proteins. It is necessary to assay for the retained bioactivity of a PEGylated valproic acid molecule, along with locating an intracranial cannula placement that optimizes the increase of a known downstream biomarker for chronic VPA exposure. Here we show an acute injection of VPA–PEG conjugate within brain tissue increased virtually all of the assayed phospho-proteins, including well-known pro-survival factors. In contrast, an acute injection of VPA expectedly decreased signaling throughout the hour. Needle penetration into whole brain tissue is the intentional cause of trauma in this procedure. The trauma to brain tissue was observed to overcome known phospho-protein increases for unmodified VPA in the injected solution, while VPA–PEG conjugate appeared to induce significant increases in pro-survival phospho-proteins, despite the procedural trauma.

  19. Joint learning and weighting of visual vocabulary for bag-of-feature based tissue classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2013-12-01

    Automated classification of tissue types of Region of Interest (ROI) in medical images has been an important application in Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD). Recently, bag-of-feature methods which treat each ROI as a set of local features have shown their power in this field. Two important issues of bag-of-feature strategy for tissue classification are investigated in this paper: the visual vocabulary learning and weighting, which are always considered independently in traditional methods by neglecting the inner relationship between the visual words and their weights. To overcome this problem, we develop a novel algorithm, Joint-ViVo, which learns the vocabulary and visual word weights jointly. A unified objective function based on large margin is defined for learning of both visual vocabulary and visual word weights, and optimized alternately in the iterative algorithm. We test our algorithm on three tissue classification tasks: classifying breast tissue density in mammograms, classifying lung tissue in High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) images, and identifying brain tissue type in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The results show that Joint-ViVo outperforms the state-of-art methods on tissue classification problems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Oligoaniline-based conductive biomaterials for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrintaj, Payam; Bakhshandeh, Behnaz; Saeb, Mohammad Reza; Sefat, Farshid; Rezaeian, Iraj; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Mozafari, Masoud

    2018-05-01

    The science and engineering of biomaterials have improved the human life expectancy. Tissue engineering is one of the nascent strategies with an aim to fulfill this target. Tissue engineering scaffolds are one of the most significant aspects of the recent tissue repair strategies; hence, it is imperative to design biomimetic substrates with suitable features. Conductive substrates can ameliorate the cellular activity through enhancement of cellular signaling. Biocompatible polymers with conductivity can mimic the cells' niche in an appropriate manner. Bioconductive polymers based on aniline oligomers can potentially actualize this purpose because of their unique and tailoring properties. The aniline oligomers can be positioned within the molecular structure of other polymers, thus painter acting with the side groups of the main polymer or acting as a comonomer in their backbone. The conductivity of oligoaniline-based conductive biomaterials can be tailored to mimic the electrical and mechanical properties of targeted tissues/organs. These bioconductive substrates can be designed with high mechanical strength for hard tissues such as the bone and with high elasticity to be used for the cardiac tissue or can be synthesized in the form of injectable hydrogels, particles, and nanofibers for noninvasive implantation; these structures can be used for applications such as drug/gene delivery and extracellular biomimetic structures. It is expected that with progress in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering, more innovative constructs will be proposed in the near future. This review discusses the recent advancements in the use of oligoaniline-based conductive biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The tissue engineering applications of aniline oligomers and their derivatives have recently attracted an increasing interest due to their electroactive and biodegradable properties. However, no reports have systematically reviewed

  1. Cell-Based Strategies for Meniscus Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wei; Guo, Weimin; Han, Shufeng; Zhu, Yun; Liu, Shuyun; Guo, Quanyi

    2016-01-01

    Meniscus injuries remain a significant challenge due to the poor healing potential of the inner avascular zone. Following a series of studies and clinical trials, tissue engineering is considered a promising prospect for meniscus repair and regeneration. As one of the key factors in tissue engineering, cells are believed to be highly beneficial in generating bionic meniscus structures to replace injured ones in patients. Therefore, cell-based strategies for meniscus tissue engineering play a fundamental role in meniscal regeneration. According to current studies, the main cell-based strategies for meniscus tissue engineering are single cell type strategies; cell coculture strategies also were applied to meniscus tissue engineering. Likewise, on the one side, the zonal recapitulation strategies based on mimicking meniscal differing cells and internal architectures have received wide attentions. On the other side, cell self-assembling strategies without any scaffolds may be a better way to build a bionic meniscus. In this review, we primarily discuss cell seeds for meniscus tissue engineering and their application strategies. We also discuss recent advances and achievements in meniscus repair experiments that further improve our understanding of meniscus tissue engineering. PMID:27274735

  2. Multiscale biomechanics of brain tumours favours cancer invasion by cell softening and tissue stiffening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Josef; Fritsch, Anatol; Grosser, Steffen; Friebe, Sabrina; Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Müller, Wolf; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Sack, Ingolf

    Cancer progression needs two contradictory mechanical prerequisites. For metastasis individual cancer cells or small clusters have to flow through the microenvironment by overcoming the yield stress exerted by the surrounding. On the other hand a tumour has to behave as a solid to permit cell proliferation and spreading of the tumour mass against its surrounding. We determine that the high mechanical adaptability of cancer cells and the scale controlled viscoelastic properties of tissues reconcile both conflicting properties, fluid and solid, simultaneously in brain tumours. We resolve why different techniques that assess cell and tissue mechanics have produced apparently conflicting results by our finding that tumours generate different viscoelastic behaviours on different length scales, which are in concert optimal for tumour spreading and metastasis. Single cancer cells become very soft in their elastic behavior which promotes cell unjamming. On the level of direct cell-to-cell interactions cells feel their micro-environment as rigid elastic substrate that stimulates cancer on the molecular level. All over a tumour has predominately a stiff elastic character in terms of viscoelastic behaviour caused by a solid backbone. Simultaneously, the tumour mass is characterized by a large local variability in the storage and loss modulus that is caused by areas of a more fluid nature.

  3. Electrospun gelatin biopapers as substrate for in vitro bilayer models of blood-brain barrier tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischel, Lauren L; Coneski, Peter N; Lundin, Jeffrey G; Wu, Peter K; Giller, Carl B; Wynne, James; Ringeisen, Brad R; Pirlo, Russell K

    2016-04-01

    Gaining a greater understanding of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical for improvement in drug delivery, understanding pathologies that compromise the BBB, and developing therapies to protect the BBB. In vitro human tissue models are valuable tools for studying these issues. The standard in vitro BBB models use commercially available cell culture inserts to generate bilayer co-cultures of astrocytes and endothelial cells (EC). Electrospinning can be used to produce customized cell culture substrates with optimized material composition and mechanical properties with advantages over off-the-shelf materials. Electrospun gelatin is an ideal cell culture substrate because it is a natural polymer that can aid cell attachment and be modified and degraded by cells. Here, we have developed a method to produce cell culture inserts with electrospun gelatin "biopaper" membranes. The electrospun fiber diameter and cross-linking method were optimized for the growth of primary human endothelial cell and primary human astrocyte bilayer co-cultures to model human BBB tissue. BBB co-cultures on biopaper were characterized via cell morphology, trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER), and permeability to FITC-labeled dextran and compared to BBB co-cultures on standard cell culture inserts. Over longer culture periods (up to 21 days), cultures on the optimized electrospun gelatin biopapers were found to have improved TEER, decreased permeability, and permitted a smaller separation between co-cultured cells when compared to standard PET inserts. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effects of 60Co γ-radiation on brain hippocampal tissue of adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yongbao; Rao Yongqing; Xu Luxi

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study neuro-pathological changes of hippocampus tissue in adult mice following a series of irradiation with 60 Co γ-rays. Methods: Male mice of Kunming strain in experimental group (n = 8) were exposed total-bodily to 60 Co γ-rays at 2.0 Gy once every two days. A histopathological imaging analysis of the mouse brain tissue was carried out after paraffin embedding and a series of sections were made and stained with Nissl and Weil staining methods. Results: In the irradiation group (the cumulative dose = 26 Gy) loss of pyramidal cells in hippocampus was significant when compared with the control group. Neuro-pathological changes were characterised by reduced neuron size, nuclear pyknosis and karyolysis. The neurofibrillar density of the pyramidal layer in the irradiation group was much lower than that of the control group (P CA2>CA3>CA4 in the hippocampus. Conclusion: The neuronal damage in hippocampus after 60 Co irradiation could form a pathological basis in reduction of memorial and learning ability

  5. Tissue-based standoff biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-11-18

    A tissue-based, deployable, standoff air quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent, includes: a cell containing entrapped photosynthetic tissue, the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; means for introducing an air sample into the cell and contacting the air sample with the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; a fluorometer in operable relationship with the cell for measuring photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; and transmitting means for transmitting analytical data generated by the fluorometer relating to the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the air sample, the sensor adapted for deployment into a selected area.

  6. Characterization and localization of 3H-arginine8-vasopressin binding to rat kidney and brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorsa, D.M.; Majumdar, L.A.; Petracca, F.M.; Baskin, D.G.; Cornett, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    Anatomic, behavioral and pharmacologic evidence suggests that arginine8-vasopressin (AVP) serves as a CNS neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. AVP binding to membrane and tissue slice preparations from brain and kidney was characterized, and the anatomical distribution of these binding sites was examined. Conditions for the binding assay were optimized using kidney medullary tissue. Binding of 3 H-AVP (S.A. . 30-51 Ci/mmol, NEN) to brain and kidney membranes and tissue slices was saturable, temperature dependent, linearly related to protein concentration (or number of tissue slices), reversible, and specific since the ability of cold AVP to displace 3 H-AVP from binding was greater than oxytocin and other related peptide fragments. Autoradiographic localization of 3 H-AVP binding was restricted to kidney medullary tissue. In brain tissue, 3 H-AVP binding was found to occur in concentrated foci. Brainstem areas such as the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) showed a high density of AVP binding sites. Since local injections of AVP into the NTS have been shown to influence blood pressure, the present study presents the first anatomical evidence for the presence of AVP specific binding sites which might mediate this effect

  7. New approach to detect and classify stroke in skull CT images via analysis of brain tissue densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças Filho, Pedro P; Sarmento, Róger Moura; Holanda, Gabriel Bandeira; de Alencar Lima, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Cerebral vascular accident (CVA), also known as stroke, is an important health problem worldwide and it affects 16 million people worldwide every year. About 30% of those that have a stroke die and 40% remain with serious physical limitations. However, recovery in the damaged region is possible if treatment is performed immediately. In the case of a stroke, Computed Tomography (CT) is the most appropriate technique to confirm the occurrence and to investigate its extent and severity. Stroke is an emergency problem for which early identification and measures are difficult; however, computer-aided diagnoses (CAD) can play an important role in obtaining information imperceptible to the human eye. Thus, this work proposes a new method for extracting features based on radiological density patterns of the brain, called Analysis of Brain Tissue Density (ABTD). The proposed method is a specific approach applied to CT images to identify and classify the occurrence of stroke diseases. The evaluation of the results of the ABTD extractor proposed in this paper were compared with extractors already established in the literature, such as features from Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Local binary patterns (LBP), Central Moments (CM), Statistical Moments (SM), Hu's Moment (HM) and Zernike's Moments (ZM). Using a database of 420 CT images of the skull, each extractor was applied with the classifiers such as MLP, SVM, kNN, OPF and Bayesian to classify if a CT image represented a healthy brain or one with an ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. ABTD had the shortest extraction time and the highest average accuracy (99.30%) when combined with OPF using the Euclidean distance. Also, the average accuracy values for all classifiers were higher than 95%. The relevance of the results demonstrated that the ABTD method is a useful algorithm to extract features that can potentially be integrated with CAD systems to assist in stroke diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. A diffusion model-free framework with echo time dependence for free-water elimination and brain tissue microstructure characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Romero, Miguel; Gómez, Pedro A; Sperl, Jonathan I; Czisch, Michael; Sämann, Philipp G; Jones, Derek K; Menzel, Marion I; Menze, Bjoern H

    2018-03-23

    The compartmental nature of brain tissue microstructure is typically studied by diffusion MRI, MR relaxometry or their correlation. Diffusion MRI relies on signal representations or biophysical models, while MR relaxometry and correlation studies are based on regularized inverse Laplace transforms (ILTs). Here we introduce a general framework for characterizing microstructure that does not depend on diffusion modeling and replaces ill-posed ILTs with blind source separation (BSS). This framework yields proton density, relaxation times, volume fractions, and signal disentanglement, allowing for separation of the free-water component. Diffusion experiments repeated for several different echo times, contain entangled diffusion and relaxation compartmental information. These can be disentangled by BSS using a physically constrained nonnegative matrix factorization. Computer simulations, phantom studies, together with repeatability and reproducibility experiments demonstrated that BSS is capable of estimating proton density, compartmental volume fractions and transversal relaxations. In vivo results proved its potential to correct for free-water contamination and to estimate tissue parameters. Formulation of the diffusion-relaxation dependence as a BSS problem introduces a new framework for studying microstructure compartmentalization, and a novel tool for free-water elimination. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Review: Polymeric-Based 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geng-Hsi; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing, also referred to as additive manufacturing, is a technology that allows for customized fabrication through computer-aided design. 3D printing has many advantages in the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds, including fast fabrication, high precision, and customized production. Suitable scaffolds can be designed and custom-made based on medical images such as those obtained from computed tomography. Many 3D printing methods have been employed for tissue engineering. There are advantages and limitations for each method. Future areas of interest and progress are the development of new 3D printing platforms, scaffold design software, and materials for tissue engineering applications.

  10. Enhancing Student Learning with Brain-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnema, Ted R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses brain-based learning and its relation to classroom instruction. A rapidly growing quantity of research currently exists regarding how the brain perceives, processes, and ultimately learns new information. In order to maximize their teaching efficacy, educators should have a basic understanding of key memory functions in the…

  11. Blood flow and vascular reactivity in collaterally perfused brain tissue. Evidence of an ischemic penumbra in patients with acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Larsen, B; Herning, M

    1983-01-01

    ). Autoregulation was impaired in all of the collaterally perfused areas while the CO2-response always was preserved. Steal phenomena were not seen. In the surrounding brain tissue, autoregulation was normal in 5 patients and impaired in 3 while the CO2-response seemed to be normal. The results confirm...

  12. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in brain tissue of feral rodents and insectivores caught on farms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Craeye, de S.; Dierick, K.; Kijlstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence of both Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in 250 brain tissue samples from 9 species of feral rodents and insectivores caught on 10 organic farms in the Netherlands in 2004. Collected samples were conserved in 4% paraformaldehyde solution and analysed by real-time

  13. Design and numerical implementation of a 3-D non-linear viscoelastic constitutive model for brain tissue during impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, D.W.A.; Peters, G.W.M.; Bovendeerd, P.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Finite Element (FE) head models are often used to understand mechanical response of the head and its contents during impact loading in the head. CurrentFE models do not account for non-linear viscoelastic material behavior of brain tissue. We developed a new non-linear viscoelastic material model

  14. Radiation-induced brain damage in children; Histological analysis of sequential tissue changes in 34 autopsy cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, Shizuo; Kokunai, Takashi; Ijichi, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Satoshi [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Raimondi, A J

    1990-01-01

    The nature and sequence of the radiation-induced changes in the brain were studied postmortem in 34 children with glioma, 22 of whom underwent central nervous system radiation therapy. Twenty received whole-brain or whole-neuroaxis radiation at a total mean dosage of 4063 cGy. Brain tissue alternations were analyzed histologically by means of various staining methods, including immunohistochemical techniques. The histological features of irradiated brains were compared with those of non-irradiated brains. Microscopic findings included demyelination (seven cases), focal necrosis (six cases), cortical atrophy (four cases), endothelial proliferation (four cases), and telangiectatic vascular proliferation with vascular thickening and oozing of a thick fluid (one case). Such findings were rare in non-irradiated patients. Demyelination was observed earliest in a patient who died 5 months after radiation therapy and was more common after 9 months. Focal necrosis was first observed 9 months post-irradiation but was more advanced and extensive after 1 year. Calcified foci were found only after 60 months. Various vascular changes such as vascular thickening and thrombosis suggested ischemic insult to the brain as a late effect of radiation injury. The results of this study suggest that the immature brain may be more sensitive to radiation than is the adult brain, and that the manifestations of radiation-induced injury depend on the time elapsed after irradiation. (author).

  15. Subject-Specific Sparse Dictionary Learning for Atlas-Based Brain MRI Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Carass, Aaron; Reich, Daniel S; Prince, Jerry L; Pham, Dzung L

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative measurements from segmentations of human brain magnetic resonance (MR) images provide important biomarkers for normal aging and disease progression. In this paper, we propose a patch-based tissue classification method from MR images that uses a sparse dictionary learning approach and atlas priors. Training data for the method consists of an atlas MR image, prior information maps depicting where different tissues are expected to be located, and a hard segmentation. Unlike most atlas-based classification methods that require deformable registration of the atlas priors to the subject, only affine registration is required between the subject and training atlas. A subject-specific patch dictionary is created by learning relevant patches from the atlas. Then the subject patches are modeled as sparse combinations of learned atlas patches leading to tissue memberships at each voxel. The combination of prior information in an example-based framework enables us to distinguish tissues having similar intensities but different spatial locations. We demonstrate the efficacy of the approach on the application of whole-brain tissue segmentation in subjects with healthy anatomy and normal pressure hydrocephalus, as well as lesion segmentation in multiple sclerosis patients. For each application, quantitative comparisons are made against publicly available state-of-the art approaches.

  16. Relationship between Concentrations of Lutein and StARD3 among Pediatric and Geriatric Human Brain Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirayu Tanprasertsuk

    Full Text Available Lutein, a dietary carotenoid, selectively accumulates in human retina and brain. While many epidemiological studies show evidence of a relationship between lutein status and cognitive health, lutein's selective uptake in human brain tissue and its potential function in early neural development and cognitive health have been poorly evaluated at a molecular level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between concentrations of brain lutein and StARD3 (identified as its binding protein in retinal tissue among three age groups: infants (1-4 months, n = 10, older adults (55-86 years, n = 8, and centenarians (98-105 years, n = 10. Brain lutein concentrations were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and StARD3 levels were analyzed by Western Blot analysis. The strong relationship in infant brains (r = 0.75, P 0.05, seven of whom had mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia. These exploratory findings suggest an age-related decrease or abnormality of StARD3 activity in human brain. Given that StARD3 is also involved in cholesterol transportation, a process that is aberrant in neurodegenerative diseases, the potential protective function of lutein against these diseases remains to be explored.

