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Sample records for brain switches utilitarian

  1. Brain Switches Utilitarian Behavior : Does Gender Make the Difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Fumagalli; Maurizio Vergari; Patrizio Pasqualetti; Sara Marceglia; Francesca Mameli; Roberta Ferrucci; Simona Mrakic-Sposta; Stefano Zago; Giuseppe Sartori; Gabriella Pravettoni; Sergio Barbieri; Stefano Cappa; Alberto Priori

    2010-01-01

    Decision often implies a utilitarian choice based on personal gain, even at the expense of damaging others. Despite the social implications of utilitarian behavior, its neurophysiological bases remain largely unknown. To assess how the human brain controls utilitarian behavior, we delivered transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the ventral prefrontal cortex (VPC) and over the occipital cortex (OC) in 78 healthy subjects. Utilitarian judgment was assessed with the moral judgment ...

  2. Brain switches utilitarian behavior: does gender make the difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Fumagalli

    Full Text Available Decision often implies a utilitarian choice based on personal gain, even at the expense of damaging others. Despite the social implications of utilitarian behavior, its neurophysiological bases remain largely unknown. To assess how the human brain controls utilitarian behavior, we delivered transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the ventral prefrontal cortex (VPC and over the occipital cortex (OC in 78 healthy subjects. Utilitarian judgment was assessed with the moral judgment task before and after tDCS. At baseline, females provided fewer utilitarian answers than males for personal moral dilemmas (p = .007. In males, VPC-tDCS failed to induce changes and in both genders OC-tDCS left utilitarian judgments unchanged. In females, cathodal VPC-tDCS tended to decrease whereas anodal VPC-tDCS significantly increased utilitarian responses (p = .005. In males and females, reaction times for utilitarian responses significantly decreased after cathodal (p<.001 but not after anodal (p = .735 VPC-tDCS. We conclude that ventral prefrontal tDCS interferes with utilitarian decisions, influencing the evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of each option in both sexes, but does so more strongly in females. Whereas cathodal tDCS alters the time for utilitarian reasoning in both sexes, anodal stimulation interferes more incisively in women, modifying utilitarian reasoning and the possible consequent actions. The gender-related tDCS-induced changes suggest that the VPC differentially controls utilitarian reasoning in females and in males. The gender-specific functional organization of the brain areas involved in utilitarian behavior could be a correlate of the moral and social behavioral differences between the two sexes.

  3. Utilitarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-05-11

    In one of a series of British Medical Journal articles on the philosophical foundations of medical ethics, Gillon outlines the pros and cons of utilitarian theories of ethics, which determine the morality of actions by whether or not they increase happiness or decrease suffering. He counters utilitarian claims to have overcome the disadvantages of deontological theories by pointing out flaws in the coherence, justification, and results of utilitarian arguments, as these arguments are exemplified in the writings of Bentham, Mill, and Hare. He observes that many modern utilitarians have overcome problems with their basic theories by accommodating aspects of deontological thinking.

  4. Switching Away from Utilitarianism: The Limited Role of Utility Calculations in Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumard, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Our moral motivations might include a drive towards maximizing overall welfare, consistent with an ethical theory called “utilitarianism.” However, people show non-utilitarian judgments in domains as diverse as healthcare decisions, income distributions, and penal laws. Rather than these being deviations from a fundamentally utilitarian psychology, we suggest that our moral judgments are generally non-utilitarian, even for cases that are typically seen as prototypically utilitarian. We show two separate deviations from utilitarianism in such cases: people do not think maximizing welfare is required (they think it is merely acceptable, in some circumstances), and people do not think that equal welfare tradeoffs are even acceptable. We end by discussing how utilitarian reasoning might play a restricted role within a non-utilitarian moral psychology. PMID:27505424

  5. Switching Away from Utilitarianism: The Limited Role of Utility Calculations in Moral Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheskin, Mark; Baumard, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Our moral motivations might include a drive towards maximizing overall welfare, consistent with an ethical theory called "utilitarianism." However, people show non-utilitarian judgments in domains as diverse as healthcare decisions, income distributions, and penal laws. Rather than these being deviations from a fundamentally utilitarian psychology, we suggest that our moral judgments are generally non-utilitarian, even for cases that are typically seen as prototypically utilitarian. We show two separate deviations from utilitarianism in such cases: people do not think maximizing welfare is required (they think it is merely acceptable, in some circumstances), and people do not think that equal welfare tradeoffs are even acceptable. We end by discussing how utilitarian reasoning might play a restricted role within a non-utilitarian moral psychology.

  6. Switching Away from Utilitarianism: The Limited Role of Utility Calculations in Moral Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheskin, Mark; Baumard, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Our moral motivations might include a drive towards maximizing overall welfare, consistent with an ethical theory called "utilitarianism." However, people show non-utilitarian judgments in domains as diverse as healthcare decisions, income distributions, and penal laws. Rather than these being deviations from a fundamentally utilitarian psychology, we suggest that our moral judgments are generally non-utilitarian, even for cases that are typically seen as prototypically utilitarian. We show two separate deviations from utilitarianism in such cases: people do not think maximizing welfare is required (they think it is merely acceptable, in some circumstances), and people do not think that equal welfare tradeoffs are even acceptable. We end by discussing how utilitarian reasoning might play a restricted role within a non-utilitarian moral psychology. PMID:27505424

  7. The Utilitarians Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camic, Charles

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the social theories of the major utilitarians (David Hume, Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, and John Stewart Mill), and outlines the historical process whereby the prevailing mythology concerning utilitarianism developed. (Author/KC)

  8. Neural correlates of establishing, maintaining, and switching brain states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Rothbart, Mary K; Posner, Michael I

    2012-06-01

    Although the study of brain states is an old one in neuroscience, there has been growing interest in brain state specification owing to MRI studies tracing brain connectivity at rest. In this review, we summarize recent research on three relatively well-described brain states: the resting, alert, and meditation states. We explore the neural correlates of maintaining a state or switching between states, and argue that the anterior cingulate cortex and striatum play a critical role in state maintenance, whereas the insula has a major role in switching between states. Brain state may serve as a predictor of performance in a variety of perceptual, memory, and problem solving tasks. Thus, understanding brain states is critical for understanding human performance.

  9. Computer Controlled Switching Device for Deep Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tauchmanová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has two goals. The practical part deals with the design of a computer controlled switching device for an external stimulator for deep brain stimulation. The switching device is used during investigations with functional magnetic resonance for controlling signals leading to the deep brain stimulation (DBS electrode in the patient's brain. The motivation for designing this device was improve measured data quality and to enable new types of experiments.The theoretical part reports on early attempts to approach the problem of modeling and localizing the neural response of the human brain as a system identification and estimation task. The parametric identification method and real fMRI data are used for modeling the hemodynamic response.The project is in cooperation with 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and Na Homolce hospital in Prague.

  10. [Personalist bioethics and utilitarian bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Llueca, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows the insufficiency of a bioethics which would intend to derive its proposals from Utilitarianism, identifying some inadequacies in the ethics of John Stuart Mill, e.g., the difficulties of the utilitarian commitment with instrumentalism, the deficiency of an utilitarian moral psychology and the naiveté of the forensic dimension of the utilitarian submission.

  11. Is Utilitarianism Risky? How the Same Antecedents and Mechanism Produce Both Utilitarian and Risky Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Brian J; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-07-01

    Philosophers and psychologists have long been interested in identifying factors that influence moral judgment. In the current analysis, we compare the literatures on moral psychology and decision making under uncertainty to propose that utilitarian choices are driven by the same forces that lead to risky choices. Spanning from neurocognitive to hormonal to interpersonal levels of analysis, we identify six antecedents that increase both utilitarian and risky choices (ventromedial prefrontal cortex brain lesions, psychopathology, testosterone, incidental positive affect, power, and social connection) and one antecedent that reduces these choices (serotonin activity). We identify the regulation of negative affect as a common mechanism through which the effects of each antecedent on utilitarian and risky choices are explained. By demonstrating that the same forces and the same underlying mechanism that produce risky choices also promote utilitarian choices, we offer a deeper understanding of how basic psychological systems underlie moral judgment.

  12. Is Utilitarianism Risky? How the Same Antecedents and Mechanism Produce Both Utilitarian and Risky Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Brian J; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-07-01

    Philosophers and psychologists have long been interested in identifying factors that influence moral judgment. In the current analysis, we compare the literatures on moral psychology and decision making under uncertainty to propose that utilitarian choices are driven by the same forces that lead to risky choices. Spanning from neurocognitive to hormonal to interpersonal levels of analysis, we identify six antecedents that increase both utilitarian and risky choices (ventromedial prefrontal cortex brain lesions, psychopathology, testosterone, incidental positive affect, power, and social connection) and one antecedent that reduces these choices (serotonin activity). We identify the regulation of negative affect as a common mechanism through which the effects of each antecedent on utilitarian and risky choices are explained. By demonstrating that the same forces and the same underlying mechanism that produce risky choices also promote utilitarian choices, we offer a deeper understanding of how basic psychological systems underlie moral judgment. PMID:26177954

  13. Utilitarianism: a psychophysical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Marks

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological doctrines of empiricism, associationism, and hedonism served as intellectual sources for the development of utilitarianism in the 18th century and psychophysics in the 19th. Utilitarianism, first articulated by Bentham in 1781, makes four implicit but nevertheless important psychophysical assumptions: (1 that utilities, which reflect "benefit, advantage, pleasure, good or happiness," are quintessentially psychological concepts; (2 that utilities are quantitative; (3 that utilities are commensurable across different objects; and (4 that utilities are commensurable across individuals. Although utilities sometimes reflect the satisfaction of biological needs, they commonly represent psychological valences or values, whose subjective strengths may themselves derive, dynamically, from processes of decision-making.

  14. Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Brian G.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

  15. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  16. [Is personalism or utilitarianism an adequate foundation of medical ethics?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesaga, T

    1998-01-01

    The article rejects utilitarianism as a proper theory for medical ethics. Utilitarians lavishly use various slogans of effective action, development and better civilization. However, the principle of prosperity of humanity in the utilitarian interpretation makes the value of the human person subject to society. Social interest threatens the individual here because it defines his/her value of life. The drift towards maximalization of benefits and prosperity of humanity strikes the seriously ill, e.g. babies with brain damages, Down's syndrome, etc., people after accidents and with serious brain defects, the terminally ill. The principle of quality of life (lebensunwertes Leben) used by utylitarians allows them to argue, that euthanasia, abortion is in the interest of the patient. Some utilitarians openly admit that such ideas as "universal happiness", "prosperity", "benefit" are empty ideas, fictions to which one cannot attribute any contents. So utilitarianism, not defining its fundamental ideas, can easily change medical ethics in a theory of elimination of the uncomfortable people. Therefore, as a theory utilitarianism cannot serve as the basis for medical ethics.

  17. Language and task switching in the bilingual brain: Bilinguals are staying, not switching, experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissberger, Gali H; Gollan, Tamar H; Bondi, Mark W; Clark, Lindsay R; Wierenga, Christina E

    2015-01-01

    Bilinguals' ability to control which language they speak and to switch between languages may rely on neurocognitive mechanisms shared with non-linguistic task switching. However, recent studies also reveal some limitations on the extent control mechanisms are shared across domains, introducing the possibility that some control mechanisms are unique to language. We investigated this hypothesis by directly comparing the neural correlates of task switching and language switching. Nineteen Spanish-English bilingual university students underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study employing a hybrid (event-related and blocked) design involving both color-shape switching and language switching paradigms. We compared the two switching tasks using within-subject voxel-wise t-tests for each of three trial types (single trials in single blocks, and stay and switch trials in mixed blocks). Comparing trial types to baseline in each task revealed widespread activation for single, stay, and switch trials in both color-shape and language switching. Direct comparisons of each task for each trial type revealed few differences between tasks on single and switch trials, but large task differences during stay trials, with more widespread activation for the non-linguistic than for the language task. Our results confirm previous suggestions of shared mechanisms of switching across domains, but also reveal bilinguals have greater efficiency for sustaining the inhibition of the non-target language than the non-target task when two responses are available. This efficiency of language control might arise from bilinguals' need to control interference from the non-target language specifically when not switching languages, when speaking in single- or mixed-language contexts.

  18. Reward Sensitivity Modulates Brain Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex, ACC and Striatum during Task Switching

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    Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Ávila, César; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Bustamante, Juan C.; Costumero, Víctor; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Current perspectives on cognitive control acknowledge that individual differences in motivational dispositions may modulate cognitive processes in the absence of reward contingencies. This work aimed to study the relationship between individual differences in Behavioral Activation System (BAS) sensitivity and the neural underpinnings involved in processing a switching cue in a task-switching paradigm. BAS sensitivity was hypothesized to modulate brain activity in frontal regions, ACC and the striatum. Twenty-eight healthy participants underwent fMRI while performing a switching task, which elicited activity in fronto-striatal regions during the processing of the switch cue. BAS sensitivity was negatively associated with activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the ventral striatum. Combined with previous results, our data indicate that BAS sensitivity modulates the neurocognitive processes involved in task switching in a complex manner depending on task demands. Therefore, individual differences in motivational dispositions may influence cognitive processing in the absence of reward contingencies. PMID:25875640

  19. Optimal Multitrial Prediction Combination and Subject-Specific Adaptation for Minimal Training Brain Switch Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Loukianos; Blokland, Yvonne; Farquhar, Jason; Bruhn, Jorgen

    2016-06-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems are traditionally designed by taking into account user-specific data to enable practical use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms have been developed which bypass the subject specific adaptation and enable rapid use of the system. A brain switch is a particular BCI system where the system is required to distinguish from two separate mental tasks corresponding to the on-off commands of a switch. Such applications require a low false positive rate (FPR) while having an acceptable response time (RT) until the switch is activated. In this work, we develop a methodology that produces optimal brain switch behavior through subject specific (SS) adaptation of: a) a multitrial prediction combination model and b) an SI classification model. We propose a statistical model of combining classifier predictions that enables optimal FPR calibration through a short calibration session. We trained an SI classifier on a training synchronous dataset and tested our method on separate holdout synchronous and asynchronous brain switch experiments. Although our SI model obtained similar performance between training and holdout datasets, 86% and 85% for the synchronous and 69% and 66% for the asynchronous the between subject FPR and TPR variability was high (up to 62%). The short calibration session was then employed to alleviate that problem and provide decision thresholds that achieve when possible a target FPR=1% with good accuracy for both datasets. PMID:26529768

  20. Hare's preference utilitarianism: an overview and critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cardoso Simões

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available My purpose in this paper is to summarize some aspects of utilitarianism and to provide a general overview of Hare's preference utilitarianism, followed by a critique of Hare's preference theory.

  1. Killing happy animals : Explorations in utilitarian ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visak, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Total View and the Prior Existence View are two coherent utilitarian views on whose welfare to take into account in the aggregation of welfare. Total Utilitarianism considers the welfare of all actual and all possible beings. Prior Existence Utilitarianism takes into consideration the welfare of

  2. Can Hare's two-level utilitarianism overcome the problems facing act-utilitarianism?

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Emma

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide a positive defence of utilitarianism, R.M Hare presented his own theory of 'two-level' utilitarianism, claiming that it overcame the main objections directed towards traditional act utilitarianism. This essay firstly outlines the main problems associated with utilitarianism and examines whether Hare's theory is indeed able to successfully overcome them. It then goes on to examine the coherence of two-level utilitarianism itself, and thus determine whether it can provide a ...

  3. Age-Related Shifts in Brain Activity Dynamics during Task Switching

    OpenAIRE

    Jimura, Koji; Braver, Todd S.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive aging studies have suggested that older adults show declines in both sustained and transient cognitive control processes. However, previous neuroimaging studies have primarily focused on age-related change in the magnitude, but not temporal dynamics, of brain activity. The present study compared brain activity dynamics in healthy old and young adults during task switching. A mixed blocked/event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design enabled separation of transient and ...

  4. Age-related shifts in brain activity dynamics during task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimura, Koji; Braver, Todd S

    2010-06-01

    Cognitive aging studies have suggested that older adults show declines in both sustained and transient cognitive control processes. However, previous neuroimaging studies have primarily focused on age-related change in the magnitude, but not temporal dynamics, of brain activity. The present study compared brain activity dynamics in healthy old and young adults during task switching. A mixed blocked/event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design enabled separation of transient and sustained neural activity associated with cognitive control. Relative to young adults, older adults exhibited not only decreased sustained activity in the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) during task-switching blocks but also increased transient activity on task-switch trials. Another pattern of age-related shift in dynamics was present in the lateral PFC (lPFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC), with younger adults showing a cue-related response during task-switch trials in lPFC and PPC, whereas older adults exhibited switch-related activation during the cue period in PPC only. In all 3 regions, these qualitatively distinct patterns of brain activity predicted qualitatively distinct patterns of behavioral performance across the 2 age groups. Together, these results suggest that older adults may shift from a proactive to reactive cognitive control strategy as a means of retaining relatively preserved behavioral performance in the face of age-related neurocognitive changes. PMID:19805420

  5. Synthetic biology: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I examine the positive and negative features of synthetic biology ('SynBio') from a utilitarian ethical perspective. The potential beneficial outcomes from SynBio in the context of medicine are substantial; however it is not presently possible to predict precise outcomes due to the nascent state of the field. Potential negative outcomes from SynBio also exist, including iatrogenesis and bioterrorism; however it is not yet possible to quantify these risks. I argue that the application of a 'precautionary' approach to SynBio is ethically fraught, as is the notion that SynBio-associated knowledge ought to be restricted. I conclude that utilitarians ought to support a broadly laissez-faire stance in respect of SynBio.

  6. Is Mozi a utilitarian philosopher?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Changchi

    2006-01-01

    In this essay I argue that Mozi's philosophy is anything but utilitarianism by way of analysing four ethical theories.Utilitarianism is an ethics in which the moral subiect is an atomic individual human being,and its concern is how to fulfill the interests of the individual self and the social maiority.Confucian ethics is centered on the notion of the family and its basic question is that of priority in the relationship between the small self and the enlarged or collective self.Opposite to these two moral theories is Mozi's ethics:The interests that Mozi is primarily concerned with are not the interests of my individual self or my collective self,but the interests of the other.The fulfillment of the material needs of the other is my moral obligation.The arguments are centered on the three basic concepts,"the I,""the we,"and"me other."The significance Of Mozi's thought in modern or postmodern context lies in its striking resemblance to the philosophy of a contemporary western philosopher,Levinas.In both Mozi and Levinas,there is a suspension of utilitarianism.

  7. [Post-utilitarianism and the Prioritisation Debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbe, Weyma

    2009-01-01

    Pure utilitarianism has come to be a rare position in the ethics of health resource allocation. Most authors favour a combination of a utility-maximising criterion with other criteria, notably fairness-related ones. Classical utilitarianism, though, claimed to be a moral theory that is already fair by itself. Trying to combine a utilitarian starting point with fairness-related ideas originating from anti-utilitarian criticism may result in inconsistent axiologies. The article is a report of discussions arguing the point. PMID:19476308

  8. Endogenous Sensory Discrimination and Selection by a Fast Brain Switch for a High Transfer Rate Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ren; Jiang, Ning; Dosen, Strahinja; Lin, Chuang; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Dremstrup, Kim; Farina, Dario

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we present a novel multi-class brain-computer interface (BCI) for communication and control. In this system, the information processing is shared by the algorithm (computer) and the user (human). Specifically, an electro-tactile cycle was presented to the user, providing the choice (class) by delivering timely sensory input. The user discriminated these choices by his/her endogenous sensory ability and selected the desired choice with an intuitive motor task. This selection was detected by a fast brain switch based on real-time detection of movement-related cortical potentials from scalp EEG. We demonstrated the feasibility of such a system with a four-class BCI, yielding a true positive rate of  ∼ 80% and  ∼ 70%, and an information transfer rate of  ∼ 7 bits/min and  ∼ 5 bits/min, for the movement and imagination selection command, respectively. Furthermore, when the system was extended to eight classes, the throughput of the system was improved, demonstrating the capability of accommodating a large number of classes. Combining the endogenous sensory discrimination with the fast brain switch, the proposed system could be an effective, multi-class, gaze-independent BCI system for communication and control applications. PMID:26849869

  9. Voluntary euthanasia: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.

  10. Brain Circuit for Cognitive Control is Shared by Task and Language Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baene, Wouter; Duyck, Wouter; Brass, Marcel; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Controlling multiple languages during speech production is believed to rely on functional mechanisms that are (at least partly) shared with domain-general cognitive control in early, highly proficient bilinguals. Recent neuroimaging results have indeed suggested a certain degree of neural overlap between language control and nonverbal cognitive control in bilinguals. However, this evidence is only indirect. Direct evidence for neural overlap between language control and nonverbal cognitive control can only be provided if two prerequisites are met: Language control and nonverbal cognitive control should be compared within the same participants, and the task requirements of both conditions should be closely matched. To provide such direct evidence for the first time, we used fMRI to examine the overlap in brain activation between switch-specific activity in a linguistic switching task and a closely matched nonlinguistic switching task, within participants, in early, highly proficient Spanish-Basque bilinguals. The current findings provide direct evidence that, in these bilinguals, highly similar brain circuits are involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control.

  11. UTILITARIANISM AS A PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Yarkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article is devoted to the representation of utilitarianism as the philosophy of education. The main problem is the relevance of utilitarian strategies for the present stage of development of education in Russia. Methods, results and scientific novelty. Utilitarianism is presented as an educational strategy, nominating at the forefront the principle of usefulness of education, positioning education as a means of achieving social and individual wellbeing. The author represents the basic principles of utilitarian philosophy, and also reveals how these principles have been refracted in the philosophy of education using the methods of value-semantic reduction and qualitative content analysis. The first part of the article is devoted to the history of utilitarianism as the philosophy of education in the Euro-American pedagogical culture, as well as the analysis of modern utilitarianism as widely existent in this culture of philosophy of education. In the second part of the article the author explicates the role of utilitarianism in the education strategies of the Russian pedagogical culture, past and present. The main idea of the article is the idea that we have two value-semantic forms of utilitarianism: narrowly understood (tactical utilitarianism and widespread (strategic utilitarianism. Within the tactical utilitarianism as socially and/or individually useful education is considered to be vocationalism, claimed the currently market education. This kind of education is characterized by its focus on learning/teaching applied science and recognition of the futility of Sciences fundamental and philosophical. Under the strategic utilitarianism individually and/or socially beneficial is considered: first, the versatile education characterized by its focus on learning/teaching not only applications, but also fundamental and philosophical disciplines, secondly, eclectic education aimed at obtaining different professional competences. Versatile

  12. Peter Singer's argument for utilitarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The paper begins by situating Singer within the British meta-ethical tradition. It sets out the main steps in his argument for utilitarianism as the 'default setting' of ethical thought. It argues that Singer's argument depends on a hierarchy of reasons, such that the ethical viewpoint is understood to be an adaptation--an extension--of a fundamental self-interest. It concludes that the argument fails because it is impossible to get from this starting-point in self-interest to his conception of the ethical point of view. The fundamental problem is its mixing the immiscible: the Humean subordination of reason to interest with the Kantian conception of reason as universal and authoritative. PMID:16048068

  13. Engineering incremental resistive switching in TaOx based memristors for brain-inspired computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongwei; Yin, Minghui; Zhang, Teng; Cai, Yimao; Wang, Yangyuan; Yang, Yuchao; Huang, Ru

    2016-07-01

    Brain-inspired neuromorphic computing is expected to revolutionize the architecture of conventional digital computers and lead to a new generation of powerful computing paradigms, where memristors with analog resistive switching are considered to be potential solutions for synapses. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to engineering the analog switching linearity in TaOx based memristors, that is, by homogenizing the filament growth/dissolution rate via the introduction of an ion diffusion limiting layer (DLL) at the TiN/TaOx interface. This has effectively mitigated the commonly observed two-regime conductance modulation behavior and led to more uniform filament growth (dissolution) dynamics with time, therefore significantly improving the conductance modulation linearity that is desirable in neuromorphic systems. In addition, the introduction of the DLL also served to reduce the power consumption of the memristor, and important synaptic learning rules in biological brains such as spike timing dependent plasticity were successfully implemented using these optimized devices. This study could provide general implications for continued optimizations of memristor performance for neuromorphic applications, by carefully tuning the dynamics involved in filament growth and dissolution.Brain-inspired neuromorphic computing is expected to revolutionize the architecture of conventional digital computers and lead to a new generation of powerful computing paradigms, where memristors with analog resistive switching are considered to be potential solutions for synapses. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to engineering the analog switching linearity in TaOx based memristors, that is, by homogenizing the filament growth/dissolution rate via the introduction of an ion diffusion limiting layer (DLL) at the TiN/TaOx interface. This has effectively mitigated the commonly observed two-regime conductance modulation behavior and led to more uniform filament

  14. Domain-general inhibition areas of the brain are involved in language switching: fMRI evidence from trilingual speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Angela; Roelofs, Ardi; Dijkstra, Ton; Fitzpatrick, Ian

    2014-04-15

    The prevailing theory of language switching states that unbalanced bilingual speakers use inhibition to switch between their languages (Inhibitory Control or IC model; Green, 1998). Using fMRI, we examined the brain mechanisms underlying language switching and investigated the role of domain-general inhibition areas such as the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA). Dutch-English-German trilinguals performed a picture naming task in the MRI scanner in both a blocked-language and a mixed-language context. The rIFG and pre-SMA showed more activation for switches to the second and third language (L2 and L3) compared to non-switch trials and blocked trials. No such difference was found for switches to the first language (L1). Our results indicate that language switching recruits brain areas related to domain-general inhibition. In this way, our study supports the claim that multilinguals use inhibition to switch between their languages.

  15. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  16. Who makes utilitarian judgments? The influences of emotions on utilitarian judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Choe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has emphasized emotion's role in non-utilitarian judgments, but has not focused much on characteristics of subjects contributing to those judgments. The present article relates utilitarian judgment to individual disposition to experience various emotions. Study 1 first investigated the relationship among state emotions and utilitarian judgment. Diverse emotions were elicited during judgment: guilt, sadness, disgust, empathy, anger, and anxiety, etc. Using psychological scales, Study 2 found that trait emotions predict the extent of utilitarian judgments, especially trait anger, trait disgust, and trait empathy. Unlike previous research that designated emotions only as factors mitigating utilitarian judgment, this research shows that trait anger correlates positively with utilitarian judgment. On the other hand, disgust and empathy correlated negatively. Guilt and shame---though previous research argued that their absence increased utilitarian judgment---appear unrelated to the extent of utilitarian judgment. These results suggest that people's emotional dispositions can affect their judgment. This finding might contribute to untangling the complex mechanisms of utilitarian judgments.

  17. Engineering incremental resistive switching in TaOx based memristors for brain-inspired computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongwei; Yin, Minghui; Zhang, Teng; Cai, Yimao; Wang, Yangyuan; Yang, Yuchao; Huang, Ru

    2016-08-01

    Brain-inspired neuromorphic computing is expected to revolutionize the architecture of conventional digital computers and lead to a new generation of powerful computing paradigms, where memristors with analog resistive switching are considered to be potential solutions for synapses. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to engineering the analog switching linearity in TaOx based memristors, that is, by homogenizing the filament growth/dissolution rate via the introduction of an ion diffusion limiting layer (DLL) at the TiN/TaOx interface. This has effectively mitigated the commonly observed two-regime conductance modulation behavior and led to more uniform filament growth (dissolution) dynamics with time, therefore significantly improving the conductance modulation linearity that is desirable in neuromorphic systems. In addition, the introduction of the DLL also served to reduce the power consumption of the memristor, and important synaptic learning rules in biological brains such as spike timing dependent plasticity were successfully implemented using these optimized devices. This study could provide general implications for continued optimizations of memristor performance for neuromorphic applications, by carefully tuning the dynamics involved in filament growth and dissolution.

  18. Engineering incremental resistive switching in TaOx based memristors for brain-inspired computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongwei; Yin, Minghui; Zhang, Teng; Cai, Yimao; Wang, Yangyuan; Yang, Yuchao; Huang, Ru

    2016-08-01

    Brain-inspired neuromorphic computing is expected to revolutionize the architecture of conventional digital computers and lead to a new generation of powerful computing paradigms, where memristors with analog resistive switching are considered to be potential solutions for synapses. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to engineering the analog switching linearity in TaOx based memristors, that is, by homogenizing the filament growth/dissolution rate via the introduction of an ion diffusion limiting layer (DLL) at the TiN/TaOx interface. This has effectively mitigated the commonly observed two-regime conductance modulation behavior and led to more uniform filament growth (dissolution) dynamics with time, therefore significantly improving the conductance modulation linearity that is desirable in neuromorphic systems. In addition, the introduction of the DLL also served to reduce the power consumption of the memristor, and important synaptic learning rules in biological brains such as spike timing dependent plasticity were successfully implemented using these optimized devices. This study could provide general implications for continued optimizations of memristor performance for neuromorphic applications, by carefully tuning the dynamics involved in filament growth and dissolution. PMID:27143476

  19. Utilitarian and deontological ethics in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Jharna; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Medical ethics is a sensible branch of moral philosophy and deals with conflicts in obligations/duties and their potential outcome. Two strands of thought exist in ethics regarding decision-making: deontological and utilitarian. In deontological approach, outcomes/consequences may not just justify the means to achieve it while in utilitarian approach; outcomes determine the means and greatest benefit expected for the greatest number. In brief, deontology is patient-centered, whereas utilitarianism is society-centered. Although these approaches contradict each other, each of them has their own substantiating advantages and disadvantages in medical practice. Over years, a trend has been observed from deontological practice to utilitarian approach leading to frustration and discontentment. Health care system and practitioners need to balance both these ethical arms to bring congruity in medical practice. PMID:26998430

  20. Some utilitarian influences in Freud's early writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govrin, Aner

    2004-01-01

    The author argues that (1) the utilitarian ideas of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill were an important source for Freud's early metapsychology and (2) the two theories are radically different in many aspects. The facts that link Freud with the British utilitarian school are described in the first part. These include Freud's translation of three of Mill's essays, a course Freud took on utilitarianism as a student and a book written by Mill which Freud cited and held in his library. By stripping Freud's language of its biological connotations the author claims in the second part that utilitarianism ideas are ubiquitous in Freud's early thought especially in his "pleasure principle" and in the hedonistic side of the human psyche. The third part describes how Freudian theory breaks with utilitarianism along three lines: the quality of pleasure, conflict and irrationality. These breaks are demonstrated through concepts such as the quantity-quality dilemma, constancy principle, repression, conflict and hallucination. Although there is a strong basic philosophical affinity (certainly with regard to human motivation) between Freudian thought and utilitarianism the theories should not be compared on the same level.

  1. Sensorless speed control of switched reluctance motor using brain emotional learning based intelligent controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.

  2. Sensorless speed control of switched reluctance motor using brain emotional learning based intelligent controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: mirzaeian@eng.ui.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsapoor, Amir, E-mail: amirparsapoor@yahoo.co [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: moallem@cc.iut.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lucas, Caro, E-mail: lucas@ut.ac.i [Centre of Excellence for Control and Intelligent Processing, Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.

  3. From universal prescriptive to Kantian utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrijević Aleksandar T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The author re-examines Hare's multiple ways of connecting his metaethical with his normative doctrine, which is in formal sense determined as "Kantian utilitarianism", and in substantive sense as "preference-utilitarianism". Critical references to both dimensions of utilitarian doctrine aim at indication on scopes and limits of Hare's ambitious redefinition of the doctrine. Further on he discusses about so-called "necessary ingredient" of moral reasoning under the name of "sympathetic imagination", which Hare grasps in his developed theory not only as a normative demand but also as a logical thesis. Finally, he considers kinds of preferences that can or cannot be recognized (with help of established set of criteria as morally relevant.

  4. Harming kin to save strangers: further evidence for abnormally utilitarian moral judgments after ventromedial prefrontal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bradley C; Croft, Katie E; Tranel, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    The ventromedial PFC (vmPFC) has been implicated as a critical neural substrate mediating the influence of emotion on moral reasoning. It has been shown that the vmPFC is especially important for making moral judgments about "high-conflict" moral dilemmas involving direct personal actions, that is, scenarios that pit compelling utilitarian considerations of aggregate welfare against the highly emotionally aversive act of directly causing harm to others [Koenigs, M., Young, L., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., et al. Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgments. Nature, 446, 908-911, 2007]. The current study was designed to elucidate further the role of the vmPFC in high-conflict moral judgments, including those that involve indirect personal actions, such as indirectly causing harm to one's kin to save a group of strangers. We found that patients with vmPFC lesions were more likely than brain-damaged and healthy comparison participants to endorse utilitarian outcomes on high-conflict dilemmas regardless of whether the dilemmas (1) entailed direct versus indirect personal harms and (2) were presented from the Self versus Other perspective. In addition, all groups were more likely to endorse utilitarian outcomes in the Other perspective as compared with the Self perspective. These results provide important extensions of previous work, and the findings align with the proposal that the vmPFC is critical for reasoning about moral dilemmas in which anticipating the social-emotional consequences of an action (e.g., guilt or remorse) is crucial for normal moral judgments [Greene, J. D. Why are VMPFC patients more utilitarian?: A dual-process theory of moral judgment explains. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 322-323, 2007; Koenigs, M., Young, L., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., et al. Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgments. Nature, 446, 908-911, 2007]. PMID:20946057

  5. Harming kin to save strangers: further evidence for abnormally utilitarian moral judgments after ventromedial prefrontal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bradley C; Croft, Katie E; Tranel, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    The ventromedial PFC (vmPFC) has been implicated as a critical neural substrate mediating the influence of emotion on moral reasoning. It has been shown that the vmPFC is especially important for making moral judgments about "high-conflict" moral dilemmas involving direct personal actions, that is, scenarios that pit compelling utilitarian considerations of aggregate welfare against the highly emotionally aversive act of directly causing harm to others [Koenigs, M., Young, L., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., et al. Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgments. Nature, 446, 908-911, 2007]. The current study was designed to elucidate further the role of the vmPFC in high-conflict moral judgments, including those that involve indirect personal actions, such as indirectly causing harm to one's kin to save a group of strangers. We found that patients with vmPFC lesions were more likely than brain-damaged and healthy comparison participants to endorse utilitarian outcomes on high-conflict dilemmas regardless of whether the dilemmas (1) entailed direct versus indirect personal harms and (2) were presented from the Self versus Other perspective. In addition, all groups were more likely to endorse utilitarian outcomes in the Other perspective as compared with the Self perspective. These results provide important extensions of previous work, and the findings align with the proposal that the vmPFC is critical for reasoning about moral dilemmas in which anticipating the social-emotional consequences of an action (e.g., guilt or remorse) is crucial for normal moral judgments [Greene, J. D. Why are VMPFC patients more utilitarian?: A dual-process theory of moral judgment explains. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 322-323, 2007; Koenigs, M., Young, L., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., et al. Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgments. Nature, 446, 908-911, 2007].

