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Sample records for brain switches utilitarian

  1. Brain switches utilitarian behavior: does gender make the difference?

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    Manuela Fumagalli

    Full Text Available Decision often implies a utilitarian choice based on personal gain, even at the expense of damaging others. Despite the social implications of utilitarian behavior, its neurophysiological bases remain largely unknown. To assess how the human brain controls utilitarian behavior, we delivered transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the ventral prefrontal cortex (VPC and over the occipital cortex (OC in 78 healthy subjects. Utilitarian judgment was assessed with the moral judgment task before and after tDCS. At baseline, females provided fewer utilitarian answers than males for personal moral dilemmas (p = .007. In males, VPC-tDCS failed to induce changes and in both genders OC-tDCS left utilitarian judgments unchanged. In females, cathodal VPC-tDCS tended to decrease whereas anodal VPC-tDCS significantly increased utilitarian responses (p = .005. In males and females, reaction times for utilitarian responses significantly decreased after cathodal (p<.001 but not after anodal (p = .735 VPC-tDCS. We conclude that ventral prefrontal tDCS interferes with utilitarian decisions, influencing the evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of each option in both sexes, but does so more strongly in females. Whereas cathodal tDCS alters the time for utilitarian reasoning in both sexes, anodal stimulation interferes more incisively in women, modifying utilitarian reasoning and the possible consequent actions. The gender-related tDCS-induced changes suggest that the VPC differentially controls utilitarian reasoning in females and in males. The gender-specific functional organization of the brain areas involved in utilitarian behavior could be a correlate of the moral and social behavioral differences between the two sexes.

  2. Brain Switches Utilitarian Behavior: Does Gender Make the Difference?

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    Fumagalli, Manuela; Vergari, Maurizio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Marceglia, Sara; Mameli, Francesca; Ferrucci, Roberta; Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Zago, Stefano; Sartori, Giuseppe; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Barbieri, Sergio; Cappa, Stefano; Priori, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Decision often implies a utilitarian choice based on personal gain, even at the expense of damaging others. Despite the social implications of utilitarian behavior, its neurophysiological bases remain largely unknown. To assess how the human brain controls utilitarian behavior, we delivered transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the ventral prefrontal cortex (VPC) and over the occipital cortex (OC) in 78 healthy subjects. Utilitarian judgment was assessed with the moral judgment task before and after tDCS. At baseline, females provided fewer utilitarian answers than males for personal moral dilemmas (p = .007). In males, VPC-tDCS failed to induce changes and in both genders OC-tDCS left utilitarian judgments unchanged. In females, cathodal VPC-tDCS tended to decrease whereas anodal VPC-tDCS significantly increased utilitarian responses (p = .005). In males and females, reaction times for utilitarian responses significantly decreased after cathodal (p<.001) but not after anodal (p = .735) VPC-tDCS. We conclude that ventral prefrontal tDCS interferes with utilitarian decisions, influencing the evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of each option in both sexes, but does so more strongly in females. Whereas cathodal tDCS alters the time for utilitarian reasoning in both sexes, anodal stimulation interferes more incisively in women, modifying utilitarian reasoning and the possible consequent actions. The gender-related tDCS-induced changes suggest that the VPC differentially controls utilitarian reasoning in females and in males. The gender-specific functional organization of the brain areas involved in utilitarian behavior could be a correlate of the moral and social behavioral differences between the two sexes. PMID:20111608

  3. Utilitarianism.

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    Gillon, R

    1985-05-11

    In one of a series of British Medical Journal articles on the philosophical foundations of medical ethics, Gillon outlines the pros and cons of utilitarian theories of ethics, which determine the morality of actions by whether or not they increase happiness or decrease suffering. He counters utilitarian claims to have overcome the disadvantages of deontological theories by pointing out flaws in the coherence, justification, and results of utilitarian arguments, as these arguments are exemplified in the writings of Bentham, Mill, and Hare. He observes that many modern utilitarians have overcome problems with their basic theories by accommodating aspects of deontological thinking.

  4. Switching Away from Utilitarianism: The Limited Role of Utility Calculations in Moral Judgment

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    Baumard, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Our moral motivations might include a drive towards maximizing overall welfare, consistent with an ethical theory called “utilitarianism.” However, people show non-utilitarian judgments in domains as diverse as healthcare decisions, income distributions, and penal laws. Rather than these being deviations from a fundamentally utilitarian psychology, we suggest that our moral judgments are generally non-utilitarian, even for cases that are typically seen as prototypically utilitarian. We show two separate deviations from utilitarianism in such cases: people do not think maximizing welfare is required (they think it is merely acceptable, in some circumstances), and people do not think that equal welfare tradeoffs are even acceptable. We end by discussing how utilitarian reasoning might play a restricted role within a non-utilitarian moral psychology. PMID:27505424

  5. Switching Away from Utilitarianism: The Limited Role of Utility Calculations in Moral Judgment.

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    Sheskin, Mark; Baumard, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Our moral motivations might include a drive towards maximizing overall welfare, consistent with an ethical theory called "utilitarianism." However, people show non-utilitarian judgments in domains as diverse as healthcare decisions, income distributions, and penal laws. Rather than these being deviations from a fundamentally utilitarian psychology, we suggest that our moral judgments are generally non-utilitarian, even for cases that are typically seen as prototypically utilitarian. We show two separate deviations from utilitarianism in such cases: people do not think maximizing welfare is required (they think it is merely acceptable, in some circumstances), and people do not think that equal welfare tradeoffs are even acceptable. We end by discussing how utilitarian reasoning might play a restricted role within a non-utilitarian moral psychology.

  6. The Utilitarians Revisited.

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    Camic, Charles

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the social theories of the major utilitarians (David Hume, Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, and John Stewart Mill), and outlines the historical process whereby the prevailing mythology concerning utilitarianism developed. (Author/KC)

  7. [Personalist bioethics and utilitarian bioethics].

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    Ortiz Llueca, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows the insufficiency of a bioethics which would intend to derive its proposals from Utilitarianism, identifying some inadequacies in the ethics of John Stuart Mill, e.g., the difficulties of the utilitarian commitment with instrumentalism, the deficiency of an utilitarian moral psychology and the naiveté of the forensic dimension of the utilitarian submission.

  8. Is Utilitarianism Risky? How the Same Antecedents and Mechanism Produce Both Utilitarian and Risky Choices.

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    Lucas, Brian J; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-07-01

    Philosophers and psychologists have long been interested in identifying factors that influence moral judgment. In the current analysis, we compare the literatures on moral psychology and decision making under uncertainty to propose that utilitarian choices are driven by the same forces that lead to risky choices. Spanning from neurocognitive to hormonal to interpersonal levels of analysis, we identify six antecedents that increase both utilitarian and risky choices (ventromedial prefrontal cortex brain lesions, psychopathology, testosterone, incidental positive affect, power, and social connection) and one antecedent that reduces these choices (serotonin activity). We identify the regulation of negative affect as a common mechanism through which the effects of each antecedent on utilitarian and risky choices are explained. By demonstrating that the same forces and the same underlying mechanism that produce risky choices also promote utilitarian choices, we offer a deeper understanding of how basic psychological systems underlie moral judgment.

  9. Neural correlates of establishing, maintaining, and switching brain states.

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    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Rothbart, Mary K; Posner, Michael I

    2012-06-01

    Although the study of brain states is an old one in neuroscience, there has been growing interest in brain state specification owing to MRI studies tracing brain connectivity at rest. In this review, we summarize recent research on three relatively well-described brain states: the resting, alert, and meditation states. We explore the neural correlates of maintaining a state or switching between states, and argue that the anterior cingulate cortex and striatum play a critical role in state maintenance, whereas the insula has a major role in switching between states. Brain state may serve as a predictor of performance in a variety of perceptual, memory, and problem solving tasks. Thus, understanding brain states is critical for understanding human performance.

  10. Utilitarianism: a psychophysical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Marks

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological doctrines of empiricism, associationism, and hedonism served as intellectual sources for the development of utilitarianism in the 18th century and psychophysics in the 19th. Utilitarianism, first articulated by Bentham in 1781, makes four implicit but nevertheless important psychophysical assumptions: (1 that utilities, which reflect "benefit, advantage, pleasure, good or happiness," are quintessentially psychological concepts; (2 that utilities are quantitative; (3 that utilities are commensurable across different objects; and (4 that utilities are commensurable across individuals. Although utilities sometimes reflect the satisfaction of biological needs, they commonly represent psychological valences or values, whose subjective strengths may themselves derive, dynamically, from processes of decision-making.

  11. Computer Controlled Switching Device for Deep Brain Stimulation

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    J. Tauchmanová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has two goals. The practical part deals with the design of a computer controlled switching device for an external stimulator for deep brain stimulation. The switching device is used during investigations with functional magnetic resonance for controlling signals leading to the deep brain stimulation (DBS electrode in the patient's brain. The motivation for designing this device was improve measured data quality and to enable new types of experiments.The theoretical part reports on early attempts to approach the problem of modeling and localizing the neural response of the human brain as a system identification and estimation task. The parametric identification method and real fMRI data are used for modeling the hemodynamic response.The project is in cooperation with 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and Na Homolce hospital in Prague.

  12. Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics

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    Wolff, Brian G.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

  13. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

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    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  14. [Is personalism or utilitarianism an adequate foundation of medical ethics?].

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    Biesaga, T

    1998-01-01

    The article rejects utilitarianism as a proper theory for medical ethics. Utilitarians lavishly use various slogans of effective action, development and better civilization. However, the principle of prosperity of humanity in the utilitarian interpretation makes the value of the human person subject to society. Social interest threatens the individual here because it defines his/her value of life. The drift towards maximalization of benefits and prosperity of humanity strikes the seriously ill, e.g. babies with brain damages, Down's syndrome, etc., people after accidents and with serious brain defects, the terminally ill. The principle of quality of life (lebensunwertes Leben) used by utylitarians allows them to argue, that euthanasia, abortion is in the interest of the patient. Some utilitarians openly admit that such ideas as "universal happiness", "prosperity", "benefit" are empty ideas, fictions to which one cannot attribute any contents. So utilitarianism, not defining its fundamental ideas, can easily change medical ethics in a theory of elimination of the uncomfortable people. Therefore, as a theory utilitarianism cannot serve as the basis for medical ethics.

  15. Anticipatory processes in brain state switching - evidence from a novel cued-switching task implicating default mode and salience networks.

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    Sidlauskaite, Justina; Wiersema, Jan R; Roeyers, Herbert; Krebs, Ruth M; Vassena, Eliana; Fias, Wim; Brass, Marcel; Achten, Eric; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2014-09-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is the core brain system supporting internally oriented cognition. The ability to attenuate the DMN when switching to externally oriented processing is a prerequisite for effective performance and adaptive self-regulation. Right anterior insula (rAI), a core hub of the salience network (SN), has been proposed to control the switching from DMN to task-relevant brain networks. Little is currently known about the extent of anticipatory processes subserved by DMN and SN during switching. We investigated anticipatory DMN and SN modulation using a novel cued-switching task of between-state (rest-to-task/task-to-rest) and within-state (task-to-task) transitions. Twenty healthy adults performed the task implemented in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design. Increases in activity were observed in the DMN regions in response to cues signalling upcoming rest. DMN attenuation was observed for rest-to-task switch cues. Obversely, DMN was up-regulated by task-to-rest cues. The strongest rAI response was observed to rest-to-task switch cues. Task-to-task switch cues elicited smaller rAI activation, whereas no significant rAI activation occurred for task-to-rest switches. Our data provide the first evidence that DMN modulation occurs rapidly and can be elicited by short duration cues signalling rest- and task-related state switches. The role of rAI appears to be limited to certain switch types - those implicating transition from a resting state and to tasks involving active cognitive engagement.

  16. Hare's preference utilitarianism: an overview and critique

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    Mauro Cardoso Simões

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available My purpose in this paper is to summarize some aspects of utilitarianism and to provide a general overview of Hare's preference utilitarianism, followed by a critique of Hare's preference theory.

  17. Killing happy animals : Explorations in utilitarian ethics

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    Visak, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Total View and the Prior Existence View are two coherent utilitarian views on whose welfare to take into account in the aggregation of welfare. Total Utilitarianism considers the welfare of all actual and all possible beings. Prior Existence Utilitarianism takes into consideration the welfare of

  18. Can Hare's two-level utilitarianism overcome the problems facing act-utilitarianism?

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    Roberts, Emma

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide a positive defence of utilitarianism, R.M Hare presented his own theory of 'two-level' utilitarianism, claiming that it overcame the main objections directed towards traditional act utilitarianism. This essay firstly outlines the main problems associated with utilitarianism and examines whether Hare's theory is indeed able to successfully overcome them. It then goes on to examine the coherence of two-level utilitarianism itself, and thus determine whether it can provide a ...

  19. Language and task switching in the bilingual brain: Bilinguals are staying, not switching, experts.

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    Weissberger, Gali H; Gollan, Tamar H; Bondi, Mark W; Clark, Lindsay R; Wierenga, Christina E

    2015-01-01

    Bilinguals' ability to control which language they speak and to switch between languages may rely on neurocognitive mechanisms shared with non-linguistic task switching. However, recent studies also reveal some limitations on the extent control mechanisms are shared across domains, introducing the possibility that some control mechanisms are unique to language. We investigated this hypothesis by directly comparing the neural correlates of task switching and language switching. Nineteen Spanish-English bilingual university students underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study employing a hybrid (event-related and blocked) design involving both color-shape switching and language switching paradigms. We compared the two switching tasks using within-subject voxel-wise t-tests for each of three trial types (single trials in single blocks, and stay and switch trials in mixed blocks). Comparing trial types to baseline in each task revealed widespread activation for single, stay, and switch trials in both color-shape and language switching. Direct comparisons of each task for each trial type revealed few differences between tasks on single and switch trials, but large task differences during stay trials, with more widespread activation for the non-linguistic than for the language task. Our results confirm previous suggestions of shared mechanisms of switching across domains, but also reveal bilinguals have greater efficiency for sustaining the inhibition of the non-target language than the non-target task when two responses are available. This efficiency of language control might arise from bilinguals' need to control interference from the non-target language specifically when not switching languages, when speaking in single- or mixed-language contexts.

  20. Synthetic biology: a utilitarian perspective.

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    Smith, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I examine the positive and negative features of synthetic biology ('SynBio') from a utilitarian ethical perspective. The potential beneficial outcomes from SynBio in the context of medicine are substantial; however it is not presently possible to predict precise outcomes due to the nascent state of the field. Potential negative outcomes from SynBio also exist, including iatrogenesis and bioterrorism; however it is not yet possible to quantify these risks. I argue that the application of a 'precautionary' approach to SynBio is ethically fraught, as is the notion that SynBio-associated knowledge ought to be restricted. I conclude that utilitarians ought to support a broadly laissez-faire stance in respect of SynBio.

  1. Is Mozi a utilitarian philosopher?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Changchi

    2006-01-01

    In this essay I argue that Mozi's philosophy is anything but utilitarianism by way of analysing four ethical theories.Utilitarianism is an ethics in which the moral subiect is an atomic individual human being,and its concern is how to fulfill the interests of the individual self and the social maiority.Confucian ethics is centered on the notion of the family and its basic question is that of priority in the relationship between the small self and the enlarged or collective self.Opposite to these two moral theories is Mozi's ethics:The interests that Mozi is primarily concerned with are not the interests of my individual self or my collective self,but the interests of the other.The fulfillment of the material needs of the other is my moral obligation.The arguments are centered on the three basic concepts,"the I,""the we,"and"me other."The significance Of Mozi's thought in modern or postmodern context lies in its striking resemblance to the philosophy of a contemporary western philosopher,Levinas.In both Mozi and Levinas,there is a suspension of utilitarianism.

  2. Reward Sensitivity Modulates Brain Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex, ACC and Striatum during Task Switching

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    Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Ávila, César; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Bustamante, Juan C.; Costumero, Víctor; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Current perspectives on cognitive control acknowledge that individual differences in motivational dispositions may modulate cognitive processes in the absence of reward contingencies. This work aimed to study the relationship between individual differences in Behavioral Activation System (BAS) sensitivity and the neural underpinnings involved in processing a switching cue in a task-switching paradigm. BAS sensitivity was hypothesized to modulate brain activity in frontal regions, ACC and the striatum. Twenty-eight healthy participants underwent fMRI while performing a switching task, which elicited activity in fronto-striatal regions during the processing of the switch cue. BAS sensitivity was negatively associated with activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the ventral striatum. Combined with previous results, our data indicate that BAS sensitivity modulates the neurocognitive processes involved in task switching in a complex manner depending on task demands. Therefore, individual differences in motivational dispositions may influence cognitive processing in the absence of reward contingencies. PMID:25875640

  3. Voluntary euthanasia: a utilitarian perspective.

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    Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.

  4. UTILITARIANISM AS A PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

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    Elena N. Yarkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article is devoted to the representation of utilitarianism as the philosophy of education. The main problem is the relevance of utilitarian strategies for the present stage of development of education in Russia. Methods, results and scientific novelty. Utilitarianism is presented as an educational strategy, nominating at the forefront the principle of usefulness of education, positioning education as a means of achieving social and individual wellbeing. The author represents the basic principles of utilitarian philosophy, and also reveals how these principles have been refracted in the philosophy of education using the methods of value-semantic reduction and qualitative content analysis. The first part of the article is devoted to the history of utilitarianism as the philosophy of education in the Euro-American pedagogical culture, as well as the analysis of modern utilitarianism as widely existent in this culture of philosophy of education. In the second part of the article the author explicates the role of utilitarianism in the education strategies of the Russian pedagogical culture, past and present. The main idea of the article is the idea that we have two value-semantic forms of utilitarianism: narrowly understood (tactical utilitarianism and widespread (strategic utilitarianism. Within the tactical utilitarianism as socially and/or individually useful education is considered to be vocationalism, claimed the currently market education. This kind of education is characterized by its focus on learning/teaching applied science and recognition of the futility of Sciences fundamental and philosophical. Under the strategic utilitarianism individually and/or socially beneficial is considered: first, the versatile education characterized by its focus on learning/teaching not only applications, but also fundamental and philosophical disciplines, secondly, eclectic education aimed at obtaining different professional competences. Versatile

  5. Who makes utilitarian judgments? The influences of emotions on utilitarian judgments

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    So Young Choe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has emphasized emotion's role in non-utilitarian judgments, but has not focused much on characteristics of subjects contributing to those judgments. The present article relates utilitarian judgment to individual disposition to experience various emotions. Study 1 first investigated the relationship among state emotions and utilitarian judgment. Diverse emotions were elicited during judgment: guilt, sadness, disgust, empathy, anger, and anxiety, etc. Using psychological scales, Study 2 found that trait emotions predict the extent of utilitarian judgments, especially trait anger, trait disgust, and trait empathy. Unlike previous research that designated emotions only as factors mitigating utilitarian judgment, this research shows that trait anger correlates positively with utilitarian judgment. On the other hand, disgust and empathy correlated negatively. Guilt and shame---though previous research argued that their absence increased utilitarian judgment---appear unrelated to the extent of utilitarian judgment. These results suggest that people's emotional dispositions can affect their judgment. This finding might contribute to untangling the complex mechanisms of utilitarian judgments.

  6. Some utilitarian influences in Freud's early writings.

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    Govrin, Aner

    2004-01-01

    The author argues that (1) the utilitarian ideas of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill were an important source for Freud's early metapsychology and (2) the two theories are radically different in many aspects. The facts that link Freud with the British utilitarian school are described in the first part. These include Freud's translation of three of Mill's essays, a course Freud took on utilitarianism as a student and a book written by Mill which Freud cited and held in his library. By stripping Freud's language of its biological connotations the author claims in the second part that utilitarianism ideas are ubiquitous in Freud's early thought especially in his "pleasure principle" and in the hedonistic side of the human psyche. The third part describes how Freudian theory breaks with utilitarianism along three lines: the quality of pleasure, conflict and irrationality. These breaks are demonstrated through concepts such as the quantity-quality dilemma, constancy principle, repression, conflict and hallucination. Although there is a strong basic philosophical affinity (certainly with regard to human motivation) between Freudian thought and utilitarianism the theories should not be compared on the same level.

  7. Endogenous Sensory Discrimination and Selection by a Fast Brain Switch for a High Transfer Rate Brain-Computer Interface.

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    Xu, Ren; Jiang, Ning; Dosen, Strahinja; Lin, Chuang; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Dremstrup, Kim; Farina, Dario

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we present a novel multi-class brain-computer interface (BCI) for communication and control. In this system, the information processing is shared by the algorithm (computer) and the user (human). Specifically, an electro-tactile cycle was presented to the user, providing the choice (class) by delivering timely sensory input. The user discriminated these choices by his/her endogenous sensory ability and selected the desired choice with an intuitive motor task. This selection was detected by a fast brain switch based on real-time detection of movement-related cortical potentials from scalp EEG. We demonstrated the feasibility of such a system with a four-class BCI, yielding a true positive rate of  ∼ 80% and  ∼ 70%, and an information transfer rate of  ∼ 7 bits/min and  ∼ 5 bits/min, for the movement and imagination selection command, respectively. Furthermore, when the system was extended to eight classes, the throughput of the system was improved, demonstrating the capability of accommodating a large number of classes. Combining the endogenous sensory discrimination with the fast brain switch, the proposed system could be an effective, multi-class, gaze-independent BCI system for communication and control applications.

  8. Brain Circuit for Cognitive Control is Shared by Task and Language Switching.

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    De Baene, Wouter; Duyck, Wouter; Brass, Marcel; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Controlling multiple languages during speech production is believed to rely on functional mechanisms that are (at least partly) shared with domain-general cognitive control in early, highly proficient bilinguals. Recent neuroimaging results have indeed suggested a certain degree of neural overlap between language control and nonverbal cognitive control in bilinguals. However, this evidence is only indirect. Direct evidence for neural overlap between language control and nonverbal cognitive control can only be provided if two prerequisites are met: Language control and nonverbal cognitive control should be compared within the same participants, and the task requirements of both conditions should be closely matched. To provide such direct evidence for the first time, we used fMRI to examine the overlap in brain activation between switch-specific activity in a linguistic switching task and a closely matched nonlinguistic switching task, within participants, in early, highly proficient Spanish-Basque bilinguals. The current findings provide direct evidence that, in these bilinguals, highly similar brain circuits are involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control.

  9. Judging the morality of utilitarian actions: How poor utilitarian accessibility makes judges irrational.

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    Kusev, Petko; van Schaik, Paul; Alzahrani, Shrooq; Lonigro, Samantha; Purser, Harry

    2016-12-01

    Is it acceptable and moral to sacrifice a few people's lives to save many others? Research on moral dilemmas in psychology, experimental philosophy, and neuropsychology has shown that respondents judge utilitarian personal moral actions (footbridge dilemma) as less appropriate than equivalent utilitarian impersonal moral actions (trolley dilemma). Accordingly, theorists (e.g., Greene et al., 2001) have argued that judgments of appropriateness in personal moral dilemmas are more emotionally salient and cognitively demanding (taking more time to be rational) than impersonal moral dilemmas. Our novel findings show an effect of psychological accessibility (driven by partial contextual information; Kahneman, 2003) on utilitarian moral behavior and response time for rational choices. Enhanced accessibility of utilitarian outcomes through comprehensive information about moral actions and consequences boosted utility maximization in moral choices, with rational choices taking less time. Moreover, our result suggests that previous results indicating emotional interference, with rational choices taking more time to make, may have been artifacts of presenting partial information.

  10. Engineering incremental resistive switching in TaOx based memristors for brain-inspired computing

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    Wang, Zongwei; Yin, Minghui; Zhang, Teng; Cai, Yimao; Wang, Yangyuan; Yang, Yuchao; Huang, Ru

    2016-07-01

    Brain-inspired neuromorphic computing is expected to revolutionize the architecture of conventional digital computers and lead to a new generation of powerful computing paradigms, where memristors with analog resistive switching are considered to be potential solutions for synapses. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to engineering the analog switching linearity in TaOx based memristors, that is, by homogenizing the filament growth/dissolution rate via the introduction of an ion diffusion limiting layer (DLL) at the TiN/TaOx interface. This has effectively mitigated the commonly observed two-regime conductance modulation behavior and led to more uniform filament growth (dissolution) dynamics with time, therefore significantly improving the conductance modulation linearity that is desirable in neuromorphic systems. In addition, the introduction of the DLL also served to reduce the power consumption of the memristor, and important synaptic learning rules in biological brains such as spike timing dependent plasticity were successfully implemented using these optimized devices. This study could provide general implications for continued optimizations of memristor performance for neuromorphic applications, by carefully tuning the dynamics involved in filament growth and dissolution.Brain-inspired neuromorphic computing is expected to revolutionize the architecture of conventional digital computers and lead to a new generation of powerful computing paradigms, where memristors with analog resistive switching are considered to be potential solutions for synapses. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to engineering the analog switching linearity in TaOx based memristors, that is, by homogenizing the filament growth/dissolution rate via the introduction of an ion diffusion limiting layer (DLL) at the TiN/TaOx interface. This has effectively mitigated the commonly observed two-regime conductance modulation behavior and led to more uniform filament

  11. Making an Ethical Decision: A Utilitarian Strategy.

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    Price, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    By identifying and weighing the effects of an act on each constituency, a matrix based on John Stuart Mill's theories of utilitarianism illuminates and helps resolve complex ethical dilemmas. Application of the approach is illustrated with a simulated case study concerning the issue of reputation in a small private college. (Author/MSE)

  12. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes.

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    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David

    2004-01-01

    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  13. Harming kin to save strangers: further evidence for abnormally utilitarian moral judgments after ventromedial prefrontal damage.

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    Thomas, Bradley C; Croft, Katie E; Tranel, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    The ventromedial PFC (vmPFC) has been implicated as a critical neural substrate mediating the influence of emotion on moral reasoning. It has been shown that the vmPFC is especially important for making moral judgments about "high-conflict" moral dilemmas involving direct personal actions, that is, scenarios that pit compelling utilitarian considerations of aggregate welfare against the highly emotionally aversive act of directly causing harm to others [Koenigs, M., Young, L., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., et al. Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgments. Nature, 446, 908-911, 2007]. The current study was designed to elucidate further the role of the vmPFC in high-conflict moral judgments, including those that involve indirect personal actions, such as indirectly causing harm to one's kin to save a group of strangers. We found that patients with vmPFC lesions were more likely than brain-damaged and healthy comparison participants to endorse utilitarian outcomes on high-conflict dilemmas regardless of whether the dilemmas (1) entailed direct versus indirect personal harms and (2) were presented from the Self versus Other perspective. In addition, all groups were more likely to endorse utilitarian outcomes in the Other perspective as compared with the Self perspective. These results provide important extensions of previous work, and the findings align with the proposal that the vmPFC is critical for reasoning about moral dilemmas in which anticipating the social-emotional consequences of an action (e.g., guilt or remorse) is crucial for normal moral judgments [Greene, J. D. Why are VMPFC patients more utilitarian?: A dual-process theory of moral judgment explains. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 322-323, 2007; Koenigs, M., Young, L., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., et al. Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgments. Nature, 446, 908-911, 2007].

  14. Domain-general inhibition areas of the brain are involved in language switching: fMRI evidence from trilingual speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Angela; Roelofs, Ardi; Dijkstra, Ton; Fitzpatrick, Ian

    2014-04-15

    The prevailing theory of language switching states that unbalanced bilingual speakers use inhibition to switch between their languages (Inhibitory Control or IC model; Green, 1998). Using fMRI, we examined the brain mechanisms underlying language switching and investigated the role of domain-general inhibition areas such as the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA). Dutch-English-German trilinguals performed a picture naming task in the MRI scanner in both a blocked-language and a mixed-language context. The rIFG and pre-SMA showed more activation for switches to the second and third language (L2 and L3) compared to non-switch trials and blocked trials. No such difference was found for switches to the first language (L1). Our results indicate that language switching recruits brain areas related to domain-general inhibition. In this way, our study supports the claim that multilinguals use inhibition to switch between their languages.

  15. Are Utilitarian/Deontological Preferences Unidimensional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakasuo, Michael; Sundvall, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Utilitarian versus deontological inclinations have been studied extensively in the field of moral psychology. However, the field has been lacking a thorough psychometric evaluation of the most commonly used measures. In this paper, we examine the factorial structure of an often used set of 12 moral dilemmas purportedly measuring utilitarian/deontological moral inclinations. We ran three different studies (and a pilot) to investigate the issue. In Study 1, we used standard Exploratory Factor Analysis and Schmid-Leimann (g factor) analysis; results of which informed the a priori single-factor model for our second study. Results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Study 2 were replicated in Study 3. Finally, we ran a weak invariance analysis between the models of Study 2 and 3, concluding that there is no significant difference between factor loading in these studies. We find reason to support a single-factor model of utilitarian/deontological inclinations. In addition, certain dilemmas have consistent error covariance, suggesting that this should be taken into consideration in future studies. In conclusion, three studies, pilot and an invariance analysis, systematically suggest the following. (1) No item needs to be dropped from the scale. (2) There is a unidimensional structure for utilitarian/deontological preferences behind the most often used dilemmas in moral psychology, suggesting a single latent cognitive mechanism. (3) The most common set of dilemmas in moral psychology can be successfully used as a unidimensional measure of utilitarian/deontological moral inclinations, but would benefit from using weighted averages over simple averages. (4) Consideration should be given to dilemmas describing infants.

  16. Brain mechanisms for predictive control by switching internal models: implications for higher-order cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamizu, Hiroshi; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2009-07-01

    Humans can guide their actions toward the realization of their intentions. Flexible, rapid and precise realization of intentions and goals relies on the brain learning to control its actions on external objects and to predict the consequences of this control. Neural mechanisms that mimic the input-output properties of our own body and other objects can be used to support prediction and control, and such mechanisms are called internal models. We first summarize functional neuroimaging, behavioral and computational studies of the brain mechanisms related to acquisition, modular organization, and the predictive switching of internal models mainly for tool use. These mechanisms support predictive control and flexible switching of intentional actions. We then review recent studies demonstrating that internal models are crucial for the execution of not only immediate actions but also higher-order cognitive functions, including optimization of behaviors toward long-term goals, social interactions based on prediction of others' actions and mental states, and language processing. These studies suggest that a concept of internal models can consistently explain the neural mechanisms and computational principles needed for fundamental sensorimotor functions as well as higher-order cognitive functions.

  17. Brain activity dynamics in human parietal regions during spontaneous switches in bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megumi, Fukuda; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2015-02-15

    The neural mechanisms underlying conscious visual perception have been extensively investigated using bistable perception paradigms. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the right anterior superior parietal (r-aSPL) and the right posterior superior parietal lobule (r-pSPL) have opposite roles in triggering perceptual reversals. It has been proposed that these two areas are part of a hierarchical network whose dynamics determine perceptual switches. However, how these two parietal regions interact with each other and with the rest of the brain during bistable perception is not known. Here, we investigated such a model by recording brain activity using fMRI while participants viewed a bistable structure-from-motion stimulus. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM), we found that resolving such perceptual ambiguity was specifically associated with reciprocal interactions between these parietal regions and V5/MT. Strikingly, the strength of bottom-up coupling between V5/MT to r-pSPL and from r-pSPL to r-aSPL predicted individual mean dominance duration. Our findings are consistent with a hierarchical predictive coding model of parietal involvement in bistable perception and suggest that visual information processing underlying spontaneous perceptual switches can be described as changes in connectivity strength between parietal and visual cortical regions.

  18. Climate policy under sustainable discounted utilitarianism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Simon [London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) (United Kingdom); Asheim, Geir B. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Economics

    2011-08-15

    Empirical evaluation of policies to mitigate climate change has been largely confined to the application of discounted utilitarianism (DU). DU is controversial, both due to the conditions through which it is justified and due to its consequences for climate policies, where the discounting of future utility gains from present abatement efforts makes it harder for such measures to justify their present costs. In this paper, we propose sustainable discounted utilitarianism (SDU) as an alternative principle for evaluation of climate policy. Unlike undiscounted utilitarianism, which always assigns zero relative weight to present utility, SDU is an axiomatically based criterion, which departs from DU by assigning zero weight to present utility if and only if the present is better off than the future. Using the DICE integrated assessment model to run risk analysis, we show that it is possible for the future to be worse off than the present along a 'business as usual' development path. Consequently SDU and DU differ, and willingness to pay for emissions reductions is (sometimes significantly) higher under SDU than under DU. Under SDU, stringent schedules of emissions reductions increase social welfare, even for a relatively high utility discount rate. (orig.)

  19. Sensorless speed control of switched reluctance motor using brain emotional learning based intelligent controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: mirzaeian@eng.ui.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsapoor, Amir, E-mail: amirparsapoor@yahoo.co [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: moallem@cc.iut.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lucas, Caro, E-mail: lucas@ut.ac.i [Centre of Excellence for Control and Intelligent Processing, Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.

  20. Emotional and Utilitarian Appraisals of Moral Dilemmas Are Encoded in Separate Areas and Integrated in Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcherson, Cendri A; Montaser-Kouhsari, Leila; Woodward, James; Rangel, Antonio

    2015-09-09

    Moral judgment often requires making difficult tradeoffs (e.g., is it appropriate to torture to save the lives of innocents at risk?). Previous research suggests that both emotional appraisals and more deliberative utilitarian appraisals influence such judgments and that these appraisals often conflict. However, it is unclear how these different types of appraisals are represented in the brain, or how they are integrated into an overall moral judgment. We addressed these questions using an fMRI paradigm in which human subjects provide separate emotional and utilitarian appraisals for different potential actions, and then make difficult moral judgments constructed from combinations of these actions. We found that anterior cingulate, insula, and superior temporal gyrus correlated with emotional appraisals, whereas temporoparietal junction and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex correlated with utilitarian appraisals. Overall moral value judgments were represented in an anterior portion of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Critically, the pattern of responses and functional interactions between these three sets of regions are consistent with a model in which emotional and utilitarian appraisals are computed independently and in parallel, and passed to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex where they are integrated into an overall moral value judgment. Significance statement: Popular accounts of moral judgment often describe it as a battle for control between two systems, one intuitive and emotional, the other rational and utilitarian, engaged in winner-take-all inhibitory competition. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we identified distinct neural signatures of emotional and utilitarian appraisals and used them to test different models of how they compete for the control of moral behavior. Importantly, we find little support for competitive inhibition accounts. Instead, moral judgments resembled the architecture of simple economic choices: distinct regions represented emotional

  1. Utilitarianism, poverty and development of disabled people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier de França, Inacia Sátiro; Freitag Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the influences of human development factors in the experience of disabled people based on social scenarios of inequality. The data collected were standardized and allocated in thematic categories. The analysis was based on liberal utilitarianism. The conclusion is that there is legislation in Brazil that guarantees the disabled people's development in areas such as health, education and work. However despite the attempts of decision makers in combating discriminatory behaviors and the theory based on equity, these people still face difficulties in breaking the barrier of poverty and achieving all humans rights deserved.

  2. Ezequiel Rojas: Between Utilitarianism and Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Hurtado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Political economy played a central role in the construction of the new Republic of Colombia through the influence of Ezequiel Rojas. In his pursuit of theoretical and practical guidance to organize a new society of free individuals pledged to happiness, Rojas looked to political economy for inspiration. However, the sources that Rojas drew on did not belong to the tradition of classical political economy; he based his own approach on other, less traditional sources; namely utilitarianism and ideology. In this text I aim to reconstruct this approach, showing its tensions and contradictions and the way in which Rojas tried to address them through religion.

  3. Speech motor program maintenance, but not switching, is enhanced by left-hemispheric deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harrison N; Kendall, Diane L; Okun, Michael S; Wu, Samuel S; Velozo, Craig; Fernandez, Hubert H; Spencer, Kristie A; Rosenbek, John C

    2010-10-01

    Speech reaction time (SRT) was measured in a response priming protocol in 12 participants with Parkinson's disease (PD) and hypokinetic dysarthria "on" and "off" left-hemispheric deep brain stimulation (DBS). Speech preparation was measured during speech motor programming in two randomly ordered speech conditions: speech maintenance and switching. Double blind testing was completed in participants with DBS of globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) (n = 5) or subthalamic nucleus (STN) (n = 7). SRT was significantly faster in the maintenance vs switch task, regardless of DBS state. SRT was faster in the speech maintenance task "on" stimulation, while there was no difference in speech switching "on" and "off" DBS. These data suggest that left-hemispheric DBS may have differential effects on aspects of speech preparation in PD. It is hypothesized that speech maintenance improvements may result from DBS-induced cortical enhancements, while the lack of difference in switching may be related to inhibition deficits mediated by the right-hemisphere. Alternatively, DBS may have little influence on the higher level motor processes (i.e., motor planning) which it is believed the switch task engaged to a greater extent than the maintenance task.

  4. Beta adrenergic blockade reduces utilitarian judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbeck, Sylvia; Sylvia, Terbeck; Kahane, Guy; Guy, Kahane; McTavish, Sarah; Sarah, McTavish; Savulescu, Julian; Julian, Savulescu; Levy, Neil; Neil, Levy; Hewstone, Miles; Miles, Hewstone; Cowen, Philip J

    2013-02-01

    Noradrenergic pathways are involved in mediating the central and peripheral effects of physiological arousal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of noradrenergic transmission in moral decision-making. We studied the effects in healthy volunteers of propranolol (a noradrenergic beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) on moral judgement in a set of moral dilemmas pitting utilitarian outcomes (e.g., saving five lives) against highly aversive harmful actions (e.g., killing an innocent person) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design. Propranolol (40 mg orally) significantly reduced heart rate, but had no effect on self-reported mood. Importantly, propranolol made participants more likely to judge harmful actions as morally unacceptable, but only in dilemmas where harms were 'up close and personal'. In addition, longer response times for such personal dilemmas were only found for the placebo group. Finally, judgments in personal dilemmas by the propranolol group were more decisive. These findings indicate that noradrenergic pathways play a role in responses to moral dilemmas, in line with recent work implicating emotion in moral decision-making. However, contrary to current theorising, these findings also suggest that aversion to harming is not driven by emotional arousal. Our findings are also of significant practical interest given that propranolol is a widely used drug in different settings, and is currently being considered as a potential treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder in military and rescue service personnel.

  5. Subcortical volume analysis in traumatic brain injury: the importance of the fronto-striato-thalamic circuit in task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunissen, Inge; Coxon, James P; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Michiels, Karla; Sunaert, Stefan; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2014-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with neuronal loss, diffuse axonal injury and executive dysfunction. Whereas executive dysfunction has traditionally been associated with prefrontal lesions, ample evidence suggests that those functions requiring behavioral flexibility critically depend on the interaction between frontal cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus. To test whether structural integrity of this fronto-striato-thalamic circuit can account for executive impairments in TBI we automatically segmented the thalamus, putamen and caudate of 25 patients and 21 healthy controls and obtained diffusion weighted images. We assessed components of executive function using the local-global task, which requires inhibition, updating and switching between actions. Shape analysis revealed localized atrophy of the limbic, executive and rostral-motor zones of the basal ganglia, whereas atrophy of the thalami was more global in TBI. This subcortical atrophy was related to white matter microstructural organization in TBI, suggesting that axonal injuries possibly contribute to subcortical volume loss. Global volume of the nuclei showed no clear relationship with task performance. However, the shape analysis revealed that participants with smaller volume of those subregions that have connections with the prefrontal cortex and rostral motor areas showed higher switch costs and mixing costs, and made more errors while switching. These results support the idea that flexible cognitive control over action depends on interactions within the fronto-striato-thalamic circuit.

  6. Maternal oxytocin triggers a transient inhibitory switch in GABA signaling in the fetal brain during delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyzio, Roman; Cossart, Rosa; Khalilov, Ilgam; Minlebaev, Marat; Hübner, Christian A; Represa, Alfonso; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Khazipov, Rustem

    2006-12-15

    We report a signaling mechanism in rats between mother and fetus aimed at preparing fetal neurons for delivery. In immature neurons, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. We found that, shortly before delivery, there is a transient reduction in the intracellular chloride concentration and an excitatory-to-inhibitory switch of GABA actions. These events were triggered by oxytocin, an essential maternal hormone for labor. In vivo administration of an oxytocin receptor antagonist before delivery prevented the switch of GABA actions in fetal neurons and aggravated the severity of anoxic episodes. Thus, maternal oxytocin inhibits fetal neurons and increases their resistance to insults during delivery.

  7. 'Utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas do not reflect impartial concern for the greater good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A C; Earp, Brian D; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has focused on so-called 'utilitarian' judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such 'utilitarian' judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between 'utilitarian' judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of 'utilitarian' judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that 'utilitarian' judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between 'utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in 'utilitarian' judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics.

