WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain surface cooperative

  1. Production of a faithful realistic phantom to human head and thermal neutron flux measurement on the brain surface. Cooperative research

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, K; Kishi, T; Kumada, H; Matsumura, A; Nose, T; Torii, Y; Uchiyama, J; Yamamoto, T

    2002-01-01

    Thermal neutron flux is determined using the gold wires in current BNCT irradiation, so evaluation of arbitrary points after the irradiation is limited in the quantity of these detectors. In order to make up for the weakness, dose estimation of a patient is simulated by a computational dose calculation supporting system. In another way without computer simulation, a medical irradiation condition can be replicate experimentally using of realistic phantom which was produced from CT images by rapid prototyping technique. This phantom was irradiated at a same JRR-4 neutron beam as clinical irradiation condition of the patient and the thermal neutron distribution on the brain surface was measured in detail. This experimental evaluation technique using a realistic phantom is applicable to in vitro cell irradiation experiments for radiation biological effects as well as in-phantom experiments for dosimetry under the nearly medical irradiation condition of patient.

  2. Production of a faithful realistic phantom to human head and thermal neutron flux measurement on the brain surface. Cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kumada, Hiroaki; Kishi, Toshiaki; Torii, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Junzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Endo, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira; Nose, Tadao [Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Thermal neutron flux is determined using the gold wires in current BNCT irradiation, so evaluation of arbitrary points after the irradiation is limited in the quantity of these detectors. In order to make up for the weakness, dose estimation of a patient is simulated by a computational dose calculation supporting system. In another way without computer simulation, a medical irradiation condition can be replicate experimentally using of realistic phantom which was produced from CT images by rapid prototyping technique. This phantom was irradiated at a same JRR-4 neutron beam as clinical irradiation condition of the patient and the thermal neutron distribution on the brain surface was measured in detail. This experimental evaluation technique using a realistic phantom is applicable to in vitro cell irradiation experiments for radiation biological effects as well as in-phantom experiments for dosimetry under the nearly medical irradiation condition of patient. (author)

  3. Multi-Brain Games: Cooperation and Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Gürkök, Hayrettin; Stephanidis, C; Antona, M.

    We survey research on multi-user brain-computer interfacing appli-cations and look in particular at ‘multi-brain games’. That is, games where in one or other form the (EEG-) measured brain activity of more than one user is needed to play the game. Various ways of integrating and merging brain

  4. Surface organization and cooperativity during nonspecific protein adsorption events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Michael; Verdes, Dorinel; Zimmermann, Jan; Seeger, Stefan

    2008-11-06

    Despite many experimental studies on cooperative effects during protein adsorption events, this phenomenon is still poorly characterized and subject of much controversy. In this study, we address the topic of cooperativity using two distinct experimental approaches, namely, kinetic analysis and surface imaging, both based on supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) microscopy. Several model systems comprising the two proteins BSA and fibrinogen, two different ionic strength conditions and varying pH environments were investigated. The combination of the experimental information obtained from kinetic analysis and from real-time in situ scan images unravel a clear correlation between cooperative adsorption and a heterogeneous protein layer build-up. We propose a mechanistic model of protein adsorption based on an overlap of classical Langmuir-type adsorption on unoccupied surface areas and an additional cooperative adsorption pathway near preadsorbed proteins which is consistent with the experimental observations. Moreover, the growth of two-dimensional surface clusters as an often assumed element of cooperativity could be excluded for the studied systems. The model includes the often observed phenomenon that the adsorption rate decelerates abruptly above a certain coverage limit. Furthermore, the observed evolution of the heterogeneous protein distribution on the surface is in good agreement with the proposed model.

  5. Brain surface temperature under a craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, Abigail S; Waters, Jack

    2012-12-01

    Many neuroscientists access surface brain structures via a small cranial window, opened in the bone above the brain region of interest. Unfortunately this methodology has the potential to perturb the structure and function of the underlying brain tissue. One potential perturbation is heat loss from the brain surface, which may result in local dysregulation of brain temperature. Here, we demonstrate that heat loss is a significant problem in a cranial window preparation in common use for electrical recording and imaging studies in mice. In the absence of corrective measures, the exposed surface of the neocortex was at ∼28°C, ∼10°C below core body temperature, and a standing temperature gradient existed, with tissue below the core temperature even several millimeters into the brain. Cooling affected cellular and network function in neocortex and resulted principally from increased heat loss due to convection and radiation through the skull and cranial window. We demonstrate that constant perfusion of solution, warmed to 37°C, over the brain surface readily corrects the brain temperature, resulting in a stable temperature of 36-38°C at all depths. Our results indicate that temperature dysregulation may be common in cranial window preparations that are in widespread use in neuroscience, underlining the need to take measures to maintain the brain temperature in many physiology experiments.

  6. Cooperativity in Surface Bonding and Hydrogen Bonding of Water and Hydroxyl at Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiros, T.; Ogasawara, H.; Naslund, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    of the mixed phase at metal surfaces. The surface bonding can be considered to be similar to accepting a hydrogen bond, and we can thereby apply general cooperativity rules developed for hydrogen-bonded systems. This provides a simple understanding of why water molecules become more strongly bonded......We examine the balance of surface bonding and hydrogen bonding in the mixed OH + H2O overlayer on Pt(111), Cu(111), and Cu(110) via density functional theory calculations. We find that there is a cooperativity effect between surface bonding and hydrogen bonding that underlies the stability...... to the surface upon hydrogen bonding to OH and why the OH surface bonding is instead weakened through hydrogen bonding to water. We extend the application of this simple model to other observed cooperativity effects for pure water adsorption systems and H3O+ on metal surfaces....

  7. 75 FR 38605 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... to implement this cooperative research program. Due to obligation limitations, recissions, and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...

  8. Brain Surface Conformal Parameterization Using Riemann Surface Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Lui, Lok Ming; Gu, Xianfeng; Hayashi, Kiralee M.; Chan, Tony F.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2011-01-01

    In medical imaging, parameterized 3-D surface models are useful for anatomical modeling and visualization, statistical comparisons of anatomy, and surface-based registration and signal processing. Here we introduce a parameterization method based on Riemann surface structure, which uses a special curvilinear net structure (conformal net) to partition the surface into a set of patches that can each be conformally mapped to a parallelogram. The resulting surface subdivision and the parameterizations of the components are intrinsic and stable (their solutions tend to be smooth functions and the boundary conditions of the Dirichlet problem can be enforced). Conformal parameterization also helps transform partial differential equations (PDEs) that may be defined on 3-D brain surface manifolds to modified PDEs on a two-dimensional parameter domain. Since the Jacobian matrix of a conformal parameterization is diagonal, the modified PDE on the parameter domain is readily solved. To illustrate our techniques, we computed parameterizations for several types of anatomical surfaces in 3-D magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain, including the cerebral cortex, hippocampi, and lateral ventricles. For surfaces that are topologically homeomorphic to each other and have similar geometrical structures, we show that the parameterization results are consistent and the subdivided surfaces can be matched to each other. Finally, we present an automatic sulcal landmark location algorithm by solving PDEs on cortical surfaces. The landmark detection results are used as constraints for building conformal maps between surfaces that also match explicitly defined landmarks. PMID:17679336

  9. Agent-based brain modeling by means of hierarchical cooperative coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniadakis, Michail; Trahanias, Panos

    2009-01-01

    We address the development of brain-inspired models that will be embedded in robotic systems to support their cognitive abilities. We introduce a novel agent-based coevolutionary computational framework for modeling assemblies of brain areas. Specifically, self-organized agent structures are employed to represent brain areas. In order to support the design of agents, we introduce a hierarchical cooperative coevolutionary (HCCE) scheme that effectively specifies the structural details of autonomous, yet cooperating system components. The design process is facilitated by the capability of the HCCE-based design mechanism to investigate the performance of the model in lesion conditions. Interestingly, HCCE also provides a consistent mechanism to reconfigure (if necessary) the structure of agents, facilitating follow-up modeling efforts. Implemented models are embedded in a simulated robot to support its behavioral capabilities, also demonstrating the validity of the proposed computational framework.

  10. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Cecotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject’s will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance, combining trials across subjects can significantly improve performance compared with when only a single user is involved. Yet, cooperative BCIs may only be used in particular settings, and new paradigms must be proposed to efficiently use this approach. The possible benefits of using several subjects are addressed, and compared with current single-subject BCI paradigms. To show the advantages of a cooperative BCI, we evaluate the performance of combining decisions across subjects with data from an event-related potentials (ERP based experiment where each subject observed the same sequence of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to achieve a mean AUC superior to 0.95 with 10 subjects and 3 electrodes on each subject, or with 4 subjects and 6 electrodes on each subject. Several emerging challenges and possible applications are proposed to highlight how cooperative BCIs could be efficiently used with current technologies and leverage BCI applications.

  11. 77 FR 38709 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... program. Due to obligation limitations, rescissions, and congressional designations of Title V Research in... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...