  17. Streamlined bioreactor-based production of human cartilage tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnarelli, B; Santoro, R; Adelaide Asnaghi, M; Wendt, D

    2016-05-27

    Engineered tissue grafts have been manufactured using methods based predominantly on traditional labour-intensive manual benchtop techniques. These methods impart significant regulatory and economic challenges, hindering the successful translation of engineered tissue products to the clinic. Alternatively, bioreactor-based production systems have the potential to overcome such limitations. In this work, we present an innovative manufacturing approach to engineer cartilage tissue within a single bioreactor system, starting from freshly isolated human primary chondrocytes, through the generation of cartilaginous tissue grafts. The limited number of primary chondrocytes that can be isolated from a small clinically-sized cartilage biopsy could be seeded and extensively expanded directly within a 3D scaffold in our perfusion bioreactor (5.4 ± 0.9 doublings in 2 weeks), bypassing conventional 2D expansion in flasks. Chondrocytes expanded in 3D scaffolds better maintained a chondrogenic phenotype than chondrocytes expanded on plastic flasks (collagen type II mRNA, 18-fold; Sox-9, 11-fold). After this "3D expansion" phase, bioreactor culture conditions were changed to subsequently support chondrogenic differentiation for two weeks. Engineered tissues based on 3D-expanded chondrocytes were more cartilaginous than tissues generated from chondrocytes previously expanded in flasks. We then demonstrated that this streamlined bioreactor-based process could be adapted to effectively generate up-scaled cartilage grafts in a size with clinical relevance (50 mm diameter). Streamlined and robust tissue engineering processes, as the one described here, may be key for the future manufacturing of grafts for clinical applications, as they facilitate the establishment of compact and closed bioreactor-based production systems, with minimal automation requirements, lower operating costs, and increased compliance to regulatory guidelines.

  18. Joint source based analysis of multiple brain structures in studying major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Mahdi; Rasoulian, Abtin; Hollenstein, Tom; Harkness, Kate; Johnsrude, Ingrid; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-03-01

    We propose a joint Source-Based Analysis (jSBA) framework to identify brain structural variations in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). In this framework, features representing position, orientation and size (i.e. pose), shape, and local tissue composition are extracted. Subsequently, simultaneous analysis of these features within a joint analysis method is performed to generate the basis sources that show signi cant di erences between subjects with MDD and those in healthy control. Moreover, in a cross-validation leave- one-out experiment, we use a Fisher Linear Discriminant (FLD) classi er to identify individuals within the MDD group. Results show that we can classify the MDD subjects with an accuracy of 76% solely based on the information gathered from the joint analysis of pose, shape, and tissue composition in multiple brain structures.

  19. Butyrate reduces appetite and activates brown adipose tissue via the gut-brain neural circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuang; Yi, Chun-Xia; Katiraei, Saeed; Kooijman, Sander; Zhou, Enchen; Chung, Chih Kit; Gao, Yuanqing; van den Heuvel, José K; Meijer, Onno C; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Heijink, Marieke; Giera, Martin; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Groen, Albert K; Rensen, Patrick C N; Wang, Yanan

    2017-11-03

    Butyrate exerts metabolic benefits in mice and humans, the underlying mechanisms being still unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of butyrate on appetite and energy expenditure, and to what extent these two components contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of butyrate. Acute effects of butyrate on appetite and its method of action were investigated in mice following an intragastric gavage or intravenous injection of butyrate. To study the contribution of satiety to the metabolic benefits of butyrate, mice were fed a high-fat diet with butyrate, and an additional pair-fed group was included. Mechanistic involvement of the gut-brain neural circuit was investigated in vagotomised mice. Acute oral, but not intravenous, butyrate administration decreased food intake, suppressed the activity of orexigenic neurons that express neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus, and decreased neuronal activity within the nucleus tractus solitarius and dorsal vagal complex in the brainstem. Chronic butyrate supplementation prevented diet-induced obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia and hepatic steatosis, largely attributed to a reduction in food intake. Butyrate also modestly promoted fat oxidation and activated brown adipose tissue (BAT), evident from increased utilisation of plasma triglyceride-derived fatty acids. This effect was not due to the reduced food intake, but explained by an increased sympathetic outflow to BAT. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy abolished the effects of butyrate on food intake as well as the stimulation of metabolic activity in BAT. Butyrate acts on the gut-brain neural circuit to improve energy metabolism via reducing energy intake and enhancing fat oxidation by activating BAT. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Histopathological investigation of radiation necrosis. Coagulation necrosis in the irradiated and non-irradiated brain tumors and in the normal brain tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, N [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Brain Research Inst.

    1977-01-01

    Eighty four irradiated tumors (including 59 gliomas) and the surrounding brain tissue were analyzed. In 'normal' brain tissue, typical coagulation necrosis attributable to irradiation was observed in the cerebral white matter, presenting a whitish-yellow color but no remarkable changes in volume. Histologically there was complete desintegration of myelin and axon. Vascular changes included hyalinous thickening, concentric cleavage, fibrinoid degeneration, adventitial fibrosis and edema of small arteries, fibrin thrombi or occlusion of arterioles and capillaries, and telangiectasia of small veins and venules. While other tumors showed hyalinous or fibrous scar tissue and decrease in volume, the gliomas maintained their original volume without residual tumor cells. Massive coagulation necrosis was occasionally found even in full volume, non-irradiated gliomas (controls), although the changes were fewer and not so varied as in typical radiation necrosis. With small dosages, it was difficult to judge whether the necrosis was caused by irradiation or occurred spontaneously. Coagulation necrosis in tumor tissue was found in 25 of 59 cases (42%) of irradiated gliomas, but in only 2 of 49 cases (4%) of the nonirradiated gliomas. In 49 cases no coagulation necrosis of the surrounding tissue was found. Although histopathological judgement is difficult, it is suggested that there is a significant correlation between coagulation necrosis and irradiation. Discussion of the relationship between coagulation necrosis and NSD (nominal standard dose) led to the conclusion that coagulation necrosis will not be caused by irradiation of less than 1400 rets in NSD.

  1. Gestational age dependent changes of the fetal brain, liver and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions in a population with high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Offringa, Pieter J.; Boersma, E. Rudy; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: There are no data on the intrauterine fatty acid (FA) compositions of brain, liver and adipose tissue of infants born to women with high fish intakes. Subjects and methods: We analyzed the brain (n = 18), liver (n = 14) and adipose tissue (n = 11) FA compositions of 20 stillborn

  2. Pulse frequency in pulsed brachytherapy based on tissue repair kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sminia, Peter; Schneider, Christoph J.; Koedooder, Kees; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Blank, Leo E.C.M.; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Investigation of normal tissue sparing in pulsed brachytherapy (PB) relative to continuous low-dose rate irradiation (CLDR) by adjusting pulse frequency based on tissue repair characteristics. Method: Using the linear quadratic model, the relative effectiveness (RE) of a 20 Gy boost was calculated for tissue with an α/β ratio ranging from 2 to 10 Gy and a half-time of sublethal damage repair between 0.1 and 3 h. The boost dose was considered to be delivered either in a number of pulses varying from 2 to 25, or continuously at a dose rate of 0.50, 0.80, or 1.20 Gy/h. Results: The RE of 20 Gy was found to be identical for PB in 25 pulses of 0.80 Gy each h and CLDR delivered at 0.80 Gy/h for any α/β value and for a repair half-time > 0.75 h. When normal tissue repair half-times are assumed to be longer than tumor repair half-times, normal tissue sparing can be obtained, within the restriction of a fixed overall treatment time, with higher dose per pulse and longer period time (time elapsed between start of pulse n and start of pulse n + 1). An optimum relative normal tissue sparing larger than 10% was found with 4 pulses of 5 Gy every 8 h. Hence, a therapeutic gain might be obtained when changing from CLDR to PB by adjusting the physical dose in such a way that the biological dose on the tumor is maintained. The normal tissue-sparing phenomenon can be explained by an increase in RE with longer period time for tissue with high α/β ratio and fast or intermediate repair half-time, and the RE for tissue with low α/β ratio and long repair half-time remains almost constant. Conclusion: Within the benchmark of the LQ model, advantage in normal tissue-sparing is expected when matching the pulse frequency to the repair kinetics of the normal tissue exposed. A period time longer than 1 h may lead to a reduction of late normal tissue complications. This theoretical advantage emphasizes the need for better knowledge of human tissue-repair kinetics

  3. Hydrogel based cartilaginous tissue regeneration: recent insights and technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Yon Jin; Peck, Yvonne; Lau, Jia En Josias; Hee, Hwan Tak; Wang, Dong-An

    2017-03-28

    Hydrogels have been extensively employed as an attractive biomaterial to address numerous existing challenges in the fields of regenerative medicine and research because of their unique properties such as the capability to encapsulate cells, high water content, ease of modification, low toxicity, injectability, in situ spatial fit and biocompatibility. These inherent properties have created many opportunities for hydrogels as a scaffold or a cell/drug carrier in tissue regeneration, especially in the field of cartilaginous tissue such as articular cartilage and intervertebral discs. A concise overview of the anatomy/physiology of these cartilaginous tissues and their pathophysiology, epidemiology and existing clinical treatments will be briefly described. This review article will discuss the current state-of-the-art of various polymers and developing strategies that are explored in establishing different technologies for cartilaginous tissue regeneration. In particular, an innovative approach to generate scaffold-free cartilaginous tissue via a transient hydrogel scaffolding system for disease modeling to pre-clinical trials will be examined. Following that, the article reviews numerous hydrogel-based medical implants used in clinical treatment of osteoarthritis and degenerated discs. Last but not least, the challenges and future directions of hydrogel based medical implants in the regeneration of cartilaginous tissue are also discussed.

  4. Parsing glucose entry into the brain: novel findings obtained with enzyme-based glucose biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Wakabayashi, Ken T

    2015-01-21

    Extracellular levels of glucose in brain tissue reflect dynamic balance between its gradient-dependent entry from arterial blood and its use for cellular metabolism. In this work, we present several sets of previously published and unpublished data obtained by using enzyme-based glucose biosensors coupled with constant-potential high-speed amperometry in freely moving rats. First, we consider basic methodological issues related to the reliability of electrochemical measurements of extracellular glucose levels in rats under physiologically relevant conditions. Second, we present data on glucose responses induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) by salient environmental stimuli and discuss the relationships between local neuronal activation and rapid glucose entry into brain tissue. Third, by presenting data on changes in NAc glucose induced by intravenous and intragastric glucose delivery, we discuss other mechanisms of glucose entry into the extracellular domain following changes in glucose blood concentrations. Lastly, by showing the pattern of NAc glucose fluctuations during glucose-drinking behavior, we discuss the relationships between "active" and "passive" glucose entry to the brain, its connection to behavior-related metabolic activation, and the possible functional significance of these changes in behavioral regulation. These data provide solid experimental support for the "neuronal" hypothesis of neurovascular coupling, which postulates the critical role of neuronal activity in rapid regulation of vascular tone, local blood flow, and entry of glucose and oxygen to brain tissue to maintain active cellular metabolism.

  5. Tissue-Based MRI Intensity Standardization: Application to Multicentric Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Robitaille

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensity standardization in MRI aims at correcting scanner-dependent intensity variations. Existing simple and robust techniques aim at matching the input image histogram onto a standard, while we think that standardization should aim at matching spatially corresponding tissue intensities. In this study, we present a novel automatic technique, called STI for STandardization of Intensities, which not only shares the simplicity and robustness of histogram-matching techniques, but also incorporates tissue spatial intensity information. STI uses joint intensity histograms to determine intensity correspondence in each tissue between the input and standard images. We compared STI to an existing histogram-matching technique on two multicentric datasets, Pilot E-ADNI and ADNI, by measuring the intensity error with respect to the standard image after performing nonlinear registration. The Pilot E-ADNI dataset consisted in 3 subjects each scanned in 7 different sites. The ADNI dataset consisted in 795 subjects scanned in more than 50 different sites. STI was superior to the histogram-matching technique, showing significantly better intensity matching for the brain white matter with respect to the standard image.

  6. The association between brain natriuretic peptide and tissue Doppler parameters in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliha Öner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the association between brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels and tissue Doppler imaging measurements and also screening for deadly mutations in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM. We enrolled 20 patients diagnosed with HCM (age:10.7±5 years (1-17, 85% male, weight:42.25±23.10 kg, height:141.80±32.45 cm and 20 age, gender and body weight-matched control subjects. We performed electrocardiography, transthoracic echocardiography, and tissue Doppler echocardiography in each group, as well as genetic tests (for Arg403Gln, Arg453Cys, Arg719Trp and Arg719Gln mutations in MYH7 Exons 13, 14, 19 and BNP in the patients. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (Group 1 or absence (Group 2 of left ventricular (LV outflow tract obstruction. QTc dispersion and the LV ejection fraction and left atrial (LA volume index were increased in Group 1. The LA volume index and the mitral and septal E/Ea ratio and septum Z-score were increased while the mitral lateral annulus and septal annulus Ea wave velocities and the mitral and tricuspid E/A ratio were decreased in patients with high levels of BNP compared to those with normal BNP levels. There were no mutations that are associated with increased risk of sudden death found in patients included in this study. In the light of our data, we conclude that such parameters BNP levels above the 98 pg/mL, septal thickness Z-score ˃6, and higher mitral and septal E/Ea ratios can be used for management of patients with HCM according to life-threatening conditions.

  7. Three-dimensional visualization of functional brain tissue and functional magnetic resonance imaging-integrated neuronavigation in the resection of brain tumor adjacent to motor cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Tong; Cui Shimin; Tong Xiaoguang; Liu Li; Xue Kai; Liu Meili; Liang Siquan; Zhang Yunting; Zhi Dashi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of three -dimensional visualization of functional brain tissue and the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-integrated neuronavigation in the resection of brain tumor adjacent to motor cortex. Method: Sixty patients with tumor located in the central sulcus were enrolled. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to function group and 30 to control group. Patients in function group underwent fMRI to localize the functional brain tissues. Then the function information was transferred to the neurosurgical navigator. The patients in control group underwent surgery with navigation without function information. The therapeutic effect, excision rate. improvement of motor function, and survival quality during follow-up were analyzed. Result: All patients in function group were accomplished visualization of functional brain tissues and fMRI-integrated neuronavigation. The locations of tumors, central sulcus and motor cortex were marked during the operation. The fMRI -integrated information played a great role in both pre- and post-operation. Pre-operation: designing the location of the skin flap and window bone, determining the relationship between the tumor and motor cortex, and designing the pathway for the resection. Post- operation: real-time navigation of relationship between the tumor and motor cortex, assisting to localize the motor cortex using interoperation ultra-sound for correcting the displacement by the CSF outflow and collapsing tumor. The patients in the function group had better results than the patients in the control group in therapeutic effect (u=2.646, P=0.008), excision rate (χ = 7.200, P<0.01), improvement of motor function (u=2.231, P=0.026), and survival quality (KPS u c = 2.664, P=0.008; Zubrod -ECOG -WHO u c =2.135, P=0.033). Conclusions: Using preoperative three -dimensional visualization of cerebral function tissue and the fMRI-integrated neuronavigation technology, combining intraoperative accurate

  8. The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium brain gene array: two types of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B Gelman

    Full Text Available The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC performed a brain gene expression array to elucidate pathophysiologies of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders.Twenty-four human subjects in four groups were examined A Uninfected controls; B HIV-1 infected subjects with no substantial neurocognitive impairment (NCI; C Infected with substantial NCI without HIV encephalitis (HIVE; D Infected with substantial NCI and HIVE. RNA from neocortex, white matter, and neostriatum was processed with the Affymetrix® array platform.With HIVE the HIV-1 RNA load in brain tissue was three log(10 units higher than other groups and over 1,900 gene probes were regulated. Interferon response genes (IFRGs, antigen presentation, complement components and CD163 antigen were strongly upregulated. In frontal neocortex downregulated neuronal pathways strongly dominated in HIVE, including GABA receptors, glutamate signaling, synaptic potentiation, axon guidance, clathrin-mediated endocytosis and 14-3-3 protein. Expression was completely different in neuropsychologically impaired subjects without HIVE. They had low brain HIV-1 loads, weak brain immune responses, lacked neuronally expressed changes in neocortex and exhibited upregulation of endothelial cell type transcripts. HIV-1-infected subjects with normal neuropsychological test results had upregulation of neuronal transcripts involved in synaptic transmission of neostriatal circuits.Two patterns of brain gene expression suggest that more than one pathophysiological process occurs in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive impairment. Expression in HIVE suggests that lowering brain HIV-1 replication might improve NCI, whereas NCI without HIVE may not respond in kind; array results suggest that modulation of transvascular signaling is a potentially promising approach. Striking brain regional differences highlighted the likely importance of circuit level disturbances in HIV/AIDS. In

  9. Deep two-photon microscopic imaging through brain tissue using the second singlet state from fluorescent agent chlorophyll α in spinach leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingyan; Rodríguez-Contreras, Adrián; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Nguyen, Thien An; Alfano, Robert R

    2014-06-01

    Two-photon (2P) excitation of the second singlet (S₂) state was studied to achieve deep optical microscopic imaging in brain tissue when both the excitation (800 nm) and emission (685 nm) wavelengths lie in the "tissue optical window" (650 to 950 nm). S₂ state technique was used to investigate chlorophyll α (Chl α) fluorescence inside a spinach leaf under a thick layer of freshly sliced rat brain tissue in combination with 2P microscopic imaging. Strong emission at the peak wavelength of 685 nm under the 2P S₂ state of Chl α enabled the imaging depth up to 450 μm through rat brain tissue.

  10. Biocompatibility of hydrogel-based scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naahidi, Sheva; Jafari, Mousa; Logan, Megan; Wang, Yujie; Yuan, Yongfang; Bae, Hojae; Dixon, Brian; Chen, P

    2017-09-01

    Recently, understanding of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has expanded rapidly due to the accessibility of cellular and molecular techniques and the growing potential and value for hydrogels in tissue engineering. The fabrication of hydrogel-based cellular scaffolds for the generation of bioengineered tissues has been based on knowledge of the composition and structure of ECM. Attempts at recreating ECM have used either naturally-derived ECM components or synthetic polymers with structural integrity derived from hydrogels. Due to their increasing use, their biocompatibility has been questioned since the use of these biomaterials needs to be effective and safe. It is not surprising then that the evaluation of biocompatibility of these types of biomaterials for regenerative and tissue engineering applications has been expanded from being primarily investigated in a laboratory setting to being applied in the multi-billion dollar medicinal industry. This review will aid in the improvement of design of non-invasive, smart hydrogels that can be utilized for tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. In this review, the biocompatibility of hydrogels and design criteria for fabricating effective scaffolds are examined. Examples of natural and synthetic hydrogels, their biocompatibility and use in tissue engineering are discussed. The merits and clinical complications of hydrogel scaffold use are also reviewed. The article concludes with a future outlook of the field of biocompatibility within the context of hydrogel-based scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of doses received by the hippocampus in patients treated with single isocenter– vs multiple isocenter–based stereotactic radiation therapy to the brain for multiple brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algan, Ozer; Giem, Jared; Young, Julie; Ali, Imad; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Hossain, Sabbir

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the doses received by the hippocampus and normal brain tissue during a course of stereotactic radiation therapy using a single isocenter (SI)–based or multiple isocenter (MI)–based treatment planning in patients with less than 4 brain metastases. In total, 10 patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrating 2-3 brain metastases were included in this retrospective study, and 2 sets of stereotactic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans (SI vs MI) were generated. The hippocampus was contoured on SPGR sequences, and doses received by the hippocampus and the brain were calculated and compared between the 2 treatment techniques. A total of 23 lesions in 10 patients were evaluated. The median tumor volume, the right hippocampus volume, and the left hippocampus volume were 3.15, 3.24, and 2.63 mL, respectively. In comparing the 2 treatment plans, there was no difference in the planning target volume (PTV) coverage except in the tail for the dose-volume histogram (DVH) curve. The only statistically significant dosimetric parameter was the V_1_0_0. All of the other measured dosimetric parameters including the V_9_5, V_9_9, and D_1_0_0 were not significantly different between the 2 treatment planning techniques. None of the dosimetric parameters evaluated for the hippocampus revealed any statistically significant difference between the MI and SI plans. The total brain doses were slightly higher in the SI plans, especially in the lower dose region, although this difference was not statistically different. The use of SI-based treatment plan resulted in a 35% reduction in beam-on time. The use of SI treatments for patients with up to 3 brain metastases produces similar PTV coverage and similar normal tissue doses to the hippocampus and the brain when compared with MI plans. SI treatment planning should be considered in patients with multiple brain metastases undergoing stereotactic treatment.