  8. A Utilitarian Case for Intellectual Freedom in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Outlines the history of censorship and intellectual and expressive freedom in American libraries; discusses the two main types of ethical theory, utilitarianism and deontology; and maintains that libraries have a special role to play in promoting unconditional intellectual freedom. (Author/LRW)

  9. Utilitarian Model of Measuring Confidence within Knowledge-Based Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Brady Michael; Hung, Kuan-Ming; Liu, Chia Ju; Chiu, Houn Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a utilitarian confidence testing statistic called Risk Inclination Model (RIM) which indexes all possible confidence wagering combinations within the confines of a defined symmetrically point-balanced test environment. This paper presents the theoretical underpinnings, a formal derivation, a hypothetical application, and…

  10. Optimal multitrial prediction combination and subject-specific adaptation for minimal training brain switch designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, L.; Blokland, Y.M.; Farquhar, J.D.R.; Bruhn, J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface systems are traditionally designed by taking into account user-specific data to enable practical use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms have been developed which bypass the subject specific adaptation and enable rapid use of the system. A brai

  11. Switching between manual control and brain-computer interface using long term and short term quality measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eKreilinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Assistive devices for persons with limited motor control translateor amplify remaining functions to allow otherwise impossible actions.These assistive devices usually rely on just one type of input signalwhich can be derived from residual muscle functions or any other kindof biosignal. When only one signal is used, the functionality of theassistive device can be reduced as soon as the quality of the providedsignal is impaired. The quality can decrease in case of fatigue, lack ofconcentration, high noise, spasms, tremors, depending on the type ofsignal. To overcome this dependency on one input signal, a combination of more inputs should be feasible. This work presents a hybridBrain-Computer Interface (hBCI approach where two different inputsignals (joystick and BCI were monitored and only one of them waschosen as a control signal at a time. Users could move a car in agame-like feedback application to collect coins and avoid obstacles viaeither joystick or BCI control. Both control types were constantlymonitored with four different long term quality measures to evaluate the current state of the signals. As soon as the quality droppedbelow a certain threshold, a monitoring system would switch to theother control mode and vice versa. Additionally, short term qualitymeasures were applied to check for strong artifacts that could rendervoluntary control impossible. These measures were used to prohibitactions carried out during times when highly uncertain signals wererecorded. The switching possibility allowed more functionality for theusers. Moving the car was still possible even after one control modewas not working any more. The proposed system serves as a basisthat shows how BCI can be used as an assistive device, especially incombination with other assistive technology.

  12. Sensitivity of electrophysiological activity from medial frontal cortex to utilitarian and performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Yeung, Nick; Holroyd, Clay B; Schurger, Aaron; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2004-07-01

    A recent study has reported the observation in humans of an event-related brain potential component that is sensitive to the value of outcomes in a gambling task. This component, labeled medial frontal negativity (MFN), was most pronounced following monetary losses as opposed to monetary gains. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the MFN and the error-related negativity (ERN), a component elicited by feedback indicating incorrect choice performance. We argue that the two components can be understood in terms of a recently proposed theory that predicts the occurrence of such scalp negativities following stimuli that indicate that ongoing events are worse than expected. The results from two experiments using a gambling task demonstrate that the sensitivity of the MFN/ERN to the utilitarian and performance aspect of the feedback depends on which aspect is most salient. The results are consistent with the view that the two components are manifestations of the same underlying cognitive and neural process.

  13. Religion, secular medicine and utilitarianism: a response to Biggar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin R

    2015-11-01

    Nigel Biggar has argued that religion ought to be given a seat at the negotiating table of medical ethics. I respond in broadly utilitarian terms, arguing that the flawed empirical basis, lack of rationality and non-universality inherent in religion disqualify it from ethical discourse. I conclude that while it would be unacceptable to attempt to debar religious individuals from the negotiating table, an exclusively secular approach is required for ethical decision making in medicine.

  14. Switching Brains: Cloud-based Intelligent Resources Management for the Internet of Cognitive Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Francisco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive technologies can bring important benefits to our everyday life, enabling connected devices to do tasks that in the past only humans could do, leading to the Cognitive Internet of Things. Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSAN are often employed for communication between Internet objects. However, WSAN face some problems, namely sensors’ energy and CPU load consumption, which are common to other networked devices, such as mobile devices or robotic platforms. Additionally, cognitive functionalities often require large processing power, for running machine learning algorithms, computer vision processing, or behavioral and emotional architectures. Cloud massive storage capacity, large processing speeds and elasticity are appropriate to address these problems. This paper proposes a middleware that transfers flows of execution between devices and the cloud for computationally demanding applications (such as those integrating a robotic brain, to efficiently manage devices’ resources.

  15. How L2-Learners' Brains React to Code-Switches: An ERP Study with Russian Learners of German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruigendijk, Esther; Hentschel, Gerd; Zeller, Jan Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This Event Related Potentials (ERP) study investigates auditory processing of sentences with so-called code-switches in Russian learners of German. It has often been argued that switching between two languages results in extra processing cost, although it is not completely clear yet what exactly causes these costs. ERP presents a good method to…

  16. 16 CFR 307.9 - Requirements for disclosure on utilitarian objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... brand name, logo, or selling message. For example, if a product brand name or logo is embroidered on a... Advertising Disclosures § 307.9 Requirements for disclosure on utilitarian objects. (a) In the case of advertisements for smokeless tobacco products on utilitarian objects, the warning statements required by the...

  17. The Mismeasure of Morals: Antisocial Personality Traits Predict Utilitarian Responses to Moral Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M.; Pizarro, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have recently argued that utilitarianism is the appropriate framework by which to evaluate moral judgment, and that individuals who endorse non-utilitarian solutions to moral dilemmas (involving active vs. passive harm) are committing an error. We report a study in which participants responded to a battery of personality assessments…

  18. Serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR predicts utilitarian moral judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail A Marsh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The psychological and neurobiological processes underlying moral judgment have been the focus of extensive recent research. Here we show that serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR genotype predicts responses to moral dilemmas featuring foreseen harm to an innocent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants in this study judged the acceptability of actions that would unintentionally or intentionally harm an innocent victim in order to save others' lives. An analysis of variance revealed a genotype × scenario interaction, F(2, 63 = 4.52, p = .02. Results showed that, relative to long allele homozygotes (LL, carriers of the short (S allele showed particular reluctance to endorse utilitarian actions resulting in foreseen harm to an innocent individual. LL genotype participants rated perpetrating unintentional harm as more acceptable (M = 4.98, SEM = 0.20 than did SL genotype participants (M = 4.65, SEM = 0.20 or SS genotype participants (M = 4.29, SEM = 0.30. No group differences in moral judgments were observed in response to scenarios featuring intentional harm. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that inherited variants in a genetic polymorphism that influences serotonin neurotransmission influence utilitarian moral judgments as well. This finding is interpreted in light of evidence that the S allele is associated with elevated emotional responsiveness.

  19. The mismeasure of morals: antisocial personality traits predict utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M; Pizarro, David A

    2011-10-01

    Researchers have recently argued that utilitarianism is the appropriate framework by which to evaluate moral judgment, and that individuals who endorse non-utilitarian solutions to moral dilemmas (involving active vs. passive harm) are committing an error. We report a study in which participants responded to a battery of personality assessments and a set of dilemmas that pit utilitarian and non-utilitarian options against each other. Participants who indicated greater endorsement of utilitarian solutions had higher scores on measures of Psychopathy, machiavellianism, and life meaninglessness. These results question the widely-used methods by which lay moral judgments are evaluated, as these approaches lead to the counterintuitive conclusion that those individuals who are least prone to moral errors also possess a set of psychological characteristics that many would consider prototypically immoral.

  20. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on a task-switching protocol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction

  1. Factors of Influence on the Performance of a Short-Latency Non-Invasive Brain Switch: Evidence in Healthy Individuals and Implication for Motor Function Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren eXu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfacing (BCI has recently been applied as a rehabilitation approach for patients with motor disorders, such as stroke. In these closed-loop applications, a brain switch detects the motor intention from brain signals, e.g. scalp EEG, and triggers a neuroprosthetic device, either to deliver sensory feedback or to mimic real movements, thus re-establishing the compromised sensory-motor control loop and promoting neural plasticity. In this context, single trial detection of motor intention with short latency is a prerequisite. The performance of the event detection from EEG recordings is mainly determined by three factors: the type of motor imagery (e.g., repetitive, ballistic, the frequency band (or signal modality used for discrimination (e.g., alpha, beta, gamma, and MRCP, i.e. movement-related cortical potential, and the processing technique (e.g., time-series analysis, sub-band power estimation. In this study, we investigated single trial EEG traces during movement imagination on healthy individuals, and provided a comprehensive analysis of the performance of a short-latency brain switch when varying these three factors. The morphological investigation showed a cross-subject consistency of a prolonged negative phase in MRCP, and a delayed beta rebound in sensory-motor rhythms during repetitive tasks. The detection performance had the greatest accuracy when using ballistic MRCP with time-series analysis. In this case, the true positive rate was ~70% for a detection latency of ~200 ms. The results presented here are of practical relevance for designing BCI systems for motor function rehabilitation.

  2. Cyberpiracy and morality: Some utilitarian and deontological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančić Željko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses one of the main problems of our time in the world of Internet – cyber piracy. It is often said that it is illegal, since pirates who practice it violate certain domestic and international laws. When we ask for justification of this laws and their enforcement, philosophers and legalists usually apply to one of the two sorts of philosophical arguments - deontology and utilitarianism. The former think that piracy is immoral in itself, while the others argue it should be prevented, otherwise it will produce very bad consequences for society sooner or later, and thus diminish the overall happiness of the society. It will be shown, howe­ver, that both of these arguments, when closely considered, fail with their intention, and, if we decide to follow them, we actually arrive to the very opposite conclusion - piracy is justified.

  3. Pengaruh Nilai Simbolis dan Utilitarian Persepsian pada Sikap Konsumen dan Niat Beli

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    Rita Rita

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Brand makes easier consumer to take efficiently purchase decision about the product. Consumer choices product or brand are driven by utilitarian and hedonic considerations. The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of perceived symbolic value and utilitarian value on consumer attitudes toward brand and purchase intentions. The respondents in this study are university students in Yogyakarta. Sampling technique used was purposive sampling. There are only 235 respondents among 400 questioners whom can be used as samples. Validity and reliability testing were conducted in order to figure out the validity rate and data reliability. The data were analyzed by using Regression Analysis. The results provide support for seven of the eight hypothesized. The results provide that symbolic value and utilitarian value as two different value but related. The results show that symbolic value and utilitarian value have a positive impact on consumer attitudes toward brand and purchase intentions. 

  4. Dignity and cost-effectiveness: a rejection of the utilitarian approach to death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S A

    1984-09-01

    Utilitarianism is commonly assumed to be the most appropriate sub-structure for medical ethics. This view is challenged. It is suggested that the utilitarian approach to euthanasia works against the patient's individual advantage and is a corrupting influence in the relationship between the physician and society. Dignity for the individual patient is not easily achieved by assessing that person's worth against the yardstick of others' needs and wishes.

  5. The impact of stimulus valence and emotion regulation on sustained brain activation: task-rest switching in emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamke, Jan-Peter; Daniels, Judith K; Dörfel, Denise; Gaebler, Michael; Abdel Rahman, Rasha; Hummel, Falk; Erk, Susanne; Walter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Task-rest interactions, defined as the modulation of brain activation during fixation periods depending on the preceding stimulation and experimental manipulation, have been described repeatedly for different cognitively demanding tasks in various regions across the brain. However, task-rest interactions in emotive paradigms have received considerably less attention. In this study, we therefore investigated task-rest interactions evoked by the induction and instructed regulation of negative emotion. Whole-brain, functional MRI data were acquired from 55 healthy participants. Two-level general linear model statistics were computed to test for differences between conditions, separately for stimulation and for fixation periods, as well as for interactions between stimulation and fixation (task-rest interactions). Results showed that the regulation of negative emotion led to reverse task-rest interactions (decreased activation during stimulation but increased activation during fixation) in the amygdala as well as in visual cortex regions and to concordant task-rest interactions (increased activation during both, stimulation and fixation) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as well as in a number of brain regions at the intersection of the default mode and the dorsal attention networks. Thus, this first whole-brain investigation of task-rest interactions following the induction and regulation of negative emotion identified a widespread specific modulation of brain activation in regions subserving emotion generation and regulation as well as regions implicated in attention and default mode.

  6. Paternalism and utilitarianism in research with human participants.

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    Resnik, David B

    2015-03-01

    In this article I defend a rule utilitarian approach to paternalistic policies in research with human participants. Some rules that restrict individual autonomy can be justified on the grounds that they help to maximize the overall balance of benefits over risks in research. The consequences that should be considered when formulating policy include not only likely impacts on research participants, but also impacts on investigators, institutions, sponsors, and the scientific community. The public reaction to adverse events in research (such as significant injury to participants or death) is a crucial concern that must be taken into account when assessing the consequences of different policy options, because public backlash can lead to outcomes that have a negative impact on science, such as cuts in funding, overly restrictive regulation and oversight, and reduced willingness of individuals to participate in research. I argue that concern about the public reaction to adverse events justifies some restrictions on the risks that competent, adult volunteers can face in research that offers them no significant benefits. The paternalism defended here is not pure, because it involves restrictions on the rights of investigators in order to protect participants. It also has a mixed rationale, because individual autonomy may be restricted not only to protect participants from harm but also to protect other stakeholders. Utility is not the sole justification for paternalistic research policies, since other considerations, such as justice and respect for individual rights/autonomy, must also be taken into account.

  7. Cognitive Control of Language Production in Bilinguals Involves a Partly Independent Process within the Domain-General Cognitive Control Network: Evidence from Task-switching and Electrical Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magezi, David A.; Khateb, Asaid; Mouthon, Michael; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    In highly proficient, early bilinguals, behavioural studies of the cost of switching language or task suggest qualitative differences between language control and domain-general cognitive control. By contrast, several neuroimaging studies have shown an overlap of the brain areas involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control.…

  8. Target-Triggered Switching on and off the Luminescence of Lanthanide Coordination Polymer Nanoparticles for Selective and Sensitive Sensing of Copper Ions in Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pengcheng; Wu, Fangying; Mao, Lanqun

    2015-07-01

    Copper ions (Cu(2+)) in the central nervous system play a crucial role in the physiological and pathological events, so simple, selective, and sensitive detection of cerebral Cu(2+) is of great importance. In this work, we report a facile yet effective fluorescent method for sensing of Cu(2+) in rat brain using one kind of lanthanide coordination polymer nanoparticle, adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and terbium ion (Tb(3+)), i.e., AMP-Tb, as the sensing platform. Initially, a cofactor ligand, 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SSA), as the sensitizer, was introduced into the nonluminescent AMP-Tb suspension, resulting in switching on the luminescence of AMP-Tb by the removal of coordinating water molecules and concomitant energy transfer from SSA to Tb(3+). The subsequent addition of Cu(2+) into the resulting SSA/AMP-Tb can strongly quench the fluorescence because the specific coordination interaction between SSA and Cu(2+) rendered energy transfer from SSA to Tb(3+) inefficient. The decrease ratio of the fluorescence intensities of SSA/AMP-Tb at 550 nm show a linear relationship for Cu(2+) within the concentration range from 1.5 to 24 μM with a detection limit of 300 nM. The method demonstrated here is highly selective and is free from the interference of metal ions, amino acids, and the biological species commonly existing in the brain such as dopamine, lactate, and glucose. Eventually, by combining the microdialysis technique, the present method has been successfully applied in the detection of cerebral Cu(2+) in rat brain with the basal dialysate level of 1.91 ± 0.40 μM (n = 3). This method is very promising to be used for investigating the physiological and pathological events that cerebral Cu(2+) participates in.

  9. Efficient Kill-Save Ratios Ease Up the Cognitive Demands on Counterintuitive Moral Utilitarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémolière, Bastien; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2014-04-10

    The dual-process model of moral judgment postulates that utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas (e.g., accepting to kill one to save five) are demanding of cognitive resources. Here we show that utilitarian responses can become effortless, even when they involve to kill someone, as long as the kill-save ratio is efficient (e.g., 1 is killed to save 500). In Experiment 1, participants responded to moral dilemmas featuring different kill-save ratios under high or low cognitive load. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants responded at their own pace or under time pressure. Efficient kill-save ratios promoted utilitarian responding and neutered the effect of load or time pressure. We discuss whether this effect is more easily explained by a parallel-activation model or by a default-interventionist model.

  10. PERAN NILAI UTILITARIAN DAN HEDONIS TERHADAP KEPUASAN DAN LOYALITAS KONSUMEN MINUMAN PROBIOTIK

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    Imam Santoso

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rising standard of living and welfare of the community influences the food consuming pattern. This is signified by an increase in demand for probiotics as a functional beverage. This study aims to analyze the role of utilitarian and hedonic attitudes towards customer satisfaction and loyalty. Non-probability and purposive sampling were utilized as the sampling techniques of this study. There were 100 respondents in total participated in the study. The criteria of respondents were ages of 18 and older and consumers of brand X of probiotics beverage for at least twice a month. The data were processed by using the Partial Least Square (PLS. The results showed that the utilitarian value has a significant effect on satisfaction and customer loyalty, while the hedonic one affects customer satisfaction and loyalty. The results of this research also showed that satisfaction has an influence on customer loyalty.Keywords: hedonic, satisfaction, loyalty, probiotics, utilitarian, PLSABSTRAKMeningkatnya  taraf hidup dan kesejahteraan masyarakat berpengaruh terhadap pola konsumen pangan.  Hal ini ditandai dengan meningkatnya permintaan minuman probiotik sebagai minuman fungsional. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis peran utilitarian dan sikap hedonis terhadap kepuasan dan loyalitas konsumen. Metode pengambilan sampel  dalam penelitian ini adalah non probability sampling  dengan  teknik purposive sampling.  Jumlah responden sebanyak 100 orang. Kriteria responden adalah penduduk dengan usia 18 tahun ke atas  dan mengkonsumsi minuman probiotik merk X minimal dua kali dalam  sebulan. Data diolah menggunakan Partial Least Square (PLS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan utilitarian berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kepuasan maupun terhadap loyalitas konsumen. Nilai hedonis berpengaruh  terhadap kepuasan konsumen dan juga berpengaruh terhadap loyalitas.  Hasil riset ini  juga menunjukkan bahwa kepuasan berpengaruh terhadap loyalitas konsumen.Kata kunci

  11. For whom do the ends justify the means? Social class and utilitarian moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Stéphane; Piff, Paul K; Willer, Robb

    2013-03-01

    Though scholars have speculated for centuries on links between individuals' social class standing and approach to moral reasoning, little systematic research exists on how class and morality are associated. Here, we investigate whether the tendency of upper-class individuals to exhibit reduced empathy makes them more likely to resist intuitionist options in moral dilemmas, instead favoring utilitarian choices that maximize the greatest good for the greatest number. In Study 1, upper-class participants were more likely than lower-class participants to choose the utilitarian option in the footbridge dilemma, which evokes relatively strong moral intuitions, but not in the standard trolley dilemma, which evokes relatively weak moral intuitions. In Study 2, upper-class participants were more likely to take resources from one person to benefit several others in an allocation task, and this association was explained by their lower empathy for the person whose resources were taken. Finally, in Study 3, the association between social class and utilitarian judgment was reduced in a condition in which empathy was induced, but not in a control condition, suggesting that reduced empathy helps account for the utilitarianism of upper-class individuals.

  12. Divergent roles of autistic and alexithymic traits in utilitarian moral judgments in adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Indrajeet; Melsbach, Jens; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Silani, Giorgia

    2016-03-29

    This study investigated hypothetical moral choices in adults with high-functioning autism and the role of empathy and alexithymia in such choices. We used a highly emotionally salient moral dilemma task to investigate autistics' hypothetical moral evaluations about personally carrying out harmful utilitarian behaviours aimed at maximizing welfare. Results showed that they exhibited a normal pattern of moral judgments despite the deficits in social cognition and emotional processing. Further analyses revealed that this was due to mutually conflicting biases associated with autistic and alexithymic traits after accounting for shared variance: (a) autistic traits were associated with reduced utilitarian bias due to elevated personal distress of demanding social situations, while (b) alexithymic traits were associated with increased utilitarian bias on account of reduced empathic concern for the victim. Additionally, autistics relied on their non-verbal reasoning skills to rigidly abide by harm-norms. Thus, utilitarian moral judgments in autism were spared due to opposite influences of autistic and alexithymic traits and compensatory intellectual strategies. These findings demonstrate the importance of empathy and alexithymia in autistic moral cognition and have methodological implications for studying moral judgments in several other clinical populations.

  13. How does the seasonality influence utilitarian walking behaviour in different urbanization settings in Scotland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinhyun

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between the built environment and walking has been analyzed for decades. However, the seasonality effects on the relationship between the built environment and walking have not been well examined even though weather is one of the key determinants of walking. Therefore, this study used 2007-8 Scottish Household Survey data collected over two years and estimated the interaction effects between the urbanization setting (i.e., residential locations: urban, town and rural areas) and seasons (i.e., spring, summer, autumn and winter) on walking. Scottish Urban-rural classification scheme is measured based on the population and access to large cities, and used as a key independent variable. The number of walking days for specific purposes such as work or shopping (utilitarian walking) during the past 7 days is used as a dependent variable. The results show that there are significant geographical variations of seasonality effect on utilitarian walking. That is, people living in rural areas are more sensitive to seasonality impacts than those living in urban areas. In addition, we found that the association between urbanization setting and utilitarian walking varies across seasons, indicating that their relationship can be miss-estimated if we ignore the seasonality effects. Therefore, policy makers and practitioners should consider the seasonality effects to evaluate the effectiveness of land use policy correctly. Finally, we still find the significant association between the urbanization setting and utilitarian walking behaviour with the consideration of seasonality effects, supporting the claim of New Urbanism.

  14. Mortality Salience and Morality: Thinking about Death Makes People Less Utilitarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremoliere, Bastien; De Neys, Wim; Bonnefon, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    According to the dual-process model of moral judgment, utilitarian responses to moral conflict draw on limited cognitive resources. Terror Management Theory, in parallel, postulates that mortality salience mobilizes these resources to suppress thoughts of death out of focal attention. Consequently, we predicted that individuals under mortality…

  15. Ethics under uncertainty: the morality and appropriateness of utilitarianism when outcomes are uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, Katherine V; Moore, Colleen F

    2014-01-01

    Real-life moral dilemmas inevitably involve uncertainty, yet research has not considered how uncertainty affects utilitarian moral judgments. In addition, even though moral dilemma researchers regularly ask respondents, "What is appropriate?" but interpret it to mean, "What is moral?," little research has examined whether a difference exists between asking these 2 types of questions. In this study, 140 college students read moral dilemmas that contained certain or uncertain consequences and then responded as to whether it was appropriate and whether it was moral to kill 1 to save many (a utilitarian choice). Ratings of the appropriateness and morality of the utilitarian choice were lower under uncertainty than certainty. A follow-up experiment found that these results could not be explained entirely by a change in the expected values of the outcomes or a desire to avoid the worst-case scenario. In addition, the utilitarian choice to kill 1 to save many was rated as more appropriate than moral. The results imply that moral decision making may depend critically on whether uncertainties in outcomes are admitted and whether people are asked about appropriateness or morality.

  16. Relating Teachers' Whistleblowing Tendency and Personal Features: Machiavellianism, Religiosity, and Utilitarianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Asiye Toker

    2015-01-01

    This study examines relationships between religiosity and value orientation of teachers, and preference for whistleblowing modes. Three hypotheses were developed, and tested related to the relationships between utilitarianism, religiosity, Machiavellianism and preference for various forms of whistleblowing. To analyse the data obtained from a…

  17. Cosmopolitan Utilitarianism and the Problem of Local Inaction in a Globalized World

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    Fausto Corvino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of the public acceptability of political inaction as an extreme consequence of cosmopolitan utilitarianism. The case of political inaction as the utility-maximizing public policy option emerges more clearly in the globalized world, because of a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the consequences of a given policy. In this context, a situation can easily occur in which the only way to maximize utility in a global context is by renouncing action at the national or local level. However, the problem of inaction should not be interpreted simply as a by-product of globalization. Its origins can be traced to the basic structure of utilitarianism as a normative consequentialist theory. This drawback can even present itself at the local level in a less visible form. One example is that in which the performance of a supererogatory act in the exercise of public office leads to a reduction in overall utility. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that cosmopolitan utilitarianism can bind the decision maker to a series of inactions at the global and local levels that contradict his own mandate, generating a dangerous moral confusion in the implementation of public policies. This can seriously threaten the universal applicability of cosmopolitan utilitarianism as a normative political theory, especially in the age of globalization.

  18. Utilitarianism and the measurement and aggregation of quality--adjusted life years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, P

    2001-01-01

    It is widely accepted that one of the main objectives of government expenditure on health care is to generate health. Since health is a function of both length of life and quality of life, the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) has been developed in an attempt to combine the value of these attributes into a single index number. The QALY approach--and particularly the decision rule that health care resources should be allocated so as to maximise the number of QALYs generated--has often been equated with the utilitarian philosophy of maximising 'the greatest happiness of the greatest number'. This paper considers the extent to which the measurement and aggregation of QALYs really is utilitarian by developing a new taxonomy in order to classify utilitarianism and the different aspects of the QALY approach. It is shown that the measurement of QALYs is consistent with a number of different moral positions and that QALYs do not have to be aggregated according to the maximisation rule. Therefore it is inappropriate to necessarily equate QALYs with utilitarianism. It is shown that much turns on what in principle the QALY represents and how in practice it can be operationalised. The paper highlights the category confusion that is often present here and suggests possible avenues for future theoretical and empirical research.

  19. Can Suicide Be Ethical? A Utilitarian Perspective on the Appropriateness of Choosing to Die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David B.

    2006-01-01

    In his article in the current issue of Death Studies, "Can Suicide be a Good Death?" David Lester argues that each person should determine whether suicide is appropriate for him or her in relative isolation from the opinions of others. In the present article, I use a utilitarian ethical perspective to critique this assertion. According to…

  20. Switch wear leveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.

  1. Exciter switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcpeak, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.

  2. The Utilitarian Decision Making from Islamic Perspectives: Review and Settlement Attempt

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    Mohammed Al-aaidroos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilitarian decision making is a far-famed mechanism that alleged to model humans decisions with the help of certain functions known as utility functions. Utilities metaphorically evaluate alternatives and approximate the satisfaction afforded by each. The utilitarian model is considered the fundamental basis of several artificial intelligence techniques such as game theory, evolutionary, heuristic, and fuzzy based approaches. It has been immensely utilized to develop various intelligent systems such as Decision Support Systems (DSS, Negotiation Support Systems (NSS, Multi Agent Systems (MAS, Shopbots, and proxy bidding systems. Well known that the utilitarian model has been developed based on the hypothesis of rationality and maximization which embodied some secular norms. Islam in the other hand has been derived from diverse set of provisions in which highly upholds tender values and pays significance to moral issues. As a consequence, this paper conducts a brief comparison and deduced two commons bases and four discrepancies. In the time Islam accepts utilitarian conception and do not mind the acquisitive behaves which considered essential in life success but satirically criticizes egoistic encouragement, non-satiation, and un-prioritized preferences. The Islamic objections on the utilitarian decision not necessarily meant the solid inapplicability but a reasonable treatment out to take place in order to be Islamic legitimated. Introducing the altruistic utility supposedly drops the egoistic objection and then a satiated lexicographic utility hoped to cancel the rest of contradictions. The adoption of those treatments ought to assist in developing intelligent systems that rely on Islamic legitimated decision method which upholds the Islamic moral injunctions. It is hoped that this research will provide the impetus for researchers to propose systems that rely on Islamic legitimate decision making.

  3. Neurotransmitter Switching? No Surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Nicholas C

    2015-06-03

    Among the many forms of brain plasticity, changes in synaptic strength and changes in synapse number are particularly prominent. However, evidence for neurotransmitter respecification or switching has been accumulating steadily, both in the developing nervous system and in the adult brain, with observations of transmitter addition, loss, or replacement of one transmitter with another. Natural stimuli can drive these changes in transmitter identity, with matching changes in postsynaptic transmitter receptors. Strikingly, they often convert the synapse from excitatory to inhibitory or vice versa, providing a basis for changes in behavior in those cases in which it has been examined. Progress has been made in identifying the factors that induce transmitter switching and in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which it is achieved. There are many intriguing questions to be addressed.

  4. Developing Moral Sport Policies Through Act-Utilitarianism Based on Bentham’s Hedonic Calculus

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    ROBERT C. SCHNEIDER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Moral policy can be developed and maintained in sport organizations through an approach that incorporates act-utilitarianism (AU based on Jeremy Bentham’s hedonic calculus (HC. Sport managers’ effective application of AU based on HC takes on the form of a holistic approach to moral policy development and maintenance and requires an under-standing of the parts and process of a strict adherence to AU based on HC. The traits of common sense, habits, and past experience are supported by the utilitarian views held by Bentham and Mill to accurately predict happiness and un-happiness that result from actions (Beauchamp, 1982 and are also necessary to drive a holistic approach of AU based on HC that develops and maintains moral policy in sport organizations.

  5. Round or Square? How Screen Shape Affects Utilitarian and Hedonic Motivations for Smartwatch Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Joon

    2016-12-01

    This study explores whether screen shape influences smartwatch adoption by proposing an extended technology acceptance model that integrates an empirical comparison between round and square screens with utilitarian and hedonic motivations for higher usage intention. To verify the statistical validity of the proposed model, a structural equation modeling analysis is conducted on data collected from a between-subjects experiment (N = 200) in which participants trialed a smartwatch with either a round or square screen to retrieve health information cumulated from the physical activity during the experiment. Results indicate that a round screen, compared with a square screen, is more effective in promoting smartwatch adoption by enhancing the device's hedonic qualities. However, a round screen is found to reduce the controllability of the device, although such a utilitarian quality still positively influences the adoption process. Implications of the study findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  6. ECONOMIC-UTILITARIAN AND SPIRITUAL-EXISTENTIAL BASES OF FOSTERING ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS IN MOUNTAIN DWELLERS

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    Viktor Moskalets

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article high lights the psychology economic-utilitarian motivation in mountain dwellers to care for nature as a basic resource in their recreation and relaxation activities – the main means of promoting the social and economic growth of mountain areas. Such motivation provides a psychological foundation for the spiritual-existential bases of ecological culture in mountain areas as well as in all natural climatic regions having recreation, relaxation, and health care potentials.

  7. ROLE OF DEMANDING CUSTOMER: THE INFLUENCE OF UTILITARIAN AND HEDONIC VALUES ON LOYALTY CUSTOMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwanto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine and analyze the influence of Utilitarian Value, Hedonic Value on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty with Demanding Customers Moderation among customers of Modern Café in Surabaya. This study was conducted at the modern coffee bar (coffee shop customers in Surabaya. In accordance with the data obtained from the Department of Tourism Surabaya, there are 14 modern coffee shop with 41 stands scattered in Surabaya. Sample used in this study is modern coffee bar customers (coffee shop in Surabaya that is 600 persons, sampling techniques is using non -probability sampling, that is with accidental sampling that encountered by the researcher while visiting modern coffee shop and the determination of respondents numbers in each shop coffee is determined by using percentage based on the number of coffee shops in Surabaya. Techniques of analysis in this study is using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM with AMOS 19 program. The conclusion of this study result are : t utilitarian value does not have significant influence on customer satisfaction at the modern coffee shop. Hedonic value has significant influence on customer satisfaction in a modern coffee shop. Demanding customer does not moderate the influence of utilitarian value on customer's satisfaction at the modern coffee shop. Demanding customers moderates the influence of hedonic value on customer satisfaction in a modern coffee shop. Satisfaction significantly influence customer loyalty of modern coffee shop. Utilitarian value has no significant influence on customer loyalty in modern coffee shop. Hedonic value has significant influence on customer loyalty in modern coffee shop.

  8. Impacts of Utilitarian and Hedonistic Values of Online Shopping on Preferences and Intentions of Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Nili

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Given to the ever-increasing development of human societies and necessity of productivity increase in all daily activities, using electronic systems is unavoidable. This is true about the process of shopping and utilizing electronic methods especially internet is increasing day by day. The present survey was formed through the intentions variable as the dependent variable, utilitarian and hedonistic values as independent variables and preferences as the mediating variable. Students of the Islamic Azad University, Tehran Science and Research branch were the statistical population and three-hundred seventy nine persons were selected using stratified random sampling proportional to the sample volume.Obtained results of testing hypotheses through structural equations model using SPSS and PLS software (statistical analysis reveal that judgments about hedonistic and utilitarian values have a significant relationship with preferences. Also preferences have a significant relationship with future shopping intentions. Generally it can be argued that judgments of hedonistic and utilitarian values have a direct impact on preferences in online retailers and thus on future shopping intentions.

  9. Reduced empathic concern leads to utilitarian moral judgments in trait alexithymia

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    Indrajeet ePatil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research with moral dilemmas supports dual-process model of moral decision making. This model posits two different paths via which people can endorse utilitarian solution that requires personally harming someone in order to achieve the greater good (e.g., killing one to save five people: (i weakened emotional aversion to the prospect of harming someone due to reduced empathic concern for the victim; (ii enhanced cognition which supports cost-benefit analysis and countervails the prepotent emotional aversion to harm. Direct prediction of this model would be that personality traits associated with reduced empathy would show higher propensity to endorse utilitarian solutions. As per this prediction, we found that trait alexithymia, which is well-known to have deficits in empathy, was indeed associated with increased utilitarian tendencies on emotionally aversive personal moral dilemmas and this was due to reduced empathic concern for the victim. Results underscore the importance of empathy for moral judgments in harm/care domain of morality.

  10. Nucleosome switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, David J; Bruinsma, Robijn F; Rudnick, Joseph; Widom, Jonathan

    2008-06-06

    We present a statistical-mechanical model for the positioning of nucleosomes along genomic DNA molecules as a function of the strength of the binding potential and the chemical potential of the nucleosomes. We show that a significant section of the DNA is composed of two-level nucleosome switching regions where the nucleosome distribution undergoes a localized, first-order transition. The location of the nucleosome switches shows a strong correlation with the location of gene-regulation regions.

  11. Importance of Managing for Personal Benefits, Hedonic and Utilitarian Motivations, and Place Attachment at an Urban Natural Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budruk, Megha; Lee, Woojin

    2016-09-01

    Research on antecedents of place attachment suggests that the special bonds people form with nature are influenced by a number of variables. This study examines associations between the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits, motivations, and place attachment among outdoor recreationists at an urban natural setting. Motivation was conceptualized as two-dimensional (Hedonic and Utilitarian) borrowed from the retail and consumer marketing field and previously unused in a natural resource recreation context. Hedonic and utilitarian motivations represent the experiential and functional dimensions of motivation, respectively. Relationships between the noted variables were examined through structural equation modeling. Data from an onsite survey of 219 users indicated that it was important the resource be managed to provide greater freedom from urban living as well as improved mental well-being. Furthermore, respondents exhibited moderate levels of hedonic and utilitarian motivations as well as attachment to the resource. The structural equation analysis resulted in a good fitting model with several significant relationships emerging. Among these, the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits positively influenced hedonic and utilitarian motivations. In addition, hedonic motivations positively influenced place attachment development, whereas utilitarian motivations did not. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Atypical moral judgment following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Muresan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown an association between emotions, particularly social emotions, and moral judgments. Some studies suggested an association between blunted emotion and the utilitarian moral judgments observed in patients with prefrontal lesions. In order to investigate how prefrontal brain damage affects moral judgment, we asked a sample of 29 TBI patients (12 females and 17 males and 41 healthy participants (16 females and 25 males to judge 22 hypothetical dilemmas split into three different categories (non-moral, impersonal and personal moral. The TBI group presented a higher proportion of affirmative (utilitarian responses for personal moral dilemmas when compared to controls, suggesting an atypical pattern of utilitarian judgements. We also found a negative association between the performance on recognition of social emotions and the proportion of affirmative responses on personal moral dilemmas. These results suggested that the preference for utilitarian responses in this type of dilemmas is accompanied by difficulties in social emotion recognition. Overall, our findings suggest that deontological moral judgments are associated with normal social emotion processing and that frontal lobe plays an important role in both emotion and moral judgment.

  13. Does plant species richness guarantee the resilience of local medical systems? A perspective from utilitarian redundancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rosa Santoro

    Full Text Available Resilience is related to the ability of a system to adjust to disturbances. The Utilitarian Redundancy Model has emerged as a tool for investigating the resilience of local medical systems. The model determines the use of species richness for the same therapeutic function as a facilitator of the maintenance of these systems. However, predictions generated from this model have not yet been tested, and a lack of variables exists for deeper analyses of resilience. This study aims to address gaps in the Utilitarian Redundancy Model and to investigate the resilience of two medical systems in the Brazilian semi-arid zone. As a local illness is not always perceived in the same way that biomedicine recognizes, the term "therapeutic targets" is used for perceived illnesses. Semi-structured interviews with local experts were conducted using the free-listing technique to collect data on known medicinal plants, usage preferences, use of redundant species, characteristics of therapeutic targets, and the perceived severity for each target. Additionally, participatory workshops were conducted to determine the frequency of targets. The medical systems showed high species richness but low levels of species redundancy. However, if redundancy was present, it was the primary factor responsible for the maintenance of system functions. Species richness was positively associated with therapeutic target frequencies and negatively related to target severity. Moreover, information about redundant species seems to be largely idiosyncratic; this finding raises questions about the importance of redundancy for resilience. We stress the Utilitarian Redundancy Model as an interesting tool to be used in studies of resilience, but we emphasize that it must consider the distribution of redundancy in terms of the treatment of important illnesses and the sharing of information. This study has identified aspects of the higher and lower vulnerabilities of medical systems, adding

  14. Space industrialization. [space flight and environment for commercial/utilitarian purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disher, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Space industrialization is defined as the use of space flight and the space environment for commercial or utilitarian purposes in contrast to other uses such as gains in basic scientific knowledge, national defense, or exploration. Some unique attributes of space that make it amenable to industrial use include overview of the earth, the 'zero gravity' effect, potential for near perfect vacuum, unlimited reservoir for disposal of waste products, availability of essentially uninterrupted flow of solar energy, and the 'perpetual motion' characteristic of orbital mechanics. The role of human participation in assembling and maintaining the large sophisticated systems that will be required for future space industrialization needs is considered.

  15. WHAT'S THE WELL-BEING FOR UTILITARIANISM, JOHN RAWLS AND AMARTYA SEN

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    has been little concensus on the nature of the well-being. In this paper, we will examine the concept of well-being from three perspectives; one of these is utilitarianist view in which well-being means utility of the individual. Second one is John Rawls’ notion of “primary social goods”. Finally, we will mention Amartya Sen’s “capability” perspective which challanges the utilitarianism and Ralw’s theory both. In Sen's Capability Approach, evaluation of well-being should be made in the space ...

  16. Eksperymenty myślowe a utylitaryzm. Odpowiedź na artykuł Włodka Rabinowicza (Thought Experiments and Utilitarianism. A Reply to Wlodek Rabinowicz’s “Preference Utilitarianism by Way of Preference Change?’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Saja

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a comment on W. Rabinowicz "Utilitarianism by Way of Preference Change?", I defend Richard Hare`s argument for utilitarianism. I argue that Hare`s role reversal thought experiments can, despite of W.Rabinowicz criticism, lead to transforming interpersonal preference conflicts into intrapersonal ones, but, in order to achieve this, we need to interpret his thought experiment correctly. I distinguish three interpretation of reversing roles experiment and argue, that for at least two of them, which de facto Hare endorse, Rabinowicz criticism fails.

  17. The utilitarian tendency of graduate education%研究生教育功利化倾向审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪剑; 刘素娟; 胡波

    2014-01-01

    Under the condition of market economy, the utilitarian tendency of postgraduate education has become increasingly obvious, trouble for the healthy development of graduate students. In this paper, we examine the graduate education utilitarianism and causes, and put forward the innovation of graduate education, to face the challenge in order to cope with the graduate education utilitarian tendency of graduate education.%市场经济条件下,研究生教育功利化倾向特征日益明显,为研究生的全面健康发展带来了困扰。本文对研究生教育功利化表现和成因进行了审视,并提出了创新研究生教育理念,以应对研究生教育功利化倾向对研究生教育的挑战。

  18. Should the practice of medicine be a deontological or utilitarian enterprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbutt, Gerard; Davies, Peter

    2011-05-01

    There is currently an unrecognised conflict between the utilitarian nature of the overall NHS and the basic deontology of the doctor-patient interaction. This conflict leads to mistrust and misunderstanding between managers and clinicians. This misunderstanding is bad for both doctors and managers, and also leads to waste of time and resources, and poorer services to patients. The utilitarian thinkers (mainly managers and politicians) tend to value finite, short term, evidence based technical interventions, delivered according to specifications and contracts. They appear happy to break care up into smaller pieces, which can then be commissioned from multiple providers. The deontological thinkers (mainly doctors and other clinicians) tend to think about care delivered through a long term continuous relationship, and regard that relationship as therapeutic and salutogenic in itself. To them breaking care up into smaller fragments is a denial of what caring is really about. Very rarely are either or both sides of this debate fully aware of where their powerfully felt and often well argued positions start from. In this paper we offer an appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of both moral viewpoints as applied in the UK NHS context and we suggest a way in which they can be reconciled, provided neither is pushed too far or too hard against the other. We believe this reconciliation would be good for patients, doctors, managers and improve the service as a whole.