  12. Brain surface motion imaging to predict adhesions between meningiomas and the brain surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Yamatani, Yuya; Akashi, Toshiaki; Miyasaka, Toshiteru; Emura, Tomoko; Kichikawa, Kimihiko [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology, Nara (Japan); Yamada, Syuichi; Nakase, Hiroyuki [Nara Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Nara (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    ''Brain surface motion imaging'' (BSMI) is the subtraction of pulse-gated, 3D, heavily T2-weighted image of two different phases of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsation, which enables the assessment of the dynamics of brain surface pulsatile motion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of this imaging method for providing presurgical information about adhesions between meningiomas and the brain surface. Eighteen cases with surgically resected meningioma in whom BSMI was presurgically obtained were studied. BSMI consisted of two sets of pulse-gated, 3D, heavily T2-weighted, fast spin echo scans. Images of the systolic phase and the diastolic phase were obtained, and subtraction was performed with 3D motion correction. We analyzed the presence of band-like texture surrounding the tumor and judged the degree of motion discrepancy as ''total,'' ''partial,'' or ''none.'' The correlation between BSMI and surgical findings was evaluated. For cases with partial adhesions, agreements in the locations of the adhesions were also evaluated. On presurgical BSMI, no motion discrepancy was seen in eight cases, partial in six cases, and total in four cases. These presurgical predictions about adhesions and surgical findings agreed in 13 cases (72.2%). The locations of adhesions agreed in five of six cases with partial adhesions. In the current study, BSMI could predict brain and meningioma adhesions correctly in 72.2% of cases, and adhesion location could also be predicted. This imaging method appears to provide presurgical information about brain/meningioma adhesions. (orig.)

  13. How Two Brains Make One Synchronized Mind in the Inferior Frontal Cortex: fNIRS-Based Hyperscanning During Cooperative Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Naoyuki; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Azuma, Miyuki; Shimada, Yohko Minamoto; Osaka, Mariko

    2015-01-01

    One form of communication that is common in all cultures is people singing together. Singing together reflects an index of cognitive synchronization and cooperation of human brains. Little is known about the neural synchronization mechanism, however. Here, we examined how two brains make one synchronized behavior using cooperated singing/humming between two people and hyperscanning, a new brain scanning technique. Hyperscanning allowed us to observe dynamic cooperation between interacting participants. We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to simultaneously record the brain activity of two people while they cooperatively sang or hummed a song in face-to-face (FtF) or face-to-wall (FtW) conditions. By calculating the inter-brain wavelet transform coherence between two interacting brains, we found a significant increase in the neural synchronization of the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) for cooperative singing or humming regardless of FtF or FtW compared with singing or humming alone. On the other hand, the right IFC showed an increase in neural synchronization for humming only, possibly due to more dependence on musical processing.

  14. Rearing-group size determines social competence and brain structure in a cooperatively breeding cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stefan; Bessert-Nettelbeck, Mathilde; Kotrschal, Alexander; Taborsky, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Social animals can greatly benefit from well-developed social skills. Because the frequency and diversity of social interactions often increase with the size of social groups, the benefits of advanced social skills can be expected to increase with group size. Variation in social skills often arises during ontogeny, depending on early social experience. Whether variation of social-group sizes affects development of social skills and related changes in brain structures remains unexplored. We investigated whether, in a cooperatively breeding cichlid, early group size (1) shapes social behavior and social skills and (2) induces lasting plastic changes in gross brain structures and (3) whether the development of social skills is confined to a sensitive ontogenetic period. Rearing-group size and the time juveniles spent in these groups interactively influenced the development of social skills and the relative sizes of four main brain regions. We did not detect a sensitive developmental period for the shaping of social behavior within the 2-month experience phase. Instead, our results suggest continuous plastic behavioral changes over time. We discuss how developmental effects on social behavior and brain architecture may adaptively tune phenotypes to their current or future environments.

  15. ABrIL - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab : a cloud based computation environment for cooperative neuroimaging projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves Tafula, Sérgio M; Moreira da Silva, Nádia; Rozanski, Verena E; Silva Cunha, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience is an increasingly multidisciplinary and highly cooperative field where neuroimaging plays an important role. Neuroimaging rapid evolution is demanding for a growing number of computing resources and skills that need to be put in place at every lab. Typically each group tries to setup their own servers and workstations to support their neuroimaging needs, having to learn from Operating System management to specific neuroscience software tools details before any results can be obtained from each setup. This setup and learning process is replicated in every lab, even if a strong collaboration among several groups is going on. In this paper we present a new cloud service model - Brain Imaging Application as a Service (BiAaaS) - and one of its implementation - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab (ABrIL) - in the form of an ubiquitous virtual desktop remote infrastructure that offers a set of neuroimaging computational services in an interactive neuroscientist-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). This remote desktop has been used for several multi-institution cooperative projects with different neuroscience objectives that already achieved important results, such as the contribution to a high impact paper published in the January issue of the Neuroimage journal. The ABrIL system has shown its applicability in several neuroscience projects with a relatively low-cost, promoting truly collaborative actions and speeding up project results and their clinical applicability.

  16. Generic strong coupling behavior of Cooper pairs in the surface of superfluid nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillet, N. [DPTA/Service de Physique nucleaire, CEA/DAM Ile de France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Sandulescu, N. [DPTA/Service de Physique nucleaire, CEA/DAM Ile de France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)]|[Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 76900 Bucharest (Romania)]|[Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS, UMR 8608, Orsay, F-91406 (France); Schuck, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS, UMR 8608, Orsay, F-91406 (France)]|[Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay, F-91505 (France)

    2007-01-15

    With realistic HFB calculations, using the D1S Gogny force, we reveal a generic behavior of concentration of small sized Cooper pairs (2-3 fm) in the surface of superfluid nuclei. This study confirms and extends previous results given in the literature that use more schematic approaches. It is shown that the strong concentration of pair probability of small Cooper pairs in the nuclear surface is a quite general and generic feature and that nuclear pairing is much closer to the strong coupling regime than previously assumed.

  17. The method of surface plasmon-polariton pulses generation via cooperative effects in a waveguide spaser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shesterikov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative effects arising under conditions of a 0-D model for a dense ensemble of semiconductor quantum dots located in a dielectric layer near a flat metal surface are considered. The threshold conditions of the effect are determined and the values of the complex refractive index of the dielectric are chosen, which make it possible to increase the efficiency of the formation of surface plasmon-polariton (SPP pulses.

  18. Cooperation in mind: Motor imagery of joint and single actions is represented in different brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriessnegger, S C; Steyrl, D; Koschutnig, K; Müller-Putz, G R

    2016-11-01

    In this study brain activity during motor imagery (MI) of joint actions, compared to single actions and rest conditions, was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first neuroimaging study which directly investigated the neural correlates of joint action motor imagery. Twenty-one healthy participants imagined three different motor tasks (dancing, carrying a box, wiping). Each imagery task was performed at two kinds: alone (single action MI) or with a partner (joint action MI). We hypothesized that to imagine a cooperative task would lead to a stronger cortical activation in motor related areas due to a higher vividness and intensification of the imagery. This would be elicited by the integration of the action simulation of the virtual partner to one's own action. Comparing the joint action and the single action condition with the rest condition, we found significant activation in the precentral gyrus and precuneus respectively. Furthermore the joint action MI showed higher activation patterns in the premotor cortex (inferior and middle frontal gyrus) compared to the single action MI. The imagery of a more vivid and engaging task, like our joint action imagery, could improve rehabilitation processes since a more distributed brain activity is found. Furthermore, the joint action imagery compared to single action imagery might be an appropriate BCI task due to its clear spatial distinction of activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain surface maps from 3-D medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuhuai; Hansen, Eric W.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    1991-06-01

    The anatomic and functional localization of brain lesions for neurologic diagnosis and brain surgery is facilitated by labeling the cortical surface in 3D images. This paper presents a method which extracts cortical contours from magnetic resonance (MR) image series and then produces a planar surface map which preserves important anatomic features. The resultant map may be used for manual anatomic localization as well as for further automatic labeling. Outer contours are determined on MR cross-sectional images by following the clear boundaries between gray matter and cerebral-spinal fluid, skipping over sulci. Carrying this contour below the surface by shrinking it along its normal produces an inner contour that alternately intercepts gray matter (sulci) and white matter along its length. This procedure is applied to every section in the set, and the image (grayscale) values along the inner contours are radially projected and interpolated onto a semi-cylindrical surface with axis normal to the slices and large enough to cover the whole brain. A planar map of the cortical surface results by flattening this cylindrical surface. The projection from inner contour to cylindrical surface is unique in the sense that different points on the inner contour correspond to different points on the cylindrical surface. As the outer contours are readily obtained by automatic segmentation, cortical maps can be made directly from an MR series.

  20. Seeing surfaces: The brain's vision of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Heiko; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash; Mingolla, Ennio

    2007-09-01

    Surfaces of environmental objects are the key to understanding the visual experience of primates. Surfaces create structure in patterns of light available for sampling by visual systems, and delineate potential interactions that an animal can have with its environment, such as approaching goals, avoiding obstacles, grasping an object, or identifying members of a social group. Recent progress in modeling the perception of visual surfaces highlights the importance of feedforward and feedback connections in visual neural networks that segregate and group visual input into coherent regions related to corresponding surfaces in the visual world. Rich non-linear network dynamics in the brain underlie surface perception, including the detection, regularization, and grouping of visual boundaries between surfaces, the determination of “ownership” of a boundary by a closer surface that partially occludes a background, and the apprehension of a surface's visual quality, such as color or texture. Recent modeling efforts on these fronts are reviewed.