  6. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David

    2004-01-01

    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  7. Making an Ethical Decision: A Utilitarian Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    By identifying and weighing the effects of an act on each constituency, a matrix based on John Stuart Mill's theories of utilitarianism illuminates and helps resolve complex ethical dilemmas. Application of the approach is illustrated with a simulated case study concerning the issue of reputation in a small private college. (Author/MSE)

  8. Are Utilitarian/Deontological Preferences Unidimensional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakasuo, Michael; Sundvall, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Utilitarian versus deontological inclinations have been studied extensively in the field of moral psychology. However, the field has been lacking a thorough psychometric evaluation of the most commonly used measures. In this paper, we examine the factorial structure of an often used set of 12 moral dilemmas purportedly measuring utilitarian/deontological moral inclinations. We ran three different studies (and a pilot) to investigate the issue. In Study 1, we used standard Exploratory Factor Analysis and Schmid-Leimann (g factor) analysis; results of which informed the a priori single-factor model for our second study. Results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Study 2 were replicated in Study 3. Finally, we ran a weak invariance analysis between the models of Study 2 and 3, concluding that there is no significant difference between factor loading in these studies. We find reason to support a single-factor model of utilitarian/deontological inclinations. In addition, certain dilemmas have consistent error covariance, suggesting that this should be taken into consideration in future studies. In conclusion, three studies, pilot and an invariance analysis, systematically suggest the following. (1) No item needs to be dropped from the scale. (2) There is a unidimensional structure for utilitarian/deontological preferences behind the most often used dilemmas in moral psychology, suggesting a single latent cognitive mechanism. (3) The most common set of dilemmas in moral psychology can be successfully used as a unidimensional measure of utilitarian/deontological moral inclinations, but would benefit from using weighted averages over simple averages. (4) Consideration should be given to dilemmas describing infants. PMID:27582721

  9. Advance Preparation in Task-Switching: Converging Evidence from Behavioral, Brain Activation, and Model-Based Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Frini Karayanidis; Sharna Jamadar; Hannes Ruge; Natalie Phillips; Andrew Heathcote; Forstmann, Birte U.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has taken advantage of the temporal and spatial resolution of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the time course and neural circuitry of preparatory processes required to switch between different tasks. Here we overview some key findings contributing to understanding strategic processes in advance preparation. Findings from these methodologies are compatible with advance preparation conceptualized as a set of proc...

  10. Speech motor program maintenance, but not switching, is enhanced by left-hemispheric deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harrison N; Kendall, Diane L; Okun, Michael S; Wu, Samuel S; Velozo, Craig; Fernandez, Hubert H; Spencer, Kristie A; Rosenbek, John C

    2010-10-01

    Speech reaction time (SRT) was measured in a response priming protocol in 12 participants with Parkinson's disease (PD) and hypokinetic dysarthria "on" and "off" left-hemispheric deep brain stimulation (DBS). Speech preparation was measured during speech motor programming in two randomly ordered speech conditions: speech maintenance and switching. Double blind testing was completed in participants with DBS of globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) (n = 5) or subthalamic nucleus (STN) (n = 7). SRT was significantly faster in the maintenance vs switch task, regardless of DBS state. SRT was faster in the speech maintenance task "on" stimulation, while there was no difference in speech switching "on" and "off" DBS. These data suggest that left-hemispheric DBS may have differential effects on aspects of speech preparation in PD. It is hypothesized that speech maintenance improvements may result from DBS-induced cortical enhancements, while the lack of difference in switching may be related to inhibition deficits mediated by the right-hemisphere. Alternatively, DBS may have little influence on the higher level motor processes (i.e., motor planning) which it is believed the switch task engaged to a greater extent than the maintenance task.

  11. Climate policy under sustainable discounted utilitarianism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Simon [London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) (United Kingdom); Asheim, Geir B. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Economics

    2011-08-15

    Empirical evaluation of policies to mitigate climate change has been largely confined to the application of discounted utilitarianism (DU). DU is controversial, both due to the conditions through which it is justified and due to its consequences for climate policies, where the discounting of future utility gains from present abatement efforts makes it harder for such measures to justify their present costs. In this paper, we propose sustainable discounted utilitarianism (SDU) as an alternative principle for evaluation of climate policy. Unlike undiscounted utilitarianism, which always assigns zero relative weight to present utility, SDU is an axiomatically based criterion, which departs from DU by assigning zero weight to present utility if and only if the present is better off than the future. Using the DICE integrated assessment model to run risk analysis, we show that it is possible for the future to be worse off than the present along a 'business as usual' development path. Consequently SDU and DU differ, and willingness to pay for emissions reductions is (sometimes significantly) higher under SDU than under DU. Under SDU, stringent schedules of emissions reductions increase social welfare, even for a relatively high utility discount rate. (orig.)

  12. Advance preparation in task-switching: converging evidence from behavioral, brain activation and model-based approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frini Karayanidis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has taken advantage of the temporal and spatial resolution of event-related brain potentials (ERPs and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to identify the time course and neural circuitry of preparatory processes required to switch between different tasks. Here we overview some key findings contributing to understanding strategic processes in advance preparation. Findings from these methodologies are compatible with advance preparation conceptualized as a set of processes activated for both switch and repeat trials, but with substantial variability as a function of individual differences and task requirements. We then highlight new approaches that attempt to capitalise on this variability to link behaviour and brain activation patterns. One approach examines correlations among behavioural, ERP and fMRI measures. A second ‘model-based’ approach accounts for differences in preparatory processes by estimating quantitative model parameters that reflect latent psychological processes. We argue that integration of behavioural and neuroscientific methodologies is key to understanding the complex nature of advance preparation in task switching.

  13. Emotional and Utilitarian Appraisals of Moral Dilemmas Are Encoded in Separate Areas and Integrated in Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcherson, Cendri A; Montaser-Kouhsari, Leila; Woodward, James; Rangel, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Moral judgment often requires making difficult tradeoffs (e.g., is it appropriate to torture to save the lives of innocents at risk?). Previous research suggests that both emotional appraisals and more deliberative utilitarian appraisals influence such judgments and that these appraisals often conflict. However, it is unclear how these different types of appraisals are represented in the brain, or how they are integrated into an overall moral judgment. We addressed these questions using an fMRI paradigm in which human subjects provide separate emotional and utilitarian appraisals for different potential actions, and then make difficult moral judgments constructed from combinations of these actions. We found that anterior cingulate, insula, and superior temporal gyrus correlated with emotional appraisals, whereas temporoparietal junction and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex correlated with utilitarian appraisals. Overall moral value judgments were represented in an anterior portion of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Critically, the pattern of responses and functional interactions between these three sets of regions are consistent with a model in which emotional and utilitarian appraisals are computed independently and in parallel, and passed to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex where they are integrated into an overall moral value judgment. Significance statement: Popular accounts of moral judgment often describe it as a battle for control between two systems, one intuitive and emotional, the other rational and utilitarian, engaged in winner-take-all inhibitory competition. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we identified distinct neural signatures of emotional and utilitarian appraisals and used them to test different models of how they compete for the control of moral behavior. Importantly, we find little support for competitive inhibition accounts. Instead, moral judgments resembled the architecture of simple economic choices: distinct regions represented emotional

  14. Ezequiel Rojas: Between Utilitarianism and Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Hurtado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Political economy played a central role in the construction of the new Republic of Colombia through the influence of Ezequiel Rojas. In his pursuit of theoretical and practical guidance to organize a new society of free individuals pledged to happiness, Rojas looked to political economy for inspiration. However, the sources that Rojas drew on did not belong to the tradition of classical political economy; he based his own approach on other, less traditional sources; namely utilitarianism and ideology. In this text I aim to reconstruct this approach, showing its tensions and contradictions and the way in which Rojas tried to address them through religion.

  15. Utilitarianism, poverty and development of disabled people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier de França, Inacia Sátiro; Freitag Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the influences of human development factors in the experience of disabled people based on social scenarios of inequality. The data collected were standardized and allocated in thematic categories. The analysis was based on liberal utilitarianism. The conclusion is that there is legislation in Brazil that guarantees the disabled people's development in areas such as health, education and work. However despite the attempts of decision makers in combating discriminatory behaviors and the theory based on equity, these people still face difficulties in breaking the barrier of poverty and achieving all humans rights deserved.

  16. Subcortical volume analysis in traumatic brain injury: the importance of the fronto-striato-thalamic circuit in task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunissen, Inge; Coxon, James P; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Michiels, Karla; Sunaert, Stefan; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2014-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with neuronal loss, diffuse axonal injury and executive dysfunction. Whereas executive dysfunction has traditionally been associated with prefrontal lesions, ample evidence suggests that those functions requiring behavioral flexibility critically depend on the interaction between frontal cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus. To test whether structural integrity of this fronto-striato-thalamic circuit can account for executive impairments in TBI we automatically segmented the thalamus, putamen and caudate of 25 patients and 21 healthy controls and obtained diffusion weighted images. We assessed components of executive function using the local-global task, which requires inhibition, updating and switching between actions. Shape analysis revealed localized atrophy of the limbic, executive and rostral-motor zones of the basal ganglia, whereas atrophy of the thalami was more global in TBI. This subcortical atrophy was related to white matter microstructural organization in TBI, suggesting that axonal injuries possibly contribute to subcortical volume loss. Global volume of the nuclei showed no clear relationship with task performance. However, the shape analysis revealed that participants with smaller volume of those subregions that have connections with the prefrontal cortex and rostral motor areas showed higher switch costs and mixing costs, and made more errors while switching. These results support the idea that flexible cognitive control over action depends on interactions within the fronto-striato-thalamic circuit.

  17. How to insure against utilitarian overconfidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses two examples of overconfident presentations of utilitarian moral conclusions. First, there is Peter Singer's widely discussed claim that if the consequences of a medical experiment are sufficiently good to justify the use of animals, then we should be prepared to perform the experiment on human beings with equivalent mental capacities. Second, I consider defences of infanticide or after-birth abortion. I do not challenge the soundness of these arguments. Rather, I accuse those who seek to translate these conclusions into moral advice of a dangerous overconfidence. This paper offers an insurance policy that protects against some of the costs of mistaken moral reasoning. An interest in moral insurance is motivated by the recognition that, in the event that overconfident ethicists have reasoned incorrectly, some actions recommended by their conclusions are not just bad, but very bad. We should reject suggestions that we conduct medical experiments on humans or kill newborns. PMID:25743048

  18. Evaluation of a 2-Channel NIRS-Based Optical Brain Switch for Motor Disabilities' Communication Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, Kazuhiko; Kido, Kunihiko

    We have developed a portable NIRS-based optical BCI system that features a non-invasive, facile probe attachment and does not require muscle movement to control the target devices. The system consists of a 2-channel probe, a signal-processing unit, and an infrared-emission device, which measures the blood volume change in the participant's prefrontal cortex in a real time. We use the threshold logic as a switching technology, which transmits a control signal to a target device when the electrical waveforms exceed the pre-defined threshold. Eight healthy volunteers participated in the experiments and they could change the television channel or control the movement of a toy robot with average switching times of 11.5±5.3s and the hit rate was 83.3%. These trials suggest that this system provides a novel communication aid for people with motor disabilities.

  19. Optimal multitrial prediction combination and subject-specific adaptation for minimal training brain switch designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, L.; Blokland, Y.M.; Farquhar, J.D.R.; Bruhn, J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface systems are traditionally designed by taking into account user-specific data to enable practical use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms have been developed which bypass the subject specific adaptation and enable rapid use of the system. A brai

  20. Switching Brains: Cloud-based Intelligent Resources Management for the Internet of Cognitive Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Francisco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive technologies can bring important benefits to our everyday life, enabling connected devices to do tasks that in the past only humans could do, leading to the Cognitive Internet of Things. Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSAN are often employed for communication between Internet objects. However, WSAN face some problems, namely sensors’ energy and CPU load consumption, which are common to other networked devices, such as mobile devices or robotic platforms. Additionally, cognitive functionalities often require large processing power, for running machine learning algorithms, computer vision processing, or behavioral and emotional architectures. Cloud massive storage capacity, large processing speeds and elasticity are appropriate to address these problems. This paper proposes a middleware that transfers flows of execution between devices and the cloud for computationally demanding applications (such as those integrating a robotic brain, to efficiently manage devices’ resources.

  1. Role of inhibition in language switching: Evidence from event-related brain potentials in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, K.M.W.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Chwilla, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    How are bilinguals able to switch from one language to another? The prevailing inhibition hypothesis takes larger reaction-time (RT) costs for switching to the first language (L1) than to the second language (L2) as evidence for suppression of the non-target language. Switch cost asymmetries can alt

  2. 'Utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas do not reflect impartial concern for the greater good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A C; Earp, Brian D; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has focused on so-called 'utilitarian' judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such 'utilitarian' judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between 'utilitarian' judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of 'utilitarian' judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that 'utilitarian' judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between 'utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in 'utilitarian' judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics.

  3. A Utilitarian Case for Intellectual Freedom in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Outlines the history of censorship and intellectual and expressive freedom in American libraries; discusses the two main types of ethical theory, utilitarianism and deontology; and maintains that libraries have a special role to play in promoting unconditional intellectual freedom. (Author/LRW)

  4. Cognitive Load Selectively Interferes with Utilitarian Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Joshua D.; Morelli, Sylvia A.; Lowenberg, Kelly; Nystrom, Leigh E.; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional theories of moral development emphasize the role of controlled cognition in mature moral judgment, while a more recent trend emphasizes intuitive and emotional processes. Here we test a dual-process theory synthesizing these perspectives. More specifically, our theory associates utilitarian moral judgment (approving of harmful actions…

  5. The Contact Principle and Utilitarian Moral Judgments in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzoni, Sandra; Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca

    2010-01-01

    In three experiments involving 207 preschoolers and 28 adults, we investigated the extent to which young children base moral judgments of actions aimed to protect others on utilitarian principles. When asked to judge the rightness of intervening to hurt one person in order to save five others, the large majority of children aged 3 to 5 years…

  6. Utilitarian Model of Measuring Confidence within Knowledge-Based Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Brady Michael; Hung, Kuan-Ming; Liu, Chia Ju; Chiu, Houn Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a utilitarian confidence testing statistic called Risk Inclination Model (RIM) which indexes all possible confidence wagering combinations within the confines of a defined symmetrically point-balanced test environment. This paper presents the theoretical underpinnings, a formal derivation, a hypothetical application, and…

  7. How L2-Learners' Brains React to Code-Switches: An ERP Study with Russian Learners of German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruigendijk, Esther; Hentschel, Gerd; Zeller, Jan Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This Event Related Potentials (ERP) study investigates auditory processing of sentences with so-called code-switches in Russian learners of German. It has often been argued that switching between two languages results in extra processing cost, although it is not completely clear yet what exactly causes these costs. ERP presents a good method to…

  8. Sensitivity of electrophysiological activity from medial frontal cortex to utilitarian and performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Yeung, Nick; Holroyd, Clay B; Schurger, Aaron; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2004-07-01

    A recent study has reported the observation in humans of an event-related brain potential component that is sensitive to the value of outcomes in a gambling task. This component, labeled medial frontal negativity (MFN), was most pronounced following monetary losses as opposed to monetary gains. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the MFN and the error-related negativity (ERN), a component elicited by feedback indicating incorrect choice performance. We argue that the two components can be understood in terms of a recently proposed theory that predicts the occurrence of such scalp negativities following stimuli that indicate that ongoing events are worse than expected. The results from two experiments using a gambling task demonstrate that the sensitivity of the MFN/ERN to the utilitarian and performance aspect of the feedback depends on which aspect is most salient. The results are consistent with the view that the two components are manifestations of the same underlying cognitive and neural process.

  9. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on a task-switching protocol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction

  10. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  11. For the greater goods? Ownership rights and utilitarian moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, J Charles; Turri, John; Friedman, Ori

    2014-10-01

    People often judge it unacceptable to directly harm a person, even when this is necessary to produce an overall positive outcome, such as saving five other lives. We demonstrate that similar judgments arise when people consider damage to owned objects. In two experiments, participants considered dilemmas where saving five inanimate objects required destroying one. Participants judged this unacceptable when it required violating another's ownership rights, but not otherwise. They also judged that sacrificing another's object was less acceptable as a means than as a side-effect; judgments did not depend on whether property damage involved personal force. These findings inform theories of moral decision-making. They show that utilitarian judgment can be decreased without physical harm to persons, and without personal force. The findings also show that the distinction between means and side-effects influences the acceptability of damaging objects, and that ownership impacts utilitarian moral judgment. PMID:24972369

  12. Religion, secular medicine and utilitarianism: a response to Biggar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin R

    2015-11-01

    Nigel Biggar has argued that religion ought to be given a seat at the negotiating table of medical ethics. I respond in broadly utilitarian terms, arguing that the flawed empirical basis, lack of rationality and non-universality inherent in religion disqualify it from ethical discourse. I conclude that while it would be unacceptable to attempt to debar religious individuals from the negotiating table, an exclusively secular approach is required for ethical decision making in medicine.

  13. Religion, secular medicine and utilitarianism: a response to Biggar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin R

    2015-11-01

    Nigel Biggar has argued that religion ought to be given a seat at the negotiating table of medical ethics. I respond in broadly utilitarian terms, arguing that the flawed empirical basis, lack of rationality and non-universality inherent in religion disqualify it from ethical discourse. I conclude that while it would be unacceptable to attempt to debar religious individuals from the negotiating table, an exclusively secular approach is required for ethical decision making in medicine. PMID:26091815

  14. Factors of Influence on the Performance of a Short-Latency Non-Invasive Brain Switch: Evidence in Healthy Individuals and Implication for Motor Function Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren eXu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfacing (BCI has recently been applied as a rehabilitation approach for patients with motor disorders, such as stroke. In these closed-loop applications, a brain switch detects the motor intention from brain signals, e.g. scalp EEG, and triggers a neuroprosthetic device, either to deliver sensory feedback or to mimic real movements, thus re-establishing the compromised sensory-motor control loop and promoting neural plasticity. In this context, single trial detection of motor intention with short latency is a prerequisite. The performance of the event detection from EEG recordings is mainly determined by three factors: the type of motor imagery (e.g., repetitive, ballistic, the frequency band (or signal modality used for discrimination (e.g., alpha, beta, gamma, and MRCP, i.e. movement-related cortical potential, and the processing technique (e.g., time-series analysis, sub-band power estimation. In this study, we investigated single trial EEG traces during movement imagination on healthy individuals, and provided a comprehensive analysis of the performance of a short-latency brain switch when varying these three factors. The morphological investigation showed a cross-subject consistency of a prolonged negative phase in MRCP, and a delayed beta rebound in sensory-motor rhythms during repetitive tasks. The detection performance had the greatest accuracy when using ballistic MRCP with time-series analysis. In this case, the true positive rate was ~70% for a detection latency of ~200 ms. The results presented here are of practical relevance for designing BCI systems for motor function rehabilitation.

  15. Moral dilemmas in females: children are more utilitarian than adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciarelli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Influential theories on moral judgments propose that they rely either on emotions or on innate moral principles. In contrast, the mental model theory postulates that moral judgments rely on reasoning, either intuition or deliberation. The theory allows for the possibility that intuitions lead to utilitarian judgments. This paper reports two experiments involving fifth-grade children, adolescents, and adults; the results revealed that children reason intuitively to resolve moral dilemmas in which action and inaction lead to different outcomes. In particular, the results showed female children to be more utilitarian than female adults in resolving classical moral dilemmas: they preferred an action that achieved a good outcome for a greater number of people. Within the mental model theory's framework there is no reason to expect that females and males differ in their ability to reason, but at the moment the results for females cannot be generalized to males who were not properly represented in the adults groups of the two experiments. The result revealing that (female) children are more utilitarian than (female) adults, which is hard to explain via many current theories, was predicted by the mental model theory. PMID:26441722

  16. Moral dilemmas in females: children are more utilitarian than adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eBucciarelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Influential theories on moral judgments propose that they rely either on emotions or on innate moral principles. In contrast, the mental model theory postulates that moral judgments rely on reasoning, either intuition or deliberation. The theory allows for the possibility that intuitions lead to utilitarian judgments. This paper reports two experiments involving fifth-grade children, adolescents, and adults; the results revealed that children reason intuitively to resolve moral dilemmas in which action and inaction lead to different outcomes. In particular, the results showed female children to be more utilitarian than female adults in resolving classical moral dilemmas: they preferred an action that achieved a good outcome for a greater number of people. Within the mental model theory’s framework there is no reason to expect that females and males differ in their ability to reason, but at the moment the results for females cannot be generalized to males who were not properly represented in the adults groups of the two experiments. The result revealing that (female children are more utilitarian than (female adults, which is hard to explain via many current theories, was predicted by the mental model theory.

  17. The Effects of Utilitarian and Hedonic Values on Young Consumers’ Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Umit BASARAN; Ozan BUYUKYILMAZ

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of utilitarian and hedonic values on young consumers’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions in fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors comparatively. Also this study investigates which value component (utilitarian or hedonic) is more effective on satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that utilitarian and hedonic values have significant effects on satisfaction and behavioral intentions for both fast-food and fas...

  18. Sidetracked by trolleys: Why sacrificial moral dilemmas tell us little (or nothing) about utilitarian judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Research into moral decision-making has been dominated by sacrificial dilemmas where, in order to save several lives, it is necessary to sacrifice the life of another person. It is widely assumed that these dilemmas draw a sharp contrast between utilitarian and deontological approaches to morality, and thereby enable us to study the psychological and neural basis of utilitarian judgment. However, it has been previously shown that some sacrificial dilemmas fail to present a genuine contrast between utilitarian and deontological options. Here, I raise deeper problems for this research paradigm. Even when sacrificial dilemmas present a contrast between utilitarian and deontological options at a philosophical level, it is misleading to interpret the responses of ordinary folk in these terms. What is currently classified as "utilitarian judgment" does not in fact share essential features of a genuine utilitarian outlook, and is better explained in terms of commonsensical moral notions. When subjects deliberate about such dilemmas, they are not deciding between opposing utilitarian and deontological solutions, but engaging in a richer process of weighing opposing moral reasons. Sacrificial dilemmas therefore tell us little about utilitarian decision-making. An alternative approach to studying proto-utilitarian tendencies in everyday moral thinking is proposed. PMID:25791902

  19. The Mismeasure of Morals: Antisocial Personality Traits Predict Utilitarian Responses to Moral Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M.; Pizarro, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have recently argued that utilitarianism is the appropriate framework by which to evaluate moral judgment, and that individuals who endorse non-utilitarian solutions to moral dilemmas (involving active vs. passive harm) are committing an error. We report a study in which participants responded to a battery of personality assessments…

  20. 16 CFR 307.9 - Requirements for disclosure on utilitarian objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advertisements for smokeless tobacco products on utilitarian objects, the warning statements required by the Act... statement, the display area for an advertisement on a utilitarian object shall be the visible area on which... specific characteristics of a smokeless tobacco product, including but not limited to any...

  1. Cognitive Control of Language Production in Bilinguals Involves a Partly Independent Process within the Domain-General Cognitive Control Network: Evidence from Task-switching and Electrical Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magezi, David A.; Khateb, Asaid; Mouthon, Michael; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    In highly proficient, early bilinguals, behavioural studies of the cost of switching language or task suggest qualitative differences between language control and domain-general cognitive control. By contrast, several neuroimaging studies have shown an overlap of the brain areas involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control.…

  2. Determination of minute amounts of D-leucine in various brain regions of rat and mouse using column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T; Hamase, K; Morikawa, A; Zaitsu, K

    2000-07-01

    A highly sensitive method for the determination of minute amounts of D-Leu in biological samples was developed. For accurate and sensitive determination, a column-switching system using a micro ODS column and a chiral column was adopted. After pre-column derivatization of D- and L-Leu with NBD-F, the derivatives of the enantiomers were purified on a micro ODS column as a DL mixture. The eluted DL-Leu was then introduced to the chiral column, and each enantiomer was determined. The calibration curve for D-Leu, which was constructed by adding known amounts of D-Leu to a rat hippocampus, was linear from 1 to 1000 fmol (r>0.999), and the detection limit of added D-Leu was 1 fmol (S/N=5). Within-day and day-to-day precisions of D-Leu determination using the same homogenate of rat hippocampus were 5.11 and 5.25% (RSD), respectively. The content of D-Leu in rat hippocampus was 0.69 nmol/g wet tissue (the percentage of D-enantiomer for total Leu was 0.97%), which was consistent with the reported value. The distribution of D-Leu in mouse brain was also investigated, and the presence of D-Leu in various regions of the mammalian brain was first observed. PMID:10985585

  3. Target-Triggered Switching on and off the Luminescence of Lanthanide Coordination Polymer Nanoparticles for Selective and Sensitive Sensing of Copper Ions in Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pengcheng; Wu, Fangying; Mao, Lanqun

    2015-07-01

    Copper ions (Cu(2+)) in the central nervous system play a crucial role in the physiological and pathological events, so simple, selective, and sensitive detection of cerebral Cu(2+) is of great importance. In this work, we report a facile yet effective fluorescent method for sensing of Cu(2+) in rat brain using one kind of lanthanide coordination polymer nanoparticle, adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and terbium ion (Tb(3+)), i.e., AMP-Tb, as the sensing platform. Initially, a cofactor ligand, 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SSA), as the sensitizer, was introduced into the nonluminescent AMP-Tb suspension, resulting in switching on the luminescence of AMP-Tb by the removal of coordinating water molecules and concomitant energy transfer from SSA to Tb(3+). The subsequent addition of Cu(2+) into the resulting SSA/AMP-Tb can strongly quench the fluorescence because the specific coordination interaction between SSA and Cu(2+) rendered energy transfer from SSA to Tb(3+) inefficient. The decrease ratio of the fluorescence intensities of SSA/AMP-Tb at 550 nm show a linear relationship for Cu(2+) within the concentration range from 1.5 to 24 μM with a detection limit of 300 nM. The method demonstrated here is highly selective and is free from the interference of metal ions, amino acids, and the biological species commonly existing in the brain such as dopamine, lactate, and glucose. Eventually, by combining the microdialysis technique, the present method has been successfully applied in the detection of cerebral Cu(2+) in rat brain with the basal dialysate level of 1.91 ± 0.40 μM (n = 3). This method is very promising to be used for investigating the physiological and pathological events that cerebral Cu(2+) participates in.

  4. Deontological and utilitarian inclinations in moral decision making: a process dissociation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Paul; Gawronski, Bertram

    2013-02-01

    Dual-process theories of moral judgment suggest that responses to moral dilemmas are guided by two moral principles: the principle of deontology states that the morality of an action depends on the intrinsic nature of the action (e.g., harming others is wrong regardless of its consequences); the principle of utilitarianism implies that the morality of an action is determined by its consequences (e.g., harming others is acceptable if it increases the well-being of a greater number of people). Despite the proposed independence of the moral inclinations reflecting these principles, previous work has relied on operationalizations in which stronger inclinations of one kind imply weaker inclinations of the other kind. The current research applied Jacoby's (1991) process dissociation procedure to independently quantify the strength of deontological and utilitarian inclinations within individuals. Study 1 confirmed the usefulness of process dissociation for capturing individual differences in deontological and utilitarian inclinations, revealing positive correlations of both inclinations to moral identity. Moreover, deontological inclinations were uniquely related to empathic concern, perspective-taking, and religiosity, whereas utilitarian inclinations were uniquely related to need for cognition. Study 2 demonstrated that cognitive load selectively reduced utilitarian inclinations, with deontological inclinations being unaffected. In Study 3, a manipulation designed to enhance empathy increased deontological inclinations, with utilitarian inclinations being unaffected. These findings provide evidence for the independent contributions of deontological and utilitarian inclinations to moral judgments, resolving many theoretical ambiguities implied by previous research. PMID:23276267

  5. Cyberpiracy and morality: Some utilitarian and deontological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančić Željko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses one of the main problems of our time in the world of Internet – cyber piracy. It is often said that it is illegal, since pirates who practice it violate certain domestic and international laws. When we ask for justification of this laws and their enforcement, philosophers and legalists usually apply to one of the two sorts of philosophical arguments - deontology and utilitarianism. The former think that piracy is immoral in itself, while the others argue it should be prevented, otherwise it will produce very bad consequences for society sooner or later, and thus diminish the overall happiness of the society. It will be shown, howe­ver, that both of these arguments, when closely considered, fail with their intention, and, if we decide to follow them, we actually arrive to the very opposite conclusion - piracy is justified.

  6. Pengaruh Nilai Simbolis dan Utilitarian Persepsian pada Sikap Konsumen dan Niat Beli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Rita

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Brand makes easier consumer to take efficiently purchase decision about the product. Consumer choices product or brand are driven by utilitarian and hedonic considerations. The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of perceived symbolic value and utilitarian value on consumer attitudes toward brand and purchase intentions. The respondents in this study are university students in Yogyakarta. Sampling technique used was purposive sampling. There are only 235 respondents among 400 questioners whom can be used as samples. Validity and reliability testing were conducted in order to figure out the validity rate and data reliability. The data were analyzed by using Regression Analysis. The results provide support for seven of the eight hypothesized. The results provide that symbolic value and utilitarian value as two different value but related. The results show that symbolic value and utilitarian value have a positive impact on consumer attitudes toward brand and purchase intentions. 

  7. The Effects of Utilitarian and Hedonic Values on Young Consumers’ Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit BASARAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of utilitarian and hedonic values on young consumers’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions in fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors comparatively. Also this study investigates which value component (utilitarian or hedonic is more effective on satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that utilitarian and hedonic values have significant effects on satisfaction and behavioral intentions for both fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors. Additionally, satisfaction has an influence on behavioral intentions in fast-food restaurant sector, but does not have a significant effect in fast-casual restaurant sector. Moreover, associations between hedonic value with satisfaction and behavioral intentions are significantly different between fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors. On the other hand, associations between utilitarian value with satisfaction and behavioral intentions and association between satisfactions with behavioral intentions are not significantly different between fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors.

  8. Modeling spatial segregation and travel cost influences on utilitarian walking: Towards policy intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yong; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Daniel G Brown; Riolo, Rick; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    We develop an agent-based model of utilitarian walking and use the model to explore spatial and socioeconomic factors affecting adult utilitarian walking and how travel costs as well as various educational interventions aimed at changing attitudes can alter the prevalence of walking and income differentials in walking. The model is validated against US national data. We contrast realistic and extreme parameter values in our model and test effects of changing these parameters across various se...

  9. Utilitarian cycling in Belgium: a cross-sectional study in a sample of regular cyclists.

    OpenAIRE

    de Geus, B.; Degraeuwe, B.; Vandenbulcke, G.; Int Panis, Luc; I Thomas; Aertsens, Joris; De Weerdt, Y.; Torfs, R; Meeusen, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: For an accurate estimation of health benefits and hazards of utilitarian cycling, a prospective collection of bicycle usage data (exposure) is fundamental. Individual and environmental correlates are necessary to guide health promotion and traffic safety issues. Firstly, this study aims to report on utilitarian bicycle usage in Belgium, using a prospective data collection in regular adult commuter cyclists. Secondly, the association is explored between the individual variation in ...

  10. Hedonic and Utilitarian Shopper Types in Evolved and Created Retail Agglomerations

    OpenAIRE

    Teller, C; Reutterer, T; Schnedlitz, P

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of hedonic and utilitarian values of shopping on retail agglomeration patronage issues, in particular on the shopping behaviour and the perception of retail agglomerations. Our empirical study is based on a discussion of agglomerations’ potential to attract utilitarian and hedonic shopper types. A sample of 2,139 customers were interviewed in a peripheral shopping mall and an inner city shopping street and confronted with a multi-item scale operationalising sh...

  11. Dignity and cost-effectiveness: a rejection of the utilitarian approach to death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S A

    1984-09-01

    Utilitarianism is commonly assumed to be the most appropriate sub-structure for medical ethics. This view is challenged. It is suggested that the utilitarian approach to euthanasia works against the patient's individual advantage and is a corrupting influence in the relationship between the physician and society. Dignity for the individual patient is not easily achieved by assessing that person's worth against the yardstick of others' needs and wishes.

  12. Paternalism and utilitarianism in research with human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2015-03-01

    In this article I defend a rule utilitarian approach to paternalistic policies in research with human participants. Some rules that restrict individual autonomy can be justified on the grounds that they help to maximize the overall balance of benefits over risks in research. The consequences that should be considered when formulating policy include not only likely impacts on research participants, but also impacts on investigators, institutions, sponsors, and the scientific community. The public reaction to adverse events in research (such as significant injury to participants or death) is a crucial concern that must be taken into account when assessing the consequences of different policy options, because public backlash can lead to outcomes that have a negative impact on science, such as cuts in funding, overly restrictive regulation and oversight, and reduced willingness of individuals to participate in research. I argue that concern about the public reaction to adverse events justifies some restrictions on the risks that competent, adult volunteers can face in research that offers them no significant benefits. The paternalism defended here is not pure, because it involves restrictions on the rights of investigators in order to protect participants. It also has a mixed rationale, because individual autonomy may be restricted not only to protect participants from harm but also to protect other stakeholders. Utility is not the sole justification for paternalistic research policies, since other considerations, such as justice and respect for individual rights/autonomy, must also be taken into account.

  13. Variations in Community Prevalence and Determinants of Recreational and Utilitarian Walking in Older Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Leveille, Suzanne G; Hannan, Marian T; Cheng, Jie; Kane, Kevin; Li, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Background. Regular walking is critical to maintaining health in older age. We examined influences of individual and community factors on walking habits in older adults. Methods. We analyzed walking habits among participants of a prospective cohort study of 745 community-dwelling men and women, mainly aged 70 years or older. We estimated community variations in utilitarian and recreational walking, and examined whether the variations were attributable to community differences in individual and environmental factors. Results. Prevalence of recreational walking was relatively uniform while prevalence of utilitarian walking varied across the 16 communities in the study area. Both types of walking were associated with individual health and physical abilities. However, utilitarian walking was also strongly associated with several measures of neighborhood socioeconomic status and access to amenities while recreational walking was not. Conclusions. Utilitarian walking is strongly influenced by neighborhood environment, but intrinsic factors may be more important for recreational walking. Communities with the highest overall walking prevalence were those with the most utilitarian walkers. Public health promotion of regular walking should take this into account. PMID:26339507

  14. Pseudospark switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pseudospark discharge is bound to a geometrical structure which is particularly well suited for switching high currents and voltages at high power levels. This type of discharge offers the potential for improvement in essentially all areas of switching operation: peak current and current density, current rise, stand-off voltage, reverse current capability, cathode life, and forward drop. The first pseudospark switch was built at CERN at 1981. Since then, the basic switching characteristics of pseudospark chambers have been studied in detail. The main feature of a pseudospark switch is the confinement of the discharge plasma to the device axis. The current transition to the hollow electrodes is spread over a rather large surface area. Another essential feature is the easy and precise triggering of the pseudospark switch from the interior of the hollow electrodes, relatively far from the main discharge gap. Nanosecond delay and jitter values can be achieved with trigger energies of less than 0.1 mJ, although cathode heating is not required. Pseudospark gaps may cover a wide range of high-voltage, high-current, and high-pulse-power switching at repetition rates of many kilohertz. This report reviews the basic researh on pseudospark switches which has been going on at CERN. So far, applications have been developed in the range of thyratron-like medium-power switches at typically 20 to 40 kV and 0.5 to 10 kA. High-current pseudospark switches have been built for a high-power 20 kJ pulse generator which is being used for long-term tests of plasma lenses developed for the future CERN Antiproton Collector (ACOL). The high-current switches have operated for several hundred thousand shots, with 20 to 50 ns jitter at 16 kV charging voltage and more than 100 kA peak current amplitude. (orig.)

  15. Efficient Kill-Save Ratios Ease Up the Cognitive Demands on Counterintuitive Moral Utilitarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémolière, Bastien; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2014-04-10

    The dual-process model of moral judgment postulates that utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas (e.g., accepting to kill one to save five) are demanding of cognitive resources. Here we show that utilitarian responses can become effortless, even when they involve to kill someone, as long as the kill-save ratio is efficient (e.g., 1 is killed to save 500). In Experiment 1, participants responded to moral dilemmas featuring different kill-save ratios under high or low cognitive load. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants responded at their own pace or under time pressure. Efficient kill-save ratios promoted utilitarian responding and neutered the effect of load or time pressure. We discuss whether this effect is more easily explained by a parallel-activation model or by a default-interventionist model.