  19. Utylitaryzm preferencji poprzez zmianę preferencji? (Preference Utilitarianism by Way of Preference Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodek Rabinowicz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a translation of my "Preference Utilitarianism by Way of Preference Change?", in which I revisit Richard Hare’s classical and much discussed argument for preference utilitarianism (Moral Thinking, 1981, which relies on the conception of moral deliberation as a process of thought experimentation, with concomitant preference change. The paper focuses on an apparent gap in Hare’s reasoning, the so-called No-Conflict Problem. A solution to this difficulty which was proposed in (Rabinowicz and Strömberg, 1996 is re-examined and shown to lead to a number of difficulties, not least in connection with the choice of an appropriate measure of distance between preference states. The paper therefore also considers an alternative idea, due to Daniel Elstein. This new proposal may well turn out to be the best way of filling the gap in Hare’s argument. The paper also examines whether the gap is there to begin with: The problem should perhaps be dissolved rather than solved. This suggestion goes back to an idea of Zeno Vendler (1988. Unfortunately, it turns out that Vendler’s move does not save Hare from criticism: It does dissolve the No-Conflict Problem, but at the same time gives rise to another, potentially more serious difficulty.

  20. The price of your soul: neural evidence for the non-utilitarian representation of sacred values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Gregory S; Bell, Emily; Capra, C Monica; Prietula, Michael J; Moore, Sara; Anderson, Brittany; Ginges, Jeremy; Atran, Scott

    2012-03-05

    Sacred values, such as those associated with religious or ethnic identity, underlie many important individual and group decisions in life, and individuals typically resist attempts to trade off their sacred values in exchange for material benefits. Deontological theory suggests that sacred values are processed based on rights and wrongs irrespective of outcomes, while utilitarian theory suggests that they are processed based on costs and benefits of potential outcomes, but which mode of processing an individual naturally uses is unknown. The study of decisions over sacred values is difficult because outcomes cannot typically be realized in a laboratory, and hence little is known about the neural representation and processing of sacred values. We used an experimental paradigm that used integrity as a proxy for sacredness and which paid real money to induce individuals to sell their personal values. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that values that people refused to sell (sacred values) were associated with increased activity in the left temporoparietal junction and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, regions previously associated with semantic rule retrieval. This suggests that sacred values affect behaviour through the retrieval and processing of deontic rules and not through a utilitarian evaluation of costs and benefits.

  1. Two replications of an investigation on empathy and utilitarian judgement across socioeconomic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Sarah; Li, Yixian; Sinclair, Vanessa M.; Thomson, Clint; Campbell, Lorne

    2017-01-01

    Research by Côté, Piff, and Willer (2013) found that through the induction of empathy in an experimental condition, the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and utilitarian moral judgment was diminished. Participant self-reported income interacted with experimental condition such that high SES participants who empathized with a disadvantaged group member redistributed fewer experimental dollars during an online task at the losing member’s expense. This suggests that lower levels of empathy could help explain utilitarian decision-making in high SES individuals. Two pre-registered, high-powered replications were conducted in order to assess the magnitude and reliability of this finding. While the first replication attempt failed to uncover the effect, the second attempt found a pattern consistent with the original study. A meta-analysis of the replication attempts with the original author's interaction effects was conducted. The confidence interval of the meta-analytic effect suggests that the true effect size may be as robust as reported by the original authors, or may be close to zero. Implications of the results found in the replication attempts are discussed. PMID:28094786

  2. Sector Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    Much of the literature on industry evolution has found firm dynamics to be an important source of sector-level productivity growth. In this paper, we ask whether the delineation of entry and exit firms matters in assessing the impact of firm turnover. Using detailed firm level data from Vietnam......-level determinants of firm exit and switching, which need to be carefully considered in the search for effective policy...

  3. Sector Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    Much of the literature on industry evolution has found firm dynamics to be an important source of sector-level productivity growth. In this paper, we ask whether the delineation of entry and exit firms matters in assessing the impact of firm turnover. Using detailed firm level data from Vietnam, ......-level determinants of firm exit and switching, which need to be carefully considered in the search for effective policy...

  4. Increasing representation of states by utilitarian as compared to environmental bureaucracies in international forest and forest-environmental policy negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, L.; Krott, M.; Mollmann, T.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the representation of selected countries (EU-27 and the five influential "forest states") to international forest-related negotiations by national utilitarian vis-a-vis conservation-oriented ministerial bureaucracies. It is hypothesised that due to the bureaucracies' informal g

  5. Are thoughtful people more utilitarian? CRT as a unique predictor of moral minimalism in the dilemmatic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royzman, Edward B; Landy, Justin F; Leeman, Robert F

    2015-03-01

    Recent theorizing about the cognitive underpinnings of dilemmatic moral judgment has equated slow, deliberative thinking with the utilitarian disposition and fast, automatic thinking with the deontological disposition. However, evidence for the reflective utilitarian hypothesis-the hypothesized link between utilitarian judgment and individual differences in the capacity for rational reflection (gauged here by the Cognitive Reflection Test [CRT; Frederick, 2005]) has been inconsistent and difficult to interpret in light of several design flaws. In two studies aimed at addressing some of the flaws, we found robust evidence for a reflective minimalist hypothesis-high CRT performers' tendency to regard utility-optimizing acts as largely a matter of personal prerogative, permissible both to perform and to leave undone. This relationship between CRT and the "minimalist" orientation remained intact after controlling for age, sex, trait affect, social desirability, and educational attainment. No significant association was found between CRT and the strict utilitarian response pattern or CRT and the strict deontological response pattern, nor did we find any significant association between CRT and willingness to act in the utility-optimizing manner. However, we found an inverse association between empathic concern and a willingness to act in the utility-optimizing manner, but there was no comparable association between empathic concern and the deontological judgment pattern. Theoretical, methodological, and normative implications of the findings are discussed.

  6. Inequality-adjusted happiness in nations: egalitarianism and utilitarianism married in a new index of societal performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M. Kalmijn (Wim); R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAccording to the utilitarian creed, the quality of a society should be judged using the degree of happiness of its members, the best society being the one that provides the greatest happiness for the greatest number. Following the egalitarian principle, the quality of a society should ra

  7. Neuromorphic atomic switch networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius V Avizienis

    Full Text Available Efforts to emulate the formidable information processing capabilities of the brain through neuromorphic engineering have been bolstered by recent progress in the fabrication of nonlinear, nanoscale circuit elements that exhibit synapse-like operational characteristics. However, conventional fabrication techniques are unable to efficiently generate structures with the highly complex interconnectivity found in biological neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the physical realization of a self-assembled neuromorphic device which implements basic concepts of systems neuroscience through a hardware-based platform comprised of over a billion interconnected atomic-switch inorganic synapses embedded in a complex network of silver nanowires. Observations of network activation and passive harmonic generation demonstrate a collective response to input stimulus in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Further, emergent behaviors unique to the complex network of atomic switches and akin to brain function are observed, namely spatially distributed memory, recurrent dynamics and the activation of feedforward subnetworks. These devices display the functional characteristics required for implementing unconventional, biologically and neurally inspired computational methodologies in a synthetic experimental system.

  8. Utilitarian and common-sense morality discussions in intercultural nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Ingrid; Alpers, Lise-Merete

    2010-03-01

    Two areas of ethical conflict in intercultural nursing - who needs single rooms more, and how far should nurses go to comply with ethnic minority patients' wishes? - are discussed from a utilitarian and common-sense morality point of view. These theories may mirror nurses' way of thinking better than principled ethics, and both philosophies play a significant role in shaping nurses' decision making. Questions concerning room allocation, noisy behaviour, and demands that nurses are unprepared or unequipped for may be hard to cope with owing to physical restrictions and other patients' needs. Unsolvable problems may cause stress and a bad conscience as no solution is 'right' for all the patients concerned. Nurses experience a moral state of disequilibrium, which occurs when they feel responsible for the outcomes of their actions in situations that have no clear-cut solution.

  9. Forced Execution of the Elderly: Old Law, Dystopia, and the Utilitarian Argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara D. Schotland

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on a play that Thomas Middleton co-authored on the topic of forced execution of the elderly, The Old Law (1618–1619. Here, the Duke of Epire has issued an edict requiring the execution of men when they reach age eighty and women when they reach age sixty—a decree that is justified on the basis that at these ages, they are a burden to themselves and their heirs, as well as useless to society. I argue that Old Law responds to an issue as old as Plato and as recent as twenty-first century dystopic fiction: should a society devote substantial resources to caring for the unproductive elderly? The conflict between Cleanthes and Simonides about the merits of the decree anticipates the debate between proponents of utilitarian economics and advocates of the bioethical philosophy that we today describe as the Ethics of Care.

  10. Does screen size matter for smartphones? Utilitarian and hedonic effects of screen size on smartphone adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2014-07-01

    This study explores the psychological effects of screen size on smartphone adoption by proposing an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that integrates an empirical comparison between large and small screens with perceived control, affective quality, and the original TAM constructs. A structural equation modeling analysis was conducted on data collected from a between-subjects experiment (N=130) in which users performed a web-based task on a smartphone with either a large (5.3 inches) or a small (3.7 inches) screen. Results show that a large screen, compared to a small screen, is likely to lead to higher smartphone adoption by simultaneously promoting both the utilitarian and hedonic qualities of smartphones, which in turn positively influence perceived ease of use of-and attitude toward-the device respectively. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  11. GenASiS Basics: Object-oriented utilitarian functionality for large-scale physics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cardall, Christian Y

    2015-01-01

    Aside from numerical algorithms and problem setup, large-scale physics simulations on distributed-memory supercomputers require more basic utilitarian functionality, such as physical units and constants; display to the screen or standard output device; message passing; I/O to disk; and runtime parameter management and usage statistics. Here we describe and make available Fortran 2003 classes furnishing extensible object-oriented implementations of this sort of rudimentary functionality, along with individual `unit test' programs and larger example problems demonstrating their use. These classes compose the Basics division of our developing astrophysics simulation code GenASiS (General Astrophysical Simulation System), but their fundamental nature makes them useful for physics simulations in many fields.

  12. “Case 1393”: A Case of Victimization, Unclaimed by either Retributivism or Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerasel Cuteanu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Case 1393 was made famous by a journalistic investigation, published by a Romanian newspaper, 7 years ago. This case is an example of judicial error, but also an example of how a superficial act of justice turns the very justice into its contrary. The result of this error was the sentencing of an innocent man to 20 years of prison. Such judicial errors prove that justice is possible in a society, only if responsibility for a wrongdoing is properly assigned to the offender; more than that, punishing the wrong person cannot be justified by either retributivism or utilitarianism, while the institution of punishment falls between the two. Such thing troubles the very structure of society that loses the balance, made possible by the principles of fairness and justice (Rawls. The interesting thing about case 1393 is that Romanian justice system did not recognize its error; instead, it fought to cover it up.

  13. [Changes in the transplantation world--from altruism to a utilitarian approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Eytan

    2006-10-01

    The lack of organs for transplantation is a worldwide problem that has created a moral conflict between the traditional altruistic basis of organ donation and alternative solutions based on utilitarian grounds. Survival of grafts achieved in recent decades after unrelated living-donor kidney transplantation between spouses is longer than with deceased donor transplantation. This experience justified the extension of kidney donation beyond the traditional close family relationships including: anonymous donors and paired exchange programs. However, unrelated donation of kidneys within altruistic norms could not provide an ultimate solution for the lack of organs for transplantation. On the other hand, globalization and development of advanced medical technology in developing countries that do not provide transplantation for all their citizens, created an opportunity for a worldwide flourish of transplant tourism as an alternative solution for transplant candidates. Transplant tourism functions according to market laws and is profit-driven, as opposed to the legal organ exchange programs in Europe and the U.S.A., which are non-profit and patient-oriented. The transition from trade in kidneys from unrelated living-donors to the use of other organs (heart, lung and liver) from death penalty prisoners in China was only a matter of deciding where to lay the moral border when justifying the act for the sake of life-saving. Considering the inability of current legal altruistic transplantation practice to supply the growing need for organs, healthcare authorities and professional transplantation organizations have to tackle the donor crisis by designing legally acceptable utilitarian solutions. For instance, through the formation of international organ exchange programs under formal agreements or, in the case of kidney transplantation, through the establishment of a regulated compensated donation system.

  14. Brain activation in complex partial seizures during switching from a the goal-directed task to a resting state: comparison of fMRI maps to the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmonik, Christof; Dulay, Mario; Verma, Amit; Yen, Christopher; Grossman, Robert G

    2010-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been previously identified as a set of brain regions activated during internally directed cognition. The objective of this study was to investigate patterns of brain activation during switching between a goal-directed task and a rest period obtained from clinical functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigms in complex partial seizures (CPS) and age-matched controls. As part of pre-surgical evaluation with fMRI, a visually presented block-design language task was performed by eight subjects (4 CPS, 4 age-matched controls). Single subject fMRI maps were calculated and transferred into Talairach space for an atlas-based analysis. For the rest state, total volumes of activation, brain regions with largest volume of activation and regions commonly activated in the CPS and the control group were identified. A voxel-by-voxel comparison was conducted to reveal inter-group statistically significant differences. Average volume of activation in the CPS group was significantly higher (32,080 mm(3)) than in the control group (7,915 mm(3), p-value 〈 0.03). In both groups, most of the common activation volume (81% in the CPS group and 98 % in the control group) was located in cognitive regions of the frontal lobe and temporal lobes as well as anterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and cuneus. The remaining 19% in the CPS group included regions in the precentral gyrus, the superior and medial occipital gyrus, the parahippocampal gyrus, the inferior parietal lobule and the angular gyrus. The voxel-by-voxel comparison showed larger areas of activation mostly in the frontal and temporal lobes in the CPS group (as well as in the cuneus and precuneus), while regions with larger activation in the control group were found mostly in the parietal lobe. Our findings implicate that switching from goal-directed behavior to the default mode in CPS patients is impaired. Information contained in clinical fMRI block-design image data can be used to

  15. The integrated model of smartphone adoption: hedonic and utilitarian value perceptions of smartphones among Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Heasun; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Daejoong

    2012-09-01

    This study aims to propose an integrated model of smartphone adoption that incorporates social influences (SIs), perceived technicality, as well as hedonic and utilitarian attitudes into the technology acceptance model. The proposed model was empirically evaluated by using survey data collected from 239 Korean college students to investigate their perception and attitudes toward smartphone adoption intention. Our results show that users' attitudes and their adoption intention are highly influenced by SI and positive self-image. This implies that a smartphone is a symbolic product that can signal affiliation and enhance the users' status in a group. The results also indicate that hedonic enjoyment is equally important as utilitarian usefulness in predicting the adoption intention, and the two variables mediate the relationships between SI, positive self-image, perceived technicality, and the intention to use. Consequently, the results reveal that smartphones are convergent media that can be viewed as both task-oriented and entertainment-oriented devices.

  16. Switched on!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Like a star arriving on stage, impatiently followed by each member of CERN personnel and by millions of eyes around the world, the first beam of protons has circulated in the LHC. After years in the making and months of increasing anticipation, today the work of hundreds of people has borne fruit. WELL DONE to all! Successfully steered around the 27 kilometres of the world’s most powerful particle accelerator at 10:28 this morning, this first beam of protons circulating in the ring marks a key moment in the transition from over two decades of preparation to a new era of scientific discovery. "It’s a fantastic moment," said the LHC project leader Lyn Evans, "we can now look forward to a new era of understanding about the origins and evolution of the universe". Starting up a major new particle accelerator takes much more than flipping a switch. Thousands of individual elements have to work in harmony, timings have to be synchronize...

  17. Perceptions of the Consumer on Product Based Innovation in the Context of Hedonic and Utilitarian Consumption: An Empirical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahit Erdem KÖKER

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current market where severe competition, rapid technological changes and developments take place in a global platform, companies must adapt to the developments and changes to be able to continue their being, not to fall behind time and to increase their profits. Companies which know their customers well, satisfy their expectations, needs and present the best products and services which best fit their wants, will gain competitive advantage. As well as having a need for products and services, also detecting what this need really means to the consumers are among important factors which generate consumers buying behaviour. The concept of “innovation” which is an important factor in consumers buying behaviour, is gradually increasing it’s importance. Companies aim at being innovative in their long term strategies, and being perceived like this by the consumers. Especially, perceived product based innovation by consumers is related with concepts as personal identity, social status, hedonic and utilitarian shopping. In this study, it is aimed to detect the interactions between; product based innovation, consumers personal innovation tendency, the meaning of purchase and consumption in means of identity, hedonic and utilitarian consumption behaviour. For this, a survey was applied to university students. The relations between the variables were defined by the analysis. In this concept, relations were detected between; product based innovation, hedonic and utilitarian consumption, social identity function of consumption and personal innovation tendencies.

  18. HEDONIC PREFERENCES AND UTILITARIAN JUSTIFICATIONS AT THE INTRODUCTION OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Jose Montero Arruda Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast technological upgrading attracts the development of new products in the market, converging into multiples uses and accesses, which has been presentedin the literature of new product development and systems integration. Due to their confront, this research places its study focus on the determinants of consumer preference for high technology product launch. The hedonic / social utility of the all-in-one products has a priority in utilitarian factors. The main objective of this work is to evaluate which factors influence the consumer preference of high technology users, using the Apple´s tablet (iPad as a research object to identify how its use decision is made. In this article, anetnographic study was carried out about the iPad consumer behavior, interpreting their needs through their experiences described in American websites for the discussion of the product. These sites present comments about the process of choice, preference and use of the iPad. The websites have also been used to collect the textual database which is coded, interpreted and presented through the description of how current and potential consumers use the analyzed product.

  19. Does Utilitarian Policy such as Smoking Cessation Lend Support to Wider Aspirin Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Morgan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco control policy seems to be based on a utilitarian principle that public health is best served by a range of measures that will provide overall population benefit. Aspirin may have a potential wider role since meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials shows it reduces the risk of a first vascular event and also cancer. Are smoking cessation and the public health potential of aspirin different? The benefit versus risk balance of aspirin, an inexpensive and easily available medicine, deserves serious consideration as a public health measure in middle age. Smoking cessation and wider aspirin use are not seen as either competing or duplicating policy areas, but complementary. Their comparison has been purposefully selected because of common impacts, namely reduced vascular disease and cancer with increases in undesirable effects, notably gastrointestinal pathology. Part of the driver for this paper is to convey the message that public health policy has benefits and risks and the concept of a universally effective policy is unrealistic. Is it time for public health action to increase the use of aspirin?

  20. “Imagining What We Know”: The Humanities in a Utilitarian Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Keen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ways that critics writing in the early nineteenth century developed arguments in favor of what we think of today as the humanities in the face of utilitarian pressures that dismissed the arts as self-indulgent pursuits incapable of addressing real-world problems. Its focus reflects the extent to which the financial crisis in our own day has manifested itself in a jarring shift in research priorities towards applied knowledge: a retrenchment which has foregrounded all over again the question of how to make the case for the value of the humanities. These problems, however, also constitute an important opportunity: a chance to re-imagine our answers to questions about the nature and role of the humanities, their potential benefits to contemporary life, and how we might channel these benefits back into the larger society. The good news is that in many ways, this self-reflexive challenge is precisely what the humanities have always done best: highlight the nature and the force of the narratives that have helped to define how we understand our society—its various pasts and its possible futures—and to suggest the larger contexts within which these issues must ultimately be situated. History repeats itself, but never in quite the same way: knowing more about past debates will provide a crucial basis for moving forward as we position themselves to respond to new social, economic, technological, and cultural challenges during an age of radical change.

  1. 系统功利主义的论证及其理论意义%An Argument on System Utilitarianism and Its Theoretical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓环

    2015-01-01

    System utilitarianism is a kind of latest theoretical research results of utilitarianism from the perspective of the overall system of it,which tries to solve the conflict between Kant’s deontology and utilitarianism,to reconcile the conflict between rule utilitarianism and behavior utilitarianism at the same time,and to unite deontology with utilitarianism,rule utilitarianism and behavior utilitarianism.The idea of system utilitarianism,proposed by Zhang HuaXia and been revised and further improved by Chen XiaoPing,is an effective attempt of moral philosophy stand-ardization and scientification with strong theoretical significance,which unifies deontology and utilitarianism and re-inforces the applicability and practicality of the theoretical system by distinguishing social morality from individual virtues.%系统功利主义思想是一种从系统整体的角度对功利主义理论展开研究的最新成果,它试图解决康德道义论与功利主义之争,同时调和规则功利主义与行为功利主义之间的对立,把道义论与功利主义、规则功利主义与行为功利主义统合起来。由张华夏提出的系统功利主义思想经过陈晓平的修正与改进得以进一步完善。系统功利主义思想是一种道德哲学规范化和科学化的有效尝试,统合了道义论与功利主义,通过区分公德与私德强化了理论体系的应用性与实践性,具有较强的理论意义。

  2. Examining Users' E-Satisfaction in the Usage of Social Networking Sites; Contribution from Utilitarian and Hedonic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Shan, Tay Kai; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ishak, Nawawi; Ridzuan Wahi, Mohd

    2014-06-01

    E-satisfaction (eSAT) is an important success factor of online service providers such as social networking sites (SNSs). The utilitarian and hedonic information systems are crucial in determining users' eSAT of SNSs, especially among young users. The utilitarian aspect of an information system is productivity-oriented which aims to enhance the users' task performance, and it is important in measuring eSAT of SNSs. In this study, the original constructs of Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU) and Perceived Usefulness (PU) of TAM of utilitarian information system was first developed in this research framework. The use of SNSs, such as Facebook, is pleasure-oriented, in which self-fulfilling values to the users are important in determining users' satisfaction towards the SNSs. Therefore, Perceived Enjoyment (PE) of hedonic information system is added to the framework. Thus, the research framework of this study includes both utilitarian (PEOU and PU) and hedonic (PE) aspects of information systems to determine Malaysian young users' eSAT in the usage of Facebook, a social networking site. In this framework, the effects of PEOU, PU and PE on eSAT in the usage of Facebook are examined among Facebook's users in the age of 18 - 24 years old. The effects of PEOU on PU and PE are also examined. Online questionnaire survey was employed and a total of 384 sets of questionnaires were gathered from users of Facebook. The results indicated that PEOU has positive effects on PU and PE in the context of Facebook. In addition, PEOU, PU and PE are also found to have positive effects on eSAT. PE of hedonic information system exerted higher effect on eSAT, compared to PEOU and PU of utilitarian information system, highlighting the importance of pleasure orientation in the usage of Facebook of SNSs. Managerial and theoretical implications of the study are discussed in term of measuring and enhancing users' eSAT in the usage of SNSs, particularly Facebook.

  3. Latching micro optical switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

    2013-05-21

    An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

  4. Comparison between Bentham and Mill's Utilitarianism%边沁与密尔的功利主义思想的比较及现实价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁景时; 孙剑

    2009-01-01

    The history of the thought of utilitarianism went back to the ancient times. Bentham and Mill are the main representatives. Based on the comprehensive comparison between Bentham and Mill's utilitarianism, the paper focuses on analyzing the similarities and differences, and elucidates Mill's complement and development to Bentham's utilitarianism from the free-dom and justice, tries to further interpret the utilitarianism by the methods of analysis and comparison. Bentham and Mill's utilitarianism have the important practical significance for the social development of our country.%功利主义思想的产生发展历程源远流长,边沁和密尔是其主要代表人物,该文立足于全面系统地对边沁和密尔的功利主义思想进行比较,着重挖掘和分析了二者的相同点和不同点,同时,阐发了密尔在自由和正义两方面对边沁功利主义进行的补充和发展,试图通过整个分析比较的方法立主深入解读功利主义,并进一步认为边沁与密尔的功利主义思想对我国社会的发展具有重要的现实意义.

  5. Optical packet switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1999-01-01

    Optical packet switched networks are investigated with emphasis on the performance of the packet switch blocks. Initially, the network context of the optical packet switched network is described showing that a packet network will provide transparency, flexibility and bridge the granularity gap...... between the electrical switched layer and the WDM transport layer. Analytical models are implemented to determine the signal quality ghrough the switch blocks in terms of power penalty and to assess the traffic performance of different switch block architectures. Further, a computer simulation model...... is used to investigate the influence on the traffic performance of asynchronous operation of the switch blocks. The signal quality investigation illustrates some of the component requirements in respect to gain saturation in SOA gates and crosstalk in order to obtain high cascadability of the switch...

  6. Remote switch actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan

    2013-01-29

    The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.

  7. Perancangan Switch Matrik Besar Menggunakan Array Switch Analog Zarlink

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Secara tradisional, perancangan sebuah switch matrik yang besar dilakukan dengan menggunakan switch-switch elektromekanik. Dengan demikian, banyak bagian yang bergerak yang digunakan untuk membangun switch matrik ini. Dengan kemajuan bidang elektronik, switch elektromekanik saat ini dapat digantikan dengan switch-switch semikonduktor yang ekivalen yang menawarkan solusi yang lebih ekonomis dan memiliki keandalan yang lebih baik. Rumpun switch crosspoint analog Zarlink dapat disusun dengan mud...

  8. Circuit switched optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Some of the most important components required for enabling optical networking are investigated through both experiments and modelling. These all-optical components are the wavelength converter, the regenerator and the space switch. When these devices become "off-the-shelf" products, optical cross...... are often considered as a part of the optical cross-connect, where also optical space switching is performed. Therefore, space switching based on both optical gates and interferometric switches is investigated. Moreover, an experiment including both space switching and wavelength conversion is carried out...

  9. Design of two-layer switching rule for stabilization of switched linear systems with mismatched switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan MA

    2014-01-01

    A two-layer switching architecture and a two-layer switching rule for stabilization of switched linear control systems are proposed, under which the mismatched switching between switched systems and their candidate hybrid controllers can be allowed. In the low layer, a state-dependent switching rule with a dwell time constraint to exponentially stabilize switched linear systems is given;in the high layer, supervisory conditions on the mismatched switching frequency and the mismatched switching ratio are presented, under which the closed-loop switched system is still exponentially stable in case of the candidate controller switches delay with respect to the subsystems. Different from the traditional switching rule, the two-layer switching architecture and switching rule have robustness, which in some extend permit mismatched switching between switched subsystems and their candidate controllers.

  10. Examination on Utilitarian Vocational Education%浅论职业教育功利化现象审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白永宏

    2011-01-01

    Utilitarianism is more and more seriously in China's talent training of vocational education. Utilitarian tendency is reflect of "instrumental rationalism" in vocational education, and is a hidden risk. From the views of division of labor in society. essence of vocational education, and social actual situation, it is the task of top priority to combine instrumental rationality and value rationality, take human development as logic to realize the transform of vocational education model.%当前我国职业教育人才培养过程中的功利化不断凸显.功利化倾向是"工具理性主义"在职业教育领域的具体体现,是一种潜藏的危机.从社会分工、职业教育本质以及社会现实条件的整体视角,把工具理性和价值理性有机结合起来,以"人"的发展为逻辑,实现职业教育范式的转换,乃当务之急.

  11. Symbolic or utilitarian? Juggling interpretations of Neanderthal behavior: new inferences from the study of engraved stone surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peresani, Marco; Dallatorre, Stefania; Astuti, Paola; Dal Colle, Maurizio; Ziggiotti, Sara; Peretto, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Different categories of finds reveal how Neanderthals have manifested at different moments behaviors not ascribable to the utilitarian sphere, but to the aesthetic or symbolic. When the majority of this evidence dates to the few millennia that preceded the spread of Anatomically Modern Humans in Europe, these are grounds to continue the debate regarding the emergence of complex behavior, seen as an autonomous phenomenon of Neanderthal man or as the result of contact with immigrant populations. Re-examination of pebbles or flaked stones, a large part of such evidence, using a rigorous technological and taphonomic approach integrated with experimental tests, has already revealed these materials to be insignificant or natural, rather than anthropic, in origin. The following work seeks to shed light on the uncertainty existing around those stones and lithic artefacts bearing surface lines and scratches; these are of doubtful anthropic origin, but have not, as yet, been definitively interpreted. Generally, these findings are occasional in Mousterian sites, and when they are recovered with an excellent degree of preservation, different methods and levels of observation can be used for investigating them. The case studies taken into account are three sites in north Italy, where the surfaces of pebbles and flakes reveal a variety of signs and modifications attributable to various utilitarian acts. Of these, preventive cleaning of flint nodules has not been excluded, even if the traces on some tools reveal intentionality and repetition of gestures applied to the construction of a curated artifact.

  12. The moral code in Islam and organ donation in Western countries: reinterpreting religious scriptures to meet utilitarian medical objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2014-06-02

    End-of-life organ donation is controversial in Islam. The controversy stems from: (1) scientifically flawed medical criteria of death determination; (2) invasive perimortem procedures for preserving transplantable organs; and (3) incomplete disclosure of information to consenting donors and families. Data from a survey of Muslims residing in Western countries have shown that the interpretation of religious scriptures and advice of faith leaders were major barriers to willingness for organ donation. Transplant advocates have proposed corrective interventions: (1) reinterpreting religious scriptures, (2) reeducating faith leaders, and (3) utilizing media campaigns to overcome religious barriers in Muslim communities. This proposal disregards the intensifying scientific, legal, and ethical controversies in Western societies about the medical criteria of death determination in donors. It would also violate the dignity and inviolability of human life which are pertinent values incorporated in the Islamic moral code. Reinterpreting religious scriptures to serve the utilitarian objectives of a controversial end-of-life practice, perceived to be socially desirable, transgresses the Islamic moral code. It may also have deleterious practical consequences, as donors can suffer harm before death. The negative normative consequences of utilitarian secular moral reasoning reset the Islamic moral code upholding the sanctity and dignity of human life.

  13. Over the blade--on literary utilitarianism%越过刀锋--文学功利性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟倩

    2014-01-01

    文学的功利性属性已经众所周知,面对生活的无奈,很多人求助于美学、哲学。叔本华把艺术当做是生命意志的暂时休歇,阿多诺把文学作为救赎之路,暂且不论文学能否助我们越过刀锋,文学功利性的关键不是本体论而是认识论,不在乎本身是什么,关键在于被人们当作什么。不在于能否带领人类走出终极困惑,而是如何调整心态,积极的存在于现实。%The Utilitarian attribute of literature is as everyone knows, facing the helpless of life, many people turn to aesthetics, philosophy. Schopenhauer put the art as atemporary retreat will of life, Adorno to literature as a way of salvation,regardless of literature can or not help us across the blade, utilitarian literature is not the key to ontology but epistemology, don't care what it is, the key lies in.Is not whether to lead the human race out of the ultimate puzzle, but how toad just the attitude, positive reality.

  14. "Lean not on your own understanding": Belief that morality is founded on divine authority and non-utilitarian moral judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Piazza

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that religious individuals are much more resistant to utilitarian modes of thinking than their less religious counterparts, but the reason for this is not clear. We propose that a meta-ethical belief that morality is rooted in inviolable divine commands (i.e., endorsement of Divine Command Theory may help explain this finding. We present a novel 20-item scale measuring a belief that morality is founded on divine authority. The scale shows good internal reliability and convergent and discriminant validity. Study 1 found that this scale fully mediated the relationship that various religiosity measures had with a deontological thinking style in our sample of American adults. It also accounted for the link between religiosity and social conservative values. Furthermore, the relationship between the scale and these outcome variables held after statistically controlling for variables related to actively open-minded thinking and the Big Five. Study 2 replicated the results using naturalistic moral dilemmas that placed deontological and utilitarian concerns in conflict, and showed that the results of Study 1 cannot be explained by differences in moral foundations (e.g., concern for authority more generally or differences in the perceived function of rules. Quite the contrary, endorsement of the divine origins of morality fully mediated the relationship religiosity had with the so-called ``binding'' foundations (i.e., Loyalty, Authority, and Sanctity. Our findings highlight the importance of meta-ethical beliefs for understanding individual differences in moral judgment.

  15. Saturated Switching Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah

    2012-01-01

    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  16. On College Students' Tendency to Utilitarianism in their Studies%论大学生学习的功利化倾向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐如前

    2004-01-01

    Since the implementation of market economy, college students' tendency towards utilitarianism has become more and more serious, thus bringing utmost negative influence on both themselves and the society as a whole. The essay expounds on this phenomenon, and its causes and suggests measures for the rectification.

  17. On the Causes and Countermeasures of the Utilitarianism of Higher Education%试论高等教育功利化的原因及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰洋

    2014-01-01

    随着市场经济的繁荣发展与社会结构的不断变化,功利主义思潮弥漫各大高校,导致高等教育功利化倾向愈加明显。高等教育的功利化倾向导致高校人才培养质量的下降,造成整体教育水平的失衡。为此,高等教育工作者要尽快转变管理方式,走出高等教育功利化的误区。%With the continuous change of social structure and the prosperity and development of market economy, utilitarianism diffuses in universities, resulting in more and more obvious utili-tarian tendency of higher education. The utilitarian tendency of higher education leads to the decline of the quality of personnel training in colleges and universities, and the imbalance of the overall level of education. Therefore, higher education workers must change the management mode as soon as possible, and walk out of misunderstanding of higher education utilitarianism.

  18. FreeSWITCH Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Minessale, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This is a problem-solution approach to take your FreeSWITCH skills to the next level, where everything is explained in a practical way. If you are a system administrator, hobbyist, or someone who uses FreeSWITCH on a regular basis, this book is for you. Whether you are a FreeSWITCH expert or just getting started, this book will take your skills to the next level.

  19. Single Atom Plasmonic Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Emboras, Alexandros; Niegemann, Jens; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2015-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moores law in the electronics industry. And while electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling-similar to electronics-is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled single atom plasmonic switch. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individ...

  20. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Emboras, A.; Niegemann, J.; Ma, P.; Haffner, C; Pedersen, A.; Luisier, M.; Hafner, C.; Schimmel, T.; Leuthold, J.

    2016-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore’s law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocat...

  1. Platform switching and bone platform switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, Francesco; Brunelli, Giorgio; Danza, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    Bone platform switching involves an inward bone ring in the coronal part of the implant that is in continuity with the alveolar bone crest. Bone platform switching is obtained by using a dental fixture with a reverse conical neck. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of conventional vs reverse conical neck implants. In the period between May 2004 and November 2007, 86 patients (55 females and 31 males; median age, 53 years) were operated and 234 implants were inserted: 40 and 194 were conventional vs reverse conical neck implants, respectively. Kaplan-Meier algorithm and Cox regression were used to detect those variables associated with the clinical outcome. No differences in survival and success rates were detected between conventional vs reverse conical neck implants alone or in combination with any of the studied variables. Although bone platform switching leads to several advantages, no statistical difference in alveolar crest resorption is detected in comparison with reverse conical neck implants. We suppose that the proximity of the implant abutment junction to the alveolar crestal bone gives no protection against the microflora contained in the micrograph. Additional studies on larger series and a combination of platform switching and bone platform switching could lead to improved clinical outcomes.

  2. Hare’s Saving to Utilitarianism and Collapse%黑尔对功利主义的拯救及其坍塌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾凌昌

    2014-01-01

    面对功利主义的困境,黑尔继续西季威克直觉功利主义的论证,对其进行了极力的拯救。通过在批判层面采取功利主义,在直觉或实践层面选取个人生活指南的方式,黑尔似乎找到了破解功利主义困境的方式。然而,此种论证不可避免地在这两个层面之外形成了遗漏的空间,虽然黑尔试图以做理想之事或正确之事倾向性性格的形成对遗漏进行再次挽救,但由于其没有真正回归康德最终也导致了其对功利主义拯救的无情坍塌。%In the face of the predicament of utilitarianism,Hare continued Sidgwick's argument of intui-tion utilitarian and tried to save utilitarianism.Through taking utilitarianism in critical level,selecting living guiding way of individuals,Hare seemed to find the access to crack the dilemma of utilitarian-ism.However,such efforts formed the omission of spaces in two aspects inevitably.Though Hare tried to save it through tendency character formation of doing ideal or right thing,but it collapsed because he could not return to Kant.

  3. Optimal switching using coherent control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Heuck, Mikkel; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    that the switching time, in general, is not limited by the cavity lifetime. Therefore, the total energy required for switching is a more relevant figure of merit than the switching speed, and for a particular two-pulse switching scheme we use calculus of variations to optimize the switching in terms of input energy....

  4. 茅盾的功利性选择%Mao Dun's Choice in a Utilitarian Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志慧

    2011-01-01

    Mao Dun's life is great,who is famous as a revolutionist and a man of letters.He made a significant contribution.All these are closely related with his choice in a utilitarian way.This text will explore them.%茅盾的一生是伟大的,主要表现在他作为革命家和文学家对国家和人民做出的贡献上。而这样的贡献的取得与茅盾的功利性选择是密切相关的。本文将从功利性选择方面对茅盾进行分析。

  5. 《史记》中功利价值的悲剧性%Tragedy of Utilitarian Value in Shiji

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪波

    2012-01-01

    The tragic spirit revealed in Shift has been highly praised by scholars. Taking Han Xin as an example, this paper is intended to discuss the tragedy of the male character in Shift resulting from the utilitarian value in the development of history, so as to have a deep understanding of the tragic historical phenomenon demonstrated in Shift.%《史记》以其文中处处彰显的悲剧精神而备受学界推崇,本文尝试以韩信等为典范,探讨《史记》中豪雄人格在历史发展趋势下表现的功利价值导致其悲剧性这一现象,从而深入理解《史记》所要表现的悲剧性历史现象。

  6. Nanoarchitectonic atomic switch networks for unconventional computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demis, Eleanor C.; Aguilera, Renato; Scharnhorst, Kelsey; Aono, Masakazu; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.

    2016-11-01

    Developments in computing hardware are constrained by the operating principles of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, fabrication limits of nanometer scaled features, and difficulties in effective utilization of high density interconnects. This set of obstacles has promulgated a search for alternative, energy efficient approaches to computing inspired by natural systems including the mammalian brain. Atomic switch network (ASN) devices are a unique platform specifically developed to overcome these current barriers to realize adaptive neuromorphic technology. ASNs are composed of a massively interconnected network of atomic switches with a density of ∼109 units/cm2 and are structurally reminiscent of the neocortex of the brain. ASNs possess both the intrinsic capabilities of individual memristive switches, such as memory capacity and multi-state switching, and the characteristics of large-scale complex systems, such as power-law dynamics and non-linear transformations of input signals. Here we describe the successful nanoarchitectonic fabrication of next-generation ASN devices using combined top-down and bottom-up processing and experimentally demonstrate their utility as reservoir computing hardware. Leveraging their intrinsic dynamics and transformative input/output (I/O) behavior enabled waveform regression of periodic signals in the absence of embedded algorithms, further supporting the potential utility of ASN technology as a platform for unconventional approaches to computing.

  7. Quantum cryptography without switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedbrook, Christian; Lance, Andrew M; Bowen, Warwick P; Symul, Thomas; Ralph, Timothy C; Lam, Ping Koy

    2004-10-22

    We propose a new coherent state quantum key distribution protocol that eliminates the need to randomly switch between measurement bases. This protocol provides significantly higher secret key rates with increased bandwidths than previous schemes that only make single quadrature measurements. It also offers the further advantage of simplicity compared to all previous protocols which, to date, have relied on switching.

  8. Optical switching device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, F.J.A. den; Hanzen, R.M.N.; Duine, P.A.; Jungblut, R.M.; Draijer, C.; Roozeboom, F.; Sluis, P. van der

    2000-01-01

    A description is given of an optical switching device (1) comprising a transparent substrate (3), a switching film (5) of a hydride compound of a trivalent transition or rare earth metal having a thickness of 300 nm, and a palladium capping layer (7) having a thickness of 30 nm. The capping layer is

  9. Switch on, switch off: stiction in nanoelectromechanical switches

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Till J W

    2013-06-13

    We present a theoretical investigation of stiction in nanoscale electromechanical contact switches. We develop a mathematical model to describe the deflection of a cantilever beam in response to both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Particular focus is given to the question of whether adhesive van der Waals forces cause the cantilever to remain in the \\'ON\\' state even when the electrostatic forces are removed. In contrast to previous studies, our theory accounts for deflections with large slopes (i.e. geometrically nonlinear). We solve the resulting equations numerically to study how a cantilever beam adheres to a rigid electrode: transitions between \\'free\\', \\'pinned\\' and \\'clamped\\' states are shown to be discontinuous and to exhibit significant hysteresis. Our findings are compared to previous results from linearized models and the implications for nanoelectromechanical cantilever switch design are discussed. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. Single Atom Plasmonic Switch

    CERN Document Server

    Emboras, Alexandros; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2015-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moores law in the electronics industry. And while electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling-similar to electronics-is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled single atom plasmonic switch. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or at most - a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ration of 10 dB and operation at room temperature with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of a CMOS compatible, integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the single-atom level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully i...