  1. Glycogen metabolism in brain and neurons - astrocytes metabolic cooperation can be altered by pre- and neonatal lead (Pb) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Falkowska, Anna; Gutowska, Izabela; Gąssowska, Magdalena; Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Agnieszka; Tarnowski, Maciej; Chibowska, Karina; Goschorska, Marta; Lubkowska, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2017-09-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental neurotoxin which particularly affects the developing brain but the molecular mechanism of its neurotoxicity still needs clarification. The aim of this paper was to examine whether pre- and neonatal exposure to Pb (concentration of Pb in rat offspring blood below the "threshold level") may affect the brain's energy metabolism in neurons and astrocytes via the amount of available glycogen. We investigated the glycogen concentration in the brain, as well as the expression of the key enzymes involved in glycogen metabolism in brain: glycogen synthase 1 (Gys1), glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM, an isoform active in astrocytes; and PYGB, an isoform active in neurons) and phosphorylase kinase β (PHKB). Moreover, the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) was evaluated to analyze whether Pb poisoning during the early phase of life may affect the neuron-astrocytes' metabolic cooperation. This work shows for the first time that exposure to Pb in early life can impair brain energy metabolism by reducing the amount of glycogen and decreasing the rate of its metabolism. This reduction in brain glycogen level was accompanied by a decrease in Gys1 expression. We noted a reduction in the immunoreactivity and the gene expression of both PYGB and PYGM isoform, as well as an increase in the expression of PHKB in Pb-treated rats. Moreover, exposure to Pb induced decrease in connexin 43 immunoexpression in all the brain structures analyzed, both in astrocytes as well as in neurons. Our data suggests that exposure to Pb in the pre- and neonatal periods results in a decrease in the level of brain glycogen and a reduction in the rate of its metabolism, thereby reducing glucose availability, which as a further consequence may lead to the impairment of brain energy metabolism and the metabolic cooperation between neurons and astrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. NIRS-based hyperscanning reveals inter-brain neural synchronization during cooperative Jenga game with face-to-face communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eLiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is an increasingly popular technology for studying social cognition. In particular, fNIRS permits simultaneous measurement of hemodynamic activity in two or more individuals interacting in a naturalistic setting. Here, we used fNIRS hyperscanning to study social cognition and communication in human dyads engaged in cooperative and non-cooperative interaction while they played the game of Jenga™. Novel methods were developed to identify synchronized channels for each dyad and a structural node-based spatial registration approach was utilized for inter-dyad analyses. Strong inter-brain neural synchrony (INS was observed in the posterior region of the right middle and superior frontal gyrus, in particular Brodmann area 8, during cooperative and obstructive interaction. This synchrony was not observed during the parallel game play condition and the dialogue section, suggesting that BA8 was involved in goal-oriented social interaction such as complex interactive movements and social decision-making. INS was also observed in the dorsomedial prefrontal region (dmPFC, in particular Brodmann 9, during cooperative interaction only. These additional findings suggest that BA9 may be particularly engaged when theory-of-mind is required for cooperative social interaction. The new methods described here have the potential to significantly extend fNIRS applications to social cognitive research.

  3. Surface chemistry governs cellular tropism of nanoparticles in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eric; Gaudin, Alice; King, Amanda R.; Seo, Young-Eun; Suh, Hee-Won; Deng, Yang; Cui, Jiajia; Tietjen, Gregory T.; Huttner, Anita; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2017-05-01

    Nanoparticles are of long-standing interest for the treatment of neurological diseases such as glioblastoma. Most past work focused on methods to introduce nanoparticles into the brain, suggesting that reaching the brain interstitium will be sufficient to ensure therapeutic efficacy. However, optimized nanoparticle design for drug delivery to the central nervous system is limited by our understanding of their cellular deposition in the brain. Here, we investigated the cellular fate of poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles presenting different surface chemistries, after administration by convection-enhanced delivery. We demonstrate that nanoparticles with `stealth' properties mostly avoid internalization by all cell types, but internalization can be enhanced by functionalization with bio-adhesive end-groups. We also show that association rates measured in cultured cells predict the extent of internalization of nanoparticles in cell populations. Finally, evaluating therapeutic efficacy in an orthotopic model of glioblastoma highlights the need to balance significant uptake without inducing adverse toxicity.

  4. NIRS-Based Hyperscanning Reveals Inter-brain Neural Synchronization during Cooperative Jenga Game with Face-to-Face Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Mok, Charis; Witt, Emily E; Pradhan, Anjali H; Chen, Jingyuan E; Reiss, Allan L

    2016-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an increasingly popular technology for studying social cognition. In particular, fNIRS permits simultaneous measurement of hemodynamic activity in two or more individuals interacting in a naturalistic setting. Here, we used fNIRS hyperscanning to study social cognition and communication in human dyads engaged in cooperative and obstructive interaction while they played the game of Jenga™. Novel methods were developed to identify synchronized channels for each dyad and a structural node-based spatial registration approach was utilized for inter-dyad analyses. Strong inter-brain neural synchrony (INS) was observed in the posterior region of the right middle and superior frontal gyrus, in particular Brodmann area 8 (BA8), during cooperative and obstructive interaction. This synchrony was not observed during the parallel game play condition and the dialog section, suggesting that BA8 was involved in goal-oriented social interaction such as complex interactive movements and social decision-making. INS was also observed in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), in particular Brodmann 9, during cooperative interaction only. These additional findings suggest that BA9 may be particularly engaged when theory-of-mind (ToM) is required for cooperative social interaction. The new methods described here have the potential to significantly extend fNIRS applications to social cognitive research.

  5. Energy Metabolism of the Brain, Including the Cooperation between Astrocytes and Neurons, Especially in the Context of Glycogen Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowska, Anna; Gutowska, Izabela; Goschorska, Marta; Nowacki, Przemysław; Chlubek, Dariusz; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena

    2015-10-29

    Glycogen metabolism has important implications for the functioning of the brain, especially the cooperation between astrocytes and neurons. According to various research data, in a glycogen deficiency (for example during hypoglycemia) glycogen supplies are used to generate lactate, which is then transported to neighboring neurons. Likewise, during periods of intense activity of the nervous system, when the energy demand exceeds supply, astrocyte glycogen is immediately converted to lactate, some of which is transported to the neurons. Thus, glycogen from astrocytes functions as a kind of protection against hypoglycemia, ensuring preservation of neuronal function. The neuroprotective effect of lactate during hypoglycemia or cerebral ischemia has been reported in literature. This review goes on to emphasize that while neurons and astrocytes differ in metabolic profile, they interact to form a common metabolic cooperation.

  6. Near surface swimming of Salmonella Typhimurium explains target-site selection and cooperative invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Misselwitz

    Full Text Available Targeting of permissive entry sites is crucial for bacterial infection. The targeting mechanisms are incompletely understood. We have analyzed target-site selection by S. Typhimurium. This enteropathogenic bacterium employs adhesins (e.g. fim and the type III secretion system 1 (TTSS-1 for host cell binding, the triggering of ruffles and invasion. Typically, S. Typhimurium invasion is focused on a subset of cells and multiple bacteria invade via the same ruffle. It has remained unclear how this is achieved. We have studied target-site selection in tissue culture by time lapse microscopy, movement pattern analysis and modeling. Flagellar motility (but not chemotaxis was required for reaching the host cell surface in vitro. Subsequently, physical forces trapped the pathogen for ∼1.5-3 s in "near surface swimming". This increased the local pathogen density and facilitated "scanning" of the host surface topology. We observed transient TTSS-1 and fim-independent "stopping" and irreversible TTSS-1-mediated docking, in particular at sites of prominent topology, i.e. the base of rounded-up cells and membrane ruffles. Our data indicate that target site selection and the cooperative infection of membrane ruffles are attributable to near surface swimming. This mechanism might be of general importance for understanding infection by flagellated bacteria.

  7. Failed cooperative, but not competitive, interaction between large-scale brain networks impairs working memory in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, W; Luo, Q; Palaniyappan, L; Xue, Z; Yao, S; Feng, J; Liu, Z

    2016-04-01

    A large-scale network named the default mode network (DMN) dynamically cooperates and competes with an external attention system (EAS) to facilitate various cognitive functioning that is prominently impaired in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether the cognitive deficit in schizophrenia is related to the disrupted competition and/or cooperation between these two networks. A total of 35 schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy controls were scanned using gradient-echo echo-planar imaging during n-back working memory (WM) processing. Brain activities of the DMN and EAS were measured using general linear modelling of the functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Dynamic interaction between the DMN and EAS was decomposed into two directions using Granger causality analysis. We observed a significant failure of DMN suppression in patients with schizophrenia, which was significantly related to WM/attentional deficit. Granger causality modelling showed that in healthy controls, while the EAS inhibitorily influenced the DMN, the DMN exerted an 'excitatory' or cooperative influence back on the EAS, especially in those with lower WM accuracy. In schizophrenia, this 'excitatory' DMN→EAS influence within the reciprocal EAS-DMN loop was significantly reduced, especially in patients with WM/attentional deficit. The dynamic interaction between the DMN and EAS is likely to be comprised of both competitive and cooperative influences. In healthy controls, both the 'inhibitory' EAS→DMN interaction and 'excitatory' DMN→EAS interaction are correlated with WM performance. In schizophrenia, reduced 'cooperative' influence from the DMN to dorsal nodes of the EAS occurs in the context of non-suppression of the DMN and may form a possible pathophysiological substrate of WM deficit and attention disorder.