  12. Comparison of doses received by the hippocampus in patients treated with single isocenter- vs multiple isocenter-based stereotactic radiation therapy to the brain for multiple brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algan, Ozer; Giem, Jared; Young, Julie; Ali, Imad; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Hossain, Sabbir

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the doses received by the hippocampus and normal brain tissue during a course of stereotactic radiation therapy using a single isocenter (SI)-based or multiple isocenter (MI)-based treatment planning in patients with less than 4 brain metastases. In total, 10 patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrating 2-3 brain metastases were included in this retrospective study, and 2 sets of stereotactic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans (SI vs MI) were generated. The hippocampus was contoured on SPGR sequences, and doses received by the hippocampus and the brain were calculated and compared between the 2 treatment techniques. A total of 23 lesions in 10 patients were evaluated. The median tumor volume, the right hippocampus volume, and the left hippocampus volume were 3.15, 3.24, and 2.63mL, respectively. In comparing the 2 treatment plans, there was no difference in the planning target volume (PTV) coverage except in the tail for the dose-volume histogram (DVH) curve. The only statistically significant dosimetric parameter was the V100. All of the other measured dosimetric parameters including the V95, V99, and D100 were not significantly different between the 2 treatment planning techniques. None of the dosimetric parameters evaluated for the hippocampus revealed any statistically significant difference between the MI and SI plans. The total brain doses were slightly higher in the SI plans, especially in the lower dose region, although this difference was not statistically different. The use of SI-based treatment plan resulted in a 35% reduction in beam-on time. The use of SI treatments for patients with up to 3 brain metastases produces similar PTV coverage and similar normal tissue doses to the hippocampus and the brain when compared with MI plans. SI treatment planning should be considered in patients with multiple brain metastases undergoing stereotactic treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Association of

  13. Comparison of doses received by the hippocampus in patients treated with single isocenter– vs multiple isocenter–based stereotactic radiation therapy to the brain for multiple brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algan, Ozer, E-mail: oalgan@ouhsc.edu; Giem, Jared; Young, Julie; Ali, Imad; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Hossain, Sabbir

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the doses received by the hippocampus and normal brain tissue during a course of stereotactic radiation therapy using a single isocenter (SI)–based or multiple isocenter (MI)–based treatment planning in patients with less than 4 brain metastases. In total, 10 patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrating 2-3 brain metastases were included in this retrospective study, and 2 sets of stereotactic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans (SI vs MI) were generated. The hippocampus was contoured on SPGR sequences, and doses received by the hippocampus and the brain were calculated and compared between the 2 treatment techniques. A total of 23 lesions in 10 patients were evaluated. The median tumor volume, the right hippocampus volume, and the left hippocampus volume were 3.15, 3.24, and 2.63 mL, respectively. In comparing the 2 treatment plans, there was no difference in the planning target volume (PTV) coverage except in the tail for the dose-volume histogram (DVH) curve. The only statistically significant dosimetric parameter was the V{sub 100}. All of the other measured dosimetric parameters including the V{sub 95}, V{sub 99}, and D{sub 100} were not significantly different between the 2 treatment planning techniques. None of the dosimetric parameters evaluated for the hippocampus revealed any statistically significant difference between the MI and SI plans. The total brain doses were slightly higher in the SI plans, especially in the lower dose region, although this difference was not statistically different. The use of SI-based treatment plan resulted in a 35% reduction in beam-on time. The use of SI treatments for patients with up to 3 brain metastases produces similar PTV coverage and similar normal tissue doses to the hippocampus and the brain when compared with MI plans. SI treatment planning should be considered in patients with multiple brain metastases undergoing stereotactic treatment.

  14. Multimodal Raman-fluorescence spectroscopy of formalin fixed samples is able to discriminate brain tumors from dysplastic tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Cicchi, Riccardo; Giordano, Flavio; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years, there has been a considerable surge in the application of spectroscopy for disease diagnosis. Raman and fluorescence spectra provide characteristic spectral profile related to biochemical and morphological changes when tissues progress from normal state towards malignancy. Spectroscopic techniques offer the advantage of being minimally invasive compared to traditional histopathology, real time and quantitative. In biomedical optical diagnostics, freshly excised specimens are preferred for making ex-vivo spectroscopic measurements. With regard to fresh tissues, if the lab is located far away from the clinic it could pose a problem as spectral measurements have to be performed immediately after dissection. Tissue samples are usually placed in a fixative agent such as 4% formaldehyde to preserve the samples before processing them for routine histopathological studies. Fixation prevents the tissues from decomposition by arresting autolysis. In the present study, we intend to investigate the possibility of using formalin fixed samples for discrimination of brain tumours from dysplastic tissue using Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. Formalin fixed samples were washed with phosphate buffered saline for about 5 minutes in order to remove the effects of formalin during spectroscopic measurements. In case of fluorescence spectroscopy, changes in spectral profile have been observed in the region between 550-670 nm between dysplastic and tumor samples. For Raman measurements, we found significant differences in the spectral profiles between dysplasia and tumor. In conclusion, formalin fixed samples can be potentially used for the spectroscopic discrimination of tumor against dysplastic tissue in brain samples.

  15. The role of glutamine transport in metabolism in the brain cortical tissue slice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, N.; Bubb, W.A.; Rae, C.; Broeer, S.

    2001-01-01

    The widely accepted 'glutamate/glutamine cycle' holds that glutamate released as a neurotransmitter in the brain is taken up by surrounding astrocytes, converted to neuro-inactive glutamine and transported back to neurons for reconversion to glutamate. Little, however, is known about the role of glutamine transport in this process. The situation is complicated by the fact that glutamine is transported by a variety of general amino-acid transporters of low specificity. The role of these transporters in flux of glutamine through the glutamate/glutamine cycle was investigated by 13 C NMR monitoring of the flux of C from [3- 13 C]L-lactate in guinea pig cortical tissue slices in the presence of competitive inhibitors of the A-type(α-(methylamino)isobutyrate; MeAIB) and N-type (histidine) transporters. The presence of each inhibitor (10 mM) produced no significant decrease in total metabolite pool size but resulted in a significant decrease in flux of [ 13 C] into the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA and also into glutamine and alanine. The factional enrichment of glutamate and GABA was also significantly lower. By contrast there was no effect on the amount of [ 13 C] incorporated into aspartate isotopomers which may represent a predominantly astrocyte-labelled pool. These results are consistent with involvement of glutamine transporters in the recycling of synaptic glutamate by demonstrating partial blockage of incorporation of [ 13 C] label into neuronal metabolites

  16. Amyloid-β oligomer detection by ELISA in cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggink, Kim A; Jongbloed, Wesley; Biemans, Elisanne A L M; Veerhuis, Rob; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Kuiperij, H Bea; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2013-02-15

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits are important pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ aggregates into fibrils; however, the intermediate oligomers are believed to be the most neurotoxic species and, therefore, are of great interest as potential biomarkers. Here, we have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for Aβ oligomers by using the same capture and (labeled) detection antibody. The ELISA predominantly recognizes relatively small oligomers (10-25 kDa) and not monomers. In brain tissue of APP/PS1 transgenic mice, we found that Aβ oligomer levels increase with age. However, for measurements in human samples, pretreatment to remove human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMAs) was required. In HAMA-depleted human hippocampal extracts, the Aβ oligomer concentration was significantly increased in AD compared with nondemented controls. Aβ oligomer levels could also be quantified in pretreated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples; however, no difference was detected between AD and control groups. Our data suggest that levels of small oligomers might not be suitable as biomarkers for AD. In addition, we demonstrate the importance of avoiding HAMA interference in assays to quantify Aβ oligomers in human body fluids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for determination of neurotransmitters in brain tissue: Application to human tauopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgacsova, Andrea; Galba, Jaroslav; Garruto, Ralph M; Majerova, Petra; Katina, Stanislav; Kovac, Andrej

    2018-01-15

    Neurotransmitters, small molecules widely distributed in the central nervous system are essential in transmitting electrical signals across neurons via chemical communication. Dysregulation of these chemical signaling molecules is linked to numerous neurological diseases including tauopathies. In this study, a precise and reliable liquid chromatography method was established with tandem mass spectrometry detection for the simultaneous determination of aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine, γ-aminobutyric acid, N-acetyl-l-aspartic acid, pyroglutamic acid, acetylcholine and choline in human brain tissue. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of human brain tissues from three different tauopathies; corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy and parkinsonism-dementia complex of Guam. Neurotransmitters were analyzed on ultra-high performance chromatography (UHPLC) using an ethylene bridged hybrid amide column coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Identification and quantification of neurotransmitters was carried out by ESI+ mass spectrometry detection. We optimized sample preparation to achieve simple and fast extraction of all nine analytes. Our method exhibited an excellent linearity for all analytes (all coefficients of determination >0.99), with inter-day and intra-day precision yielding relative standard deviations 3.2%-11.2% and an accuracy was in range of 92.6%-104.3%. The present study, using the above method, is the first to demonstrate significant alterations of brain neurotransmitters caused by pathological processes in the brain tissues of patient with three different tauopathies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Microfluidic culture chamber for the long-term perfusion and precise chemical stimulation of organotypic brain tissue slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caicedo, H. H.; Vignes, M.; Brugg, B.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a microfluidic perfusion-based culture system to study long-term in-vitro responses of organo-typic brain slices exposed to localized neurochemical stimulation. Using this microperfusion chamber we show that hip-pocampal organotypic brain slices cultures grown on nitrocellulose ...

  19. Large-scale automated image analysis for computational profiling of brain tissue surrounding implanted neuroprosthetic devices using Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Somasundar, Vinay; Megjhani, Murad; Xu, Yan; Lu, Yanbin; Padmanabhan, Raghav; Trett, Kristen; Shain, William; Roysam, Badri

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe the use of Python for large-scale automated server-based bio-image analysis in FARSIGHT, a free and open-source toolkit of image analysis methods for quantitative studies of complex and dynamic tissue microenvironments imaged by modern optical microscopes, including confocal, multi-spectral, multi-photon, and time-lapse systems. The core FARSIGHT modules for image segmentation, feature extraction, tracking, and machine learning are written in C++, leveraging widely used libraries including ITK, VTK, Boost, and Qt. For solving complex image analysis tasks, these modules must be combined into scripts using Python. As a concrete example, we consider the problem of analyzing 3-D multi-spectral images of brain tissue surrounding implanted neuroprosthetic devices, acquired using high-throughput multi-spectral spinning disk step-and-repeat confocal microscopy. The resulting images typically contain 5 fluorescent channels. Each channel consists of 6000 × 10,000 × 500 voxels with 16 bits/voxel, implying image sizes exceeding 250 GB. These images must be mosaicked, pre-processed to overcome imaging artifacts, and segmented to enable cellular-scale feature extraction. The features are used to identify cell types, and perform large-scale analysis for identifying spatial distributions of specific cell types relative to the device. Python was used to build a server-based script (Dell 910 PowerEdge servers with 4 sockets/server with 10 cores each, 2 threads per core and 1TB of RAM running on Red Hat Enterprise Linux linked to a RAID 5 SAN) capable of routinely handling image datasets at this scale and performing all these processing steps in a collaborative multi-user multi-platform environment. Our Python script enables efficient data storage and movement between computers and storage servers, logs all the processing steps, and performs full multi-threaded execution of all codes, including open and closed-source third party libraries.

  20. Large-scale automated image analysis for computational profiling of brain tissue surrounding implanted neuroprosthetic devices using Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eRey-Villamizar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe use of Python for large-scale automated server-based bio-image analysis in FARSIGHT, a free and open-source toolkit of image analysis methods for quantitative studies of complex and dynamic tissue microenvironments imaged by modern optical microscopes including confocal, multi-spectral, multi-photon, and time-lapse systems. The core FARSIGHT modules for image segmentation, feature extraction, tracking, and machine learning are written in C++, leveraging widely used libraries including ITK, VTK, Boost, and Qt. For solving complex image analysis task, these modules must be combined into scripts using Python. As a concrete example, we consider the problem of analyzing 3-D multi-spectral brain tissue images surrounding implanted neuroprosthetic devices, acquired using high-throughput multi-spectral spinning disk step-and-repeat confocal microscopy. The resulting images typically contain 5 fluorescent channels, 6,000$times$10,000$times$500 voxels with 16 bits/voxel, implying image sizes exceeding 250GB. These images must be mosaicked, pre-processed to overcome imaging artifacts, and segmented to enable cellular-scale feature extraction. The features are used to identify cell types, and perform large-scale analytics for identifying spatial distributions of specific cell types relative to the device. Python was used to build a server-based script (Dell 910 PowerEdge servers with 4 sockets/server with 10 cores each, 2 threads per core and 1TB of RAM running on Red Hat Enterprise Linux linked to a RAID 5 SAN capable of routinely handling image datasets at this scale and performing all these processing steps in a collaborative multi-user multi-platform environment consisting. Our Python script enables efficient data storage and movement between compute and storage servers, logging all processing steps, and performs full multi-threaded execution of all codes, including open and closed-source third party libraries.

  1. A Hybrid DE-RGSO-ELM for Brain Tumor Tissue Categorization in 3D Magnetic Resonance Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kothavari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical diagnostics, a technique used for visualizing the internal structures and functions of human body, serves as a scientific tool to assist physicians and involves direct use of digital imaging system analysis. In this scenario, identification of brain tumors is complex in the diagnostic process. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique is noted to best assist tissue contrast for anatomical details and also carries out mechanisms for investigating the brain by functional imaging in tumor predictions. Considering 3D MRI model, analyzing the anatomy features and tissue characteristics of brain tumor is complex in nature. Henceforth, in this work, feature extraction is carried out by computing 3D gray-level cooccurence matrix (3D GLCM and run-length matrix (RLM and feature subselection for dimensionality reduction is performed with basic differential evolution (DE algorithm. Classification is performed using proposed extreme learning machine (ELM, with refined group search optimizer (RGSO technique, to select the best parameters for better simplification and training of the classifier for brain tissue and tumor characterization as white matter (WM, gray matter (GM, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, and tumor. Extreme learning machine outperforms the standard binary linear SVM and BPN for medical image classifier and proves better in classifying healthy and tumor tissues. The comparison between the algorithms proves that the mean and standard deviation produced by volumetric feature extraction analysis are higher than the other approaches. The proposed work is designed for pathological brain tumor classification and for 3D MRI tumor image segmentation. The proposed approaches are applied for real time datasets and benchmark datasets taken from dataset repositories.

  2. Ageing and chronic intermittent hypoxia mimicking sleep apnea do not modify local brain tissue stiffness in healthy mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorba, Ignasi; Menal, Maria José; Torres, Marta; Gozal, David; Piñol-Ripoll, Gerard; Colell, Anna; Montserrat, Josep M; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon; Almendros, Isaac

    2017-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may increase the risk of Alzheimer´s disease (AD), with the latter promoting alterations in brain tissue stiffness, a feature of ageing. Here, we assessed the effects of age and intermittent hypoxia (IH) on brain tissue stiffness in a mouse model of OSA. Two-month-old and 18-month-old mice (N=10 each) were subjected to IH (20% O 2 40s - 6% O 2 20s) for 8 weeks (6h/day). Corresponding control groups for each age were kept under normoxic conditions in room air (RA). After sacrifice, the brain was excised and 200-micron coronal slices were cut with a vibratome. Local stiffness of the cortex and hippocampus were assessed in brain slices placed in an Atomic Force Microscope. For both brain regions, the Young's modulus (E) in each animal was computed as the average values from 9 force-indentation curves. Cortex E mean (±SE) values were 442±122Pa (RA) and 455±120 (IH) for young mice and 433±44 (RA) and 405±101 (IH) for old mice. Hippocampal E values were 376±62 (RA) and 474±94 (IH) for young mice and 486±93 (RA) and 521±210 (IH) for old mice. For both cortex and hippocampus, 2-way ANOVA indicated no statistically significant effects of age or challenge (IH vs. RA) on E values. Thus, neither chronic IH mimicking OSA nor ageing up to late middle age appear to modify local brain tissue stiffness in otherwise healthy mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Localization of brain functions by dipole tracing method using individually measured tissue conductivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Hajime; Kanamaru, Arata; Homma, Ikuo; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Okamoto, Yoshio

    2000-01-01

    The dipole tracing method (DT) has permitted calculations of source locations using a Scalp-Skull-Brain (SSB) real-shaped three-shell model of the head because bone conductivity is lower than the skin and the brain. The SSB/DT method utilizes standard conductivities of the three layers: scalp, skull, and brain. These conductivities are not calculated for each individual. We have previously used a realistic three-shell head model using realistic individually calculated conductivities of the scalp and skull layers with the SSB/DT method for current location mapping. The individual conductivities of the scalp and the skull were calculated from electrical stimulation through surface electrodes. Individual conductivities were used to calculate the source locations of SEP based upon surface EEG recordings using the SSB/DT method. A current square-wave pulse (0.1 mA and 10 msec duration) was applied through a pair of EEG electrodes; four different pairs were usually selected. The voltage change during the stimulation was recorded with the remaining surface electrodes and the conductivities of the skin and skull were calculated from the recorded signals. In nine healthy men, the mean skin conductivity was 0.61441±0.30128 [S/m], while the skull conductivity mean 0.00576±0.00397 [S/m]. Simulation for dipole current movement indicated lower bone conductivity in the inner location and high bone conductivity in the outer location. The conductivity ratios of bone and skin were 0.0125 in standard model and 0.00956 (mean) in realistic individually calculated conductivities. We compared the locations of the SEP estimated with the standard conductivity and realistic individually calculated conductivities; the dipole location was not significantly different. (author)

  4. Neuroprotective effect of Quince leaf hydroalcoholic extract on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress in cortical tissue of rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hajizadeh Moghaddam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalance between free radicals and the antioxidant system of the body. Increased oxidative stress in brain causes dysfunction of brain activities, destruction of neurons, and disease such as Alzheimer. Antioxidants, for example vitamins, phenolic compounds and flavonoids have been extensively investigated as potential therapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo for prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present experimental study, the neuro-protective effect of quince leaf hydroalcoholic extract (QLHE on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (icv-STZ-induced oxidative stress in cortical tissue of rat brain was examined. Methods: In the present experimental research, forty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, sham, icv-STZ and icv-STZ treated with QLHE groups. The ICV-STZ group rats were injected unilaterally with ICV-STZ (3 mg/kg using a stereotactic device and QLHE (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day were administered for 6 weeks starting from 3 weeks before of ICV-STZ injection. The rats were killed at the end of the study and their brain cortical tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity were measured. The assay of catalase and superoxide dismutase was performed by following the Genet method. The amount of protein was determined according to the Bradford method.The statistical analysis was performed using one way ANOVA. Data were expressed as mean±SD and  P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The present study indicated that in the ICV-STZ group showed significant decrease (P<0.001 in enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase in the cortical tissue of the brain. Treatment of different doses of QLHE significantly increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activity compared to icv-STZ group (P<0.001 in cortical tissue of the brain. Conclusion: The study demonstrated the effectiveness of quince leaf hydroalcoholic extract as a powerful antioxidant

  5. Interactive classification and content-based retrieval of tissue images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Selim; Marchisio, Giovanni B.; Tusk, Carsten; Koperski, Krzysztof

    2002-11-01

    We describe a system for interactive classification and retrieval of microscopic tissue images. Our system models tissues in pixel, region and image levels. Pixel level features are generated using unsupervised clustering of color and texture values. Region level features include shape information and statistics of pixel level feature values. Image level features include statistics and spatial relationships of regions. To reduce the gap between low-level features and high-level expert knowledge, we define the concept of prototype regions. The system learns the prototype regions in an image collection using model-based clustering and density estimation. Different tissue types are modeled using spatial relationships of these regions. Spatial relationships are represented by fuzzy membership functions. The system automatically selects significant relationships from training data and builds models which can also be updated using user relevance feedback. A Bayesian framework is used to classify tissues based on these models. Preliminary experiments show that the spatial relationship models we developed provide a flexible and powerful framework for classification and retrieval of tissue images.