  11. Optical packet switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekel, Eyal; Ruschin, Shlomo; Majer, Daniel; Levy, Jeff; Matmon, Guy; Koenigsberg, Lisa; Vecht, Jacob; Geron, Amir; Harlavan, Rotem; Shfaram, Harel; Arbel, Arnon; McDermott, Tom; Brewer, Tony

    2005-02-01

    We report here a scalable, multichassis, 6.3 terabit core router, which utilizes our proprietary optical switch. The router is commercially available and deployed in several customer sites. Our solution combines optical switching with electronic routing. An internal optical packet switching network interconnects the router"s electronic line cards, where routing and buffering functions take place electronically. The system architecture and performance will be described. The optical switch is based on Optical Phased Array (OPA) technology. It is a 64 x 64, fully non-blocking, optical crossbar switch, capable of switching in a fraction of a nanosecond. The basic principles of operation will be explained. Loss and crosstalk results will be presented, as well as the results of BER measurements of a 160 Gbps transmission through one channel. Basic principles of operation and measured results will be presented for the burst-mode-receivers, arbitration algorithm and synchronization. Finally, we will present some of our current research work on a next-generation optical switch. The technological issues we have solved in our internal optical packet network can have broad applicability to any global optical packet network.

  12. JUNOS Enterprise Switching

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Harry

    2009-01-01

    JUNOS Enterprise Switching is the only detailed technical book on Juniper Networks' new Ethernet-switching EX product platform. With this book, you'll learn all about the hardware and ASIC design prowess of the EX platform, as well as the JUNOS Software that powers it. Not only is this extremely practical book a useful, hands-on manual to the EX platform, it also makes an excellent study guide for certification exams in the JNTCP enterprise tracks. The authors have based JUNOS Enterprise Switching on their own Juniper training practices and programs, as well as the configuration, maintenanc

  13. A Metabolic Switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    Our muscles are metabolically flexible, i.e., they are capable of `switching' between two types of oxidation: (1) when fasting, a predominantly lipid oxidation with high rates of fatty acid uptake, and (2) when fed, suppression of lipid oxidation in favour of increased glucose uptake, oxidation...... and storage, in response to insulin. One of the many manifestations of obesity and Type 2 diabetes is an insulin resistance of the skeletal muscles, which suppresses this metabolic switch. This talk describes recent development of a low-dimensional system of ODEs that model the metabolic switch, displaying...

  14. Photoconductive switch package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ca[rasp, George J

    2013-10-22

    A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.

  15. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College and Graduate School, The City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States); Jaafar, Reem [Department of Mathematics, Engineering and Computer Science, LaGuardia Community College, The City University of New York, 31-10 Thomson Avenue, Long Island City, New York 11101 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained.

  16. Stabilizing Randomly Switched Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Debasish

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with stability analysis and stabilization of randomly switched systems under a class of switching signals. The switching signal is modeled as a jump stochastic (not necessarily Markovian) process independent of the system state; it selects, at each instant of time, the active subsystem from a family of systems. Sufficient conditions for stochastic stability (almost sure, in the mean, and in probability) of the switched system are established when the subsystems do not possess control inputs, and not every subsystem is required to be stable. These conditions are employed to design stabilizing feedback controllers when the subsystems are affine in control. The analysis is carried out with the aid of multiple Lyapunov-like functions, and the analysis results together with universal formulae for feedback stabilization of nonlinear systems constitute our primary tools for control design

  17. Photonics in switching

    CERN Document Server

    Midwinter, John E; Kelley, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Photonics in Switching provides a broad, balanced overview of the use of optics or photonics in switching, from materials and devices to system architecture. The chapters, each written by an expert in the field, survey the key technologies, setting them in context and highlighting their benefits and possible applications. This book is a valuable resource for those working in the communications industry, either at the professional or student level, who do not have extensive background knowledge or the underlying physics of the technology.

  18. High Power Switching Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, P. L.; Kao, Y. C.; Carnahan, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Improved switching transistors handle 400-A peak currents and up to 1,200 V. Using large diameter silicon wafers with twice effective area as D60T, form basis for D7 family of power switching transistors. Package includes npn wafer, emitter preform, and base-contact insert. Applications are: 25to 50-kilowatt high-frequency dc/dc inverters, VSCF converters, and motor controllers for electrical vehicles.

  19. 功利主义思想对大学生的危害及对策%The Harm and Countermeasure of Utilitarianism to College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷锦章

    2016-01-01

    The utilitarianism thought mainly composed of three theoretical basis points, which are Pains-Pleasures principle, effect theory and utility principle. With the advance of globalization and the con⁃stant infiltration of the Western utilitarianism, it has a negative influence on the college students, so we must take effective measures to curb it, and guide them towards the right direction.%功利主义的思想主要由苦乐原理、效果论和功利原则三个理论基本点组成。随着全球化的推进,西方功利主义思想的不断渗透,当代大学生在无形中受到其负面影响严重,必须采取有效措施加以遏制,并引导其朝正确方向发展。

  20. Moral hypocrisy on the basis of construal level: to be a utilitarian personal decision maker or to be a moral advisor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiao

    Full Text Available People encounter various moral issues that involve making decisions for others by giving advice.This study investigated the characteristics of providing suggestions for oneself versus providing suggestions for others in ethical decision-making and the differences between them based on Construal Level Theory (CLT.A total of 768 undergraduate students from three universities in China were randomly assigned to eight groups on the basis of a grid of two Construal Levels (self or others by two different numbers of people saved (5 people or 15 people by two problem situations (trolley problem vs. footbridge problem. The investigation examined participants' decisions to opt to take action or refrain from action that would have the consequence of saving more people.The main effects of Construal Level (F1, 752 = 6.46, p = .011, saving number (F1, 752 = 35.81, p < .001, and problem situation type (F1, 752 = 330.55, p < .001 were all significant. The interaction of the problem situation and saving number (F1, 752 = 1.01, p = .31, and social distance and saving number (F1, 752 = 0.85, p = .36, and interaction of the three independent factors (F1, 752 = 0.47, p = .49 were not significant. However, the interaction of social distance and problem situation (F1, 752 = 9.46, p = .002 was significant. Results indicated the participants utilized a component of utilitarian reasoning in the decision-making, and their behaviors appeared more utilitarian at low Construal Levels (CLs compared to high.CLs, saving numbers, and problem situation significantly affected moral decision-making and exhibited significant interaction. Making decisions for oneself (low-construal rather than giving advice to others (high-construal was one important factor that determined whether the people were utilitarian or not. Utilitarian considerations are more relevant in impersonal dilemmas.

  1. The fox and the cabra: an ERP analysis of reading code switched nouns and verbs in bilingual short stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shukhan; Gonzalez, Christian; Wicha, Nicole Y Y

    2014-04-04

    Comprehending a language (or code) switch within a sentence context triggers 2 electrophysiological signatures: an early left anterior negativity post code switch onset - a LAN - followed by a Late Positive Component (LPC). Word class and word position modulate lexico-semantic processes in the monolingual brain, e.g., larger N400 amplitude for nouns than verbs and for earlier than later words in the sentence. Here we test whether the bilingual brain is affected by word class and word position when code switching, or if the cost of switching overrides these lexico-semantic and sentence context factors. Adult bilinguals read short stories in English containing 8 target words. Targets were nouns or verbs, occurred early or late in a story and were presented alternately in English (non-switch) or Spanish (switch) across different story versions. Overall, switched words elicited larger LAN and LPC amplitude than non-switched words. The N400 amplitude was larger for nouns than verbs, more focal for switches than non-switches, and for early than late nouns but not for early than late verbs. Moreover, an early LPC effect was observed only for switched nouns, but not verbs. Together, this indicates that referential elements (nouns) may be harder to process and integrate than relational elements (verbs) in discourse, and when switched, nouns incur higher integration cost. Word position did not modulate the code switching effects, implying that switching between languages may invoke discourse independent processes.

  2. TNFα in synaptic function: switching gears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santello, Mirko; Volterra, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Pathological brain states are known to induce massive production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). At much lower levels, these cytokines are also present in the healthy brain, where it is increasingly being recognized that they exert regulatory influences. Recent studies suggest that TNFα plays important roles in controlling synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, we discuss the evidence in support of synaptic regulation by TNFα and the underlying cellular mechanisms, including control of AMPA receptor trafficking and glutamate release from astrocytes. These findings suggest that increases in TNFα levels (caused by nervous system infection, injury, or disease) transform the physiological actions of the cytokine into deleterious ones. This functional switch may contribute to cognitive alterations in several brain pathologies.

  3. Low inductance gas switching.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.

    2007-10-01

    The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and

  4. Valence of emotions and moral decision-making: increased pleasantness to pleasant images and decreased unpleasantness to unpleasant images are associated with utilitarian choices in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eCarmona-Perera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Moral decision-making is a key asset for humans’ integration in social contexts, and the way we decide about moral issues seems to be strongly influenced by emotions. For example, individuals with deficits in emotional processing tend to deliver more utilitarian choices (accepting an emotionally aversive action in favor of communitarian well-being. However, little is known about the association between emotional experience and moral-related patterns of choice. We investigated whether subjective reactivity to emotional stimuli, in terms of valence, arousal and dominance, is associated with moral decision-making in 95 healthy adults. They answered to a set of Moral and Non-moral dilemmas and assessed emotional experience in valence, arousal and dominance dimensions in response to Neutral, Pleasant, Unpleasant Non-moral, and Unpleasant Moral pictures. Results showed significant correlations between less unpleasantness to negative stimuli, more pleasantness to positive stimuli and higher proportion of utilitarian choices. We also found a positive association between higher arousal ratings to negative moral laden pictures and more utilitarian choices. Low dominance was associated with greater perceived difficulty over moral judgment. These behavioral results are in fitting with the proposed role of emotional experience in moral choice.

  5. O critério utilitarista será adequado para situação de risco? Is the utilitarian criterion appropriate for situations of risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Alves das Neves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O utilitarismo difere das teorias éticas que fazem o caráter de bom ou mau de uma ação depender do agente, pois, de acordo com o utilitarismo, é possível que uma ação boa venha resultar de uma motivação ruim no indivíduo. Antes de Jeremy Benthan, fundador do utilitarismo, e Stuart Mill, um dos maiores defensores desta teoria, darem forma ao utilitarismo, o pensamento utilitarista já existia na filosofia antiga inspirado na formulação do princípio da utilidade. Partilhavam a ideia de construir uma ciência positiva dos fatos sociais, afastando-se de qualquer pretensão de encontrar princípios ou verdades absolutas.Utilitarianism differs from ethical theories in which good or evil depend on the agent, since, according to utilitarian thinkers, a good action may result from bad intentions. Before Jeremy Bentham, the founder of the theory, and John Stuart Mill, its strongest advocate, gave utilitarianism its modern form, such kinds of thinking based on the principle of utility had already existed in the philosophy of the ancients. They shared the idea of building up a positive science of social facts, devoid of any quest for first principles or absolute truths.

  6. Individuality: Beyond Bentham's Utilitarianism%个性理论:密尔对边沁式功利主义的超越

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂琳

    2012-01-01

    The British utilitarianism represented by Jeremy Bentham has a reductionist orientation. John Stuart Mill accepted the British Romantic literature and continental philosophy. He overcame the tendency of the analyti- cal methods and determinism of utilitarianism and stressed the cultivation of the human heart and free will. His basis on human nature is the ability of free choice and experiment. He developed the Individuality, which is dif- ferent from Jeremy Bentham's utilitarianism, as the basis of his theory of liberalism and had a profound impact.%以边沁为代表的英国功利主义具有一种还原论取向,密尔接受英国浪漫主义文学及欧陆哲学的影响,克服功利主义只重视分析方法的唯科学主义及决定论倾向,开始重视人的内心修养、意志自由等问题,把"自由选择与自由试验"的能力作为其人性观的基础,发展出不同于边沁式功利主义的"个性"理论。这种个性理论成为他自由主义理论的基础,产生了深远影响。

  7. Valence of emotions and moral decision-making: increased pleasantness to pleasant images and decreased unpleasantness to unpleasant images are associated with utilitarian choices in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Perera, Martina; Martí-García, Celia; Pérez-García, Miguel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Moral decision-making is a key asset for humans’ integration in social contexts, and the way we decide about moral issues seems to be strongly influenced by emotions. For example, individuals with deficits in emotional processing tend to deliver more utilitarian choices (accepting an emotionally aversive action in favor of communitarian well-being). However, little is known about the association between emotional experience and moral-related patterns of choice. We investigated whether subjective reactivity to emotional stimuli, in terms of valence, arousal, and dominance, is associated with moral decision-making in 95 healthy adults. They answered to a set of moral and non-moral dilemmas and assessed emotional experience in valence, arousal and dominance dimensions in response to neutral, pleasant, unpleasant non-moral, and unpleasant moral pictures. Results showed significant correlations between less unpleasantness to negative stimuli, more pleasantness to positive stimuli and higher proportion of utilitarian choices. We also found a positive association between higher arousal ratings to negative moral laden pictures and more utilitarian choices. Low dominance was associated with greater perceived difficulty over moral judgment. These behavioral results are in fitting with the proposed role of emotional experience in moral choice. PMID:24133433

  8. 当代大学生功利化倾向及对策研究%Research on the Utilitarian Tendency of Contemporary University Students and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立新; 张晓霞

    2016-01-01

    当代大学生的价值观变化在市场经济体制作用下日趋明显,部分大学生表现出功利化倾向。大学生功利化倾向的价值观涉及其生活、学习等多个方面,本文着重从学习观、恋爱观及价值观等三个方面进行论述,通过论述分析大学生功利化倾向这一现象并提出一定的矫正策略,使其明确学习观念、端正恋爱观念,形成正确的价值观念。%The change of contemporary university students' values is increasingly obvious under the impact of the market economy system,and some university students tend to be utilitarian. The utilitarian values of university students involve various aspects including their life and learning. This paper focuses on the out-look on learning,the outlook on love and the outlook on values, analyzing the utilitarian tendency of university students and proposing certain correction strategies,aiming to make them make clear their outlook on learning,correct their outlook on love and form correct outlook on values.

  9. Plant stem bark extractivism in the northeast semiarid region of Brazil: a new aport to utilitarian redundancy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Júnior, Washington Soares; Siqueira, Clarissa Fernanda Queiroz; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-01-01

    We use the model of utilitarian redundancy as a basis for research. This model provides predictions that have not been tested by other research. In this sense, we sought to investigate the stem bark extraction between preferred and less-preferred species by a rural community in Caatinga environment. In addition, we sought to explain local preferences to observe if preferred plants have a higher content of tannins than less-preferred species. For this, we selected seven preferred species and seven less-preferred species from information obtained from semistructured interviews applied to 49 informants. Three areas of vegetation around the community were also selected, in which individuals were tagged, and were measured the diameter at ground level (DGL) diameter at breast height (DBH), and measurements of available and extracted bark areas. Samples of bark of the species were also collected for the evaluation of tannin content, obtained by the method of radial diffusion. From the results, the preferred species showed a greater area of bark removed. However, the tannin content showed no significant differences between preferred and less-preferred plants. These results show there is a relationship between preference and use, but this preference is not related to the total tannins content.

  10. Plant Stem Bark Extractivism in the Northeast Semiarid Region of Brazil: A New Aport to Utilitarian Redundancy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the model of utilitarian redundancy as a basis for research. This model provides predictions that have not been tested by other research. In this sense, we sought to investigate the stem bark extraction between preferred and less-preferred species by a rural community in Caatinga environment. In addition, we sought to explain local preferences to observe if preferred plants have a higher content of tannins than less-preferred species. For this, we selected seven preferred species and seven less-preferred species from information obtained from semistructured interviews applied to 49 informants. Three areas of vegetation around the community were also selected, in which individuals were tagged, and were measured the diameter at ground level (DGL diameter at breast height (DBH, and measurements of available and extracted bark areas. Samples of bark of the species were also collected for the evaluation of tannin content, obtained by the method of radial diffusion. From the results, the preferred species showed a greater area of bark removed. However, the tannin content showed no significant differences between preferred and less-preferred plants. These results show there is a relationship between preference and use, but this preference is not related to the total tannins content.

  11. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emboras, Alexandros; Niegemann, Jens; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2016-01-13

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore's law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or, at most, a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ratio of 9.2 dB and operation at room temperature up to MHz with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of an integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the atomic level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully integrated and highly scalable chip platform, a platform where optics, electronics, and memory may be controlled at the single-atom level.

  12. Energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-08-01

    We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young\\'s modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young\\'s modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. On stability of switched linear systems with perturbed switching paths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the stability issue of switched linear systems with perturbed switching paths. First,by introducing thenotions of child-path and parent-path, we are able to define the distance between two switching paths by means of their switching matrices chains. Next, we present the nice properties of the defined distance. Then, a stability criterion is presented for a class of switched linear systems with perturbed switching paths. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to verify the effectiveness of the approach.

  14. Inflexible minds: impaired attention switching in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderikus G O M Smid

    Full Text Available Impairment of sustained attention is assumed to be a core cognitive abnormality in schizophrenia. However, this seems inconsistent with a recent hypothesis that in schizophrenia the implementation of selection (i.e., sustained attention is intact but the control of selection (i.e., switching the focus of attention is impaired. Mounting evidence supports this hypothesis, indicating that switching of attention is a bigger problem in schizophrenia than maintaining the focus of attention. To shed more light on this hypothesis, we tested whether schizophrenia patients are impaired relative to controls in sustaining attention, switching attention, or both. Fifteen patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and fifteen healthy volunteers, matched on age and intelligence, performed sustained attention and attention switching tasks, while performance and brain potential measures of selective attention were recorded. In the sustained attention task, patients did not differ from the controls on these measures. In the attention switching task, however, patients showed worse performance than the controls, and early selective attention related brain potentials were absent in the patients while clearly present in the controls. These findings support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with an impairment of the mechanisms that control the direction of attention (attention switching, while the mechanisms that implement a direction of attention (sustained attention are intact.

  15. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Schare, Joshua M.; Bunch, Kyle

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  16. Beyond the switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aliakseyeu, Dzmitry; Meerbeek, Bernt; Mason, Jon

    2014-01-01

    and established lighting network, and with the advent of the LED, new types of lighting output are now possible. However, the current approach for controlling such systems is to simply replace the light switch with a somewhat more sophisticated smartphone-based remote control. The focus of this workshop...... is to explore new ways of interacting with light where lighting can not only be switched on or off, but is an intelligent system embedded in the environment capable of creating a variety of effects. The connectivity between multiple systems and other ecosystems, for example when transitioning from your home...

  17. Optical Packet Switching Demostrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brian Bach; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2002-01-01

    In the IST project DAVID (data and voice integration over DWDM) work is carried out defining possible architectures of future optical packet switched networks. The feasibility of the architecture is to be verified in a demonstration set-up. This article describes the demonstrator set-up and the m......In the IST project DAVID (data and voice integration over DWDM) work is carried out defining possible architectures of future optical packet switched networks. The feasibility of the architecture is to be verified in a demonstration set-up. This article describes the demonstrator set...

  18. A Switched Capacitor Harmonic Compensation Part for Switching Supplies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    A new approach based on switched capacitor network to harmonic compensation for switching supplies is presented in the paper,The basic principle is discussed.SPICE simulation is applied to analyze the behaviour of the switched capacitor harmonic compensation part.

  19. Switch probability context (in)sensitivity within the cognitive control network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baene, Wouter; Brass, Marcel

    2013-08-15

    Cognitive control processes refer to the ability to flexibly adapt one's thoughts and actions in the pursuit of an internal goal. Task preparation is a central aspect of cognitive control and has generally been studied using explicitly cued task-switching paradigms. Over the last decade, numerous fMRI studies have identified a fronto-parietal network to exhibit greater activity during the preparation of task switches than during the preparation of task repetitions, which is assumed to reflect endogenous cognitive control processes. There is, however, a huge variability in preparatory switch-specific brain activity reported in the imaging literature on task-switching. One factor that might explain this heterogeneity is the difference in switch probability across studies. In the current fMRI study, we examined which preparation-related cognitive control areas are susceptible to such contextual differences by manipulating the switch probability within subjects. In the low switch probability (30% switch trials) blocks, we found the frequently observed switch-related preparatory activation in fronto-parietal areas. In the high switch probability (50% switch trials) blocks, however, only part of these areas (more particularly the (pre-) SMA, extending into the dorsal ACC and the superior parietal lobule) showed higher activation in switch compared to repeat trials. The activation levels in the other areas (the lateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus) were very similar for switch and repeat trials. Our results suggest a functional dissociation within the cognitive control network with some brain areas being sensitive to the switch probability context while others are not.

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  2. Photonic MEMS switch applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Anis

    2001-07-01

    As carriers and service providers continue their quest for profitable network solutions, they have shifted their focus from raw bandwidth to rapid provisioning, delivery and management of revenue generating services. Inherently transparent to data rate the transmission wavelength and data format, MEMS add scalability, reliability, low power and compact size providing flexible solutions to the management and/or fiber channels in long haul, metro, and access networks. MEMS based photonic switches have gone from the lab to commercial availability and are now currently in carrier trials and volume production. 2D MEMS switches offer low up-front deployment costs while remaining scalable to large arrays. They allow for transparent, native protocol transmission. 2D switches enable rapid service turn-up and management for many existing and emerging revenue rich services such as storage connectivity, optical Ethernet, wavelength leasing and optical VPN. As the network services evolve, the larger 3D MEMS switches, which provide greater scalability and flexibility, will become economically viable to serve the ever-increasing needs.

  3. Safe LPV Controller Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K

    2010-01-01

    Before switching to a new controller it is crucial to assure that the new closed loop will be stable. In this paper it is demonstrated how stability can be checked with limited measurement data available from the current closed loop. The paper extends an existing method to linear parameter varying...

  4. Switching Between Multivariable Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Abrahamsen, Rune

    2004-01-01

    it is possible to smoothly switch between multivariable controllers with guaranteed closed-loop stability. This includes also the case where one or more controllers are unstable. The concept for smooth online changes of multivariable controllers based on the YJBK architecture can also handle the start up...

  5. DIGITAL TELEPHONE SWITCH: SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Viveros Talavera

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of the program of control for a Digital Phone Switch (PBAX with a maximumcapacity of one hundred and twenty-eight lines (extensions and trunks. The control program was designedusing object-oriented programming and concurrent programming techniques.

  6. The Octopus switch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul Johannes Mattheus

    2000-01-01

    This chapter1 discusses the interconnection architecture of the Mobile Digital Companion. The approach to build a low-power handheld multimedia computer presented here is to have autonomous, reconfigurable modules such as network, video and audio devices, interconnected by a switch rather than by a

  7. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Closing photoconductive semiconductor switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; O' Malley, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most important limitations of Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches (PCSS) for pulsed power applications is the high laser powers required to activate the switches. In this paper, we discuss recent developments on two different aspects of GaAs PCSS that result in reductions in laser power by a factor of nearly 1000. The advantages of using GaAs over Si are many. First of all, the resistivity of GaAs can be orders of magnitude higher than that of the highest resistivity Si material, thus allowing GaAs switches to withstand dc voltages without thermal runaway. Secondly, GaAs has a higher carrier mobility than Si and, thus, is more efficient (per carrier). Finally, GaAs switches can have naturally fast (ns) opening times at room temperature and low fields, microsecond opening times at liquid nitrogen temperature of 77 K, or, on demand, closing and opening at high fields and room temperature by a mechanism called lock-on (see Ref. 1). By contrast, Si switches typically opening times of milliseconds. The amount of laser light required to trigger GaAs for lock-on, or at 77 K, is about three orders of magnitude lower than at room temperature. In this paper we describe the study of lock-on in GaAs and InP, as well as switching of GaAs at 77 K. We shall show that when GaAs is switched at 77 K, the carrier lifetime is about three orders of magnitude longer than it is at room temperature. We shall explain the change in lifetime in terms of the change in electron capture cross section of the deep levels in GaAs (these are defect or impurity levels in the band gap). In the second section, we describe the lock-on effect, now seen in GaAs and InP, and at fields as high as 70 kV/cm. We show how lock-on can be tailored by changing the GaAs temperature or by neutron bombardment. In the third section, we discuss possible lock-on mechanisms. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Molecular Rotors as Switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang L. Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR associated with the device. The analysis of the device

  10. Heat-transfer thermal switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedell, M. V.; Anderson, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal switch maintains temperature of planetary lander, within definite range, by transferring heat. Switch produces relatively large stroke and force, uses minimum electrical power, is lightweight, is vapor pressure actuated, and withstands sterilization temperatures without damage.

  11. Control synthesis of switched systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xudong; Niu, Ben; Wu, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    This book offers its readers a detailed overview of the synthesis of switched systems, with a focus on switching stabilization and intelligent control. The problems investigated are not only previously unsolved theoretically but also of practical importance in many applications: voltage conversion, naval piloting and navigation and robotics, for example. The book considers general switched-system models and provides more efficient design methods to bring together theory and application more closely than was possible using classical methods. It also discusses several different classes of switched systems. For general switched linear systems and switched nonlinear systems comprising unstable subsystems, it introduces novel ideas such as invariant subspace theory and the time-scheduled Lyapunov function method of designing switching signals to stabilize the underlying systems. For some typical switched nonlinear systems affected by various complex dynamics, the book proposes novel design approaches based on inte...

  12. 英国古典功利主义苦乐原理新解及现实意义%The new explanation and practical significance of British classical utilitarianism bittersweet principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊

    2014-01-01

    边沁是英国古典功利主义的开创者,“苦乐原理”是功利主义的基础,密尔在边沁理论的基础上完善了功利主义,把功利主义推上顶峰。本文试图从苦乐原理思想的来源,古典功利主义者对“苦乐原理”的继承、发展和“苦乐原理”的新解读及现实意义方面对功利主义作出综合梳理,消除人们对功利主义的偏见,激发它在现实社会中的新活力。%Bentham is the pioneer of British classical utilitarianism.“And the principle of ”is the basis of utilitarianism.Mill perfected the utilitarianism in based on the theory of Bentham and pushed it on top.This paper attempts from the source of“and the principle”and the classic utilitarianism scholars ’inheritance,development,new interpretation and realistic significance of“And the principle of”to make a comprehensive review.The purpose of this paper is to disple the prejudice to utilitarianism and stimulate new energy in real society.

  13. 超功利评价:课堂教学评价的应然选择%Evaluation of Ultra-utilitarian:An Inevitable Choice of Classroom Teaching Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明友

    2014-01-01

    The essence of modern classroom instruction is the coexistence of utilitarian value and non-utilitarian value.“Target ref-erence”model of classroom teaching evaluation is a particularly evident utilitarian value of the evaluation model,increasingly unsuited to the needs of educational reform. Evaluation of classroom teaching should be ultra-utilitarian and the realization of ultra-utilitarian e-valuation of classroom teaching should focus on the aestheticization of the evaluation criteria.%现代课堂教学的本质是功利性价值与非功利性价值并存。“目标参照”模式的课堂教学评价是一种功利价值特别明显的评价模式,已越来越不适应教育教学改革的需要。课堂教学评价的价值取向应该是超功利性的,实现课堂教学超功利评价的着眼点在于评价标准的审美化。

  14. Abacus switch: a new scalable multicast ATM switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, H. Jonathan; Park, Jin-Soo; Choe, Byeong-Seog

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a new architecture for a scalable multicast ATM switch from a few tens to thousands of input ports. The switch, called Abacus switch, has a nonblocking memoryless switch fabric followed by small switch modules at the output ports; the switch has input and output buffers. Cell replication, cell routing, output contention resolution, and cell addressing are all performed distributedly in the Abacus switch so that it can be scaled up to thousnads input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to resolve output port contention while achieving input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to reolve output port contention while achieving input buffers sharing, fairness among the input ports, and multicast call splitting. The channel grouping concept is also adopted in the switch to reduce the hardware complexity and improve the switch's throughput. The Abacus switch has a regular structure and thus has the advantages of: 1) easy expansion, 2) relaxed synchronization for data and clock signals, and 3) building the switch fabric using existing CMOS technology.

  15. 论高等教育的去功利化改革%On reform of eliminating utilitarianism of higher education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁洋

    2015-01-01

    文章立足于高等教育的发展现状,从素质教育的改革理念出发,重点论述我国高等教育体制中功利化的表现与弊端,揭示出功利化的倾向严重威胁我国高等教育事业的可持续发展,只有实现高等教育的去功利化改革才能走出此困境,并针对这一教育改革问题提出以人的全面发展和社会的现实需要为核心的对策措施,从而大力保障高等教育的深化改革,加快社会主义物质文明和精神文明建设,进而促进社会的良性发展与和谐进步。%This paper is based on the current situation of higher education development. From the conception of quality edu-cation,it focuses on the demonstration and disadvantages of utilitarianism in Chinese higher education system and reveals that the utilitarian trend will seriously threaten the sustainable development of Chinese higher education. Only through the reform of eliminating utilitarianism of higher education can we get rid of this dilemma and put forward some measures centered on the all-round development of man and the practical need of society based on the reform of higher education. All these above will vigor-ously ensure the deepening reform of higher education,speed up the construction of socialist material and spiritual civilization, and thus promote the sound development,harmony and progress of our society.

  16. Review and Introspection of the Utilitarian Concept of Literature and Art%文艺功利观的回顾与反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建东

    2012-01-01

    文艺功利观是国内外文艺理论界历来争议最大的核心问题之一。早期的哲人和文艺理论家注重文艺的娱乐功能;之后,有趋同于文艺的政治功能的倾向。近百年来,我们对文艺功利观的理解,往往出现两个极端。目前我们面临当代文艺发展的新时期,对文艺功利观的重新认识,有利于消除商品大潮裹胁而来的负面影响,对厘清文艺作为审美意识形态的特殊功能,对繁荣社会主义文艺的健康发展,具有一定的理论意义。%The literature and art utilitarian concept has always been one of the core problems argued in the theoretical circles both at home and abroad.In the early days,philosophers and theorists of literature and art attached importance to its recreational function.Then,there was a tendency of reaching unanimity with the political function.In the recent hundred years,there were usually two extremes of understanding the utilitarian concept of the literature and art.At present,we are facing the new age of developing literature and art.The new recognition of utilitarian concept of the new literature and art is helpful to the reduction of the negative influence which comes with the commodity tide.It is of great significance to the clarification of art's particular function as an aesthetic ideology and the healthy development of the socialist literature and art..

  17. Practical switching power supply design

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Martin C

    1990-01-01

    Take the ""black magic"" out of switching power supplies with Practical Switching Power Supply Design! This is a comprehensive ""hands-on"" guide to the theory behind, and design of, PWM and resonant switching supplies. You'll find information on switching supply operation and selecting an appropriate topology for your application. There's extensive coverage of buck, boost, flyback, push-pull, half bridge, and full bridge regulator circuits. Special attention is given to semiconductors used in switching supplies. RFI/EMI reduction, grounding, testing, and safety standards are also deta

  18. 功利主义在卫生决策中的应用%Analysis on Application of Utilitarianism in Health Decision-Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁华金; 徐凌忠; 山珂; 周成超; 崔伊萌

    2013-01-01

    Health policy determines the operation of the entire health system, the value orientation of policy makers determines the direction, process and results of policy decision-making. Utilitarianism, which takes utilitarian effect of people ’s behavior as the basic moral evaluation standard, is one of the basic principles of public policy decision-making. Under circumstance of limited health resources, health policy makers usually insist on value orientation of utilitarianism, seek to maximize the health benefits of health resources. It discusses the practice and some difficulties of utilitarianism behind the health policy decision-making by ethnic view, so as to improve understanding of health management and health policy analyst to health decision-making process.%卫生政策决定着整个卫生系统的运行,卫生政策决策者的价值取向决定着卫生政策决策的方向、过程和结果。功利主义作为一种以人们行为的功利效果为道德准则的基本评价标准,是当今公共政策决策的基本原则之一,在卫生资源有限的情况下,卫生政策决策者通常坚持功利主义的价值导向,追求卫生资源的健康效益最大化。本文从伦理学的角度,探讨了功利主义在我国卫生政策决策背后的运用及其在卫生政策决策实践中的一些困境,以期增进卫生管理者和卫生政策分析者对卫生决策过程的理解。

  19. Python Switch Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Python programming language does not have a built in switch/case control structure as found in many other high level programming languages. It is thought by some that this is a deficiency in the language, and the control structure should be added. This paper demonstrates that not only is the control structure not needed, but that the methods available in Python are more expressive than built in case statements in other high level languages.

  20. "Platform switching": Serendipity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kalavathy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant dentistry is the latest developing field in terms of clinical techniques, research, material science and oral rehabilitation. Extensive work is being done to improve the designing of implants in order to achieve better esthetics and function. The main drawback with respect to implant restoration is achieving good osseointegration along with satisfactory stress distribution, which in turn will improve the prognosis of implant prosthesis by reducing the crestal bone loss. Many concepts have been developed with reference to surface coating of implants, surgical techniques for implant placement, immediate and delayed loading, platform switching concept, etc. This article has made an attempt to review the concept of platform switching was in fact revealed accidentally due to the nonavailability of the abutment appropriate to the size of the implant placed. A few aspect of platform switching, an upcoming idea to reduce crestal bone loss have been covered. The various methods used for locating and preparing the data were done through textbooks, Google search and related articles.

  1. "Platform switching": serendipity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavathy, N; Sridevi, J; Gehlot, Roshni; Kumar, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    Implant dentistry is the latest developing field in terms of clinical techniques, research, material science and oral rehabilitation. Extensive work is being done to improve the designing of implants in order to achieve better esthetics and function. The main drawback with respect to implant restoration is achieving good osseointegration along with satisfactory stress distribution, which in turn will improve the prognosis of implant prosthesis by reducing the crestal bone loss. Many concepts have been developed with reference to surface coating of implants, surgical techniques for implant placement, immediate and delayed loading, platform switching concept, etc. This article has made an attempt to review the concept of platform switching was in fact revealed accidentally due to the nonavailability of the abutment appropriate to the size of the implant placed. A few aspect of platform switching, an upcoming idea to reduce crestal bone loss have been covered. The various methods used for locating and preparing the data were done through textbooks, Google search and related articles.

  2. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  3. [Brain death: biological and ethical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roczeń, R; Bohatyrewicz, R

    2001-01-01

    The article presents briefly historical development of death criteria from the modern times to the present. The criteria which are used for identification and diagnosing death on the base of respiratory and circulatory death definition are described. This work underlines the inadequacy of the definition of the brain death in relation to patients with persistent vegetative state and in relation to anencephalic newborns. The author describes the pathology and clinical and laboratory evidence of the brain stem death, which gave the possibility to justify the thesis that in case of the brain stem death ontological arguments are sufficient for diagnosing the death of a human being. The attention of the ethic of the life sanctity (on the base of halachic's law) and its opposing influence on the evolution of the medical definition of death has been paid. The recognition of the brain as the death of an individual is a cultural shock, which from scientific point of view changed the ways of thinking, almost immediately but did not in the awareness of the society. The work also underlies the fact that utilitarian argumentation can not be a criterion for making a decision concerning the life of an individual.

  4. Rights Arises from Utility: The Interpretation of the Basis of Rights by Modern Utilitarian%权利奠基于功利——当代功利主义对权利之基础的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋运锋

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between right and good is one of the core issues in modem political philoso phy. Utilitarian regard good as prevailing, and utility is food, utility found the basis for rights. Critics say that to found rights on the basis of utility is wrong because the maximum utility may affect the importance of rights. Modem utilitarian amended the utilitarian view of rights by various theories like double utilitarianism, normal utilitarianism, and institutional utilitarianism, and defended for the theory of rights arises from utility.%如何看待权利与善的关系,是当代政治哲学争论的核心问题之一。功利主义主张善的优先性,而功利就是善,权利的基础是功利。批评者认为,功利主义把权利建立在功利之上的做法是错误的,它会因为功利最大化的要求而损害权利的重要性。当代功利主义者通过双层功利主义、规则功利主义和制度功利主义等不同的理论形态修正了功利主义的权利观,并为奠基于功利的权利理论做出了有力辩护。

  5. Feedback Solution to Optimal Switching Problems With Switching Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Ali

    2016-10-01

    The problem of optimal switching between nonlinear autonomous subsystems is investigated in this paper where the objective is not only bringing the states to close to the desired point, but also adjusting the switching pattern, in the sense of penalizing switching occurrences and assigning different preferences to utilization of different modes. The mode sequence is unspecified and a switching cost term is used in the cost function for penalizing each switching. It is shown that once a switching cost is incorporated, the optimal cost-to-go function depends on the subsystem which was active at the previous time step. Afterward, an approximate dynamic programming-based method is developed, which provides an approximation of the optimal solution to the problem in a feedback form and for different initial conditions. Finally, the performance of the method is analyzed through numerical examples.

  6. An Analysis on the Utilitarian Mate Selection of Women and Its Cultural Background%女性功利性择偶及文化背景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯爱红

    2015-01-01

    当前女性择偶功利性特征显著,择偶途径公开、多元,参与人员众多,择偶标准注重物质经济条件,并存在“急婚”“恐婚”等择偶焦虑心理。经济条件虽改变了人们的思想和婚恋观,但特定的社会性别文化、婚姻制度、婚姻价值观念以及社会舆论氛围却是形成女性功利性择偶观的主要原因。%Currently, the utilitarian characteristic of women’ s mate selection is significant.The means of ma-te selection become open and multivariant with too many participates in blind dates.Furthermore, the stand-ards of mate selection always emphasize the economic conditions of each other.There are even various anxie-ties in mate selection, such as“urgency of marriage,“fear of marriage”, etc.Although the economic factors become more and more important in mate selection, which change peoples attitudes toward love and marriage, the specific social gender culture, marriage system, marriage values and social public opinion mainly result in women’ s utilitarian mate selection and their psychological imbalance.

  7. Discussion about philosophical basis of Yan Yuan's utilitarianism%试析颜元功利主义思想的哲学依据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静

    2011-01-01

    功利主义作为一种道德伦理观在中西方早就存在了,颜元的功利观力图将"内圣"与"外王"相结合起来,重塑经世达用之道。他并因此而搭建了他的功利哲学体系。他的功利思想又是经何作为哲学依据的呢?中国传统的功利思想大多建立在人性论之上,颜元的功利思想也不例外。他立足于抽象的人性论,以直接经验作为认识的基础,从而成功地为他的功利思想寻找到了合法的哲学依据。%The utilitarianism is one kind of moral concept,It is for a long time in the east and west.Yan Yuan strives to be tied in wedlock "neisheng" and "waiwang".He attaches importance to pragmatism,and have built his utilitarianism philosophy because of it.What

  8. On the students' utilitarian psychology in the physical experiment%学生在物理实验中的功利心理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎成; 王显德

    2011-01-01

    Utilitarian in this article are not an usual meaning of the derogatory sense, it has a definite explanation. After analyzing the negative effects of initial stage utilitarian psychology, the author introduces some specific measures so as to help the students know the ultimate goal of utilitarianism:that is to serve to pursue the happiness of society instead of any individuals.%所叙述的功利并不是通常意义上的贬义的功利,提出功利的完整含义。在分析了初期功利心理对物理实验产生的一些消极影响之后,介绍了有针对性的消除这些不良影响的具体措施。同时让学生认识到功利主义的最高境界:要从追求个人的最大幸福转变为服务于整个社会。

  9. A Study of MPLS Hybrid Switch Based on ATM Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    MPLS is the most successful integrating model of IP over ATM. The paper discusses some problems and their possible solutions when MPLS is supported by ATM switch. How to design the hardware, software and network management systems of such a switch device that has only one switching platform and one NMS but two sets of control planes at the same time, ATM and MPLS, is studied in details. The application of such a hybrid switch is presented in the last part of the paper.

  10. Research Progress on Multimode Interference Switches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qing; SHENG Zhi-rui; JIANG Xiao-qing; WANG Ming-hua

    2005-01-01

    Optical switches are key components for constructing optical communication networks, so it is necessary to design optical switches and optical switch arrays with high performance and low cost. As one type of optical switches, the multimode interference(MMI) switches have received considerable attention due to their unique merits. The structures and operation principles of various types of MMI switches are introduced,and the recent progresses of MMI switches are also discussed.