  8. Improved Stability of Whole Brain Surface Parcellation with Multi-Atlas Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Yuankai; Bao, Shunxing; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-01-01

    Whole brain segmentation and cortical surface parcellation are essential in understanding the anatomical-functional relationships of the brain. Multi-atlas segmentation has been regarded as one of the leading segmentation methods for the whole brain segmentation. In our recent work, the multi-atlas technique has been adapted to surface reconstruction using a method called Multi-atlas CRUISE (MaCRUISE). The MaCRUISE method not only performed consistent volume-surface analyses but also showed a...

  9. Decoding brain state transitions in the pedunculopontine nucleus: cooperative phasic and tonic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne ePetzold

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN are most active during the waking state. Their activation is deemed to cause a switch in the global brain activity from sleep to wakefulness, while their sustained discharge may contribute to upholding the waking state and enhancing arousal. Similarly, non-cholinergic PPN neurons are responsive to brain state transitions and their activation may influence some of the same targets of cholinergic neurons, suggesting that they operate in coordination. Yet, it is not clear how the discharge of distinct classes of PPN neurons organize during brain states. Here we monitored the in vivo network activity of PPN neurons in the anesthetized rat across two distinct levels of cortical dynamics and their transitions. We identified a highly structured configuration in PPN network activity during slow-wave activity that was replaced by decorrelated activity during the activated state. During the transition, neurons were predominantly excited (phasically or tonically, but some were inhibited. Identified cholinergic neurons displayed phasic and short latency responses to sensory stimulation, whereas the majority of non-cholinergic showed tonic responses and remained at high discharge rates beyond the state transition. In vitro recordings demonstrate that cholinergic neurons exhibit fast adaptation that prevents them from discharging at high rates over prolonged time periods. Our data shows that PPN neurons have distinct but complementary roles during brain state transitions, where cholinergic neurons provide a fast and transient response to sensory events that drive state transitions, whereas non-cholinergic neurons maintain an elevated firing rate during global activation.

  10. Correction: Cecotti, H. and Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Cecotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper (Cecotti, H.; Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355: Due to an internal error, the reference numbers in the original published paper were not shown, and the error was not due to the authors. The former main text should be replaced as below.

  11. Formation of plasmon pulses in the cooperative decay of excitons of quantum dots near a metal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shesterikov, A. B.; Gubin, M. Yu. [Vladimir State University (Russian Federation); Gladush, M. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation); Prokhorov, A. V., E-mail: avprokhorov33@mail.ru [Vladimir State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The formation of pulses of surface electromagnetic waves at a metal–dielectric boundary is considered in the process of cooperative decay of excitons of quantum dots distributed near a metal surface in a dielectric layer. It is shown that the efficiency of exciton energy transfer to excited plasmons can, in principle, be increased by selecting the dielectric material with specified values of the complex permittivity. It is found that in the mean field approximation, the semiclassical model of formation of plasmon pulses in the system under study is reduced to the pendulum equation with the additional term of nonlinear losses.

  12. Cooperative and reciprocal chiral structure formation of an alanine-based peptide confined at the surface of cationic surfactant membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiagus-Armad, Roni; Brizard, Aurélie; Tang, Claire; Blatchly, Richard; Desbat, Bernard; Oda, Reiko

    2011-08-29

    The confinement of anionic oligoalanine peptides at the surface of cationic membranes can cooperatively reinforce peptide/peptide interactions and induce secondary-structure formation, and, reciprocally, induce chirality expression of the membrane at the mesoscopic level, thus leading to the formation of three-dimensional chiral fibrillar networks. Such a strong binding effect of peptides with cationic membranes and the resulting cooperative assembly behaviors are observed with two different types of cationic surfactant, namely, two-head two-tail gemini and one-head two-tail surfactants. The ensemble of assembly properties, such as critical micellar concentration (cmc), Krafft temperature (T(k) ), molecular area at the air/water interface, molecular organization (as studied by FTIR attenuated total reflectance (ATR) measurements and small-angle X-ray scattering), and morphology of the aggregates (as observed by optical and electron microscopy studies), are reported. The results clearly demonstrate that the molecular organization and mesoscopic supramolecular structures are controlled by a subtle balance between the peptide/peptide interactions, ionic interactions between the membranes and peptides, and the interactions the between surfactant molecules, which are governed by hydrophobicity and steric interactions. Investigation into such cooperative organization can shed light on the mechanism of supramolecular chirality expression in membrane systems and allow understanding of the structure of peptides in interactions with lipid bilayers. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Cooperative effects at water-crystalline silica interfaces strengthen surface silanol hydrogen bonding. An ab initio molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Federico; Mignon, Pierre; Ugliengo, Piero; Sodupe, Mariona

    2012-08-14

    Silica and silica based materials are widely used in chemistry and materials science due to their importance in many technological fields. The properties of these materials, which are crucial for their applications, are mainly determined by the presence of hydrogen bonding between surface silanols. Here, we present ab initio molecular dynamics simulations (AIMD) on different surfaces derived from the crystallographic α-quartz (100) and the α-cristobalite (001) and (101) faces, both free and at the interface with liquid water. The focus was on studying whether water adsorption can disrupt the H-bond pattern at the pristine free silica surface and how deep the perturbation due to the contact with the surface affects the structure of the water multilayer. Results highlight that the water phase is over structured at the interface with silica, as compared to water bulk. Furthermore, an apparent counterintuitive behavior has been observed for quartz (100) and cristobalite (001) surfaces: the interaction with water does not cleave the pre-existent H-bonds between the surface silanol groups. On the contrary, in several cases, it is observed that SiOH···OHSi H-bonds are even strengthened, as the result of a mutual cooperative H-donor/H-acceptor enhancement between silanols and water molecules, which may alter the adsorption capability of these silica surfaces.

  14. The International Research Training Group on "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" as an Example of German-American Cooperation in Doctoral Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Frank; Gur, Ruben C.

    2008-01-01

    The International Research Training Group "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" (IRTG 1328), funded by the German Research Council (DFG), is a German-American cooperation. Its major aims are interdisciplinary and international scientific cooperation and the support of young scientists…

  15. Brain Surface Heating After Exposure to Ultrasound: An Analysis Using Thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michal E; Lombardo, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice to monitor brain pathologies in neonates after complicated deliveries. Animal studies have indicated that ultrasound may cause heating of brain tissues. To date, no study has explored brain surface heating by ultrasound during clinically relevant exposure. Hence, we investigated heating effects of B-mode and pulsed Doppler (PD) mode on ex vivo lamb brains using thermography. Five brains were scanned for 5 min in B-mode or for 3 min, 1 min, 30 s or 15 s in PD mode. Brain surface temperature was measured pre- and post-exposure using thermography. The highest mean temperature increase was recorded by B-mode (3.82 ± 0.43°C). All five PD exposure protocols were associated with surface temperature increases of 2.1-2.7°C. These outcomes highlight for the first time that B-mode ultrasound can contribute to brain surface heating during a routine cranial scan. Scan duration should be minimised whenever possible. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative spatial analysis of the mouse brain lipidome by pressurized liquid extraction surface analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Reinaldo; Berzina, Zane; Christensen, Eva Arnspang

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe a novel surface sampling technique termed pressurized liquid extraction surface analysis (PLESA), which in combination with a dedicated high-resolution shotgun lipidomics routine enables both quantification and in-depth structural characterization of molecular lipid species extra...... distribution and molar abundance of 170 molecular lipid species across different anatomical mouse brain regions....

  17. Separation of the tumor and brain surface by "water jet" in cases of meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, S; Vajda, J; Pasztor, E; Toth, Z

    1987-01-01

    In the surgery of meningiomas one of the most delicate problems is the separation of the tumor from the brain surface. The authors generally recommend microsurgery to preserve the brain surface anatomically and functionally. For this purpose we have developed a new surgical technique according to our concepts of tissue care. After excavating the tumor from inside the tumor brain surface was separated by repeated "water jets" into the tumor arachnoideal space. The "water jet" was produced by an ordinary bulb syringe. The front pressure of the jets was 300-1000 mm of water and the side pressure 100-300 mm of water. In the tumor-arachnoideal space the spreading water (phys. NaCl) separates the brain from the tumor with utmost care. We operated on 55 meningiomas of different types with the "water jet" technique. The immediate results were anatomically excellent. Intraoperative and postoperative acute and late edemas appeared only in a few cases. The functions of the nearby brain were generally preserved. The surgery was uneventful when the tumor surface was smooth and the tumor was spherical. When the tumor surface was uneven, one part of the tumor extended under the dura as a thin layer or the tumor was multilobulated with expanded vessels between the lobules, more microseparation was necessary. We compared the results of the "water jet" technique with the results of the "pre-water jet" series. The surgery with the "water jet" technique was much shorter and its results were better than those of microsurgery alone.