  6. Hard X-ray submicrometer tomography of human brain tissue at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimchenko, A.; Bikis, C.; Schulz, G.; Zdora, M.-C.; Zanette, I.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Schweighauser, G.; Hench, J.; Hieber, S. E.; Deyhle, H.; Thalmann, P.; Müller, B.

    2017-06-01

    There is a lack of the necessary methodology for three-dimensional (3D) investigation of soft tissues with cellular resolution without staining or tissue transformation. Synchrotron radiation based hard X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography using single-distance phase reconstruction (SDPR) provides high spatial resolution and density contrast for the visualization of individual cells using a standard specimen preparation and data reconstruction. In this study, we demonstrate the 3D characterization of a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human cerebellum specimen by SDPR at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, UK) at pixel sizes down to 0.45 μm. The approach enables visualization of cerebellar layers (Stratum moleculare and Stratum granulosum), the 3D characterization of individual cells (Purkinje, stellate and granule cells) and can even resolve some subcellular structures (nucleus and nucleolus of Purkinje cells). The tomographic results are qualitatively compared to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained histological sections. We demonstrate the potential benefits of hard X-ray microtomography for the investigations of biological tissues in comparison to conventional histology.

  7. Hard X-ray submicrometer tomography of human brain tissue at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khimchenko, A; Bikis, C; Schulz, G; Hieber, S E; Deyhle, H; Thalmann, P; Müller, B; Zdora, M-C; Zanette, I; Vila-Comamala, J; Schweighauser, G; Hench, J

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of the necessary methodology for three-dimensional (3D) investigation of soft tissues with cellular resolution without staining or tissue transformation. Synchrotron radiation based hard X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography using single-distance phase reconstruction (SDPR) provides high spatial resolution and density contrast for the visualization of individual cells using a standard specimen preparation and data reconstruction. In this study, we demonstrate the 3D characterization of a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human cerebellum specimen by SDPR at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, UK) at pixel sizes down to 0.45 μm. The approach enables visualization of cerebellar layers ( Stratum moleculare and Stratum granulosum ), the 3D characterization of individual cells (Purkinje, stellate and granule cells) and can even resolve some subcellular structures (nucleus and nucleolus of Purkinje cells). The tomographic results are qualitatively compared to hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained histological sections. We demonstrate the potential benefits of hard X-ray microtomography for the investigations of biological tissues in comparison to conventional histology. (paper)

  8. MRI Brain Images Healthy and Pathological Tissues Classification with the Aid of Improved Particle Swarm Optimization and Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheejakumari, V.; Sankara Gomathi, B.

    2015-01-01

    The advantages of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over other diagnostic imaging modalities are its higher spatial resolution and its better discrimination of soft tissue. In the previous tissues classification method, the healthy and pathological tissues are classified from the MRI brain images using HGANN. But the method lacks sensitivity and accuracy measures. The classification method is inadequate in its performance in terms of these two parameters. So, to avoid these drawbacks, a new classification method is proposed in this paper. Here, new tissues classification method is proposed with improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) technique to classify the healthy and pathological tissues from the given MRI images. Our proposed classification method includes the same four stages, namely, tissue segmentation, feature extraction, heuristic feature selection, and tissue classification. The method is implemented and the results are analyzed in terms of various statistical performance measures. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed classification method in classifying the tissues and the achieved improvement in sensitivity and accuracy measures. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by comparing it with the other segmentation methods. PMID:25977706

  9. A brain computer interface-based explorer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lijuan; Yu, Tianyou; Li, Yuanqing

    2015-04-15

    In recent years, various applications of brain computer interfaces (BCIs) have been studied. In this paper, we present a hybrid BCI combining P300 and motor imagery to operate an explorer. Our system is mainly composed of a BCI mouse, a BCI speller and an explorer. Through this system, the user can access his computer and manipulate (open, close, copy, paste, and delete) files such as documents, pictures, music, movies and so on. The system has been tested with five subjects, and the experimental results show that the explorer can be successfully operated according to subjects' intentions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In vivo imaging of cerebral hemodynamics and tissue scattering in rat brain using a surgical microscope camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Kanie, Takuya; Mustari, Afrina; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Sato, Manabu; Kokubo, Yasuaki

    2018-02-01

    We investigated a rapid imaging method to monitor the spatial distribution of total hemoglobin concentration (CHbT), the tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), and the scattering power b in the expression of musp=a(lambda)^-b as the scattering parameters in cerebral cortex using a digital red-green-blue camera. In the method, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for light transport in brain tissue is used to specify a relation among the RGB-values and the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (CHbO), that of deoxygenated hemoglobin (CHbR), and the scattering power b. In the present study, we performed sequential recordings of RGB images of in vivo exposed brain of rats while changing the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), using a surgical microscope camera system. The time courses of CHbO, CHbR, CHbT, and StO2 indicated the well-known physiological responses in cerebral cortex. On the other hand, a fast decrease in the scattering power b was observed immediately after the respiratory arrest, which is similar to the negative deflection of the extracellular DC potential so-called anoxic depolarization. It is said that the DC shift coincident with a rise in extracellular potassium and can evoke cell deformation generated by water movement between intracellular and extracellular compartments, and hence the light scattering by tissue. Therefore, the decrease in the scattering power b after the respiratory arrest is indicative of changes in light scattering by tissue. The results in this study indicate potential of the method to evaluate the pathophysiological conditions and loss of tissue viability in brain tissue.

  11. Cell and brain tissue imaging of the flavonoid fisetin using label-free two-photon microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasieva, Tatiana B; Ehren, Jennifer; O'Sullivan, Thomas; Tromberg, Bruce J; Maher, Pamela

    2015-10-01

    Over the last few years, we have identified an orally active, novel neuroprotective and cognition-enhancing molecule, the flavonoid fisetin. Fisetin not only has direct antioxidant activity but it can also increase the intracellular levels of glutathione, the major intracellular antioxidant. Fisetin can also activate key neurotrophic factor signaling pathways. In addition, it has anti-inflammatory activity against microglia and astrocytes and inhibits the activity of lipoxygenases, thereby reducing the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and their by-products. However, key questions about its targets and brain penetration remain. In this study, we used label-free two-photon microscopy of intrinsic fisetin fluorescence to examine the localization of fisetin in living nerve cells and the brains of living mice. In cells, fisetin but not structurally related flavonols with different numbers of hydroxyl groups, localized to the nucleoli suggesting that key targets of fisetin may reside in this organelle. In the mouse brain, following intraperitoneal injection and oral administration, fisetin rapidly distributed to the blood vessels of the brain followed by a slower dispersion into the brain parenchyma. Thus, these results provide further support for the effects of fisetin on brain function. In addition, they suggest that label-free two-photon microscopy may prove useful for studying the intracellular and tissue distribution of other intrinsically-fluorescent flavonoids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nicotine affects hydrogen sulfide concentrations in mouse kidney and heart but not in brain and liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiliński, Jerzy; Wiliński, Bogdan; Somogyi, Eugeniusz; Piotrowska, Joanna; Kameczura, Tomasz; Zygmunt, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine, a potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid with stimulant effects, is contributing to addictive properties of tobacco smoking and is though used in the smoking cessation therapy. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in physiology and pathophysiology of various systems in mammals. The interactions between nicotine and H2S are not fully recognized. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of nicotine on the H2S tissue concentrations in different mouse organs. Adult CBA male mice were administered intraperitoneally 1.5 mg/kg b.w. per day of nicotine (group D1, n = 10) or 3 mg/ kg b.w. per day of nicotine (group D2, n = 10). The control group (n = 10) received physiological saline. The measurements of the free and acid-labile H2S tissue concentrations were performed with the Siegel spectrophotometric modi ed method. ere was a significant increase in H2S concentrations in both nicotine doses groups in the kidney (D1 by 54.2%, D2 by 40.0%). In the heart the higher nicotine dose caused a marked decrease in H2S tissue level (by 65.4%), while the lower dose did not affect H2S content. Nicotine administration had no effect on H2S concentrations in the brain and liver. In conclusion, nicotine affects H2S tissue concentrations in kidney and heart but not in the liver and brain tissues.

  13. Reconstruction of complicated skull base defects utilizing free tissue transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalilian, Hamid R; Gapany, Markus; Levine, Samuel C

    2002-11-01

    We managed five patients with large skull base defects complicated by complex infections with microvascular free tissue transfer. The first patient developed an infection, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, and meningitis after undergoing a translabyrinthine resection of an acoustic neuroma. The second patient had a history of a gunshot wound to the temporal bone, with a large defect and an infected cholesteatoma that caused several episodes of meningitis. The third through the fifth patients had persistent CSF leakage and infection refractory to conventional therapy. In all cases prior attempts of closure with fat grafts or regional flaps had failed. Rectus abdominis myofascial free flap, radial forearm free flap or a gracilis muscle free flap was used after debridement of the infected cavities. The CSF leaks, local infections, and meningitis were controlled within a week. In our experience, microvascular free tissue provides the necessary bulk of viable, well-vascularized tissue, which not only assures a mechanical seal but also helps clear the local infection.

  14. A method to determine insulin responsiveness in synaptosomes isolated from frozen brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Whitney; Taglialatela, Giulio

    2016-03-01

    Studying the insulin signaling response at the synapse is an important approach to understand molecular mechanisms involved in disease-related neurodegenerative processes. We developed a method for studying the insulin responsiveness at the synaptic level by isolating functional synaptosomes from fresh or frozen tissue and exposing them to insulin in the presence of ATP (a critical step) to detect insulin receptor (IR) activation. We performed an ATP dose-response curve, insulin dose-response curve, and insulin response time course to optimize this method. We also demonstrated that our protocol reflects the degree of insulin responsiveness in vivo by using an animal model of known insulin resistance, AtENPP1-Tg mice. This method is advantageous over other methods detecting IR in total brain homogenates due to the ability to detect IR response without confounding contributions from other cell areas and cell types also expressing IR. Furthermore, ex vivo insulin stimulation can be compared to baseline synaptosomes obtained from the same animal which improves reliability and statistical power while decreasing the number of animals required to perform individual experiments. We have developed a reliable, efficient method to measure insulin-driven ex vivo phosphorylation of the synaptosomal insulin receptor that can reliably reflect the pre-existing insulin responsiveness status in the CNS of the animal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence of stimulation of isolated synaptosomes with insulin and a promising new technique to study the synaptic CNS insulin responsiveness under physiological or disease conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Detergent resistant membrane-associated IDE in brain tissue and cultured cells: Relevance to Aβ and insulin degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño Eduardo M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE is implicated in the regulation of amyloid β (Aβ steady-state levels in the brain, and its deficient expression and/or activity may be a risk factor in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although IDE sub-cellular localization has been well studied, the compartments relevant to Aβ degradation remain to be determined. Results Our results of live immunofluorescence, immuno gold electron-microscopy and gradient fractionation concurred to the demonstration that endogenous IDE from brain tissues and cell cultures is, in addition to its other localizations, a detergent-resistant membrane (DRM-associated metallopeptidase. Our pulse chase experiments were in accordance with the existence of two pools of IDE: the cytosolic one with a longer half-life and the membrane-IDE with a faster turn-over. DRMs-associated IDE co-localized with Aβ and its distribution (DRMs vs. non-DRMs and activity was sensitive to manipulation of lipid composition in vitro and in vivo. When IDE was mis-located from DRMs by treating cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD, endogenous Aβ accumulated in the extracellular space and exogenous Aβ proteolysis was impaired. We detected a reduced amount of IDE in DRMs of membranes isolated from mice brain with endogenous reduced levels of cholesterol (Chol due to targeted deletion of one seladin-1 allele. We confirmed that a moderate shift of IDE from DRMs induced a substantial decrement on IDE-mediated insulin and Aβ degradation in vitro. Conclusion Our results support the notion that optimal substrate degradation by IDE may require its association with organized-DRMs. Alternatively, DRMs but not other plasma membrane regions, may act as platforms where Aβ accumulates, due to its hydrophobic properties, reaching local concentration close to its Km for IDE facilitating its clearance. Structural integrity of DRMs may also be required to tightly retain insulin receptor and IDE for

  16. Hemispheric asymmetry of electroencephalography-based functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2014-11-12

    Electroencephalography (EEG)-based functional brain networks have been investigated frequently in health and disease. It has been shown that a number of graph theory metrics are disrupted in brain disorders. EEG-based brain networks are often studied in the whole-brain framework, where all the nodes are grouped into a single network. In this study, we studied the brain networks in two hemispheres and assessed whether there are any hemispheric-specific patterns in the properties of the networks. To this end, resting state closed-eyes EEGs from 44 healthy individuals were processed and the network structures were extracted separately for each hemisphere. We examined neurophysiologically meaningful graph theory metrics: global and local efficiency measures. The global efficiency did not show any hemispheric asymmetry, whereas the local connectivity showed rightward asymmetry for a range of intermediate density values for the constructed networks. Furthermore, the age of the participants showed significant direct correlations with the global efficiency of the left hemisphere, but only in the right hemisphere, with local connectivity. These results suggest that only local connectivity of EEG-based functional networks is associated with brain hemispheres.

  17. Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids of muscular tissue and brain of rats under the impact of vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Kostyshyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are important structural components of biological membranes, energy substrate of cells involved in fixing phospholipid bilayer proteins, and acting as regulators and modulators of enzymatic activity. Under the impact of vibration oscillations there can occur shifts in the ratio of different groups of fatty acids, and degrees of their saturation may change. The imbalance between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which occurs later in the cell wall, disrupts fluidity and viscosity of lipid phase and causes abnormal cellular metabolism. Aim. In order to study the impact of vibration on the level of fatty acids of total lipids in muscular tissue and fatty acid composition of phospholipids in muscles and brain, experimental animals have been exposed to vertical vibration oscillations with different frequency for 28 days. Methods and results. Tissues fragments of hip quadriceps and brain of rats were used for obtaining methyl esters of fatty acids studied by the method of gas-liquid chromatography. It was found that the lipid content, ratio of its separate factions and fatty acid composition in muscular tissue and brain of animals with the action of vibration considerably varies. With the increase of vibration acceleration tendency to increase in absolute quantity of total lipids fatty acids can be observed at the account of increased level of saturated and monounsaturated ones. These processes are caused by activation of self-defense mechanisms of the body under the conditions of deviations from stabilized physiological norm, since adaptation requires certain structural and energy costs. Increase in the relative quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids of muscles and brain and simultaneous reduction in concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids are observed. Conclusion. These changes indicate worsening of structural and functional organization of muscles and brain cell membranes of

  18. Technical pitfalls in a porcine brain retraction model. The impact of brain spatula on the retracted brain tissue in a porcine model: a feasibility study and its technical pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiex, R.; Hans, F.J.; Gilsbach, J.M. [Aachen University, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany); Krings, T. [Aachen University, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Sellhaus, B. [Aachen University, Department of Neuropathology, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    We describe technical pitfalls of a porcine brain injury model for identifying primary and secondary pathological sequelae following brain retraction by brain spatula. In 16 anaesthetised male pigs, the right frontal brain was retracted in the interhemispheric fissure by a brain spatulum with varying pressures applied by the gravitational force of weights from 10 to 70 g for a duration of 30 min. The retracted brain tissue was monitored for changes in intracranial pressure and perfusion of the cortex using a Laser Doppler Perfusion Imager (MoorLDI). To evaluate the extent of oedema and cortical contusions, MRI was performed 30 min and 72 h after brain retraction. Following the MR scan, the retracted brain areas were histopathologically assessed using H and E and Fluoro-Jade B staining for neuronal damage. Sinus occlusion occurred in four animals, resulting in bilateral cortical contusions and extensive brain oedema. Retracting the brain with weights of 70 g (n=4) caused extensive oedema on FLAIR images that correlated clinically with a hemiparesis in three animals. Morphologically, an increased number of Fluoro-Jade B-positive neurons were found. A sequential decrease in weights prevented functional deficits in animals. A retraction pressure applied by 10-g weights (n=7) caused a mean rise in intracranial pressure to 4.0{+-}3.1 mm Hg, and a decrement in mean cortical perfusion from 740.8{+-}41.5 to 693.8{+-}72.4 PU/cm2, (P<0.24). A meticulous dissection of the interhemispheric fissure and a reduction of weights to 10 g were found to be mandatory to study the cortical impact caused by brain spatula reproducibly. (orig.)

  19. Technical pitfalls in a porcine brain retraction model. The impact of brain spatula on the retracted brain tissue in a porcine model: a feasibility study and its technical pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiex, R.; Hans, F.J.; Gilsbach, J.M.; Krings, T.; Sellhaus, B.