  11. Composite Thermal Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert; Brawn, Shelly; Harrison, Katherine; O'Toole, Shannon; Moeller, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Lithium primary and lithium ion secondary batteries provide high specific energy and energy density. The use of these batteries also helps to reduce launch weight. Both primary and secondary cells can be packaged as high-rate cells, which can present a threat to crew and equipment in the event of external or internal short circuits. Overheating of the cell interior from high current flows induced by short circuits can result in exothermic reactions in lithium primary cells and fully charged lithium ion secondary cells. Venting of the cell case, ejection of cell components, and fire have been reported in both types of cells, resulting from abuse, cell imperfections, or faulty electronic control design. A switch has been developed that consists of a thin layer of composite material made from nanoscale particles of nickel and Teflon that conducts electrons at room temperature and switches to an insulator at an elevated temperature, thus interrupting current flow to prevent thermal runaway caused by internal short circuits. The material is placed within the cell, as a thin layer incorporated within the anode and/or the cathode, to control excess currents from metal-to-metal or metal-to-carbon shorts that might result from cell crush or a manufacturing defect. The safety of high-rate cells is thus improved, preventing serious injury to personnel and sensitive equipment located near the battery. The use of recently available nanoscale particles of nickel and Teflon permits an improved, homogeneous material with the potential to be fine-tuned to a unique switch temperature, sufficiently below the onset of a catastrophic chemical reaction. The smaller particles also permit the formation of a thinner control film layer (switch (CTS(TradeMark)) coating can be incorporated in either the anode or cathode or both. The coating can be applied in a variety of different processes that permits incorporation in the cell and electrode manufacturing processes. The CTS responds quickly

  12. Rule-Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cardoso Simões

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2009v8n3p47O objetivo do presente trabalho é examinar se o utilitarismo de regras poderia ter êxito em prover um possível avanço sobre o utilitarismo de atos, de modo a tornar o utilitarismo uma teoria moral viável. Em face deste propósito, levarei em consideração o seguinte: Em primeiro lugar temos que perceber que existem diferentes formulações do utilitarismo de regras, as quais visam responder a contra-exemplos morais, que o utilitarismo de atos não resolve satisfatoriamente. Em minha opinião, se contra-exemplos são bem sucedidos na formulação do utilitarismo de regras como uma alternativa substantiva ao utilitarismo de atos, e se esta alternativa substantiva permanece sob a égide do princípio utilitarista, em seguida, eles teriam conseguido responder a contra-exemplos. Em segundo lugar, apresentarei as principais formulações defendidas por escritores contemporâneos (Brandt e Rawls, especialmente

  13. Recent developments in switching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Amar

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Science Series: Recent Developments in Switching Theory covers the progress in the study of the switching theory. The book discusses the simplified proof of Post's theorem on completeness of logic primitives; the role of feedback in combinational switching circuits; and the systematic procedure for the design of Lupanov decoding networks. The text also describes the classical results on counting theorems and their application to the classification of switching functions under different notions of equivalence, including linear and affine equivalences. The development of abstract har

  14. Noise-induced coherent switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Taking the famous genetic toggle switch as an example,we numerically investigated the effect of noise on bistability.We found that extrinsic noise resulting from stochastic fluctuations in synthesis and degradation rates and from the environmental fluctuation in gene regulatory processes can induce coherent switch,and that there is an optimal noise intensity such that the noise not only can induce this switch,but also can amplify a weak input signal.In addition,we found that the intrinsic noise introduced through the Poisson τ-leap algorithm cannot induce such a switch.

  15. Low power all optical switches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Bananej; LI Chun-fei 李淳飞

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new design of all fiber optical switches by using a high finesse ring resonator (RR) side coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We will show that by compensating the total loss in the RR the switching power can be decreased greatly and by loss, compensating the bistability effect in RR can be cancelled and the switching performance can be improved. In addition, we will show that by using Erbium doped fiber for fabricating the RR we can obtain switching power threshold in mW range.

  16. Software Switching for Data Acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Malone, David

    2016-01-01

    In this talk we discuss the feasibility of replacing telecom-class routers with a topology of commodity servers acting as software switches in data acquisition. We extend the popular software switch, Open vSwitch, with a dedicated, throughput-oriented buffering mechanism. We compare the performance under heavy many-to-one congestion to typical Ethernet switches and evaluate the scalability when building larger topologies, exploiting the integration with software-defined networking technologies. Please note that David Malone will speak on behalf of Grzegorz Jereczek.

  17. Data center coolant switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-06

    A data center cooling system is operated in a first mode; it has an indoor portion wherein heat is absorbed from components in the data center, and an outdoor heat exchanger portion wherein outside air is used to cool a first heat transfer fluid (e.g., water) present in at least the outdoor heat exchanger portion of the cooling system during the first mode. The first heat transfer fluid is a relatively high performance heat transfer fluid (as compared to the second fluid), and has a first heat transfer fluid freezing point. A determination is made that an appropriate time has been reached to switch from the first mode to a second mode. Based on this determination, the outdoor heat exchanger portion of the data cooling system is switched to a second heat transfer fluid, which is a relatively low performance heat transfer fluid, as compared to the first heat transfer fluid. It has a second heat transfer fluid freezing point lower than the first heat transfer fluid freezing point, and the second heat transfer fluid freezing point is sufficiently low to operate without freezing when the outdoor air temperature drops below a first predetermined relationship with the first heat transfer fluid freezing point.

  18. Tuning the temperature dependence for switching in dithienylethene photochromic switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudernac, Tibor; Kobayashi, Takao; Uyama, Ayaka; Uchida, Kingo; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Feringa, Ben L

    2013-08-29

    Diarylethene photochromic switches use light to drive structural changes through reversible electrocyclization reactions. High efficiency in dynamic photoswitching is a prerequisite for applications, as is thermal stability and the selective addressability of both isomers ring-opened and -closed diarylethenes. These properties can be optimized readily through rational variation in molecular structure. The efficiency with regard to switching as a function of structural variation is much less understood, with the exception of geometric requirements placed on the reacting atoms. Ultimately, increasing the quantum efficiency of photochemical switching in diarylethenes requires a detailed understanding of the excited-state potential energy surface(s) and the mechanisms involved in switching. Through studies of the temperature dependence, photoswitching and theoretical studies demonstrate the occurrence or absence of thermal activation barriers in three constitutional isomers that bear distinct π-conjugated systems. We found that a decrease in the thermal barriers correlates with an increase in switching efficiency. The origin of the barriers is assigned to the decrease in π-conjugation that is concomitant with the progress of the photoreaction. Furthermore, we show that balanced molecular design can minimize the change in the extent of π-conjugation during switching and lead to optimal bidirectional switching efficiencies. Our findings hold implications for future structural design of diarylethene photochromic switches.

  19. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  20. The fox and the cabra: An ERP analysis of reading code switched nouns and verbs in bilingual short stories

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Shukhan; Gonzalez, Christian; Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehending a language (or code) switch within a sentence context triggers 2 electrophysiological signatures: an early left anterior negativity post code switch onset – a LAN – followed by a Late Positive Component (LPC). Word class and word position modulate lexico-semantic processes in the monolingual brain, e.g., larger N400 amplitude for nouns than verbs and for earlier than later words in the sentence. Here we test whether the bilingual brain is affected by word class and word position...

  1. EDITORIAL: Molecular switches at surfaces Molecular switches at surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinelt, Martin; von Oppen, Felix

    2012-10-01

    In nature, molecules exploit interaction with their environment to realize complex functionalities on the nanometer length scale. Physical, chemical and/or biological specificity is frequently achieved by the switching of molecules between microscopically different states. Paradigmatic examples are the energy production in proton pumps of bacteria or the signal conversion in human vision, which rely on switching molecules between different configurations or conformations by external stimuli. The remarkable reproducibility and unparalleled fatigue resistance of these natural processes makes it highly desirable to emulate nature and develop artificial systems with molecular functionalities. A promising avenue towards this goal is to anchor the molecular switches at surfaces, offering new pathways to control their functional properties, to apply electrical contacts, or to integrate switches into larger systems. Anchoring at surfaces allows one to access the full range from individual molecular switches to self-assembled monolayers of well-defined geometry and to customize the coupling between molecules and substrate or between adsorbed molecules. Progress in this field requires both synthesis and preparation of appropriate molecular systems and control over suitable external stimuli, such as light, heat, or electrical currents. To optimize switching and generate function, it is essential to unravel the geometric structure, the electronic properties and the dynamic interactions of the molecular switches on surfaces. This special section, Molecular Switches at Surfaces, collects 17 contributions describing different aspects of this research field. They analyze elementary processes, both in single molecules and in ensembles of molecules, which involve molecular switching and concomitant changes of optical, electronic, or magnetic properties. Two topical reviews summarize the current status, including both challenges and achievements in the field of molecular switches on

  2. Frontostriatal response to set switching is moderated by reward sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, César; Garbin, Gabriele; Sanjuán, Ana; Forn, Cristina; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Belloch, Vicente; Parcet, Maria Antònia

    2012-04-01

    The reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) relates individual differences in reward sensitivity to the activation of the behavioral approach system (BAS). Dopamine-related brain structures have been repeatedly associated with reward processing, but also with cognitive processes such as task switching. In the present study, we examined the association between reward sensitivity and the event-related fMRI BOLD response with set switching in 31 males. As expected, the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFG) and the striatum (i.e. the left putamen) were involved in set-switching activity for the overall sample. Interindividual differences in Gray's reward sensitivity were related to stronger activity in the rIFG and the ventral striatum. Thus, trait reward sensitivity contributed to the modulation of brain responsiveness in set-switching tasks. Having considered previous research, we propose that higher BAS activity is associated with a stronger reward to process a better implementation of goal-directed tasks and the diminished processing of secondary cues.

  3. Molecule-Based Rheology Switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulusse, Jos M.J.; Sijbesma, Rint P.

    2006-01-01

    Sound-activated switching: The rheological behavior of fluids can be affected by external stimuli, as demonstrated by electrochemically and photochemically induced changes in viscosity and sol–gel transitions. Recently, ultrasound has emerged as a novel rheology switch for supramolecular polymers an

  4. Topology optimized RF MEMS switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippine, M. A.; Zareie, H.; Sigmund, Ole

    2013-01-01

    optimization for an RF MEM capacitive switch. Extensive experimental data confirms that the switches perform as designed by the optimizations, and that our simulation models are accurate. A subset of measurements are presented here. Broader results have been submitted in full journal format....

  5. Seidel Switching and Graph Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haemers, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The energy of a graph Γ is the sum of the absolute values of the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of Γ. Seidel switching is an operation on the edge set of Γ. In some special cases Seidel switching does not change the spectrum, and therefore the energy. Here we investigate when Seidel s

  6. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  7. Cognitive control mechanisms revealed by ERP and fMRI: evidence from repeated task-switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainson, R; Cunnington, R; Jackson, G M; Rorden, C; Peters, A M; Morris, P G; Jackson, S R

    2003-08-15

    We investigated the extent to which a common neural mechanism is involved in task set-switching and response withholding, factors that are frequently confounded in task-switching and go/no-go paradigms. Subjects' brain activity was measured using event-related electrical potentials (ERPs) and event-related functional MRI (fMRI) neuroimaging in separate studies using the same cognitive paradigm. Subjects made compatible left/right keypress responses to left/right arrow stimuli of 1000 msec duration; they switched every two trials between responding at stimulus onset (GO task-green arrows) and stimulus offset (WAIT task-red arrows). With-holding an immediate response (WAIT vs. GO) elicited an enhancement of the frontal N2 ERP and lateral PFC activation of the right hemisphere, both previously associated with the "no-go" response, but only on switch trials. Task-switching (switch vs. nonswitch) was associated with frontal N2 amplification and right hemisphere ventrolateral PFC activation, but only for the WAIT task. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was the only brain region to be activated for both types of task switch, but this activation was located more rostrally for the WAIT than for the GO switch trials. We conclude that the frontal N2 ERP and lateral PFC activation are not markers for withholding an immediate response or switching tasks per se, but are associated with switching into a response-suppression mode. Different regions within the ACC may be involved in two processes integral to task-switching: processing response conflict (rostral ACC) and overcoming prior response suppression (caudal ACC).

  8. Optimized scalable network switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.

    2010-02-23

    In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

  9. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-04-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Electromagnetic actuation in MEMS switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Mária; Chemnitz, Steffen

    Power electronics takes use of switches in order to convert and manage energy. The ideal switch with low power loss consists of electromechanic relays, but since they are bulky and expensive, semiconductors switches are more widely used for power electronic applications, resulting in power losses...... during energy conversion. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) consist of miniaturized mechanical and/or electro-mechanical elements fabricated using microfabrication techniques, and are good candidates for achieving a miniaturized electromechanic switch at the micro-scale with very little power loss...... generation of reliable MEMS and power MEMS devices. We have investigated deposition of these films via electroplating and its magnetic properties, along with the feasibility for integration into MEMS switches, and the results are presented in this work....

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  12. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalography (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain.

  13. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ravi kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalograph y (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain

  14. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  15. 金融学专业学生功利性学习动机的成因及对策研究%Causes and Countermeasures of Finance Majors' Utilitarian Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉坡

    2014-01-01

    Finance is a strong practical and theoretical subject, but affected utilitarian social values and attitudes of parents is not correct and other factors, led to the prevalence of students' too strong utilitarian motivation problem. Too strong utili-tarian motivation not only allows students the basic knowledge is not solid, and even affects the students' academic and men-tal health. Based on the finance majors utilitarian motivation and causes harm analysis, from the"blocking"and"Persuasion"is proposed to improve both utilitarian motivation finance professional countermeasures and suggestions.%金融学是一门实践性和理论性都很强的学科,但是受功利性社会风气和学生家长态度不端正等因素的影响,导致该专业学生普遍存在功利性学习动机过强的问题。过强的功利性学习动机不仅使得学生的基础知识不扎实,甚至影响了学生的学业和心理健康。本文通过对金融学专业学生功利性学习动机危害和成因的分析,从“堵”和“疏”两个方面提出了改善金融学专业功利学习动机的对策和建议。

  16. 完整性与功利主义伦理学--论伯纳德·威廉斯对功利主义的批判%Integrity and utilitarianism ethics--On Bernard Williams’s criticism of utilitarianism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任付新

    2014-01-01

    伯纳德·威廉斯强调哲学必须直面人类生活的复杂性和困难性,他批判以往哲学回避现实,特别是功利主义和康德主义,以恶劣的方式将生活简单化,忽视了个人情感、规划和运气对伦理生活的影响。他通过对功利主义后果论结构的分析,指出其中所包含的消极责任特征,批判功利主义忽视了个人分离性的重要性以及对个人完整性的破坏。威廉斯强调个人是情感需要、功利偏好和理性能力的综合体,主张应该从人的主体自身出发去思考道德问题,认为重要问题是人如何过有意义的生活,而不是我应该遵守什么样的规则。威廉斯的批判是强有力的,对功利主义的发展具有重要启发。%Bernard Williams emphasizes that philosophy must face the complexity and difficulty of human life. He criticizes the previous philosophy shields away from reality, especially utilitarianism and Kantian ethics, they simplify life by despicable ways and ignore the impact of personal feelings, individual project and luck on ethical life. By analyzing the consequential structure of utilitarianism, he points out that it involves negative responsibility, and he also criticizes utilitarianism that overlooks the importance of separateness of persons. Williams emphasizes that individual is the complex of emotional needs, utility preference and rational ability, hence he claims that we should consider moral problems from person’s subject itself, and the important issue is how people live a meaningful life, rather than what kind of rules should be followed. Bernard Williams’s criticism is powerful and has great inspiration to the development of utilitarianism.

  17. A COLABORAÇÃO PREMIADA ENTRE O UTILITARISMO E A RACIONALIDADE DE PRINCÍPIOS / THE COLABORATION BETWEEN THE UTILITARIANISM AND THE RATIONALITY OF PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Tedesco Wedy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration award is an effective tool for obtaining evidence in criminal proceedings. However, it is a purely utilitarian rationality instrument. And it is from this instrument that many other tests are obtained later in the course of criminal investigations or criminal proceedings. It must be, therefore, that research objective finds alternatives to limit and adapt the instrument to the Federal Constitution, which can be done from a rationality of principles. A rationality of principles that takes into account the historical and theoretical tradition of Premial right recognized everywhere, but its effects in the sphere of criminal proceedings. Effects that can affect a number of other rights, such as the right to silence, to legal defense, proportionality, retribution, equality of arms. It must be, therefore, a new appreciation about this institute, so that it is used in exceptional situations, respecting always the ideas of voluntariness and subsidiarity, so that the Federal Constitution and the fundamental principles of criminal procedure are respected.

  18. The Impediment of the Engineers' Utilitarianism to their Environmental Ethic%工程师的功利观对环境伦理的遮蔽

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙翔

    2011-01-01

    Utilitarianism is one of the most typical values held by the engineers,of which the ideas of reputations and profits,together with the concerns of practical ability and technical efficiency,are expressed noteworthy in its pedigree.The values a person hold%功利主义价值观是工程师最典型的个人价值观。尤其是工程师的名利观、实践能力观和技术效率观,在其功利主义价值观谱系中表现得特别突出和明显。本文分别探讨了工程师由于受到这三种功利观的局限和影响,遮蔽了其对自然环境的伦理责任。

  19. 大学生功利性入党动机探析%College students' utilitarian motivation in their application to join CPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙溪虎; 杨艳

    2012-01-01

    当前大学生"入党热"中存在部分大学生入党动机功利化的问题,为有效解决这一问题,对大学生功利性入党动机的主要表现、危害、成因及纠正途径进行了探析。%Nowadays,many college students apply to join the Communist Party of China(CPC).In the current fever of joining CPC,some college students apply to join CPC with utilitarianism motif.We analyze the phenomenon,harm,factors and proper means to solve the problem effectively.

  20. Reflections on Over-utilitarian of Education Goal%对教育目的过度功利化问题的反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹成锡; 朱培平; 刘芳; 皇甫玉恩

    2012-01-01

      The purpose of education is the core issue of educa-tional theory, and it is also the starting point and destination of educational practice. Starting from the over-utilitarian problem of education goal in the present time,this paper attempts to ex-plore its rationality and disadvantages.%  教育目的是教育理论的核心问题,也是教育实践活动的出发点和归宿。本文试图从当前教育目的过度功利化问题的现象入手,探讨这一问题存在的合理性及其不足,并做相应的反思。

  1. Model Reduction of Switched Systems Based on Switching Generalized Gramians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a general method for model order reduction of discrete-time switched linear systems is presented. The proposed technique uses switching generalized gramians. It is shown that several classical reduction methods can be developed into the generalized gramian framework for the model r......-Galerkin projection is constructed instead of the similarity transform approach for reduction. It is proven that the proposed reduction framework preserves the stability of the original switched system. The performance of the method is illustrated by numerical examples....

  2. Brain components

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can make complex movements without thinking. The brain stem connects the brain with the spinal cord and is composed of ... structures: the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brain stem provides us with automatic functions that are necessary ...

  3. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  4. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can lead to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits ... tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on ...

  7. van Eijck and Roth's utilitarian science education: why the recalibration of science and traditional ecological knowledge invokes multiple perspectives to protect science education from being exclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael P.; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2010-12-01

    This article is a philosophical analysis of van Eijck and Roth's (2007) claim that science and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) should be recalibrated because they are incommensurate, particular to the local contexts in which they are practical. In this view, science maintains an incommensurate status as if it is a "fundamental" basis for the relative comparison of other cultural knowledges, which reduces traditional knowledge to a status of in relation to the prioritized (higher)-status of natural sciences. van Eijck and Roth reject epistemological Truth as a way of thinking about sciences in science education. Rather they adopt a utilitarian perspective of cultural-historical activity theory to demonstrate when traditional knowledge is considered science and when it is not considered science, for the purposes of evaluating what should be included in U.S. science education curricula. There are several challenges for evaluating what should be included in science education when traditional knowledges and sciences are considered in light of a utilitarian analysis. Science as diverse, either practically local or theoretically abstract, is highly uncertain, which provides opportunities for multiple perspectives to enlarge and protect the natural sciences from exclusivity. In this response to van Eijck and Roth, we make the case for considering dialectical relationships between science and TEK in order to ensure cultural diversity in science education, as a paradigm. We also emphasize the need to (re)dissolve the hierarchies and dualisms that may emerge when science is elevated in status in comparison with other knowledges. We conclude with a modification to van Eijck and Roth's perspective by recommending a guiding principle of cultural diversity in science education as a way to make curriculum choices. We envision this principle can be applied when evaluating science curricula worldwide.

  8. Filamentary Switching: Synaptic Plasticity through Device Volatility

    CERN Document Server

    La Barbera, Selina; Alibart, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Replicating the computational functionalities and performances of the brain remains one of the biggest challenges for the future of information and communication technologies. Such an ambitious goal requires research efforts from the architecture level to the basic device level (i.e., investigating the opportunities offered by emerging nanotechnologies to build such systems). Nanodevices, or, more precisely, memory or memristive devices, have been proposed for the implementation of synaptic functions, offering the required features and integration in a single component. In this paper, we demonstrate that the basic physics involved in the filamentary switching of electrochemical metallization cells can reproduce important biological synaptic functions that are key mechanisms for information processing and storage. The transition from short- to long-term plasticity has been reported as a direct consequence of filament growth (i.e., increased conductance) in filamentary memory devices. In this paper, we show tha...

  9. Tuning the Temperature Dependence for Switching in Dithienylethene Photochromic Switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudernac, Tibor; Kobayashi, Takao; Uyama, Ayaka; Uchida, Kingo; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-01-01

    Diarylethene photochromic switches use light to drive structural changes through reversible electrocyclization reactions. High efficiency in dynamic photoswitching is a prerequisite for applications, as is thermal stability and the selective addressability of both isomers ring-opened and -closed dia

  10. Switching Processes in Queueing Models

    CERN Document Server

    Anisimov, Vladimir V

    2008-01-01

    Switching processes, invented by the author in 1977, is the main tool used in the investigation of traffic problems from automotive to telecommunications. The title provides a new approach to low traffic problems based on the analysis of flows of rare events and queuing models. In the case of fast switching, averaging principle and diffusion approximation results are proved and applied to the investigation of transient phenomena for wide classes of overloading queuing networks.  The book is devoted to developing the asymptotic theory for the class of switching queuing models which covers  mode

  11. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  12. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  13. Multiuser Switched Diversity Scheduling Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback sys...

  14. Magnetically insulated opening switch research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeoch, M. W.; Kraft, R.

    1987-01-01

    We examine the feasibility of an opening switch concept based on magnetic insulation in a coaxial thermionic diode. It is found that the impedance ratio between closed and open states of the diode is marginal for efficient energy transfer via this type of switch. The open, or insulated state of the diode is characterized by current leakage across the magnetic field which is associated with the presence of plasma waves.

  15. High PRF high current switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  16. A Piezoelectric Cryogenic Heat Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios greater than 100 were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an optimized PZHS.

  17. Anatomy of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors ... form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors ...

  18. K-Band Latching Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, W. S.; Raue, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Design, development, and tests are described for two single-pole-double-throw latching waveguide ferrite switches: a K-band switch in WR-42 waveguide and a Ka-band switch in WR-28 waveguide. Both switches have structurally simple junctions, mechanically interlocked without the use of bonding materials; they are impervious to the effects of thermal, shock, and vibration stresses. Ferrite material for the Ka-band switch with a proper combination of magnetic and dielectric properties was available and resulted in excellent low loss, wideband performance. The high power handling requirement of the K-band switch limited the choice of ferrite to nickel-zinc compositions with adequate magnetic properties, but with too low relative dielectric constant. The relative dielectric constant determines the junction dimensions for given frequency responses. In this case the too low value unavoidably leads to a larger than optimum junction volume, increasing the insertion loss and restricting the operating bandwidth. Efforts to overcome the materials-related difficulties through the design of a composite junction with increased effective dielectric properties efforts to modify the relative dielectric constant of nickel-zinc ferrite are examined.

  19. K-band latching switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, W. S.; Raue, J. E.

    1984-05-01

    Design, development, and tests are described for two single-pole-double-throw latching waveguide ferrite switches: a K-band switch in WR-42 waveguide and a Ka-band switch in WR-28 waveguide. Both switches have structurally simple junctions, mechanically interlocked without the use of bonding materials; they are impervious to the effects of thermal, shock, and vibration stresses. Ferrite material for the Ka-band switch with a proper combination of magnetic and dielectric properties was available and resulted in excellent low loss, wideband performance. The high power handling requirement of the K-band switch limited the choice of ferrite to nickel-zinc compositions with adequate magnetic properties, but with too low relative dielectric constant. The relative dielectric constant determines the junction dimensions for given frequency responses. In this case the too low value unavoidably leads to a larger than optimum junction volume, increasing the insertion loss and restricting the operating bandwidth. Efforts to overcome the materials-related difficulties through the design of a composite junction with increased effective dielectric properties efforts to modify the relative dielectric constant of nickel-zinc ferrite are examined.

  20. Quadratic stabilization of switched nonlinear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG YaLi; FAN JiaoJiao; MEI ShengWei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of quadratic stabilization of multi-input multi-output switched nonlinear systems under an arbitrary switching law is investigated. When switched nonlinear systems have uniform normal form and the zero dynamics of uniform normal form is asymptotically stable under an arbitrary switching law, state feedbacks are designed and a common quadratic Lyapunov function of all the closed-loop subsystems is constructed to realize quadratic stabilizability of the class of switched nonlinear systems under an arbitrary switching law. The results of this paper are also applied to switched linear systems.

  1. The developing brain in a multitasking world

    OpenAIRE

    Rothbart, Mary K.; Michael I. Posner

    2015-01-01

    To understand the problem of multitasking, it is necessary to examine the brain’s attention networks that underlie the ability to switch attention between stimuli and tasks and to maintain a single focus among distractors. In this paper we discuss the development of brain networks related to the functions of achieving the alert state, orienting to sensory events, and developing self-control. These brain networks are common to everyone, but their efficiency varies among individuals and reflect...

  2. Principles of broadband switching and networking

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Soung C

    2010-01-01

    An authoritative introduction to the roles of switching and transmission in broadband integrated services networks Principles of Broadband Switching and Networking explains the design and analysis of switch architectures suitable for broadband integrated services networks, emphasizing packet-switched interconnection networks with distributed routing algorithms. The text examines the mathematical properties of these networks, rather than specific implementation technologies. Although the pedagogical explanations in this book are in the context of switches, many of the fundamenta

  3. 大学教育功利化倾向及其理性复归%The Utilitarian Tendency of the University Education and Its Rational Return in the New Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁强

    2016-01-01

    There exists a serious tendency towards utilitarianism in current university education. It can be specifically reflected in the following aspects: profit-focused, eager for quick successes and instant benefits, hedonistic and lost in spiritual pursuit. The beyond-utilitarian education ideal can be realized through university spirit nurturing, system improvement, cultural construction and moral practice enhancement.%当前我国大学教育中的功利主义倾向严重,可具体表征为效益为重、急功近利、享乐泛化、精神迷失等方面。因此,需要从大学精神、制度建设、文化建设以及大学人的道德践行等方面加以建构,从而实现超越功利的教育理想。

  4. On Countermeasures of Correcting the Utilitarian Ten-dency of Running Private Colleges%民办高校办学功利化倾向纠正对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王会霞

    2014-01-01

    At the same time of private colleges' booming, there are some utilitarian tendencies in teaching staff treatment, man-agement investment and connotation construction. Through var-ious methods such as questionnaire survey and expert interview, it is concluded that the solving of the utilitarian behavior needs not only strong governmental support but also the deep reforms of colleges themselves.%民办高校在持续蓬勃发展的同时也在教职工待遇问题、管理投入和内涵建设等方面存在一定的功利化倾向,通过问卷调查、专家访谈等多种方法,得出纠正这种功利化行为,既要政府的大力支持,又要高校自身的深度改革来解决。

  5. High power solid state switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Martin

    1991-11-01

    We have successfully produced an optically triggered thyristor based in Gallium Arsenide, developed a model for breakdown, and are developing two related devices, including a Gallium Arsenide based static inductor thyristor. We are getting at the basic limitations of Gallium Arsenide for these applications, and are developing models for the physical processes that will determine device limitations. The previously supported gas phase work - resulting in the back-lighted thyratron (BLT) - has actually resulted in a very changed view of how switching can be accomplished, and this is impacting the design of important machines. The BLT is being studied internationally: in Japan for laser fusion and laser isotope separation. ITT has built a BLT that has switched 30 kA at 60 kV in testing at NSWC Dahlgren and the device is being commercialized by another American company. Versions of the switch are now being tested for excimer laser and other applications. Basically, the switch, which arose from pulse power physics studies at USC, can switch more current faster (higher di/dt), with less housekeeping, and with other advantageous properties. There are a large number of other new applications, include kinetic energy weapons, pulsed microwave sources and R.F. accelerators.

  6. Comparison between the Utilitarian thought of Confucius and Mo-tse%孔子与墨子的功利思想比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许宁宁

    2014-01-01

    春秋战国,周文不兴、礼坏乐崩,“道术将为天下裂”。诸子百家相继而出,皆欲开出治平天下的“良方”,司马谈言“儒、墨、道、法、阴阳、名,皆务为治”。虽有“治国”之“同归”,然多囿于一家之见,又“多得一察焉以自好”,故思想“殊途”,天下“百虑”论说不休,争鸣不已。在此天下无道,以力称雄,交相言利的乱世,功利问题自是各家争论的焦点所在。本文分别以孔子、墨子为例,着重对儒家、墨家的功利思想做了一番简要比较,就是希望能够以小见大,管窥先秦诸子百家争鸣的概貌。%During spring-autumn war time, with the collapse of feudalism and declining of system of rites and music, it is said that the academic path of things will be much more sharpened. All kinds of philosophers came out and tried to ifnd out the right way to govern the society. Sima Tan said that Confucius, mo-tse, Taoism, legalism, yin and yang, ming are all about the governance. Although these academic thoughts come into the same way ultimately, they are much alike and take pride by a little more new idea. The differences of these academic thoughts result in the disputes in the world. In such chaos society without real academic thought, utilitarian thought is in the center of dispute. By the example of Confucius and Mo-tse, the paper makes comparison between utilitarian thought of Confucius and Mo-tse, trying to giving a glimpse of pre-qin philosophers.

  7. Switching Systems: Active Mode Recognition, Identification of the Switching Law

    OpenAIRE

    Elom Ayih Domlan; José Ragot; Didier Maquin

    2007-01-01

    http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/raa.50796.html; International audience; The problem of the estimation of the discrete state of a switching system is studied. The knowledge of the switching law is essential for this kind of system as it simplifies their manipulation for control purposes. This paper investigates the use of a model-based disgnosis method for the determination of the active mode at each timepoint based on the system input/output data. The issue of the parametric identificati...

  8. Improvement on Switching Characteristics and Switching Losses of IGBT by ZVS—PWM①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGChunjiang; GUHerong; 等

    1997-01-01

    The principle of ZVS-PWM inverting circuit is first described by means of inverting welder supply.The contrastive study is made on switching characteristics and switching losses of IGBT between ZVS-PWM and hard-switching.

  9. East-West differences in perception of brain death. Review of history, current understandings, and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Miller, Geoffrey

    2015-06-01

    The concept of brain death as equivalent to cardiopulmonary death was initially conceived following developments in neuroscience, critical care, and transplant technology. It is now a routine part of medicine in Western countries, including the United States. In contrast, Eastern countries have been reluctant to incorporate brain death into legislation and medical practice. Several countries, most notably China, still lack laws recognizing brain death and national medical standards for making the diagnosis. The perception is that Asians are less likely to approve of brain death or organ transplant from brain dead donors. Cultural and religious traditions have been referenced to explain this apparent difference. In the West, the status of the brain as home to the soul in Enlightenment philosophy, combined with pragmatism and utilitarianism, supports the concept of brain death. In the East, the integration of body with spirit and nature in Buddhist and folk beliefs, along with the Confucian social structure that builds upon interpersonal relationships, argues against brain death. However, it is unclear whether these reasoning strategies are explicitly used when families and medical providers are faced with acknowledging brain death. Their decisions are more likely to involve a prioritization of values and a rationalization of intuitive responses. Why and whether there might be differences between East and West in the acceptance of the brain death concept requires further empirical testing, which would help inform policy-making and facilitate communication between providers and patients from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds.

  10. A PARALLEL SWITCH FABRIC BASED ON CROSSBAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of link rate, the arbitrator of centralized switch fabric becomes too complicated to implement. A parallel switch fabric based on crossbar, named as PSFBC (Parallel Switch Fabric Based on Crossbar), has been proposed in this paper. PSFBC is composed of k switches whose rate is 1/k of link', these switches exchange cells in parallel; this increases the arbitrator's period and make it easy to implement. Load is evenly distributed to each switch with FCFS (First Come First Serve) rule, it can keep the order of cells in one stream. A multi-class queue scheduling policy is used in PSFBC to ensure the quality of realtime streams. Experiments show that the load on each switch in PSFBC is well balanced, its average delay of cells is little and its performance is very close to centralized switch; and with the increase of number of parallel switches, the loss of PSFBC's performance keeps very small, it becomes easier to implement.

  11. The Implication of John Stuart Mill's Ethics Utilitarianism on Moral Education%穆勒效用主义伦理思想的道德教育蕴义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原成成

    2011-01-01

    The Utilitarianism which is originated in the Britain has an extensive and far-reaching infuence for the modern and contemporary human society.The Utilitarianism is basically a set of ethics.As a purpose theory of the ethics,the Utilitarianism which is the standard for the ethical behavior inecitablly attachs the great importance to the social practice.Therefore its influence covers the all levels of the ethics,the politics,the economy,this paper describes the moral education.%发源于英国的效用主义,对于近代、当代的人类社会有着广泛而深远的影响。效用主义基本上是一套伦理学说,就作为一个伦理学上的目的理论而言,效用观点作为伦理行为的衡量,必然非常重视社会实践。因此其影响涵盖伦理、政治、经济及法律多个层面,本文以道德教育展开阐述。

  12. Critical dwell time of switched linear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun ZHANG; Chunwen LI

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the relation between the switching dwell time and the stabilization of switched linear control systems. First of all, a concept of critical dwell time is given for switched linear systems without control inputs, and the critical dwell time is taken as an arbitrary given positive constant for a switched linear control systems with controllable switching models. Secondly, when a switched linear system has many stabilizable switching models, the problem of stabilization of the overall system is considered. An on-line feedback control is designed such that the overall system is asymptotically stabilizable under switching laws which depend only on those of uncontrollable subsystems of the switching models. Finally, when a switched system is partially controllable (While some switching models are probably unstabilizable), an on-line feedback control and a cyclic switching strategy are designed such that the overall system is asymptotically stabilizable if all switching models of this uncontrollable subsystems are asymptotically stable. In addition,algorithms for designing switching laws and controls are presented.

  13. Portable Userspace Virtual Filesystem Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Faber

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple different filesystems — including disk-based, network, distributed, abstract — arean integral part of every operating system. They are usually written as kernel modules and abstracted to the user via a virtual filesystem switch. In this paper we analyse the feasibility of reimplementing the virtual filesystem switch as a userspace daemon and applicability of this approach in real-life usage. Such reimplementation will require a way to virtualise processes behaviour related to filesystem operations. The problem is non-trivial, as we assume limited capabilities of the VFS switch implemented in userspace. We present a layered architecture comprising of a monitoring process, the VFS abstraction and real filesystem implementations. All working in userspace. Then, we evaluate this solution in four areas: portability, feasibility, usability and performance. Our results demonstrate possible gains in using the userspace-based approach with monolithic kernels, but also underline problems that are encountered in this approach.

  14. Finite-time quantised feedback asynchronously switched control of sampled-data switched linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghao; Xing, Jianchun; Li, Juelong; Xiang, Zhengrong

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies the problem of stabilising a sampled-data switched linear system by quantised feedback asynchronously switched controllers. The idea of a quantised feedback asynchronously switched control strategy originates in earlier work reflecting actual system characteristic of switching and quantising, respectively. A quantised scheme is designed depending on switching time using dynamic quantiser. When sampling time, system switching time and controller switching time are all not uniform, the proposed switching controllers guarantee the system to be finite-time stable by a piecewise Lyapunov function and the average dwell-time method. Simulation examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the developed results.

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain ... studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies Advanced technologies are also making it faster, easier, and more ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many ... unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting ...

  20. Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... their final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate ...

  4. Memristive operations demonstrated by gap-type atomic switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Nayak, Alpana; Ohno, Takeo; Terabe, Kazuya; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Gimzewski, James K.; Aono, Masakazu

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate memristive operations using gap-type Ag2S atomic switches, in which the growth and shrinkage of an Ag protrusion are controlled by using solid-electrochemical reactions. In addition to conventional memristive operations such as those proposed and demonstrated by resistive random-access memories (ReRAMs) using metal oxide compounds, gap-type Ag2S atomic switches also show new types of memristive operations by storing information from input signals without changing their output until a sufficient number of signals are inputted. The new types of memristive operations resemble the learning process seen in neuroplasticity, where changes occur in the organization of the human brain as a result of experience.

  5. CMOS integrated switching power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Villar-Pique, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    This book describes the structured design and optimization of efficient, energy processing integrated circuits. The approach is multidisciplinary, covering the monolithic integration of IC design techniques, power electronics and control theory. In particular, this book enables readers to conceive, synthesize, design and implement integrated circuits with high-density high-efficiency on-chip switching power regulators. Topics covered encompass the structured design of the on-chip power supply, efficiency optimization, IC-compatible power inductors and capacitors, power MOSFET switches and effi

  6. Switch Using Radio Frequency Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for use as a switch. In one embodiment, the switch comprises at least one RFID tag, each RFID tag comprising an antenna element and an RFID integrated circuit, at least one source element, and at least one lever arm. Each lever arm is connected to one of the RFID tags, and each lever arm is capable of two positions. One of the positions places the lever arm and the RFID tag connected thereto into alignment with the source element. Other embodiments are also described.

  7. Long Life MEM Switch Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-23

    switched capacitors. It proves that by decreasing the size, miniature switched capacitors with Con/ Coff =2.8 for a single bridge and Con/ Coff =1.9 for a 3...TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, 2006 top covershielding housing fabricated filterb i a s p r o b e a p e r t u r e r e f e r e n c...e p l a n e s 2 m m Fig. 16. The fabricated filter in the shielding housing (cover removed). Frequency (GHz) 2 3 4 5 6 7 S -p a ra m e te rs ( d B

  8. STABILITY OF SWITCHED POLYNOMIAL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqiang LI; Yupeng QIAO; Hongsheng QI; Daizhan CHENG

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the stability of (switched) polynomial systems. Using semi-tensor product of matrices, the paper develops two tools for testing the stability of a (switched) polynomial system. One is to convert a product of multi-variable polynomials into a canonical form, and the other is an easily verifiable sufficient condition to justify whether a multi-variable polynomial is positive definite. Using these two tools, the authors construct a polynomial function as a candidate Lyapunov function and via testing its derivative the authors provide some sufficient conditions for the global stability of polynomial systems.

  9. Younger Adults Derive Pleasure and Utilitarian Benefits from Browsing for Music Information Seeking in Physical and Digital Spaces. A Review of: Laplante, A., & Downie, J. S. (2011. The utilitarian and hedonic outcomes of music information-seeking in everyday life. Library & Information Science Research, 33, 202-210. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2010.11.002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K. Wakimoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study’s objective was to identify the utilitarian and hedonic features of satisfying music information seeking experiences from the perspective of younger adults when using physical and digital music information retrieval (MIR systems in their daily lives.Design – In-depth, semi-structured interviews.Setting – Large public library in Montreal, Canada.Subjects – 15 French-speaking younger adults,10 males and 5 females (aged 18 to 29 years, mean age of 24 years.Methods – A pre-test was completed to test the interview guide. The guide was dividedinto five sections asking the participants questions about their music tastes, how music fit into their daily lives, how they discovered music, what music information sources were used and how they were used, what made their experiences satisfying, and theirbiographical information. Participants were recruited between April 1, 2006 and August 8,2007 following maximum variation samplingfor the main study. Recruitment stopped whendata saturation was reached and no new themes arose during analysis. Interviews were recorded and the transcripts were analyzed via constant comparative method (CCM to determine themes and patterns. Main Results – The researchers found that both utilitarian and hedonic factors contributed to satisfaction with music information seeking experiences for the young adults. Utilitarian factors were divided between two main categories: finding music and finding information about music. Finding information about music could be further divided into three sub-categories: increasing cultural knowledge and social acceptance through increased knowledge about music, enriching the listening experience by finding information about the artist and the music, and gathering information to help with future music purchases including information that would help the participants recommend music to others. Hedonic outcomes that contributed to satisfying information seeking

  10. Bumpless switching control for switched systems with partial actuator failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yiwen; Bao, Wen; Zhang, Qingxin; Chang, Juntao

    2016-11-01

    This study is concerned with the bumpless transfer problem for switched systems with partial actuator failures, in order to obtain smooth system performance output transition. Taking into account that the system requires a controller switching from current sub-controller to a fault-tolerant sub-controller after actuator fault. And bumpless transfer for control input cannot be traditionally designed when the actuator fault occurs, while performance smoothing can be considered and it is actually the ultimate goal of bumpless transfer. Specifically, the actuator fault model is firstly established and partial actuator fault is considered. Then, the system performance output signal is deemed as the main design variable of bumpless transfer, and closed-loop control systems both previous and after controller switching are constructed. Moreover, by using model matching thought and the adaptive sliding mode control technique, a bumpless transfer compensator design strategy is given to drive the performance output variable (after controller switching) to track the one of reference model. At last, simulation results of numeric and application examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed bumpless transfer strategy.