  18. Role of surface vibrational properties on cooperative phenomena in spin-crossover nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasek, Mirko; Félix, Gautier; Molnár, Gábor; Terki, Férial; Nicolazzi, William; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2014-08-01

    The influence of surface/interface on the lattice dynamics of spin crossover nanoparticles has been investigated by a spring-ball model solved by Monte Carlo methods. The bond cohesion energy of the model has been extracted from Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements performed on the model compound Ni3[Fe(CN)6]. We show that the coupling between bulk and surface vibrational properties, which drastically affects the mechanical properties of the whole particle below a characteristic size, has a major impact on the phase stability of the particles. In the case of free surfaces, the Debye temperature decreases with the size and the first-order nature of the spin transition disappears. On the other hand, a hardening of the surface bonds leads to increasing particle stiffness with the size reduction. In this case, a persistence of the hysteretic behavior in the spin transition curve is also predicted in good agreement with previous theoretical and experimental results.

  19. Accuracy for predicting adhesion between meningioma and the brain by using brain surface motion imaging: comparison between single and double acquisition methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Sakamoto, Masahiko; Akashi, Toshiaki; Miyasaka, Toshiteru; Ochi, Tomoko; Wada, Takeshi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Yamada, Syuichi; Nakase, Hiroyuki [Nara Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Uchikoshi, Masato [Siemens Japan K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    The presence of adhesions between the brain and the meningioma is an important factor that determines the success of total surgical removal. Brain surface motion imaging enables assessment of the dynamics of brain surface motion. A subtraction image of pulse-gated heavily T2-weighted images in different phases of the cardiac cycle provides a stripe pattern on the surface of the pulsating brain. Thus, the lack of a stripe pattern on the surface of extraaxial tumor indicates the presence of tumor-brain adhesion. The purpose of the present experiment was to evaluate the accuracy of predicting tumor-brain adhesion using the original double acquisition method and the improved single acquisition method. The subjects were 67 meningioma cases patients who were surgically treated after brain surface motion imaging. Thirty-three cases were evaluated using the double acquisition method and 34 cases were evaluated with the single acquisition method. In the double acquisition method, the two sets of images are acquired as two independent scans, and in the single acquisition method, the images are acquired serially as a single scan. The findings for the double acquisition method agreed with the surgical findings in 23 cases (69.7 %), while findings from the single acquisition method agreed with the surgical findings in 26 cases (76.5 %). Pre-surgical evaluation for tumor-brain adhesion by brain surface motion imaging provides helpful information for meningioma surgery, especially when using the single acquisition method. (orig.)

  20. Improved shearography for use on optical non cooperating surfaces under daylight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisle, Wolfgang J.; Scherling, Dieter; Kalms, Michael K.; Osten, Wolfgang

    2001-04-01

    Recent developments will be presented that make the Phase Stepping Shearography Method fit for use in aircraft maintenance conditions. Outgoing from current commercially available systems we introduced a program to improve the capability of the shearography testing method to deal with metallic (highly reflective) surfaces, completely black parts (e.g. CFRP) as well as with surfaces where surface conditions vary in the inspection area. Another demand was the inspections must be carried out under daylight (with no cover) and in rough maintenance conditions (hangar, working on mobile platforms…) but the non contact character of the method should not be influenced. Several approaches have been investigated; from laser illumination to receiving optics, sensor and fringe processing software nearly nothing was left unchanged. The resulting system is highly portable, fast in use (nearly real-time) and produces clear and easy to read documents. The operating software is portable between almost all usual software platforms using only common GUI-interfaces and allows multitasking operations. Using VRML file format a wide range of general purpose software can be used for data evaluation and visualization. We will show some impressive results showing the operation of shearography as a fast aircraft maintenance NDT-method on real aircraft structures.

  1. In vivo measurement of brain extracellular space diffusion by cortical surface photobleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Devin K; Papadopoulos, Marios C; Haggie, Peter M; Verkman, A S

    2004-09-15

    Molecular diffusion in the brain extracellular space (ECS) is an important determinant of neural function. We developed a brain surface photobleaching method to measure the diffusion of fluorescently labeled macromolecules in the ECS of the cerebral cortex. The ECS in mouse brain was labeled by exposure of the intact dura to fluorescein-dextrans (M(r) 4, 70, and 500 kDa). Fluorescein-dextran diffusion, detected by fluorescence recovery after laser-induced cortical photobleaching using confocal optics, was slowed approximately threefold in the brain ECS relative to solution. Cytotoxic brain edema (produced by water intoxication) or seizure activity (produced by convulsants) slowed diffusion by >10-fold and created dead-space microdomains in which free diffusion was prevented. The hindrance to diffusion was greater for the larger fluorescein-dextrans. Interestingly, slowed ECS diffusion preceded electroencephalographic seizure activity. In contrast to the slowed diffusion produced by brain edema and seizure activity, diffusion in the ECS was faster in mice lacking aquaporin-4 (AQP4), an astroglial water channel that facilitates fluid movement between cells and the ECS. Our results establish a minimally invasive method to quantify diffusion in the brain ECS in vivo, revealing stimulus-induced changes in molecular diffusion in the ECS with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. The in vivo mouse data provide evidence for: (1) dead-space ECS microdomains after brain swelling; (2) slowed molecular diffusion in the ECS as an early predictor of impending seizure activity; and (3) a novel role for AQP4 as a regulator of brain ECS.

  2. Molecular recognition by a polymorphic cell surface receptor governs cooperative behaviors in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshankumar T Pathak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell-cell recognition is a fundamental process that allows cells to coordinate multicellular behaviors. Some microbes, such as myxobacteria, build multicellular fruiting bodies from free-living cells. However, how bacterial cells recognize each other by contact is poorly understood. Here we show that myxobacteria engage in recognition through interactions between TraA cell surface receptors, which leads to the fusion and exchange of outer membrane (OM components. OM exchange is shown to be selective among 17 environmental isolates, as exchange partners parsed into five major recognition groups. TraA is the determinant of molecular specificity because: (i exchange partners correlated with sequence conservation within its polymorphic PA14-like domain and (ii traA allele replacements predictably changed partner specificity. Swapping traA alleles also reprogrammed social interactions among strains, including the regulation of motility and conferred immunity from inter-strain killing. We suggest that TraA helps guide the transition of single cells into a coherent bacterial community, by a proposed mechanism that is analogous to mitochondrial fusion and fission cycling that mixes contents to establish a homogenous population. In evolutionary terms, traA functions as a rare greenbeard gene that recognizes others that bear the same allele to confer beneficial treatment.

  3. Surface displacement based shape analysis of central brain structures in preterm-born children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amanmeet; Grunau, Ruth E.; Popuri, Karteek; Miller, Steven; Bjornson, Bruce; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2016-03-01

    Many studies using T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data have found associations between changes in global metrics (e.g. volume) of brain structures and preterm birth. In this work, we use the surface displacement feature extracted from the deformations of the surface models of the third ventricle, fourth ventricle and brainstem to capture the variation in shape in these structures at 8 years of age that may be due to differences in the trajectory of brain development as a result of very preterm birth (24-32 weeks gestation). Understanding the spatial patterns of shape alterations in these structures in children who were born very preterm as compared to those who were born at full term may lead to better insights into mechanisms of differing brain development between these two groups. The T1 MRI data for the brain was acquired from children born full term (FT, n=14, 8 males) and preterm (PT, n=51, 22 males) at age 8-years. Accurate segmentation labels for these structures were obtained via a multi-template fusion based segmentation method. A high dimensional non-rigid registration algorithm was utilized to register the target segmentation labels to a set of segmentation labels defined on an average-template. The surface displacement data for the brainstem and the third ventricle were found to be significantly different (p MRI data and reveal shape changes that may be due to preterm birth.

  4. The Drosophila surface glia transcriptome: evolutionary conserved blood-brain barrier processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K DeSalvo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCentral nervous system (CNS function is dependent on the stringent regulation of metabolites, drugs, cells, and pathogens exposed to the CNS space. Cellular blood-brain barrier (BBB structures are highly specific checkpoints governing entry and exit of all small molecules to and from the brain interstitial space, but the precise mechanisms that regulate the BBB are not well understood. In addition, the BBB has long been a challenging obstacle to the pharmacologic treatment of CNS diseases; thus model systems that can parse the functions of the BBB are highly desirable. In this study, we sought to define the transcriptome of the adult Drosophila melanogaster BBB by isolating the BBB surface glia with FACS and profiling their gene expression with microarrays. By comparing the transcriptome of these surface glia to that of all brain glia, brain neurons, and whole brains, we present a catalog of transcripts that are selectively enriched at the Drosophila BBB. We found that the fly surface glia show high expression of many ABC and SLC transporters, cell adhesion molecules, metabolic enzymes, signaling molecules, and components of xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Using gene sequence-based alignments, we compare the Drosophila and Murine BBB transcriptomes and discover many shared chemoprotective and small molecule control pathways, thus affirming the relevance of invertebrate models for studying evolutionary conserved BBB properties. The Drosophila BBB transcriptome is valuable to vertebrate and insect biologists alike as a resource for studying proteins underlying diffusion barrier development and maintenance, glial biology, and regulation of drug transport at tissue barriers.