  16. Internet usage purposes and gender differences in the effects of perceived utilitarian and hedonic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Edward Shih-Tse

    2010-04-01

    Previous research on both hedonic and utilitarian value has focused considerable effort on outcomes. Few studies compare the impact of Internet usage purposes and gender differences on perceived value effect. The current study explores whether differences in the relative influence of hedonic and utilitarian value affect consumer information search and shopping intentions on the Internet. This study also compares perceived value impact on behavioral intention among respondents in regard to gender. This research uses structural equation modeling of survey data (N = 341). Results show that perceived hedonic and utilitarian value have significantly different effect on information search and shopping intention through the Internet. Hedonic values have positively higher association with customer intention to buy than with intent to search information. Findings also show that hedonic values influence male user intentions to search information but do not influence females. This work presents a theoretical discussion and implications based on the results for the benefit of online practitioners. PMID:20528275

  17. CIRCUIT SWITCHING VERSUS PACKET SWITCHING

    OpenAIRE

    Sneps-Sneppe, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Communication specialists around the world are facing the same problem: shifting from circuit switching (CS) to packet switching (CS). Communication service providers are favoring “All-over-IP” technologies hoping to boost their profits by providing multimedia services. The main stakeholder in this field of the paradigm shift is the industry itself: packet switching hardware manufacturers are going to earn billions of dollars and thus pay engineers and journalists many millions for the promot...

  18. Optical switches and switching methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doty, Michael

    2008-03-04

    A device and method for collecting subject responses, particularly during magnetic imaging experiments and testing using a method such as functional MRI. The device comprises a non-metallic input device which is coupled via fiber optic cables to a computer or other data collection device. One or more optical switches transmit the subject's responses. The input device keeps the subject's fingers comfortably aligned with the switches by partially immobilizing the forearm, wrist, and/or hand of the subject. Also a robust nonmetallic switch, particularly for use with the input device and methods for optical switching.

  19. Cold or Calculating? Reduced Activity in the Subgenual Cingulate Cortex Reflects Decreased Emotional Aversion to Harming in Counterintuitive Utilitarian Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiech, Katja; Kahane, Guy; Shackel, Nicholas; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian; Tracey, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on moral decision-making has suggested that many common moral judgments are based on immediate intuitions. However, some individuals arrive at highly counterintuitive utilitarian conclusions about when it is permissible to harm other individuals. Such utilitarian judgments have been attributed to effortful reasoning that has…

  20. Aesthetic and Utilitarian Qualities of Clothing: Use of a Multidimensional Clothing Value Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganosky, Michelle

    1984-01-01

    This study investigated consumers' valuation of clothing on the basis of aesthetic and utilitarian qualities. Findings indicated that subjects were willing to pay the most for high aesthetic items regardless of utility and the least for low aesthetic, low utility items. (JB)

  1. Ethics under uncertainty: the morality and appropriateness of utilitarianism when outcomes are uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, Katherine V; Moore, Colleen F

    2014-01-01

    Real-life moral dilemmas inevitably involve uncertainty, yet research has not considered how uncertainty affects utilitarian moral judgments. In addition, even though moral dilemma researchers regularly ask respondents, "What is appropriate?" but interpret it to mean, "What is moral?," little research has examined whether a difference exists between asking these 2 types of questions. In this study, 140 college students read moral dilemmas that contained certain or uncertain consequences and then responded as to whether it was appropriate and whether it was moral to kill 1 to save many (a utilitarian choice). Ratings of the appropriateness and morality of the utilitarian choice were lower under uncertainty than certainty. A follow-up experiment found that these results could not be explained entirely by a change in the expected values of the outcomes or a desire to avoid the worst-case scenario. In addition, the utilitarian choice to kill 1 to save many was rated as more appropriate than moral. The results imply that moral decision making may depend critically on whether uncertainties in outcomes are admitted and whether people are asked about appropriateness or morality.

  2. Relating Teachers' Whistleblowing Tendency and Personal Features: Machiavellianism, Religiosity, and Utilitarianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Asiye Toker

    2015-01-01

    This study examines relationships between religiosity and value orientation of teachers, and preference for whistleblowing modes. Three hypotheses were developed, and tested related to the relationships between utilitarianism, religiosity, Machiavellianism and preference for various forms of whistleblowing. To analyse the data obtained from a…

  3. Cosmopolitan Utilitarianism and the Problem of Local Inaction in a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Corvino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of the public acceptability of political inaction as an extreme consequence of cosmopolitan utilitarianism. The case of political inaction as the utility-maximizing public policy option emerges more clearly in the globalized world, because of a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the consequences of a given policy. In this context, a situation can easily occur in which the only way to maximize utility in a global context is by renouncing action at the national or local level. However, the problem of inaction should not be interpreted simply as a by-product of globalization. Its origins can be traced to the basic structure of utilitarianism as a normative consequentialist theory. This drawback can even present itself at the local level in a less visible form. One example is that in which the performance of a supererogatory act in the exercise of public office leads to a reduction in overall utility. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that cosmopolitan utilitarianism can bind the decision maker to a series of inactions at the global and local levels that contradict his own mandate, generating a dangerous moral confusion in the implementation of public policies. This can seriously threaten the universal applicability of cosmopolitan utilitarianism as a normative political theory, especially in the age of globalization.

  4. For whom do the ends justify the means? Social class and utilitarian moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Stéphane; Piff, Paul K; Willer, Robb

    2013-03-01

    Though scholars have speculated for centuries on links between individuals' social class standing and approach to moral reasoning, little systematic research exists on how class and morality are associated. Here, we investigate whether the tendency of upper-class individuals to exhibit reduced empathy makes them more likely to resist intuitionist options in moral dilemmas, instead favoring utilitarian choices that maximize the greatest good for the greatest number. In Study 1, upper-class participants were more likely than lower-class participants to choose the utilitarian option in the footbridge dilemma, which evokes relatively strong moral intuitions, but not in the standard trolley dilemma, which evokes relatively weak moral intuitions. In Study 2, upper-class participants were more likely to take resources from one person to benefit several others in an allocation task, and this association was explained by their lower empathy for the person whose resources were taken. Finally, in Study 3, the association between social class and utilitarian judgment was reduced in a condition in which empathy was induced, but not in a control condition, suggesting that reduced empathy helps account for the utilitarianism of upper-class individuals.

  5. How does the seasonality influence utilitarian walking behaviour in different urbanization settings in Scotland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinhyun

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between the built environment and walking has been analyzed for decades. However, the seasonality effects on the relationship between the built environment and walking have not been well examined even though weather is one of the key determinants of walking. Therefore, this study used 2007-8 Scottish Household Survey data collected over two years and estimated the interaction effects between the urbanization setting (i.e., residential locations: urban, town and rural areas) and seasons (i.e., spring, summer, autumn and winter) on walking. Scottish Urban-rural classification scheme is measured based on the population and access to large cities, and used as a key independent variable. The number of walking days for specific purposes such as work or shopping (utilitarian walking) during the past 7 days is used as a dependent variable. The results show that there are significant geographical variations of seasonality effect on utilitarian walking. That is, people living in rural areas are more sensitive to seasonality impacts than those living in urban areas. In addition, we found that the association between urbanization setting and utilitarian walking varies across seasons, indicating that their relationship can be miss-estimated if we ignore the seasonality effects. Therefore, policy makers and practitioners should consider the seasonality effects to evaluate the effectiveness of land use policy correctly. Finally, we still find the significant association between the urbanization setting and utilitarian walking behaviour with the consideration of seasonality effects, supporting the claim of New Urbanism. PMID:27352289

  6. Divergent roles of autistic and alexithymic traits in utilitarian moral judgments in adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Indrajeet; Melsbach, Jens; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Silani, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated hypothetical moral choices in adults with high-functioning autism and the role of empathy and alexithymia in such choices. We used a highly emotionally salient moral dilemma task to investigate autistics' hypothetical moral evaluations about personally carrying out harmful utilitarian behaviours aimed at maximizing welfare. Results showed that they exhibited a normal pattern of moral judgments despite the deficits in social cognition and emotional processing. Further analyses revealed that this was due to mutually conflicting biases associated with autistic and alexithymic traits after accounting for shared variance: (a) autistic traits were associated with reduced utilitarian bias due to elevated personal distress of demanding social situations, while (b) alexithymic traits were associated with increased utilitarian bias on account of reduced empathic concern for the victim. Additionally, autistics relied on their non-verbal reasoning skills to rigidly abide by harm-norms. Thus, utilitarian moral judgments in autism were spared due to opposite influences of autistic and alexithymic traits and compensatory intellectual strategies. These findings demonstrate the importance of empathy and alexithymia in autistic moral cognition and have methodological implications for studying moral judgments in several other clinical populations. PMID:27020307

  7. Moving beyond Utilitarian Perspectives of Infant Participation in Participatory Research: Film-Mediated Research Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwick, Sheena; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on Thomas, Whybrow and Scharber's four participatory perspectives, this paper describes and complicates endeavours to move beyond utilitarian perspectives of infant participation in participatory research. It proposes that film-mediated encounters between researchers and infants have the potential to be more than sites that privilege…

  8. The problems with utilitarian conceptions of personhood in the abortion debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel R A

    2011-05-01

    This article seeks to explore utilitarian conceptions of personhood which for a long time have been employed as part of a rational moral justification for the termination of pregnancy. Michael Tooley's desires-based rights approach to personhood presented in his work Abortion and Infanticide is considered and, it is argued, is found wanting when one considers unconscious adults and their ability to desire life. This article will offer that unconscious sleeping individuals only have the potential to regain the capacity to value their own life and, as such, under Tooley's formula for personhood, temporarily lose their status as a person. Following this, John Harris's utilitarian views on the status of the sleeping adult will be considered and deconstructed to show that, like Tooley, his ascription for personhood falls down at the sleeping adult. This article illustrates that utilitarian conceptions of personhood leave the sleeping adult human devoid of the rights of a person and hence render the value of this consquentialist theory, with regard to the idea of personhood, in severe doubt. The paper argues that utilitarian conceptions of personhood do little more than obstruct the worthy debate over the morality of abortion. PMID:21270065

  9. The Value of a Utilitarian Curriculum: The Case of Technological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ron

    1997-01-01

    Narrow conceptions of human development and the purposes of schooling tend to displace rather than situate subjects like technology in the curriculum. Understanding how a utilitarian curriculum spawns real human development and learning gives a new perspective to curriculum theory and practice. (Author/AEF)

  10. Mortality Salience and Morality: Thinking about Death Makes People Less Utilitarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremoliere, Bastien; De Neys, Wim; Bonnefon, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    According to the dual-process model of moral judgment, utilitarian responses to moral conflict draw on limited cognitive resources. Terror Management Theory, in parallel, postulates that mortality salience mobilizes these resources to suppress thoughts of death out of focal attention. Consequently, we predicted that individuals under mortality…

  11. Utilitarianism and the measurement and aggregation of quality--adjusted life years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, P

    2001-01-01

    It is widely accepted that one of the main objectives of government expenditure on health care is to generate health. Since health is a function of both length of life and quality of life, the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) has been developed in an attempt to combine the value of these attributes into a single index number. The QALY approach--and particularly the decision rule that health care resources should be allocated so as to maximise the number of QALYs generated--has often been equated with the utilitarian philosophy of maximising 'the greatest happiness of the greatest number'. This paper considers the extent to which the measurement and aggregation of QALYs really is utilitarian by developing a new taxonomy in order to classify utilitarianism and the different aspects of the QALY approach. It is shown that the measurement of QALYs is consistent with a number of different moral positions and that QALYs do not have to be aggregated according to the maximisation rule. Therefore it is inappropriate to necessarily equate QALYs with utilitarianism. It is shown that much turns on what in principle the QALY represents and how in practice it can be operationalised. The paper highlights the category confusion that is often present here and suggests possible avenues for future theoretical and empirical research.

  12. Can Suicide Be Ethical? A Utilitarian Perspective on the Appropriateness of Choosing to Die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David B.

    2006-01-01

    In his article in the current issue of Death Studies, "Can Suicide be a Good Death?" David Lester argues that each person should determine whether suicide is appropriate for him or her in relative isolation from the opinions of others. In the present article, I use a utilitarian ethical perspective to critique this assertion. According to…

  13. Developing Moral Sport Policies Through Act-Utilitarianism Based on Bentham’s Hedonic Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT C. SCHNEIDER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Moral policy can be developed and maintained in sport organizations through an approach that incorporates act-utilitarianism (AU based on Jeremy Bentham’s hedonic calculus (HC. Sport managers’ effective application of AU based on HC takes on the form of a holistic approach to moral policy development and maintenance and requires an under-standing of the parts and process of a strict adherence to AU based on HC. The traits of common sense, habits, and past experience are supported by the utilitarian views held by Bentham and Mill to accurately predict happiness and un-happiness that result from actions (Beauchamp, 1982 and are also necessary to drive a holistic approach of AU based on HC that develops and maintains moral policy in sport organizations.

  14. ROLE OF DEMANDING CUSTOMER: THE INFLUENCE OF UTILITARIAN AND HEDONIC VALUES ON LOYALTY CUSTOMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwanto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine and analyze the influence of Utilitarian Value, Hedonic Value on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty with Demanding Customers Moderation among customers of Modern Café in Surabaya. This study was conducted at the modern coffee bar (coffee shop customers in Surabaya. In accordance with the data obtained from the Department of Tourism Surabaya, there are 14 modern coffee shop with 41 stands scattered in Surabaya. Sample used in this study is modern coffee bar customers (coffee shop in Surabaya that is 600 persons, sampling techniques is using non -probability sampling, that is with accidental sampling that encountered by the researcher while visiting modern coffee shop and the determination of respondents numbers in each shop coffee is determined by using percentage based on the number of coffee shops in Surabaya. Techniques of analysis in this study is using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM with AMOS 19 program. The conclusion of this study result are : t utilitarian value does not have significant influence on customer satisfaction at the modern coffee shop. Hedonic value has significant influence on customer satisfaction in a modern coffee shop. Demanding customer does not moderate the influence of utilitarian value on customer's satisfaction at the modern coffee shop. Demanding customers moderates the influence of hedonic value on customer satisfaction in a modern coffee shop. Satisfaction significantly influence customer loyalty of modern coffee shop. Utilitarian value has no significant influence on customer loyalty in modern coffee shop. Hedonic value has significant influence on customer loyalty in modern coffee shop.

  15. ROLE OF DEMANDING CUSTOMER: THE INFLUENCE OF UTILITARIAN AND HEDONIC VALUES ON LOYALTY CUSTOMER

    OpenAIRE

    Purwanto; Kuswandi; Sunjoto

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine and analyze the influence of Utilitarian Value, Hedonic Value on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty with Demanding Customers Moderation among customers of Modern Café in Surabaya. This study was conducted at the modern coffee bar (coffee shop) customers in Surabaya. In accordance with the data obtained from the Department of Tourism Surabaya, there are 14 modern coffee shop with 41 stands scattered in Surabaya. Sample used in this study is modern coffe...

  16. Implications of hedonic and utilitarian information search and social media browsing on purchase value

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmikko, Sakari

    2011-01-01

    Information search has become increasingly more efficient and manageable for consumers through the development of the Internet. This has also impacted the way consumers search for information and how the search affects purchasing decisions. The purpose of this research is to examine the way consumers use hedonic and utilitarian information search to search for electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) and how this affects their web browsing habits. This is reflected upon the purchase value of over 1600...

  17. ECONOMIC-UTILITARIAN AND SPIRITUAL-EXISTENTIAL BASES OF FOSTERING ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS IN MOUNTAIN DWELLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Moskalets

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article high lights the psychology economic-utilitarian motivation in mountain dwellers to care for nature as a basic resource in their recreation and relaxation activities – the main means of promoting the social and economic growth of mountain areas. Such motivation provides a psychological foundation for the spiritual-existential bases of ecological culture in mountain areas as well as in all natural climatic regions having recreation, relaxation, and health care potentials.

  18. Atypical moral judgment following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Muresan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown an association between emotions, particularly social emotions, and moral judgments. Some studies suggested an association between blunted emotion and the utilitarian moral judgments observed in patients with prefrontal lesions. In order to investigate how prefrontal brain damage affects moral judgment, we asked a sample of 29 TBI patients (12 females and 17 males and 41 healthy participants (16 females and 25 males to judge 22 hypothetical dilemmas split into three different categories (non-moral, impersonal and personal moral. The TBI group presented a higher proportion of affirmative (utilitarian responses for personal moral dilemmas when compared to controls, suggesting an atypical pattern of utilitarian judgements. We also found a negative association between the performance on recognition of social emotions and the proportion of affirmative responses on personal moral dilemmas. These results suggested that the preference for utilitarian responses in this type of dilemmas is accompanied by difficulties in social emotion recognition. Overall, our findings suggest that deontological moral judgments are associated with normal social emotion processing and that frontal lobe plays an important role in both emotion and moral judgment.

  19. Reduced empathic concern leads to utilitarian moral judgments in trait alexithymia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajeet ePatil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research with moral dilemmas supports dual-process model of moral decision making. This model posits two different paths via which people can endorse utilitarian solution that requires personally harming someone in order to achieve the greater good (e.g., killing one to save five people: (i weakened emotional aversion to the prospect of harming someone due to reduced empathic concern for the victim; (ii enhanced cognition which supports cost-benefit analysis and countervails the prepotent emotional aversion to harm. Direct prediction of this model would be that personality traits associated with reduced empathy would show higher propensity to endorse utilitarian solutions. As per this prediction, we found that trait alexithymia, which is well-known to have deficits in empathy, was indeed associated with increased utilitarian tendencies on emotionally aversive personal moral dilemmas and this was due to reduced empathic concern for the victim. Results underscore the importance of empathy for moral judgments in harm/care domain of morality.

  20. Impacts of Utilitarian and Hedonistic Values of Online Shopping on Preferences and Intentions of Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Nili

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Given to the ever-increasing development of human societies and necessity of productivity increase in all daily activities, using electronic systems is unavoidable. This is true about the process of shopping and utilizing electronic methods especially internet is increasing day by day. The present survey was formed through the intentions variable as the dependent variable, utilitarian and hedonistic values as independent variables and preferences as the mediating variable. Students of the Islamic Azad University, Tehran Science and Research branch were the statistical population and three-hundred seventy nine persons were selected using stratified random sampling proportional to the sample volume.Obtained results of testing hypotheses through structural equations model using SPSS and PLS software (statistical analysis reveal that judgments about hedonistic and utilitarian values have a significant relationship with preferences. Also preferences have a significant relationship with future shopping intentions. Generally it can be argued that judgments of hedonistic and utilitarian values have a direct impact on preferences in online retailers and thus on future shopping intentions.

  1. Neuromorphic atomic switch networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius V Avizienis

    Full Text Available Efforts to emulate the formidable information processing capabilities of the brain through neuromorphic engineering have been bolstered by recent progress in the fabrication of nonlinear, nanoscale circuit elements that exhibit synapse-like operational characteristics. However, conventional fabrication techniques are unable to efficiently generate structures with the highly complex interconnectivity found in biological neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the physical realization of a self-assembled neuromorphic device which implements basic concepts of systems neuroscience through a hardware-based platform comprised of over a billion interconnected atomic-switch inorganic synapses embedded in a complex network of silver nanowires. Observations of network activation and passive harmonic generation demonstrate a collective response to input stimulus in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Further, emergent behaviors unique to the complex network of atomic switches and akin to brain function are observed, namely spatially distributed memory, recurrent dynamics and the activation of feedforward subnetworks. These devices display the functional characteristics required for implementing unconventional, biologically and neurally inspired computational methodologies in a synthetic experimental system.

  2. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. Some children experience bedwetting, night terrors, or sleepwalking during deep sleep. When we switch into REM ... stimulate some parts of the brain and can cause insomnia, or an inability to sleep. Many antidepressants ...

  3. Importance of Managing for Personal Benefits, Hedonic and Utilitarian Motivations, and Place Attachment at an Urban Natural Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budruk, Megha; Lee, Woojin

    2016-09-01

    Research on antecedents of place attachment suggests that the special bonds people form with nature are influenced by a number of variables. This study examines associations between the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits, motivations, and place attachment among outdoor recreationists at an urban natural setting. Motivation was conceptualized as two-dimensional (Hedonic and Utilitarian) borrowed from the retail and consumer marketing field and previously unused in a natural resource recreation context. Hedonic and utilitarian motivations represent the experiential and functional dimensions of motivation, respectively. Relationships between the noted variables were examined through structural equation modeling. Data from an onsite survey of 219 users indicated that it was important the resource be managed to provide greater freedom from urban living as well as improved mental well-being. Furthermore, respondents exhibited moderate levels of hedonic and utilitarian motivations as well as attachment to the resource. The structural equation analysis resulted in a good fitting model with several significant relationships emerging. Among these, the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits positively influenced hedonic and utilitarian motivations. In addition, hedonic motivations positively influenced place attachment development, whereas utilitarian motivations did not. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27370096

  4. Importance of Managing for Personal Benefits, Hedonic and Utilitarian Motivations, and Place Attachment at an Urban Natural Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budruk, Megha; Lee, Woojin

    2016-09-01

    Research on antecedents of place attachment suggests that the special bonds people form with nature are influenced by a number of variables. This study examines associations between the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits, motivations, and place attachment among outdoor recreationists at an urban natural setting. Motivation was conceptualized as two-dimensional (Hedonic and Utilitarian) borrowed from the retail and consumer marketing field and previously unused in a natural resource recreation context. Hedonic and utilitarian motivations represent the experiential and functional dimensions of motivation, respectively. Relationships between the noted variables were examined through structural equation modeling. Data from an onsite survey of 219 users indicated that it was important the resource be managed to provide greater freedom from urban living as well as improved mental well-being. Furthermore, respondents exhibited moderate levels of hedonic and utilitarian motivations as well as attachment to the resource. The structural equation analysis resulted in a good fitting model with several significant relationships emerging. Among these, the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits positively influenced hedonic and utilitarian motivations. In addition, hedonic motivations positively influenced place attachment development, whereas utilitarian motivations did not. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Nanoelectromechanical contact switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Owen Y.; Espinosa, Horacio D.

    2012-05-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switches are similar to conventional semiconductor switches in that they can be used as relays, transistors, logic devices and sensors. However, the operating principles of NEM switches and semiconductor switches are fundamentally different. These differences give NEM switches an advantage over semiconductor switches in some applications -- for example, NEM switches perform much better in extreme environments -- but semiconductor switches benefit from a much superior manufacturing infrastructure. Here we review the potential of NEM-switch technologies to complement or selectively replace conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology, and identify the challenges involved in the large-scale manufacture of a representative set of NEM-based devices.

  6. Does plant species richness guarantee the resilience of local medical systems? A perspective from utilitarian redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Flávia Rosa; Ferreira Júnior, Washington Soares; Araújo, Thiago Antônio de Souza; Ladio, Ana Haydée; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is related to the ability of a system to adjust to disturbances. The Utilitarian Redundancy Model has emerged as a tool for investigating the resilience of local medical systems. The model determines the use of species richness for the same therapeutic function as a facilitator of the maintenance of these systems. However, predictions generated from this model have not yet been tested, and a lack of variables exists for deeper analyses of resilience. This study aims to address gaps in the Utilitarian Redundancy Model and to investigate the resilience of two medical systems in the Brazilian semi-arid zone. As a local illness is not always perceived in the same way that biomedicine recognizes, the term "therapeutic targets" is used for perceived illnesses. Semi-structured interviews with local experts were conducted using the free-listing technique to collect data on known medicinal plants, usage preferences, use of redundant species, characteristics of therapeutic targets, and the perceived severity for each target. Additionally, participatory workshops were conducted to determine the frequency of targets. The medical systems showed high species richness but low levels of species redundancy. However, if redundancy was present, it was the primary factor responsible for the maintenance of system functions. Species richness was positively associated with therapeutic target frequencies and negatively related to target severity. Moreover, information about redundant species seems to be largely idiosyncratic; this finding raises questions about the importance of redundancy for resilience. We stress the Utilitarian Redundancy Model as an interesting tool to be used in studies of resilience, but we emphasize that it must consider the distribution of redundancy in terms of the treatment of important illnesses and the sharing of information. This study has identified aspects of the higher and lower vulnerabilities of medical systems, adding variables that should be

  7. Does plant species richness guarantee the resilience of local medical systems? A perspective from utilitarian redundancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rosa Santoro

    Full Text Available Resilience is related to the ability of a system to adjust to disturbances. The Utilitarian Redundancy Model has emerged as a tool for investigating the resilience of local medical systems. The model determines the use of species richness for the same therapeutic function as a facilitator of the maintenance of these systems. However, predictions generated from this model have not yet been tested, and a lack of variables exists for deeper analyses of resilience. This study aims to address gaps in the Utilitarian Redundancy Model and to investigate the resilience of two medical systems in the Brazilian semi-arid zone. As a local illness is not always perceived in the same way that biomedicine recognizes, the term "therapeutic targets" is used for perceived illnesses. Semi-structured interviews with local experts were conducted using the free-listing technique to collect data on known medicinal plants, usage preferences, use of redundant species, characteristics of therapeutic targets, and the perceived severity for each target. Additionally, participatory workshops were conducted to determine the frequency of targets. The medical systems showed high species richness but low levels of species redundancy. However, if redundancy was present, it was the primary factor responsible for the maintenance of system functions. Species richness was positively associated with therapeutic target frequencies and negatively related to target severity. Moreover, information about redundant species seems to be largely idiosyncratic; this finding raises questions about the importance of redundancy for resilience. We stress the Utilitarian Redundancy Model as an interesting tool to be used in studies of resilience, but we emphasize that it must consider the distribution of redundancy in terms of the treatment of important illnesses and the sharing of information. This study has identified aspects of the higher and lower vulnerabilities of medical systems, adding

  8. Space industrialization. [space flight and environment for commercial/utilitarian purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disher, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Space industrialization is defined as the use of space flight and the space environment for commercial or utilitarian purposes in contrast to other uses such as gains in basic scientific knowledge, national defense, or exploration. Some unique attributes of space that make it amenable to industrial use include overview of the earth, the 'zero gravity' effect, potential for near perfect vacuum, unlimited reservoir for disposal of waste products, availability of essentially uninterrupted flow of solar energy, and the 'perpetual motion' characteristic of orbital mechanics. The role of human participation in assembling and maintaining the large sophisticated systems that will be required for future space industrialization needs is considered.

  9. Eksperymenty myślowe a utylitaryzm. Odpowiedź na artykuł Włodka Rabinowicza (Thought Experiments and Utilitarianism. A Reply to Wlodek Rabinowicz’s “Preference Utilitarianism by Way of Preference Change?’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Saja

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a comment on W. Rabinowicz "Utilitarianism by Way of Preference Change?", I defend Richard Hare`s argument for utilitarianism. I argue that Hare`s role reversal thought experiments can, despite of W.Rabinowicz criticism, lead to transforming interpersonal preference conflicts into intrapersonal ones, but, in order to achieve this, we need to interpret his thought experiment correctly. I distinguish three interpretation of reversing roles experiment and argue, that for at least two of them, which de facto Hare endorse, Rabinowicz criticism fails.

  10. The utilitarian tendency of graduate education%研究生教育功利化倾向审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪剑; 刘素娟; 胡波

    2014-01-01

    Under the condition of market economy, the utilitarian tendency of postgraduate education has become increasingly obvious, trouble for the healthy development of graduate students. In this paper, we examine the graduate education utilitarianism and causes, and put forward the innovation of graduate education, to face the challenge in order to cope with the graduate education utilitarian tendency of graduate education.%市场经济条件下,研究生教育功利化倾向特征日益明显,为研究生的全面健康发展带来了困扰。本文对研究生教育功利化表现和成因进行了审视,并提出了创新研究生教育理念,以应对研究生教育功利化倾向对研究生教育的挑战。

  11. Utylitaryzm preferencji poprzez zmianę preferencji? (Preference Utilitarianism by Way of Preference Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodek Rabinowicz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a translation of my "Preference Utilitarianism by Way of Preference Change?", in which I revisit Richard Hare’s classical and much discussed argument for preference utilitarianism (Moral Thinking, 1981, which relies on the conception of moral deliberation as a process of thought experimentation, with concomitant preference change. The paper focuses on an apparent gap in Hare’s reasoning, the so-called No-Conflict Problem. A solution to this difficulty which was proposed in (Rabinowicz and Strömberg, 1996 is re-examined and shown to lead to a number of difficulties, not least in connection with the choice of an appropriate measure of distance between preference states. The paper therefore also considers an alternative idea, due to Daniel Elstein. This new proposal may well turn out to be the best way of filling the gap in Hare’s argument. The paper also examines whether the gap is there to begin with: The problem should perhaps be dissolved rather than solved. This suggestion goes back to an idea of Zeno Vendler (1988. Unfortunately, it turns out that Vendler’s move does not save Hare from criticism: It does dissolve the No-Conflict Problem, but at the same time gives rise to another, potentially more serious difficulty.

  12. Should the practice of medicine be a deontological or utilitarian enterprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbutt, Gerard; Davies, Peter

    2011-05-01

    There is currently an unrecognised conflict between the utilitarian nature of the overall NHS and the basic deontology of the doctor-patient interaction. This conflict leads to mistrust and misunderstanding between managers and clinicians. This misunderstanding is bad for both doctors and managers, and also leads to waste of time and resources, and poorer services to patients. The utilitarian thinkers (mainly managers and politicians) tend to value finite, short term, evidence based technical interventions, delivered according to specifications and contracts. They appear happy to break care up into smaller pieces, which can then be commissioned from multiple providers. The deontological thinkers (mainly doctors and other clinicians) tend to think about care delivered through a long term continuous relationship, and regard that relationship as therapeutic and salutogenic in itself. To them breaking care up into smaller fragments is a denial of what caring is really about. Very rarely are either or both sides of this debate fully aware of where their powerfully felt and often well argued positions start from. In this paper we offer an appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of both moral viewpoints as applied in the UK NHS context and we suggest a way in which they can be reconciled, provided neither is pushed too far or too hard against the other. We believe this reconciliation would be good for patients, doctors, managers and improve the service as a whole.

  13. Exploring utilitarian and hedonic antecedents for adopting information from a recommendation agent and unplanned purchase behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Research indicated that in order for properly utilizing recommendation agents (RAs), customers must rationally evaluate capability and suggestions of RAs during the interaction process. However, enjoying interactive processes and interface is also important. Methods for increasing user enjoyment of RAs are yet unknown. This study investigated the influences of utilitarian and hedonic factors on intention to adopt RAs suggestions and their antecedents. Involvement influences relative importance of utilitarian and hedonic factors. Contrary to common assumptions, customers may make unplanned purchases, rather than rational purchase. A field experiment with 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design reveals main findings. First, information diagnosticity and enjoyment enhance adoption intention simultaneously. Information diagnosticity is more important than enjoyment. Diagnosticity was determined by outcome similarity, and enjoyment was determined by both outcome similarity and atmospherics. The context of interacting with RAs is important. Outcome similarity even directly affects adoption intention. Second, highly involved users considered enjoyment and diagnosticity when forming adoption intentions, while users with low involvement only considered enjoyment. Third, information cascades altered the relationship between adoption intention and unplanned purchases. Most customers change selection after seeing ratings from other customers, even if they originally strongly want to adoption suggestion from RAs. Theoretical and managerial implications are proposed.

  14. The price of your soul: neural evidence for the non-utilitarian representation of sacred values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Gregory S; Bell, Emily; Capra, C Monica; Prietula, Michael J; Moore, Sara; Anderson, Brittany; Ginges, Jeremy; Atran, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Sacred values, such as those associated with religious or ethnic identity, underlie many important individual and group decisions in life, and individuals typically resist attempts to trade off their sacred values in exchange for material benefits. Deontological theory suggests that sacred values are processed based on rights and wrongs irrespective of outcomes, while utilitarian theory suggests that they are processed based on costs and benefits of potential outcomes, but which mode of processing an individual naturally uses is unknown. The study of decisions over sacred values is difficult because outcomes cannot typically be realized in a laboratory, and hence little is known about the neural representation and processing of sacred values. We used an experimental paradigm that used integrity as a proxy for sacredness and which paid real money to induce individuals to sell their personal values. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that values that people refused to sell (sacred values) were associated with increased activity in the left temporoparietal junction and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, regions previously associated with semantic rule retrieval. This suggests that sacred values affect behaviour through the retrieval and processing of deontic rules and not through a utilitarian evaluation of costs and benefits. PMID:22271790

  15. Switched on!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Like a star arriving on stage, impatiently followed by each member of CERN personnel and by millions of eyes around the world, the first beam of protons has circulated in the LHC. After years in the making and months of increasing anticipation, today the work of hundreds of people has borne fruit. WELL DONE to all! Successfully steered around the 27 kilometres of the world’s most powerful particle accelerator at 10:28 this morning, this first beam of protons circulating in the ring marks a key moment in the transition from over two decades of preparation to a new era of scientific discovery. "It’s a fantastic moment," said the LHC project leader Lyn Evans, "we can now look forward to a new era of understanding about the origins and evolution of the universe". Starting up a major new particle accelerator takes much more than flipping a switch. Thousands of individual elements have to work in harmony, timings have to be synchronize...

  16. Are thoughtful people more utilitarian? CRT as a unique predictor of moral minimalism in the dilemmatic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royzman, Edward B; Landy, Justin F; Leeman, Robert F

    2015-03-01

    Recent theorizing about the cognitive underpinnings of dilemmatic moral judgment has equated slow, deliberative thinking with the utilitarian disposition and fast, automatic thinking with the deontological disposition. However, evidence for the reflective utilitarian hypothesis-the hypothesized link between utilitarian judgment and individual differences in the capacity for rational reflection (gauged here by the Cognitive Reflection Test [CRT; Frederick, 2005]) has been inconsistent and difficult to interpret in light of several design flaws. In two studies aimed at addressing some of the flaws, we found robust evidence for a reflective minimalist hypothesis-high CRT performers' tendency to regard utility-optimizing acts as largely a matter of personal prerogative, permissible both to perform and to leave undone. This relationship between CRT and the "minimalist" orientation remained intact after controlling for age, sex, trait affect, social desirability, and educational attainment. No significant association was found between CRT and the strict utilitarian response pattern or CRT and the strict deontological response pattern, nor did we find any significant association between CRT and willingness to act in the utility-optimizing manner. However, we found an inverse association between empathic concern and a willingness to act in the utility-optimizing manner, but there was no comparable association between empathic concern and the deontological judgment pattern. Theoretical, methodological, and normative implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Increasing representation of states by utilitarian as compared to environmental bureaucracies in international forest and forest-environmental policy negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, L.; Krott, M.; Mollmann, T.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the representation of selected countries (EU-27 and the five influential "forest states") to international forest-related negotiations by national utilitarian vis-a-vis conservation-oriented ministerial bureaucracies. It is hypothesised that due to the bureaucracies' informal g

  18. Inequality-adjusted happiness in nations: egalitarianism and utilitarianism married in a new index of societal performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M. Kalmijn (Wim); R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAccording to the utilitarian creed, the quality of a society should be judged using the degree of happiness of its members, the best society being the one that provides the greatest happiness for the greatest number. Following the egalitarian principle, the quality of a society should ra

  19. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  20. GenASiS Basics: Object-oriented utilitarian functionality for large-scale physics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cardall, Christian Y

    2015-01-01

    Aside from numerical algorithms and problem setup, large-scale physics simulations on distributed-memory supercomputers require more basic utilitarian functionality, such as physical units and constants; display to the screen or standard output device; message passing; I/O to disk; and runtime parameter management and usage statistics. Here we describe and make available Fortran 2003 classes furnishing extensible object-oriented implementations of this sort of rudimentary functionality, along with individual `unit test' programs and larger example problems demonstrating their use. These classes compose the Basics division of our developing astrophysics simulation code GenASiS (General Astrophysical Simulation System), but their fundamental nature makes them useful for physics simulations in many fields.