  11. Switching in electrical transmission and distribution systems

    CERN Document Server

    Smeets, René; Kapetanovic, Mirsad; Peelo, David F; Janssen, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Switching in Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems presents the issues and technological solutions associated with switching in power systems, from medium to ultra-high voltage. The book systematically discusses the electrical aspects of switching, details the way load and fault currents are interrupted, the impact of fault currents, and compares switching equipment in particular circuit-breakers. The authors also explain all examples of practical switching phenomena by examining real measurements from switching tests. Other highlights include: up to date commentary on new develo

  12. Molecular DNA switches and DNA chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanayagam, Chandran R.; Berkey, Cristin; Lavi, Uri; Cantor, Charles R.; Smith, Cassandra L.

    1999-06-01

    We present an assay to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms on a chip using molecular DNA switches and isothermal rolling- circle amplification. The basic principle behind the switch is an allele-specific oligonucleotide circularization, mediated by DNA ligase. A DNA switch is closed when perfect hybridization between the probe oligonucleotide and target DNA allows ligase to covalently circularize the probe. Mismatches around the ligation site prevent probe circularization, resulting in an open switch. DNA polymerase is then used to preferentially amplify the closed switches, via rolling-circle amplification. The stringency of the molecular switches yields 102 - 103 fold discrimination between matched and mismatched sequences.

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit ... final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with each other ...

  14. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  15. The Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, David H.

    1979-01-01

    This article on the brain is part of an entire issue about neurobiology and the question of how the human brain works. The brain as an intricate tissue composed of cells is discussed based on the current knowledge and understanding of its composition and structure. (SA)

  16. 女大学生功利型婚恋观透视%On College Girls' Utilitarian Outlook on Love and Marriage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小勇

    2012-01-01

    Some college girls shift their focus from pure love to solid money in seeking love and marriage.Internal factors at work are clinging mentality,Conformity mentality and minority influence External social and cultural factors include materialization caused by market economy,the special pressure that college girls face in seeking employment and social corruption.Utilitarian outlook on love and marriage reflects some college girls' attempt at happy life and their confusion and loss in this respect.The school and the family must both exert positive influence on these girls so that they can have a correct outlook on love.%女大学生中的少数人在对待自己的爱情婚姻问题上,从"唯爱论"向"唯钱论"转身。其内在原因是依附心理、攀比心理和众从心理,外在的社会文化原因是市场经济的物化作用、女性就业的特殊压力。功利型婚恋观体现了部分女大学生追求幸福生活的尝试,也反映了她们在婚恋观上的迷茫。应通过加强学校的教育、父母家庭的积极影响等加以引导。

  17. Odwracanie ról. Odpowiedź na artykuł Krzysztofa Saji (Role Reversals - A Reply to Krzysztof Saja's "Thought Experiments and Utilitarianism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodek Rabinowicz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In “Thought Experiments and Utilitarianism”, which is a comment on my “Utilitarianism by Way of Preference Change?”, Krzysztof Saja delineates three alternative ways in which one might interpret Richard Hare’s famous thought experiments involving role reversals. He suggests that each of them would underwrite Hare’s claim that moral deliberation transforms an interpersonal conflict of preferences into an intrapersonal one, which obtains between the deliberator’s own preferences. In this reply to Saja (“Role Reversals”, I discuss the three proposals in turn and argue that the first two do not solve the problem. The third one, which was already considered in my original paper, is based on Zeno Vendler’s suggestion that role reversals in moral thought-experiments are merely different ‘takes’ on one and the same real situation, as seen from different subjective perspectives. I argue that, in order to succeed in transforming interpersonal preference conflicts into intrapersonal ones, this proposal requires equating empathy with sympathy, which Hare would not be prepared to do.

  18. 马克思主义信仰的神圣性和功利性探究%Marx's Belief in the Sanctity and Utilitarian Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶超群

    2012-01-01

    马克思主义作为无产阶级的革命纲领和行动指南,在实践中不断被证实其科学性、崇高性。在我国市场经济的不断深入过程中,要增强人们的马克思主义信仰,就要对其神圣性和功利性作一正确的解读。才能更好地使马克思主义的主流意识形态深入人心。%the Marx doctrine as the proletarian revolutionary programme and the guide to action, ceaseless in practice proved its science sex, sublime. In China's market economy and the deepening of the process, to strengthen people's belief in Marx, to the sacred and utilitarian for a correct interpretation, in order to better Marx's mainstream ideology to win support among the people.

  19. Cognitive the Library-- --from Utilitarianism to Right%图书馆认知视角下的功利与权力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海新

    2011-01-01

    本文从图书馆功利主义入手,剖析了功利主义对图书馆事业的影响,结合图书馆权力因素,探讨了图书馆的权力问题,并从图书馆权力角度进一步认识图书馆事业,对“图书馆发展的权力”、“管理读者的权力”、“文献保障权”、以及“实现读者的信息获取自由权”等进行了评述。%This paper introduced the library utilitarianism and its impacts to library, and use the library rights, in-depth study of the Library rights, use library rights angle to make a further recognizing to library, then make reviews to ,"Library development ri

  20. Happiness in Utilitarian Perspective and Its Rectification for College Students%高职大学生幸福取向功利化及其矫正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎永莲

    2012-01-01

    The perception to happiness impacts on the perspective to happiness.In today's college students,their understanding of happiness and the ways to achieve happiness is obviously utilitarian,which goes against to personal growth and society progress.This article attempts to analyze the reason and cause on the perception to happiness and propose solutions for rectification,which help to build up the correct happiness perspective.%幸福取向是幸福观的重要表现。当代高职大学生在理解幸福和追求幸福上呈现出明显的功利化取向,这不利于高职大学生的个人成长和社会进步。文章分析高职大学生幸福取向功利化的表现及成因,并提出矫正建议,以帮助高职大学生树立正确的幸福观。

  1. Reflection on Utilitarianism in Ideological and Political Theory Course%高校思想政治理论课功利化的反思与化解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵璀菊

    2012-01-01

    Utilitarianism results in the lower effect of ideological and political theory course.It embodies politicization of course content,one-sidedness of the conversion of textbook into teaching,simplicity of teaching ways and quantification of teaching evaluation.It brings about negative influence not only on credit,actual effect but also status and quality of personnel training in ideological and political theory course.Thus,colleges and universities should regenerate educational idea,improve teacher's quality,perfect evaluation system to reverse the utility trend.%功利化是导致高校思想政治理论课低效的重要症结之一。其主要表现为课程内容泛政治化、教材向教学转换片面化、教学方式简单化、教学评价唯量化,对思想政治理论课的信度、实效、地位以及人才培养质量带来了消极影响。对此,应该更新教育观念、提高教师素质、完善评价体系,以化解功利化倾向。

  2. The Atlas load protection switch

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, H A; Dorr, G; Martínez, M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Pierce, D; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a high-energy pulsed-power facility under development to study materials properties and hydrodynamics experiments under extreme conditions. Atlas will implode heavy liner loads (m~45 gm) with a peak current of 27-32 MA delivered in 4 mu s, and is energized by 96, 240 kV Marx generators storing a total of 23 MJ. A key design requirement for Atlas is obtaining useful data for 95601130f all loads installed on the machine. Materials response calculations show current from a prefire can damage the load requiring expensive and time consuming replacement. Therefore, we have incorporated a set of fast-acting mechanical switches in the Atlas design to reduce the probability of a prefire damaging the load. These switches, referred to as the load protection switches, short the load through a very low inductance path during system charge. Once the capacitors have reached full charge, the switches open on a time scale short compared to the bank charge time, allowing current to flow to the load when the trigger pu...

  3. CSR Pulsed Switching Power Supplies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In 2001, CSR power supply system made a great progress. Three prototypes were designed for CSR quadruple and correct magnet. Three different companies provided the three prototypes, but the same circuit-chopper were employed. The simplified diagram is showed in Fig.1. All pulsed switching power supply prototypes were tested successfully before the end of 2001.

  4. Switching Costs in Accounting Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Koç

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Switching cost is defined as possible costs that customers may encounter when they want to change the firm they buy service, and an important subject in terms of accounting services. Particularly, small business entrepreneurs’ not having knowledge about accounting procedures, and sharing private information with accounting firms make switching costs more important for accounting services. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the concept of switching costs (relational cost, procedural cost and financial cost, its determinants (perceived service quality, service importance, and service failures, and consequences (re-purchasing, and recommen ding to others. Theresearch was conducted on small business entrepreneurs in down-town of Balıkesir in Turkey. Total 405 small business entrepreneur owners were interviewed. According to results of the study, perceived service quality positively affects all dimensions of switching costs, significance of service positively affects procedural and relational costs, and service failures negatively affect procedural and relational costs. The results showed that while procedural and relational costs positively affect re-purchasing and recommending to others variables, financial cost did not have any effect on these variables.

  5. Magnetically Insulated Opening Switch Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    this research is to investigate the validity of the magneti- cally insulated opening switch concept proposed by Eninger (Ref. 5, Appendix 1). The...1973). 3. Y. Carmel, and J. Nation, Phys, Rev. Lett. 31, 286 (1973). 4. T.J. Orzechowski, and G. Bekefi, Phys. Fluids 19, 43 (1976). U 5. 3. Eninger

  6. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-07-03

    Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6HSiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators.

  8. Robust Stability of Switched Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a linear programming-based method for finding Lyapunov functions of switched systems with polynomial vector fields and parametric uncertainties. We propose to utilize a certificate of positivity in the Bernstein basis to find a Lyapunov function. A certificate of positivity...

  9. Industry switching in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2013-01-01

    and behavior than do entry and exit firms. Switchers tend to be labor intensive and to seek competitive opportunities in labor-intensive sectors in response to changes in market environments. Moreover, resource reallocation resulting from switching forms an important component of productivity growth. The topic...

  10. Industry Switching in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    as compared to entry and exit firms. They tend, inter alia, to be labour-intensive and seek out competitive opportunities in labour-intensive sectors in response to changes in the market environment. We also show that resource reallocations resulting from switching form an important component of productivity...

  11. Intrinsic nanofilamentation in resistive switching

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing

    2013-03-15

    Resistive switching materials are promising candidates for nonvolatile data storage and reconfiguration of electronic applications. Intensive studies have been carried out on sandwiched metal-insulator-metal structures to achieve high density on-chip circuitry and non-volatile memory storage. Here, we provide insight into the mechanisms that govern highly reproducible controlled resistive switching via a nanofilament by using an asymmetric metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. In-situ transmission electron microscopy is used to study in real-time the physical structure and analyze the chemical composition of the nanofilament dynamically during resistive switching. Electrical stressing using an external voltage was applied by a tungsten tip to the nanosized devices having hafnium oxide (HfO2) as the insulator layer. The formation and rupture of the nanofilaments result in up to three orders of magnitude change in the current flowing through the dielectric during the switching event. Oxygen vacancies and metal atoms from the anode constitute the chemistry of the nanofilament.

  12. Key Technologies for Optical Packet Switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira; Okada

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes our recent progress on key technologies and components for realizing optical packet switching, including an out-of-band optical label switching technique, an optical packet synchronizer and a burst-mode optical receiver.

  13. Key Technologies for Optical Packet Switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira Okada

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes our recent progress on key technologies and components for realizing optical packet switching,including an out-of-band optical label switching technique, an optical packet synchronizer and a burst-mode optical receiver.

  14. Digital Switching in the Quantum Domain

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, I M

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present an architecture and implementation algorithm such that digital data can be switched in the quantum domain. First we define the connection digraph which can be used to describe the behavior of a switch at a given time, then we show how a connection digraph can be implemented using elementary quantum gates. The proposed mechanism supports unicasting as well as multicasting, and is strict-sense non-blocking. It can be applied to perform either circuit switching or packet switching. Compared with a traditional space or time domain switch, the proposed switching mechanism is more scalable. Assuming an n-by-n quantum switch, the space consumption grows linearly, i.e. O(n), while the time complexity is O(1) for unicasting, and O(log n) for multicasting. Based on these advantages, a high throughput switching device can be built simply by increasing the number of I/O ports.

  15. A Demonstration of Automatically Switched Optical Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We build an automatically switched optical network (ASON) testbed with four optical cross-connect nodes. Many fundamental ASON features are demonstrated, which is implemented by control protocols based on generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) framework.

  16. Does the Macaque Monkey Provide a Good Model for Studying Human Executive Control? A Comparative Behavioral Study of Task Switching

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The ability to swiftly and smoothly switch from one task set to another is central to intelligent behavior, because it allows an organism to flexibly adapt to ever changing environmental conditions and internal needs. For this reason, researchers interested in executive control processes have often relied on task-switching paradigms as powerful tools to uncover the underlying cognitive and brain architecture. In order to gather fundamental information at the single-cell level, it would be gre...

  17. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chris J; Boller, Klaus-J

    2012-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  18. A CW Gunn Diode Switching Element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Marco; Rosenbaum, Fred J.

    As part of a study of the application of communication satellites to educational development, certain technical aspects of such a system were examined. A current controlled bistable switching element using a CW Gunn diode is reported on here. With modest circuits switching rates of the order of 10 MHz have been obtained. Switching is initiated by…

  19. A CW Gunn diode bistable switching element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, M.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments with a current-controlled bistable switching element using a CW Gunn diode are reported. Switching rates of the order of 10 MHz have been obtained. Switching is initiated by current pulses of short duration (5-10 ns). Rise times of the order of several nanoseconds could be obtained.

  20. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Chris J.; Slot, van der Peter J.M.; Boller, Klaus-J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ

  1. Caffeine improves anticipatory processes in task switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials (e

  2. The increased importance of sector switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2014-01-01

    Sector switching is an important phenomenon that casts light on public–private differences. Yet our knowledge about its prevalence and trends is limited. We study sector switching using unique Danish register-based employer–employee data covering more than 25 years. We find that sector switching...

  3. 30 CFR 56.9308 - Switch throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Switch throws. 56.9308 Section 56.9308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Switch throws. Switch throws shall be installed to provide clearance to protect switchmen from...

  4. 30 CFR 57.9308 - Switch throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Switch throws. 57.9308 Section 57.9308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....9308 Switch throws. Switch throws shall be installed to provide clearance to protect switchmen...

  5. Switch Detection in Preschoolers' Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicolas; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Huber, Kristina L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2011-01-01

    The current study addressed the role of switch detection in cognitive flexibility by testing the effect of transition cues (i.e., cues that directly signal the need to switch or maintain a given task goal) in a cued set-shifting paradigm at 5 years of age. Children performed better, especially on switch trials, when transition cues were combined…

  6. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Master switch. 27.1361 Section 27.1361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1361 Master switch. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement to allow ready disconnection of each electric power...

  8. Mechanism of single atom switch on silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, Ulrich; Stokbro, Kurt; Thirstrup, C.

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate single atom switch on silicon which operates by displacement of a hydrogen atom on the silicon (100) surface at room temperature. We find two principal effects by which the switch is controlled: a pronounced maximum of the switching probability as function of sample bias...

  9. Degree of Conversational Code-Switching Enhances Verbal Task Switching in Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Odilia; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The study examined individual differences in code-switching to determine the relationship between code-switching frequency and performance in verbal and non-verbal task switching. Seventy-eight Cantonese-English bilinguals completed a semi-structured conversation to quantify natural code-switching, a verbal fluency task requiring language…

  10. Stabilization and tracking for switching linear systems under unknown switching sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baglietto, M.; Battistelli, G.; Tesi, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes recent progress in the study of switching linear systems i.e. linear systems whose dynamics can switch among a family of possible configurations/modes. The attention is focused on those classes of switching systems governed by unknown switching sequences. For this case, we addre

  11. Nonlinear interface optical switch structure for dual mode switching revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussjager, Rebecca J.; Osman, Joseph M.; Chaiken, Joseph

    1998-07-01

    There is a need for devices which will allow integration of photonic/optical computing subsystems into electronic computing architectures. This presentation reviews the nonlinear interface optical switch (NIOS) concept and then describes a new effect, the erasable optical memory (EOM) effect. We evaluate an extension of the NIOS device to allow simultaneous optical/electronic, i.e. dual mode, switching of light utilizing the EOM effect. Specific devices involve the fabrication of thin film tungsten (VI) oxide (WO3) and tungsten (V) oxide (W2O5) on the hypotenuse of glass (BK-7), fused silica (SiO2) and zinc selenide (ZnSe) right angle prisms. Chemical reactions and temporal response tests were performed and are discussed.

  12. Does the macaque monkey provide a good model for studying human executive control? A comparative behavioral study of task switching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Caselli

    Full Text Available The ability to swiftly and smoothly switch from one task set to another is central to intelligent behavior, because it allows an organism to flexibly adapt to ever changing environmental conditions and internal needs. For this reason, researchers interested in executive control processes have often relied on task-switching paradigms as powerful tools to uncover the underlying cognitive and brain architecture. In order to gather fundamental information at the single-cell level, it would be greatly helpful to demonstrate that non-human primates, especially the macaque monkey, share with us similar behavioral manifestations of task-switching and therefore, in all likelihood, similar underlying brain mechanisms. Unfortunately, prior attempts have provided negative results (e.g., Stoet & Snyder, 2003b, in that it was reported that macaques do not show the typical signature of task-switching operations at the behavioral level, represented by switch costs. If confirmed, this would indicate that the macaque cannot be used as a model approach to explore human executive control mechanisms by means of task-switching paradigms. We have therefore decided to re-explore this issue, by conducting a comparative experiment on a group of human participants and two macaque monkeys, whereby we measured and compared performance costs linked to task switching and resistance to interference across the two species. Contrary to what previously reported, we found that both species display robust task switching costs, thus supporting the claim that macaque monkeys provide an exquisitely suitable model to study the brain mechanisms responsible for maintaining and switching task sets.

  13. Does the macaque monkey provide a good model for studying human executive control? A comparative behavioral study of task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Luana; Chelazzi, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    The ability to swiftly and smoothly switch from one task set to another is central to intelligent behavior, because it allows an organism to flexibly adapt to ever changing environmental conditions and internal needs. For this reason, researchers interested in executive control processes have often relied on task-switching paradigms as powerful tools to uncover the underlying cognitive and brain architecture. In order to gather fundamental information at the single-cell level, it would be greatly helpful to demonstrate that non-human primates, especially the macaque monkey, share with us similar behavioral manifestations of task-switching and therefore, in all likelihood, similar underlying brain mechanisms. Unfortunately, prior attempts have provided negative results (e.g., Stoet & Snyder, 2003b), in that it was reported that macaques do not show the typical signature of task-switching operations at the behavioral level, represented by switch costs. If confirmed, this would indicate that the macaque cannot be used as a model approach to explore human executive control mechanisms by means of task-switching paradigms. We have therefore decided to re-explore this issue, by conducting a comparative experiment on a group of human participants and two macaque monkeys, whereby we measured and compared performance costs linked to task switching and resistance to interference across the two species. Contrary to what previously reported, we found that both species display robust task switching costs, thus supporting the claim that macaque monkeys provide an exquisitely suitable model to study the brain mechanisms responsible for maintaining and switching task sets.

  14. On the stabilization of switched linear stochastic systems with unobservable switching laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the stabilization problem of switched linear stochastic systems with unobservable switching laws. In this paper the system switches among a finite family of linear stochastic systems. Since there are noise perturbations, the switching laws can not be identified in any finite time horizon. We prove that if each individual subsystem is controllable and the switching duration uniformly has a strict positive lower bound, then the system can be stabilized by using a controller that uses online state estimation.

  15. Stabilization of switched linear systems with bounded disturbances and unobservable switchings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the stabilization problem of switched linear systems with bounded disturbances. It is assumed that the system switches among an infinite set of uniformly controllable linear systems, and that the switching signals are not observable, but the switching duration has a lower bound. It will be shown that by combining on-line adaptive estimation and control in the controller design, a feedback control law can be constructed which makes the switched linear system globally stable.

  16. Bootstrapped Low-Voltage Analog Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    Novel low-voltage constant-impedance analog switch circuits are proposed. The switch element is a single MOSFET, and constant-impedance operation is obtained using simple circuits to adjust the gate and bulk voltages relative to the switched signal. Low-voltage (1-volt) operation is made feasible...... by employing a feedback loop. The gate oxide will not be subject to voltages exceeding the supply voltage difference.Realistic switches have been simulated with HSPICE. The simulations show that the switch circuits operate very well, even when the supply voltage approaches the technology's threshold voltage....

  17. STABILITY OF A SWITCHED LINEAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    At-Tasneem Mohd Amin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid systems are dynamic systems that arise out of the interaction of continuous state dynamics and discrete state dynamics. Switched systems, which are a type of hybrid system, have been given much attention by control systems research over the past decade. Problems with the controllability, observability, converseability and stabilizability of switched systems have always been discussed. In this paper, the trend in research regarding the stability of switched systems will be investigated. Then the variety of methods that have been discovered by researchers for stabilizing switched linear systems with arbitrary switching will be discussed in detail.

  18. Shape memory thermal conduction switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Krishnan, Vinu (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A thermal conduction switch includes a thermally-conductive first member having a first thermal contacting structure for securing the first member as a stationary member to a thermally regulated body or a body requiring thermal regulation. A movable thermally-conductive second member has a second thermal contacting surface. A thermally conductive coupler is interposed between the first member and the second member for thermally coupling the first member to the second member. At least one control spring is coupled between the first member and the second member. The control spring includes a NiTiFe comprising shape memory (SM) material that provides a phase change temperature <273 K, a transformation range <40 K, and a hysteresis of <10 K. A bias spring is between the first member and the second member. At the phase change the switch provides a distance change (displacement) between first and second member by at least 1 mm, such as 2 to 4 mm.

  19. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  20. High power ferrite microwave switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardash, I.; Roschak, N. K.

    1975-01-01

    A high power ferrite microwave switch was developed along with associated electronic driver circuits for operation in a spaceborne high power microwave transmitter in geostationary orbit. Three units were built and tested in a space environment to demonstrate conformance to the required performance characteristics. Each unit consisted of an input magic-tee hybrid, two non-reciprocal latching ferrite phase shifters, an out short-slot 3 db quadrature coupler, a dual driver electronic circuit, and input logic interface circuitry. The basic mode of operation of the high power ferrite microwave switch is identical to that of a four-port, differential phase shift, switchable circulator. By appropriately designing the phase shifters and electronic driver circuits to operate in the flux-transfer magnetization mode, power and temperature insensitive operation was achieved. A list of the realized characteristics of the developed units is given.

  1. Analytical Performance Evaluation of Different Switch Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sans

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The virtualization of the network access layer has opened new doors in how we perceive networks. With this virtualization of the network, it is possible to transform a regular PC with several network interface cards into a switch. PC-based switches are becoming an alternative to off-the-shelf switches, since they are cheaper. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the performance of PC-based switches. In this paper, we present a performance evaluation of two PC-based switches, using Open vSwitch and LiSA, and compare their performance with an off-the-shelf Cisco switch. The RTT, throughput, and fairness for UDP are measured for both Ethernet and Fast Ethernet technologies. From this research, we can conclude that the Cisco switch presents the best performance, and both PC-based switches have similar performance. Between Open vSwitch and LiSA, Open vSwitch represents a better choice since it has more features and is currently actively developed.

  2. Ultrafast photonic crystal optical switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Qi-huang; HU Xiao-yong

    2006-01-01

    Photonic crystal,a novel and artificial photonic material with periodic dielectric distribution,possesses photonic bandgap and can control the propagation states of photons.Photonic crystal has been considered to be a promising candidate for the future integrated photonic devices.The properties and the fabrication method of photonic crystal are expounded.The progresses of the study of ultrafast photonic crystal optical switching are discussed in detail.

  3. High voltage photoconductive switch package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporaso, George J.

    2016-11-22

    A photoconductive switch having a wide bandgap material substrate between opposing electrodes, and a doped dielectric filler that is in contact with both the electrodes and the substrate at the triple point. The dielectric filler material is doped with a conductive material to make it partially or completely conducting, to minimize the field enhancement near the triple point both when the substrate is not conducting in the "off" state and when the substrate is rendered conducting by radiation in the "on" state.

  4. Switch for Good Community Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Tabitha; Amran, Martha

    2013-11-19

    Switch4Good is an energy-savings program that helps residents reduce consumption from behavior changes; it was co-developed by Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management (BB) and WattzOn in Phase I of this grant. The program was offered at 11 Navy bases. Three customer engagement strategies were evaluated, and it was found that Digital Nudges (a combination of monthly consumption statements with frequent messaging via text or email) was most cost-effective.

  5. Pinning Synchronization of Switched Complex Dynamical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Network topology and node dynamics play a key role in forming synchronization of complex networks. Unfortunately there is no effective synchronization criterion for pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology. In this paper, pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology is studied. Two basic problems are considered: one is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks under arbitrary switching; the other is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any individual connection topology alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and single Lyapunov function method are used respectively, some global synchronization criteria are proposed and the designed switching law is given. Finally, simulation results verify the validity of the results.

  6. New PWM switched-mode converter topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Gui-Chao; Huang, Shi-Peng

    Two augmented switching cells are proposed from which four novel topologies can be derived: an augmented buck converter, an augmented boost converter, a novel switching power amplifier, and a novel switching controlled rectifier. The augmented buck and the augmented boost converters realize higher step-down and step-up ratios, respectively, under a given switch duty ratio by proper design of the turn ratios of the transformer and coupled inductor. The switching power amplifier achieves four-quadrant output by the use of two bidirectional current switches and a single power supply, while the inverse converter can be used as a switching controlled rectifier. The experimental verification of the power amplifier is presented.

  7. On stability of randomly switched nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Debasish

    2007-01-01

    This article is concerned with stability analysis and stabilization of randomly switched nonlinear systems. These systems may be regarded as piecewise deterministic stochastic systems: the discrete switches are triggered by a stochastic process which is independent of the state of the system, and between two consecutive switching instants the dynamics are deterministic. Our results provide sufficient conditions for almost sure global asymptotic stability using Lyapunov-based methods when individual subsystems are stable and a certain ``slow switching'' condition holds. This slow switching condition takes the form of an asymptotic upper bound on the probability mass function of the number of switches that occur between the initial and current time instants. This condition is shown to hold for switching signals coming from the states of finite-dimensional continuous-time Markov chains; our results therefore hold for Markov jump systems in particular. For systems with control inputs we provide explicit control s...

  8. Antibody Isotype Switching in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, Kate; Hackney, Jason; Payandeh, Jian; Zarrin, Ali A

    2015-01-01

    The humoral or antibody-mediated immune response in vertebrates has evolved to respond to diverse antigenic challenges in various anatomical locations. Diversification of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) constant region via isotype switching allows for remarkable plasticity in the immune response, including versatile tissue distribution, Fc receptor binding, and complement fixation. This enables antibody molecules to exert various biological functions while maintaining antigen-binding specificity. Different immunoglobulin (Ig) classes include IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE, and IgA, which exist as surface-bound and secreted forms. High-affinity autoantibodies are associated with various autoimmune diseases such as lupus and arthritis, while defects in components of isotype switching are associated with infections. A major route of infection used by a large number of pathogens is invasion of mucosal surfaces within the respiratory, digestive, or urinary tract. Most infections of this nature are initially limited by effector mechanisms such as secretory IgA antibodies. Mucosal surfaces have been proposed as a major site for the genesis of adaptive immune responses, not just in fighting infections but also in tolerating commensals and constant dietary antigens. We will discuss the evolution of isotype switching in various species and provide an overview of the function of various isotypes with a focus on IgA, which is universally important in gut homeostasis as well as pathogen clearance. Finally, we will discuss the utility of antibodies as therapeutic modalities.

  9. Brain Autopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... why a family should consider arranging for a brain autopsy upon the death of their loved one. To get a definitive ... study of tissue removed from the body after death. Examination of the whole brain is important in understanding FTD because the patterns ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and are working to compare that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct ... comparing such children to those with normal brain development may help scientists to pinpoint when and where mental disorders begin and perhaps how to slow or stop ...

  12. The Epigenetic Switches for Neural Development and Psychiatric Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingwen Lv; Yongjuan Xin; Wenhao Zhou; Zilong Qiu

    2013-01-01

    The most remarkable feature of the nervous system is that the development and functions of the brain are largely reshaped by postnatal experiences,in joint with genetic landscapes.The nature vs.nurture argument reminds us that both genetic and epigenetic information is indispensable for the normal function of the brain.The epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the central nervous system have been revealed over last a decade.Moreover,the mutations of epigenetic modulator genes have been shown to be implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders,such as autism spectrum disorders.The epigenetic study has initiated in the neuroscience field for a relative short period of time.In this review,we will summarize recent discoveries about epigenetic regulation on neural development,synaptic plasticity,learning and memory,as well as neuropsychiatric disorders.Although the comprehensive view of how epigenetic regulation contributes to the function of the brain is still not completed,the notion that brain,the most complicated organ of organisms,is profoundly shaped by epigenetic switches is widely accepted.

  13. The epigenetic switches for neural development and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jingwen; Xin, Yongjuan; Zhou, Wenhao; Qiu, Zilong

    2013-07-20

    The most remarkable feature of the nervous system is that the development and functions of the brain are largely reshaped by postnatal experiences, in joint with genetic landscapes. The nature vs. nurture argument reminds us that both genetic and epigenetic information is indispensable for the normal function of the brain. The epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the central nervous system have been revealed over last a decade. Moreover, the mutations of epigenetic modulator genes have been shown to be implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders. The epigenetic study has initiated in the neuroscience field for a relative short period of time. In this review, we will summarize recent discoveries about epigenetic regulation on neural development, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders. Although the comprehensive view of how epigenetic regulation contributes to the function of the brain is still not completed, the notion that brain, the most complicated organ of organisms, is profoundly shaped by epigenetic switches is widely accepted.

  14. 哈奇森、休谟、边沁与哲学功利主义的兴起%Hutcheson,Hume,Bentham and The Rise of Philosophical Utilitarianism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汶红涛

    2014-01-01

    Hume further developed the emotivism moral values on the basis of the theory of Hutcheson’ moral sense.He located the moral judgments on the basis of emotion,and the criteria of morality on pleasure and utility brought about from acts and characters.Hume plays an important role as a pioneer since he paves the way for Bentham’s philosophical utilitarianism with its foundation and structure.Nevertheless,he differs from utilitarianisms in the view of utility on its purpose—utility sense,for he puts this notion within the limit of instrument,and thus stays away from the latter,albeit he facilitates the philosophical utilitarianism.%休谟在哈奇森道德感理论的基础上进一步发展了情感主义的道德观点:道德的基础在于“情感”,而道德判定的标准在于行为和品格所引起的“愉悦性”和“效用性”。这一观点为后来以边沁为代表的哲学功利主义的兴起提供了直接性的理论基础和理论框架,休谟也因此在这一过程中起到了极为重要的过渡意义。但不同于功利主义者在目的-效用意义上对“功利”概念的运用,休谟的“效用”概念仅限于手段意义。休谟促成了哲学功利主义的兴起,但他并未成为一个功利主义者。

  15. Current Situation of Medical Students'Values from the Perspective of Utilitarianism%功利主义视角下医学生价值理念的现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雨蕙

    2013-01-01

    功利主义经过历代思想家的继承和发展,其中的集体主义原则、利他主义原则对医学生的价值理念产生了积极的借鉴与导向作用,但也产生了一定的消极影响,如价值观取向功利化和现实化、极端个人主义.因此,应当强化医学生核心价值观教育,将医乃仁术作为永不过时的医学价值导航,倡导医学中的“人道功利主义”,改善医学生价值观引导的教育大环境,以保证医学生形成积极健康的价值观.%After the successive inheritance and development of ideologists in past dynasties, the principle of collectivism and altruism in utilitarianism has an active reference and guidance role to medical students'values, as well as some negative effects such as utilitarian, actualization and extreme individualism. Therefore, this paper put forward to strengthen the medical students'core values education, take " curing people with benevolence" as a never out of data medical value navigation, advocate the "humanitarian utilitarianism" , improve medical students'values education environment, in order to ensure medical students form a positive and healthy values.

  16. 民间信仰的功利性思考——以方法论为视角%On the Utilitarian of Folk Belief-in the Perspective of Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗牧原; 张兴荣

    2012-01-01

    民间信仰的功利性观点是学界不争的事实,但从方法论角度看它有着一定的局限性。迪尔凯姆力倡的社会学的研究方法对相关研究有着一定的借鉴意义。从理论角度看,文化堕距理论可以对民间信仰的变迁给予合理解释。在两次田野调查的基础上指出,正是在这一变迁过程中开始崭露头角的社会因素,如传统性与社区象征意义等,导致了民间信仰活动的功利性外衣被部分地替代了。%There was no doubt that Folk Belief was utilitarian in academia, which was supposed to be the mainly topic of this paper. Methodologically, the static study focused on the utilitarian disposition of individual level was attempted to be taken place by the historical analysis that laid particular emphasis on the societal level; theoretically, in the perspective of culture lag theory, a reasonable hypothesis of Folk Belief' s changing was presented. It was also pointed out that the utilitarian of Folk Belief was faded, with the societal factors, such as tradition and symbolic meaning of community, appearing during the changing of folk belief based on two field researches.

  17. Utilitarian Tendency and Cause Analysis of Graduate Ideological and Political Education%研究生思想政治教育中的功利化倾向及其成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雯婷

    2014-01-01

    Ideological and political education of graduate students is an important part of the party's ideological and political education. In the new historical period, with the social, political and economic development, especially the rapid development of market economy, the ideological and political education of graduate students have had a significant impact on the ideol-ogical and political education graduate utilitarian tendency increasingly serious, the correct analysis ideological and political education in contemporary graduate utilitarian tendency and its causes, its utilitarian tendency has great significance to ex-plore solving strategies, grasp the ideological and political education law graduate, improve the timeliness effect of post-graduate ideological and political education.%研究生的思想政治教育工作是党思想政治教育工作的重要组成部分。在新的历史时期,随着社会政治、经济的发展,尤其是市场经济的迅速发展,对研究生的思想政治教育工作产生了重大的影响,研究生思想政治教育中的功利化倾向日趋严重,正确分析当代研究生思想政治教育中的功利化倾向及其成因,探究解决其功利化倾向的对策,对把握研究生思想政治教育规律,提高研究生思想政治教育的实效性具有重要意义。

  18. Brain peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompier, D; Vejux, A; Zarrouk, A; Gondcaille, C; Geillon, F; Nury, T; Savary, S; Lizard, G

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles in higher eukaryotes as they play a major role in numerous metabolic pathways and redox homeostasis. Some peroxisomal abnormalities, which are often not compatible with life or normal development, were identified in severe demyelinating and neurodegenerative brain diseases. The metabolic roles of peroxisomes, especially in the brain, are described and human brain peroxisomal disorders resulting from a peroxisome biogenesis or a single peroxisomal enzyme defect are listed. The brain abnormalities encountered in these disorders (demyelination, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death, neuronal migration, differentiation) are described and their pathogenesis are discussed. Finally, the contribution of peroxisomal dysfunctions to the alterations of brain functions during aging and to the development of Alzheimer's disease is considered.

  19. The salience network is responsible for switching between the default mode network and the central executive network: replication from DCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulden, Nia; Khusnulina, Aygul; Davis, Nicholas J; Bracewell, Robert M; Bokde, Arun L; McNulty, Jonathan P; Mullins, Paul G

    2014-10-01

    With the advent of new analysis methods in neuroimaging that involve independent component analysis (ICA) and dynamic causal modelling (DCM), investigations have focused on measuring both the activity and connectivity of specific brain networks. In this study we combined DCM with spatial ICA to investigate network switching in the brain. Using time courses determined by ICA in our dynamic causal models, we focused on the dynamics of switching between the default mode network (DMN), the network which is active when the brain is not engaging in a specific task, and the central executive network (CEN), which is active when the brain is engaging in a task requiring attention. Previous work using Granger causality methods has shown that regions of the brain which respond to the degree of subjective salience of a stimulus, the salience network, are responsible for switching between the DMN and the CEN (Sridharan et al., 2008). In this work we apply DCM to ICA time courses representing these networks in resting state data. In order to test the repeatability of our work we applied this to two independent datasets. This work confirms that the salience network drives the switching between default mode and central executive networks and that our novel technique is repeatable.

  20. The Met-allele of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism enhances task switching in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus; Falkenstein, Michael; Beste, Christian

    2011-12-01

    In this study we examined the relevance of the functional brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism as a modulator of task-switching performance in healthy elderly by using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures. Task switching was examined in a cue-based and a memory-based paradigm. Val/Val carriers were generally slower, showed enhanced reaction time variability and higher error rates, particularly during memory-based task switching than the Met-allele individuals. On a neurophysiological level these dissociative effects were reflected by variations in the N2 and P3 ERP components. The task switch-related N2 was increased while the P3 was decreased in Met-allele carriers, while the Val/Val genotype group revealed the opposite pattern of results. In cue-based task-switching no behavioral and ERP differences were seen between the genotypes. These data suggest that superior memory-based task-switching performance in elderly Met-allele carriers may emerge due to more efficient response selection processes. The results implicate that under special circumstances the Met-allele renders cognitive processes more efficient than the Val/Val genotype in healthy elderly, corroborating recent findings in young subjects.

  1. Optimization Of Output Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser Based On Switching Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamuri, Abd Rahman; Daud, Yaacob Mat; Bidin, Noriah

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the optimization of output Q-switch Nd:YAG. A free running Nd:YAG laser was employed as source of light. KD*P crystal was utilized as a Pockels cell. Avalanche transistor pulser was designed to switch a high voltage power supply. The switching time was conducted via a control unit based PIC16F84A microcontroller. The pulser was able to switch the voltage within 3 ns. The optimum switching time of Q-switching is obtained at 182.34 μs. The corresponding laser output is 40 mJ with pulse duration of 25 ns.

  2. Design and Simulation of Routing-switching Protocol Based on Optical Switch Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Wei; MAO You-ju; LIU Jiang

    2004-01-01

    An optical routing- switching technology based on optical switch array is proposed. The characteristics of the blocking and nonblocking networks are analyzed and compared, odd- even sorting network is used to realize optical routing- switching, relative routing- switching protocol is designed.Simulation test under load shows that it can reduce a blocking effectively and enhance an efficiency of switching. Further, it can transfer the processing and switching within parallel computer from electric domain to optical domain. It can make parallel computer coordinating computing and processing at much more higher speed, storing and transmitting even more efficiently.

  3. COMMUNICATION: Improving correct switching rates in a 'hands-free' environmental control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ashley; Tran, Yvonne; Craig, Daniel; Thuraisingham, Ranjit

    2005-12-01

    One potential negative impact on the quality of life of a spinal cord injured person is the loss of the ability to control devices in their immediate environment. Consequently, research and development has been conducted on technology designed to restore some measure of independence by providing means of control over these devices. A previous assistive device using changes in brain signals from eye closure as its switching system was created. Brain signals were processed using spectral analysis and although this was a successful technique, there were limitations that resulted in higher than desired switching errors. This paper presents results of an alternative method for processing brain signals as the basis for switching, called fractal dimension. In comparison to the spectral technique, the fractal dimension technique was successful in reducing the number of false positive and false negative errors. Additionally, it eliminated the need for a baseline setup for this system. This suggests that fractal dimension is a potentially viable method for analysing brain signals for use in assistive control systems.

  4. Switching control of an R/C hovercraft: stabilization and smooth switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Iwasaki, M; Wang, H O

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents stable switching control of an radio-controlled (R/C) hovercraft that is a nonholonomic (nonlinear) system. To exactly represent its nonlinear dynamics, more importantly, to maintain controllability of the system, we newly propose a switching fuzzy model that has locally Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy models and switches them according to states, external variables, and/or time. A switching fuzzy controller is constructed by mirroring the rule structure of the switching fuzzy model of an R/C hovercraft. We derive linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions for ensuring the stability of the closed-loop system consisting of a switching fuzzy model and controller. Furthermore, to guarantee smooth switching of control input at switching boundaries, we also derive a smooth switching condition represented in terms of LMIs. A stable switching fuzzy controller satisfying the smooth switching condition is designed by simultaneously solving both of the LMIs. The simulation and experimental results for the trajectory control of an R/C hovercraft show the validity of the switching fuzzy model and controller design, particularly, the smooth switching condition.

  5. Reversible Switching of Cooperating Replicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtel, Georg C.; Rind, Thomas; Braun, Dieter

    2017-02-01

    How can molecules with short lifetimes preserve their information over millions of years? For evolution to occur, information-carrying molecules have to replicate before they degrade. Our experiments reveal a robust, reversible cooperation mechanism in oligonucleotide replication. Two inherently slow replicating hairpin molecules can transfer their information to fast crossbreed replicators that outgrow the hairpins. The reverse is also possible. When one replication initiation site is missing, single hairpins reemerge from the crossbreed. With this mechanism, interacting replicators can switch between the hairpin and crossbreed mode, revealing a flexible adaptation to different boundary conditions.