  5. The Drosophila surface glia transcriptome: evolutionary conserved blood-brain barrier processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Michael K; Hindle, Samantha J; Rusan, Zeid M; Orng, Souvinh; Eddison, Mark; Halliwill, Kyle; Bainton, Roland J

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) function is dependent on the stringent regulation of metabolites, drugs, cells, and pathogens exposed to the CNS space. Cellular blood-brain barrier (BBB) structures are highly specific checkpoints governing entry and exit of all small molecules to and from the brain interstitial space, but the precise mechanisms that regulate the BBB are not well understood. In addition, the BBB has long been a challenging obstacle to the pharmacologic treatment of CNS diseases; thus model systems that can parse the functions of the BBB are highly desirable. In this study, we sought to define the transcriptome of the adult Drosophila melanogaster BBB by isolating the BBB surface glia with fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and profiling their gene expression with microarrays. By comparing the transcriptome of these surface glia to that of all brain glia, brain neurons, and whole brains, we present a catalog of transcripts that are selectively enriched at the Drosophila BBB. We found that the fly surface glia show high expression of many ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and solute carrier (SLC) transporters, cell adhesion molecules, metabolic enzymes, signaling molecules, and components of xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Using gene sequence-based alignments, we compare the Drosophila and Murine BBB transcriptomes and discover many shared chemoprotective and small molecule control pathways, thus affirming the relevance of invertebrate models for studying evolutionary conserved BBB properties. The Drosophila BBB transcriptome is valuable to vertebrate and insect biologists alike as a resource for studying proteins underlying diffusion barrier development and maintenance, glial biology, and regulation of drug transport at tissue barriers.

  6. Connectomic and surface-based morphometric correlates of acute mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia eDall'Acqua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced integrity of white matter (WM pathways and subtle anomalies in gray matter (GM morphology have been hypothesized as mechanisms in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. However, findings on structural brain changes in early stages after mTBI are inconsistent and findings related to early symptoms severity are rare.Fifty-one patients were assessed with multimodal neuroimaging and clinical methods exclusively within 7 days following mTBI and compared to 53 controls. Whole-brain connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging was subjected to network-based statistics, whereas cortical surface area, thickness, and volume based on T1-weighted MRI scans were investigated using surface-based morphometric analysis. Reduced connectivity strength within a subnetwork of 59 edges located predominantly in bilateral frontal lobes was significantly associated with higher levels of self-reported symptoms. In addition, cortical surface area decreases were associated with stronger complaints in five clusters located in bilateral frontal and postcentral cortices, and in the right inferior temporal region. Alterations in WM and GM were localized in similar brain regions and moderately-to-strongly related to each other. Furthermore, the reduction of cortical surface area in the frontal regions was correlated with poorer attentive-executive performance in the mTBI group. Finally, group differences were detected in both the WM and GM, especially when focusing on a subgroup of patients with greater complaints, indicating the importance of classifying mTBI patients according to severity of symptoms. This study provides evidence that mTBI affects not only the integrity of WM networks by means of axonal damage but also the morphology of the cortex during the initial post-injury period. These anomalies might be greater in the acute period than previously believed and the involvement of frontal brain regions was consistently pronounced in both findings. The dysconnected

  7. All-diamond functional surface micro-electrode arrays for brain-slice neural analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vahidpour, Farnoosh; Curley, Lowry; Biró, István; McDonald, Matthew; Croux, Dieter; POBEDINSKAS, Paulius; Haenen, Ken; Giugliano, Michele; Zivcova, Zuzana Vlckova; Kavan, Ladislav; Nesladek, Milos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Diamond-based microelectrode arrays were fabricated by using nanocrystalline diamond as an insulating layer and conductive boron-doped in order to used them for analysis of brain cortical slices. MEA surface is solely composed of diamond, exposed to the cells. The impedance measurements showed negligible cross-talk between neighbouring diamond microelectrodes. Local field potentials related to neural signals were then successfully recorded from pharmacologically disinhibited rat cor...

  8. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwath A Meda

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and

  9. Carboplatin loaded Surface modified PLGA nanoparticles: Optimization, characterization, and in vivo brain targeting studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, S; Juna, B C; Cinu, T A; Jyoti, H; Aleykutty, N A

    2016-06-01

    The carboplatin (CP) loaded poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) were formulated by modified solvent evaporation method. Its surface modification is done by 1% polysorbate80 (P80) to improve their entry into the brain after intraperitoneal administration (i.p) via receptor-mediated pathways. A formulation with maximum entrapment efficiency and minimal particle size was optimized by central composite design (CCD) based on mean particle size, and entrapment efficiencies as responses. The optimized formulation was characterized by mean particle size, entrapment efficiency, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The surface modified NPs were analysed for mean particle, zeta potential, FTIR, and in vitro release studies. The spherical particles with mean particle size 161.9nm, 162.4nm and zeta potential value of -26.5, -23.9 were obtained for unmodified and surface modified NPs respectively. The in vitro release experiments of the surface modified PLGA NPs exhibited sustained release for more than 48h, which was in accordance with Higuchi's equation with Fickian diffusion-based release mechanism. The in vivo bio distribution of P80 coated CP loaded PLGA NPs was compared with CP solution, and CP loaded NPs, in adult wistar rats. In the brain, compared with CP solution, both types of NPs especially NPs coated with P80 increased the concentration of carboplatin by 3.27 fold. All these results suggest that the developed formulation may improve the targeted therapy for malignant brain tumors in future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanoparticle technology for treatment of Parkinson's disease: the role of surface phenomena in reaching the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Gómez, Gerardo; Cortés, Hernán; Magaña, Jonathan J; Leyva-García, Norberto; Quintanar-Guerrero, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-07-01

    The absence of a definitive treatment for Parkinson's disease has driven the emerging investigation in the search for novel therapeutic alternatives. At present, the formulation of different drugs on nanoparticles has represented several advantages over conventional treatments. This type of multifunctional carrier, owing to its size and composition, has different interactions in biological systems that can lead to a decrease in ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, this review focuses on the latest advances in obtaining nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease and provides an overview of technical aspects in the design of brain drug delivery of nanoparticles and an analysis of surface phenomena, a key aspect in the development of functional nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mid-sagittal plane and mid-sagittal surface optimization in brain MRI using a local symmetry measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Skoglund, Karl; Ryberg, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes methods for automatic localization of the mid-sagittal plane (MSP) and mid-sagittal surface (MSS). The data used is a subset of the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study consisting of three-dimensional magnetic resonance brain data from 62 elderly subjects (age 66 to 84...... years). Traditionally, the mid-sagittal plane is localized by global measures. However, this approach fails when the partitioning plane between the brain hemispheres does not coincide with the symmetry plane of the head. We instead propose to use a sparse set of profiles in the plane normal direction......, the mid-sagittal plane is not always planar, but a curved surface resulting in poor partitioning of the brain hemispheres. To account for this, this paper also investigates an optimization strategy which fits a thin-plate spline surface to the brain data using a robust least median of squares estimator...

  12. Multi circular-cavity surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain at 4 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, A. I.; Solis-Najera, S. E.; Vázquez, F.; Wang, R. L.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2014-11-01

    Animal models in medical research has been used to study humans diseases for several decades. The use of different imaging techniques together with different animal models offers a great advantage due to the possibility to study some human pathologies without the necessity of chirurgical intervention. The employ of magnetic resonance imaging for the acquisition of anatomical and functional images is an excellent tool because its noninvasive nature. Dedicated coils to perform magnetic resonance imaging experiments are obligatory due to the improvement on the signal-to-noise ratio and reduced specific absorption ratio. A specifically designed surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain is proposed based on the multi circular-slot coil. Numerical simulations of the magnetic and electric fields were also performed using the Finite Integration Method to solve Maxwell's equations for this particular coil design and, to study the behavior of various vector magnetic field configurations and specific absorption ratio. Monkey's brain images were then acquired with a research-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging system at 4T, to evaluate the anatomical images with conventional imaging sequences. This coil showed good quality images of a monkey's brain and full compatibility with standard pulse sequences implemented in research-dedicated imager.

  13. The brain-specific Beta4 subunit downregulates BK channel cell surface expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Shruti

    Full Text Available The large-conductance K(+ channel (BK channel can control neural excitability, and enhanced channel currents facilitate high firing rates in cortical neurons. The brain-specific auxiliary subunit β4 alters channel Ca(++- and voltage-sensitivity, and β4 knock-out animals exhibit spontaneous seizures. Here we investigate β4's effect on BK channel trafficking to the plasma membrane. Using a novel genetic tag to track the cellular location of the pore-forming BKα subunit in living cells, we find that β4 expression profoundly reduces surface localization of BK channels via a C-terminal ER retention sequence. In hippocampal CA3 neurons from C57BL/6 mice with endogenously high β4 expression, whole-cell BK channel currents display none of the characteristic properties of BKα+β4 channels observed in heterologous cells. Finally, β4 knock-out animals exhibit a 2.5-fold increase in whole-cell BK channel current, indicating that β4 also regulates current magnitude in vivo. Thus, we propose that a major function of the brain-specific β4 subunit in CA3 neurons is control of surface trafficking.