    2005-01-01

    We describe technical pitfalls of a porcine brain injury model for identifying primary and secondary pathological sequelae following brain retraction by brain spatula. In 16 anaesthetised male pigs, the right frontal brain was retracted in the interhemispheric fissure by a brain spatulum with varying pressures applied by the gravitational force of weights from 10 to 70 g for a duration of 30 min. The retracted brain tissue was monitored for changes in intracranial pressure and perfusion of the cortex using a Laser Doppler Perfusion Imager (MoorLDI). To evaluate the extent of oedema and cortical contusions, MRI was performed 30 min and 72 h after brain retraction. Following the MR scan, the retracted brain areas were histopathologically assessed using H and E and Fluoro-Jade B staining for neuronal damage. Sinus occlusion occurred in four animals, resulting in bilateral cortical contusions and extensive brain oedema. Retracting the brain with weights of 70 g (n=4) caused extensive oedema on FLAIR images that correlated clinically with a hemiparesis in three animals. Morphologically, an increased number of Fluoro-Jade B-positive neurons were found. A sequential decrease in weights prevented functional deficits in animals. A retraction pressure applied by 10-g weights (n=7) caused a mean rise in intracranial pressure to 4.0±3.1 mm Hg, and a decrement in mean cortical perfusion from 740.8±41.5 to 693.8±72.4 PU/cm2, (P<0.24). A meticulous dissection of the interhemispheric fissure and a reduction of weights to 10 g were found to be mandatory to study the cortical impact caused by brain spatula reproducibly. (orig.)

  20. A radioenzymatic technique for the measurement of free and conjugated 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyleneglycol in brain tissue and biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, T.; Scatton, B.

    1982-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific radioenzymatic assay for the measurement of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (DOPEG) was developed. The assay is based on the conversion of the compound to its O-methylated derivative in the presence of catechol-O-methyltransferase and [ 3 H]S-adenosyl-methionine. The tritiated 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol formed is selectively extracted in organic solvents and isolated by thin layer chromatography. After oxidation to vanillin the O-methylated compound is extracted and measured by liquid scintillation spectrophotometry. This assay has been applied to the measurement of free and conjugated DOPEG is a variety of biological tissues and fluids. Both free and conjugated DOPEG were readily detected in discrete rat brain areas. Substantial amounts of free and conjugated DOPEG were also measured in ventricular perfusates from freely moving rats. Finally, the presence of DOPEG was also demonstrated in human cerebrospinal fluid, plasma and urine. Only the free form of DOPEG was found in cerebrospinal fluid, whereas both unconjugated and conjugated forms were present in plasma and urine. (Auth.)

  1. Brain Oxygen Optimization in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Phase-II: A Phase II Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, David O; Shutter, Lori A; Moore, Carol; Temkin, Nancy R; Puccio, Ava M; Madden, Christopher J; Andaluz, Norberto; Chesnut, Randall M; Bullock, M Ross; Grant, Gerald A; McGregor, John; Weaver, Michael; Jallo, Jack; LeRoux, Peter D; Moberg, Dick; Barber, Jason; Lazaridis, Christos; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon R

    2017-11-01

    A relationship between reduced brain tissue oxygenation and poor outcome following severe traumatic brain injury has been reported in observational studies. We designed a Phase II trial to assess whether a neurocritical care management protocol could improve brain tissue oxygenation levels in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and the feasibility of a Phase III efficacy study. Randomized prospective clinical trial. Ten ICUs in the United States. One hundred nineteen severe traumatic brain injury patients. Patients were randomized to treatment protocol based on intracranial pressure plus brain tissue oxygenation monitoring versus intracranial pressure monitoring alone. Brain tissue oxygenation data were recorded in the intracranial pressure -only group in blinded fashion. Tiered interventions in each arm were specified and impact on intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygenation measured. Monitors were removed if values were normal for 48 hours consecutively, or after 5 days. Outcome was measured at 6 months using the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended. A management protocol based on brain tissue oxygenation and intracranial pressure monitoring reduced the proportion of time with brain tissue hypoxia after severe traumatic brain injury (0.45 in intracranial pressure-only group and 0.16 in intracranial pressure plus brain tissue oxygenation group; p injury after severe traumatic brain injury based on brain tissue oxygenation and intracranial pressure values was consistent with reduced mortality and increased proportions of patients with good recovery compared with intracranial pressure-only management; however, the study was not powered for clinical efficacy. Management of severe traumatic brain injury informed by multimodal intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygenation monitoring reduced brain tissue hypoxia with a trend toward lower mortality and more favorable outcomes than intracranial pressure-only treatment. A Phase III randomized trial to assess

  2. Multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, W L; Fang, A; Nguyen, B T; Raphel, J K; Jagannathan, L; Raghavan, R; Bryan, R N; Miller, G A

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing multiple, complementary, fully labeled electronic brain atlases and an atlas-based neuroimaging system for analysis, quantification, and real-time manipulation of cerebral structures in two and three dimensions, we have digitized, enhanced, segmented, and labeled the following print brain atlases: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain by Talairach and Tournoux, Atlas for Stereotaxy of the Human Brain by Schaltenbrand and Wahren, Referentially Oriented Cerebral MRI Anatomy by Talairach and Tournoux, and Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci by Ono, Kubik, and Abernathey. Three-dimensional extensions of these atlases have been developed as well. All two- and three-dimensional atlases are mutually preregistered and may be interactively registered with an actual patient's data. An atlas-based neuroimaging system has been developed that provides support for reformatting, registration, visualization, navigation, image processing, and quantification of clinical data. The anatomical index contains about 1,000 structures and over 400 sulcal patterns. Several new applications of the brain atlas database also have been developed, supported by various technologies such as virtual reality, the Internet, and electronic publishing. Fusion of information from multiple atlases assists the user in comprehensively understanding brain structures and identifying and quantifying anatomical regions in clinical data. The multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system have substantial potential impact in stereotactic neurosurgery and radiotherapy by assisting in visualization and real-time manipulation in three dimensions of anatomical structures, in quantitative neuroradiology by allowing interactive analysis of clinical data, in three-dimensional neuroeducation, and in brain function studies.

  3. Detection and quantification of neurotensin in human brain tissue by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobom, J; Kraeuter, K O; Persson, R

    2000-01-01

    A method was developed for mass spectrometric detection of neurotensin (NT)-like immunoreactivity and quantification of NT in human brain tissue. The method is based on immunoprecipitation followed by analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF......-MS). The identity of the major component of the immunoprecipitates as neurotensin was confirmed by fragment ion analysis on an electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight instrument. MALDI-TOF-MS quantification of NT was achieved using stable-isotope-labeled NT as the internal standard, yielding an error...

  4. An investigation on the mechanism of sublimed DHB matrix on molecular ion yields in SIMS imaging of brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlatshahi Pour, Masoumeh; Malmberg, Per; Ewing, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    We have characterized the use of sublimation to deposit matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) matrices in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis, i.e. matrix-enhanced SIMS (ME-SIMS), a common surface modification method to enhance sensitivity for larger molecules and to increase the production of intact molecular ions. We use sublimation to apply a thin layer of a conventional MALDI matrix, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), onto rat brain cerebellum tissue to show how this technique can be used to enhance molecular yields in SIMS while still retaining a lateral resolution around 2 μm and also to investigate the mechanism of this enhancement. The results here illustrate that cholesterol, which is a dominant lipid species in the brain, is decreased on the tissue surface after deposition of matrix, particularly in white matter. The decrease of cholesterol is followed by an increased ion yield of several other lipid species. Depth profiling of the sublimed rat brain reveals that the lipid species are de facto extracted by the DHB matrix and concentrated in the top most layers of the sublimed matrix. This extraction/concentration of lipids directly leads to an increase of higher mass lipid ion yield. It is also possible that the decrease of cholesterol decreases the potential suppression of ion yield caused by cholesterol migration to the tissue surface. This result provides us with significant insights into the possible mechanisms involved when using sublimation to deposit this matrix in ME-SIMS.

  5. Accurate and robust brain image alignment using boundary-based registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Douglas N; Fischl, Bruce

    2009-10-15

    The fine spatial scales of the structures in the human brain represent an enormous challenge to the successful integration of information from different images for both within- and between-subject analysis. While many algorithms to register image pairs from the same subject exist, visual inspection shows that their accuracy and robustness to be suspect, particularly when there are strong intensity gradients and/or only part of the brain is imaged. This paper introduces a new algorithm called Boundary-Based Registration, or BBR. The novelty of BBR is that it treats the two images very differently. The reference image must be of sufficient resolution and quality to extract surfaces that separate tissue types. The input image is then aligned to the reference by maximizing the intensity gradient across tissue boundaries. Several lower quality images can be aligned through their alignment with the reference. Visual inspection and fMRI results show that BBR is more accurate than correlation ratio or normalized mutual information and is considerably more robust to even strong intensity inhomogeneities. BBR also excels at aligning partial-brain images to whole-brain images, a domain in which existing registration algorithms frequently fail. Even in the limit of registering a single slice, we show the BBR results to be robust and accurate.

  6. Analysis of feature stability for laser-based determination of tissue thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Floris; Schweikard, Achim; Stüber, Patrick; Bruder, Ralf; Wagner, Benjamin; Wissel, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Localisation of the cranium is necessary for accurate stereotactic radiotherapy of malign lesions in the brain. This is achieved by immobilizing the patient's head (typically by using thermoplastic masks, bite blocks or combinations thereof) and x-ray imaging to determine the actual position of the patient with respect to the treatment device. In previous work we have developed a novel method for marker-less and non-invasive tracking of the skull using a combination of laser-based surface triangulation and the analysis of backscattered feature patterns of a tightly collimated NIR laser beam scanned over the patient's forehead. An HDR camera is coupled into the beam path of the laser scanning system to acquire one image per projected laser point. We have demonstrated that this setup is capable of accurately determining the tissue thickness for each triangulation point and consequently allows detecting the surface of the cranial bone with sub-millimetre accuracy. Typical clinical settings (treatment times of 15-90 min) require feature stability over time, since the determination of tissue thickness is achieved by machine learning methods trained on initial feature scans. We have collected initial scans of the forehead as well as long-term backscatter data (20 images per seconds over 30 min) from five subjects and extracted the relevant tissue features from the image streams. Based on the knowledge of the relationship between the tissue feature values and the tissue thickness, the analysis of the long-term data showed that the noise level is low enough to allow robust discrimination of tissue thicknesses of 0.5 mm.

  7. Brain tissue- and region-specific abnormalities on volumetric MRI scans in 21 patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS is a heterogeneous human disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and characterized by the primary findings of obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and learning and behavioural problems. BBS mouse models have a neuroanatomical phenotype consisting of third and lateral ventriculomegaly, thinning of the cerebral cortex, and reduction in the size of the corpus striatum and hippocampus. These abnormalities raise the question of whether humans with BBS have a characteristic morphologic brain phenotype. Further, although behavioral, developmental, neurological and motor defects have been noted in patients with BBS, to date, there are limited reports of brain findings in BBS. The present study represents the largest systematic evaluation for the presence of structural brain malformations and/or progressive changes, which may contribute to these functional problems. Methods A case-control study of 21 patients, most aged 13-35 years, except for 2 patients aged 4 and 8 years, who were diagnosed with BBS by clinical criteria and genetic analysis of known BBS genes, and were evaluated by qualitative and volumetric brain MRI scans. Healthy controls were matched 3:1 by age, sex and race. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS language with SAS STAT procedures. Results All 21 patients with BBS were found to have statistically significant region- and tissue-specific patterns of brain abnormalities. There was 1 normal intracranial volume; 2 reduced white matter in all regions of the brain, but most in the occipital region; 3 preserved gray matter volume, with increased cerebral cortex volume in only the occipital lobe; 4 reduced gray matter in the subcortical regions of the brain, including the caudate, putamen and thalamus, but not in the cerebellum; and 5 increased cerebrospinal fluid volume. Conclusions There are distinct and characteristic abnormalities in tissue- and region- specific volumes

  8. 20 Ways To Promote Brain-Based Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Debra J.

    2002-01-01

    Based on current knowledge about cognitive processes, this article presents strategies for preparing the learner, managing the environment to motivate students, gaining and keeping learner attention, and increasing memory and recall by making learning personally relevant to students. Resources are listed for brain-based teaching and learning. (CR)

  9. Understanding the biophysical effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on brain tissue: the bridge between brain stimulation and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, Sebastiaan F W; Petrov, Petar I; Mandija, Stefano; Sommer, Iris E C; van den Berg, Nico A T

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is rapidly being adopted in neuroscience, medicine, psychology, and biology, for basic research purposes, diagnosis, and therapy. However, a coherent picture of how TMS affects neuronal processing, and especially how this in turn influences behavior, is still largely unavailable despite several studies that investigated aspects of the underlying neurophysiological effects of TMS. Perhaps as a result from this "black box approach," TMS studies show a large interindividual variability in applied paradigms and TMS treatment outcome can be quite variable, hampering its general efficacy and introduction into the clinic. A better insight into the biophysical, neuronal, and cognitive mechanisms underlying TMS is crucial in order to apply it effectively in the clinic and to increase our understanding of brain-behavior relationship. Therefore, computational and experimental efforts have been started recently to understand and control the effect TMS has on neuronal functioning. Especially, how the brain shapes magnetic fields induced by a TMS coil, how currents are generated locally in the cortical surface, and how they interact with complex functional neuronal circuits within and between brain areas are crucial to understand the observed behavioral changes and potential therapeutic effects resulting from TMS. Here, we review the current knowledge about the biophysical underpinnings of single-pulse TMS and argue how to move forward to fully understand and exploit the powerful technique that TMS can be. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Deep Learning and Texture-Based Semantic Label Fusion for Brain Tumor Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyaratne, L; Alam, M; Shboul, Z; Iftekharuddin, K M

    2018-01-01

    Brain tumor segmentation is a fundamental step in surgical treatment and therapy. Many hand-crafted and learning based methods have been proposed for automatic brain tumor segmentation from MRI. Studies have shown that these approaches have their inherent advantages and limitations. This work proposes a semantic label fusion algorithm by combining two representative state-of-the-art segmentation algorithms: texture based hand-crafted, and deep learning based methods to obtain robust tumor segmentation. We evaluate the proposed method using publicly available BRATS 2017 brain tumor segmentation challenge dataset. The results show that the proposed method offers improved segmentation by alleviating inherent weaknesses: extensive false positives in texture based method, and the false tumor tissue classification problem in deep learning method, respectively. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of patient's gender on the segmentation performance using a subset of validation dataset. Note the substantial improvement in brain tumor segmentation performance proposed in this work has recently enabled us to secure the first place by our group in overall patient survival prediction task at the BRATS 2017 challenge.

  11. Deep learning and texture-based semantic label fusion for brain tumor segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyaratne, L.; Alam, M.; Shboul, Z.; Iftekharuddin, K. M.

    2018-02-01

    Brain tumor segmentation is a fundamental step in surgical treatment and therapy. Many hand-crafted and learning based methods have been proposed for automatic brain tumor segmentation from MRI. Studies have shown that these approaches have their inherent advantages and limitations. This work proposes a semantic label fusion algorithm by combining two representative state-of-the-art segmentation algorithms: texture based hand-crafted, and deep learning based methods to obtain robust tumor segmentation. We evaluate the proposed method using publicly available BRATS 2017 brain tumor segmentation challenge dataset. The results show that the proposed method offers improved segmentation by alleviating inherent weaknesses: extensive false positives in texture based method, and the false tumor tissue classification problem in deep learning method, respectively. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of patient's gender on the segmentation performance using a subset of validation dataset. Note the substantial improvement in brain tumor segmentation performance proposed in this work has recently enabled us to secure the first place by our group in overall patient survival prediction task at the BRATS 2017 challenge.

  12. Biosocial Spaces and Neurocomputational Governance: Brain-Based and Brain-Targeted Technologies in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben; Pykett, Jessica; Nemorin, Selena

    2018-01-01

    Recently, technologies based on neuroscientific insights into brain function and structure have been promoted for application in education. The novel practices and environments produced by these technologies require new forms of "biosocial" analysis to unpack their implications for education, learning and governance. This article…

  13. Cell-based and biomaterial approaches to connective tissue repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalling, Simone Suzette

    vitro as well as in a subcutaneous mouse model. Stable MA-MC hydrogels, of varying weight percentages, demonstrated tunable swelling and mechanical properties in the absence of cytotoxic degradation products. In vivo, 6wt% MA-MC hydrogels maintained their shape and mechanical integrity while eliciting a minimal inflammatory response; highly desirable properties for soft tissue reconstruction. These cellulose-based photopolymerizable hydrogels can be further optimized for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications to enhance wound repair.

  14. Oxytocin receptor ligand binding in embryonic tissue and postnatal brain development of the C57BL/6J mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eHammock

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OXT has drawn increasing attention as a developmentally relevant neuropeptide given its role in the brain regulation of social behavior. It has been suggested that OXT plays an important role in the infant brain during caregiver attachment in nurturing familial contexts, but there is incomplete experimental evidence. Mouse models of OXT system genes have been particularly informative for the role of the OXT system in social behavior, however, the developing brain areas that could respond to ligand activation of the OXT receptor (OXTR have yet to be identified in this species. Here we report new data revealing dynamic ligand-binding distribution of OXTR in the developing mouse brain. Using male and female C57BL/6J mice at postnatal days (P 0, 7, 14, 21, 35, and 60 we quantified OXTR ligand binding in several brain areas which changed across development. Further, we describe OXTR ligand binding in select tissues of the near-term whole embryo at E18.5. Together, these data aid in the interpretation of findings in mouse models of the OXT system and generate new testable hypotheses for developmental roles for OXT in mammalian systems. We discuss our findings in the context of developmental disorders (including autism, attachment biology, and infant physiological regulation.

  15. Caffeine and Cannabis Effects on Vital Neurotransmitters and Enzymes in the Brain Tissue of Juvenile Experimental Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, J O; Olatunji, S Y; Olanrewaju, A J

    2017-05-01

    Caffeine and cannabis are globally consumed and abused psychoactive substances. While caffeine is legally used in various forms, including in tea and coffee as beverages, it is also consumed in soda and energy drinks as additives. Cannabis, on the other hand, is considered illegal in most countries; albeit, it is being consumed globally particularly by adolescents. The adolescent stage marks a critical stage of brain development and maturation. Influences of agents on the brain at this stage may affect neuronal structural and functional attributes. To this end, the current experiment considered the effects of cannabis and caffeine on selected key neurotransmitters and enzymes in the brain tissues after regimented caffeine and cannabis treatment for 21 days. A total of 72 juvenile Wistar rats that were approximately 40 days old were divided into 6 groups A-F. The group A served as the control. Other groups were administered various dosages of caffeine or cannabis in distilled water, using oral gavages as follows: group B animals received 100 mg/kg body weight of caffeine, group C animals received 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine, group D animals received 500 mg/kg body weight of cannabis, group E animals received 200 mg/kg body weight of cannabis, and group F received a low dose of cannabis (200 mg/kg body weight) plus a low dose of caffeine (50 mg/kg body weight). The animals were killed by cervical dislocation 24 h after the last administration. The brain tissues were excised and homogenized. The enzymes cytochrome C oxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were assayed to observe tissue energy metabolism while the neurotransmitters gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), glutamate, and dopamine were assayed to observe the effects of the psychoactive substances on their activities relative to mental activities. GABA, glutamate, and dopamine were generally higher in the treated groups of animals. The levels of G-6-PDH were higher in all treated animals' brains

  16. Long-term occupational stress is associated with regional reductions in brain tissue volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Blix

    Full Text Available There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM and white matter (WM volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen - structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous data on chronic psychosocial stress, and indicate a morphological involvement of the frontostriatal circuits. The present findings of morphological changes in these regions confirm our previous conclusion that symptoms from occupational stress merit careful investigations and targeted treatment.