  1. “Case 1393”: A Case of Victimization, Unclaimed by either Retributivism or Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerasel Cuteanu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Case 1393 was made famous by a journalistic investigation, published by a Romanian newspaper, 7 years ago. This case is an example of judicial error, but also an example of how a superficial act of justice turns the very justice into its contrary. The result of this error was the sentencing of an innocent man to 20 years of prison. Such judicial errors prove that justice is possible in a society, only if responsibility for a wrongdoing is properly assigned to the offender; more than that, punishing the wrong person cannot be justified by either retributivism or utilitarianism, while the institution of punishment falls between the two. Such thing troubles the very structure of society that loses the balance, made possible by the principles of fairness and justice (Rawls. The interesting thing about case 1393 is that Romanian justice system did not recognize its error; instead, it fought to cover it up.

  2. GENASIS   Basics: Object-oriented utilitarian functionality for large-scale physics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardall, Christian Y.; Budiardja, Reuben D.

    2015-11-01

    Aside from numerical algorithms and problem setup, large-scale physics simulations on distributed-memory supercomputers require more basic utilitarian functionality, such as physical units and constants; display to the screen or standard output device; message passing; I/O to disk; and runtime parameter management and usage statistics. Here we describe and make available Fortran 2003 classes furnishing extensible object-oriented implementations of this sort of rudimentary functionality, along with individual 'unit test' programs and larger example problems demonstrating their use. These classes compose the Basics division of our developing astrophysics simulation code GENASIS  (General Astrophysical Simulation System), but their fundamental nature makes them useful for physics simulations in many fields.

  3. Does screen size matter for smartphones? Utilitarian and hedonic effects of screen size on smartphone adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2014-07-01

    This study explores the psychological effects of screen size on smartphone adoption by proposing an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that integrates an empirical comparison between large and small screens with perceived control, affective quality, and the original TAM constructs. A structural equation modeling analysis was conducted on data collected from a between-subjects experiment (N=130) in which users performed a web-based task on a smartphone with either a large (5.3 inches) or a small (3.7 inches) screen. Results show that a large screen, compared to a small screen, is likely to lead to higher smartphone adoption by simultaneously promoting both the utilitarian and hedonic qualities of smartphones, which in turn positively influence perceived ease of use of-and attitude toward-the device respectively. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  4. Utilitarian and common-sense morality discussions in intercultural nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Ingrid; Alpers, Lise-Merete

    2010-03-01

    Two areas of ethical conflict in intercultural nursing - who needs single rooms more, and how far should nurses go to comply with ethnic minority patients' wishes? - are discussed from a utilitarian and common-sense morality point of view. These theories may mirror nurses' way of thinking better than principled ethics, and both philosophies play a significant role in shaping nurses' decision making. Questions concerning room allocation, noisy behaviour, and demands that nurses are unprepared or unequipped for may be hard to cope with owing to physical restrictions and other patients' needs. Unsolvable problems may cause stress and a bad conscience as no solution is 'right' for all the patients concerned. Nurses experience a moral state of disequilibrium, which occurs when they feel responsible for the outcomes of their actions in situations that have no clear-cut solution.

  5. Utilitarian prioritization of radiation oncology patients based on maximization of population tumour control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, M. A.; Li, W.; Jennings, L.; Kearvell, R.; Bydder, S.

    2013-06-01

    An objective method for establishing patient prioritization in the context of a radiotherapy waiting list is investigated. This is based on a utilitarian objective, being the greatest probability of local tumour control in the population of patients. A numerical simulation is developed and a clinical patient case-mix is used to determine the influence of the characteristics of the patient population on resulting optimal patient scheduling. With the utilitarian objective, large gains in tumour control probability (TCP) can be achieved for individuals or cohorts by prioritizing patients for that fraction of the patient population with relatively small sacrifices in TCP for a smaller fraction of the population. For a waiting list in steady state with five patients per day commencing treatment and leaving the list (and so with five patients per day entering the list), and a mean wait time of 35 days and a maximum of 90 days, optimized wait times ranged from a mean of one day for patients with tumour types with short effective doubling times to a mean of 66.9 days for prostate cancer patients. It is found that, when seeking the optimal daily order of patients on the waiting list in a constrained simulation, the relative rather than absolute value of TCP is the determinant of the resulting optimal waiting times. An increase in the mean waiting time mostly influences (increases) the optimal waiting times of patients with fast-growing tumours. The proportional representation of groups (separated by tumour type) in the patient population has an influence on the resulting distribution of optimal waiting times for patients in those groups, though has only a minor influence on the optimal mean waiting time for each group.

  6. The Role of Utilitarian and Hedonic Values and Their Antecedents in a Mobile Phone Multimedia Services (Irancell VitrinTm Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a theoretical framework to examine the role of utilitarian and hedonic values in Mobile cells services adoption phenomenon and consumer‘s attitude to it. This study also presents an investigation of the key antecedents of utilitarian and hedonic values to understand the mechanism of enhancing these values. This study posits information quality, system quality and perceived fee as the key antecedents of utilitarian and hedonic values. The proposed research model is empirically evaluated by using survey data collected from 345 customer Irancell company. The conceptual model and hypothesis are tested using Structural Equation Models (SEM.

  7. Delayed switching applied to memristor neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Frank Z.; Yang Xiao; Lim Guan [Future Computing Group, School of Computing, University of Kent, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Helian Na [School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield (United Kingdom); Wu Sining [Xyratex, Havant (United Kingdom); Guo Yike [Department of Computing, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Rashid, Md Mamunur [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic flux and electric charge are linked in a memristor. We reported recently that a memristor has a peculiar effect in which the switching takes place with a time delay because a memristor possesses a certain inertia. This effect was named the ''delayed switching effect.'' In this work, we elaborate on the importance of delayed switching in a brain-like computer using memristor neural networks. The effect is used to control the switching of a memristor synapse between two neurons that fire together (the Hebbian rule). A theoretical formula is found, and the design is verified by a simulation. We have also built an experimental setup consisting of electronic memristive synapses and electronic neurons.

  8. Switching mode power supplies

    OpenAIRE

    Beard, David W.

    1980-01-01

    The subject of switching mode power supplies was examined. A comparison between linear regulators and switching mode power supplies was made to show the options available for the various types of convertors. Two switching mode power supplies were constructed and tested. The operating efficiency of both systems was found to be more than eighty percent over the specified input voltage and load current conditions. The switching mode power supply circuits required additional ...

  9. Heat Switches for ADRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.

  10. Controller Architectures for Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigate different controller architectures in connection with controller switching. The controller switching is derived by using the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization. A number of different architectures for the implementation of the YJBK parameterization are...... described and applied in connection with controller switching. An architecture that does not include inversion of the coprime factors is introduced. This architecture will make controller switching particular simple....

  11. MOSFET as a Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaval Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    s as a switch. Also it shows the different problems and some remedy to solve those problems with equations and simulatis as a switch. Also it shows the different problems and some remedy to solve those problems with equations and simulatis as a switch. Also it shows the different problems and some remedy to solve those problems with equations and simulatis as a switch. Also it shows the different problems and some remedy to solve those problems with equations and simulatis as ...

  12. Hedonic and utilitarian Ad attributes in relation to advertising effectiveness - The role of consumer involvement and the context of tablet devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lehto, Sarianne

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: Previous marketing research on the relationship between consumer involvement and hedonic and utilitarian dimension has mostly concentrated on products and brands, rather than advertising attributes. Furthermore, advertising effectiveness has often been assessed from a single perspective, such as attitude toward the ad. Therefore this thesis is focused on the relationship between consumer involvement and hedonic and utilitarian ad attributes, and on how these are li...

  13. The integrated model of smartphone adoption: hedonic and utilitarian value perceptions of smartphones among Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Heasun; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Daejoong

    2012-09-01

    This study aims to propose an integrated model of smartphone adoption that incorporates social influences (SIs), perceived technicality, as well as hedonic and utilitarian attitudes into the technology acceptance model. The proposed model was empirically evaluated by using survey data collected from 239 Korean college students to investigate their perception and attitudes toward smartphone adoption intention. Our results show that users' attitudes and their adoption intention are highly influenced by SI and positive self-image. This implies that a smartphone is a symbolic product that can signal affiliation and enhance the users' status in a group. The results also indicate that hedonic enjoyment is equally important as utilitarian usefulness in predicting the adoption intention, and the two variables mediate the relationships between SI, positive self-image, perceived technicality, and the intention to use. Consequently, the results reveal that smartphones are convergent media that can be viewed as both task-oriented and entertainment-oriented devices. PMID:22817671

  14. The integrated model of smartphone adoption: hedonic and utilitarian value perceptions of smartphones among Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Heasun; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Daejoong

    2012-09-01

    This study aims to propose an integrated model of smartphone adoption that incorporates social influences (SIs), perceived technicality, as well as hedonic and utilitarian attitudes into the technology acceptance model. The proposed model was empirically evaluated by using survey data collected from 239 Korean college students to investigate their perception and attitudes toward smartphone adoption intention. Our results show that users' attitudes and their adoption intention are highly influenced by SI and positive self-image. This implies that a smartphone is a symbolic product that can signal affiliation and enhance the users' status in a group. The results also indicate that hedonic enjoyment is equally important as utilitarian usefulness in predicting the adoption intention, and the two variables mediate the relationships between SI, positive self-image, perceived technicality, and the intention to use. Consequently, the results reveal that smartphones are convergent media that can be viewed as both task-oriented and entertainment-oriented devices.

  15. Perceptions of the Consumer on Product Based Innovation in the Context of Hedonic and Utilitarian Consumption: An Empirical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahit Erdem KÖKER

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current market where severe competition, rapid technological changes and developments take place in a global platform, companies must adapt to the developments and changes to be able to continue their being, not to fall behind time and to increase their profits. Companies which know their customers well, satisfy their expectations, needs and present the best products and services which best fit their wants, will gain competitive advantage. As well as having a need for products and services, also detecting what this need really means to the consumers are among important factors which generate consumers buying behaviour. The concept of “innovation” which is an important factor in consumers buying behaviour, is gradually increasing it’s importance. Companies aim at being innovative in their long term strategies, and being perceived like this by the consumers. Especially, perceived product based innovation by consumers is related with concepts as personal identity, social status, hedonic and utilitarian shopping. In this study, it is aimed to detect the interactions between; product based innovation, consumers personal innovation tendency, the meaning of purchase and consumption in means of identity, hedonic and utilitarian consumption behaviour. For this, a survey was applied to university students. The relations between the variables were defined by the analysis. In this concept, relations were detected between; product based innovation, hedonic and utilitarian consumption, social identity function of consumption and personal innovation tendencies.

  16. Does Utilitarian Policy such as Smoking Cessation Lend Support to Wider Aspirin Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Morgan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco control policy seems to be based on a utilitarian principle that public health is best served by a range of measures that will provide overall population benefit. Aspirin may have a potential wider role since meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials shows it reduces the risk of a first vascular event and also cancer. Are smoking cessation and the public health potential of aspirin different? The benefit versus risk balance of aspirin, an inexpensive and easily available medicine, deserves serious consideration as a public health measure in middle age. Smoking cessation and wider aspirin use are not seen as either competing or duplicating policy areas, but complementary. Their comparison has been purposefully selected because of common impacts, namely reduced vascular disease and cancer with increases in undesirable effects, notably gastrointestinal pathology. Part of the driver for this paper is to convey the message that public health policy has benefits and risks and the concept of a universally effective policy is unrealistic. Is it time for public health action to increase the use of aspirin?

  17. “Imagining What We Know”: The Humanities in a Utilitarian Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Keen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ways that critics writing in the early nineteenth century developed arguments in favor of what we think of today as the humanities in the face of utilitarian pressures that dismissed the arts as self-indulgent pursuits incapable of addressing real-world problems. Its focus reflects the extent to which the financial crisis in our own day has manifested itself in a jarring shift in research priorities towards applied knowledge: a retrenchment which has foregrounded all over again the question of how to make the case for the value of the humanities. These problems, however, also constitute an important opportunity: a chance to re-imagine our answers to questions about the nature and role of the humanities, their potential benefits to contemporary life, and how we might channel these benefits back into the larger society. The good news is that in many ways, this self-reflexive challenge is precisely what the humanities have always done best: highlight the nature and the force of the narratives that have helped to define how we understand our society—its various pasts and its possible futures—and to suggest the larger contexts within which these issues must ultimately be situated. History repeats itself, but never in quite the same way: knowing more about past debates will provide a crucial basis for moving forward as we position themselves to respond to new social, economic, technological, and cultural challenges during an age of radical change.

  18. HEDONIC PREFERENCES AND UTILITARIAN JUSTIFICATIONS AT THE INTRODUCTION OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Jose Montero Arruda Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast technological upgrading attracts the development of new products in the market, converging into multiples uses and accesses, which has been presentedin the literature of new product development and systems integration. Due to their confront, this research places its study focus on the determinants of consumer preference for high technology product launch. The hedonic / social utility of the all-in-one products has a priority in utilitarian factors. The main objective of this work is to evaluate which factors influence the consumer preference of high technology users, using the Apple´s tablet (iPad as a research object to identify how its use decision is made. In this article, anetnographic study was carried out about the iPad consumer behavior, interpreting their needs through their experiences described in American websites for the discussion of the product. These sites present comments about the process of choice, preference and use of the iPad. The websites have also been used to collect the textual database which is coded, interpreted and presented through the description of how current and potential consumers use the analyzed product.

  19. Examining Users' E-Satisfaction in the Usage of Social Networking Sites; Contribution from Utilitarian and Hedonic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Shan, Tay Kai; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ishak, Nawawi; Ridzuan Wahi, Mohd

    2014-06-01

    E-satisfaction (eSAT) is an important success factor of online service providers such as social networking sites (SNSs). The utilitarian and hedonic information systems are crucial in determining users' eSAT of SNSs, especially among young users. The utilitarian aspect of an information system is productivity-oriented which aims to enhance the users' task performance, and it is important in measuring eSAT of SNSs. In this study, the original constructs of Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU) and Perceived Usefulness (PU) of TAM of utilitarian information system was first developed in this research framework. The use of SNSs, such as Facebook, is pleasure-oriented, in which self-fulfilling values to the users are important in determining users' satisfaction towards the SNSs. Therefore, Perceived Enjoyment (PE) of hedonic information system is added to the framework. Thus, the research framework of this study includes both utilitarian (PEOU and PU) and hedonic (PE) aspects of information systems to determine Malaysian young users' eSAT in the usage of Facebook, a social networking site. In this framework, the effects of PEOU, PU and PE on eSAT in the usage of Facebook are examined among Facebook's users in the age of 18 - 24 years old. The effects of PEOU on PU and PE are also examined. Online questionnaire survey was employed and a total of 384 sets of questionnaires were gathered from users of Facebook. The results indicated that PEOU has positive effects on PU and PE in the context of Facebook. In addition, PEOU, PU and PE are also found to have positive effects on eSAT. PE of hedonic information system exerted higher effect on eSAT, compared to PEOU and PU of utilitarian information system, highlighting the importance of pleasure orientation in the usage of Facebook of SNSs. Managerial and theoretical implications of the study are discussed in term of measuring and enhancing users' eSAT in the usage of SNSs, particularly Facebook.

  20. 系统功利主义的论证及其理论意义%An Argument on System Utilitarianism and Its Theoretical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓环

    2015-01-01

    System utilitarianism is a kind of latest theoretical research results of utilitarianism from the perspective of the overall system of it,which tries to solve the conflict between Kant’s deontology and utilitarianism,to reconcile the conflict between rule utilitarianism and behavior utilitarianism at the same time,and to unite deontology with utilitarianism,rule utilitarianism and behavior utilitarianism.The idea of system utilitarianism,proposed by Zhang HuaXia and been revised and further improved by Chen XiaoPing,is an effective attempt of moral philosophy stand-ardization and scientification with strong theoretical significance,which unifies deontology and utilitarianism and re-inforces the applicability and practicality of the theoretical system by distinguishing social morality from individual virtues.%系统功利主义思想是一种从系统整体的角度对功利主义理论展开研究的最新成果,它试图解决康德道义论与功利主义之争,同时调和规则功利主义与行为功利主义之间的对立,把道义论与功利主义、规则功利主义与行为功利主义统合起来。由张华夏提出的系统功利主义思想经过陈晓平的修正与改进得以进一步完善。系统功利主义思想是一种道德哲学规范化和科学化的有效尝试,统合了道义论与功利主义,通过区分公德与私德强化了理论体系的应用性与实践性,具有较强的理论意义。

  1. Introduction to Optical Burst Switching

    OpenAIRE

    KERNÁCS János; SZILÁGYI Szabolcs

    2010-01-01

    Optical Burst Switching (OBS) isconsidered a popular switching paradigm for therealization of all-optical networks due to the balance itoffers between the coarse-grained Optical CircuitSwitching (OSC) and fine-grained Optical PacketSwitching (OPS). Given that the data are switched allopticallyat the burst level, Optical Burst Switchingcombines the transparency of Optical CircuitSwitching with the benefits of statistical multiplexingin Optical Packet Switching.

  2. Saturated Switching Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah

    2012-01-01

    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  3. Stochastic Switching Circuit Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm, Daniel; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2009-01-01

    Shannon in his 1938 Masterpsilas Thesis demonstrated that any Boolean function can be realized by a switching relay circuit, leading to the development of deterministic digital logic. Here, we replace each classical switch with a probabilistic switch (pswitch). We present algorithms for synthesizing circuits closed with a desired probability, including an algorithm that generates optimal size circuits for any binary fraction. We also introduce a new duality property for series-parallel stocha...

  4. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Emboras, A.; Niegemann, J.; Ma, P; Haffner, C; Pedersen, A.; Luisier, M.; Hafner, C; Schimmel, T.; Leuthold, J.

    2016-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore’s law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocat...

  5. FreeSWITCH Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Minessale, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This is a problem-solution approach to take your FreeSWITCH skills to the next level, where everything is explained in a practical way. If you are a system administrator, hobbyist, or someone who uses FreeSWITCH on a regular basis, this book is for you. Whether you are a FreeSWITCH expert or just getting started, this book will take your skills to the next level.

  6. Asymmetrical Switch Costs in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefson, Michelle R.; Shapiron, Laura R.; Chater, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Switching between tasks produces decreases in performance as compared to repeating the same task. Asymmetrical switch costs occur when switching between two tasks of unequal difficulty. This asymmetry occurs because the cost is greater when switching to the less difficult task than when switching to the more difficult task. Various theories about…

  7. Nanoarchitectonic atomic switch networks for unconventional computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demis, Eleanor C.; Aguilera, Renato; Scharnhorst, Kelsey; Aono, Masakazu; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.

    2016-11-01

    Developments in computing hardware are constrained by the operating principles of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, fabrication limits of nanometer scaled features, and difficulties in effective utilization of high density interconnects. This set of obstacles has promulgated a search for alternative, energy efficient approaches to computing inspired by natural systems including the mammalian brain. Atomic switch network (ASN) devices are a unique platform specifically developed to overcome these current barriers to realize adaptive neuromorphic technology. ASNs are composed of a massively interconnected network of atomic switches with a density of ∼109 units/cm2 and are structurally reminiscent of the neocortex of the brain. ASNs possess both the intrinsic capabilities of individual memristive switches, such as memory capacity and multi-state switching, and the characteristics of large-scale complex systems, such as power-law dynamics and non-linear transformations of input signals. Here we describe the successful nanoarchitectonic fabrication of next-generation ASN devices using combined top-down and bottom-up processing and experimentally demonstrate their utility as reservoir computing hardware. Leveraging their intrinsic dynamics and transformative input/output (I/O) behavior enabled waveform regression of periodic signals in the absence of embedded algorithms, further supporting the potential utility of ASN technology as a platform for unconventional approaches to computing.

  8. Comparison between Bentham and Mill's Utilitarianism%边沁与密尔的功利主义思想的比较及现实价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁景时; 孙剑

    2009-01-01

    The history of the thought of utilitarianism went back to the ancient times. Bentham and Mill are the main representatives. Based on the comprehensive comparison between Bentham and Mill's utilitarianism, the paper focuses on analyzing the similarities and differences, and elucidates Mill's complement and development to Bentham's utilitarianism from the free-dom and justice, tries to further interpret the utilitarianism by the methods of analysis and comparison. Bentham and Mill's utilitarianism have the important practical significance for the social development of our country.%功利主义思想的产生发展历程源远流长,边沁和密尔是其主要代表人物,该文立足于全面系统地对边沁和密尔的功利主义思想进行比较,着重挖掘和分析了二者的相同点和不同点,同时,阐发了密尔在自由和正义两方面对边沁功利主义进行的补充和发展,试图通过整个分析比较的方法立主深入解读功利主义,并进一步认为边沁与密尔的功利主义思想对我国社会的发展具有重要的现实意义.

  9. Optical switching device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, F.J.A. den; Hanzen, R.M.N.; Duine, P.A.; Jungblut, R.M.; Draijer, C.; Roozeboom, F.; Sluis, P. van der

    2000-01-01

    A description is given of an optical switching device (1) comprising a transparent substrate (3), a switching film (5) of a hydride compound of a trivalent transition or rare earth metal having a thickness of 300 nm, and a palladium capping layer (7) having a thickness of 30 nm. The capping layer is

  10. Multidimensional set switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Sowon; Andersen, George J; Kramer, Arthur F

    2003-06-01

    The present study examined the organization of preparatory processes that underlie set switching and, more specifically, switch costs. On each trial, subjects performed one of two perceptual judgment tasks, color or shape discrimination. Subjects also responded with one of two different response sets. The task set and/or the response set switched from one to the other after 2-6 repeated trials. Response set, task set, and double set switches were performed in both blocked and randomized conditions. Subjects performed with short (100-msec) and long (800-msec) preparatory intervals. Task and response set switches had an additive effect on reaction times (RTs) in the blocked condition. Such a pattern of results suggests a serial organization of preparatory processes when the nature of switches is predictable. However, task and response set switches had an underadditive effect on RTs in the random condition when subjects performed with a brief cue-to-target interval. This pattern of results suggests overlapping task and response set preparation. These findings are discussed in terms of strategic control of preparatory processes in set switching. PMID:12921431

  11. Switch on, switch off: stiction in nanoelectromechanical switches

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Till J W

    2013-06-13

    We present a theoretical investigation of stiction in nanoscale electromechanical contact switches. We develop a mathematical model to describe the deflection of a cantilever beam in response to both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Particular focus is given to the question of whether adhesive van der Waals forces cause the cantilever to remain in the \\'ON\\' state even when the electrostatic forces are removed. In contrast to previous studies, our theory accounts for deflections with large slopes (i.e. geometrically nonlinear). We solve the resulting equations numerically to study how a cantilever beam adheres to a rigid electrode: transitions between \\'free\\', \\'pinned\\' and \\'clamped\\' states are shown to be discontinuous and to exhibit significant hysteresis. Our findings are compared to previous results from linearized models and the implications for nanoelectromechanical cantilever switch design are discussed. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Single Atom Plasmonic Switch

    CERN Document Server

    Emboras, Alexandros; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2015-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moores law in the electronics industry. And while electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling-similar to electronics-is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled single atom plasmonic switch. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or at most - a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ration of 10 dB and operation at room temperature with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of a CMOS compatible, integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the single-atom level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully i...

  13. Towards single molecule switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia Lin; Zhong, Jian Qiang; Lin, Jia Dan; Hu, Wen Ping; Wu, Kai; Xu, Guo Qin; Wee, Andrew T S; Chen, Wei

    2015-05-21

    The concept of using single molecules as key building blocks for logic gates, diodes and transistors to perform basic functions of digital electronic devices at the molecular scale has been explored over the past decades. However, in addition to mimicking the basic functions of current silicon devices, molecules often possess unique properties that have no parallel in conventional materials and promise new hybrid devices with novel functions that cannot be achieved with equivalent solid-state devices. The most appealing example is the molecular switch. Over the past decade, molecular switches on surfaces have been intensely investigated. A variety of external stimuli such as light, electric field, temperature, tunneling electrons and even chemical stimulus have been used to activate these molecular switches between bistable or even multiple states by manipulating molecular conformations, dipole orientations, spin states, charge states and even chemical bond formation. The switching event can occur either on surfaces or in break junctions. The aim of this review is to highlight recent advances in molecular switches triggered by various external stimuli, as investigated by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM) and the break junction technique. We begin by presenting the molecular switches triggered by various external stimuli that do not provide single molecule selectivity, referred to as non-selective switching. Special focus is then given to selective single molecule switching realized using the LT-STM tip on surfaces. Single molecule switches operated by different mechanisms are reviewed and discussed. Finally, molecular switches embedded in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and single molecule junctions are addressed. PMID:25757483

  14. A Metabolic Switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    Our muscles are metabolically flexible, i.e., they are capable of `switching' between two types of oxidation: (1) when fasting, a predominantly lipid oxidation with high rates of fatty acid uptake, and (2) when fed, suppression of lipid oxidation in favour of increased glucose uptake, oxidation...... and storage, in response to insulin. One of the many manifestations of obesity and Type 2 diabetes is an insulin resistance of the skeletal muscles, which suppresses this metabolic switch. This talk describes recent development of a low-dimensional system of ODEs that model the metabolic switch, displaying...

  15. JUNOS Enterprise Switching

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Harry

    2009-01-01

    JUNOS Enterprise Switching is the only detailed technical book on Juniper Networks' new Ethernet-switching EX product platform. With this book, you'll learn all about the hardware and ASIC design prowess of the EX platform, as well as the JUNOS Software that powers it. Not only is this extremely practical book a useful, hands-on manual to the EX platform, it also makes an excellent study guide for certification exams in the JNTCP enterprise tracks. The authors have based JUNOS Enterprise Switching on their own Juniper training practices and programs, as well as the configuration, maintenanc

  16. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  17. SPARK GAP SWITCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, R.B.

    1957-12-17

    An improved triggered spark gap switch is described, capable of precisely controllable firing time while switching very large amounts of power. The invention in general comprises three electrodes adjustably spaced and adapted to have a large potential impressed between the outer electrodes. The central electrode includes two separate elements electrically connected togetaer and spaced apart to define a pair of spark gaps between the end electrodes. Means are provided to cause the gas flow in the switch to pass towards the central electrode, through a passage in each separate element, and out an exit disposed between the two separate central electrode elements in order to withdraw ions from the spark gap.

  18. "Lean not on your own understanding": Belief that morality is founded on divine authority and non-utilitarian moral judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Piazza

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that religious individuals are much more resistant to utilitarian modes of thinking than their less religious counterparts, but the reason for this is not clear. We propose that a meta-ethical belief that morality is rooted in inviolable divine commands (i.e., endorsement of Divine Command Theory may help explain this finding. We present a novel 20-item scale measuring a belief that morality is founded on divine authority. The scale shows good internal reliability and convergent and discriminant validity. Study 1 found that this scale fully mediated the relationship that various religiosity measures had with a deontological thinking style in our sample of American adults. It also accounted for the link between religiosity and social conservative values. Furthermore, the relationship between the scale and these outcome variables held after statistically controlling for variables related to actively open-minded thinking and the Big Five. Study 2 replicated the results using naturalistic moral dilemmas that placed deontological and utilitarian concerns in conflict, and showed that the results of Study 1 cannot be explained by differences in moral foundations (e.g., concern for authority more generally or differences in the perceived function of rules. Quite the contrary, endorsement of the divine origins of morality fully mediated the relationship religiosity had with the so-called ``binding'' foundations (i.e., Loyalty, Authority, and Sanctity. Our findings highlight the importance of meta-ethical beliefs for understanding individual differences in moral judgment.

  19. Over the blade--on literary utilitarianism%越过刀锋--文学功利性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟倩

    2014-01-01

    文学的功利性属性已经众所周知,面对生活的无奈,很多人求助于美学、哲学。叔本华把艺术当做是生命意志的暂时休歇,阿多诺把文学作为救赎之路,暂且不论文学能否助我们越过刀锋,文学功利性的关键不是本体论而是认识论,不在乎本身是什么,关键在于被人们当作什么。不在于能否带领人类走出终极困惑,而是如何调整心态,积极的存在于现实。%The Utilitarian attribute of literature is as everyone knows, facing the helpless of life, many people turn to aesthetics, philosophy. Schopenhauer put the art as atemporary retreat will of life, Adorno to literature as a way of salvation,regardless of literature can or not help us across the blade, utilitarian literature is not the key to ontology but epistemology, don't care what it is, the key lies in.Is not whether to lead the human race out of the ultimate puzzle, but how toad just the attitude, positive reality.

  20. The moral code in Islam and organ donation in Western countries: reinterpreting religious scriptures to meet utilitarian medical objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2014-06-02

    End-of-life organ donation is controversial in Islam. The controversy stems from: (1) scientifically flawed medical criteria of death determination; (2) invasive perimortem procedures for preserving transplantable organs; and (3) incomplete disclosure of information to consenting donors and families. Data from a survey of Muslims residing in Western countries have shown that the interpretation of religious scriptures and advice of faith leaders were major barriers to willingness for organ donation. Transplant advocates have proposed corrective interventions: (1) reinterpreting religious scriptures, (2) reeducating faith leaders, and (3) utilizing media campaigns to overcome religious barriers in Muslim communities. This proposal disregards the intensifying scientific, legal, and ethical controversies in Western societies about the medical criteria of death determination in donors. It would also violate the dignity and inviolability of human life which are pertinent values incorporated in the Islamic moral code. Reinterpreting religious scriptures to serve the utilitarian objectives of a controversial end-of-life practice, perceived to be socially desirable, transgresses the Islamic moral code. It may also have deleterious practical consequences, as donors can suffer harm before death. The negative normative consequences of utilitarian secular moral reasoning reset the Islamic moral code upholding the sanctity and dignity of human life.

  1. Examination on Utilitarian Vocational Education%浅论职业教育功利化现象审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白永宏

    2011-01-01

    Utilitarianism is more and more seriously in China's talent training of vocational education. Utilitarian tendency is reflect of "instrumental rationalism" in vocational education, and is a hidden risk. From the views of division of labor in society. essence of vocational education, and social actual situation, it is the task of top priority to combine instrumental rationality and value rationality, take human development as logic to realize the transform of vocational education model.%当前我国职业教育人才培养过程中的功利化不断凸显.功利化倾向是"工具理性主义"在职业教育领域的具体体现,是一种潜藏的危机.从社会分工、职业教育本质以及社会现实条件的整体视角,把工具理性和价值理性有机结合起来,以"人"的发展为逻辑,实现职业教育范式的转换,乃当务之急.

  2. Plasmonic enhanced ultrafast switch.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramania,Ganapathi Subramanian; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Harris, Tom.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Barrick, Todd A.

    2009-09-01

    Ultrafast electronic switches fabricated from defective material have been used for several decades in order to produce picosecond electrical transients and TeraHertz radiation. Due to the ultrashort recombination time in the photoconductor materials used, these switches are inefficient and are ultimately limited by the amount of optical power that can be applied to the switch before self-destruction. The goal of this work is to create ultrafast (sub-picosecond response) photoconductive switches on GaAs that are enhanced through plasmonic coupling structures. Here, the plasmonic coupler primarily plays the role of being a radiation condenser which will cause carriers to be generated adjacent to metallic electrodes where they can more efficiently be collected.

  3. Switch Attention to Listen

    OpenAIRE

    Dhamani, Imran; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon; Sharma, Mridula

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the ability to switch attention and selectively attend to relevant information in children (10–15 years) with persistent listening difficulties in noisy environments. A wide battery of clinical tests indicated that children with complaints of listening difficulties had otherwise normal hearing sensitivity and auditory processing skills. Here we show that these children are markedly slower to switch their attention compared to their age-matched peers. T...

  4. Switching to Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Hinton, Harvard S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of hardware that exploits the interplay of photons and electrons to switch voice, data, and video is discussed. The two directions being taken by current research-guided-wave and free-space photonics-are examined. Photonic time-slot interchanges are described. Multidivisional fabrics, based on a combination of space-division and time-division multiplexing, are considered, as is the wavelength-division-based photonic packet switch, another kind of multidimensional fabric. The use of se...

  5. High Power Switching Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, P. L.; Kao, Y. C.; Carnahan, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Improved switching transistors handle 400-A peak currents and up to 1,200 V. Using large diameter silicon wafers with twice effective area as D60T, form basis for D7 family of power switching transistors. Package includes npn wafer, emitter preform, and base-contact insert. Applications are: 25to 50-kilowatt high-frequency dc/dc inverters, VSCF converters, and motor controllers for electrical vehicles.

  6. Photonics in switching

    CERN Document Server

    Midwinter, John E; Kelley, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Photonics in Switching provides a broad, balanced overview of the use of optics or photonics in switching, from materials and devices to system architecture. The chapters, each written by an expert in the field, survey the key technologies, setting them in context and highlighting their benefits and possible applications. This book is a valuable resource for those working in the communications industry, either at the professional or student level, who do not have extensive background knowledge or the underlying physics of the technology.

  7. Ferroelectric switching of elastin

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; WANG, YUNJIE; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; SHARMA, PRADEEP; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first macroscopic observation of ferroelectric switching in a biological system, and we elucidate the origin and mechanism underpinning ferroelectric switching of elastin. It is discovered that the polarization in elastin is intrinsic at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarizatio...

  8. Finding a stabilising switching law for switching nonlinear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendek, Zs.; Raica, P.; Lauber, J.; Guerra, T. M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper considers the stabilisation of switching nonlinear models by switching between the subsystems. We assume that arbitrary switching between two subsystems is possible once a subsystem has been active for a predefined number of samples. We use a Takagi-Sugeno representation of the models and a switching Lyapunov function is employed to develop sufficient stability conditions. If the conditions are satisfied, we construct a switching law that stabilises the system. The application of the conditions is illustrated in several examples.

  9. Optical switching systems using nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems.......High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems....

  10. Understanding and Supporting Window Switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, S.

    2011-01-01

    Switching between windows on a computer is a frequent activity, but finding and switching to the target window can be inefficient. This thesis aims to better un-derstand and support window switching. It explores two issues: (1) the lack of knowledge of how people currently interact with and switch b

  11. Low inductance gas switching.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.

    2007-10-01

    The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  15. On College Students' Tendency to Utilitarianism in their Studies%论大学生学习的功利化倾向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐如前

    2004-01-01

    Since the implementation of market economy, college students' tendency towards utilitarianism has become more and more serious, thus bringing utmost negative influence on both themselves and the society as a whole. The essay expounds on this phenomenon, and its causes and suggests measures for the rectification.

  16. On the Causes and Countermeasures of the Utilitarianism of Higher Education%试论高等教育功利化的原因及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰洋

    2014-01-01

    随着市场经济的繁荣发展与社会结构的不断变化,功利主义思潮弥漫各大高校,导致高等教育功利化倾向愈加明显。高等教育的功利化倾向导致高校人才培养质量的下降,造成整体教育水平的失衡。为此,高等教育工作者要尽快转变管理方式,走出高等教育功利化的误区。%With the continuous change of social structure and the prosperity and development of market economy, utilitarianism diffuses in universities, resulting in more and more obvious utili-tarian tendency of higher education. The utilitarian tendency of higher education leads to the decline of the quality of personnel training in colleges and universities, and the imbalance of the overall level of education. Therefore, higher education workers must change the management mode as soon as possible, and walk out of misunderstanding of higher education utilitarianism.

  17. Regarding the Dutch ‘nee’ to the European Constitution. A test of the identity, utilitarian and political approach to vote no

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, M.

    2008-01-01

    In June 2005, 61.5% of the Dutch voted `nee' in the referendum on the European constitution. In the present contribution I test hypotheses from the national identity, utilitarian and political approaches to explain this voting behaviour. I collected data in the Netherlands to test whether one of tho

  18. Regarding the Dutch ‘Nee’ to the European Constitution : A Test of the Identity, Utilitarian and Political Approaches to Voting ‘No’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    In June 2005, 61.5% of the Dutch voted ‘nee’ in the referendum on the European constitution. In the present contribution I test hypotheses from the national identity, utilitarian and political approaches to explain this voting behaviour. I collected data in the Netherlands to test whether one of tho

  19. Energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-08-01

    We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young\\'s modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young\\'s modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. On stability of switched linear systems with perturbed switching paths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the stability issue of switched linear systems with perturbed switching paths. First,by introducing thenotions of child-path and parent-path, we are able to define the distance between two switching paths by means of their switching matrices chains. Next, we present the nice properties of the defined distance. Then, a stability criterion is presented for a class of switched linear systems with perturbed switching paths. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to verify the effectiveness of the approach.