  14. Brain surface anatomy in adults with autism: the relationship between surface area, cortical thickness, and autistic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Christine; Ginestet, Cedric; Feng, Yue; Johnston, Patrick; Lombardo, Michael V; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Suckling, John; Palaniyappan, Lena; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Williams, Steven C; Bullmore, Edward T; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brammer, Michael; Murphy, Declan G M

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of brain anatomy in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have mostly been based on measures of cortical volume (CV). However, CV is a product of 2 distinct parameters, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), that in turn have distinct genetic and developmental origins. To investigate regional differences in CV, SA, and CT as well as their relationship in a large and well-characterized sample of men with ASD and matched controls. Multicenter case-control design using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Medical Research Council UK Autism Imaging Multicentre Study. A total of 168 men, 84 diagnosed as having ASD and 84 controls who did not differ significantly in mean (SD) age (26 [7] years vs 28 [6] years, respectively) or full-scale IQ (110 [14] vs 114 [12], respectively). Between-group differences in CV, SA, and CT investigated using a spatially unbiased vertex-based approach; the degree of spatial overlap between the differences in CT and SA; and their relative contribution to differences in regional CV. Individuals with ASD differed from controls in all 3 parameters. These mainly consisted of significantly increased CT within frontal lobe regions and reduced SA in the orbitofrontal cortex and posterior cingulum. These differences in CT and SA were paralleled by commensurate differences in CV. The spatially distributed patterns for CT and SA were largely nonoverlapping and shared only about 3% of all significantly different locations on the cerebral surface. Individuals with ASD have significant differences in CV, but these may be underpinned by (separable) variations in its 2 components, CT and SA. This is of importance because both measures result from distinct developmental pathways that are likely modulated by different neurobiological mechanisms. This finding may provide novel targets for future studies into the etiology of the condition and a new way to fractionate the disorder.

  15. The advantages of the surface Laplacian in brain-computer interface research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J

    2015-09-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems frequently use signal processing methods, such as spatial filtering, to enhance performance. The surface Laplacian can reduce spatial noise and aid in identification of sources. In BCI research, these two functions of the surface Laplacian correspond to prediction accuracy and signal orthogonality. In the present study, an off-line analysis of data from a sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI task dissociated these functions of the surface Laplacian by comparing nearest-neighbor and next-nearest neighbor Laplacian algorithms. The nearest-neighbor Laplacian produced signals that were more orthogonal while the next-nearest Laplacian produced signals that resulted in better accuracy. Both prediction and signal identification are important for BCI research. Better prediction of user's intent produces increased speed and accuracy of communication and control. Signal identification is important for ruling out the possibility of control by artifacts. Identifying the nature of the control signal is relevant both to understanding exactly what is being studied and in terms of usability for individuals with limited motor control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of the cell surface LRP and soluble LRP in blood-brain barrier Abeta clearance in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, R; Sagare, A; Zlokovic, B V

    2008-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-1 (LRP) is a member of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family which has been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) by biochemical and genetic evidence. Levels of neurotoxic amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) in the brain are elevated in AD contributing to the disease process and neuropathology. Faulty Abeta clearance from the brain appears to mediate focal Abeta accumulations in AD. Central and peripheral production of Abeta from Abeta-precursor protein (APP), transport of peripheral Abeta into the brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), enzymatic Abeta degradation, Abeta oligomerization and aggregation, neuroinflammatory changes and microglia activation, and Abeta elimination from brain across the BBB by cell surface LRP; all may control brain Abeta levels. Recently, we have shown that a soluble form of LRP (sLRP) binds 70 to 90 % of plasma Abeta, preventing its access to the brain. In AD individuals, the levels of LRP at the BBB are reduced, as are levels of Abeta binding to sLRP in plasma. This, in turn, may increase Abeta brain levels through a decreased efflux of brain Abeta at the BBB and/or reduced sequestration of plasma Abeta associated with re-entry of free Abeta into the brain via RAGE. Thus, therapies which increase LRP expression at the BBB and/or enhance the peripheral Abeta "sink" activity of sLRP, hold potential to control brain Abeta accumulations, neuroinflammation and cerebral blood flow reductions in AD.

  17. Surface-based brain morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging in schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landin-Romero, Ramón; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J; Kumfor, Fiona; Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Madre, Mercè; Maristany, Teresa; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Amann, Benedikt L

    2017-01-01

    The profile of grey matter abnormalities and related white-matter pathology in schizoaffective disorder has only been studied to a limited extent. The aim of this study was to identify grey- and white-matter abnormalities in patients with schizoaffective disorder using complementary structural imaging techniques. Forty-five patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition criteria and Research Diagnostic Criteria for schizoaffective disorder and 45 matched healthy controls underwent structural-T1 and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to enable surface-based brain morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analyses. Analyses were conducted to determine group differences in cortical volume, cortical thickness and surface area, as well as in fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity. At a threshold of p = 0.05 corrected, all measures revealed significant differences between patients and controls at the group level. Spatial overlap of abnormalities was observed across the various structural neuroimaging measures. In grey matter, patients with schizoaffective disorder showed abnormalities in the frontal and temporal lobes, striatum, fusiform, cuneus, precuneus, lingual and limbic regions. White-matter abnormalities were identified in tracts connecting these areas, including the corpus callosum, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, anterior thalamic radiation, uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle. The spatial overlap of abnormalities across the different imaging techniques suggests widespread and consistent brain pathology in schizoaffective disorder. The abnormalities were mainly detected in areas that have commonly been reported to be abnormal in schizophrenia, and to some extent in bipolar disorder, which may explain the clinical and aetiological overlap in these disorders.

  18. Three-dimensional brain-surface MR images of brain anomalies in Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy and its differentiation from Duchenne muscular dystrophy with severe mental retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Tatsushi; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Shimizu, Teruo; Iwata, Makoto; Kanazawa, Ichiro (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Matsumura, Kiichiro

    1993-12-01

    Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is the second most common form of muscular dystrophy in Japan and is peculiarly associated with brain anomalies such as micropolygyria. Since these anomalies are preferentially observed on the brain surface, it is difficult to identify them by either X-ray CT or conventional MRI. In addition, FCMD has an atypical (mild) form in which the patients are capable of walking. In such cases, clinical differential diagnosis from Duchenne muscular dystrophy with severe mental retardation (DMD-MR) is not necessarily easy. We analyzed the brain-surface structures of 4 typical FCMD cases. 1 atypical FCMD case, 4 DMD-MR cases, and 1 undiagnosed case using a method of 3-dimensional (3-D) brain-surface MR imaging; we then compared the results with dystrophin immuno-stainings of the biopsied skeletal muscles. In both typical and atypical FCMD cases, micropolygyria could be clearly demonstrated, with individual variations. The 3-D images were verified by neuropathology. Of the 4 DMD-MR cases, 3 cases showed no gyral abnormality. However, in 1 DMD-MR case the diagnosis was corrected to atypical FCMD because of micropolygyria found on 3-D MRI. The one undiangosed case was diagnosed as DMD-MR on the basis of 3-D MRI. There was a good correspondence between the results of the 3-D imaging and the dystrophin test. Recently, some FCMD cases with a complete deficiency of dystrophin have been reported. Therefore, the detection of brain anomalies is important for the precise diagnosis of FCMD; the present method is considered effective for this purpose. (author).

  19. Influence of string-like cooperative atomic motion on surface diffusion in the (110) interfacial region of crystalline Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Ying; Douglas, Jack F.

    2015-02-01

    Although we often think about crystalline materials in terms of highly organized arrays of atoms, molecules, or even colloidal particles, many of the important properties of this diverse class of materials relating to their catalytic behavior, thermodynamic stability, and mechanical properties derive from the dynamics and thermodynamics of their interfacial regions, which we find they have a dynamics more like glass-forming (GF) liquids than crystals at elevated temperatures. This is a general problem arising in any attempt to model the properties of naturally occurring crystalline materials since many aspects of the dynamics of glass-forming liquids remain mysterious. We examine the nature of this phenomenon in the "simple" case of the (110) interface of crystalline Ni, based on a standard embedded-atom model potential, and we then quantify the collective dynamics in this interfacial region using newly developed methods for characterizing the cooperative dynamics of glass-forming liquids. As in our former studies of the interfacial dynamics of grain-boundaries and the interfacial dynamics of crystalline Ni nanoparticles (NPs), we find that the interface of bulk crystalline Ni exhibits all the characteristics of glass-forming materials, even at temperatures well below the equilibrium crystal melting temperature, Tm. This perspective offers a new approach to modeling and engineering the properties of crystalline materials.

  20. Two is better than one: The effects of strategic cooperation on intra- and inter-brain connectivity by fNIRS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michela Balconi; Laurent Pezard; Jean-Louis Nandrino; Maria Elide Vanutelli

    2017-01-01

    Inter-brain synchronization during joint actions is a core question in social neuroscience, and the differential contribution of intra- and inter-brain functional connectivity has yet to be clarified...

  1. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores cooperation as contradictory and therefore with a constant possibility for conflict. Consequently it is called conflictual cooperation. The notion is presented on the basis of a participatory observation in a control room of a district heating system. In the investigation......, cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...... on regulating who can use what in what way. Contradictions in the observed activity are discussed. It is argued that for the participants the connec- tions of acts appear in such contradictions in cooperation. This conception is dis- cussed in relationship to the notions of practice, as expounded by Bourdieu...