  6. Study on switched reluctance generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘再平; 金英; 张慧

    2004-01-01

    The linear and non-linear math models of the switched reluctance generator (SRG) in generator mode were established in this work. The phase current and energy conversion process during generator operation were simulated by the linear math model. The non-linear math model was used to analyze the characteristics of the SRG operation in self-excitation mode and in separately-excitation mode. Some important findings on how the SRG is operated and controlled were obtained in this study, which provides theoretical basis for further design and experimental study.

  7. Transistor switching and sequential circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sparkes, John J

    1969-01-01

    Transistor Switching and Sequential Circuits presents the basic ideas involved in the construction of computers, instrumentation, pulse communication systems, and automation. This book discusses the design procedure for sequential circuits. Organized into two parts encompassing eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the ways on how to generate the types of waveforms needed in digital circuits, principally ramps, square waves, and delays. This text then considers the behavior of some simple circuits, including the inverter, the emitter follower, and the long-tailed pair. Other cha

  8. Gate-controlled conductance switching in DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Limin; Palma, Julio L.; Li, Yueqi; Mujica, Vladimiro; Ratner, Mark A.; Tao, Nongjian

    2017-02-01

    Extensive evidence has shown that long-range charge transport can occur along double helical DNA, but active control (switching) of single-DNA conductance with an external field has not yet been demonstrated. Here we demonstrate conductance switching in DNA by replacing a DNA base with a redox group. By applying an electrochemical (EC) gate voltage to the molecule, we switch the redox group between the oxidized and reduced states, leading to reversible switching of the DNA conductance between two discrete levels. We further show that monitoring the individual conductance switching allows the study of redox reaction kinetics and thermodynamics at single molecular level using DNA as a probe. Our theoretical calculations suggest that the switch is due to the change in the energy level alignment of the redox states relative to the Fermi level of the electrodes.

  9. Molecular switches and motors on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathem, Bala Krishna; Claridge, Shelley A; Zheng, Yue Bing; Weiss, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Molecular switches and motors respond structurally, electronically, optically, and/or mechanically to external stimuli, testing and potentially enabling extreme miniaturization of optoelectronic devices, nanoelectromechanical systems, and medical devices. The assembly of motors and switches on surfaces makes it possible both to measure the properties of individual molecules as they relate to their environment and to couple function between assembled molecules. In this review, we discuss recent progress in assembling molecular switches and motors on surfaces, measuring static and dynamic structures, understanding switching mechanisms, and constructing functional molecular materials and devices. As demonstrative examples, we choose a representative molecule from three commonly studied classes including molecular switches, photochromic molecules, and mechanically interlocked molecules. We conclude by offering perspectives on the future of molecular switches and motors on surfaces.

  10. Switched steerable multiple beam antenna system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Richard S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A steerable multibeam five element cross-feed cluster antenna system is described. The feed power is divided into five branches. Each branch includes a switching network comprised of a plurality of time delay elements each individually controlled by a respective electromagnetic latching switch. Frequency independent individual two-dimensional beam steering at intermediate (IF) scanning frequencies is thereby provided wherein discrete incremental time delays are introduced by the switching networks into each branch and the signals recombined thereafter to form each beam. The electromagnetic latched switching reduces power consumption and permits higher power switching and reciprocal coincident tranmsit and receive operation. Frequency independence due to incremental time delay switching permits coincident reciprocal operation and steering for transmit-receive signal paths carrying different transmit-receive frequencies. Diagonal quarter wave plates in the waveguides alter polarization from the circular to orthogonal linear to provide transmitter-receiver isolation.

  11. MEMS switches having non-metallic crossbeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximillian C (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A RF MEMS switch comprising a crossbeam of SiC, supported by at least one leg above a substrate and above a plurality of transmission lines forming a CPW. Bias is provided by at least one layer of metal disposed on a top surface of the SiC crossbeam, such as a layer of chromium followed by a layer of gold, and extending beyond the switch to a biasing pad on the substrate. The switch utilizes stress and conductivity-controlled non-metallic thin cantilevers or bridges, thereby improving the RF characteristics and operational reliability of the switch. The switch can be fabricated with conventional silicon integrated circuit (IC) processing techniques. The design of the switch is very versatile and can be implemented in many transmission line mediums.

  12. Synchronization of Arbitrarily Switched Boolean Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Liang, Jinling; Huang, Tingwen; Cao, Jinde

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the complete synchronization problem for the drive-response switched Boolean networks (SBNs) under arbitrary switching signals, where the switching signals of the response SBN follow those generated by the drive SBN at each time instant. First, the definition of complete synchronization is introduced for the drive-response SBNs under arbitrary switching signals. Second, the concept of switching reachable set starting from a given initial state set is put forward. Based on it, a necessary and sufficient condition is derived for the complete synchronization of the drive-response SBNs. Last, we give a simple algebraic expression for the switching reachable set in a given number of time steps, and two computable algebraic criteria are obtained for the complete synchronization of the SBNs. A biological example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained main results.

  13. A new switched power linac structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, F.

    1989-03-01

    A new pulse power structure has been described that utilizes an easily accessible rectilinear switch. The new structure is more ''forgiving'' (as far as risetime is concerned) than the radial line transformer, and contains fewer switching structures/unit length. The combination of the new structure with the switch proposed seems to offer interesting possibilities for a future linear collider. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Nonsmooth Modeling and Simulation for Switched Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Acary, Vincent; Brogliato, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    "Nonsmooth Modeling and Simulation for Switched Circuits" concerns the modeling and the numerical simulation of switched circuits with the nonsmooth dynamical systems (NSDS) approach, using piecewise-linear and multivalued models of electronic devices like diodes, transistors, switches. Numerous examples (ranging from introductory academic circuits to various types of power converters) are analyzed and many simulation results obtained with the INRIA open-source SICONOS software package are presented. Comparisons with SPICE and hybrid methods demonstrate the power of the NSDS approach

  15. Improved Lifetime High Voltage Switch Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    capabilities of spark switches (e.g., saturable magnetic reactors, ignitions, and high power vacuum tubes), none has the combined high voltage, high...series impedance of the switch . Additionally, the eroded material may be deposited on internal insulators , thereby inducing pretriggering and erratic...of dry air, a typical spark switch insulating gas. -7- ENERGETIC IONS FROM ION IMPLANTER 0 0 0 0 -0 0 00000 0 0 oSUBSTRATE 0 - 0 o 0 SAMPLE= ’ 0• 0 U 0

  16. Switched Systems With Multiple Invariant Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-06

    Motor Control Mode Figure 1: Schematic of mode switching with non-equilibrium limit sets. with σ = 1. For a positive rate of convergence λ > 0, it...while utilizing steady-state control strategies for static balancing or tasks requiring fine motor control . Mode-switching also implicates a large...Switched Systems With Multiple Invariant SetsI Michael Dorothy, Soon-Jo Chung∗ Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana

  17. Ultrafast pulse generation in photoconductive switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Dykaar, D. R.

    1996-01-01

    Carrier and field dynamics in photoconductive switches are investigated by electrooptic sampling and voltage-dependent reflectivity measurements. We show that the nonuniform field distribution due to the two-dimensional nature of coplanar photoconductive switches, in combination with the large...... difference in the mobilities of holes and electrons, determine the pronounced polarity dependence. Our measurements indicate that the pulse generation mechanism is a rapid voltage breakdown across the photoconductive switch and not a local field breakdown...

  18. Description and verification of switched control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺风华; 姚郁; 赵霞; 张猛

    2003-01-01

    A modeling framework has been constructed using the theory of hybrid control systems for the switched control systems (SCS) and it can be more effectively used to describe the behavior of the systems and to more easily realize the simulation of the closed loop SCS under the MATLAB environment. On the other hand, a hybrid automaton model is established to analyze and verify the switched control systems. The proposed method is illustrated by an example of switched inverted pendulum control system.

  19. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  20. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  1. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidari, E.; Keskin, M.; Maloberti, F.;

    1999-01-01

    Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications.......Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications....

  2. A Thermal Switch for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Various planned NASA missions require thermal switches for active thermal control. As an example cryocoolers, including redundant coolers are incorporated on select...

  3. Wireless Nanoionic-Based Radio Frequency Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James A. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A nanoionic switch connected to one or more rectenna modules is disclosed. The rectenna module is configured to receive a wireless signal and apply a first bias to change a state of the nanoionic switch from a first state to a second state. The rectenna module can receive a second wireless signal and apply a second bias to change the nanoionic switch from the second state back to the first state. The first bias is generally opposite of the first bias. The rectenna module accordingly permits operation of the nanoionic switch without onboard power.

  4. Simplified design of switching power supplies

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1996-01-01

    Simplified Design of Switching Power Supplies is an all-inclusive, one-stop guide to switching power-supply design. Step-by-step instructions and diagrams render this book essential for the student and the experimenter, as well as the design professional.Simplified Design of Switching Power Supplies concentrates on the use of IC regulators. All popular forms of switching supplies, including DC-DC converters, inverters, buck, boost, buck-boost, pulse frequency modulation, pulse width modulation, current-mode control and pulse skipping, are described in detail. The design examples may

  5. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  6. Observability conditions of switched linear singular systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin MENG; Jifeng ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    The observability problem of switched linear singular(SLS) systems is studied in this paper. Based on the observability definition, the unobservable subspaces of given switching laws are investigated under the condition that all subsystems are regular. A necessary condition and a sufficient condition for observability of SLS systems are given. It is shown that the observability and controllability are dual for some special SLS systems with circulatory switching laws. The method developed here is applicable to the observability analysis of normal switched linear systems.

  7. Multipath packet switch using packet bundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stubert

    2002-01-01

    The basic concept of packet bundling is to group smaller packets into larger packets based on, e.g., quality of service or destination within the packet switch. This paper presents novel applications of bundling in packet switching. The larger packets created by bundling are utilized to extend...... switching capacity by use of parallel switch planes. During the bundling operation, packets will experience a delay that depends on the actual implementation of the bundling and scheduling scheme. Analytical results for delay bounds and buffer size requirements are presented for a specific scheduling...

  8. The increased importance of sector switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2014-01-01

    Sector switching is an important phenomenon that casts light on public–private differences. Yet our knowledge about its prevalence and trends is limited. We study sector switching using unique Danish register-based employer–employee data covering more than 25 years. We find that sector switching...... constitutes 18.5% of all job-to-job mobility, and the trend is increasing both from public to private and from private to public. Sector switching is also generally increasing for middle managers, but for administrative professionals only the flows from private to public increase and for top managers only...

  9. A Heat Switch for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Various planned NASA missions require heat switches for active thermal control. As an example cryocoolers, including redundant coolers are incorporated on select...

  10. Simplified design of switching power supplies

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1995-01-01

    * Describes the operation of each circuit in detail * Examines a wide selection of external components that modify the IC package characteristics * Provides hands-on, essential information for designing a switching power supply Simplified Design of Switching Power Supplies is an all-inclusive, one-stop guide to switching power-supply design. Step-by-step instructions and diagrams render this book essential for the student and the experimenter, as well as the design professional. Simplified Design of Switching Power Supplies concentrates on the use of IC regulators. All popular forms of swit

  11. Evaluation of Switch Currents in Nine-Switch Energy Conversion Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Qin, Zian;

    2013-01-01

    Converters with reduced switch counts usually face some performance tradeoffs, which make them suitable for some applications but not others. The same applies to the nine-switch converter, which is a reduced-switch version of the back-to-back twelve-switch converter. The nine-switch converter has...... since been shown to experience a higher voltage stress, which can be lowered in some cases. A corresponding evaluation of its current stress is however lacking, and is hence addressed now by computing its switch currents when used for ac-ac, ac-dc, dc-ac and dc-dc energy conversions. Relevant...... expressions, application requirements and simulation results are presented for identifying cases, where the nine-switch converter can have an improvement in performance despite its reduced switch count....

  12. State-dependent switching control of switched positive fractional-order systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xudong; Yin, Yunfei; Zheng, Xiaolong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the problem of switching stabilization for a class of continuous-time switched positive fractional-order systems is studied by using state-dependent switching. First, the asymptotic stability condition of switched positive fractional-order systems with state-dependent switching is given, which is based on the fractional co-positive Lyapunov method. Moreover, by the sliding sector method, the stability condition of switched positive fractional-order systems whose subsystems are possibly all unstable is obtained. A variable structure (VS) switching law with sliding sector is also proposed to guarantee the switched positive fractional-order system to be asymptotically stable. Finally, two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the advantages and effectiveness of our developed results.

  13. SOCIAL FACTOR VERSUS UTILITARIAN TECHNOLOGY: SOCIAL MARKETING VERSUS UTILITARIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhilesh Dholakia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A expansão e a convergência tecnológica de serviços vêm ampliando e modificando a utilização de produtos e serviços no setor telecomunicações, criando um novo mercado e ampliando seu público alvo pelas diversas características de utilização. O artigo desenvolvido apresenta uma pesquisa qualitativa, pelo estudo netnográfico (uma nova estrutura de avaliação qualitativa, onde discussões temáticas são retiradas de websites de confiança para serem organizados dado às palavras chaves utilizadas, passando posteriormente por um processo de codificação e interpretação sobre os fatores pesquisados baseado no consumo e comportamento do uso do iPhone, aparelho móvel celular com diversas integrações de produtos e convergências de serviços. Nesta pesquisa, foram avaliados os fatores utilitários e sociais / hedônicos, apresentando que o mercado do setor possui uma nova gama de serviços, atraindo novos grupos de usuários ao seu contexto, deixando assim cada vez mais diversificado o tipo de marketing utilizado no setor. O fator social (imagem pessoal é apontado como fator primário na decisão de escolha e uso do dispositivo, onde a apresentação no mercado e marketing para estes produtos estimulam cada vez mais a utilidade como um valor social. Identificando o dispositivo celular como um produto utilitário dado o tipo de serviço e utilização a que este se propõe, acredita-se que este mercado utilitário muda seu sentido quando certa quantidade de integrações são hedônicas amplificando a diversificação de uso, os valores sociais e hedônicos. Os autores definem este uso de um produto tecnológico com diversas integrações hedônicas como um comportamento utilitário social, onde a utilidade do produto passa a ser social (apresentação pessoal ou diversão individual.

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... Higher Death Rate Among Youth with Psychosis Delayed Walking Link ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in ... or-flight response and is also involved in emotions and memory. anterior cingulate cortex —Is involved in ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Some people who develop a mental illness may recover completely; others may have repeated episodes of illness ... in early detection, more tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that contains codes to make proteins and other important body chemicals. DNA also includes information to control ... cells required for normal function and plays an important role during early brain development. It may also ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, and responds ... via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in early detection, more tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything ... can cause tremors or symptoms found in Parkinson's disease. Serotonin —helps control many functions, such as mood, ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Offices and Divisions Careers@NIMH Advisory Boards and Groups Staff Directories Getting to NIMH National Institutes of ... electrical signals. The brain begins as a small group of cells in the outer layer of a ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into ... factors that can affect our bodies, such as sleep, diet, or stress. These factors may act alone ...

  2. A Self-Study Tutorial using the Allen Brain Explorer and Brain Atlas to Teach Concepts of Mammalian Neuroanatomy and Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Bruce G

    2009-01-01

    The Allen Brain Atlas is a repository of neuroanatomical data concerning the mouse brain. The core of the database is a Nissl-stained reference atlas of the brain accompanied by in situ hybridization data for essentially the entire mouse genome. This database is freely available at the Allen Institute for Brain Science website, as is an innovative tool to explore the database, the Brain Explorer. This tool is downloaded and installed on your own computer. I have developed a self-study tutorial, "Explorations with the Allen Brain Explorer", which uses the Brain Explorer and the Brain Atlas to teach fundamentals of mammalian neuroanatomy and brain function. In this tutorial background information and step-by-step exercises on the use of the Brain Explorer are given using PowerPoint as a platform. To do the tutorial both the PowerPoint and the Brain Explorer are opened on the computer and the students switch from one program to the other as they go, in a step-wise fashion, through the various exercises. There are two main groups of exercises, titled "The Basics" and "Explorations", with both groups accessed from a PowerPoint "Start Menu" by clicking on dynamic links to the appropriate exercises. Most exercises have a number of dynamic links to PowerPoint slides where background information for the exercises is given or the neuroanatomical data collected from the Brain Atlas is discussed.

  3. The Application of High Temperature Superconducting Materials to Power Switches

    CERN Document Server

    March, S A; Ballarino, A

    2009-01-01

    Superconducting switches may find application in superconducting magnet systems that require energy extraction. Such superconducting switches could be bypass-switches that are operated in conjunction with a parallel resistor or dump-switches where all of the energy is dissipated in the switch itself. Bypass-switches are more suited to higher energy circuits as a portion of the energy can be dissipated in the external dump resistor. Dump- switches require less material and triggering energy as a lower switch resistance is needed to achieve the required total dump resistance. Both superconducting bypass-switches and superconducting dump-switches can be ther- mally activated. Switching times that are comparable to those obtained with mechanical bypass-switch systems can be achieved using a co-wound heater that is powered by a ca- pacitor discharge. Switches that have fast thermal diffusion times through the insulation can be modelled as a lumped system whereas those with slow thermal diffusion times were modelle...

  4. Contemporary College Students' Utilitarian Reading and Reading Counseling in Library%当代大学生的功利性阅读与图书馆的阅读教育辅导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀敏; 聂英

    2013-01-01

    The currently severe employment situation and various objective and subjective factors make colleges students' reading more and more utilitarian. In view of this situation, college li-braries must pay much attention and actively adopt coping mea-sures. Starting from the courses of the current college students' u-tilitarian reading, this paper briefly analyzes its advantages and disadvantages, and proposes some coping strategies combining with the writer's own experience.%  当前,面临严峻的就业形势,再加上各种主客观因素的影响,大学生的阅读越来越带有功利性的色彩。对于这样一种情况,高校的图书馆必须加以正视,并积极地采取应对措施。本文将从分析目前大学生功利性阅读的成因入手,简要分析其利弊影响,在此基础上结合自身经验为高校图书馆提出一些应对策略。

  5. 学分制下高职行业英语课程设置的去功利化策略研究%Study on Anti-utilitarian strategy in development of vocational professional English in credit system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琼; 莫国辉

    2016-01-01

    学分制下行业英语课程改革在开展初期遭遇了各种功利化的应对。在分析课程设置中需面对问题的基础上,提出了高职行业英语改革中去功利化的策略,如加强行业英语教学师资培养,注重特色校本教材的选编,积极推进学习评价体系的革新等。%Curriculum reform of professional English in credit system faces various utilitarian strategies in the initial stage.Based on analyzing the problems in curriculum setting,this paper puts forward the anti-utilitarian strategies in higher vocational professional English reform such as enhancing teaching staff cultivation of professional English,laying emphasis on choosing and compiling teaching materials based on college characteristics and promoting reform of learning evaluation system.

  6. 辛弃疾的“事功派”思想及在稼轩词中的体现%Xin Qi-ji’s Utilitarianism Ethics Thought And influence on Jiaxuan Ci-poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋学达

    2013-01-01

    事功派哲学家陈亮与辛弃疾私交甚厚,其哲学思想必然会对辛弃疾产生影响,而历来对辛弃疾的研究中,似乎很少关注其思想哲学的相关问题。本文旨在论证辛弃疾的哲学思想乃是以陈亮为代表的事功派哲学一脉,并探讨事功派哲学对稼轩词艺术特质及词史地位所产生的深刻影响。%Chen Liang, the philosopher of Utilitarianism Ethics Thought, has a good relationship with Xin Qi-ji. So his philosophical thoughts certainly would have an influence on Xin Qiji. But in the past, on the study of Xin Qi-ji, we can seldom found researches concerning his thought of philosophy. This dissertation is aimed to argue that Xin's philosophical thoughts is a brunch of Chen’s Utilitarianism Ethics Thought and the latter had great influence on Jiaxuan Ci-Poems, including its artistic particularities and the status in Ci-poetry history.

  7. Reflections on contemporary utilitarian dilemma of Chinese education assessment%当代中国教育考试制度的功利性困境思考--以考试制度伦理的逻辑视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解琳那

    2015-01-01

    The national education assessment principles are vital component of education principles, as instruments to select, discriminate, determine and evaluate talents. The utilitarian standards of Chinese education assessment principles resulted in a realistic ethical dilemma, which further accelerate the alienation of people. However, the contemporary Chinese assessment principle reform and development must be subject to moral determination and follow the spiritual principle management in order to disseminate the utilitarian dilemma of education assessment, change the reality of people being as instrumental existence and become existence of purpose with value and significance.%国家教育考试制度作为教育制度的重要组成部分,是选拔和甄别、评价和衡量人的制度工具,中国教育考试制度的功利性标准造成了现实的伦理困境,加速了人的异化。当代中国考试制度的改革和发展必须接受道德的评价,按照伦理的精神原则组织安排,才能化解教育考试的功利性困境,改变人作为工具性存在的现实状态,成为有价值有意义的目的性存在。

  8. Modeling and control of switching max-plus-linear systems with random and deterministic switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Boom, T.J.J.; De Schutter, B.

    2012-01-01

    Switching max-plus-linear (SMPL) systems are discrete-event systems that can switch between different modes of operation. In each mode the system is described by a max-plus-linear state equation and a max-plus-linear output equation, with different system matrices for each mode. The switching may de

  9. 30 CFR 57.19018 - Overtravel by-pass switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overtravel by-pass switches. 57.19018 Section... Hoisting Hoists § 57.19018 Overtravel by-pass switches. When an overtravel by-pass switch is installed, the... switch is held in the closed position by the hoistman. The overtravel by-pass switch shall...

  10. 30 CFR 56.19018 - Overtravel by-pass switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overtravel by-pass switches. 56.19018 Section... Hoisting Hoists § 56.19018 Overtravel by-pass switches. When an overtravel by-pass switch is installed, the... switch is held in the closed position by the hoistman. The overtravel by-pass switch shall...

  11. Sequential Effects in Deduction: Cost of Inference Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Emilio G.; Moreno-Rios, Sergio; Espino, Orlando; Santamaria, Carlos; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The task-switch paradigm has helped psychologists gain insight into the processes involved in changing from one activity to another. The literature has yielded consistent results about switch cost reconfiguration (abrupt offset in regular task-switch vs. gradual reduction in random task-switch; endogenous and exogenous components of switch cost;…

  12. Comparative performance assessment of switching options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Alex; Savoie, Michel J.

    2004-11-01

    Switching is one of the key functionalities in next generation optical networks. It might be performed by either an optical switch (optical-electrical-optical, or OEO) or a "purely" photonic switch (optical-optical-optical or OOO). Both switches are analyzed from two perspectives - as an individual network element, and as an integral part within the communication network. As an individual network element, the performance evaluation of the two switch types is based on the individual assessment of switch footprint and power dissipation, bandwidth utilization, scalability to high speed, transparency, interoperability, technology maturity and ability to manipulate data. Although both switch types have their own advantages as a network element, the full judgement of their role in next generation optical networks requires an overall network perspective. From that viewpoint, network functionalities such as grooming capabilities, scalability, traffic management, protection, line equalization and performance monitoring are those taken into account for comparative analyses to gain an understanding of the impacts of switch choice in the network. As a result of the comparative performance assessment, the merits and benefits of both switch types in actual network applications are analyzed and outlined. Although the paper evaluates some criteria for switch choice in a network, it points out potential technologies or techniques critical to next generation architectural solutions and protocols as well as the challenges to bridge the gap towards implementing flexible, cost-effective and dynamically provisioned networks of the future. Finally, the paper responds to one critical question - What is the expected role of each switch type in next generation applications and services?

  13. Switching between hands in a serial reaction time task: A comparison between young and old adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike eHoff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is associated with a variety of functional and structural brain alterations. These age-related brain alterations have been assumed to negatively impact cognitive and motor performance. Especially important for the execution of everyday activities in older adults (OA is the ability to perform movements that depend on both hands working together. However, bimanual coordination is typically deteriorated with increasing age. Hence, a deeper understanding of such age-related brain-behavior alterations might offer the opportunity to design future interventional studies in order to delay or even prevent the decline in cognitive and/ or motor performance over the lifespan. Here we examined to what extent the capability to acquire and maintain a novel bimanual motor skill is still preserved in healthy OA as compared to their younger peers (YA. For this purpose, we investigated performance of OA (n=26 and YA (n=26 in a bimanual serial reaction time task (B-SRTT, on two experimental sessions, separated by one week. We found that even though OA were generally slower in global response times, they showed preserved learning capabilities in the B-SRTT. However, sequence specific learning was more pronounced in YA as compared to OA. Furthermore, we found that switching between hands during B-SRTT learning trials resulted in increased response times (hand switch costs, a phenomenon that was more pronounced in OA. These hand switch costs were reduced in both groups over the time course of learning. More interestingly, there were no group differences in hand switch costs on the second training session. These results provide novel evidence that bimanual motor skill learning is capable of reducing age-related deficits in hand switch costs, a finding that might have important implications to prevent the age-related decline in sensorimotor function.

  14. Black Physical Educators and Utilitarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursey, Leon N.

    The contributions of black professional personnel to the field of physical education are enumerated and described. The careers of Anita J. Turner, Edwin B. Henderson, and Albert J. Overly in particular are examined. The ability of a minority group to provide significant leadership in an educational field is discussed, and the challenge still…

  15. Brain-dead patients are not cadavers: the need to revise the definition of death in Muslim communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2013-03-01

    The utilitarian construct of two alternative criteria of human death increases the supply of transplantable organs at the end of life. Neither the neurological criterion (heart-beating donation) nor the circulatory criterion (non-heart-beating donation) is grounded in scientific evidence but based on philosophical reasoning. A utilitarian death definition can have unintended consequences for dying Muslim patients: (1) the expedited process of determining death for retrieval of transplantable organs can lead to diagnostic errors, (2) the equivalence of brain death with human death may be incorrect, and (3) end-of-life religious values and traditional rituals may be sacrificed. Therefore, it is imperative to reevaluate the two different types and criteria of death introduced by the Resolution (Fatwa) of the Council of Islamic Jurisprudence on Resuscitation Apparatus in 1986. Although we recognize that this Fatwa was based on best scientific evidence available at that time, more recent evidence shows that it rests on outdated knowledge and understanding of the phenomenon of human death. We recommend redefining death in Islam to reaffirm the singularity of this biological phenomenon as revealed in the Quran 14 centuries ago.

  16. Modality Switching in a Property Verification Task: An ERP Study of What Happens When Candles Flicker after High Heels Click

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Collins (Jennifer); D. Pecher (Diane); R. Zeelenberg (René); S. Coulson (Seana)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe perceptual modalities associated with property words, such as flicker or click, have previously been demonstrated to affect subsequent property verification judgments (Pecher et al., 2003). Known as the conceptual modality switch effect, this finding supports the claim that brain sys

  17. Internal Backpressure for Terabit Switch Fabrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Rytlig, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes the efficiency of novel backpressure schemes for Terabit switch fabrics. The proposed schemes aim at buffer optimization under uniform traffic distribution with Bernoulli packet arrival process. Results show that a reduction of the needed maximum buffer capacity w...... with up to 47% can be achieved with switch-internal backpressure mechanisms at the expense of a small control overhead....

  18. The Liquid Metal Plasma Valve Closing Switch,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Table 1. Switch Specification s Closing HVDC LMPV Switch Converter LMPV Circuit Parameter...Parameters Rating Breaker Rating Peak Voltage 50-200 kV 150 kV nominal 30 kV Pulse Width 20-50 1isec 6 msec 20 msec Peak Current 8-4 kA 1.8 kA nominal

  19. On formalism and stability of switched systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we formulate a uniform mathematical framework for studying switched systems with piecewise linear partitioned state space and state dependent switching. Based on known results from the theory of differential inclusions, we devise a Lyapunov stability theorem suitable for this class...

  20. Modelling switching power converters as complementarity systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camlibel, Mehmet; Iannelli, Luigi; Vasca, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    Switched complementarity models of linear circuits with ideal diodes and/or ideal switches allow one to study well-posedness and stability issues for these circuits by employing the complementarity problems of the mathematical programming. In this paper, we demonstrate that other types of typical el

  1. Proceedings of the switched power workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernow, R.C. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings contain most of the presentations given at a workshop on the current state of research in techniques for switched power acceleration. The proceedings are divided, as was the workshop itself, into two parts. Part 1, contains the latest results from a number of groups active in switched power research. The major topic here is a method for switching externally supplied power onto a transmission line. Advocates for vacuum photodiode switching, solid state switching, gas switching, and synthetic pulse generation are all presented. Other important areas of research described in this section concern: external electrical and laser pulsing systems; the properties of the created electromagnetic pulse; structures used for transporting the electromagnetic pulse to the region where the electron beam is located; and possible applications. Part 2 of the proceedings considers the problem of designing a high brightness electron gun using switched power as the power source. This is an important first step in demonstrating the usefulness of switched power techniques for accelerator physics. In addition such a gun could have immediate practical importance for advanced acceleration studies since the brightness could exceed that of present sources by several orders of magnitude. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Kathleen Tuohy and Patricia Tuttle for their assistance in organizing and running the workshop. Their tireless efforts contribute greatly to a very productive meeting.

  2. Learner Code-Switching versus English Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a study into the functions of code-switching in EFL classes at a Colombian language school. It was undertaken to decide whether the official "English-only" policy in place in this and other classrooms is pedagogically justified. The results suggest that code-switching may not necessarily be connected to ability…

  3. Code switching for college students on campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇

    2015-01-01

    <正>I.Introduction In linguistics,code-switching is the concurrent use of more than one language,or language variety,in discourse.Code-switching is a worldwide linguistic phenomenon existing in bilingual or multilingual communities.College students in China,after years of English learning,are bilingually competent underlying codeswitching between Chinese and English.Studies or research

  4. Optical packet switching without packet alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Operation without packet alignment of an all-optical packet switch is proposed and predicted feasible through a detailed traffic analysis. Packet alignment units are eliminated resulting in a simple switch architecture while optimal traffic performance is maintained through the flexibility provided...

  5. RF MEMS Switches for Mobile Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, Peter; Herfst, Rodolf; Suy, Hilco; Goossens, Martijn; Beek, van Joost; Bielen, Jeroen; Stulemeijer, Jiri; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    Switched capacitors based on radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) can enable a breakthrough in radio technology. Their switching principle is based on the mechanical movement of the plates of a parallel plate capacitor using the electrostatic force. The resulting difference in ca

  6. Novel RF-MEMS capacitive switching structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, X.; Jansen, H.; Fiorini, P.; De Raedt, W.; Tilmans, H.A.C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on novel RF-MEMS capacitive switching devices implementing an electrically floating metal layer covering the dielectric to ensure intimate contact with the bridge in the down state. This results in an optimal switch down capacitance and allows optimisation of the down/up capacitan

  7. Morphological Priming Survives a Language Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonschot, Rinus G.; Middelburg, Renee; Lensink, Saskia E.; Schiller, Niels O.

    2012-01-01

    In a long-lag morphological priming experiment, Dutch (L1)-English (L2) bilinguals were asked to name pictures and read aloud words. A design using non-switch blocks, consisting solely of Dutch stimuli, and switch-blocks, consisting of Dutch primes and targets with intervening English trials, was administered. Target picture naming was facilitated…

  8. Chiroptical Molecular Switches 1; Principles and Syntheses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Ben de; Jager, Wolter F.; Feringa, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    The concept and the synthesis of the basic molecules for a chiroptical molecular switch are described. This molecular switch is based on photochemical interconversion of two bistable forms of chiral sterically overcrowded olefins. A large variety of these alkenes with different properties have been

  9. Electrical switching of an antiferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadley, P; Howells, B; Železný, J; Andrews, C; Hills, V; Campion, R P; Novák, V; Olejník, K; Maccherozzi, F; Dhesi, S S; Martin, S Y; Wagner, T; Wunderlich, J; Freimuth, F; Mokrousov, Y; Kuneš, J; Chauhan, J S; Grzybowski, M J; Rushforth, A W; Edmonds, K W; Gallagher, B L; Jungwirth, T

    2016-02-05

    Antiferromagnets are hard to control by external magnetic fields because of the alternating directions of magnetic moments on individual atoms and the resulting zero net magnetization. However, relativistic quantum mechanics allows for generating current-induced internal fields whose sign alternates with the periodicity of the antiferromagnetic lattice. Using these fields, which couple strongly to the antiferromagnetic order, we demonstrate room-temperature electrical switching between stable configurations in antiferromagnetic CuMnAs thin-film devices by applied current with magnitudes of order 10(6) ampere per square centimeter. Electrical writing is combined in our solid-state memory with electrical readout and the stored magnetic state is insensitive to and produces no external magnetic field perturbations, which illustrates the unique merits of antiferromagnets for spintronics.

  10. Brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of brain death should be based on a simple premise. If every possible confounder has been excluded and all possible treatments have been tried or considered, irreversible loss of brain function is clinically recognized as the absence of brainstem reflexes, verified apnea, loss of vascular tone, invariant heart rate, and, eventually, cardiac standstill. This condition cannot be reversed - not even partly - by medical or surgical intervention, and thus is final. Many countries in the world have introduced laws that acknowledge that a patient can be declared brain-dead by neurologic standards. The U.S. law differs substantially from all other brain death legislation in the world because the U.S. law does not spell out details of the neurologic examination. Evidence-based practice guidelines serve as a standard. In this chapter, I discuss the history of development of the criteria, the current clinical examination, and some of the ethical and legal issues that have emerged. Generally, the concept of brain death has been accepted by all major religions. But patients' families may have different ideas and are mostly influenced by cultural attitudes, traditional customs, and personal beliefs. Suggestions are offered to support these families.

  11. Unity power factor switching regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A single or multiphase boost chopper regulator operating with unity power factor, for use such as to charge a battery is comprised of a power section for converting single or multiphase line energy into recharge energy including a rectifier (10), one inductor (L.sub.1) and one chopper (Q.sub.1) for each chopper phase for presenting a load (battery) with a current output, and duty cycle control means (16) for each chopper to control the average inductor current over each period of the chopper, and a sensing and control section including means (20) for sensing at least one load parameter, means (22) for producing a current command signal as a function of said parameter, means (26) for producing a feedback signal as a function of said current command signal and the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, means (28) for sensing current through said inductor, means (18) for comparing said feedback signal with said sensed current to produce, in response to a difference, a control signal applied to the duty cycle control means, whereby the average inductor current is proportionate to the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, and instantaneous line current is thereby maintained proportionate to the instantaneous line voltage, thus achieving a unity power factor. The boost chopper is comprised of a plurality of converters connected in parallel and operated in staggered phase. For optimal harmonic suppression, the duty cycles of the switching converters are evenly spaced, and by negative coupling between pairs 180.degree. out-of-phase, peak currents through the switches can be reduced while reducing the inductor size and mass.

  12. Switched-capacitor isolated LED driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Seth R.; Kline, Mitchell

    2016-03-22

    A switched-capacitor voltage converter which is particularly well-suited for receiving a line voltage from which to drive current through a series of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Input voltage is rectified in a multi-level rectifier network having switched capacitors in an ascending-bank configuration for passing voltages in uniform steps between zero volts up to full received voltage V.sub.DC. A regulator section, operating on V.sub.DC, comprises switched-capacitor stages of H-bridge switching and flying capacitors. A current controlled oscillator drives the states of the switched-capacitor stages and changes its frequency to maintain a constant current to the load. Embodiments are described for isolating the load from the mains, utilizing an LC tank circuit or a multi-primary-winding transformer.

  13. Ferromagnetic vortex core switching at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebecki, Kristof M.; Nowak, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    An approach for the investigation of vortex core switching is presented. Thermal effects up to the Curie point are included in a micromagnetic framework based on the recently developed Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation. In this approach it is easier to avoid numerical discretization artifacts, commonly present when a Bloch point is mediating the switching process. Switching in thin circular permalloy disks caused by the application of a slowly increasing magnetic field oriented orthogonally to the disk is considered. An energy barrier which can be overcome by thermal fluctuations is taken into account, leading to a strong influence of the temperature on the switching field. In particular, the switching field goes to zero at a significantly smaller temperature than the Curie temperature. The deduced nucleation volume is smaller than the typical grain size in permalloy.

  14. Low Power Switching for Antenna Reconfiguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauhahn, Paul E. (Inventor); Becker, Robert C. (Inventor); Meyers, David W. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and systems for low power switching are provided. In one embodiment, an optical switching system is provided. The system comprises at least one optically controlled switch adapted to maintain one of an open state and a closed state based on an associated light signal; and at least one light source adapted to output the associated light signal to the at least one switch, wherein the at least one light source cycles the light signal on and off, wherein the at least one light source is cycled on for a sufficient duration of time and with a sufficient periodicity to maintain the optically controlled switch in one of an open state and a closed state.

  15. SWITCHING CONTROL:FROM SIMPLE RULES TO COMPLEX CHAOTIC SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Jinhu

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews and introduces some simple switching piecewise-linear controllers, which can generate complex chaotic behaviors from simple switching systems. The mechanism of simple switching rules creating complex chaotic behaviors is further investigated.

  16. Brain computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah N. Abdulkader

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain computer interface technology represents a highly growing field of research with application systems. Its contributions in medical fields range from prevention to neuronal rehabilitation for serious injuries. Mind reading and remote communication have their unique fingerprint in numerous fields such as educational, self-regulation, production, marketing, security as well as games and entertainment. It creates a mutual understanding between users and the surrounding systems. This paper shows the application areas that could benefit from brain waves in facilitating or achieving their goals. We also discuss major usability and technical challenges that face brain signals utilization in various components of BCI system. Different solutions that aim to limit and decrease their effects have also been reviewed.

  17. The unidirectional prosaccade switch-cost: electroencephalographic evidence of task-set inertia in oculomotor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Jeffrey; Hassall, Cameron D; Krigolson, Olave E; Heath, Matthew

    2015-02-01

    The execution of an antisaccade selectively increases the reaction time (RT) of a subsequent prosaccade (the unidirectional prosaccade switch-cost). To explain this finding, the task-set inertia hypothesis asserts that an antisaccade requires a cognitively mediated non-standard task-set that persists inertially and delays the planning of a subsequent prosaccade. The present study sought to directly test the theoretical tenets of the task-set inertia hypothesis by examining the concurrent behavioural and the event-related brain potential (ERP) data associated with the unidirectional prosaccade switch-cost. Participants pseudo-randomly alternated between pro- and antisaccades while electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded. As expected, the completion of an antisaccade selectively increased the RT of a subsequent prosaccade, whereas the converse switch did not influence RTs. Thus, the behavioural results demonstrated the unidirectional prosaccade switch-cost. In terms of the ERP findings, we observed a reliable change in the amplitude of the P3 - time-locked to task-instructions - when trials were switched from a prosaccade to an antisaccade; however, no reliable change was observed when switching from an antisaccade to a prosaccade. This is a salient finding because extensive work has shown that the P3 provides a neural index of the task-set required to execute a to-be-completed response. As such, results showing that prosaccades completed after antisaccades exhibited increased RTs in combination with a P3 amplitude comparable to antisaccades provides convergent evidence that the unidirectional prosaccade switch-cost is attributed to the persistent activation of a non-standard antisaccade task-set.

  18. Stabilization of a class of switched nonlinear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The stabilization of a class of switched nonlinear systems is investigated in the paper. The systems concerned are of (generalized) switched Byrnes-Isidori canonical form, which has all switched models in (generalized) ByrnesIsidori canonical form. First, a stability result of switched systems is obtained. Then it is used to solve the stabilization problem of the switched nonlinear control systems. In addition, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for a switched affine nonlinear system to be feedback equivalent to (generalized) switched Byrnes-Isidori canonical systems are presented.Finally, as an application the stability of switched lorenz systems is investigated.