  1. Hare’s Saving to Utilitarianism and Collapse%黑尔对功利主义的拯救及其坍塌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾凌昌

    2014-01-01

    面对功利主义的困境,黑尔继续西季威克直觉功利主义的论证,对其进行了极力的拯救。通过在批判层面采取功利主义,在直觉或实践层面选取个人生活指南的方式,黑尔似乎找到了破解功利主义困境的方式。然而,此种论证不可避免地在这两个层面之外形成了遗漏的空间,虽然黑尔试图以做理想之事或正确之事倾向性性格的形成对遗漏进行再次挽救,但由于其没有真正回归康德最终也导致了其对功利主义拯救的无情坍塌。%In the face of the predicament of utilitarianism,Hare continued Sidgwick's argument of intui-tion utilitarian and tried to save utilitarianism.Through taking utilitarianism in critical level,selecting living guiding way of individuals,Hare seemed to find the access to crack the dilemma of utilitarian-ism.However,such efforts formed the omission of spaces in two aspects inevitably.Though Hare tried to save it through tendency character formation of doing ideal or right thing,but it collapsed because he could not return to Kant.

  2. 茅盾的功利性选择%Mao Dun's Choice in a Utilitarian Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志慧

    2011-01-01

    Mao Dun's life is great,who is famous as a revolutionist and a man of letters.He made a significant contribution.All these are closely related with his choice in a utilitarian way.This text will explore them.%茅盾的一生是伟大的,主要表现在他作为革命家和文学家对国家和人民做出的贡献上。而这样的贡献的取得与茅盾的功利性选择是密切相关的。本文将从功利性选择方面对茅盾进行分析。

  3. 《史记》中功利价值的悲剧性%Tragedy of Utilitarian Value in Shiji

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪波

    2012-01-01

    The tragic spirit revealed in Shift has been highly praised by scholars. Taking Han Xin as an example, this paper is intended to discuss the tragedy of the male character in Shift resulting from the utilitarian value in the development of history, so as to have a deep understanding of the tragic historical phenomenon demonstrated in Shift.%《史记》以其文中处处彰显的悲剧精神而备受学界推崇,本文尝试以韩信等为典范,探讨《史记》中豪雄人格在历史发展趋势下表现的功利价值导致其悲剧性这一现象,从而深入理解《史记》所要表现的悲剧性历史现象。

  4. Laboratory Switching Power Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Slezák, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis is concerned with design switching power supply based on forward converter with output voltage regulated in the range of 3 to 30V and load current to 1 A. First of all, it discusses the theoretical solution of basic types of converters and switching power supply problems. Followed by a proposal of various parts source, which was first established in the test version on the test board. Then was proposed printed circuit board and complete mechanical solutions. Source is a...

  5. Photonics in Switching

    OpenAIRE

    Hinton, Harvard S.

    1992-01-01

    One of the keys to the future of telecommunications companies will be their ability to provide new broadband services to both the business community and residential customers. With the new services will come the need for the equivalent of a broadband switching office. Such a system could require the capability of supporting in excess of 10000 users with broadband channel bit rates exceeding 100 Mb/s. This implies a switching fabric the aggregate bit rate of which could be greater than 1 Tb/s....

  6. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  7. High-speed switching characteristics of integrated optoelectronic crossbar switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Francois L.; Almeida, Carlos; Callender, Claire L.; Robitaille, Lucie; Noad, Julian P.

    1999-04-01

    Optoelectronic (OE) switching is a promising approach for routing signals in fiber optic networks. Recently, the integration of a 4 X 4 MSM array with optical surface waveguides has been reported. This technique greatly simplifies the packaging of an OE switch. The on-chip polyimide optical waveguides perform the optical signal distribution to a matrix of MSMs which are responsible for the switching operation itself. Photoresponse bandwidths exceeding 4 GHz have been demonstrated. Another important characteristic of a switch is the switching speed since it determines the reconfiguration time. Mechanical and thermal optical waveguide switches offer switching speeds of the order of milliseconds which is sufficient for network traffic management but too slow for packet switching. We report measurements on the switching characteristics of a 4 X 4 optoelectronic switch performed in both the frequency and time domain. In the time domain, the individual crosspoints exhibit a rise time of 3 ns. However, a sizeable overshoot and ringing settles only after 35 ns. This constitutes the reconfiguration time at present. This is confirmed by measurements in the frequency domain of the electrical transmission from control line to output line. The 3-dB switching bandwidth is a few hundred megahertz. The 35 ns reconfiguration time indicates that it is already suitable for packet switching in a 10 Mb/s network. Switching speed measurements on individual MSMs suggests that modifications to the switch circuit could improve the switching time. The switch could also find application as a component in the wavelength conversion circuit of a WDM fiber optic network.

  8. A Switched Capacitor Harmonic Compensation Part for Switching Supplies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    A new approach based on switched capacitor network to harmonic compensation for switching supplies is presented in the paper,The basic principle is discussed.SPICE simulation is applied to analyze the behaviour of the switched capacitor harmonic compensation part.

  9. Optical packet switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1999-01-01

    in interferometric wavelength converters is investigated showing that a 10 Gbit/s 19 4x4 swich blocks can be cascaded at a BER of 10-14. An analytical traffic model enables the calculation of the traffice performance of a WDM packet network. Hereby the importance of WDM and wavelegth conversion in the switch blocks...... is investigated showing more constant gain characteristics and an increased saturation input power from -17 to -4 dBm. Dynamically, the GC-SOA is demonstrated to perform better at bit rates over 10 Gbit/s for RZ than NRZ signals. Additionally, a 4x4 passive InP mach-Zehnder interferometric space switch has been...... power dynamic range (IPDR). Moreover, the IPDR of the IWC alone is only -3.5 dB at 10 Gbit/s, however, control schemes are introduced yielding an IPDR of both -28 dB and -40 dB. Finally, the feasibility of an all-optical WDM packet switch block is demonstrated at 20 Gbit/s for a 4x4 switch block with 4...

  10. Optical Packet Switching Demostrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brian Bach; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2002-01-01

    In the IST project DAVID (data and voice integration over DWDM) work is carried out defining possible architectures of future optical packet switched networks. The feasibility of the architecture is to be verified in a demonstration set-up. This article describes the demonstrator set-up and the...

  11. Switched Multistage Vector Quantizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Satya Sai Ram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of a new hybrid vector quantizer called Switched Multi stage vector quantization (SWMSVQ technique using hard and soft decision schemes, for coding of narrow band speech signals. This technique is a hybrid of Switch vector quantization technique and Multi stage vector quantization technique. SWMSVQ quantizes the linear predictive coefficients (LPC in terms of the line spectral frequencies (LSF. The spectral distortion performance, computational complexity and memory requirements of SWMSVQ using hard and soft decision schemes are compared with Split vector quantization (SVQ technique, Multi stage vector quantization (MSVQ technique, Switched Split vector quantization (SSVQ technique using hard decision scheme, and Multi Switched Split Vector quantization (MSSVQ technique using hard decision scheme. From results it is proved that SWMSVQ using soft decision scheme is having less spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements when compared to SVQ, MSVQ, SSVQ and SWMSVQ using hard decision scheme, but high when compared to MSSVQ using hard decision scheme. So from results it is proved that SWMSVQ using soft decision scheme is better when compared to SVQ, MSVQ, SSVQ and SWMSVQ using hard decision schemes in terms of spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements but is having greater spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements when compared to MSSVQ using hard decision.

  12. Photonic MEMS switch applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Anis

    2001-07-01

    As carriers and service providers continue their quest for profitable network solutions, they have shifted their focus from raw bandwidth to rapid provisioning, delivery and management of revenue generating services. Inherently transparent to data rate the transmission wavelength and data format, MEMS add scalability, reliability, low power and compact size providing flexible solutions to the management and/or fiber channels in long haul, metro, and access networks. MEMS based photonic switches have gone from the lab to commercial availability and are now currently in carrier trials and volume production. 2D MEMS switches offer low up-front deployment costs while remaining scalable to large arrays. They allow for transparent, native protocol transmission. 2D switches enable rapid service turn-up and management for many existing and emerging revenue rich services such as storage connectivity, optical Ethernet, wavelength leasing and optical VPN. As the network services evolve, the larger 3D MEMS switches, which provide greater scalability and flexibility, will become economically viable to serve the ever-increasing needs.

  13. DIGITAL TELEPHONE SWITCH: SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Viveros Talavera

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of the program of control for a Digital Phone Switch (PBAX with a maximumcapacity of one hundred and twenty-eight lines (extensions and trunks. The control program was designedusing object-oriented programming and concurrent programming techniques.

  14. The Octopus switch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul Johannes Mattheus

    2000-01-01

    This chapter1 discusses the interconnection architecture of the Mobile Digital Companion. The approach to build a low-power handheld multimedia computer presented here is to have autonomous, reconfigurable modules such as network, video and audio devices, interconnected by a switch rather than by a

  15. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes Khz at > 100 kV/m E field

  16. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Closing photoconductive semiconductor switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; O' Malley, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most important limitations of Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches (PCSS) for pulsed power applications is the high laser powers required to activate the switches. In this paper, we discuss recent developments on two different aspects of GaAs PCSS that result in reductions in laser power by a factor of nearly 1000. The advantages of using GaAs over Si are many. First of all, the resistivity of GaAs can be orders of magnitude higher than that of the highest resistivity Si material, thus allowing GaAs switches to withstand dc voltages without thermal runaway. Secondly, GaAs has a higher carrier mobility than Si and, thus, is more efficient (per carrier). Finally, GaAs switches can have naturally fast (ns) opening times at room temperature and low fields, microsecond opening times at liquid nitrogen temperature of 77 K, or, on demand, closing and opening at high fields and room temperature by a mechanism called lock-on (see Ref. 1). By contrast, Si switches typically opening times of milliseconds. The amount of laser light required to trigger GaAs for lock-on, or at 77 K, is about three orders of magnitude lower than at room temperature. In this paper we describe the study of lock-on in GaAs and InP, as well as switching of GaAs at 77 K. We shall show that when GaAs is switched at 77 K, the carrier lifetime is about three orders of magnitude longer than it is at room temperature. We shall explain the change in lifetime in terms of the change in electron capture cross section of the deep levels in GaAs (these are defect or impurity levels in the band gap). In the second section, we describe the lock-on effect, now seen in GaAs and InP, and at fields as high as 70 kV/cm. We show how lock-on can be tailored by changing the GaAs temperature or by neutron bombardment. In the third section, we discuss possible lock-on mechanisms. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Molecular Rotors as Switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang L. Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR associated with the device. The analysis of the device

  19. Job Switching and Wage Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Faberman, R. Jason; Justiniano, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    This article shows a remarkably strong relationship between job switching and nominal wage growth. We also find a fairly strong relationship between job switching and the cyclical component of inflation. Furthermore, job switching seems to be predictive of both wage growth and inflation.

  20. Language Switching and Language Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

  1. Abacus switch: a new scalable multicast ATM switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, H. Jonathan; Park, Jin-Soo; Choe, Byeong-Seog

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a new architecture for a scalable multicast ATM switch from a few tens to thousands of input ports. The switch, called Abacus switch, has a nonblocking memoryless switch fabric followed by small switch modules at the output ports; the switch has input and output buffers. Cell replication, cell routing, output contention resolution, and cell addressing are all performed distributedly in the Abacus switch so that it can be scaled up to thousnads input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to resolve output port contention while achieving input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to reolve output port contention while achieving input buffers sharing, fairness among the input ports, and multicast call splitting. The channel grouping concept is also adopted in the switch to reduce the hardware complexity and improve the switch's throughput. The Abacus switch has a regular structure and thus has the advantages of: 1) easy expansion, 2) relaxed synchronization for data and clock signals, and 3) building the switch fabric using existing CMOS technology.

  2. Biochemical switching device: how to turn on (off) the switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, M; Sakai, T; Hayashi, K

    1989-01-01

    We previously showed with computer simulations that cyclic enzyme systems have the reliability of ON-OFF types of operation (McCulloch-Pitts' neuronic equation) and the applicability for a switching circuit in a biocomputer. The switching time was inevitably determined in accordance with the difference in amount between two inputs of the system. This characteristic is, however, a disadvantage for practical use of a switching device; we need to improve the system in order for the switching time to optionally be changed. We shall present here how to turn on (off) the switch independently of the modes of two inputs. By introducing pulse perturbation, we could optionally set up the switching time of a cyclic enzyme system (biochemical switching device). PMID:2720139

  3. Synchronization Between Two Different Switched Chaotic Systems By Switching Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Li Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the synchronization problem of two different switched chaotic systems, considering the general case that the master-slave switched chaotic systems have uncertainties. Two basic problems are considered: one is projective synchronization of switched chaotic systems under arbitrary switching; the other is projective synchronization of switched chaotic systems by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any subsystems alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and multiple Lyapunov function method are used respectively, an adaptive control scheme has been presented, some sufficient synchronization conditions are attainted, and the switching signal is designed. Finally, the numerical simulation is provide to show the effectiveness of our method.

  4. Practical switching power supply design

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Martin C

    1990-01-01

    Take the ""black magic"" out of switching power supplies with Practical Switching Power Supply Design! This is a comprehensive ""hands-on"" guide to the theory behind, and design of, PWM and resonant switching supplies. You'll find information on switching supply operation and selecting an appropriate topology for your application. There's extensive coverage of buck, boost, flyback, push-pull, half bridge, and full bridge regulator circuits. Special attention is given to semiconductors used in switching supplies. RFI/EMI reduction, grounding, testing, and safety standards are also deta

  5. Switched Matrix Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a new concept for a microwave circuit functioning as a charged-particle accelerator at mm-wavelengths, permitting an accelerating gradient higher than conventional passive circuits can withstand consistent with cyclic fatigue. The device provides acceleration for multiple bunches in parallel channels, and permits a short exposure time for the conducting surface of the accelerating cavities. Our analysis includes scalings based on a smooth transmission line model and a complementary treatment with a coupled-cavity simulation. We provide also an electromagnetic design for the accelerating structure, arriving at rough dimensions for a seven-cell accelerator matched to standard waveguide and suitable for bench tests at low power in air at 91.392. GHz. A critical element in the concept is a fast mm-wave switch suitable for operation at high-power, and we present the considerations for implementation in an H-plane tee. We discuss the use of diamond as the photoconductor switch medium

  6. The Smallest Molecular Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Emberly, Eldon G.; Kirczenow, George

    2003-01-01

    Ab-initio total energy calculations reveal benzene-dithiolate (BDT) molecules on a gold surface, contacted by a monoatomic gold STM tip to have two classes of low energy conformations with differing symmetries. Lateral motion of the tip or excitation of the molecule cause it to change from one conformation class to the other and to switch between a strongly and a weakly conducting state. Thus, surprisingly, despite their apparent simplicity these Au/BDT/Au nanowires are shown to be electrical...

  7. Python Switch Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Python programming language does not have a built in switch/case control structure as found in many other high level programming languages. It is thought by some that this is a deficiency in the language, and the control structure should be added. This paper demonstrates that not only is the control structure not needed, but that the methods available in Python are more expressive than built in case statements in other high level languages.

  8. Magnetic Cellular Switches

    OpenAIRE

    Overby, Darryl R.; Alenghat, Francis J.; Montoya-Zavala, Martín; Bei, HuCheng; Oh, Philmo; Karavitis, John; Ingber, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of magnetic cellular switches to enable magnetic control of intracellular functions in living mammalian cells, including receptor signal transduction and gene transcription. Our approach takes advantage of the mechanosensitivity of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) induction and downstream transcription controlled by the cAMP regulatory element (CRE) to engineer gene constructs that optically report gene expression in living cells. We activate transcri...

  9. Beyond the switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aliakseyeu, Dzmitry; Meerbeek, Bernt; Mason, Jon;

    2014-01-01

    and established lighting network, and with the advent of the LED, new types of lighting output are now possible. However, the current approach for controlling such systems is to simply replace the light switch with a somewhat more sophisticated smartphone-based remote control. The focus of this workshop......, to your car and to your office, will also be explored during this workshop as a part of a connected lifestyle between different contexts....

  10. MCT/MOSFET Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1990-01-01

    Metal-oxide/semiconductor-controlled thyristor (MCT) and metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) connected in switching circuit to obtain better performance. Offers high utilization of silicon, low forward voltage drop during "on" period of operating cycle, fast turnon and turnoff, and large turnoff safe operating area. Includes ability to operate at high temperatures, high static blocking voltage, and ease of drive.

  11. 功利主义思想对大学生的危害及对策%The Harm and Countermeasure of Utilitarianism to College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷锦章

    2016-01-01

    The utilitarianism thought mainly composed of three theoretical basis points, which are Pains-Pleasures principle, effect theory and utility principle. With the advance of globalization and the con⁃stant infiltration of the Western utilitarianism, it has a negative influence on the college students, so we must take effective measures to curb it, and guide them towards the right direction.%功利主义的思想主要由苦乐原理、效果论和功利原则三个理论基本点组成。随着全球化的推进,西方功利主义思想的不断渗透,当代大学生在无形中受到其负面影响严重,必须采取有效措施加以遏制,并引导其朝正确方向发展。

  12. Cygnus Diverter Switch Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton et al.

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two 2.25-MV, 60-kA, 50-ns x-ray sources fielded in an underground laboratory at the Nevada Test Site. The tests performed in this laboratory involve study of the dynamic properties of plutonium and are called subcritical experiments. From end-to-end, the Cygnus machines utilize the following components: Marx generator, water-filled pulse-forming line (PFL), waterfilled coaxial transmission line (WTL), 3-cell inductive voltage adder (IVA), and rod-pinch diode. The upstream WTL interface to the PFL is via a radial insulator with coaxial geometry. The downstream WTL terminates in a manifold where the center conductor splits into three lines which individually connect to each of the IVA cell inputs. There is an impedance mismatch at this juncture. It is a concern that a reflected pulse due to anomalous behavior in the IVA or diode might initiate breakdown upon arrival at the upstream PFL/WTL insulator. Therefore near the beginning of the WTL a radial diverter switch is installed to protect the insulator from over voltage and breakdown. The diverter has adjustable gap spacing, and an in-line aqueous-solution (sodium thiosulfate) resistor array for energy dissipation. There are capacitive voltage probes at both ends of the WTL and on the diverter switch. These voltage signals will be analyzed to determine diverter performance. Using this analysis the usefulness of the diverter switch will be evaluated.

  13. Moral hypocrisy on the basis of construal level: to be a utilitarian personal decision maker or to be a moral advisor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiao

    Full Text Available People encounter various moral issues that involve making decisions for others by giving advice.This study investigated the characteristics of providing suggestions for oneself versus providing suggestions for others in ethical decision-making and the differences between them based on Construal Level Theory (CLT.A total of 768 undergraduate students from three universities in China were randomly assigned to eight groups on the basis of a grid of two Construal Levels (self or others by two different numbers of people saved (5 people or 15 people by two problem situations (trolley problem vs. footbridge problem. The investigation examined participants' decisions to opt to take action or refrain from action that would have the consequence of saving more people.The main effects of Construal Level (F1, 752 = 6.46, p = .011, saving number (F1, 752 = 35.81, p < .001, and problem situation type (F1, 752 = 330.55, p < .001 were all significant. The interaction of the problem situation and saving number (F1, 752 = 1.01, p = .31, and social distance and saving number (F1, 752 = 0.85, p = .36, and interaction of the three independent factors (F1, 752 = 0.47, p = .49 were not significant. However, the interaction of social distance and problem situation (F1, 752 = 9.46, p = .002 was significant. Results indicated the participants utilized a component of utilitarian reasoning in the decision-making, and their behaviors appeared more utilitarian at low Construal Levels (CLs compared to high.CLs, saving numbers, and problem situation significantly affected moral decision-making and exhibited significant interaction. Making decisions for oneself (low-construal rather than giving advice to others (high-construal was one important factor that determined whether the people were utilitarian or not. Utilitarian considerations are more relevant in impersonal dilemmas.

  14. [Brain death: biological and ethical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roczeń, R; Bohatyrewicz, R

    2001-01-01

    The article presents briefly historical development of death criteria from the modern times to the present. The criteria which are used for identification and diagnosing death on the base of respiratory and circulatory death definition are described. This work underlines the inadequacy of the definition of the brain death in relation to patients with persistent vegetative state and in relation to anencephalic newborns. The author describes the pathology and clinical and laboratory evidence of the brain stem death, which gave the possibility to justify the thesis that in case of the brain stem death ontological arguments are sufficient for diagnosing the death of a human being. The attention of the ethic of the life sanctity (on the base of halachic's law) and its opposing influence on the evolution of the medical definition of death has been paid. The recognition of the brain as the death of an individual is a cultural shock, which from scientific point of view changed the ways of thinking, almost immediately but did not in the awareness of the society. The work also underlies the fact that utilitarian argumentation can not be a criterion for making a decision concerning the life of an individual.

  15. 当代大学生功利化倾向及对策研究%Research on the Utilitarian Tendency of Contemporary University Students and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立新; 张晓霞

    2016-01-01

    当代大学生的价值观变化在市场经济体制作用下日趋明显,部分大学生表现出功利化倾向。大学生功利化倾向的价值观涉及其生活、学习等多个方面,本文着重从学习观、恋爱观及价值观等三个方面进行论述,通过论述分析大学生功利化倾向这一现象并提出一定的矫正策略,使其明确学习观念、端正恋爱观念,形成正确的价值观念。%The change of contemporary university students' values is increasingly obvious under the impact of the market economy system,and some university students tend to be utilitarian. The utilitarian values of university students involve various aspects including their life and learning. This paper focuses on the out-look on learning,the outlook on love and the outlook on values, analyzing the utilitarian tendency of university students and proposing certain correction strategies,aiming to make them make clear their outlook on learning,correct their outlook on love and form correct outlook on values.

  16. O critério utilitarista será adequado para situação de risco? Is the utilitarian criterion appropriate for situations of risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Alves das Neves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O utilitarismo difere das teorias éticas que fazem o caráter de bom ou mau de uma ação depender do agente, pois, de acordo com o utilitarismo, é possível que uma ação boa venha resultar de uma motivação ruim no indivíduo. Antes de Jeremy Benthan, fundador do utilitarismo, e Stuart Mill, um dos maiores defensores desta teoria, darem forma ao utilitarismo, o pensamento utilitarista já existia na filosofia antiga inspirado na formulação do princípio da utilidade. Partilhavam a ideia de construir uma ciência positiva dos fatos sociais, afastando-se de qualquer pretensão de encontrar princípios ou verdades absolutas.Utilitarianism differs from ethical theories in which good or evil depend on the agent, since, according to utilitarian thinkers, a good action may result from bad intentions. Before Jeremy Bentham, the founder of the theory, and John Stuart Mill, its strongest advocate, gave utilitarianism its modern form, such kinds of thinking based on the principle of utility had already existed in the philosophy of the ancients. They shared the idea of building up a positive science of social facts, devoid of any quest for first principles or absolute truths.

  17. Individuality: Beyond Bentham's Utilitarianism%个性理论:密尔对边沁式功利主义的超越

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂琳

    2012-01-01

    The British utilitarianism represented by Jeremy Bentham has a reductionist orientation. John Stuart Mill accepted the British Romantic literature and continental philosophy. He overcame the tendency of the analyti- cal methods and determinism of utilitarianism and stressed the cultivation of the human heart and free will. His basis on human nature is the ability of free choice and experiment. He developed the Individuality, which is dif- ferent from Jeremy Bentham's utilitarianism, as the basis of his theory of liberalism and had a profound impact.%以边沁为代表的英国功利主义具有一种还原论取向,密尔接受英国浪漫主义文学及欧陆哲学的影响,克服功利主义只重视分析方法的唯科学主义及决定论倾向,开始重视人的内心修养、意志自由等问题,把"自由选择与自由试验"的能力作为其人性观的基础,发展出不同于边沁式功利主义的"个性"理论。这种个性理论成为他自由主义理论的基础,产生了深远影响。

  18. Valence of emotions and moral decision-making: increased pleasantness to pleasant images and decreased unpleasantness to unpleasant images are associated with utilitarian choices in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eCarmona-Perera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Moral decision-making is a key asset for humans’ integration in social contexts, and the way we decide about moral issues seems to be strongly influenced by emotions. For example, individuals with deficits in emotional processing tend to deliver more utilitarian choices (accepting an emotionally aversive action in favor of communitarian well-being. However, little is known about the association between emotional experience and moral-related patterns of choice. We investigated whether subjective reactivity to emotional stimuli, in terms of valence, arousal and dominance, is associated with moral decision-making in 95 healthy adults. They answered to a set of Moral and Non-moral dilemmas and assessed emotional experience in valence, arousal and dominance dimensions in response to Neutral, Pleasant, Unpleasant Non-moral, and Unpleasant Moral pictures. Results showed significant correlations between less unpleasantness to negative stimuli, more pleasantness to positive stimuli and higher proportion of utilitarian choices. We also found a positive association between higher arousal ratings to negative moral laden pictures and more utilitarian choices. Low dominance was associated with greater perceived difficulty over moral judgment. These behavioral results are in fitting with the proposed role of emotional experience in moral choice.

  19. Plant Stem Bark Extractivism in the Northeast Semiarid Region of Brazil: A New Aport to Utilitarian Redundancy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the model of utilitarian redundancy as a basis for research. This model provides predictions that have not been tested by other research. In this sense, we sought to investigate the stem bark extraction between preferred and less-preferred species by a rural community in Caatinga environment. In addition, we sought to explain local preferences to observe if preferred plants have a higher content of tannins than less-preferred species. For this, we selected seven preferred species and seven less-preferred species from information obtained from semistructured interviews applied to 49 informants. Three areas of vegetation around the community were also selected, in which individuals were tagged, and were measured the diameter at ground level (DGL diameter at breast height (DBH, and measurements of available and extracted bark areas. Samples of bark of the species were also collected for the evaluation of tannin content, obtained by the method of radial diffusion. From the results, the preferred species showed a greater area of bark removed. However, the tannin content showed no significant differences between preferred and less-preferred plants. These results show there is a relationship between preference and use, but this preference is not related to the total tannins content.

  20. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalography (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain.

  1. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ravi kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalograph y (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain

  2. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  3. Research Progress on Multimode Interference Switches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qing; SHENG Zhi-rui; JIANG Xiao-qing; WANG Ming-hua

    2005-01-01

    Optical switches are key components for constructing optical communication networks, so it is necessary to design optical switches and optical switch arrays with high performance and low cost. As one type of optical switches, the multimode interference(MMI) switches have received considerable attention due to their unique merits. The structures and operation principles of various types of MMI switches are introduced,and the recent progresses of MMI switches are also discussed.

  4. Circuit model of Rimfire switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cascade gaps circuit model for Rimfire switch has been developed. The circuit model includes all stray capacitances and spark channel on-state conduction characteristics. It can not only describe the behavior of Rimfire switch, but also allow analysis of the time varying voltage and current at each part of the switch, describing the internal characters of the switch. PSpice was used to implement the cascade gaps circuit model and simulate a 700 kV Rimfire switch. The simulation shows that, the voltage of the whole switch will be higher than 700 kV when the laser triggered section has broken down but all cascade gaps keep dielectric, and the voltage of all gaps attenuates with high frequency oscillation. (authors)

  5. The economics of lamp switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The effect of switching off fluorescent lamps, in terms of electricity cost, was discussed. Fluorescent lamps are designed to burn for thousands of hours. Initially, it was believed that turning them off was not economical. However, with new fluorescent lamps available today, this no longer holds true. It was shown that as energy costs increase, it is advantageous to switch lamps off in office buildings during lunch, coffee breaks and other non-essential periods. Also, as labour and lamp costs increase it becomes even more economical to turn lamps on only when needed in some areas such as washrooms, stockrooms, etc. Inexpensive photo-electric and time-switch controls are readily available for automatic switching to eliminate the `human error` of forgetting to turn light off when they are not required. Over time, the energy saved would offset the cost of the switch controllers and the reduction in lamp life caused by repeated switching. 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  7. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  8. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... others live with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the ... distant nerve cells (via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  13. Noise-induced coherent switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN ZhanJiang; ZHANG Jiadun; ZHOU TianShou

    2008-01-01

    Taking the famous genetic toggle switch as an example, we numerically investigated the effect of noise on bistability. We found that extrinsic noise resulting from stochastic fluctuations in synthesis and degradation rates and from the environmental fluctuation in gene regulatory processes can induce coherent switch, and that there is an optimal noise intensity such that the noise not only can induce this switch, but also can amplify a weak input signal. In addition, we found that the intrinsic noise introduced through the Poisson τ-leap algorithm cannot induce such a switch.

  14. Noise-induced coherent switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Taking the famous genetic toggle switch as an example,we numerically investigated the effect of noise on bistability.We found that extrinsic noise resulting from stochastic fluctuations in synthesis and degradation rates and from the environmental fluctuation in gene regulatory processes can induce coherent switch,and that there is an optimal noise intensity such that the noise not only can induce this switch,but also can amplify a weak input signal.In addition,we found that the intrinsic noise introduced through the Poisson τ-leap algorithm cannot induce such a switch.

  15. Software Switching for Data Acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; , David

    2016-01-01

    In this talk we discuss the feasibility of replacing telecom-class routers with a topology of commodity servers acting as software switches in data acquisition. We extend the popular software switch, Open vSwitch, with a dedicated, throughput-oriented buffering mechanism. We compare the performance under heavy many-to-one congestion to typical Ethernet switches and evaluate the scalability when building larger topologies, exploiting the integration with software-defined networking technologies. Please note that David Malone will speak on behalf of Grzegorz Jereczek.

  16. Recent developments in switching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Amar

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Science Series: Recent Developments in Switching Theory covers the progress in the study of the switching theory. The book discusses the simplified proof of Post's theorem on completeness of logic primitives; the role of feedback in combinational switching circuits; and the systematic procedure for the design of Lupanov decoding networks. The text also describes the classical results on counting theorems and their application to the classification of switching functions under different notions of equivalence, including linear and affine equivalences. The development of abstract har

  17. LCT protective dump-switch tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each of the six coils in the Large Coil Task (LCT) has a separate power supply, dump resistor, and switching circuit. Each switching circuit contains five switches, two of which are redundant. The three remaining switches perform separate duties in an emergency dump situation. These three switches were tested to determine their ability to meet the LCT conditions

  18. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  19. Convertible resistive switching characteristics between memory switching and threshold switching in a single ferritin-based memristor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaochao; Shang, Jie; Xue, Wuhong; Tan, Hongwei; Pan, Liang; Yang, Xi; Guo, Shanshan; Hao, Jian; Liu, Gang; Li, Run-Wei

    2016-04-01

    A bio-memristor fabricated with ferritin exhibits novel resistive switching characteristics wherein memory switching and threshold switching are made steadily coexistent and inter-convertible through controlling the magnitude of compliance current presets. PMID:26967024

  20. Cognitive control mechanisms revealed by ERP and fMRI: evidence from repeated task-switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainson, R; Cunnington, R; Jackson, G M; Rorden, C; Peters, A M; Morris, P G; Jackson, S R

    2003-08-15

    We investigated the extent to which a common neural mechanism is involved in task set-switching and response withholding, factors that are frequently confounded in task-switching and go/no-go paradigms. Subjects' brain activity was measured using event-related electrical potentials (ERPs) and event-related functional MRI (fMRI) neuroimaging in separate studies using the same cognitive paradigm. Subjects made compatible left/right keypress responses to left/right arrow stimuli of 1000 msec duration; they switched every two trials between responding at stimulus onset (GO task-green arrows) and stimulus offset (WAIT task-red arrows). With-holding an immediate response (WAIT vs. GO) elicited an enhancement of the frontal N2 ERP and lateral PFC activation of the right hemisphere, both previously associated with the "no-go" response, but only on switch trials. Task-switching (switch vs. nonswitch) was associated with frontal N2 amplification and right hemisphere ventrolateral PFC activation, but only for the WAIT task. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was the only brain region to be activated for both types of task switch, but this activation was located more rostrally for the WAIT than for the GO switch trials. We conclude that the frontal N2 ERP and lateral PFC activation are not markers for withholding an immediate response or switching tasks per se, but are associated with switching into a response-suppression mode. Different regions within the ACC may be involved in two processes integral to task-switching: processing response conflict (rostral ACC) and overcoming prior response suppression (caudal ACC).

  1. EDITORIAL: Molecular switches at surfaces Molecular switches at surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinelt, Martin; von Oppen, Felix

    2012-10-01

    In nature, molecules exploit interaction with their environment to realize complex functionalities on the nanometer length scale. Physical, chemical and/or biological specificity is frequently achieved by the switching of molecules between microscopically different states. Paradigmatic examples are the energy production in proton pumps of bacteria or the signal conversion in human vision, which rely on switching molecules between different configurations or conformations by external stimuli. The remarkable reproducibility and unparalleled fatigue resistance of these natural processes makes it highly desirable to emulate nature and develop artificial systems with molecular functionalities. A promising avenue towards this goal is to anchor the molecular switches at surfaces, offering new pathways to control their functional properties, to apply electrical contacts, or to integrate switches into larger systems. Anchoring at surfaces allows one to access the full range from individual molecular switches to self-assembled monolayers of well-defined geometry and to customize the coupling between molecules and substrate or between adsorbed molecules. Progress in this field requires both synthesis and preparation of appropriate molecular systems and control over suitable external stimuli, such as light, heat, or electrical currents. To optimize switching and generate function, it is essential to unravel the geometric structure, the electronic properties and the dynamic interactions of the molecular switches on surfaces. This special section, Molecular Switches at Surfaces, collects 17 contributions describing different aspects of this research field. They analyze elementary processes, both in single molecules and in ensembles of molecules, which involve molecular switching and concomitant changes of optical, electronic, or magnetic properties. Two topical reviews summarize the current status, including both challenges and achievements in the field of molecular switches on

  2. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  3. Molecule-Based Rheology Switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulusse, Jos M.J.; Sijbesma, Rint P.

    2006-01-01

    Sound-activated switching: The rheological behavior of fluids can be affected by external stimuli, as demonstrated by electrochemically and photochemically induced changes in viscosity and sol–gel transitions. Recently, ultrasound has emerged as a novel rheology switch for supramolecular polymers an

  4. Switching Costs in Accounting Services

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Koç; Nisa Kıymet Şahin

    2015-01-01

    Switching cost is defined as possible costs that customers may encounter when they want to change the firm they buy service, and an important subject in terms of accounting services. Particularly, small business entrepreneurs’ not having knowledge about accounting procedures, and sharing private information with accounting firms make switching costs more important for accounting services. Thus, the aim of this study is...

  5. Delineation of separate brain regions used for scientific versus engineering modes of thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Clair C.