  17. Long-Term Occupational Stress Is Associated with Regional Reductions in Brain Tissue Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blix, Eva; Perski, Aleksander; Berglund, Hans; Savic, Ivanka

    2013-01-01

    There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen – structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous data on chronic psychosocial stress, and indicate a morphological involvement of the frontostriatal circuits. The present findings of morphological changes in these regions confirm our previous conclusion that symptoms from occupational stress merit careful investigations and targeted treatment. PMID:23776438

  18. Testosterone depletion increases the susceptibility of brain tissue to oxidative damage in a restraint stress mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Wan; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Dong-Woon; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2016-01-01

    in brain tissues, especially in the hippocampus. These findings are the first evidence that testosterone depletion makes the brain prone to oxidative injury. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Gadolinium-based Contrast Agent Accumulates in the Brain Even in Subjects without Severe Renal Dysfunction: Evaluation of Autopsy Brain Specimens with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Tomonori; Fukusato, Toshio; Matsuda, Megumi; Toyoda, Keiko; Oba, Hiroshi; Kotoku, Jun'ichi; Haruyama, Takahiro; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Furui, Shigeru

    2015-07-01

    To use inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) to evaluate gadolinium accumulation in brain tissues, including the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP), in subjects who received a gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA). Institutional review board approval was obtained for this study. Written informed consent for postmortem investigation was obtained either from the subject prior to his or her death or afterward from the subject's relatives. Brain tissues obtained at autopsy in five subjects who received a linear GBCA (GBCA group) and five subjects with no history of GBCA administration (non-GBCA group) were examined with ICP-MS. Formalin-fixed DN tissue, the inner segment of the GP, cerebellar white matter, the frontal lobe cortex, and frontal lobe white matter were obtained, and their gadolinium concentrations were measured. None of the subjects had received a diagnosis of severely compromised renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate brain regions. Gadolinium was detected in all specimens in the GBCA agent group (mean, 0.25 µg per gram of brain tissue ± 0.44 [standard deviation]), with significantly higher concentrations in each region (P = .004 vs the non-GBCA group for all regions). In the GBCA group, the DN and GP showed significantly higher gadolinium concentrations (mean, 0.44 µg/g ± 0.63) than other regions (0.12 µg/g ± 0.16) (P = .029). Even in subjects without severe renal dysfunction, GBCA administration causes gadolinium accumulation in the brain, especially in the DN and GP.

  20. Carbogen inhalation increases oxygen transport to hypoperfused brain tissue in patients with occlusive carotid artery disease: increased oxygen transport to hypoperfused brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashkanian, Mahmoud; Gjedde, Albert; Mouridsen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    to inhaled oxygen (the mixture known as carbogen). In the present study, we measured CBF by positron emission tomography (PET) during inhalation of test gases (O(2), carbogen, and atmospheric air) in healthy volunteers (n = 10) and in patients with occlusive carotid artery disease (n = 6). Statistical...... and Sa(O2) are readily obtained with carbogen, while oxygen increases only Sa(O2). Thus, carbogen improves oxygen transport to brain tissue more efficiently than oxygen alone. Further studies with more subjects are, however, needed to investigate the applicability of carbogen for long-term inhalation...

  1. Face-based smoothed finite element method for real-time simulation of soft tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, Andrea; Bessard Duparc, Rémi; Bui, Huu Phuoc; Paulus, Christoph J.; Peterlik, Igor; Cotin, Stéphane

    2017-03-01

    In soft tissue surgery, a tumor and other anatomical structures are usually located using the preoperative CT or MR images. However, due to the deformation of the concerned tissues, this information suffers from inaccuracy when employed directly during the surgery. In order to account for these deformations in the planning process, the use of a bio-mechanical model of the tissues is needed. Such models are often designed using the finite element method (FEM), which is, however, computationally expensive, in particular when a high accuracy of the simulation is required. In our work, we propose to use a smoothed finite element method (S-FEM) in the context of modeling of the soft tissue deformation. This numerical technique has been introduced recently to overcome the overly stiff behavior of the standard FEM and to improve the solution accuracy and the convergence rate in solid mechanics problems. In this paper, a face-based smoothed finite element method (FS-FEM) using 4-node tetrahedral elements is presented. We show that in some cases, the method allows for reducing the number of degrees of freedom, while preserving the accuracy of the discretization. The method is evaluated on a simulation of a cantilever beam loaded at the free end and on a simulation of a 3D cube under traction and compression forces. Further, it is applied to the simulation of the brain shift and of the kidney's deformation. The results demonstrate that the method outperforms the standard FEM in a bending scenario and that has similar accuracy as the standard FEM in the simulations of the brain-shift and of the kidney's deformation.

  2. BrainBrowser: distributed, web-based neurological data visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek eSherif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen massive, distributed datasets become the norm in neuroimaging research, and the methodologies used analyze them have, in response, become more collaborative and exploratory. Tools and infrastructure are continuously being developed and deployed to facilitate research in this context: grid computation platforms to process the data, distributed data stores to house and share them, high-speed networks to move them around and collaborative, often web-based, platforms to provide access to and sometimes manage the entire system. BrainBrowser is a lightweight, high-performance JavaScript visualization library built to provide easy-to-use, powerful, on-demand visualization of remote datasets in this new research environment. BrainBrowser leverages modern Web technologies, such as WebGL, HTML5 and Web Workers, to visualize 3D surface and volumetric neuroimaging data in any modern web browser without requiring any browser plugins. It is thus trivial to integrate BrainBrowser into any web-based platform. BrainBrowser is simple enough to produce a basic web-based visualization in a few lines of code, while at the same time being robust enough to create full-featured visualization applications. BrainBrowser can dynamically load the data required for a given visualization, so no network bandwidth needs to be waisted on data that will not be used. BrainBrowser's integration into the standardized web platform also allows users to consider using 3D data visualization in novel ways, such as for data distribution, data sharing and dynamic online publications. BrainBrowser is already being used in two major online platforms, CBRAIN and LORIS, and has been used to make the 1TB MACACC dataset openly accessible.

  3. Gadolinium-based Contrast Media, Cerebrospinal Fluid and the Glymphatic System: Possible Mechanisms for the Deposition of Gadolinium in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Naganawa, Shinji

    2018-04-10

    After Kanda's first report in 2014 on gadolinium (Gd) deposition in brain tissue, a considerable number of studies have investigated the explanation for the observation. Gd deposition in brain tissue after repeated administration of gadolinium-based contrast medium (GBCM) has been histologically proven, and chelate stability has been shown to affect the deposition. However, the mechanism for this deposition has not been fully elucidated. Recently, a hypothesis was introduced that involves the 'glymphatic system', which is a coined word that combines 'gl' for glia cell and 'lymphatic' system. According to this hypothesis, the perivascular space functions as a conduit for cerebrospinal fluid to flow into the brain parenchyma. The perivascular space around the arteries allows cerebrospinal fluid to enter the interstitial space of the brain tissue through water channels controlled by aquaporin 4. The cerebrospinal fluid entering the interstitial space clears waste proteins from the tissue. It then flows into the perivascular space around the vein and is discharged outside the brain. In addition to the hypothesis regarding the glymphatic system, some reports have described that after GBCM administration, some of the GBCM distributes through systemic blood circulation and remains in other compartments including the cerebrospinal fluid. It is thought that the GBCM distributed into the cerebrospinal fluid cavity via the glymphatic system may remain in brain tissue for a longer duration compared to the GBCM in systemic circulation. Glymphatic system may of course act as a clearance system for GBCM from brain tissue. Based on these findings, the mechanism for Gd deposition in the brain will be discussed in this review. The authors speculate that the glymphatic system may be the major contributory factor to the deposition and clearance of gadolinium in brain tissue.

  4. Anisotropic Diffusion based Brain MRI Segmentation and 3D Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arfan Jaffar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In medical field visualization of the organs is very imperative for accurate diagnosis and treatment of any disease. Brain tumor diagnosis and surgery also required impressive 3D visualization of the brain to the radiologist. Detection and 3D reconstruction of brain tumors from MRI is a computationally time consuming and error-prone task. Proposed system detects and presents a 3D visualization model of the brain and tumor inside which greatly helps the radiologist to effectively diagnose and analyze the brain tumor. We proposed a multi-phase segmentation and visualization technique which overcomes the many problems of 3D volume segmentation methods like lake of fine details. In this system segmentation is done in three different phases which reduces the error chances. The system finds contours for skull, brain and tumor. These contours are stacked over and two novel methods are used to find the 3D visualization models. The results of these techniques, particularly of interpolation based, are impressive. Proposed system is tested against publically available data set [41] and MRI datasets available from MRI aamp; CT center Rawalpindi, Pakistan [42].

  5. A survey of MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stefan; Wiest, Roland; Nolte, Lutz-P.; Reyes, Mauricio

    2013-07-01

    MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies is gaining attention in recent times due to an increased need for efficient and objective evaluation of large amounts of data. While the pioneering approaches applying automated methods for the analysis of brain tumor images date back almost two decades, the current methods are becoming more mature and coming closer to routine clinical application. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview by giving a brief introduction to brain tumors and imaging of brain tumors first. Then, we review the state of the art in segmentation, registration and modeling related to tumor-bearing brain images with a focus on gliomas. The objective in the segmentation is outlining the tumor including its sub-compartments and surrounding tissues, while the main challenge in registration and modeling is the handling of morphological changes caused by the tumor. The qualities of different approaches are discussed with a focus on methods that can be applied on standard clinical imaging protocols. Finally, a critical assessment of the current state is performed and future developments and trends are addressed, giving special attention to recent developments in radiological tumor assessment guidelines.

  6. A survey of MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Stefan; Nolte, Lutz-P; Reyes, Mauricio; Wiest, Roland

    2013-01-01

    MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies is gaining attention in recent times due to an increased need for efficient and objective evaluation of large amounts of data. While the pioneering approaches applying automated methods for the analysis of brain tumor images date back almost two decades, the current methods are becoming more mature and coming closer to routine clinical application. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview by giving a brief introduction to brain tumors and imaging of brain tumors first. Then, we review the state of the art in segmentation, registration and modeling related to tumor-bearing brain images with a focus on gliomas. The objective in the segmentation is outlining the tumor including its sub-compartments and surrounding tissues, while the main challenge in registration and modeling is the handling of morphological changes caused by the tumor. The qualities of different approaches are discussed with a focus on methods that can be applied on standard clinical imaging protocols. Finally, a critical assessment of the current state is performed and future developments and trends are addressed, giving special attention to recent developments in radiological tumor assessment guidelines. (topical review)

  7. [Interference of vitamin E on the brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xian; Luo, Rui; Ma, Bin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tian; Zhang, Jing; Lian, Zhishun; Cui, Xi

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the interlerence ot vitamin E on brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats. 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups (positive control, negative control, low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups). The low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5, 15 and 30 mg/ml vitamin E respectively since the first day of pregnancy. And the negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil without vitamin E. All groups except for the negative control group were exposed to 900MHz intensity of cell phone radiation for one hour each time, three times per day for 21 days. After accouchement, the right hippocampus tissue of fetal rats in each group was taken and observed under electron microscope. The vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissue were tested. Compared with the negative control group, the chondriosomes in neuron and neuroglia of brain tissues was swelling, mild edema was found around the capillary, chromatin was concentrated and collected, and bubbles were formed in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in the positive fetal rat control group, whereas the above phenomenon was un-conspicuous in the middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups. We can see uniform chromatin, abundant mitochondrion, rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes in the high dosage group. The apoptosis has not fond in all groups'sections. In the antioxidase activity analysis, compared with the negative control group, the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly decreased and the content of MDA significantly increased both in the pregnant and fetal rats positive control group (P electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant rats and fetal rats.

  8. Tissue Engineering Bionanocomposites Based on Poly(propylene fumarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Diez-Pascual

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly(propylene fumarate (PPF is a linear and unsaturated copolyester based on fumaric acid that has been widely investigated for tissue engineering applications in recent years due to its tailorable mechanical performance, adjustable biodegradability and exceptional biocompatibility. In order to improve its mechanical properties and spread its range of practical applications, novel approaches need to be developed such as the incorporation of fillers or polymer blending. Thus, PPF-based bionanocomposites reinforced with different amounts of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONR, graphite oxide nanoplatelets (GONP, polyethylene glycol-functionalized graphene oxide (PEG-GO, polyethylene glycol-grafted boron nitride nanotubes (PEG-g-BNNTs and hydroxyapatite (HA nanoparticles were synthesized via sonication and thermal curing, and their morphology, biodegradability, cytotoxicity, thermal, rheological, mechanical and antibacterial properties were investigated. An increase in the level of hydrophilicity, biodegradation rate, stiffness and strength was found upon increasing nanofiller loading. The nanocomposites retained enough rigidity and strength under physiological conditions to provide effective support for bone tissue formation, showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and did not induce toxicity on human dermal fibroblasts. These novel biomaterials demonstrate great potential to be used for bone tissue engineering applications.

  9. Cyclosporine, a P-glycoprotein modulator, increases [18F]MPPF uptake in rat brain and peripheral tissues: microPET and ex vivo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacan, Goran; Way, Baldwin M.; Plenevaux, Alain; Defraiteur, Caroline; Lemaire, Christian; Aerts, Joel; Luxen, Andre; Rubins, Daniel J.; Cherry, Simon R.; Melega, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Pretreatment with cyclosporine, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) modulator increases brain uptake of 4-(2'-methoxyphenyl)-1-[2'-(N-2''-pyridinyl)-p-[ 18 F] fluorobenzamido] ethylpiper azine ([ 18 F]MPPF) for binding to hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT 1A ) receptors. Those increases were quantified in rat brain with in vivo microPET and ex vivo tissue studies. Each Sprague-Dawley rat (n=4) received a baseline [ 18 F]MPPF microPET scan followed by second scan 2-3 weeks later that included cyclosporine pretreatment (50 mg/kg, i.p.). Maximum a posteriori reconstructed images and volumetric ROIs were used to generate dynamic radioactivity concentration measurements for hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum, with simplified reference tissue method (SRTM) analysis. Western blots were used to semiquantify P-gp regional distribution in brain. MicroPET studies showed that hippocampus uptake of [ 18 F]MPPF was increased after cyclosporine; ex vivo studies showed similar increases in hippocampus and frontal cortex at 30 min, and for heart and kidney at 2.5 and 5 min, without concomitant increases in [ 18 F]MPPF plasma concentration. P-gp content in cerebellum was twofold higher than in hippocampus or frontal cortex. These studies confirm and extend prior ex vivo results (J. Passchier, et al., Eur J Pharmacol, 2000) that showed [ 18 F]MPPF as a substrate for P-gp. Our microPET results showed that P-gp modulation of [ 18 F]MPPF binding to 5-HT 1A receptors can be imaged in rat hippocampus. The heterogeneous brain distribution of P-gp appeared to invalidate the use of cerebellum as a nonspecific reference region for SRTM modeling. Regional quantitation of P-gp may be necessary for accurate PET assessment of 5-HT 1A receptor density when based on tracer uptake sensitive to P-gp modulation. (orig.)

  10. Effects of hyperoxia on 18F-fluoro-misonidazole brain uptake and tissue oxygen tension following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rodents: Pilot studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Fryer

    Full Text Available Mapping brain hypoxia is a major goal for stroke diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment monitoring. 18F-fluoro-misonidazole (FMISO positron emission tomography (PET is the gold standard hypoxia imaging method. Normobaric hyperoxia (NBO is a promising therapy in acute stroke. In this pilot study, we tested the straightforward hypothesis that NBO would markedly reduce FMISO uptake in ischemic brain in Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs, two rat strains with distinct vulnerability to brain ischemia, mimicking clinical heterogeneity.Thirteen adult male rats were randomized to distal middle cerebral artery occlusion under either 30% O2 or 100% O2. FMISO was administered intravenously and PET data acquired dynamically for 3hrs, after which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and tetrazolium chloride (TTC staining were carried out to map the ischemic lesion. Both FMISO tissue uptake at 2-3hrs and FMISO kinetic rate constants, determined based on previously published kinetic modelling, were obtained for the hypoxic area. In a separate group (n = 9, tissue oxygen partial pressure (PtO2 was measured in the ischemic tissue during both control and NBO conditions.As expected, the FMISO PET, MRI and TTC lesion volumes were much larger in SHRs than Wistar rats in both the control and NBO conditions. NBO did not appear to substantially reduce FMISO lesion size, nor affect the FMISO kinetic rate constants in either strain. Likewise, MRI and TTC lesion volumes were unaffected. The parallel study showed the expected increases in ischemic cortex PtO2 under NBO, although these were small in some SHRs with very low baseline PtO2.Despite small samples, the apparent lack of marked effects of NBO on FMISO uptake suggests that in permanent ischemia the cellular mechanisms underlying FMISO trapping in hypoxic cells may be disjointed from PtO2. Better understanding of FMISO trapping processes will be important for future applications of FMISO imaging.

  11. A Prospective Randomized Study of Brain Tissue Oxygen Pressure-Guided Management in Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Min Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of PbtO2-guided therapy with traditional intracranial pressure- (ICP- guided treatment on the management of cerebral variables, therapeutic interventions, survival rates, and neurological outcomes of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI patients. From 2009 to 2010, TBI patients with a Glasgow coma scale 20 mmHg, and 27 patients were treated with ICP-guided therapy (ICP 60 mmHg in the neurosurgical intensive care unit (NICU; demographic characteristics were similar across groups. The survival rate in the PbtO2-guided group was also significantly increased at 3 and 6 months after injury. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the PbtO2 signal and Glasgow outcome scale-extended in patients from 1 to 6 months after injury. This finding demonstrates that therapy directed by PbtO2 monitoring is valuable for the treatment of patients with moderate and severe TBI and that increasing PaO2 to 150 mmHg may be efficacious for preventing cerebral hypoxic events after brain trauma.

  12. Novel blood protein based scaffolds for cardiovascular tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn Antonia I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in cardiovascular tissue engineering is the fabrication of scaffolds, which provide appropriate morphological and mechanical properties while avoiding undesirable immune reactions. In this study electrospinning was used to fabricate scaffolds out of blood proteins for cardiovascular tissue engineering. Lyophilised porcine plasma was dissolved in deionised water at a final concentration of 7.5% m/v and blended with 3.7% m/v PEO. Electrospinning resulted in homogeneous fibre morphologies with a mean fibre diameter of 151 nm, which could be adapted to create macroscopic shapes (mats, tubes. Cross-linking with glutaraldehyde vapour improved the long-term stability of protein based scaffolds in comparison to untreated scaffolds, resulting in a mass loss of 41% and 96% after 28 days of incubation in aqueous solution, respectively.