  19. 从穆勒的功利主义看简·爱在婚姻与宗教上的伦理观%From John Mill's Utilitarianism to Observe Jane Eyre's Marital and Religious Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊宇

    2013-01-01

    In 19th century in Britain, there are many colliding mutually social ideas, one of which is Mill's utilitarianism. Mill holds the view that happiness is the only worth preserving aim. Jane Eyre's marital and religious ethics are consistent with Mill's utilitarianism. She protests against regarding ben-efit as only aim, sacrificing dignity and freedom to get happiness, and utilizing others and being utilized by others. Jane Eyre's ethics are due to British society's attaching importance to reason and utility, and Charlotte's laying emphasis on virtue cultivation. Jane Eyre utilitarianism not only changes the female's dependence on the male, humans' humble position to God, but also exposes the male's humanity. It seems that Charlotte points out a way of pursuing existence, development and gaining happiness for the women from low and middle class.%十九世纪的英国,各种思潮涌动,穆勒的功利主义主张幸福是唯一值得欲求的目的。简·爱在婚姻和宗教上的伦理观契合了穆勒的功利主义,并反对以利益为唯一追求目标的“功利观”,反对牺牲尊严、自由、人格完整来获取幸福,也反对利用他人和被他人利用。简·爱式的功利主义婚姻观和宗教观既是十九世纪英国社会重理性、重“实用”的产物,也是夏洛特重视伦理道德修养的产物。这种功利主义伦理观不仅调整了女性对应于男性的依附关系,而且改变了人对应于神的屈从地位,彰显了女性的主体人格。夏洛特通过叙述简的成长道路,似乎给当时代的中下层女性指明了一条求生存、求发展、实现真正幸福的道路。

  20. The Effects of Utilitarian and Hedonic Attribute on Price Frame in Bundling%实用与享乐属性对捆绑销售价格框架的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李四兰; 景奉杰

    2014-01-01

    The consumer′s price perception is affected by the price format , which is called price frame effect .Price frame affects the bundles attraction under certain conditions when the discount level is controlled in the same level .In marketing practice , the cross-selling of bundles is becoming more and more popular .Therefore, it has become a notice-able problem to how to use the pricing format to improve the consumer′s preference to products .The paper chooses a bundle with a utilitarian and a hedonic product which has similar value and importance as the research perspective and analyzes the relationship between price frame and preference in bundling with experimental methods .This research finds when a hedonic product is sold bundled with a utilitarian one , framing a discount as savings on hedonic versus utilitarian items makes consumers have less expected guilt and higher buying intentions to the bundles , and expected guilt mediates price frame and consumer′s buying intention .%消费者对价格的感知会受到价格表述方式的影响,被称为价格框架效应。在控制价格折扣绝对水平的情况下,价格框架会影响捆绑产品促销的吸引力。在营销实践中,不相关的交叉捆绑销售越来越普遍,如何采用合适的价格表述形式提高消费者对产品的偏好,成为一个值得关注的问题。本文从价值和重要性相似的实用性产品和享乐性产品捆绑的情况入手,分析了捆绑销售中价格框架与消费者偏好之间的关系。研究表明:当一个享乐品和一个实用品捆绑销售时,价格折扣体现为享乐品上比实用品上的节省使消费者有更少的预期愧疚和更高的购买意向,预期愧疚在价格框架与消费者的购买意向之间起中介作用。

  1. 独立美与无形功利--论周作人20年代个性的文学观%Independent Aesthetics and Intangible Utilitarian in Double Value of Literature In Zhou Zuoren’s Featured Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑莉

    2013-01-01

      在周作人文学思想的演变过程中,文学的价值和作用始终是他关注的焦点。本文围绕周作人在20世纪20年代初期“个性的文学”观,探讨文学的“独立美与无形功利”,其中,最重要的是独立的艺术美,其次才是无形的功利。独立美既是指作品中的真挚强烈的感情和鲜明的个性,又包含着作者对艺术技巧的把握和运用;无形功利是指文艺对读者潜移默化、无意为之的精神涵养的作用。周作人的“独立美与无形功利”既符合文学自身的本质特点,亦是对文学特殊功能的体认和维护。%In the process of Zhou Zuoren’s the literary thought, the literary value and function is his concern. The paper focuses on Zhou’s featured literature in the 1920s to explore independent aesthetics and intangible utilitarian, in which the most significance is the independent artistic aesthetics, and the next intangible utilitarian. Independent aesthetics refers to the passionate feelings and featured characters in works, which contains the understanding and practice of author’s artistic technique, while intangible utilitarian is the intrinsic spiritual functions of literature to readers. Zhou’s theory, “independent aesthetics and intangible utilitarian”, is geared to the nature of literature and to the maintenance and reorganization of particular functions of literature.

  2. Staged circuit switching for network computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arango, M.; Gelernter, D.; Badr, H.; Bernstein, A.J.

    1983-03-01

    Staged cricuit switching (SCS) is a message-switching technique which combines a new protocol with new communication hardware. Protocol and hardware are designed specifically for networks which are intended to function as integrated, general-purpose MIMD machines, i.e. for network computers. The SCS protocol is a form of circuit switching which degrades automatically into packet switching when unavailable output lines make further extension of a partial circuit impossible. The SCS hardware uses a front-end crossbar switch to multiplex some small number of communication channels among all of a given node's incident links. Together, hardware and protocol represent an attempt to convert spare bandwidth into lower network delays. They also allow experimentation with networks which reconfigure themselves dynamically in response to measured traffic patterns. SCS is compared with packet switching, circuit switching and the virtual cut-through protocol of P. Kermani and L.Kleinrock (see Comput. Networks, vol.3, p.267, 1979, and IEEE Trans. Comput. C-29,12, p.1052, December 1980), and an SCS implementation designed for the SBN network computer is discussed. 23 references.

  3. Resistance switching memory in perovskite oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Z.B., E-mail: zbyan@nju.edu.cn; Liu, J.-M., E-mail: liujm@nju.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    The resistance switching behavior has recently attracted great attentions for its application as resistive random access memories (RRAMs) due to a variety of advantages such as simple structure, high-density, high-speed and low-power. As a leading storage media, the transition metal perovskite oxide owns the strong correlation of electrons and the stable crystal structure, which brings out multifunctionality such as ferroelectric, multiferroic, superconductor, and colossal magnetoresistance/electroresistance effect, etc. The existence of rich electronic phases, metal–insulator transition and the nonstoichiometric oxygen in perovskite oxide provides good platforms to insight into the resistive switching mechanisms. In this review, we first introduce the general characteristics of the resistance switching effects, the operation methods and the storage media. Then, the experimental evidences of conductive filaments, the transport and switching mechanisms, and the memory performances and enhancing methods of perovskite oxide based filamentary RRAM cells have been summarized and discussed. Subsequently, the switching mechanisms and the performances of the uniform RRAM cells associating with the carrier trapping/detrapping and the ferroelectric polarization switching have been discussed. Finally, the advices and outlook for further investigating the resistance switching and enhancing the memory performances are given.

  4. Silicon Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Beyond the digital neural networks of Chap. 16, the more radical mapping of brain-like structures and processes into VLSI substrates has been pioneered by Carver Mead more than 30 years ago [1]. The basic idea was to exploit the massive parallelism of such circuits and to create low-power and fault-tolerant information-processing systems. Neuromorphic engineering has recently seen a revival with the availability of deep-submicron CMOS technology, which allows for the construction of very-large-scale mixed-signal systems combining local analog processing in neuronal cells with binary signalling via action potentials. Modern implementations are able to reach the complexity-scale of large functional units of the human brain, and they feature the ability to learn by plasticity mechanisms found in neuroscience. Combined with high-performance programmable logic and elaborate software tools, such systems are currently evolving into user-configurable non-von-Neumann computing systems, which can be used to implement and test novel computational paradigms. The chapter introduces basic properties of biological brains with up to 200 Billion neurons and their 1014 synapses, where action on a synapse takes ˜10 ms and involves an energy of ˜10 fJ. We outline 10x programs on neuromorphic electronic systems in Europe and the USA, which are intended to integrate 108 neurons and 1012 synapses, the level of a cat's brain, in a volume of 1 L and with a power dissipation design an intelligent technical response.

  5. Robot brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babuska, R.

    2011-01-01

    The brain hosts complex networks of neurons that are responsible for behavior in humans and animals that we generally call intelligent. I is not easy to give an exact definition of intelligence – for the purpose of this talk it will suffice to say that we refer to intelligence as a collection of cap

  6. Cue-switch costs in task-switching: cue priming or control processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, James A; Houghton, George

    2010-09-01

    In the explicitly cued task-switching paradigm, two cues per task allow separation of costs associated with switching cues from costs of switching tasks. Whilst task-switch costs have become controversial, cue-switch costs are robust. The processes that contribute to cue-switch costs are under-specified in the literature: they could reflect perceptual priming of cue properties, or priming of control processes that form relevant working memory (WM) representations of task demands. Across two experiments we manipulated cue-transparency in an attention-switching design to test the contrasting hypotheses of cue-switch costs, and show that such costs emerge from control processes of establishing relevant WM representations, rather than perceptual priming of the cue itself. When the cues were maximally transparent, cue-switch costs were eradicated. We discuss the results in terms of recent theories of cue encoding, and provide a formal definition of cue-transparency in switching designs and its relation to WM representations that guide task performance.

  7. Gain and Efficiency of a Superconducting Microwave Compressor with a Switching Cavity in an Interference Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, S. N.; Samoylenko, G. M.

    2016-11-01

    We study the processes of radiation output from a microwave storage cavity through a superconducting interference switch, which is based on a H-junction with a superconducting switching cavity connected to the side branch of the junction for various ways of controlling the parameters of the switching cavity. It is shown that efficient control over radiation output in such a switch can be achieved by varying the resonance frequency or Q-factor of the switching cavity, as well as by varying these parameters simultaneously. It is found that in the case of controlling the resonance frequency of the switching cavity, there exists an optimal interval of the frequency variation, within which the total efficiency and extraction efficiency are maximum. When the Q-factor of the switching cavity changes, the dependence of the total efficiency and extraction efficiency on the Q-factor has the monotonic character. The mixed regime of radiation output control is also studied. The envelopes of the output compressor pulses are plotted on the basis of recurrent relationships between the amplitudes of the waves in the system for three regimes of switch operation. It is shown that pulses with an almost rectangular shape of the envelope can be formed in the regime of controlling the switching cavity by varying the Q-factor. An example of possible realization of the switching cavity is considered.

  8. 160-Gb/s Silicon All-Optical Packet Switch for Buffer-less Optical Burst Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua; Pu, Minhao;

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 160-Gb/s Ethernet packet switch using an 8.6-mm-long silicon nanowire for optical burst switching, based on cross phase modulation in silicon. One of the four packets at the bit rate of 160 Gb/s is switched by an optical control signal using a silicon based 1 × 1 all......-optical packet switch. Error free performance (BER switched packet. The use of optical burst switching protocols could eliminate the need for optical buffering in silicon packet switch based optical burst switching, which might be desirable for high-speed interconnects within a short...

  9. Modeling and simulation of multiport RF switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay, J [Student, Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli-620015 (India); Saha, Ivan [Scientist, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) (India); Uma, G [Lecturer, Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli-620015 (India); Umapathy, M [Assistant Professor, Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli-620015 (India)

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the modeling and simulation of 'Multi Port RF Switch' where the latching mechanism is realized with two hot arm electro thermal actuators and the switching action is realized with electrostatic actuators. It can act as single pole single thrown as well as single pole multi thrown switch. The proposed structure is modeled analytically and required parameters are simulated using MATLAB. The analytical simulation results are validated using Finite Element Analysis of the same in the COVENTORWARE software.

  10. Design of a switched reluctance generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heese, T.; Pyrhoenen, J.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents the design of a low voltage switched reluctance generator for variable speed applications showing the design of its construction and commutation unit. For the realisation of the control system the control strategy is presented. The principle and the theory of switched reluctance generators are described in this context. Also an overview of existing generator technology for these applications is given. The results gained suggest that switched reluctance machines can also advantageously be used as generators if the generating operation is considered within the design process. Compared with the existing technology a higher output power and efficiency is reached over the whole speed range. (orig.)

  11. Fault tolerant control for switched linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Dongsheng; Shi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    This book presents up-to-date research and novel methodologies on fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control for switched linear systems. It provides a unified yet neat framework of filtering, fault detection, fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control of switched systems. It can therefore serve as a useful textbook for senior and/or graduate students who are interested in knowing the state-of-the-art of filtering, fault detection, fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control areas, as well as recent advances in switched linear systems.  

  12. Consumer poaching, brand switching, and price transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses price transparency on the consumer side in markets with behavioral price discrimination which feature welfare reducing brand switching. When long-term contracts are not available, an increase in transparency intensifies competition, lowers prices and profits, reduces brand...... switching and benefits consumers and welfare. With long-term contracts, an increase in transparency reduces the use of long-term contracts, leading to more brand switching and a welfare loss. Otherwise, the results are the same as without long-term contracts....

  13. Switching to a Mac For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhold, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Learn how to make the switch from PC to Mac a completely smooth transition The number of Mac users continues to increase significantly each year. If you are one of those people and are eager but also anxious about making the switch, then fear not! This friendly guide skips the jargon to deliver you an easy-to-read, understandable introduction to the Macintosh computer. Computer guru Arnold Reinhold walks you through the Mac OS, user interface, and icons. You'll learn how to set up your Mac, move your files from your PC to your Mac, switch applications, get your Mac online, network your Mac, se

  14. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  15. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  16. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  17. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain and Nervous System Print ... brain is quite the juggler. Anatomy of the Nervous System If you think of the brain as a ...

  18. Free Language Selection in the Bilingual Brain: An Event-Related fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Tao; Huang, Peiyu; Li, Dan; Qiu, Jiang; Shen, Tong; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual speakers may select between two languages either on demand (forced language selection) or on their own volition (free language selection). However, the neural substrates underlying free and forced language selection may differ. While the neural substrates underlying forced language selection have been well-explored with language switching paradigms, those underlying free language selection have remained unclear. Using a modified digit-naming switching paradigm, we addressed the neural substrates underlying free language selection by contrasting free language switching with forced language switching. For a digit-pair trial, Chinese-English bilinguals named each digit in Chinese or English either on demand under forced language selection condition or on their own volition under free language selection condition. The results revealed activation in the frontoparietal regions that mediate volition of language selection. Furthermore, a comparison of free and forced language switching demonstrated differences in the patterns of brain activation. Additionally, free language switching showed reduced switching costs as compared to forced language switching. These findings suggest differences between the mechanism(s) underlying free and forced language switching. As such, the current study suggests interactivity between control of volition and control of language switching in free language selection, providing insights into a model of bilingual language control.

  19. A critical role for the right fronto-insular cortex in switching between central-executive and default-mode networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Levitin, Daniel J; Menon, Vinod

    2008-08-26

    Cognitively demanding tasks that evoke activation in the brain's central-executive network (CEN) have been consistently shown to evoke decreased activation (deactivation) in the default-mode network (DMN). The neural mechanisms underlying this switch between activation and deactivation of large-scale brain networks remain completely unknown. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the mechanisms underlying switching of brain networks in three different experiments. We first examined this switching process in an auditory event segmentation task. We observed significant activation of the CEN and deactivation of the DMN, along with activation of a third network comprising the right fronto-insular cortex (rFIC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), when participants perceived salient auditory event boundaries. Using chronometric techniques and Granger causality analysis, we show that the rFIC-ACC network, and the rFIC, in particular, plays a critical and causal role in switching between the CEN and the DMN. We replicated this causal connectivity pattern in two additional experiments: (i) a visual attention "oddball" task and (ii) a task-free resting state. These results indicate that the rFIC is likely to play a major role in switching between distinct brain networks across task paradigms and stimulus modalities. Our findings have important implications for a unified view of network mechanisms underlying both exogenous and endogenous cognitive control.

  20. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF CELL-BASED AND PACKET-BASED SWITCHING SCHEMES FOR SHARED MEMORY SWITCHES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Kang; Ge Ning; Feng Chongxi

    2004-01-01

    Shared Memory (SM) switches are widely used for its high throughput, low delay and efficient use of memory. This paper compares the performance of two prominent switching schemes of SM packet switches: Cell-Based Switching (CBS) and Packet-Based Switching (PBS).Theoretical analysis is carried out to draw qualitative conclusion on the memory requirement,throughput and packet delay of the two schemes. Furthermore, simulations are carried out to get quantitative results of the performance comparison under various system load, traffic patterns,and memory sizes. Simulation results show that PBS has the advantage of shorter time delay while CBS has lower memory requirement and outperforms in throughput when the memory size is limited. The comparison can be used for tradeoff between performance and complexity in switch design.

  1. Novel polarization diversity without switch duplication of a Si-wire PILOSS optical switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizawa, Ken; Suzuki, Keijiro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Namiki, Shu; Kawashima, Hitoshi

    2016-04-04

    We demonstrate the compact polarization diversity based on the bidirectional full-port use of a path-independent-insertion-loss (PILOSS) optical switch. A polarization-diversity 4 × 4 strictly non-blocking optical switch is developed using a single thermooptic PILOSS Si-wire switch and fiber-based polarization beam splitters (PBSs) and combiners (PBCs). We measure characteristics of the switch and confirm that the proposed configuration demonstrates the performance in the insertion loss, polarization-dependent loss (PDL), and differential group delay (DGD) comparable with that of a conventional polarization-diversity 4 × 4 PILOSS switch using double switch elements. On the other hand, higher crosstalk is observed. The crosstalk increase is associated with the backward crosstalk at a waveguide intersection based on a directional coupler. The effect of the backward crosstalk on the total crosstalk is estimated, and future prospects are discussed.

  2. The Creative Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Ned

    1982-01-01

    Outlines the differences between left-brain and right-brain functioning and between left-brain and right-brain dominant individuals, and concludes that creativity uses both halves of the brain. Discusses how both students and curriculum can become more "whole-brained." (Author/JM)

  3. Brain and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Term(s): Teens / Drug Facts / Brain and Addiction Brain and Addiction Print Your Brain Your brain is who you are. It’s what ... solve problems, and make decisions. How Does Your Brain Communicate? The brain is a complex communications network ...

  4. Novel Switched Flux Permanent Magnet Machine Topologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸自强

    2012-01-01

    This paper overviews various switched flux permanent magnet machines and their design and performance features,with particular emphasis on machine topologies with reduced magnet usage or without using magnet,as well as with variable flux capability.

  5. Titanium Oxide Intelligent "Optical Switch" Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Bio-mimic\tsuper-hydrophobic\tand super-hydrophilic switches were highly concerned because of their extensive application perspectives in gene transfers,non-loss liquid transportation,micro fluid,gene chips,and slow released drug.

  6. Photonic technology for switched rf avionics networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Michael C.; Thaniyavarn, Suwat; Abbas, Gregory L.; LaGasse, Michael J.; Traynor, Timothy; Lin, Jack P.

    1997-10-01

    The application of photonics technology in switched RF networks is discussed with emphasis on the benefits for avionics applications. System requirements and performance issues are addressed. A 16 X 16 photonic switch module prototype is described and results for RF fiber-optic links passing through the module are presented. RF channel isolation measured was at least 75 dB. A demonstration is described in which a photonic network using the switch module passed signals from a dynamic electromagnetic environment simulator to two radar warning systems under test. Demonstration modes included simulation of both aperture sharing and processor sharing. Finally, a novel alternative switch module architecture is described that is strictly non-blocking and has inherently better channel isolation.

  7. CMOS compatible nanoscale nonvolatile resistance switching memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung Hyun; Lu, Wei

    2008-02-01

    We report studies on a nanoscale resistance switching memory structure based on planar silicon that is fully compatible with CMOS technology in terms of both materials and processing techniques employed. These two-terminal resistance switching devices show excellent scaling potential well beyond 10 Gb/cm2 and exhibit high yield (99%), fast programming speed (5 ns), high on/off ratio (10(3)), long endurance (10(6)), retention time (5 months), and multibit capability. These key performance metrics compare favorably with other emerging nonvolatile memory techniques. Furthermore, both diode-like (rectifying) and resistor-like (nonrectifying) behaviors can be obtained in the device switching characteristics in a controlled fashion. These results suggest that the CMOS compatible, nanoscale Si-based resistance switching devices may be well suited for ultrahigh-density memory applications.

  8. Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaioannou, S.; Kalavrouziotis, D.; Vyrsokinos, K.;

    2012-01-01

    With metal stripes being intrinsic components of plasmonic waveguides, plasmonics provides a "naturally" energy-efficient platform for merging broadband optical links with intelligent electronic processing, instigating a great promise for low-power and small-footprint active functional circuitry....... The first active Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton (DLSPP) thermo-optic (TO) switches with successful performance in single-channel 10 Gb/s data traffic environments have led the inroad towards bringing low-power active plasmonics in practical traffic applications. In this article, we introduce...... active plasmonics into Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) switching applications, using the smallest TO DLSPP-based Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch reported so far and showing its successful performance in 4310 Gb/s low-power and fast switching operation. The demonstration of the WDM...

  9. Permanent Magnet Boosted Modular Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZABÓ Loránd

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analyses of a novel motor structure obtained by boosting with permanent magnets a formerly studied modular switched reluctance motor. Upon dynamic simulation results the improvements of the proposed motor are emphasized.

  10. Analysis of Switched-Rigid Floating Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar R. Marur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In explicit finite element simulations, a technique called deformable-to-rigid (D2R switching is used routinely to reduce the computation time. Using the D2R option, the deformable parts in the model can be switched to rigid and reverted back to deformable when needed during the analysis. The time of activation of D2R however influences the overall dynamics of the system being analyzed. In this paper, a theoretical basis for the selection of time of rigid switching based on system energy is established. A floating oscillator problem is investigated for this purpose and closed-form analytical expressions are derived for different phases in rigid switching. The analytical expressions are validated by comparing the theoretical results with numerical computations.

  11. Blood and Books: Performing Code Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Friedman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Code switching is a linguistic term that identifies ways individuals use communication modes and registers to negotiate difference in social relations. This essay suggests that arts-based inquiry, in the form of choreography and performance, provides a suitable and efficacious location within which both verbal and nonverbal channels of code switching can be investigated. Blood and Books, a case study of dance choreography within the context of post-colonial Maori performance in Aotearoa/New Zealand, is described and analyzed for its performance of code switching. The essay is framed by a discussion of how arts-based research within tertiary higher education requires careful negotiation in the form of code switching, as performed by the author's reflexive use of vernacular and formal registers in the essay. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802462

  12. Two Aspects of the Good:Analysis on the Virtue and Happiness, from the Perspective of Utilitarianism and Deontology%善之二维:德性与幸福--功利主义和道义论辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚明

    2015-01-01

    Good is the eternal theme of all kinds of ethical and political theories.However, different the-ories have different interpretation of good.As utilitarianism said, happiness is the final pursuit and deontolo-gist said that virtue is the most important aspect of the good.And the distinction of the utilitarian and the de-ontology shows the two dimension of the human nature, which consist of the natural potentiality and the moral potentiality.Whatever, happiness and virtue are very important for human being, which is the combination of animal being and moral being.%对“善”的追求是任何一种理论的目的之所在,而对“善”所包涵的具体内容,不同的思想流派则有着各异的解读。在功利主义者看来,幸福和快乐是一切学说和理论的终极目的;而在义务论者眼中,德性构成了“善”的主导内容。功利主义者和义务论者的分歧体现了对“善”之具体内涵的不同侧重,也展现了对人之自然属性或道德属性的不同逻辑推演。无论如何,人作为自然属性与道德属性的结合体,幸福与德性也成为任何一种理论与学说都必须认真对待的问题。

  13. The Historical Observation and Illuminations of Humanistic and Utilitarian University Idea%人文主义与功利主义大学观的历史考察及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔元正

    2012-01-01

      The creation、development and innovation of modern university is greatly affected by humannistic and utilitarian university idea.The humanistic unversity idea maintains full-development of individual pesonality, attaches importance to basic and theoretical research, emphasizes academic freedom and scientific research. On the other hand,utilitarian university idea maintains function of social service and cultivating practical talents. Through historical comparison and observation on university innovation of German,the early stage of Republic of China and new China,the key point of success is that the coordination of the two ideas.The observation and comparison of two university ideas is helpful for the development of our modern university.%  现代大学的创生、发展与改革深受人文主义与功利主义两种大学观的影响。人文主义大学观主张充分发展人的个性,重视基础理论研究,崇尚学术自由与科学探索;功利主义大学观强调大学的社会服务功能,培养实用技术人才。通过对德国现代大学改革、民国初年和新中国成立初期大学改革进行历史考察与比较发现,现代大学改革成功的关键在于两种大学观的相互协调,不可偏废。两种大学观的考察与比较,对构建我国现代大学制度具有重要借鉴价值。

  14. 从仁的事功性看管仲之仁的论争%The Debate of Guan Zhong’s Benevolence from the Perspective of Utilitarian of Benevolence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游庆括

    2016-01-01

    《论语·宪问》第十六、第十七章记载了孔子师徒对管仲是否为仁的争论,师肯定之,徒否定之。这一争论一直贯穿于《论语》的解读历史。对仁本身的内涵的理解不同,导致对管仲是否为仁这个问题的不同答案。事实上,仁在先秦时具有鲜明的事功性内涵。从这种内涵出发,管仲为仁是肯定无疑的。不脱离这种内涵去理解儒学,会得出很多新的看法。%The sixteenth and seventeenth chapters of“The Analects · Xian Asked”describe the controversy about whether Guan Zhong is the benevolent between Confucius and his students.The teacher approves it,and the students deny it.The controversy runs through the history of the interpretation of“the Analects”.The different in-terpretations on the connotation of benevolence itself led to all kinds of different points of view.In fact,the connota-tion of benevolence has a distinctive utilitarian definition in the pre-Qin period.Based on the utilitarian connotation of benevolence,Guan Zhong is the benevolent.We will draw a lot of new ideas,not divorced from this kind of meaning to understand Confucianism.

  15. Rational Analysis and Educational Reflection on Utilitarian Tendency of Contemporary College Students%当代大学生功利化倾向的理性分析与教育反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑吉友; 张志元

    2013-01-01

      随着我国社会主义市场经济的深入发展,大学生功利化倾向日益凸显。承认功利思想对大学生的影响,既是社会主义市场经济的客观反映,又与当前我国的社会历史背景和价值取向相吻合。因此,探究功利思想的历史渊源,客观评价大学生的功利思想倾向,正确看待和科学引导大学生的价值观念,积极推进大学生的思想政治教育工作,是高校思想政治教育工作面临的现实课题。%With the further development of socialist market economy ,the utilitarian tendency among contemporary college students is becoming increasingly prominent .The fact is an objective reflection of socialist market economy and coincides with social historical background and value orientation in our country .The paper discusses the historical origin of utilitarian think‐ing ,give an objective evaluation of the tendency ,and propose ways to treat and guide the college students'values ,in order to pro‐mote the ideological and political education of college students .

  16. Quantum Brain?

    CERN Document Server

    Mershin, A; Skoulakis, E M C

    2000-01-01

    In order to create a novel model of memory and brain function, we focus our approach on the sub-molecular (electron), molecular (tubulin) and macromolecular (microtubule) components of the neural cytoskeleton. Due to their size and geometry, these systems may be approached using the principles of quantum physics. We identify quantum-physics derived mechanisms conceivably underlying the integrated yet differentiated aspects of memory encoding/recall as well as the molecular basis of the engram. We treat the tubulin molecule as the fundamental computation unit (qubit) in a quantum-computational network that consists of microtubules (MTs), networks of MTs and ultimately entire neurons and neural networks. We derive experimentally testable predictions of our quantum brain hypothesis and perform experiments on these.

  17. Teachers' Code Switching in EFL Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素敏

    2007-01-01

    In theory, language teaching today should be entirely monolingual-using target language as the medium of instruction.ciency' (Brice 2000). This paper is devoted to exploring the theoretical justification for the existence of code switching and the pedagogical purposes for the use of it in EFL classroom, with a hope to raise EFT teachers' awareness of the actual use of code switching in classroom and help them develop an appropriate attitude towards its role in EFL teaching.

  18. Bimetal switches in an AND logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubrica, Joel V.; Lubrica, Quantum Yuri B.

    2016-09-01

    In this frontline, we use bimetal switches to provide inputs in an electrical AND logic gate. These switches can be obtained from the pre-heat starters of fluorescent lamps, by safely removing the glass enclosure. They may be activated by small open flames. This frontline has a historical aspect because fluorescent lamps, together with pre-heat starters, are now being replaced by compact fluorescent, halogen, and LED lamps.

  19. Dual-Antenna Microwave Reception Without Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Receiver remains connected to both antennas, transmitter switched to connect it to one or other. Combination of hybrid junction, circulators, and filter provides simultaneous reception paths from both antennas without significantly altering radiation patterns of antennas. Communication system considered for use in spacecraft and in which mechanical switch permitted on downlink but not on uplink. Applicable to terrestrial microwave communication stations subject to dual-antenna requirements.

  20. Portfolio Selection with Jumps under Regime Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a continuous-time version of the mean-variance portfolio selection model with jumps under regime switching. The portfolio selection is proposed and analyzed for a market consisting of one bank account and multiple stocks. The random regime switching is assumed to be independent of the underlying Brownian motion and jump processes. A Markov chain modulated diffusion formulation is employed to model the problem.

  1. ADAPTIVE GENERALIZED PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF SWITCHED SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi-jing; WANG Long

    2005-01-01

    The problem of adaptive generalized predictive control which consists of output prediction errors for a class of switched systems is studied. The switching law is determined by the output predictive errors of a finite number of subsystems. For the single subsystem and multiple subsystems cases, it is proved that the given direct algorithm of generalized predictive control guarantees the global convergence of the system. This algorithm overcomes the inherent drawbacks of the slow convergence and large transient errors for the conventional adaptive control.

  2. Stabilization of Slowly Varying Switched Linear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bing; LIANG Tong

    2012-01-01

    The stabilization problem of systems that switch among a finite set of slowly varying linear systems with arbitrary switching frequency is discussed.It is shown that if the entries of the pointwise stabilizing feedback gain matrix are continuously differentiable functions of the entries of the system coefficient matrices,then the closed-loop system is uniformly asymptotically stable if the rate of time variation of the system coefficient matrices is sufficiently small.

  3. Defense Switched Network Technology and Experiments Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    3) development and test of data communication techniques using DoD-standard data protocols in an integrated voice /data network, and (4) EISN system... communication techniques using DoD-standard data protocols in an integrated voice /data network, and (4) EISN system coordination and experiment planning...control voice trunks that use E&M signaling and go from the RCP switch to the PCI or to another RCP switch; (e) A Dual- Tone Multiple-Frequency (DTMF

  4. Equilibrium yield curves under regime switching

    OpenAIRE

    García-Verdú, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies how inflation as a macroeconomic indicator affects nominal bond prices. I consider an economy with a representative agent with Epstein- Zin preferences. Regime switching affects the state-space capturing inflation and consumption growth. Thus, the agent is concerned about the intertemporal distribution of risk, which is affected by the persistence of the variables and the regimes. Regime switching allows for structural changes in the volatility of unexpected shocks. To the ...

  5. Decision maker based on atomic switches

    OpenAIRE

    Song-Ju Kim; Tohru Tsuruoka; Tsuyoshi Hasegawa; Masashi Aono; Kazuya Terabe; Masakazu Aono

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple model for an atomic switch-based decision maker (ASDM), and show that, as long as its total number of metal atoms is conserved when coupled with suitable operations, an atomic switch system provides a sophisticated ``decision-making'' capability that is known to be one of the most important intellectual abilities in human beings. We considered a popular decision-making problem studied in the context of reinforcement learning, the multi-armed bandit problem (MAB); the probl...

  6. Magnetic field penetration of erosion switch plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Rodney J.; Jones, Michael E.; Grossmann, John M.; Ottinger, Paul F.

    1988-10-01

    Computer simulations demonstrate that the entrainment (or advection) of magnetic field with the flow of cathode-emitted electrons can constitute a dominant mechanism for the magnetic field penetration of erosion switch plasmas. Cross-field drift in the accelerating electric field near the cathode starts the penetration process. Plasma erosion propagates the point for emission and magnetic field injection along the cathode toward the load-for the possibility of rapid switch opening.

  7. Quantum switches and nonlocal microwave fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich, L.; Maali, A.; Brune, M.; Raimond, J. M.; Haroche, S.

    1993-10-01

    A scheme to realize an optical switch with quantum coherence between its ``open'' and ``closed'' states is presented. It involves a single atom in a superposition of circular Rydberg states crossing a high Q cavity. A combination of switches could be used to prepare a quantum superposition of coherent microwave field states located simultaneously in two cavities. Such nonclassical states and their decoherence due to cavity dissipation could be studied by performing atom correlation experiments.

  8. My View on Code-Switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩慧文

    2015-01-01

    Code-switching is a linguistic phenomenon that has been studied by linguists from different aspects.It is widely used in people’s daily communication,especially for people who have developed some knowledge and ability in second language and thus become bilingual.In this article,the author intends to present her understanding about the definition of code-switching,its classification with the help of some specific examples.

  9. Thermal management of solid state power switches

    OpenAIRE

    Tighe, Christopher James Frederick

    2011-01-01

    The transient temperature of solid state power switches is investigated using thermal resistance network modelling and experimental testing. The ability of a heat sink mounted to the top of the device to reduce the transient temperature is assessed. Transient temperatures for heat pulses of up to 100ms are of most interest. The transient temperature distribution inside a typical stack-up of a solid state power switch is characterised. The thermal effects of adding a heat sink to the top o...

  10. United assembly algorithm for optical burst switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhui Yu(于金辉); Yijun Yang(杨教军); Yuehua Chen(陈月华); Ge Fan(范戈)

    2003-01-01

    Optical burst switching (OBS) is a promising optical switching technology. The burst assembly algorithm controls burst assembly, which significantly impacts performance of OBS network. This paper provides a new assembly algorithm, united assembly algorithm, which has more practicability than conventional algorithms. In addition, some factors impacting selections of parameters of this algorithm are discussed and the performance of this algorithm is studied by computer simulation.

  11. Resistance switching of electrodeposited cuprous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanparast, Sanaz

    In this work, the resistance switching behavior of electrodeposited cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films in Au/Cu2O/top electrode (Pt, Au-Pd, Al) cells was studied. After an initial FORMING process, the fabricated cells show reversible switching between a low resistance state (16.6 O) and a high resistance state (0.4 x 106 O). Changing the resistance states in cuprous oxide films depends on the magnitude of the applied voltage which corresponds to unipolar resistance switching behavior of this material. The endurance and retention tests indicate a potential application of the fabricated cells for nonvolatile resistance switching random access memory (RRAM). The results suggest formation and rupture of one or several nanoscale copper filaments as the resistance switching mechanism in the cuprous oxide films. At high electric voltage in the as-deposited state of Au/Cu 2O/Au-Pd cell structure, the conduction behavior follows Poole-Frenkel emission. Various parameters, such as the compliance current, the cuprous oxide microstructure, the cuprous oxide thickness, top electrode area, and top electrode material, affect the resistance switching characteristics. The required FORMING voltage is higher for Au/Cu2O/Al cell compared with the Au/Cu2O/Pt which is related to the Schottky behavior of Al contact with Cu2O. Cu2O nanowires in Au-Pt/ Cu 2O/Au-Pt cell also show resistance switching behavior, indicating scalable potential of this cell for usage as RRAM. After an initial FORMING process under an electric field of 3 x 106 V/m, the Cu2O nanowire is switched to the LRS. During the FORMING process physical damages are observed in the cell, which may be caused by Joule heating and gas evolution.

  12. Monotone switching networks for directed connectivity are strictly more powerful than certain-knowledge switching networks

    CERN Document Server

    Potechin, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    L (Logarithmic space) versus NL (Non-deterministic logarithmic space) is one of the great open problems in computational complexity theory. In the paper "Bounds on monotone switching networks for directed connectivity", we separated monotone analogues of L and NL using a model called the switching network model. In particular, by considering inputs consisting of just a path and isolated vertices, we proved that any monotone switching network solving directed connectivity on $N$ vertices must have size at least $N^{\\Omega(\\lg(N))}$ and this bound is tight. If we could show a similar result for general switching networks solving directed connectivity, then this would prove that $L \

  13. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  14. Hybrid Optical Switching for Data Center Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Fiorani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current data centers networks rely on electronic switching and point-to-point interconnects. When considering future data center requirements, these solutions will raise issues in terms of flexibility, scalability, performance, and energy consumption. For this reason several optical switched interconnects, which make use of optical switches and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM, have been recently proposed. However, the solutions proposed so far suffer from low flexibility and are not able to provide service differentiation. In this paper we introduce a novel data center network based on hybrid optical switching (HOS. HOS combines optical circuit, burst, and packet switching on the same network. In this way different data center applications can be mapped to the optical transport mechanism that best suits their traffic characteristics. Furthermore, the proposed HOS network achieves high transmission efficiency and reduced energy consumption by using two parallel optical switches. We consider the architectures of both a traditional data center network and the proposed HOS network and present a combined analytical and simulation approach for their performance and energy consumption evaluation. We demonstrate that the proposed HOS data center network achieves high performance and flexibility while considerably reducing the energy consumption of current solutions.

  15. Evaluation of Speedup and Expansion in Terabit Switch Fabrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Rytlig, Andreas; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates speedup and expansion in a multi-stage Terabit switch fabric. Single-stage switch fabrics, e.g. crossbar switches, are difficult to scale up to a Terabit system. Hence, a multi-stage switch fabric, where traffic can be distributed on different chips, offers a promising...

  16. A new Zero-Voltage-Transition PWM switching cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigore, V. [Electronics and Telecommunications Faculty `Politebuica` University Bucharest (Romania); Kyyrae, J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland): Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a new Zero-Voltage-Transition (ZVT) PWM switching cell is presented. The proposed switching cell is composed of the normal hard-switched PWM cell (consisting of one active switch and one passive switch), plus an auxiliary circuit (consisting of one active switch and some reactive components). The auxiliary circuit is inactive during the ON and OFF intervals of the switches in the normal PWM switch. However, the transitions between the two states are controlled by the auxiliary circuit. Prior to turn-on, the voltage across the active switch in the PWM cell is forced to zero, thus the turn-on losses of the active switch are practically eliminated. At turn-off the auxiliary circuit behaves like a non-dissipative passive snubber reducing the turn-off losses to a great extent. Zero-Voltage-Transition switching technique almost eliminates switching losses. The active switch operates under ZVT conditions, the passive switch (diode) has a controlled reverse recovery, and the switch in the auxiliary circuit operates under Zero-Current-Switching (ZCS) conditions. (orig.) 6 refs.

  17. A review of opening switch technology for inductive energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbach, K. H.; Kristiansen, M.; Schaefer, G.

    1984-08-01

    A review of the state of the art in opening switches is presented. The general operating principles and present and potential future operating parameters for several switch categories are discussed. Among the switch categories described are: mechanical, solid state, vacuum arc, crossed field, fuse, explosive, plasma gun, superconducting, thermal, MHD instability, diffuse discharge, plasma erosion switches, and reflex triodes.

  18. Symbols and dynamics in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariani, P

    2001-01-01

    The work of physicist and theoretical biologist Howard Pattee has focused on the roles that symbols and dynamics play in biological systems. Symbols, as discrete functional switching-states, are seen at the heart of all biological systems in the form of genetic codes, and at the core of all neural systems in the form of informational mechanisms that switch behavior. They also appear in one form or another in all epistemic systems, from informational processes embedded in primitive organisms to individual human beings to public scientific models. Over its course, Pattee's work has explored (1) the physical basis of informational functions (dynamical vs. rule-based descriptions, switching mechanisms, memory, symbols), (2) the functional organization of the observer (measurement, computation), (3) the means by which information can be embedded in biological organisms for purposes of self-construction and representation (as codes, modeling relations, memory, symbols), and (4) the processes by which new structures and functions can emerge over time. We discuss how these concepts can be applied to a high-level understanding of the brain. Biological organisms constantly reproduce themselves as well as their relations with their environs. The brain similarly can be seen as a self-producing, self-regenerating neural signaling system and as an adaptive informational system that interacts with its surrounds in order to steer behavior.

  19. Taking care of one's brain: how manipulating the brain changes people's selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenninkmeijer, Jonna

    2010-01-01

    The increasing attention to the brain in science and the media, and people's continuing quest for a better life, have resulted in a successful self-help industry for brain enhancement. Apart from brain books, foods and games, there are several devices on the market that people can use to stimulate their brains and become happier, healthier or more successful. People can, for example, switch their brain state into relaxation or concentration with a light-and-sound machine, they can train their brain waves to cure their Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or solve their sleeping problems with a neurofeedback device, or they can influence the firing of their neurons with electric or magnetic stimulation to overcome their depression and anxieties. Working on your self with a brain device can be seen as a contemporary form of Michel Foucault's "technologies of the self." Foucault described how since antiquity people had used techniques such as reading manuscripts, listening to teachers, or saying prayers to "act on their selves" and control their own thoughts and behaviours. Different techniques, Foucault stated, are based on different precepts and constitute different selves. I follow Foucault by stating that using a brain device for self-improvement indeed constitutes a new self. Drawing on interviews with users of brain devices and observations of the practices in brain clinics, I analyse how a new self takes shape in the use of brain devices; not a monistic (neuroscientific) self, but a "layered" self of all kinds of entities that exchange and control each other continuously.

  20. Dynamic actuation methods for capacitive MEMS shunt switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, M. E.; Vummidi, K.; Abdel-Rahman, E. M.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Raman, S.

    2011-03-01

    We develop dynamic actuation methods for capacitive MEMS shunt switches. We show that the dynamic actuation voltage is significantly less than the static actuation voltage and demonstrate 60% reduction in the actuation voltage. We also show that this reduction in the actuation voltage depends on the specific dynamic switching technique adopted. For a given operating condition, the minimum realizable switching time is that obtained using static switching. However, we developed a dynamic switching method that yields comparable switching time to that minimum. We also found that squeeze-film damping is the dominant damping mechanism for a shunt switch with a relatively slender bridge (aspect ratio of 11:1).