    1994-08-01

    Powerful, latent abilities for extreme sophistication in abstract rationalization as potential biological adaptive behavioral responses were installed entirely through accident and inadvertence by biological evolution in the Homo sapiens sapiens species of brain. These potentials were never used, either in precursor species as factors in evolutionary increase in hominid brain mass, nor in less sophisticated forms within social environments characterized by Hss tribal brain population densities. Those latent abilities for unnatural biological adaptive behavior were forced to become manifest in various ways by growths in sophistication of communication interactions engendered by large growths in brain population densities brought on by developments in agriculture at the onset of the Holocene. It is proposed that differences probably exist between regions of the Hss brain involved in utilitarian, engineering types of problem conceptualization-solving versus regions of the brain involved in nonutilitarian, artistic-scientific types of problem conceptualization-solving. Populations isolated on separate continents from diffusive contact and influence on cultural developments, and selected for comparison of developments during equivalent stages of technological and social sophistication in matching 4000 year periods, show, at the ends of those periods, marked differences in aesthetic attributes expressed in cosmogonies, music, and writing (nonutilitarian thinking related to science and art). On the other hand the two cultures show virtually identical developments in three major stages of metallurgical technologies (utilitarian thinking related to engineering). Such archaeological data suggest that utilitarian modes of thought may utilize combinations of neuronal circuits in brain regions that are conserved among tribal populations territorially separated from each other for tens of thousands of years. Such conservation may not be true for neuronal circuits involved in

  6. Experiments in magnetic switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic switching offers an alternative to overcoming the rep-rate and life limitations of the spark gaps in the ETA/ATA induction accelerators. The principle has been applied for many years to radar modulators but at much lower power levels and longer pulse lengths. Comparatively recent developments in magnetic materials together with some optimal circuits have made it possible to go well beyond the state of the art. A magnetic modulator has been built which steps up and compresses a 25 kV, 5 μs pulse into a 250 kV, 50 ns pulse. A second magnetic modulator has been built and installed to replace four Blumleins and spark gaps in order to provide triggers for the complete ETA injector and accelerator. The paper outlines some practical and theoretical considerations affecting the design of the magnetic pulse generator

  7. Optimized scalable network switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    2010-02-23

    In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

  8. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-04-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ...

  11. 超功利评价:课堂教学评价的应然选择%Evaluation of Ultra-utilitarian:An Inevitable Choice of Classroom Teaching Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明友

    2014-01-01

    The essence of modern classroom instruction is the coexistence of utilitarian value and non-utilitarian value.“Target ref-erence”model of classroom teaching evaluation is a particularly evident utilitarian value of the evaluation model,increasingly unsuited to the needs of educational reform. Evaluation of classroom teaching should be ultra-utilitarian and the realization of ultra-utilitarian e-valuation of classroom teaching should focus on the aestheticization of the evaluation criteria.%现代课堂教学的本质是功利性价值与非功利性价值并存。“目标参照”模式的课堂教学评价是一种功利价值特别明显的评价模式,已越来越不适应教育教学改革的需要。课堂教学评价的价值取向应该是超功利性的,实现课堂教学超功利评价的着眼点在于评价标准的审美化。

  12. 英国古典功利主义苦乐原理新解及现实意义%The new explanation and practical significance of British classical utilitarianism bittersweet principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊

    2014-01-01

    边沁是英国古典功利主义的开创者,“苦乐原理”是功利主义的基础,密尔在边沁理论的基础上完善了功利主义,把功利主义推上顶峰。本文试图从苦乐原理思想的来源,古典功利主义者对“苦乐原理”的继承、发展和“苦乐原理”的新解读及现实意义方面对功利主义作出综合梳理,消除人们对功利主义的偏见,激发它在现实社会中的新活力。%Bentham is the pioneer of British classical utilitarianism.“And the principle of ”is the basis of utilitarianism.Mill perfected the utilitarianism in based on the theory of Bentham and pushed it on top.This paper attempts from the source of“and the principle”and the classic utilitarianism scholars ’inheritance,development,new interpretation and realistic significance of“And the principle of”to make a comprehensive review.The purpose of this paper is to disple the prejudice to utilitarianism and stimulate new energy in real society.

  13. Channelized coplanar waveguide pin-diode switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Simons, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    Three different types of p-i-n diode, reflective CPW switches are presented. The first two switches are the series and the shunt mounted diode switches. Each has achieved greater than 15 dB of isolation over a broad bandwidth. The third switch is a narrow band, high isolation switched filter which has achieved 19 dB of isolation. Equivalent circuits and measured performance for each switch is presented.

  14. Electrophysiological Evidence for Domain-general Processes in Task-switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagrazia eCapizzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to flexibly switch between tasks is a hallmark of cognitive control. Despite previous studies that have investigated whether different task-switching types would be mediated by distinct or overlapping neural mechanisms, no definitive consensus has been reached on this question yet. Here, we aimed at directly addressing this issue by recording the event-related potentials (ERPs elicited by two types of task-switching occurring in the context of spatial and verbal cognitive domains. Source analysis was also applied to the ERP data in order to track the spatial dynamics of brain activity underlying task-switching abilities. In separate blocks of trials, participants had to perform either spatial or verbal switching tasks both of which employed the same type of stimuli. The ERP analysis, which was carried out through a channel- and time-uninformed mass univariate approach, showed no significant differences between the spatial and verbal domains in the modulation of switch and repeat trials. Specifically, relative to repeat trials, switch trials in both domains were associated with a first larger positivity developing over left parieto-occipital electrodes and with a subsequent larger negativity distributed over mid-left fronto-central sites. The source analysis reconstruction for the two ERP components complemented these findings by highlighting the involvement of left-lateralized prefrontal areas in task-switching. Overall, our results join and extend recent research confirming the existence of left-lateralized domain-general task-switching processes.

  15. Electrophysiological Evidence for Domain-General Processes in Task-Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Ambrosini, Ettore; Arbula, Sandra; Mazzonetto, Ilaria; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    The ability to flexibly switch between tasks is a hallmark of cognitive control. Despite previous studies that have investigated whether different task-switching types would be mediated by distinct or overlapping neural mechanisms, no definitive consensus has been reached on this question yet. Here, we aimed at directly addressing this issue by recording the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by two types of task-switching occurring in the context of spatial and verbal cognitive domains. Source analysis was also applied to the ERP data in order to track the spatial dynamics of brain activity underlying task-switching abilities. In separate blocks of trials, participants had to perform either spatial or verbal switching tasks both of which employed the same type of stimuli. The ERP analysis, which was carried out through a channel- and time-uninformed mass univariate approach, showed no significant differences between the spatial and verbal domains in the modulation of switch and repeat trials. Specifically, relative to repeat trials, switch trials in both domains were associated with a first larger positivity developing over left parieto-occipital electrodes and with a subsequent larger negativity distributed over mid-left fronto-central sites. The source analysis reconstruction for the two ERP components complemented these findings by highlighting the involvement of left-lateralized prefrontal areas in task-switching. Overall, our results join and extend recent research confirming the existence of left-lateralized domain-general task-switching processes. PMID:27047366

  16. Filamentary Switching: Synaptic Plasticity through Device Volatility

    CERN Document Server

    La Barbera, Selina; Alibart, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Replicating the computational functionalities and performances of the brain remains one of the biggest challenges for the future of information and communication technologies. Such an ambitious goal requires research efforts from the architecture level to the basic device level (i.e., investigating the opportunities offered by emerging nanotechnologies to build such systems). Nanodevices, or, more precisely, memory or memristive devices, have been proposed for the implementation of synaptic functions, offering the required features and integration in a single component. In this paper, we demonstrate that the basic physics involved in the filamentary switching of electrochemical metallization cells can reproduce important biological synaptic functions that are key mechanisms for information processing and storage. The transition from short- to long-term plasticity has been reported as a direct consequence of filament growth (i.e., increased conductance) in filamentary memory devices. In this paper, we show tha...

  17. 论高等教育的去功利化改革%On reform of eliminating utilitarianism of higher education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁洋

    2015-01-01

    文章立足于高等教育的发展现状,从素质教育的改革理念出发,重点论述我国高等教育体制中功利化的表现与弊端,揭示出功利化的倾向严重威胁我国高等教育事业的可持续发展,只有实现高等教育的去功利化改革才能走出此困境,并针对这一教育改革问题提出以人的全面发展和社会的现实需要为核心的对策措施,从而大力保障高等教育的深化改革,加快社会主义物质文明和精神文明建设,进而促进社会的良性发展与和谐进步。%This paper is based on the current situation of higher education development. From the conception of quality edu-cation,it focuses on the demonstration and disadvantages of utilitarianism in Chinese higher education system and reveals that the utilitarian trend will seriously threaten the sustainable development of Chinese higher education. Only through the reform of eliminating utilitarianism of higher education can we get rid of this dilemma and put forward some measures centered on the all-round development of man and the practical need of society based on the reform of higher education. All these above will vigor-ously ensure the deepening reform of higher education,speed up the construction of socialist material and spiritual civilization, and thus promote the sound development,harmony and progress of our society.

  18. Review and Introspection of the Utilitarian Concept of Literature and Art%文艺功利观的回顾与反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建东

    2012-01-01

    文艺功利观是国内外文艺理论界历来争议最大的核心问题之一。早期的哲人和文艺理论家注重文艺的娱乐功能;之后,有趋同于文艺的政治功能的倾向。近百年来,我们对文艺功利观的理解,往往出现两个极端。目前我们面临当代文艺发展的新时期,对文艺功利观的重新认识,有利于消除商品大潮裹胁而来的负面影响,对厘清文艺作为审美意识形态的特殊功能,对繁荣社会主义文艺的健康发展,具有一定的理论意义。%The literature and art utilitarian concept has always been one of the core problems argued in the theoretical circles both at home and abroad.In the early days,philosophers and theorists of literature and art attached importance to its recreational function.Then,there was a tendency of reaching unanimity with the political function.In the recent hundred years,there were usually two extremes of understanding the utilitarian concept of the literature and art.At present,we are facing the new age of developing literature and art.The new recognition of utilitarian concept of the new literature and art is helpful to the reduction of the negative influence which comes with the commodity tide.It is of great significance to the clarification of art's particular function as an aesthetic ideology and the healthy development of the socialist literature and art..

  19. 功利主义在卫生决策中的应用%Analysis on Application of Utilitarianism in Health Decision-Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁华金; 徐凌忠; 山珂; 周成超; 崔伊萌

    2013-01-01

    Health policy determines the operation of the entire health system, the value orientation of policy makers determines the direction, process and results of policy decision-making. Utilitarianism, which takes utilitarian effect of people ’s behavior as the basic moral evaluation standard, is one of the basic principles of public policy decision-making. Under circumstance of limited health resources, health policy makers usually insist on value orientation of utilitarianism, seek to maximize the health benefits of health resources. It discusses the practice and some difficulties of utilitarianism behind the health policy decision-making by ethnic view, so as to improve understanding of health management and health policy analyst to health decision-making process.%卫生政策决定着整个卫生系统的运行,卫生政策决策者的价值取向决定着卫生政策决策的方向、过程和结果。功利主义作为一种以人们行为的功利效果为道德准则的基本评价标准,是当今公共政策决策的基本原则之一,在卫生资源有限的情况下,卫生政策决策者通常坚持功利主义的价值导向,追求卫生资源的健康效益最大化。本文从伦理学的角度,探讨了功利主义在我国卫生政策决策背后的运用及其在卫生政策决策实践中的一些困境,以期增进卫生管理者和卫生政策分析者对卫生决策过程的理解。

  20. The magnetoelectrochemical switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Petru Lunca; Kemp, Neil T; Majjad, Hicham; Dalmas, Guillaume; Faramarzi, Vina; Andreas, Christian; Hertel, Riccardo; Doudin, Bernard

    2014-07-22

    In the field of spintronics, the archetype solid-state two-terminal device is the spin valve, where the resistance is controlled by the magnetization configuration. We show here how this concept of spin-dependent switch can be extended to magnetic electrodes in solution, by magnetic control of their chemical environment. Appropriate nanoscale design allows a huge enhancement of the magnetic force field experienced by paramagnetic molecular species in solutions, which changes between repulsive and attractive on changing the electrodes' magnetic orientations. Specifically, the field gradient force created within a sub-100-nm-sized nanogap separating two magnetic electrodes can be reversed by changing the orientation of the electrodes' magnetization relative to the current flowing between the electrodes. This can result in a breaking or making of an electric nanocontact, with a change of resistance by a factor of up to 10(3). The results reveal how an external field can impact chemical equilibrium in the vicinity of nanoscale magnetic circuits. PMID:25009179

  1. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  2. Rights Arises from Utility: The Interpretation of the Basis of Rights by Modern Utilitarian%权利奠基于功利——当代功利主义对权利之基础的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋运锋

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between right and good is one of the core issues in modem political philoso phy. Utilitarian regard good as prevailing, and utility is food, utility found the basis for rights. Critics say that to found rights on the basis of utility is wrong because the maximum utility may affect the importance of rights. Modem utilitarian amended the utilitarian view of rights by various theories like double utilitarianism, normal utilitarianism, and institutional utilitarianism, and defended for the theory of rights arises from utility.%如何看待权利与善的关系,是当代政治哲学争论的核心问题之一。功利主义主张善的优先性,而功利就是善,权利的基础是功利。批评者认为,功利主义把权利建立在功利之上的做法是错误的,它会因为功利最大化的要求而损害权利的重要性。当代功利主义者通过双层功利主义、规则功利主义和制度功利主义等不同的理论形态修正了功利主义的权利观,并为奠基于功利的权利理论做出了有力辩护。

  3. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  4. Polariton condensates: Electrical spin switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, T. C. H.

    2016-10-01

    Ultra-low-power electronic switching of stable exciton-polariton spin states has now been achieved in a semiconductor microcavity. This opens a new route to the integration of spin-based photonics and electronics.

  5. Electromagnetic actuation in MEMS switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Mária; Chemnitz, Steffen;

    Power electronics takes use of switches in order to convert and manage energy. The ideal switch with low power loss consists of electromechanic relays, but since they are bulky and expensive, semiconductors switches are more widely used for power electronic applications, resulting in power losses...... during energy conversion. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) consist of miniaturized mechanical and/or electro-mechanical elements fabricated using microfabrication techniques, and are good candidates for achieving a miniaturized electromechanic switch at the micro-scale with very little power loss...... constrains its integration through standard deposition methods. Electroplating is a deposition technique which allows the deposition of thick films, and the integration of this technique to standard cleanroom fabrication is one of the focuses of this project, leading to large-scale fabrication of a new...

  6. Multiuser Switched Diversity Scheduling Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback sys...

  7. High PRF high current switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  8. Product choice and product switching

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Bernard; Redding, Stephen; Peter K. Schott

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a model of endogenous product selection by firms. The theory is motivated by new evidence we present on the importance of product switching by U.S. manufacturers. Two-thirds of continuing firms change their product mix every five years, and product switches involve more than 40% of firm output and almost half of existing products. The theoretical model incorporates heterogeneous firms, heterogeneous products, and ongoing entry and exit. In equilibrium, firm productivity is...

  9. Statistical switching kinetics in ferroelectrics

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, X. J.

    2008-01-01

    By assuming a more realistic nucleation and polarization reversal scenario we build a new statistical switching model for ferroelectrics, which is different from either the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi (KAI) model or the Nucleation-Limited-Switching (NLS) model. After incorporating a time-dependent depolarization field this model gives a good description about the retardation behavior in polycrystalline thin films at medium or low fields, which can not be described by the traditional KAI model...

  10. Superannuation: Switching and Roulette Wheels

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Drew

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of choice has resulted in Australia’s superannuation system providing unprecedented flexibility (through increased investment options and the timing choices) for members to optimise their expected benefits. This paper examines the impact of switching between investment options using a normalised ranked return or “roulette wheel” approach developed by Bauer and Dahlquist (2001) for the Australian setting. The paper tests various switching strategies for both single-sector and ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many ... unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting ...

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    Full Text Available ... Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The ...

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    Full Text Available ... body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function ...

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    Full Text Available ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate ...

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  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex ( ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

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    Full Text Available ... body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

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    Full Text Available ... medications could reduce the amount of trial and error and frustration that many people with depression experience ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain ...

  4. Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies Advanced technologies are also making it faster, easier, and more ...

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    Full Text Available ... mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the flow of information to the front of the brain, ... the neuron will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells required for normal function and ...

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    Full Text Available ... works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental ... and are working to compare that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues ...

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    Full Text Available ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

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    Full Text Available ... neurons, the most highly specialized cells of all, conduct messages. Every cell in our bodies contains a ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

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  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  12. Discussion about philosophical basis of Yan Yuan's utilitarianism%试析颜元功利主义思想的哲学依据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静

    2011-01-01

    功利主义作为一种道德伦理观在中西方早就存在了,颜元的功利观力图将"内圣"与"外王"相结合起来,重塑经世达用之道。他并因此而搭建了他的功利哲学体系。他的功利思想又是经何作为哲学依据的呢?中国传统的功利思想大多建立在人性论之上,颜元的功利思想也不例外。他立足于抽象的人性论,以直接经验作为认识的基础,从而成功地为他的功利思想寻找到了合法的哲学依据。%The utilitarianism is one kind of moral concept,It is for a long time in the east and west.Yan Yuan strives to be tied in wedlock "neisheng" and "waiwang".He attaches importance to pragmatism,and have built his utilitarianism philosophy because of it.What

  13. An Analysis on the Utilitarian Mate Selection of Women and Its Cultural Background%女性功利性择偶及文化背景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯爱红

    2015-01-01

    当前女性择偶功利性特征显著,择偶途径公开、多元,参与人员众多,择偶标准注重物质经济条件,并存在“急婚”“恐婚”等择偶焦虑心理。经济条件虽改变了人们的思想和婚恋观,但特定的社会性别文化、婚姻制度、婚姻价值观念以及社会舆论氛围却是形成女性功利性择偶观的主要原因。%Currently, the utilitarian characteristic of women’ s mate selection is significant.The means of ma-te selection become open and multivariant with too many participates in blind dates.Furthermore, the stand-ards of mate selection always emphasize the economic conditions of each other.There are even various anxie-ties in mate selection, such as“urgency of marriage,“fear of marriage”, etc.Although the economic factors become more and more important in mate selection, which change peoples attitudes toward love and marriage, the specific social gender culture, marriage system, marriage values and social public opinion mainly result in women’ s utilitarian mate selection and their psychological imbalance.

  14. On the students' utilitarian psychology in the physical experiment%学生在物理实验中的功利心理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎成; 王显德

    2011-01-01

    Utilitarian in this article are not an usual meaning of the derogatory sense, it has a definite explanation. After analyzing the negative effects of initial stage utilitarian psychology, the author introduces some specific measures so as to help the students know the ultimate goal of utilitarianism:that is to serve to pursue the happiness of society instead of any individuals.%所叙述的功利并不是通常意义上的贬义的功利,提出功利的完整含义。在分析了初期功利心理对物理实验产生的一些消极影响之后,介绍了有针对性的消除这些不良影响的具体措施。同时让学生认识到功利主义的最高境界:要从追求个人的最大幸福转变为服务于整个社会。

  15. Working Memory Costs of Task Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Barrouillet, Pierre; Vandierendonck, Andre; Camos, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Although many accounts of task switching emphasize the importance of working memory as a substantial source of the switch cost, there is a lack of evidence demonstrating that task switching actually places additional demands on working memory. The present study addressed this issue by implementing task switching in continuous complex span tasks…

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman ... new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A brain-body ... stress. impulse —An electrical communication signal sent between neurons ...

  18. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  19. Rule-Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cardoso Simões

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2009v8n3p47O objetivo do presente trabalho é examinar se o utilitarismo de regras poderia ter êxito em prover um possível avanço sobre o utilitarismo de atos, de modo a tornar o utilitarismo uma teoria moral viável. Em face deste propósito, levarei em consideração o seguinte: Em primeiro lugar temos que perceber que existem diferentes formulações do utilitarismo de regras, as quais visam responder a contra-exemplos morais, que o utilitarismo de atos não resolve satisfatoriamente. Em minha opinião, se contra-exemplos são bem sucedidos na formulação do utilitarismo de regras como uma alternativa substantiva ao utilitarismo de atos, e se esta alternativa substantiva permanece sob a égide do princípio utilitarista, em seguida, eles teriam conseguido responder a contra-exemplos. Em segundo lugar, apresentarei as principais formulações defendidas por escritores contemporâneos (Brandt e Rawls, especialmente

  20. Principles of broadband switching and networking

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Soung C

    2010-01-01

    An authoritative introduction to the roles of switching and transmission in broadband integrated services networks Principles of Broadband Switching and Networking explains the design and analysis of switch architectures suitable for broadband integrated services networks, emphasizing packet-switched interconnection networks with distributed routing algorithms. The text examines the mathematical properties of these networks, rather than specific implementation technologies. Although the pedagogical explanations in this book are in the context of switches, many of the fundamenta

  1. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, James Stephen

    Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6H-SiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators. The successful development of a vanadium compensated, 6H-SiC extrinsic photoconductive switch for use as a closing switch for compact accelerator applications was realized by improvements made to the vanadium, nitrogen and boron impurity densities. The changes made to the impurity densities were based on the physical intuition outlined and simple rate equation models. The final 6H-SiC impurity 'recipe' calls for vanadium, nitrogen and boron densities of 2.5 e17 cm-3, 1.25e17 cm-3 and ≤ 1e16 cm-3, respectively. This recipe was originally developed to maximize the quantum efficiency of the vanadium compensated 6H-SiC, while maintaining a thermally stable semi-insulating material. The rate equation models indicate that, besides increasing the quantum efficiency, the impurity recipe should be expected to also increase the carrier recombination time. Three generations of 6H-SiC materials were tested. The

  2. IGBT: a solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17.000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonant circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30.000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapour Laser

  3. Improvement on Switching Characteristics and Switching Losses of IGBT by ZVS—PWM①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGChunjiang; GUHerong; 等

    1997-01-01

    The principle of ZVS-PWM inverting circuit is first described by means of inverting welder supply.The contrastive study is made on switching characteristics and switching losses of IGBT between ZVS-PWM and hard-switching.

  4. A PARALLEL SWITCH FABRIC BASED ON CROSSBAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of link rate, the arbitrator of centralized switch fabric becomes too complicated to implement. A parallel switch fabric based on crossbar, named as PSFBC (Parallel Switch Fabric Based on Crossbar), has been proposed in this paper. PSFBC is composed of k switches whose rate is 1/k of link', these switches exchange cells in parallel; this increases the arbitrator's period and make it easy to implement. Load is evenly distributed to each switch with FCFS (First Come First Serve) rule, it can keep the order of cells in one stream. A multi-class queue scheduling policy is used in PSFBC to ensure the quality of realtime streams. Experiments show that the load on each switch in PSFBC is well balanced, its average delay of cells is little and its performance is very close to centralized switch; and with the increase of number of parallel switches, the loss of PSFBC's performance keeps very small, it becomes easier to implement.

  5. Critical dwell time of switched linear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun ZHANG; Chunwen LI

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the relation between the switching dwell time and the stabilization of switched linear control systems. First of all, a concept of critical dwell time is given for switched linear systems without control inputs, and the critical dwell time is taken as an arbitrary given positive constant for a switched linear control systems with controllable switching models. Secondly, when a switched linear system has many stabilizable switching models, the problem of stabilization of the overall system is considered. An on-line feedback control is designed such that the overall system is asymptotically stabilizable under switching laws which depend only on those of uncontrollable subsystems of the switching models. Finally, when a switched system is partially controllable (While some switching models are probably unstabilizable), an on-line feedback control and a cyclic switching strategy are designed such that the overall system is asymptotically stabilizable if all switching models of this uncontrollable subsystems are asymptotically stable. In addition,algorithms for designing switching laws and controls are presented.

  6. PROMOTION, SWITCHING BARRIERS, AND LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu-Shin Tung

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the causal relationships among promotion effects, switching barriers, and loyalty in the department stores. The relationship between switching barriers and loyalty reveals partially the same results as the switching barriers theory of Jones et al. (2000. The reasons arise from “too often” and “too similar” sales promotion programs of competitive department stores in Taiwan, leading the promotion effects to not contribute to the attractiveness of competitors. The promotion effects have a positive and significant influence on loyalty, which is consistent with the prior literature. Promotion effects are also the most important weight to loyalty in our tested model but it reveals a seeming loyalty, because the loyalty depends on the reward of promotion. The negative relationship between promotion effects and attractiveness of alternative supports the promotion effects, which can lower the attractiveness of competitors, but these similar promotion plans are not attributed to interpersonal relationships.

  7. Finite-time quantised feedback asynchronously switched control of sampled-data switched linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghao; Xing, Jianchun; Li, Juelong; Xiang, Zhengrong

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies the problem of stabilising a sampled-data switched linear system by quantised feedback asynchronously switched controllers. The idea of a quantised feedback asynchronously switched control strategy originates in earlier work reflecting actual system characteristic of switching and quantising, respectively. A quantised scheme is designed depending on switching time using dynamic quantiser. When sampling time, system switching time and controller switching time are all not uniform, the proposed switching controllers guarantee the system to be finite-time stable by a piecewise Lyapunov function and the average dwell-time method. Simulation examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the developed results.

  8. Brain glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Linea Lykke Frimodt; Müller, Margit S; Walls, Anne B;

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia....... In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been an emerging understanding in brain energy metabolism: that glycogen is more than just a convenient way to store energy for use in emergencies-it is a highly dynamic molecule with versatile implications in brain function, i.e., synaptic...... activity and memory formation. In line with the great spatiotemporal complexity of the brain and thereof derived focus on the basis for ensuring the availability of the right amount of energy at the right time and place, we here encourage a closer look into the molecular and subcellular mechanisms...

  9. Industry Switching in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    Firm turnover (i.e. firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sectorlevel productivity growth across developing and developed countries. In contrast, the role and importance of firms switching activities from one sector to another is little understood. Firm switchers are likely to be un......Firm turnover (i.e. firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sectorlevel productivity growth across developing and developed countries. In contrast, the role and importance of firms switching activities from one sector to another is little understood. Firm switchers are likely...

  10. CMOS integrated switching power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Villar-Pique, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    This book describes the structured design and optimization of efficient, energy processing integrated circuits. The approach is multidisciplinary, covering the monolithic integration of IC design techniques, power electronics and control theory. In particular, this book enables readers to conceive, synthesize, design and implement integrated circuits with high-density high-efficiency on-chip switching power regulators. Topics covered encompass the structured design of the on-chip power supply, efficiency optimization, IC-compatible power inductors and capacitors, power MOSFET switches and effi

  11. STABILITY OF SWITCHED POLYNOMIAL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqiang LI; Yupeng QIAO; Hongsheng QI; Daizhan CHENG

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the stability of (switched) polynomial systems. Using semi-tensor product of matrices, the paper develops two tools for testing the stability of a (switched) polynomial system. One is to convert a product of multi-variable polynomials into a canonical form, and the other is an easily verifiable sufficient condition to justify whether a multi-variable polynomial is positive definite. Using these two tools, the authors construct a polynomial function as a candidate Lyapunov function and via testing its derivative the authors provide some sufficient conditions for the global stability of polynomial systems.

  12. Statistical switching kinetics in ferroelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Lou, X J

    2008-01-01

    By assuming a more realistic nucleation and polarization reversal scenario we build a new statistical switching model for ferroelectrics, which is different from either the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi (KAI) model or the Nucleation-Limited-Switching (NLS) model. After incorporating a time-dependent depolarization field this model gives a good description about the retardation behavior in polycrystalline thin films at medium or low fields, which can not be described by the traditional KAI model. This model predicts correctly n=1 for polycrystalline thin films at high Eappl or ceramic bulks in the ideal case.

  13. Bumpless switching control for switched systems with partial actuator failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yiwen; Bao, Wen; Zhang, Qingxin; Chang, Juntao

    2016-11-01

    This study is concerned with the bumpless transfer problem for switched systems with partial actuator failures, in order to obtain smooth system performance output transition. Taking into account that the system requires a controller switching from current sub-controller to a fault-tolerant sub-controller after actuator fault. And bumpless transfer for control input cannot be traditionally designed when the actuator fault occurs, while performance smoothing can be considered and it is actually the ultimate goal of bumpless transfer. Specifically, the actuator fault model is firstly established and partial actuator fault is considered. Then, the system performance output signal is deemed as the main design variable of bumpless transfer, and closed-loop control systems both previous and after controller switching are constructed. Moreover, by using model matching thought and the adaptive sliding mode control technique, a bumpless transfer compensator design strategy is given to drive the performance output variable (after controller switching) to track the one of reference model. At last, simulation results of numeric and application examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed bumpless transfer strategy.

  14. Switching in electrical transmission and distribution systems

    CERN Document Server

    Smeets, René; Kapetanovic, Mirsad; Peelo, David F; Janssen, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Switching in Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems presents the issues and technological solutions associated with switching in power systems, from medium to ultra-high voltage. The book systematically discusses the electrical aspects of switching, details the way load and fault currents are interrupted, the impact of fault currents, and compares switching equipment in particular circuit-breakers. The authors also explain all examples of practical switching phenomena by examining real measurements from switching tests. Other highlights include: up to date commentary on new develo

  15. 完整性与功利主义伦理学--论伯纳德·威廉斯对功利主义的批判%Integrity and utilitarianism ethics--On Bernard Williams’s criticism of utilitarianism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任付新

    2014-01-01

    伯纳德·威廉斯强调哲学必须直面人类生活的复杂性和困难性,他批判以往哲学回避现实,特别是功利主义和康德主义,以恶劣的方式将生活简单化,忽视了个人情感、规划和运气对伦理生活的影响。他通过对功利主义后果论结构的分析,指出其中所包含的消极责任特征,批判功利主义忽视了个人分离性的重要性以及对个人完整性的破坏。威廉斯强调个人是情感需要、功利偏好和理性能力的综合体,主张应该从人的主体自身出发去思考道德问题,认为重要问题是人如何过有意义的生活,而不是我应该遵守什么样的规则。威廉斯的批判是强有力的,对功利主义的发展具有重要启发。%Bernard Williams emphasizes that philosophy must face the complexity and difficulty of human life. He criticizes the previous philosophy shields away from reality, especially utilitarianism and Kantian ethics, they simplify life by despicable ways and ignore the impact of personal feelings, individual project and luck on ethical life. By analyzing the consequential structure of utilitarianism, he points out that it involves negative responsibility, and he also criticizes utilitarianism that overlooks the importance of separateness of persons. Williams emphasizes that individual is the complex of emotional needs, utility preference and rational ability, hence he claims that we should consider moral problems from person’s subject itself, and the important issue is how people live a meaningful life, rather than what kind of rules should be followed. Bernard Williams’s criticism is powerful and has great inspiration to the development of utilitarianism.

  16. 金融学专业学生功利性学习动机的成因及对策研究%Causes and Countermeasures of Finance Majors' Utilitarian Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉坡

    2014-01-01

    Finance is a strong practical and theoretical subject, but affected utilitarian social values and attitudes of parents is not correct and other factors, led to the prevalence of students' too strong utilitarian motivation problem. Too strong utili-tarian motivation not only allows students the basic knowledge is not solid, and even affects the students' academic and men-tal health. Based on the finance majors utilitarian motivation and causes harm analysis, from the"blocking"and"Persuasion"is proposed to improve both utilitarian motivation finance professional countermeasures and suggestions.%金融学是一门实践性和理论性都很强的学科,但是受功利性社会风气和学生家长态度不端正等因素的影响,导致该专业学生普遍存在功利性学习动机过强的问题。过强的功利性学习动机不仅使得学生的基础知识不扎实,甚至影响了学生的学业和心理健康。本文通过对金融学专业学生功利性学习动机危害和成因的分析,从“堵”和“疏”两个方面提出了改善金融学专业功利学习动机的对策和建议。

  17. Multiserver switch scheduling for high speed optical switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, Prasad; Blanton, John; Damm, Gerard

    2003-10-01

    A switch matrix implemented as an optical crossbar using semiconductor optical amplifiers is able to accommodate extreme concentrations of data traffic. Due to the need to reduce optical guard band overhead it is beneficial to switch fixed size bursts of data cells on a time slot basis. The high capacity of the optical matrix supports multiple optical ports per burst card, and the implementation of multiple queue servers per burst card helps make better use of the multiplicity of ports. Problems associated with arbitrating multiple ports and multiple servers per burst card have been resolved by extending the operation of existing iterative, single server scheduling algorithms. The multiserver arbitration time will be in proportion to the number of servers -- corresponding to the channels of DWDM link -- unless a reconciliation stage is used after each iteration when an arbiter per server is used. The reconciliation stage sets the problem of broken data dependencies between server arbitrations in this case. Further, to address the time limitations for computing the scheduling solution, parallel arbiter implementations have been developed and tested against single arbiter designs. Again, the broken dependencies between iterations of an arbitration are addressed through the use of a grant reconciliation stage. The use of multiple queue servers per burst card also resolves some of the data loss problems related to polarized traffic. Simulations of the multiple server and parallel arbiter implementations have demonstrated their efficiency compared to previous implementations. Compounded to this problem is maintaining high throughput of the switch matrix while observing data transit time limits. This involves balancing two contradictory requirements; switch or line card efficiency and data transit times. To improve efficiency it is desirable to transmit only full packets. However, to prevent loss of data due to timeout it will be necessary to transmit some incomplete

  18. The Impediment of the Engineers' Utilitarianism to their Environmental Ethic%工程师的功利观对环境伦理的遮蔽

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙翔

    2011-01-01

    Utilitarianism is one of the most typical values held by the engineers,of which the ideas of reputations and profits,together with the concerns of practical ability and technical efficiency,are expressed noteworthy in its pedigree.The values a person hold%功利主义价值观是工程师最典型的个人价值观。尤其是工程师的名利观、实践能力观和技术效率观,在其功利主义价值观谱系中表现得特别突出和明显。本文分别探讨了工程师由于受到这三种功利观的局限和影响,遮蔽了其对自然环境的伦理责任。

  19. 大学生功利性入党动机探析%College students' utilitarian motivation in their application to join CPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙溪虎; 杨艳

    2012-01-01

    当前大学生"入党热"中存在部分大学生入党动机功利化的问题,为有效解决这一问题,对大学生功利性入党动机的主要表现、危害、成因及纠正途径进行了探析。%Nowadays,many college students apply to join the Communist Party of China(CPC).In the current fever of joining CPC,some college students apply to join CPC with utilitarianism motif.We analyze the phenomenon,harm,factors and proper means to solve the problem effectively.

  20. Reflections on Over-utilitarian of Education Goal%对教育目的过度功利化问题的反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹成锡; 朱培平; 刘芳; 皇甫玉恩

    2012-01-01

      The purpose of education is the core issue of educa-tional theory, and it is also the starting point and destination of educational practice. Starting from the over-utilitarian problem of education goal in the present time,this paper attempts to ex-plore its rationality and disadvantages.%  教育目的是教育理论的核心问题,也是教育实践活动的出发点和归宿。本文试图从当前教育目的过度功利化问题的现象入手,探讨这一问题存在的合理性及其不足,并做相应的反思。

  1. van Eijck and Roth's utilitarian science education: why the recalibration of science and traditional ecological knowledge invokes multiple perspectives to protect science education from being exclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael P.; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2010-12-01

    This article is a philosophical analysis of van Eijck and Roth's (2007) claim that science and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) should be recalibrated because they are incommensurate, particular to the local contexts in which they are practical. In this view, science maintains an incommensurate status as if it is a "fundamental" basis for the relative comparison of other cultural knowledges, which reduces traditional knowledge to a status of in relation to the prioritized (higher)-status of natural sciences. van Eijck and Roth reject epistemological Truth as a way of thinking about sciences in science education. Rather they adopt a utilitarian perspective of cultural-historical activity theory to demonstrate when traditional knowledge is considered science and when it is not considered science, for the purposes of evaluating what should be included in U.S. science education curricula. There are several challenges for evaluating what should be included in science education when traditional knowledges and sciences are considered in light of a utilitarian analysis. Science as diverse, either practically local or theoretically abstract, is highly uncertain, which provides opportunities for multiple perspectives to enlarge and protect the natural sciences from exclusivity. In this response to van Eijck and Roth, we make the case for considering dialectical relationships between science and TEK in order to ensure cultural diversity in science education, as a paradigm. We also emphasize the need to (re)dissolve the hierarchies and dualisms that may emerge when science is elevated in status in comparison with other knowledges. We conclude with a modification to van Eijck and Roth's perspective by recommending a guiding principle of cultural diversity in science education as a way to make curriculum choices. We envision this principle can be applied when evaluating science curricula worldwide.