  13. HYDROGEL-BASED NANOCOMPOSITES OF THERAPEUTIC PROTEINS FOR TISSUE REPAIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Suwei; Segura, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    The ability to design artificial extracellular matrices as cell instructive scaffolds has opened the door to technologies capable of studying cell fates in vitro and to guide tissue repair in vivo . One main component of the design of artificial extracellular matrices is the incorporation of protein-based biochemical cues to guide cell phenotypes and multicellular organizations. However, promoting the long-term bioactivity, controlling the bioavailability and understanding how the physical presentations of these proteins impacts cellular fates are among the challenges of the field. Nanotechnolgy has advanced to meet the challenges of protein therapeutics. For example, the approaches to incorporating proteins into tissue repairing scaffolds have ranged from bulk encapsulations to smart nanodepots that protect proteins from degradations and allow opportunities for controlled release.

  14. Parameter estimation of brain tumors using intraoperative thermal imaging based on artificial tactile sensing in conjunction with artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi-Goughari, M; Mojra, A; Sadeghi, S

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative Thermal Imaging (ITI) is a new minimally invasive diagnosis technique that can potentially locate margins of brain tumor in order to achieve maximum tumor resection with least morbidity. This study introduces a new approach to ITI based on artificial tactile sensing (ATS) technology in conjunction with artificial neural networks (ANN) and feasibility and applicability of this method in diagnosis and localization of brain tumors is investigated. In order to analyze validity and reliability of the proposed method, two simulations were performed. (i) An in vitro experimental setup was designed and fabricated using a resistance heater embedded in agar tissue phantom in order to simulate heat generation by a tumor in the brain tissue; and (ii) A case report patient with parafalcine meningioma was presented to simulate ITI in the neurosurgical procedure. In the case report, both brain and tumor geometries were constructed from MRI data and tumor temperature and depth of location were estimated. For experimental tests, a novel assisted surgery robot was developed to palpate the tissue phantom surface to measure temperature variations and ANN was trained to estimate the simulated tumor’s power and depth. Results affirm that ITI based ATS is a non-invasive method which can be useful to detect, localize and characterize brain tumors. (paper)

  15. Tissue-engineering-based Strategies for Regenerative Endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, M.T.P.; Valera, M.C.; Nakashima, M.; Nör, J.E.; Bottino, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Stemming from in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical and human models, tissue-engineering-based strategies continue to demonstrate great potential for the regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex, particularly in necrotic, immature permanent teeth. Nanofibrous scaffolds, which closely resemble the native extracellular matrix, have been successfully synthesized by various techniques, including but not limited to electrospinning. A common goal in scaffold synthesis has been the notion of promoting cell guidance through the careful design and use of a collection of biochemical and physical cues capable of governing and stimulating specific events at the cellular and tissue levels. The latest advances in processing technologies allow for the fabrication of scaffolds where selected bioactive molecules can be delivered locally, thus increasing the possibilities for clinical success. Though electrospun scaffolds have not yet been tested in vivo in either human or animal pulpless models in immature permanent teeth, recent studies have highlighted their regenerative potential both from an in vitro and in vivo (i.e., subcutaneous model) standpoint. Possible applications for these bioactive scaffolds continue to evolve, with significant prospects related to the regeneration of both dentin and pulp tissue and, more recently, to root canal disinfection. Nonetheless, no single implantable scaffold can consistently guide the coordinated growth and development of the multiple tissue types involved in the functional regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive perspective on the latest discoveries related to the use of scaffolds and/or stem cells in regenerative endodontics. The authors focused this review on bioactive nanofibrous scaffolds, injectable scaffolds and stem cells, and pre-clinical findings using stem-cell-based strategies. These topics are discussed in detail in an attempt to provide future direction and to shed light on

  16. Porous magnesium-based scaffolds for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Razavi, Mehdi; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Moharamzadeh, Keyvan; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Tayebi, Lobat

    2017-01-01

    Significant amount of research efforts have been dedicated to the development of scaffolds for tissue engineering. Although at present most of the studies are focused on non-load bearing scaffolds, many scaffolds have also been investigated for hard tissue repair. In particular, metallic scaffolds are being studied for hard tissue engineering due to their suitable mechanical properties. Several biocompatible metallic materials such as stainless steels, cobalt alloys, titanium alloys, tantalum, nitinol and magnesium alloys have been commonly employed as implants in orthopedic and dental treatments. They are often used to replace and regenerate the damaged bones or to provide structural support for healing bone defects. Among the common metallic biomaterials, magnesium (Mg) and a number of its alloys are effective because of their mechanical properties close to those of human bone, their natural ionic content that may have important functional roles in physiological systems, and their in vivo biodegradation characteristics in body fluids. Due to such collective properties, Mg based alloys can be employed as biocompatible, bioactive, and biodegradable scaffolds for load-bearing applications. Recently, porous Mg and Mg alloys have been specially suggested as metallic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. With further optimization of the fabrication techniques, porous Mg is expected to make a promising hard substitute scaffold. The present review covers research conducted on the fabrication techniques, surface modifications, properties and biological characteristics of Mg alloys based scaffolds. Furthermore, the potential applications, challenges and future trends of such degradable metallic scaffolds are discussed in detail. - Highlights: • A porous 3D material provides the required pathways for cells to grow, proliferate, and differentiate • Porous magnesium and Mg alloys could be used as load-bearing scaffolds • Porous magnesium and Mg alloys are good

  17. Porous magnesium-based scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Razavi, Mehdi [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Vashaee, Daryoosh [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Moharamzadeh, Keyvan [School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, Claremont Crescent, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233 (United States); Boccaccini, Aldo R. [Institute of Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstrasse 6, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Tayebi, Lobat, E-mail: lobat.tayebi@marquette.edu [Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Significant amount of research efforts have been dedicated to the development of scaffolds for tissue engineering. Although at present most of the studies are focused on non-load bearing scaffolds, many scaffolds have also been investigated for hard tissue repair. In particular, metallic scaffolds are being studied for hard tissue engineering due to their suitable mechanical properties. Several biocompatible metallic materials such as stainless steels, cobalt alloys, titanium alloys, tantalum, nitinol and magnesium alloys have been commonly employed as implants in orthopedic and dental treatments. They are often used to replace and regenerate the damaged bones or to provide structural support for healing bone defects. Among the common metallic biomaterials, magnesium (Mg) and a number of its alloys are effective because of their mechanical properties close to those of human bone, their natural ionic content that may have important functional roles in physiological systems, and their in vivo biodegradation characteristics in body fluids. Due to such collective properties, Mg based alloys can be employed as biocompatible, bioactive, and biodegradable scaffolds for load-bearing applications. Recently, porous Mg and Mg alloys have been specially suggested as metallic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. With further optimization of the fabrication techniques, porous Mg is expected to make a promising hard substitute scaffold. The present review covers research conducted on the fabrication techniques, surface modifications, properties and biological characteristics of Mg alloys based scaffolds. Furthermore, the potential applications, challenges and future trends of such degradable metallic scaffolds are discussed in detail. - Highlights: • A porous 3D material provides the required pathways for cells to grow, proliferate, and differentiate • Porous magnesium and Mg alloys could be used as load-bearing scaffolds • Porous magnesium and Mg alloys are good

  18. Characterization of the Transcriptome and Gene Expression of Brain Tissue in Sevenband Grouper (Hyporthodus septemfasciatus in Response to NNV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Oh Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouper is one of the favorite sea food resources in Southeast Asia. However, the outbreaks of the viral nervous necrosis (VNN disease due to nervous necrosis virus (NNV infection have caused mass mortality of grouper larvae. Many aqua-farms have suffered substantial financial loss due to the occurrence of VNN. To better understand the infection mechanism of NNV, we performed the transcriptome analysis of sevenband grouper brain tissue, the main target of NNV infection. After artificial NNV challenge, transcriptome of brain tissues of sevenband grouper was subjected to next generation sequencing (NGS using an Illumina Hi-seq 2500 system. Both mRNAs from pooled samples of mock and NNV-infected sevenband grouper brains were sequenced. Clean reads of mock and NNV-infected samples were de novo assembled and obtained 104,348 unigenes. In addition, 628 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in response to NNV infection were identified. This result could provide critical information not only for the identification of genes involved in NNV infection, but for the understanding of the response of sevenband groupers to NNV infection.

  19. Preliminary application of voxel-based morphometry technique on brain changes in neuromyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Hui; Ma Lin; Chen Ziqian; Lou Xin; Chen Zhiye

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of brain volumes in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method, and preliminarily explore the pattern of cerebral anatomical impairment. Methods: Twenty-three clinically defined NMO patients and 15 gender and age matched healthy volunteers underwent 3-dimensional (3D) fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) sequence scanning on 3.0 Tesla MR system. Raw data was processed and analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 5. Whole brain volumes included grey matter volume (GMV), white matter volume (WMV), total intracranial volume (TIV), grey matter fraction (GMF), white matter fraction (WMF), brain tissue fraction (BTF) and regional brain volumes between the two groups were compared by independent samples t-test and an Pearson were performed to compare the regional brain volumes and the ages. Results: GMV of NMO group [(610.2±55.0) ml] was significantly decreased comparing to healthy control group [(657.2±36.3) ml] (t=-2.915, P<0.05). The age of NMO patients [(40±9) years old] showed negative correlation with GMF [(42.5±2.6) %] (r=-0.673, P<0.05). Regional brain volume analysis showed decreased GMV in left insula and bilateral posterior cingutates in NMO patients, while decreased WMV was found in left frontal and left parietal white matter. Conclusion: VBM could detect brain volume changes sensitively. Total grey matter volume in NMO patients was decreased comparing to HC group. Regional grey matter atrophy in NMO patients occurred in left insular and bilateral posterior cingutates, regional white matter atrophy occurred in left frontal and left parietal lobe. (authors)

  20. Research on segmentation based on multi-atlas in brain MR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuejing

    2018-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of specific tissues in brain MR image can be effectively achieved with the multi-atlas-based segmentation method, and the accuracy mainly depends on the image registration accuracy and fusion scheme. This paper proposes an automatic segmentation method based on the multi-atlas for brain MR image. Firstly, to improve the registration accuracy in the area to be segmented, we employ a target-oriented image registration method for the refinement. Then In the label fusion, we proposed a new algorithm to detect the abnormal sparse patch and simultaneously abandon the corresponding abnormal sparse coefficients, this method is made based on the remaining sparse coefficients combined with the multipoint label estimator strategy. The performance of the proposed method was compared with those of the nonlocal patch-based label fusion method (Nonlocal-PBM), the sparse patch-based label fusion method (Sparse-PBM) and majority voting method (MV). Based on our experimental results, the proposed method is efficient in the brain MR images segmentation compared with MV, Nonlocal-PBM, and Sparse-PBM methods.

  1. Age dependence of dielectric properties of bovine brain and ocular tissues in the frequency range of 400 MHz to 18 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Gernot; Ueberbacher, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify possible age-dependent dielectric properties of brain and eye tissues in the frequency range of 400 MHz to 18 GHz, measurements on bovine grey and white matter as well as on cornea, lens (cortical) and the vitreous body were performed using a commercially available open-ended coaxial probe and a computer-controlled vector network analyser. Freshly excised tissues of 52 animals of two age groups (42 adult animals, i.e. 16-24 month old and 10 young animals, i.e. 4-6 month old calves) were examined within 8 min (brain tissue) and 15 min (eye tissue), respectively, of the animals' death. Tissue temperatures for the measurements were 32 ± 1 0 C and 25 ± 1 0 C for brain and eye tissues, respectively. Statistical analysis of the measured data revealed significant differences in the dielectric properties of white matter and cortical lens tissue between the adult and the young group. In the case of white matter the mean values of conductivity and permittivity of young tissue were 15%-22% and 12%-15%, respectively, higher compared to the adult tissue in the considered frequency range. Similarly, young cortical lens tissue was 25%-76% higher in conductivity and 27%-39% higher in permittivity than adult cortical lens tissue

  2. Macrophage entry mediated by HIV Envs from brain and lymphoid tissues is determined by the capacity to use low CD4 levels and overall efficiency of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Elaine R.; Dunfee, Rebecca L.; Stanton, Jennifer; Bogdan, Derek; Taylor, Joann; Kunstman, Kevin; Bell, Jeanne E.; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Gabuzda, Dana

    2007-01-01

    HIV infects macrophages and microglia in the central nervous system (CNS), which express lower levels of CD4 than CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood. To investigate mechanisms of HIV neurotropism, full-length env genes were cloned from autopsy brain and lymphoid tissues from 4 AIDS patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Characterization of 55 functional Env clones demonstrated that Envs with reduced dependence on CD4 for fusion and viral entry are more frequent in brain compared to lymphoid tissue. Envs that mediated efficient entry into macrophages were frequent in brain but were also present in lymphoid tissue. For most Envs, entry into macrophages correlated with overall fusion activity at all levels of CD4 and CCR5. gp160 nucleotide sequences were compartmentalized in brain versus lymphoid tissue within each patient. Proline at position 308 in the V3 loop of gp120 was associated with brain compartmentalization in 3 patients, but mutagenesis studies suggested that P308 alone does not contribute to reduced CD4 dependence or macrophage-tropism. These results suggest that HIV adaptation to replicate in the CNS selects for Envs with reduced CD4 dependence and increased fusion activity. Macrophage-tropic Envs are frequent in brain but are also present in lymphoid tissues of AIDS patients with HAD, and entry into macrophages in the CNS and other tissues is dependent on the ability to use low receptor levels and overall efficiency of fusion

  3. [Changes in 2,3-diphosphoglycerate Levels in Blood and Brain Tissue after Craniocerebral Trauma and Cardiac Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdörfer, J; Heller, W; Junger, H; Oldenkott, P; Stunkat, R

    1976-10-01

    The response of the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) levels in the blood and brain tissue to a craniocerebral trauma of varying severity was studied in anaesthetized rats. A trauma producing cerebral contusion was followed within two hours by a highly significant rise in DPG concentration in the blood as compared with the control animals or only mildly traumatized rats. The DPG levels in the brain tissue showed no significant differences. Similar changes in DPG concentration were observed in the blood of patients with craniocerebral injuries. The DPG-mediated increased release of oxygen to the tissues represents a compensatory mechanism and is pathognomic for craniocerebral trauma. Patients undergoing surgery with extracorporeal circulation lack this mechanism for counteracting hypoxaemia; already during thoracotomy the DPG concentration in the blood fell significantly and did not reach its original level until 72 hours after the operation. In stored, ACD stabilized, blood the DPG concentration gradually decreases. Estimations carried out over 28 days showed a continuous statistically significant loss of DPG. After 24 hours the DPG levels in stored blood had already dropped to the lower limits of normal - a fact that has to be taken into account in massive blood transfusions.

  4. Brain-Based Indices for User System Symbiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Veltman, J.A.; Grootjen, M.

    2010-01-01

    The future generation user system interfaces need to be user-centric which goes beyond user-friendly and includes understanding and anticipating user intentions. We introduce the concept of operator models, their role in implementing user-system symbiosis, and the usefulness of brain-based indices

  5. Brain-Based Learning and Educational Neuroscience: Boundary Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, R.M.; Kupper, J.F.H.; Krabbendam, A.C.; Broerse, J.E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been given to "bridging the gap" between neuroscience and educational practice. In order to gain better understanding of the nature of this gap and of possibilities to enable the linking process, we have taken a boundary perspective on these two fields and the brain-based learning

  6. The Global Aspects of Brain-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. Diane

    2009-01-01

    Brain-Based Learning (BBL) can be viewed as techniques gleaned from research in neurology and cognitive science used to enhance teacher instruction. These strategies can also be used to enhance students' ability to learn using ways in which they feel most comfortable, neurologically speaking. Jensen (1995/2000) defines BBL as "learning in…

  7. Brain-Based Learning and Educational Neuroscience: Boundary Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelenbosch, Rosanne; Kupper, Frank; Krabbendam, Lydia; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been given to "bridging the gap" between neuroscience and educational practice. In order to gain better understanding of the nature of this gap and of possibilities to enable the linking process, we have taken a boundary perspective on these two fields and the brain-based learning approach, focusing on…

  8. A robust, efficient and flexible method for staining myelinated axons in blocks of brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlsten, Douglas; Colbourne, Frederick; Pleus, Richard

    2003-03-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of the gold chloride method for en bloc staining of a bisected brain in mice and rats. The present study explores several variations in the method, assesses its reliability, and extends the limits of its application. We conclude that the method is very efficient, highly robust, sufficiently accurate for most purposes, and adaptable to many morphometric measures. We obtained acceptable staining of commissures in every brain, despite a wide variety of fixation methods. One-half could be stained 24 h after the brain was extracted and the other half could be stained months later. When staining failed because of an exhausted solution, the brain could be stained successfully in fresh solution. Relatively small changes were found in the sizes of commissures several weeks after initial fixation or staining. A half brain stained to reveal the mid-sagittal section could then be sectioned coronally and stained again in either gold chloride for myelin or cresyl violet for Nissl substance. Uncertainty, arising from pixelation of digitized images was far less than errors arising from human judgments about the histological limits of major commissures. Useful data for morphometric analysis were obtained by scanning the surface of a gold chloride stained block of brain with an inexpensive flatbed scanner.

  9. Model brain based learning (BBL and whole brain teaching (WBT in learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Sri Handayani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The learning process is a process of change in behavior as a form of the result of learning. The learning model is a crucial component of the success of the learning process. The learning model is growing fastly, and each model has different characteristics. Teachers are required to be able to understand each model to teach the students optimally by matching the materials and the learning model. The best of the learning model is the model that based on the brain system in learning that are the model of Brain Based Learning (BBL and the model of Whole Brain Teaching (WBT. The purposes of this article are to obtain information related to (1 the brain’s natural learning system, (2 analyze the characteristics of the model BBL and WBT based on theory, brain sections that play a role associated with syntax, similarities, and differences, (3 explain the distinctive characteristics of both models in comparison to other models. The results of this study are: (1 the brain’s natural learning system are: (a the nerves in each hemisphere do not work independently, (b doing more activities can connect more brain nerves, (c the right hemisphere controls the left side motoric sensor of the body, and vice versa; (2 the characteristics of BBL and WBT are: (a BBL is based on the brain’s structure and function, while the model WBT is based on the instructional approach, neurolinguistic, and body language, (b the parts of the brain that work in BBL are: cerebellum, cerebral cortex, frontal lobe, limbic system, and prefrontal cortex; whereas the parts that work WBT are: prefrontal cortex, visual cortex, motor cortex, limbic system, and amygdala, (c the similarities between them are that they both rely on the brain’s system and they both promote gesture in learning, whereas the differences are on the view of the purposes of gestures and the learning theory that they rely on. BBL relies on cognitive theory while WBT relies on social theory; (3 the typical

  10. Vaccine-induced rabies in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes): isolation of vaccine virus in brain tissue and salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostnik, Peter; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Rihtarič, Danijela; Toplak, Ivan; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-04-01

    Oral vaccination campaigns to eliminate fox rabies were initiated in Slovenia in 1995. In May 2012, a young fox (Vulpes vulpes) with typical rabies signs was captured. Its brain and salivary gland tissues were found to contain vaccine strain SAD B19. The Basic Logical Alignment Search Tool alignment of 589 nucleotides determined from the N gene of the virus isolated from the brain and salivary glands of the affected fox was 100% identical to the GenBank reference SAD B19 strain. Sequence analysis of the N and M genes (4,351 nucleotides) showed two nucleotide modifications at position 1335 (N gene) and 3114 (M gene) in the KC522613 isolate identified in the fox compared to SAD B19.

  11. Sunitinib-ibuprofen drug interaction affects the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of sunitinib to brain, liver, and kidney in male and female mice differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Christine Li Ling; Chan, Sook Tyng; Selvaratanam, Manimegahlai; Khoo, Hui Wen; Lim, Adeline Yi Ling; Modamio, Pilar; Mariño, Eduardo L; Segarra, Ignacio

    2015-08-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib (used in GIST, advanced RCC, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors) undergoes CYP3A4 metabolism and is an ABCB1B and ABCG2 efflux transporters substrate. We assessed the pharmacokinetic interaction with ibuprofen (an NSAID used by patients with cancer) in Balb/c male and female mice. Mice (study group) were coadministered (30 min apart) 30 mg/kg of ibuprofen and 60 mg/kg of sunitinib PO and compared with the control groups, which received sunitinib alone (60 mg/kg, PO). Sunitinib concentration in plasma, brain, kidney, and liver was measured by HPLC as scheduled and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters estimated. In female control mice, sunitinib AUC0→∞ decreased in plasma (P brain (P male control mice. After ibuprofen coadministration, female mice showed lower AUC0→∞ in plasma (P brain, liver, and kidney (all P male mice, AUC0→∞ remained unchanged in plasma, increased in liver and kidney, and decreased in brain (all P male and female control mice, but changed after ibuprofen coadministration: Male mice showed 1.6-fold higher liver-to-plasma ratio (P female mice and in kidney (male and female mice) but decreased 55% in brain (P differences. The results illustrate the relevance of this DDI on sunitinib pharmacokinetics and tissue uptake. These may be due to gender-based P450 and efflux/transporters differences. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  12. Brain Tumor Segmentation Based on Random Forest

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    László Lefkovits

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a discriminative model for tumor detection from multimodal MR images. The main part of the model is built around the random forest (RF classifier. We created an optimization algorithm able to select the important features for reducing the dimensionality of data. This method is also used to find out the training parameters used in the learning phase. The algorithm is based on random feature properties for evaluating the importance of the variable, the evolution of learning errors and the proximities between instances. The detection performances obtained have been compared with the most recent systems, offering similar results.

  13. EEG Based Inference of Spatio-Temporal Brain Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese

    Electroencephalography (EEG) provides a measure of brain activity and has improved our understanding of the brain immensely. However, there is still much to be learned and the full potential of EEG is yet to be realized. In this thesis we suggest to improve the information gain of EEG using three...... different approaches; 1) by recovery of the EEG sources, 2) by representing and inferring the propagation path of EEG sources, and 3) by combining EEG with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The common goal of the methods, and thus of this thesis, is to improve the spatial dimension of EEG...... recovery ability. The forward problem describes the propagation of neuronal activity in the brain to the EEG electrodes on the scalp. The geometry and conductivity of the head layers are normally required to model this path. We propose a framework for inferring forward models which is based on the EEG...

  14. Near infrared spectroscopy based brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganatha, Sitaram; Hoshi, Yoko; Guan, Cuntai

    2005-04-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) provides users with an alternative output channel other than the normal output path of the brain. BCI is being given much attention recently as an alternate mode of communication and control for the disabled, such as patients suffering from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or "locked-in". BCI may also find applications in military, education and entertainment. Most of the existing BCI systems which rely on the brain's electrical activity use scalp EEG signals. The scalp EEG is an inherently noisy and non-linear signal. The signal is detrimentally affected by various artifacts such as the EOG, EMG, ECG and so forth. EEG is cumbersome to use in practice, because of the need for applying conductive gel, and the need for the subject to be immobile. There is an urgent need for a more accessible interface that uses a more direct measure of cognitive function to control an output device. The optical response of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) denoting brain activation can be used as an alternative to electrical signals, with the intention of developing a more practical and user-friendly BCI. In this paper, a new method of brain-computer interface (BCI) based on NIRS is proposed. Preliminary results of our experiments towards developing this system are reported.

  15. Brain-Based Teaching/Learning and Implications for Religious Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jean Marie

    2002-01-01

    Argues that physical activity and water can increase brain activity, and hence, learning. Findings of neuroscientists regarding the brain can inform educators. Brain-based teaching emphasizes teamwork, cooperative learning, and global responsibility. Argues against gathering information without relevance. Connects brain-based learning concepts to…

  16. Progress in EEG-Based Brain Robot Interaction Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most popular noninvasive Brain Robot Interaction (BRI technology uses the electroencephalogram- (EEG- based Brain Computer Interface (BCI, to serve as an additional communication channel, for robot control via brainwaves. This technology is promising for elderly or disabled patient assistance with daily life. The key issue of a BRI system is to identify human mental activities, by decoding brainwaves, acquired with an EEG device. Compared with other BCI applications, such as word speller, the development of these applications may be more challenging since control of robot systems via brainwaves must consider surrounding environment feedback in real-time, robot mechanical kinematics, and dynamics, as well as robot control architecture and behavior. This article reviews the major techniques needed for developing BRI systems. In this review article, we first briefly introduce the background and development of mind-controlled robot technologies. Second, we discuss the EEG-based brain signal models with respect to generating principles, evoking mechanisms, and experimental paradigms. Subsequently, we review in detail commonly used methods for decoding brain signals, namely, preprocessing, feature extraction, and feature classification, and summarize several typical application examples. Next, we describe a few BRI applications, including wheelchairs, manipulators, drones, and humanoid robots with respect to synchronous and asynchronous BCI-based techniques. Finally, we address some existing problems and challenges with future BRI techniques.

  17. A review of anisotropic conductivity models of brain white matter based on diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhanxiong; Liu, Yang; Hong, Ming; Yu, Xiaohui

    2018-06-01

    The conductivity of brain tissues is not only essential for electromagnetic source estimation (ESI), but also a key reflector of the brain functional changes. Different from the other brain tissues, the conductivity of whiter matter (WM) is highly anisotropic and a tensor is needed to describe it. The traditional electrical property imaging methods, such as electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT), usually fail to image the anisotropic conductivity tensor of WM with high spatial resolution. The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a newly developed technique that can fulfill this purpose. This paper reviews the existing anisotropic conductivity models of WM based on the DTI and discusses their advantages and disadvantages, as well as identifies opportunities for future research on this subject. It is crucial to obtain the linear conversion coefficient between the eigenvalues of anisotropic conductivity tensor and diffusion tensor, since they share the same eigenvectors. We conclude that the electrochemical model is suitable for ESI analysis because the conversion coefficient can be directly obtained from the concentration of ions in extracellular liquid and that the volume fraction model is appropriate to study the influence of WM structural changes on electrical conductivity. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  18. Texture analysis in quantitative MR imaging. Tissue characterisation of normal brain and intracranial tumours at 1.5 T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Ring, P; Thomsen, C

    1995-01-01

    The diagnostic potential of texture analysis in quantitative tissue characterisation by MR imaging at 1.5 T was evaluated in the brain of 6 healthy volunteers and in 88 patients with intracranial tumours. Texture images were computed from calculated T1 and T2 parameter images by applying groups o...... to be successful in some cases of clinical importance. However, no discrimination between benign and malignant tumour growth was possible. Much texture information seems to be contained in MR images, which may prove useful for classification and image segmentation....

  19. Simulation-based training in brain death determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Benjamin J; Robinson, Jennifer D; Kappus, Liana; Sudikoff, Stephanie N; Greer, David M

    2014-12-01

    Despite straightforward guidelines on brain death determination by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN), substantial practice variability exists internationally, between states, and among institutions. We created a simulation-based training course on proper determination based on the AAN practice parameters to address and assess knowledge and practice gaps at our institution. Our intervention consisted of a didactic course and a simulation exercise, and was bookended by before and after multiple-choice tests. The 40-min didactic course, including a video demonstration, covered all aspects of the brain death examination. Simulation sessions utilized a SimMan 3G manikin and involved a complete examination, including an apnea test. Possible confounders and signs incompatible with brain death were embedded throughout. Facilitators evaluated performance with a 26-point checklist based on the most recent AAN guidelines. A senior neurologist conducted all aspects of the course, including the didactic session, simulation, and debriefing session. Ninety physicians from multiple specialties have participated in the didactic session, 38 of whom have completed the simulation. Pre-test scores were poor (41.4 %), with attendings scoring higher than residents (46.6 vs. 40.4 %, p = 0.07), and neurologists and neurosurgeons significantly outperforming other specialists (53.9 vs. 38.9 %, p = 0.003). Post-test scores (73.3 %) were notably higher than pre-test scores (45.4 %). Participant feedback has been uniformly positive. Baseline knowledge of brain death determination among providers was low but improved greatly after the course. Our intervention represents an effective model that can be replicated at other institutions to train clinicians in the determination of brain death according to evidence-based guidelines.

  20. Detecting brain growth patterns in normal children using tensor-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D; Levitt, Jennifer G; Caplan, Rochelle; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W

    2009-01-01

    Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetric studies have shown age-related increases in the volume of total white matter and decreases in the volume of total gray matter of normal children. Recent adaptations of image analysis strategies enable the detection of human brain growth with improved spatial resolution. In this article, we further explore the spatio-temporal complexity of adolescent brain maturation with tensor-based morphometry. By utilizing a novel non-linear elastic intensity-based registration algorithm on the serial structural MRI scans of 13 healthy children, individual Jacobian growth maps are generated and then registered to a common anatomical space. Statistical analyses reveal significant tissue growth in cerebral white matter, contrasted with gray matter loss in parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. In addition, a linear regression with age and gender suggests a slowing down of the growth rate in regions with the greatest white matter growth. We demonstrate that a tensor-based Jacobian map is a sensitive and reliable method to detect regional tissue changes during development. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. The effects of raloxifene treatment on oxidative status in brain tissues and learning process of ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süreyya Osmanova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of estrogene on central nervous system are still controversial. Objective: We aimed to investigate the effects of raloxifene on the antioxidant enzyme [superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT] activities and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in brain homogenates of ovariectomized female rats and its effect on cognitive process of learning.Materials and Methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats (n=24 were divided into three groups. Three weeks after ovariectomy; nonovariectomized group (control group (n=8 was given physiological saline (SP as placebo. First ovariectomized group (n=8 received raloxifene 1mg/kg dissolved in a 1% solution of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC subcutaneusly (sc and second group of ovariectomized rats were given 1 % CMC 1mg/kg (sc every day for 14 days. Learning behaviors of rats were evaluated in active avoidence cage with using sound and electrical stimulation. The levels of oxidative stress (MDA and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT in different regions of the brain homogenates were compared between three groups of decapitated rats.Results: Raloxifene had a significant attenuating effect on the levels of MDA in brain tissues suggesting raloxifene’s effect against lipid peroxidation at the end of training days. With the comparison of brain regions, cortex showed the highest average activity of SOD and CAT and cerebellum had the lowest average levels for both. Its effects on learning and cognitive process with active avoidence task were considered insignificant.Conclusion: Raloxifene treatment may have preventive effects for the brain against oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in rats

  2. The effects of vitamin E on brain derived neurotrophic factor, tissues oxidative damage and learning and memory of juvenile hypothyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghcheghi, Yousef; Beheshti, Farimah; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Salmani, Hossein; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Anaeigoudari, Akbar; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2018-06-01

    The effects of vitamin E (Vit E) on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and brain tissues oxidative damage as well as on learning and memory impairments in juvenile hypothyroid rats were examined. The rats were grouped as: (1) Control; (2) Propylthiouracil (PTU); (3) PTU-Vit E and (4) Vit E. PTU was added to their drinking water (0.05%) during 6 weeks. Vit E (20 mg/kg) was daily injected (IP). Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) were carried out. The animals were deeply anesthetized and the brain tissues were removed for biochemical measurements. PTU increased the escape latency and traveled path in MWM (P E (P E improved BDNF, thiol, SOD and CAT while diminished MDA. The results of the present study showed that Vit E improved BDNF and prevented from brain tissues oxidative damage as well as learning and memory impairments in juvenile hypothyroid rats.

  3. Neuropathology of tissues from patients treated by the Brain Tumor Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahaley, M.S. Jr.; Vogel, F.S.; Burger, P.; Ghatak, N.R.

    1977-01-01

    The histopathologic diagnoses in 718 brain tumor patients entered in the Brain Tumor Study Group were reviewed, as well as those for 53 of these patients who were autopsied later. This review documented instances of progression of histologic anaplasia. Of particular interest in the autopsied cases were several instances of extensive necrosis in white matter distant from persisting glioma following chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This observation suggested the presence of a structural and/or metabolic alteration in the diseased hemisphere that perhaps makes it more susceptible to further alterations secondary to the adjunctive therapy.

  4. Improving Brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI Segmentation via a Novel Algorithm based on Genetic and Regional Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javadpour A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding the importance of right diagnosis in medical applications, various methods have been exploited for processing medical images solar. The method of segmentation is used to analyze anal to miscall structures in medical imaging. Objective: This study describes a new method for brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI segmentation via a novel algorithm based on genetic and regional growth. Methods: Among medical imaging methods, brains MRI segmentation is important due to high contrast of non-intrusive soft tissue and high spatial resolution. Size variations of brain tissues are often accompanied by various diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. As our knowledge about the relation between various brain diseases and deviation of brain anatomy increases, MRI segmentation is exploited as the first step in early diagnosis. In this paper, regional growth method and auto-mate selection of initial points by genetic algorithm is used to introduce a new method for MRI segmentation. Primary pixels and similarity criterion are automatically by genetic algorithms to maximize the accuracy and validity in image segmentation. Results: By using genetic algorithms and defining the fixed function of image segmentation, the initial points for the algorithm were found. The proposed algorithms are applied to the images and results are manually selected by regional growth in which the initial points were compared. The results showed that the proposed algorithm could reduce segmentation error effectively. Conclusion: The study concluded that the proposed algorithm could reduce segmentation error effectively and help us to diagnose brain diseases.

  5. fNIRS-based brain-computer interfaces: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noman eNaseer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer interface (BCI is a communication system that allows the use of brain activity to control computers or other external devices. It can, by bypassing the peripheral nervous system, provide a means of communication for people suffering from severe motor disabilities or in a persistent vegetative state. In this paper, brain-signal generation tasks, noise removal methods, feature extraction/selection schemes, and classification techniques for fNIRS-based BCI are reviewed. The most common brain areas for fNIRS BCI are the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex. In relation to the motor cortex, motor imagery tasks were preferred to motor execution tasks since possible proprioceptive feedback could be avoided. In relation to the prefrontal cortex, fNIRS showed a significant advantage due to no hair in detecting the cognitive tasks like mental arithmetic, music imagery, emotion induction, etc. In removing physiological noise in fNIRS data, band-pass filtering was mostly used. However, more advanced techniques like adaptive filtering, independent component analysis, multi optodes arrangement, etc. are being pursued to overcome the problem that a band-pass filter cannot be used when both brain and physiological signals occur within a close band. In extracting features related to the desired brain signal, the mean, variance, peak value, slope, skewness, and kurtosis of the noised-removed hemodynamic response were used. For classification, the linear discriminant analysis method provided simple but good performance among others: support vector machine, hidden Markov model, artificial neural network, etc. fNIRS will be more widely used to monitor the occurrence of neuro-plasticity after neuro-rehabilitation and neuro-stimulation. Technical breakthroughs in the future are expected via bundled-type probes, hybrid EEG-fNIRS BCI, and through the detection of initial dips.

  6. Determination of the neuropharmacological drug nodakenin in rat plasma and brain tissues by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: Application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yingshi; Yan, Huiyu; Xu, Jingbo; Ma, Hongxi

    2017-09-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection using selected reaction monitoring in positive ionization mode was developed and validated for the quantification of nodakenin in rat plasma and brain. Pareruptorin A was used as internal standard. A single step liquid-liquid extraction was used for plasma and brain sample preparation. The method was validated with respect to selectivity, precision, accuracy, linearity, limit of quantification, recovery, matrix effect and stability. Lower limit of quantification of nodakenin was 2.0 ng/mL in plasma and brain tissue homogenates. Linear calibration curves were obtained over concentration ranges of 2.0-1000 ng/mL in plasma and brain tissue homogenates for nodakenin. Intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation, RSD) were <15% in both biological media. This assay was successfully applied to plasma and brain pharmacokinetic studies of nodakenin in rats after intravenous administration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Development and Implementation of a Corriedale Ovine Brain Atlas for Use in Atlas-Based Segmentation.

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    Kishan Andre Liyanage

    Full Text Available Segmentation is the process of partitioning an image into subdivisions and can be applied to medical images to isolate anatomical or pathological areas for further analysis. This process can be done manually or automated by the use of image processing computer packages. Atlas-based segmentation automates this process by the use of a pre-labelled template and a registration algorithm. We developed an ovine brain atlas that can be used as a model for neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease and focal epilepsy. 17 female Corriedale ovine brains were imaged in-vivo in a 1.5T (low-resolution MRI scanner. 13 of the low-resolution images were combined using a template construction algorithm to form a low-resolution template. The template was labelled to form an atlas and tested by comparing manual with atlas-based segmentations against the remaining four low-resolution images. The comparisons were in the form of similarity metrics used in previous segmentation research. Dice Similarity Coefficients were utilised to determine the degree of overlap between eight independent, manual and atlas-based segmentations, with values ranging from 0 (no overlap to 1 (complete overlap. For 7 of these 8 segmented areas, we achieved a Dice Similarity Coefficient of 0.5-0.8. The amygdala was difficult to segment due to its variable location and similar intensity to surrounding tissues resulting in Dice Coefficients of 0.0-0.2. We developed a low resolution ovine brain atlas with eight clinically relevant areas labelled. This brain atlas performed comparably to prior human atlases described in the literature and to intra-observer error providing an atlas that can be used to guide further research using ovine brains as a model and is hosted online for public access.

  8. Sensitivity analysis of brain morphometry based on MRI-derived surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gregory J.; Teng, Xia; Schoenemann, P. T.; Budinger, Thomas F.

    1998-07-01

    Quantification of brain structure is important for evaluating changes in brain size with growth and aging and for characterizing neurodegeneration disorders. Previous quantification efforts using ex vivo techniques suffered considerable error due to shrinkage of the cerebrum after extrac