  2. Industry switching in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Firm turnover (i.e., firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sector-level productivity growth. In contrast, the role and importance of firms that switch activities from one sector to another is not well understood. Firm switchers are likely to be unique, differing from both newly...

  3. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. The Atlas load protection switch

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, H A; Dorr, G; Martínez, M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Pierce, D; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a high-energy pulsed-power facility under development to study materials properties and hydrodynamics experiments under extreme conditions. Atlas will implode heavy liner loads (m~45 gm) with a peak current of 27-32 MA delivered in 4 mu s, and is energized by 96, 240 kV Marx generators storing a total of 23 MJ. A key design requirement for Atlas is obtaining useful data for 95601130f all loads installed on the machine. Materials response calculations show current from a prefire can damage the load requiring expensive and time consuming replacement. Therefore, we have incorporated a set of fast-acting mechanical switches in the Atlas design to reduce the probability of a prefire damaging the load. These switches, referred to as the load protection switches, short the load through a very low inductance path during system charge. Once the capacitors have reached full charge, the switches open on a time scale short compared to the bank charge time, allowing current to flow to the load when the trigger pu...

  5. Switching Costs in Accounting Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Koç

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Switching cost is defined as possible costs that customers may encounter when they want to change the firm they buy service, and an important subject in terms of accounting services. Particularly, small business entrepreneurs’ not having knowledge about accounting procedures, and sharing private information with accounting firms make switching costs more important for accounting services. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the concept of switching costs (relational cost, procedural cost and financial cost, its determinants (perceived service quality, service importance, and service failures, and consequences (re-purchasing, and recommen ding to others. Theresearch was conducted on small business entrepreneurs in down-town of Balıkesir in Turkey. Total 405 small business entrepreneur owners were interviewed. According to results of the study, perceived service quality positively affects all dimensions of switching costs, significance of service positively affects procedural and relational costs, and service failures negatively affect procedural and relational costs. The results showed that while procedural and relational costs positively affect re-purchasing and recommending to others variables, financial cost did not have any effect on these variables.

  6. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-07-03

    Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6HSiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators.

  7. Intrinsic nanofilamentation in resistive switching

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing

    2013-03-15

    Resistive switching materials are promising candidates for nonvolatile data storage and reconfiguration of electronic applications. Intensive studies have been carried out on sandwiched metal-insulator-metal structures to achieve high density on-chip circuitry and non-volatile memory storage. Here, we provide insight into the mechanisms that govern highly reproducible controlled resistive switching via a nanofilament by using an asymmetric metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. In-situ transmission electron microscopy is used to study in real-time the physical structure and analyze the chemical composition of the nanofilament dynamically during resistive switching. Electrical stressing using an external voltage was applied by a tungsten tip to the nanosized devices having hafnium oxide (HfO2) as the insulator layer. The formation and rupture of the nanofilaments result in up to three orders of magnitude change in the current flowing through the dielectric during the switching event. Oxygen vacancies and metal atoms from the anode constitute the chemistry of the nanofilament.

  8. Digital Switching in the Quantum Domain

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, I M

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present an architecture and implementation algorithm such that digital data can be switched in the quantum domain. First we define the connection digraph which can be used to describe the behavior of a switch at a given time, then we show how a connection digraph can be implemented using elementary quantum gates. The proposed mechanism supports unicasting as well as multicasting, and is strict-sense non-blocking. It can be applied to perform either circuit switching or packet switching. Compared with a traditional space or time domain switch, the proposed switching mechanism is more scalable. Assuming an n-by-n quantum switch, the space consumption grows linearly, i.e. O(n), while the time complexity is O(1) for unicasting, and O(log n) for multicasting. Based on these advantages, a high throughput switching device can be built simply by increasing the number of I/O ports.

  9. A Demonstration of Automatically Switched Optical Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weisheng Hu; Qingji Zeng; Yaohui Jin; Chun Jiang; Yue Wang; Xiaodong Wang; Chunlei Zhang; Yang Lu; Buwei Xu; Peigang Hu

    2003-01-01

    We build an automatically switched optical network (ASON) testbed with four optical cross-connect nodes. Many fundamental ASON features are demonstrated, which is implemented by control protocols based on generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) framework.

  10. Ultrafast Beam Switching Using Coupled VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Cun-Zheng; Goorjian, Peter

    2001-01-01

    We propose a new approach to performing ultrafast beam switching using two coupled Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs). The strategy is demonstrated by numerical simulation, showing a beam switching of 10 deg at 42 GHz.

  11. Coherent switching of semiconductor resonator solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Taranenko, V. B.; Ahlers, F. -J.; Pierz, K.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate switching on and off of spatial solitons in a semiconductor microresonator by injection of light coherent with the background illumination. Evidence results that the formation of the solitons and their switching does not involve thermal processes.

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such children to those with normal brain development may help scientists to pinpoint when and where ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive functions, such as judgment, decision making, and problem solving. ... brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... axis —A brain-body circuit which plays a critical role in the body's response to stress. impulse — ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she lost interest ...

  18. Neural Computations Mediating One-Shot Learning in the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Janelle Weaver

    2015-01-01

    Much learning occurs gradually through trial and error, but rare and important experiences require one-shot learning; a new study explores how the brain switches between these two strategies for identifying causal relationships. Read the Research Article.

  19. Brain peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompier, D; Vejux, A; Zarrouk, A; Gondcaille, C; Geillon, F; Nury, T; Savary, S; Lizard, G

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles in higher eukaryotes as they play a major role in numerous metabolic pathways and redox homeostasis. Some peroxisomal abnormalities, which are often not compatible with life or normal development, were identified in severe demyelinating and neurodegenerative brain diseases. The metabolic roles of peroxisomes, especially in the brain, are described and human brain peroxisomal disorders resulting from a peroxisome biogenesis or a single peroxisomal enzyme defect are listed. The brain abnormalities encountered in these disorders (demyelination, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death, neuronal migration, differentiation) are described and their pathogenesis are discussed. Finally, the contribution of peroxisomal dysfunctions to the alterations of brain functions during aging and to the development of Alzheimer's disease is considered.

  20. Spark gap switch with spiral gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, John P.

    1989-01-01

    A spark gap switch having a contaminate removal system using an injected gas. An annular plate concentric with an electrode of the switch defines flow paths for the injected gas which form a strong spiral flow of the gas in the housing which is effective to remove contaminates from the switch surfaces. The gas along with the contaminates is exhausted from the housing through one of the ends of the switch.

  1. Determination of Death and the Dead Donor Rule: A Survey of the Current Law on Brain Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikas, Nikolas T; Bordlee, Dorinda C; Moreira, Madeline

    2016-06-01

    Despite seeming uniformity in the law, end-of-life controversies have highlighted variations among state brain death laws and their interpretation by courts. This article provides a survey of the current legal landscape regarding brain death in the United States, for the purpose of assisting professionals who seek to formulate or assess proposals for changes in current law and hospital policy. As we note, the public is increasingly wary of the role of organ transplantation in determinations of death, and of the variability of brain death diagnosing criteria. We urge that any attempt to alter current state statutes or to adopt a national standard must balance the need for medical accuracy with sound ethical principles which reject the utilitarian use of human beings and are consistent with the dignity of the human person. Only in this way can public trust be rebuilt. PMID:27097648

  2. Testosterone administration in females modulates moral judgment and patterns of brain activation and functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chenyi; Decety, Jean; Huang, Pin-Chia; Chen, Chin-Yau; Cheng, Yawei

    2016-10-01

    Morality is defined as prescriptive norms regarding how people should treat one another, and includes concepts of fairness, justice, and rights. One recent study with moral dilemmas suggested that testosterone administration increases utilitarian judgments, which depends on second-to-fourth (2D: 4D) digit ratio, as a proxy of prenatal priming. However, the neural mechanism by which acute testosterone modulates moral reasoning remains to be determined. Using a placebo-controlled within-subject design, the current study examined the neuromodulatory effect of testosterone in young females by combining moral dilemmas, 2D: 4D, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and subjective ratings of morally laden scenarios. Results showed that testosterone administration elicited more utilitarian responses to evitable dilemmas. The high 2D: 4D group scored more punishments for moral evaluation, whereas the low 2D: 4D group did the opposite. The activity in the amygdala, anterior insular cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) was increased when participants evaluated morally unorthodox actions (intentional harm). The activity in the posterior superior temporal sulcus/temporoparietal junction (pSTS/TPJ) to accidental harm was decreased, specific to the high 2D: 4D group. The functional connectivity between the amygdala and dlPFC was reduced. The activity in the pSTS/TPJ to perceived agency predicted utilitarian responses to evitable dilemmas. The findings demonstrate the acute effect of testosterone on neural responses associated with moral judgment, and provide evidence to support that prenatal sex-hormones priming could be important for early neurodevelopment, which plays a crucial role in the neural and behavioral manifestations of testosterone on adult moral reasoning. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3417-3430, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27145084

  3. The increased importance of sector switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2014-01-01

    Sector switching is an important phenomenon that casts light on public–private differences. Yet our knowledge about its prevalence and trends is limited. We study sector switching using unique Danish register-based employer–employee data covering more than 25 years. We find that sector switching...

  4. Bootstrapped Low-Voltage Analog Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    Novel low-voltage constant-impedance analog switch circuits are proposed. The switch element is a single MOSFET, and constant-impedance operation is obtained using simple circuits to adjust the gate and bulk voltages relative to the switched signal. Low-voltage (1-volt) operation is made feasible...

  5. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, C. J.; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Boller, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ

  6. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosette, D.B.

    1994-07-19

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination. 9 figs.

  7. Mechanism of single atom switch on silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, Ulrich; Stokbro, Kurt; Thirstrup, C.;

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate single atom switch on silicon which operates by displacement of a hydrogen atom on the silicon (100) surface at room temperature. We find two principal effects by which the switch is controlled: a pronounced maximum of the switching probability as function of sample bias...

  8. Degree of Conversational Code-Switching Enhances Verbal Task Switching in Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Odilia; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The study examined individual differences in code-switching to determine the relationship between code-switching frequency and performance in verbal and non-verbal task switching. Seventy-eight Cantonese-English bilinguals completed a semi-structured conversation to quantify natural code-switching, a verbal fluency task requiring language…

  9. On the stabilization of switched linear stochastic systems with unobservable switching laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the stabilization problem of switched linear stochastic systems with unobservable switching laws. In this paper the system switches among a finite family of linear stochastic systems. Since there are noise perturbations, the switching laws can not be identified in any finite time horizon. We prove that if each individual subsystem is controllable and the switching duration uniformly has a strict positive lower bound, then the system can be stabilized by using a controller that uses online state estimation.

  10. STABILITY OF A SWITCHED LINEAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    At-Tasneem Mohd Amin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid systems are dynamic systems that arise out of the interaction of continuous state dynamics and discrete state dynamics. Switched systems, which are a type of hybrid system, have been given much attention by control systems research over the past decade. Problems with the controllability, observability, converseability and stabilizability of switched systems have always been discussed. In this paper, the trend in research regarding the stability of switched systems will be investigated. Then the variety of methods that have been discovered by researchers for stabilizing switched linear systems with arbitrary switching will be discussed in detail.

  11. Ultrafast all-optical switching in bacteriorhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sukhdev; Singh, C. P.; Reddy, K. P. J.

    2001-04-01

    All-optical switching has been demonstrated in bacteriorhodopsin based on excited-state nonlinear absorption. A probe laser beam at 640 nm corresponding to the O-state absorption maximum is switched due to a strong pulsed pump laser beam at 570 nm, that corresponds to the maximum ground state absorption. We have studied the effect of variation in pulse width and in small signal absorption coefficient on the switching characteristics. The switching time decreases as the pulse width of the pump beam decreases and the small signal absorption coefficient increases. The switching contrast depends mainly on the peak pumping intensity.

  12. Secure videoconferencing equipment switching system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael E.

    2009-01-13

    A switching system and method are provided to facilitate use of videoconference facilities over a plurality of security levels. The system includes a switch coupled to a plurality of codecs and communication networks. Audio/Visual peripheral components are connected to the switch. The switch couples control and data signals between the Audio/Visual peripheral components and one but nor both of the plurality of codecs. The switch additionally couples communication networks of the appropriate security level to each of the codecs. In this manner, a videoconferencing facility is provided for use on both secure and non-secure networks.

  13. Shape memory thermal conduction switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Krishnan, Vinu (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A thermal conduction switch includes a thermally-conductive first member having a first thermal contacting structure for securing the first member as a stationary member to a thermally regulated body or a body requiring thermal regulation. A movable thermally-conductive second member has a second thermal contacting surface. A thermally conductive coupler is interposed between the first member and the second member for thermally coupling the first member to the second member. At least one control spring is coupled between the first member and the second member. The control spring includes a NiTiFe comprising shape memory (SM) material that provides a phase change temperature <273 K, a transformation range <40 K, and a hysteresis of <10 K. A bias spring is between the first member and the second member. At the phase change the switch provides a distance change (displacement) between first and second member by at least 1 mm, such as 2 to 4 mm.

  14. Ultrafast photonic crystal optical switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Qi-huang; HU Xiao-yong

    2006-01-01

    Photonic crystal,a novel and artificial photonic material with periodic dielectric distribution,possesses photonic bandgap and can control the propagation states of photons.Photonic crystal has been considered to be a promising candidate for the future integrated photonic devices.The properties and the fabrication method of photonic crystal are expounded.The progresses of the study of ultrafast photonic crystal optical switching are discussed in detail.

  15. Polychromatic polariton laser selector switch

    OpenAIRE

    Grosso, G; Trebaol, S.; Wouters, M.; Morier-Genoud, F; Portella-Oberli, M. T.; Deveaud, B.

    2013-01-01

    Integration of optical elements into scalable chips has been at the center of a large effort in recent years. Concurrently, the separation between the diverse functions, namely switches, detectors or emitters increases significantly the final number of components on chip. Such technical limitations may be overcome by introducing agile devices able, for example, to simultaneously detect, process and emit a coherent signal. Such a pathway has been explored with different approaches that bear ad...

  16. Robust Stability of Switched Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a linear programming-based method for finding Lyapunov functions of switched systems with polynomial vector fields and parametric uncertainties. We propose to utilize a certificate of positivity in the Bernstein basis to find a Lyapunov function. A certificate of positivity...... in the Bernstein basis always exists if a polynomial is positive, and the Bernstein basis is shown to be well conditioned....

  17. EMI Prediction of Switching Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Trinchero, Riccardo; Stievano, Igor Simone; Canavero, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the simulation of the conducted electromagnetic interference produced by circuits with periodically switching elements. The proposed method allows for the computation of their steady-state responses by means of augmented linear time-invariant equivalents built from circuit inspection only, and standard tools for circuit analysis. The approach is demonstrated on a real dc-dc boost converter by comparing simulation results with real measurements

  18. Static Switching Dynamic Buffer Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, A. K.; R. A. Mishra; R. K. Nagaria

    2013-01-01

    We proposed footless domino logic buffer circuit. It minimizes redundant switching at the dynamic and the output nodes. The proposed circuit avoids propagation of precharge pulse to the output node and allows the dynamic node which saves power consumption. Simulation is done using 0.18 µm CMOS technology. We have calculated the power consumption, delay, and power delay product of the proposed circuit and compared the results with the existing circuits for different logic function, loading co...

  19. Switch for Good Community Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Tabitha; Amran, Martha

    2013-11-19

    Switch4Good is an energy-savings program that helps residents reduce consumption from behavior changes; it was co-developed by Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management (BB) and WattzOn in Phase I of this grant. The program was offered at 11 Navy bases. Three customer engagement strategies were evaluated, and it was found that Digital Nudges (a combination of monthly consumption statements with frequent messaging via text or email) was most cost-effective.

  20. Switching strategies to optimize search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlesinger, Michael F.

    2016-03-01

    Search strategies are explored when the search time is fixed, success is probabilistic and the estimate for success can diminish with time if there is not a successful result. Under the time constraint the problem is to find the optimal time to switch a search strategy or search location. Several variables are taken into account, including cost, gain, rate of success if a target is present and the probability that a target is present.

  1. SOS switch system (SSS) in the radiation treatment room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We applied patient's self-breath hold irradiation system to a device to declare the patient's intentions (SOS switch system: SSS) in the radiation room and examined a utility for problem recognition and improvement of risk management during radiation therapy by induction of SSS. Between May 2005 and October 2006, we used SSS with 65 patients. The study involved 32 men and 33 women with a median age of 65 (range, 26-88) years. The reason for using SSS was as a shell in 57, a history of laryngectomy in 2, a cough in 6, convulsions in 1, and anxiety in 3. The treatment with SSS was performed 1,120 times. The hand switch was pushed 11 times. The reasons the switch was pushed were for nausea, aspiration, pain, and cough one time each. For the others, the reasons were unclear, and it was thought due to the clouding of consciousness from brain metastases. No problems were observed with the use of SSS. SSS was a useful device for improvement of risk management during the radiation therapy. (author)

  2. Analytical Performance Evaluation of Different Switch Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sans

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The virtualization of the network access layer has opened new doors in how we perceive networks. With this virtualization of the network, it is possible to transform a regular PC with several network interface cards into a switch. PC-based switches are becoming an alternative to off-the-shelf switches, since they are cheaper. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the performance of PC-based switches. In this paper, we present a performance evaluation of two PC-based switches, using Open vSwitch and LiSA, and compare their performance with an off-the-shelf Cisco switch. The RTT, throughput, and fairness for UDP are measured for both Ethernet and Fast Ethernet technologies. From this research, we can conclude that the Cisco switch presents the best performance, and both PC-based switches have similar performance. Between Open vSwitch and LiSA, Open vSwitch represents a better choice since it has more features and is currently actively developed.

  3. Energy storage, compression, and switching. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a compilation of papers presented at the Second International Conference on Energy Storage, Compression, and Switching, which was held in order to assemble active researchers with a major interest in plasma physics, electron beams, electric and magnetic energy storage systems, high voltage and high current switches, free-electron lasers, and pellet implosion plasma focus. Topics covered include: Slow systems: 50-60 Hz machinery, homopolar generators, slow capacitors, inductors, and solid state switches; Intermediate systems: fast capacitor banks; superconducting storage and switching; gas, vacuum, and dielectric switching; nonlinear (magnetic) switching; imploding liners capacitors; explosive generators; and fuses; and Fast systems: Marx, Blumlein, oil, water, and pressurized water dielectrics; switches; magnetic insulation; electron beams; and plasmas

  4. Pinning Synchronization of Switched Complex Dynamical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Network topology and node dynamics play a key role in forming synchronization of complex networks. Unfortunately there is no effective synchronization criterion for pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology. In this paper, pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology is studied. Two basic problems are considered: one is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks under arbitrary switching; the other is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any individual connection topology alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and single Lyapunov function method are used respectively, some global synchronization criteria are proposed and the designed switching law is given. Finally, simulation results verify the validity of the results.

  5. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  6. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  7. Brain and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens / Drug Facts / Brain and Addiction Brain and Addiction Print Your Brain Your brain is who you ... is taken over and over. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes ...

  8. Coating possibilities for magnetic switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High average power magnetic pulse compression systems are now being considered for use in several applications such as the High Power Radiation Source (HiPoRS) project. Such systems will require high reliability magnetic switches (saturable inductors) that are very efficient and have long lifetimes. One of the weakest components in magnetic switches is their interlaminar insulation. Considerations related to dielectric breakdown, thermal management of compact designs, and economical approaches for achieving these needs must be addressed. Various dielectric insulation and coating materials have been applied to Metglas foil in an attempt to solve the complex technical and practical problems associated with large magnetic switch structures. This work reports various needs, studies, results, and proposals in selecting and evaluating continuous coating approaches for magnetic foil. Techniques such as electrophoretic polymer deposition and surface chemical oxidation are discussed. We also propose continuous photofabrication processes for applying dielectric ribs or spacers to the foil which permit circulation of dielectric liquids for cooling during repetitive operation. 10 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... who can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or clinical social workers. The psychiatrist asked Sarah and her ...

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    Full Text Available ... Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Outreach Home Public Involvement Outreach Partners Alliance for Research Progress Coalition ... also linked to reward systems in the brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, ...

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... husband questions about Sarah's symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early-life experiences ...

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    Full Text Available ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... to another. Share Science News Connectome Re-Maps Human Cortex ECT Lifts Depression, Sustains Remission in Older ...

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    Full Text Available ... the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This knowledge is allowing scientists to make important discoveries that ...

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    Full Text Available ... may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex ( ... doctor, who ran some tests. After deciding her symptoms were not caused by a stroke, brain tumor, ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... sends impulses and extends from cell bodies to meet and deliver impulses to another nerve cell. Axons ... in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who ...

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    Full Text Available ... Director’s Blog Budget Strategic Plan Offices and Divisions Careers@NIMH Advisory Boards and Groups Staff Directories Getting ... works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental ...

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    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... but can still remember past events and learned skills, and carry on a conversation, all which rely ...

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    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in ... or-flight response and is also involved in emotions and memory. anterior cingulate cortex —Is involved in ...

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    Full Text Available ... or serious and cause severe disability. Through research, we know that mental disorders are brain disorders. Evidence ... many different types of cells in the body. We say that cells differentiate as the embryo develops, ...

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    Full Text Available ... These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into ... factors that can affect our bodies, such as sleep, diet, or stress. These factors may act alone ...

  8. Brain Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Love Your Brain Stay Physically Active Adopt a Healthy Diet Stay Mentally and Socially Active We Can Help ... of any wellness plan. Learn More Adopt a Healthy Diet > Eat a heart-healthy diet that benefits both ...

  9. Brain Basics

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  14. Brain Basics

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  16. Brain Basics

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  17. Brain Basics

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  18. The Epigenetic Switches for Neural Development and Psychiatric Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingwen Lv; Yongjuan Xin; Wenhao Zhou; Zilong Qiu

    2013-01-01

    The most remarkable feature of the nervous system is that the development and functions of the brain are largely reshaped by postnatal experiences,in joint with genetic landscapes.The nature vs.nurture argument reminds us that both genetic and epigenetic information is indispensable for the normal function of the brain.The epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the central nervous system have been revealed over last a decade.Moreover,the mutations of epigenetic modulator genes have been shown to be implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders,such as autism spectrum disorders.The epigenetic study has initiated in the neuroscience field for a relative short period of time.In this review,we will summarize recent discoveries about epigenetic regulation on neural development,synaptic plasticity,learning and memory,as well as neuropsychiatric disorders.Although the comprehensive view of how epigenetic regulation contributes to the function of the brain is still not completed,the notion that brain,the most complicated organ of organisms,is profoundly shaped by epigenetic switches is widely accepted.

  19. 大学教育功利化倾向及其理性复归%The Utilitarian Tendency of the University Education and Its Rational Return in the New Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁强

    2016-01-01

    There exists a serious tendency towards utilitarianism in current university education. It can be specifically reflected in the following aspects: profit-focused, eager for quick successes and instant benefits, hedonistic and lost in spiritual pursuit. The beyond-utilitarian education ideal can be realized through university spirit nurturing, system improvement, cultural construction and moral practice enhancement.%当前我国大学教育中的功利主义倾向严重,可具体表征为效益为重、急功近利、享乐泛化、精神迷失等方面。因此,需要从大学精神、制度建设、文化建设以及大学人的道德践行等方面加以建构,从而实现超越功利的教育理想。

  20. On Countermeasures of Correcting the Utilitarian Ten-dency of Running Private Colleges%民办高校办学功利化倾向纠正对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王会霞

    2014-01-01

    At the same time of private colleges' booming, there are some utilitarian tendencies in teaching staff treatment, man-agement investment and connotation construction. Through var-ious methods such as questionnaire survey and expert interview, it is concluded that the solving of the utilitarian behavior needs not only strong governmental support but also the deep reforms of colleges themselves.%民办高校在持续蓬勃发展的同时也在教职工待遇问题、管理投入和内涵建设等方面存在一定的功利化倾向,通过问卷调查、专家访谈等多种方法,得出纠正这种功利化行为,既要政府的大力支持,又要高校自身的深度改革来解决。

  1. The Met-allele of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism enhances task switching in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus; Falkenstein, Michael; Beste, Christian

    2011-12-01

    In this study we examined the relevance of the functional brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism as a modulator of task-switching performance in healthy elderly by using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures. Task switching was examined in a cue-based and a memory-based paradigm. Val/Val carriers were generally slower, showed enhanced reaction time variability and higher error rates, particularly during memory-based task switching than the Met-allele individuals. On a neurophysiological level these dissociative effects were reflected by variations in the N2 and P3 ERP components. The task switch-related N2 was increased while the P3 was decreased in Met-allele carriers, while the Val/Val genotype group revealed the opposite pattern of results. In cue-based task-switching no behavioral and ERP differences were seen between the genotypes. These data suggest that superior memory-based task-switching performance in elderly Met-allele carriers may emerge due to more efficient response selection processes. The results implicate that under special circumstances the Met-allele renders cognitive processes more efficient than the Val/Val genotype in healthy elderly, corroborating recent findings in young subjects.

  2. Perceptual switch rates with ambiguous structure-from-motion figures in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Kristine; Brunskill, Emma; Scarna, Antonina; Goodwin, Guy M; Parker, Andrew J

    2008-08-22

    Slowing of the rate at which a rivalrous percept switches from one configuration to another has been suggested as a potential trait marker for bipolar disorder. We measured perceptual alternations for a bistable, rotating, structure-from-motion cylinder in bipolar and control participants. In a control task, binocular depth rendered the direction of cylinder rotation unambiguous to monitor participants' performance and attention during the experimental task. A particular direction of rotation was perceptually stable, on average, for 33.5s in participants without psychiatric diagnosis. Euthymic, bipolar participants showed a slightly slower rate of switching between the two percepts (percept duration 42.3s). Under a parametric analysis of the best-fitting model for individual participants, this difference was statistically significant. However, the variability within groups was high, so this difference in average switch rates was not big enough to serve as a trait marker for bipolar disorder. We also found that low-level visual capacities, such as stereo threshold, influence perceptual switch rates. We suggest that there is no single brain location responsible for perceptual switching in all different ambiguous figures and that perceptual switching is generated by the actions of local cortical circuitry. PMID:18463054

  3. Comparison between the Utilitarian thought of Confucius and Mo-tse%孔子与墨子的功利思想比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许宁宁

    2014-01-01

    春秋战国,周文不兴、礼坏乐崩,“道术将为天下裂”。诸子百家相继而出,皆欲开出治平天下的“良方”,司马谈言“儒、墨、道、法、阴阳、名,皆务为治”。虽有“治国”之“同归”,然多囿于一家之见,又“多得一察焉以自好”,故思想“殊途”,天下“百虑”论说不休,争鸣不已。在此天下无道,以力称雄,交相言利的乱世,功利问题自是各家争论的焦点所在。本文分别以孔子、墨子为例,着重对儒家、墨家的功利思想做了一番简要比较,就是希望能够以小见大,管窥先秦诸子百家争鸣的概貌。%During spring-autumn war time, with the collapse of feudalism and declining of system of rites and music, it is said that the academic path of things will be much more sharpened. All kinds of philosophers came out and tried to ifnd out the right way to govern the society. Sima Tan said that Confucius, mo-tse, Taoism, legalism, yin and yang, ming are all about the governance. Although these academic thoughts come into the same way ultimately, they are much alike and take pride by a little more new idea. The differences of these academic thoughts result in the disputes in the world. In such chaos society without real academic thought, utilitarian thought is in the center of dispute. By the example of Confucius and Mo-tse, the paper makes comparison between utilitarian thought of Confucius and Mo-tse, trying to giving a glimpse of pre-qin philosophers.

  4. COMMUNICATION: Improving correct switching rates in a 'hands-free' environmental control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ashley; Tran, Yvonne; Craig, Daniel; Thuraisingham, Ranjit

    2005-12-01

    One potential negative impact on the quality of life of a spinal cord injured person is the loss of the ability to control devices in their immediate environment. Consequently, research and development has been conducted on technology designed to restore some measure of independence by providing means of control over these devices. A previous assistive device using changes in brain signals from eye closure as its switching system was created. Brain signals were processed using spectral analysis and although this was a successful technique, there were limitations that resulted in higher than desired switching errors. This paper presents results of an alternative method for processing brain signals as the basis for switching, called fractal dimension. In comparison to the spectral technique, the fractal dimension technique was successful in reducing the number of false positive and false negative errors. Additionally, it eliminated the need for a baseline setup for this system. This suggests that fractal dimension is a potentially viable method for analysing brain signals for use in assistive control systems.

  5. Design and Simulation of Routing-switching Protocol Based on Optical Switch Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Wei; MAO You-ju; LIU Jiang

    2004-01-01

    An optical routing- switching technology based on optical switch array is proposed. The characteristics of the blocking and nonblocking networks are analyzed and compared, odd- even sorting network is used to realize optical routing- switching, relative routing- switching protocol is designed.Simulation test under load shows that it can reduce a blocking effectively and enhance an efficiency of switching. Further, it can transfer the processing and switching within parallel computer from electric domain to optical domain. It can make parallel computer coordinating computing and processing at much more higher speed, storing and transmitting even more efficiently.

  6. The Implication of John Stuart Mill's Ethics Utilitarianism on Moral Education%穆勒效用主义伦理思想的道德教育蕴义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原成成

    2011-01-01

    The Utilitarianism which is originated in the Britain has an extensive and far-reaching infuence for the modern and contemporary human society.The Utilitarianism is basically a set of ethics.As a purpose theory of the ethics,the Utilitarianism which is the standard for the ethical behavior inecitablly attachs the great importance to the social practice.Therefore its influence covers the all levels of the ethics,the politics,the economy,this paper describes the moral education.%发源于英国的效用主义,对于近代、当代的人类社会有着广泛而深远的影响。效用主义基本上是一套伦理学说,就作为一个伦理学上的目的理论而言,效用观点作为伦理行为的衡量,必然非常重视社会实践。因此其影响涵盖伦理、政治、经济及法律多个层面,本文以道德教育展开阐述。

  7. Components of attentional set-switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushworth, M F S; Passingham, R E; Nobre, A C

    2005-01-01

    A series of distinct event-related potentials (ERPs) have been recorded from the scalp of human subjects as they switch from one task to another. It is possible that task switching may depend on different mechanisms depending on whether the switch requires a change in attentional set, in other words the redirecting of attention to different aspects of a sensory stimulus, or whether it requires a change in intentional set, in others words a change in the way that responses are selected. To address this issue, the current study recorded ERPs while subjects switched between attentional sets and the results were compared with those of a previous investigation in which subjects switched between intentional sets. Subjects selected stimuli according to two conflicting attentional sets, each emphasizing one visual stimulus dimension (colour, shape). Pairs of stimuli, only one of which was to be attended, were presented for between eight and seventeen trials then either a switch or a stay cue was shown. The switch cue instructed subjects to switch from the current attentional set to the other set, while the stay cue instructed subjects to maintain the current set. Comparing ERPs time-locked to the switch and stay cues revealed neural correlates of the initiation of a task switch. Comparing the ERPs time locked to the first stimuli after either stay or switch cues identified neural correlates of the implementation of a task switch. A similar modulation over parietal electrodes was seen when subjects were switching between either attentional or intentional sets. While an intentional set switch began with a medial frontal modulation, attentional set switching began with a lateral frontal modulation. Implementing a new attentional set was associated with modulation of relatively early visual potentials, while implementing a new intentional set was associated with modulation of later response-related potentials. The results confirm that task switching consists of a number of

  8. Switching control of an R/C hovercraft: stabilization and smooth switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Iwasaki, M; Wang, H O

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents stable switching control of an radio-controlled (R/C) hovercraft that is a nonholonomic (nonlinear) system. To exactly represent its nonlinear dynamics, more importantly, to maintain controllability of the system, we newly propose a switching fuzzy model that has locally Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy models and switches them according to states, external variables, and/or time. A switching fuzzy controller is constructed by mirroring the rule structure of the switching fuzzy model of an R/C hovercraft. We derive linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions for ensuring the stability of the closed-loop system consisting of a switching fuzzy model and controller. Furthermore, to guarantee smooth switching of control input at switching boundaries, we also derive a smooth switching condition represented in terms of LMIs. A stable switching fuzzy controller satisfying the smooth switching condition is designed by simultaneously solving both of the LMIs. The simulation and experimental results for the trajectory control of an R/C hovercraft show the validity of the switching fuzzy model and controller design, particularly, the smooth switching condition. PMID:18244851

  9. Know-How on design of switching regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces switching regulator from base to application, which deals with fundamentals of switching regulator such as the reason of boom about switching regulator, understanding simple circuit without electric transformer and decision of circuit type with input voltage and output voltage, configuration and characteristic of switching regulator, a concrete design of switching regulator, pulse width control circuit and protection circuit, concrete circuit examples of switching power and the point of switching regulator.

  10. Ultra High-Speed Radio Frequency Switch Based on Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Ge; Fok, Mable P.

    2015-01-01

    Microwave switches, or Radio Frequency (RF) switches have been intensively used in microwave systems for signal routing. Compared with the fast development of microwave and wireless systems, RF switches have been underdeveloped particularly in terms of switching speed and operating bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a photonics based RF switch that is capable of switching at tens of picoseconds speed, which is hundreds of times faster than any existing RF switch technologies. The high-speed...

  11. MEMS switches having non-metallic crossbeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximillian C (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A RF MEMS switch comprising a crossbeam of SiC, supported by at least one leg above a substrate and above a plurality of transmission lines forming a CPW. Bias is provided by at least one layer of metal disposed on a top surface of the SiC crossbeam, such as a layer of chromium followed by a layer of gold, and extending beyond the switch to a biasing pad on the substrate. The switch utilizes stress and conductivity-controlled non-metallic thin cantilevers or bridges, thereby improving the RF characteristics and operational reliability of the switch. The switch can be fabricated with conventional silicon integrated circuit (IC) processing techniques. The design of the switch is very versatile and can be implemented in many transmission line mediums.

  12. High voltage, magnetically switched pulsed power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles of magnetic switching are briefly described. Then the results of experiments on the following substantive topics for magnetic switching are presented: material properties and how they relate to switch performance, risetime limitations, and core insulation. Magnetic switching is then evaluated from a system perspective. An idealized pulse power system with 200 kJ or stored energy and a 40 ns output pulse is examined. The multi-megavolt electrical insulation requirements impose limitations on the switches. The cost of the magnetically switched system exceeds the cost of the conventional superpower generator system by up to 75%. The potential for reliability, reproducibility, and repetitive pulse capability must be evaluated for each application to offset the increased cost

  13. Switched steerable multiple beam antenna system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Richard S.

    1988-09-01

    A steerable multibeam five element cross-feed cluster antenna system is described. The feed power is divided into five branches. Each branch includes a switching network comprised of a plurality of time delay elements each individually controlled by a respective electromagnetic latching switch. Frequency independent individual two-dimensional beam steering at intermediate (IF) scanning frequencies is thereby provided wherein discrete incremental time delays are introduced by the switching networks into each branch and the signals recombined thereafter to form each beam. The electromagnetic latched switching reduces power consumption and permits higher power switching and reciprocal coincident tranmsit and receive operation. Frequency independence due to incremental time delay switching permits coincident reciprocal operation and steering for transmit-receive signal paths carrying different transmit-receive frequencies. Diagonal quarter wave plates in the waveguides alter polarization from the circular to orthogonal linear to provide transmitter-receiver isolation.

  14. Younger Adults Derive Pleasure and Utilitarian Benefits from Browsing for Music Information Seeking in Physical and Digital Spaces. A Review of: Laplante, A., & Downie, J. S. (2011. The utilitarian and hedonic outcomes of music information-seeking in everyday life. Library & Information Science Research, 33, 202-210. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2010.11.002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K. Wakimoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study’s objective was to identify the utilitarian and hedonic features of satisfying music information seeking experiences from the perspective of younger adults when using physical and digital music information retrieval (MIR systems in their daily lives.Design – In-depth, semi-structured interviews.Setting – Large public library in Montreal, Canada.Subjects – 15 French-speaking younger adults,10 males and 5 females (aged 18 to 29 years, mean age of 24 years.Methods – A pre-test was completed to test the interview guide. The guide was dividedinto five sections asking the participants questions about their music tastes, how music fit into their daily lives, how they discovered music, what music information sources were used and how they were used, what made their experiences satisfying, and theirbiographical information. Participants were recruited between April 1, 2006 and August 8,2007 following maximum variation samplingfor the main study. Recruitment stopped whendata saturation was reached and no new themes arose during analysis. Interviews were recorded and the transcripts were analyzed via constant comparative method (CCM to determine themes and patterns. Main Results – The researchers found that both utilitarian and hedonic factors contributed to satisfaction with music information seeking experiences for the young adults. Utilitarian factors were divided between two main categories: finding music and finding information about music. Finding information about music could be further divided into three sub-categories: increasing cultural knowledge and social acceptance through increased knowledge about music, enriching the listening experience by finding information about the artist and the music, and gathering information to help with future music purchases including information that would help the participants recommend music to others. Hedonic outcomes that contributed to satisfying information seeking

  15. AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF SWITCHING TRACTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bezruchenko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The analytical study of switching of the tractive engines of electric locomotives is conducted. It is found that the obtained curves of change of current of the sections commuted correspond to the theory of average rectilinear switching. By means of the proposed method it is possible on the stage of design of tractive engines to forecast the quality of switching and to correct it timely.

  16. Switched reluctance drives for electric vehicle applications

    OpenAIRE

    Andrada Gascón, Pedro; Torrent Burgués, Marcel; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Perat Benavides, Josep Ignasi

    2003-01-01

    Electric vehicles are the only alternative for a clean, efficient and environmentally friendly urban transport system. With the increasing interest in electric drives for electric vehicle propulsion. This paper first tries to explain why the switched reluctance drive is a strong candidate for electric vehicle applications. It then gives switched reluctance drive design guidelines for battery or fuel cell operated electric vehicles. Finally, it presents the design and simulation of a switched ...

  17. Development of Embedded Controller for Video Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhengJianhua; WangYanmou; YingYan; MaWeinian

    2003-01-01

    The fluorescent probe for beam profile measurement has been mostly used in HIRFL-CSR beam diagnostic system. Front controller for video switch is very important to send more than tens set of CCD signal coming from fluorescent probe to one set of display located in center control room, a new kind of embedded controller for video switch has been developed by ourselves. The diagram of embedded controller for video switch is shown as Figl.

  18. Nonsmooth Modeling and Simulation for Switched Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Acary, Vincent; Brogliato, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    "Nonsmooth Modeling and Simulation for Switched Circuits" concerns the modeling and the numerical simulation of switched circuits with the nonsmooth dynamical systems (NSDS) approach, using piecewise-linear and multivalued models of electronic devices like diodes, transistors, switches. Numerous examples (ranging from introductory academic circuits to various types of power converters) are analyzed and many simulation results obtained with the INRIA open-source SICONOS software package are presented. Comparisons with SPICE and hybrid methods demonstrate the power of the NSDS approach

  19. 马克思主义信仰的神圣性和功利性探究%Marx's Belief in the Sanctity and Utilitarian Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶超群

    2012-01-01

    马克思主义作为无产阶级的革命纲领和行动指南,在实践中不断被证实其科学性、崇高性。在我国市场经济的不断深入过程中,要增强人们的马克思主义信仰,就要对其神圣性和功利性作一正确的解读。才能更好地使马克思主义的主流意识形态深入人心。%the Marx doctrine as the proletarian revolutionary programme and the guide to action, ceaseless in practice proved its science sex, sublime. In China's market economy and the deepening of the process, to strengthen people's belief in Marx, to the sacred and utilitarian for a correct interpretation, in order to better Marx's mainstream ideology to win support among the people.

  20. Cognitive the Library-- --from Utilitarianism to Right%图书馆认知视角下的功利与权力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海新

    2011-01-01

    本文从图书馆功利主义入手,剖析了功利主义对图书馆事业的影响,结合图书馆权力因素,探讨了图书馆的权力问题,并从图书馆权力角度进一步认识图书馆事业,对“图书馆发展的权力”、“管理读者的权力”、“文献保障权”、以及“实现读者的信息获取自由权”等进行了评述。%This paper introduced the library utilitarianism and its impacts to library, and use the library rights, in-depth study of the Library rights, use library rights angle to make a further recognizing to library, then make reviews to ,"Library development ri

  1. Odwracanie ról. Odpowiedź na artykuł Krzysztofa Saji (Role Reversals - A Reply to Krzysztof Saja's "Thought Experiments and Utilitarianism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodek Rabinowicz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In “Thought Experiments and Utilitarianism”, which is a comment on my “Utilitarianism by Way of Preference Change?”, Krzysztof Saja delineates three alternative ways in which one might interpret Richard Hare’s famous thought experiments involving role reversals. He suggests that each of them would underwrite Hare’s claim that moral deliberation transforms an interpersonal conflict of preferences into an intrapersonal one, which obtains between the deliberator’s own preferences. In this reply to Saja (“Role Reversals”, I discuss the three proposals in turn and argue that the first two do not solve the problem. The third one, which was already considered in my original paper, is based on Zeno Vendler’s suggestion that role reversals in moral thought-experiments are merely different ‘takes’ on one and the same real situation, as seen from different subjective perspectives. I argue that, in order to succeed in transforming interpersonal preference conflicts into intrapersonal ones, this proposal requires equating empathy with sympathy, which Hare would not be prepared to do.

  2. Happiness in Utilitarian Perspective and Its Rectification for College Students%高职大学生幸福取向功利化及其矫正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎永莲

    2012-01-01

    The perception to happiness impacts on the perspective to happiness.In today's college students,their understanding of happiness and the ways to achieve happiness is obviously utilitarian,which goes against to personal growth and society progress.This article attempts to analyze the reason and cause on the perception to happiness and propose solutions for rectification,which help to build up the correct happiness perspective.%幸福取向是幸福观的重要表现。当代高职大学生在理解幸福和追求幸福上呈现出明显的功利化取向,这不利于高职大学生的个人成长和社会进步。文章分析高职大学生幸福取向功利化的表现及成因,并提出矫正建议,以帮助高职大学生树立正确的幸福观。

  3. 女大学生功利型婚恋观透视%On College Girls' Utilitarian Outlook on Love and Marriage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小勇

    2012-01-01

    Some college girls shift their focus from pure love to solid money in seeking love and marriage.Internal factors at work are clinging mentality,Conformity mentality and minority influence External social and cultural factors include materialization caused by market economy,the special pressure that college girls face in seeking employment and social corruption.Utilitarian outlook on love and marriage reflects some college girls' attempt at happy life and their confusion and loss in this respect.The school and the family must both exert positive influence on these girls so that they can have a correct outlook on love.%女大学生中的少数人在对待自己的爱情婚姻问题上,从"唯爱论"向"唯钱论"转身。其内在原因是依附心理、攀比心理和众从心理,外在的社会文化原因是市场经济的物化作用、女性就业的特殊压力。功利型婚恋观体现了部分女大学生追求幸福生活的尝试,也反映了她们在婚恋观上的迷茫。应通过加强学校的教育、父母家庭的积极影响等加以引导。

  4. Reflection on Utilitarianism in Ideological and Political Theory Course%高校思想政治理论课功利化的反思与化解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵璀菊

    2012-01-01

    Utilitarianism results in the lower effect of ideological and political theory course.It embodies politicization of course content,one-sidedness of the conversion of textbook into teaching,simplicity of teaching ways and quantification of teaching evaluation.It brings about negative influence not only on credit,actual effect but also status and quality of personnel training in ideological and political theory course.Thus,colleges and universities should regenerate educational idea,improve teacher's quality,perfect evaluation system to reverse the utility trend.%功利化是导致高校思想政治理论课低效的重要症结之一。其主要表现为课程内容泛政治化、教材向教学转换片面化、教学方式简单化、教学评价唯量化,对思想政治理论课的信度、实效、地位以及人才培养质量带来了消极影响。对此,应该更新教育观念、提高教师素质、完善评价体系,以化解功利化倾向。

  5. Digital switching noise as a stochastic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, Giorgio; Trucco, Gabriella; Liberali, Valentino

    2007-06-01

    Switching activity of logic gates in a digital system is a deterministic process, depending on both circuit parameters and input signals. However, the huge number of logic blocks in a digital system makes digital switching a cognitively stochastic process. Switching activity is the source of the so-called "digital noise", which can be analyzed using a stochastic approach. For an asynchronous digital network, we can model digital switching currents as a shot noise process, deriving both its amplitude distribution and its power spectral density. From spectral distribution of digital currents, we can also calculate the spectral distribution and the power of disturbances injected into the on-chip power supply lines.

  6. Observability conditions of switched linear singular systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin MENG; Jifeng ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    The observability problem of switched linear singular(SLS) systems is studied in this paper. Based on the observability definition, the unobservable subspaces of given switching laws are investigated under the condition that all subsystems are regular. A necessary condition and a sufficient condition for observability of SLS systems are given. It is shown that the observability and controllability are dual for some special SLS systems with circulatory switching laws. The method developed here is applicable to the observability analysis of normal switched linear systems.

  7. A Heat Switch for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Various planned NASA missions require heat switches for active thermal control. As an example cryocoolers, including redundant coolers are incorporated on select...

  8. A Thermal Switch for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Various planned NASA missions require thermal switches for active thermal control. As an example cryocoolers, including redundant coolers are incorporated on select...

  9. Development of high precision switching power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high precision switching power supply was developed for the PFN modulator of RIKEN SACLA. The maximum output voltage is 50 kV, and the maximum repetition rate is 120 pps. The switching power supply consists of main and sub switching circuits. In the sub circuit, the pulse-width-modulation (PWM) method was used in order to obtain high precision charging voltage stability ( < 100 ppm–pp). The switching power supply was tested, and a charging voltage stability of 1 Vpp (20 ppm–pp) and a repetition rate of 120 pps were achieved. (author)

  10. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  11. Simplified design of switching power supplies

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1996-01-01

    Simplified Design of Switching Power Supplies is an all-inclusive, one-stop guide to switching power-supply design. Step-by-step instructions and diagrams render this book essential for the student and the experimenter, as well as the design professional.Simplified Design of Switching Power Supplies concentrates on the use of IC regulators. All popular forms of switching supplies, including DC-DC converters, inverters, buck, boost, buck-boost, pulse frequency modulation, pulse width modulation, current-mode control and pulse skipping, are described in detail. The design examples may

  12. Modified Embedded Switched Inductor Z Source Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Saravanan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel modified embedded switched inductor Z-source inverter is proposed by inserting the photovoltaic panels at various locations to improve the output voltage boosting performance. The proposed inverter have the concepts of embedded and switched inductor Z source network to have better features in terms of increased voltage boost inversion ability, continuous input current, reduced voltage stress on the switches/capacitors. Simulations are carried out by employing (120° pulse width modulation scheme. Hardware implementation of the proposed topology of rating 150 W, 60 V is made and the results are experimentally verified. Switch device power and reliability evaluation of the proposed inverter are also calculated.

  13. State-dependent switching control of switched positive fractional-order systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xudong; Yin, Yunfei; Zheng, Xiaolong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the problem of switching stabilization for a class of continuous-time switched positive fractional-order systems is studied by using state-dependent switching. First, the asymptotic stability condition of switched positive fractional-order systems with state-dependent switching is given, which is based on the fractional co-positive Lyapunov method. Moreover, by the sliding sector method, the stability condition of switched positive fractional-order systems whose subsystems are possibly all unstable is obtained. A variable structure (VS) switching law with sliding sector is also proposed to guarantee the switched positive fractional-order system to be asymptotically stable. Finally, two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the advantages and effectiveness of our developed results.

  14. The Application of High Temperature Superconducting Materials to Power Switches

    CERN Document Server

    March, S A; Ballarino, A

    2009-01-01

    Superconducting switches may find application in superconducting magnet systems that require energy extraction. Such superconducting switches could be bypass-switches that are operated in conjunction with a parallel resistor or dump-switches where all of the energy is dissipated in the switch itself. Bypass-switches are more suited to higher energy circuits as a portion of the energy can be dissipated in the external dump resistor. Dump- switches require less material and triggering energy as a lower switch resistance is needed to achieve the required total dump resistance. Both superconducting bypass-switches and superconducting dump-switches can be ther- mally activated. Switching times that are comparable to those obtained with mechanical bypass-switch systems can be achieved using a co-wound heater that is powered by a ca- pacitor discharge. Switches that have fast thermal diffusion times through the insulation can be modelled as a lumped system whereas those with slow thermal diffusion times were modelle...

  15. Robot brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babuska, R.

    2011-01-01

    The brain hosts complex networks of neurons that are responsible for behavior in humans and animals that we generally call intelligent. I is not easy to give an exact definition of intelligence – for the purpose of this talk it will suffice to say that we refer to intelligence as a collection of cap

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate have been linked ... we see, and help us to solve a problem. Some of the regions most commonly ... also appears to be involved in learning to fear an event, such as touching a ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive functions, such as ... making, and problem solving. Different parts of the PFC are involved in using short-term or "working" ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... ClinicalTrials.gov : Federally and privately supported research using human volunteers PubMed Central: An archive of life sciences ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ADHD , schizophrenia , and depression . Hippocampus —Helps create and file new memories. When the hippocampus is damaged, a ... portion of the brain involved in creating and filing new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A ...

  20. Switching between hands in a serial reaction time task: A comparison between young and old adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike eHoff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is associated with a variety of functional and structural brain alterations. These age-related brain alterations have been assumed to negatively impact cognitive and motor performance. Especially important for the execution of everyday activities in older adults (OA is the ability to perform movements that depend on both hands working together. However, bimanual coordination is typically deteriorated with increasing age. Hence, a deeper understanding of such age-related brain-behavior alterations might offer the opportunity to design future interventional studies in order to delay or even prevent the decline in cognitive and/ or motor performance over the lifespan. Here we examined to what extent the capability to acquire and maintain a novel bimanual motor skill is still preserved in healthy OA as compared to their younger peers (YA. For this purpose, we investigated performance of OA (n=26 and YA (n=26 in a bimanual serial reaction time task (B-SRTT, on two experimental sessions, separated by one week. We found that even though OA were generally slower in global response times, they showed preserved learning capabilities in the B-SRTT. However, sequence specific learning was more pronounced in YA as compared to OA. Furthermore, we found that switching between hands during B-SRTT learning trials resulted in increased response times (hand switch costs, a phenomenon that was more pronounced in OA. These hand switch costs were reduced in both groups over the time course of learning. More interestingly, there were no group differences in hand switch costs on the second training session. These results provide novel evidence that bimanual motor skill learning is capable of reducing age-related deficits in hand switch costs, a finding that might have important implications to prevent the age-related decline in sensorimotor function.

  1. Loss comparison of different nine-switch and twelve-switch energy conversion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Loh, Poh Chiang; Qin, Zian;

    2014-01-01

    answer only available after performing a thorough analysis. For that, it is the intention now to compare the nine-switch and twelve-switch converters when they are used in ac-ac, ac-dc, dc-ac or dc-dc energy conversion systems. Their losses will be compared to identify when the nine-switch converter will...

  2. Modeling and control of switching max-plus-linear systems with random and deterministic switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Boom, T.J.J.; De Schutter, B.

    2012-01-01

    Switching max-plus-linear (SMPL) systems are discrete-event systems that can switch between different modes of operation. In each mode the system is described by a max-plus-linear state equation and a max-plus-linear output equation, with different system matrices for each mode. The switching may de

  3. A Comparison of High-Voltage Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, K.W.; Scott, G.L.

    1999-02-01

    This report summarizes our work on high-voltage switches during the past few years. With joint funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense (DOD), we tested a wide variety of switches to a common standard. This approach permitted meaningful comparisons between disparate switches. Most switches were purchased from commercial sources, though some were experimental devices. For the purposes of this report, we divided the switches into three generic types (gas, vacuum, and semiconductor) and selected data that best illustrates important strengths and weaknesses of each switch type. Test techniques that indicate the state of health of the switches are emphasized. For example, a good indicator of residual gas in a vacuum switch is the systematic variation of the switching delay in response to changes in temperature and/or operating conditions. We believe that the presentation of this kind of information will help engineers to select and to test switches for their particular applications. Our work was limited to switches capable of driving slappers. Also known as exploding-foil initiators, slappers are detonators that initiate a secondary explosive by direct impact with a small piece of matter moving at the detonation velocity (several thousands of meters per second). A slapper is desirable for enhanced safety (no primary explosive), but it also places extra demands on the capacitor-discharge circuit to deliver a fast-rising current pulse (greater than 10 A/ns) of several thousand amperes. The required energy is substantially less than one joule; but this energy is delivered in less than one microsecond, taking the peak power into the megawatt regime. In our study, the switches operated in the 1 kV to 3 kV range and were physically small, roughly 1 cm{sup 3} or less. Although a fuze functions only once in actual use, multiple-shot capability is important for production testing and for research work. For this reason, we restricted this report

  4. Implementasi Sistem Step By Step Switching Menggunakan Komponen Terintegrasi

    OpenAIRE

    Suherman

    2009-01-01

    Sentral yang menggunakan sistem step by step switching telah lama ditinggalkan. Teknologi telah beralih ke sistem switching digital common control, bahkan berbasis packet switching khususnya penggunaan IP based Network. Namun demikian, teknologi switching step by step yang dahulu berbasis sistem mekanis masih dapat diperbaharui dengan memanfaatkan komponen terintegrasi (integrates cicuit, IC). Sistem switching step by step dengan komponen terintegrasi ini dapat dimanfaatkan untuk membentuk...

  5. Switching tests for the LCTF protective dump circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each of the six coils in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) has a separate power supply, dump resistor, and switching circuit. Each switching circuit contains five switches, two of which are redundant. The three remaining switches perform separate duties in an emergency dump situation. These three switches were tested to determine their ability to meet the LCTF conditions

  6. Sequential Effects in Deduction: Cost of Inference Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Emilio G.; Moreno-Rios, Sergio; Espino, Orlando; Santamaria, Carlos; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The task-switch paradigm has helped psychologists gain insight into the processes involved in changing from one activity to another. The literature has yielded consistent results about switch cost reconfiguration (abrupt offset in regular task-switch vs. gradual reduction in random task-switch; endogenous and exogenous components of switch cost;…

  7. ParvalbuminCircuits Pivotal for BrainPlasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Hensch, Takao K.

    2014-01-01

    Experience shapes brain function throughout life to varying degree. In a recent issue of Nature, Donato et al. identify reversible shifts in focal parvalbumin-cell state during adult learning, placing it on a mechanistic continuum with developmental critical periods. A disinhibitory microcircuit controls the plasticity switch to modulate memory formation.

  8. How one-shot learning unfolds in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle Weaver

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Much learning occurs gradually through trial and error, but rare and important experiences require one-shot learning; a new study explores how the brain switches between these two strategies for identifying causal relationships. Read the Research Article.

  9. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  10. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  11. Internal Backpressure for Terabit Switch Fabrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Rytlig, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes the efficiency of novel backpressure schemes for Terabit switch fabrics. The proposed schemes aim at buffer optimization under uniform traffic distribution with Bernoulli packet arrival process. Results show that a reduction of the needed maximum buffer capacity w...... with up to 47% can be achieved with switch-internal backpressure mechanisms at the expense of a small control overhead....

  12. A sub-1-volt nanoelectromechanical switching device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Oen; Song, Yong-Ha; Kim, Min-Wu; Kang, Min-Ho; Oh, Jae-Sub; Yang, Hyun-Ho; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switches have received widespread attention as promising candidates in the drive to surmount the physical limitations currently faced by complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The NEM switch has demonstrated superior characteristics including quasi-zero leakage behaviour, excellent density capability and operation in harsh environments. However, an unacceptably high operating voltage (4-20 V) has posed a major obstacle in the practical use of the NEM switch in low-power integrated circuits. To utilize the NEM switch widely as a core device component in ultralow power applications, the operation voltage needs to be reduced to 1 V or below. However, sub-1 V actuation has not yet been demonstrated because of fabrication difficulties and irreversible switching failure caused by surface adhesion. Here, we report the sub-1 V operation of a NEM switch through the introduction of a novel pipe clip device structure and an effective air gap fabrication technique. This achievement is primarily attributed to the incorporation of a 4-nm-thick air gap, which is the smallest reported so far for a NEM switch generated using a `top-down' approach. Our structure and process can potentially be utilized in various nanogap-related applications, including NEM switch-based ultralow-power integrated circuits, NEM resonators, nanogap electrodes for scientific research and sensors.

  13. Switched Transconductor Mixer Compatible with Future CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Louwsma, Simon M.; Wienk, Gerard J.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2003-01-01

    Mixers are commonly used in communication systems for frequency translation, and usually exploit switching in some form to implement multiplication by a square wave. However, at the low supply voltages required for new CMOS technologies, switches are non- or poorly conducting in the "middle voltage

  14. RF MEMS Switches for Mobile Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, Peter; Herfst, Rodolf; Suy, Hilco; Goossens, Martijn; Beek, van Joost; Bielen, Jeroen; Stulemeijer, Jiri; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    Switched capacitors based on radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) can enable a breakthrough in radio technology. Their switching principle is based on the mechanical movement of the plates of a parallel plate capacitor using the electrostatic force. The resulting difference in ca

  15. PBC: A Partially Buffered Crossbar Packet Switch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mhamdi, L.

    2009-01-01

    The crossbar fabric is widely used as the interconnect of high-performance packet switches due to its low cost and scalability. There are two main variants of the crossbar fabric: unbuffered and internally buffered. On one hand, unbuffered crossbar fabric switches exhibit the advantage of using no i

  16. Proceedings of the switched power workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain most of the presentations given at a workshop on the current state of research in techniques for switched power acceleration. The proceedings are divided, as was the workshop itself, into two parts. Part 1, contains the latest results from a number of groups active in switched power research. The major topic here is a method for switching externally supplied power onto a transmission line. Advocates for vacuum photodiode switching, solid state switching, gas switching, and synthetic pulse generation are all presented. Other important areas of research described in this section concern: external electrical and laser pulsing systems; the properties of the created electromagnetic pulse; structures used for transporting the electromagnetic pulse to the region where the electron beam is located; and possible applications. Part 2 of the proceedings considers the problem of designing a high brightness electron gun using switched power as the power source. This is an important first step in demonstrating the usefulness of switched power techniques for accelerator physics. In addition such a gun could have immediate practical importance for advanced acceleration studies since the brightness could exceed that of present sources by several orders of magnitude. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Kathleen Tuohy and Patricia Tuttle for their assistance in organizing and running the workshop. Their tireless efforts contribute greatly to a very productive meeting

  17. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidari, E.; Keskin, M.; Maloberti, F.;

    1999-01-01

    Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications....

  18. Efficiency switching-mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A switching-mode, blocking oscillator based power supply employs proportional base drive and an improved design of rise-time suppression to improve effeciency and reliability. Current limiting elements cooperate with pass transistor control circuits to provide abrupt and power-efficient primary circuit switching

  19. Learner Code-Switching versus English Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a study into the functions of code-switching in EFL classes at a Colombian language school. It was undertaken to decide whether the official "English-only" policy in place in this and other classrooms is pedagogically justified. The results suggest that code-switching may not necessarily be connected to ability level and…

  20. Performance Analysis of Different Optical Switching Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman A. Al-Qahtani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Optical Packet Switching (OPS and transmission networks based on Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM have been increasingly deployed in the Internet infrastructure over the last decade in order to meet the huge increasing demand for bandwidth. Several different technologies have been developed for optical packet switching such as space switches, broadcast-and-select, input buffered switches and output buffered switches. These architectures vary based on several parameters such as the way of optical buffering, the placement of optical buffers, the way of solving the external blocking inherited from switching technologies in general and the components used to implement WDM. Approach: This study surveys most of the exiting optical packet switching architectures. A simulation-based comparison of input buffered and output buffered architectures were presented. Results: The performance analysis of the selected two architectures derived using simulation program and compared at different scenarios. We found that the output buffered architectures give better performance than input buffered architectures. Conclusion: The simulation results shows that the-broadcast-and-select architecture is attractive in terms that it has lees number of components compared to other switches.

  1. Proceedings of the switched power workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernow, R.C. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings contain most of the presentations given at a workshop on the current state of research in techniques for switched power acceleration. The proceedings are divided, as was the workshop itself, into two parts. Part 1, contains the latest results from a number of groups active in switched power research. The major topic here is a method for switching externally supplied power onto a transmission line. Advocates for vacuum photodiode switching, solid state switching, gas switching, and synthetic pulse generation are all presented. Other important areas of research described in this section concern: external electrical and laser pulsing systems; the properties of the created electromagnetic pulse; structures used for transporting the electromagnetic pulse to the region where the electron beam is located; and possible applications. Part 2 of the proceedings considers the problem of designing a high brightness electron gun using switched power as the power source. This is an important first step in demonstrating the usefulness of switched power techniques for accelerator physics. In addition such a gun could have immediate practical importance for advanced acceleration studies since the brightness could exceed that of present sources by several orders of magnitude. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Kathleen Tuohy and Patricia Tuttle for their assistance in organizing and running the workshop. Their tireless efforts contribute greatly to a very productive meeting.

  2. Modelling switching power converters as complementarity systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camlibel, Mehmet; Iannelli, Luigi; Vasca, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    Switched complementarity models of linear circuits with ideal diodes and/or ideal switches allow one to study well-posedness and stability issues for these circuits by employing the complementarity problems of the mathematical programming. In this paper, we demonstrate that other types of typical el

  3. Code switching for college students on campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇

    2015-01-01

    <正>I.Introduction In linguistics,code-switching is the concurrent use of more than one language,or language variety,in discourse.Code-switching is a worldwide linguistic phenomenon existing in bilingual or multilingual communities.College students in China,after years of English learning,are bilingually competent underlying codeswitching between Chinese and English.Studies or research

  4. Ultrafast Directional Beam Switching in Coupled VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Cun-Zheng; Goorjian, Peter

    2001-01-01

    We propose a new approach to performing ultrafast directional beam switching using two coupled Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs). The proposed strategy is demonstrated for two VCSELs of 5.6 microns in diameter placed about 1 micron apart from the edges, showing a switching speed of 42 GHz with a maximum far-field angle span of about 10 degrees.

  5. Ultrafast pulse generation in photoconductive switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Dykaar, D. R.

    1996-01-01

    Carrier and field dynamics in photoconductive switches are investigated by electrooptic sampling and voltage-dependent reflectivity measurements. We show that the nonuniform field distribution due to the two-dimensional nature of coplanar photoconductive switches, in combination with the large di...

  6. Light switching of molecules on surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, W.R.; Feringa, B.L.

    2009-01-01

    Smart surfaces, surfaces that respond to an external stimulus in a defined manner, hold considerable potential as components in molecular-based devices, not least as discrete switching elements. Many stimuli can be used to switch surfaces between different states, including redox, light, pH, and ion

  7. Optical packet switching without packet alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Operation without packet alignment of an all-optical packet switch is proposed and predicted feasible through a detailed traffic analysis. Packet alignment units are eliminated resulting in a simple switch architecture while optimal traffic performance is maintained through the flexibility provided...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1361 Master switch. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement to allow ready disconnection of each electric power source from the main bus. The point of disconnection must be adjacent to the sources controlled by the...

  9. Stability of stochastic switched SIRS models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaoying; Liu, Xinzhi; Deng, Feiqi

    2011-11-01

    Stochastic stability problems of a stochastic switched SIRS model with or without distributed time delay are considered. By utilizing the Lyapunov methods, sufficient stability conditions of the disease-free equilibrium are established. Stability conditions about the subsystem of the stochastic switched SIRS systems are also obtained.

  10. On formalism and stability of switched systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we formulate a uniform mathematical framework for studying switched systems with piecewise linear partitioned state space and state dependent switching. Based on known results from the theory of differential inclusions, we devise a Lyapunov stability theorem suitable for this class...

  11. The Aesthetics of Code Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadi Asiabadi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  Some of the figures of speech in Persian language are those that show the rhetorical value of the bilingualism. Tarjema (translation, Molama (bilingual poem, Dhuloghatayn (readable by two languge, Eghtebas (borrowing, Darj (insertion, are these figures of speech. Unfortunately, in rhetorical sources and books, the aesthetic values of these figures have not been explained. However, the aesthetic aspects of these figures can be shown through several theories that discuss code switching considering the fact that some of the theories are commonly used in literature and literary criticism . Therefore, in this essay, it is shown that from these figures, Eghtebas (borrowing has a higher literary value and importance than others. Moreover, the literary significance of this figure is revealed through several theories.

  12. Integrated photonic switches for nanosecond packet-switched optical wavelength conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidaner, Onur; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sabnis, Vijit A.; Zheng, Jun-Fei; Harris, James S., Jr.; Miller, David A. B.

    2006-01-01

    We present a multifunctional photonic switch that monolithically integrates an InGaAsP/InP quantum well electroabsorption modulator and an InGaAs photodiode as a part of an on-chip, InP optoelectronic circuit. The optical multifunctionality of the switch offers many configurations to allow for different optical network functions on a single chip. Here we experimentally demonstrate GHz-range optical wavelength-converting switching with only ~10 mW of absorbed input optical power, electronically controlled packet switching with a reconfiguration time of switching in <300 ps.

  13. Unity power factor switching regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A single or multiphase boost chopper regulator operating with unity power factor, for use such as to charge a battery is comprised of a power section for converting single or multiphase line energy into recharge energy including a rectifier (10), one inductor (L.sub.1) and one chopper (Q.sub.1) for each chopper phase for presenting a load (battery) with a current output, and duty cycle control means (16) for each chopper to control the average inductor current over each period of the chopper, and a sensing and control section including means (20) for sensing at least one load parameter, means (22) for producing a current command signal as a function of said parameter, means (26) for producing a feedback signal as a function of said current command signal and the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, means (28) for sensing current through said inductor, means (18) for comparing said feedback signal with said sensed current to produce, in response to a difference, a control signal applied to the duty cycle control means, whereby the average inductor current is proportionate to the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, and instantaneous line current is thereby maintained proportionate to the instantaneous line voltage, thus achieving a unity power factor. The boost chopper is comprised of a plurality of converters connected in parallel and operated in staggered phase. For optimal harmonic suppression, the duty cycles of the switching converters are evenly spaced, and by negative coupling between pairs 180.degree. out-of-phase, peak currents through the switches can be reduced while reducing the inductor size and mass.

  14. Switched-capacitor isolated LED driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Seth R.; Kline, Mitchell

    2016-03-22

    A switched-capacitor voltage converter which is particularly well-suited for receiving a line voltage from which to drive current through a series of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Input voltage is rectified in a multi-level rectifier network having switched capacitors in an ascending-bank configuration for passing voltages in uniform steps between zero volts up to full received voltage V.sub.DC. A regulator section, operating on V.sub.DC, comprises switched-capacitor stages of H-bridge switching and flying capacitors. A current controlled oscillator drives the states of the switched-capacitor stages and changes its frequency to maintain a constant current to the load. Embodiments are described for isolating the load from the mains, utilizing an LC tank circuit or a multi-primary-winding transformer.

  15. Ferromagnetic vortex core switching at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebecki, Kristof M.; Nowak, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    An approach for the investigation of vortex core switching is presented. Thermal effects up to the Curie point are included in a micromagnetic framework based on the recently developed Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation. In this approach it is easier to avoid numerical discretization artifacts, commonly present when a Bloch point is mediating the switching process. Switching in thin circular permalloy disks caused by the application of a slowly increasing magnetic field oriented orthogonally to the disk is considered. An energy barrier which can be overcome by thermal fluctuations is taken into account, leading to a strong influence of the temperature on the switching field. In particular, the switching field goes to zero at a significantly smaller temperature than the Curie temperature. The deduced nucleation volume is smaller than the typical grain size in permalloy.

  16. Quantum Brain?

    CERN Document Server

    Mershin, A; Skoulakis, E M C

    2000-01-01

    In order to create a novel model of memory and brain function, we focus our approach on the sub-molecular (electron), molecular (tubulin) and macromolecular (microtubule) components of the neural cytoskeleton. Due to their size and geometry, these systems may be approached using the principles of quantum physics. We identify quantum-physics derived mechanisms conceivably underlying the integrated yet differentiated aspects of memory encoding/recall as well as the molecular basis of the engram. We treat the tubulin molecule as the fundamental computation unit (qubit) in a quantum-computational network that consists of microtubules (MTs), networks of MTs and ultimately entire neurons and neural networks. We derive experimentally testable predictions of our quantum brain hypothesis and perform experiments on these.

  17. SWITCHING CONTROL:FROM SIMPLE RULES TO COMPLEX CHAOTIC SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Jinhu

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews and introduces some simple switching piecewise-linear controllers, which can generate complex chaotic behaviors from simple switching systems. The mechanism of simple switching rules creating complex chaotic behaviors is further investigated.

  18. Self-Induced Switchings between Multiple Space-Time Patterns on Complex Networks of Excitable Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, Gerrit; Lehnertz, Klaus; Feudel, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    We report on self-induced switchings between multiple distinct space-time patterns in the dynamics of a spatially extended excitable system. These switchings between low-amplitude oscillations, nonlinear waves, and extreme events strongly resemble a random process, although the system is deterministic. We show that a chaotic saddle—which contains all the patterns as well as channel-like structures that mediate the transitions between them—is the backbone of such a pattern-switching dynamics. Our analyses indicate that essential ingredients for the observed phenomena are that the system behaves like an inhomogeneous oscillatory medium that is capable of self-generating spatially localized excitations and that is dominated by short-range connections but also features long-range connections. With our findings, we present an alternative to the well-known ways to obtain self-induced pattern switching, namely, noise-induced attractor hopping, heteroclinic orbits, and adaptation to an external signal. This alternative way can be expected to improve our understanding of pattern switchings in spatially extended natural dynamical systems like the brain and the heart.

  19. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  20. The unidirectional prosaccade switch-cost: electroencephalographic evidence of task-set inertia in oculomotor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Jeffrey; Hassall, Cameron D; Krigolson, Olave E; Heath, Matthew

    2015-02-01

    The execution of an antisaccade selectively increases the reaction time (RT) of a subsequent prosaccade (the unidirectional prosaccade switch-cost). To explain this finding, the task-set inertia hypothesis asserts that an antisaccade requires a cognitively mediated non-standard task-set that persists inertially and delays the planning of a subsequent prosaccade. The present study sought to directly test the theoretical tenets of the task-set inertia hypothesis by examining the concurrent behavioural and the event-related brain potential (ERP) data associated with the unidirectional prosaccade switch-cost. Participants pseudo-randomly alternated between pro- and antisaccades while electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded. As expected, the completion of an antisaccade selectively increased the RT of a subsequent prosaccade, whereas the converse switch did not influence RTs. Thus, the behavioural results demonstrated the unidirectional prosaccade switch-cost. In terms of the ERP findings, we observed a reliable change in the amplitude of the P3 - time-locked to task-instructions - when trials were switched from a prosaccade to an antisaccade; however, no reliable change was observed when switching from an antisaccade to a prosaccade. This is a salient finding because extensive work has shown that the P3 provides a neural index of the task-set required to execute a to-be-completed response. As such, results showing that prosaccades completed after antisaccades exhibited increased RTs in combination with a P3 amplitude comparable to antisaccades provides convergent evidence that the unidirectional prosaccade switch-cost is attributed to the persistent activation of a non-standard antisaccade task-set.