  2. Acoustic Transducers as Passive Cooperative Targets for Wireless Sensing of the Sub-Surface World: Challenges of Probing with Ground Penetrating RADAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedt, Jean-Michel; Martin, Gilles; Goavec-Mérou, Gwenhael; Rabus, David; Alzuaga, Sébastien; Arapan, Lilia; Sagnard, Marianne; Carry, Émile

    2018-01-16

    Passive wireless transducers are used as sensors, probed by a RADAR system. A simple way to separate the returning signal from the clutter is to delay the response, so that the clutter decays before the echoes are received. This can be achieved by introducing a fixed delay in the sensor design. Acoustic wave transducers are ideally suited as cooperative targets for passive, wireless sensing. The incoming electromagnetic pulse is converted into an acoustic wave, propagated on the sensor substrate surface, and reflected as an electromagnetic echo. According to a known law, the acoustic wave propagation velocity depends on the physical quantity under investigation, which is then measured as an echo delay. Both conversions between electromagnetic and acoustic waves are based on the piezoelectric property of the substrate of which the sensor is made. Investigating underground sensing, we address the problems of using GPR (Ground-Penetrating RADAR) for probing cooperative targets. The GPR is a good candidate for this application because it provides an electromagnetic source and receiver, as well as echo recording tools. Instead of designing dedicated electronics, we choose a commercially available, reliable and rugged instrument. The measurement range depends on parameters like antenna radiation pattern, radio spectrum matching between GPR and the target, antenna-sensor impedance matching and the transfer function of the target. We demonstrate measurements at depths ranging from centimeters to circa 1 m in a sandbox. In our application, clutter rejection requires delays between the emitted pulse and echoes to be longer than in the regular use of the GPR for geophysical measurements. This delay, and the accuracy needed for sensing, challenge the GPR internal time base. In the GPR units we used, the drift turns out to be incompatible with the targeted application. The available documentation of other models and brands suggests that this is a rather general limitation. We

  3. Signal features of surface electromyography in advanced Parkinson's disease during different settings of deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Saara M; Ruonala, Verneri; Pekkonen, Eero; Kankaanpää, Markku; Airaksinen, Olavi; Karjalainen, Pasi A

    2015-12-01

    Electromyography (EMG) and acceleration (ACC) measurements are potential methods for quantifying efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). The treatment efficacy depends on the settings of DBS parameters (pulse amplitude, frequency and width). This study quantified, if EMG and ACC signal features differ between different DBS settings and if DBS effect is unequal between different muscles. EMGs were measured from biceps brachii (BB) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of 13 PD patients. ACCs were measured from wrists. Measurements were performed during seven different settings of DBS and analyzed using methods based on spectral analysis, signal morphology and nonlinear dynamics. The results showed significant within-subject differences in the EMG signal kurtosis, correlation dimension, recurrence rate and EMG-ACC coherence between different DBS settings for BB but not for TA muscles. Correlations between EMG feature values and clinical rest tremor and rigidity scores were weak but significant. Surface EMG features differed between different DBS settings and DBS effect was unequal between upper and lower limb muscles. EMG changes pointed to previously defined optimal settings in most of patients, which should be quantified even more deeply in the upcoming studies. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cooperative Degradation of Chitin by Extracellular and Cell Surface-Expressed Chitinases from Paenibacillus sp. Strain FPU-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Takafumi; Hibi, Takao; Fujii, Yutaka; Sugimoto, Ikumi; Fujiwara, Akihiro; Suzuki, Fumiko; Iwasaki, Yukimoto; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Taketo, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Chitin, a major component of fungal cell walls and invertebrate cuticles, is an exceedingly abundant polysaccharide, ranking next to cellulose. Industrial demand for chitin and its degradation products as raw materials for fine chemical products is increasing. A bacterium with high chitin-decomposing activity, Paenibacillus sp. strain FPU-7, was isolated from soil by using a screening medium containing α-chitin powder. Although FPU-7 secreted several extracellular chitinases and thoroughly digested the powder, the extracellular fluid alone broke them down incompletely. Based on expression cloning and phylogenetic analysis, at least seven family 18 chitinase genes were found in the FPU-7 genome. Interestingly, the product of only one gene (chiW) was identified as possessing three S-layer homology (SLH) domains and two glycosyl hydrolase family 18 catalytic domains. Since SLH domains are known to function as anchors to the Gram-positive bacterial cell surface, ChiW was suggested to be a novel multimodular surface-expressed enzyme and to play an important role in the complete degradation of chitin. Indeed, the ChiW protein was localized on the cell surface. Each of the seven chitinase genes (chiA to chiF and chiW) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells for biochemical characterization of their products. In particular, ChiE and ChiW showed high activity for insoluble chitin. The high chitinolytic activity of strain FPU-7 and the chitinases may be useful for environmentally friendly processing of chitin in the manufacture of food and/or medicine. PMID:24077704

  5. Treatment of brain metastases of small-cell lung cancer : Comparing teniposide and teniposide with whole-brain radiotherapy - A phase III study of the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Lung Cancer Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmus, PE; Haaxma-Reiche, H; Smit, EF; Groen, HJM; Karnicka, H; Lewinski, T; van Meerbeeck, J; Clerico, M; Gregor, A; Curran, D; Sahmoud, T; Kirkpatrick, A; Giaccone, G

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Approximately 60% of patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) develop brain metastases, Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) gives symptomatic improvement in more than 50% of these patients. Because brain metastases are a sign of systemic progression, and chemotherapy was found to be

  6. High-resolution random mesh algorithms for creating a probabilistic 3D surface atlas of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P M; Schwartz, C; Toga, A W

    1996-02-01

    Striking variations exist, across individuals, in the internal and external geometry of the brain. Such normal variations in the size, orientation, topology, and geometric complexity of cortical and subcortical structures have complicated the problem of quantifying deviations from normal anatomy and of developing standardized neuroanatomical atlases. This paper describes the design, implementation, and results of a technique for creating a three-dimensional (3D) probabilistic surface atlas of the human brain. We have developed, implemented, and tested a new 3D statistical method for assessing structural variations in a data-base of anatomic images. The algorithm enables the internal surface anatomy of new subjects to be analyzed at an extremely local level. The goal was to quantify subtle and distributed patterns of deviation from normal anatomy by automatically generating detailed probability maps of the anatomy of new subjects. Connected systems of parametric meshes were used to model the internal course of the following structures in both hemispheres: the parieto-occipital sulcus, the anterior and posterior rami of the calcarine sulcus, the cingulate and marginal sulci, and the supracallosal sulcus. These sulci penetrate sufficiently deeply into the brain to introduce an obvious topological decomposition of its volume architecture. A family of surface maps was constructed, encoding statistical properties of local anatomical variation within individual sulci. A probability space of random transformations, based on the theory of Gaussian random fields, was developed to reflect the observed variability in stereotaxic space of the connected system of anatomic surfaces. A complete system of probability density functions was computed, yielding confidence limits on surface variation. The ultimate goal of brain mapping is to provide a framework for integrating functional and anatomical data across many subjects and modalities. This task requires precise quantitative

  7. Two is better than one: The effects of strategic cooperation on intra- and inter-brain connectivity by fNIRS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Balconi

    Full Text Available Inter-brain synchronization during joint actions is a core question in social neuroscience, and the differential contribution of intra- and inter-brain functional connectivity has yet to be clarified along with the role of psychological variables such as perceived self-efficacy. The cognitive performance and the neural activation underlying the execution of joint actions were recorded by functional Near-Infrared imaging during a synchronicity game. An 8-channel array of optodes was positioned over the frontal and prefrontal regions. During the task, the dyads received reinforcing feedback that was experimentally manipulated to induce adoption of common strategies. Intra- and inter-brain connectivity indices were computed along with an inter-brain/intra-brain connectivity index (ConIndex. Finally, correlation analyses were run to assess the relationship between behavioral and physiological levels. The results showed that the external feedback could modulate participant responses in both behavioral and neural components. After the reinforcing manipulation, there were faster response times and increased inter-brain connectivity, and ConIndex emerged primarily over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Additionally, the presence of significant correlations between response times and inter-brain connectivity revealed that only the "two-players connection" may guarantee an efficient performance. The present study provides a significant contribution to the identification of intra- and inter-brain functional connectivity when social reinforcement is provided.

  8. A combined solenoid-surface RF coil for high-resolution whole-brain rat imaging on a 3.0 Tesla clinical MR scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R; Yuan, Chun; Hayes, Cecil E

    2010-09-01

    Rat brain models effectively simulate a multitude of human neurological disorders. Improvements in coil design have facilitated the wider utilization of rat brain models by enabling the utilization of clinical MR scanners for image acquisition. In this study, a novel coil design, subsequently referred to as the rat brain coil, is described that exploits and combines the strengths of both solenoids and surface coils into a simple, multichannel, receive-only coil dedicated to whole-brain rat imaging on a 3.0 T clinical MR scanner. Compared with a multiturn solenoid mouse body coil, a 3-cm surface coil, a modified Helmholtz coil, and a phased-array surface coil, the rat brain coil improved signal-to-noise ratio by approximately 72, 61, 78, and 242%, respectively. Effects of the rat brain coil on amplitudes of static field and radiofrequency field uniformity were similar to each of the other coils. In vivo, whole-brain images of an adult male rat were acquired with a T(2)-weighted spin-echo sequence using an isotropic acquisition resolution of 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.25 mm(3) in 60.6 min. Multiplanar images of the in vivo rat brain with identification of anatomic structures are presented. Improvement in signal-to-noise ratio afforded by the rat brain coil may broaden experiments that utilize clinical MR scanners for in vivo image acquisition. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Landsat classification of surface-water presence during multiple years to assess response of playa wetlands to climatic variability across the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, Daniel J.; Rover, Jennifer R.

    2018-02-15

    To improve understanding of the distribution of ecologically important, ephemeral wetland habitats across the Great Plains, the occurrence and distribution of surface water in playa wetland complexes were documented for four different years across the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GPLCC) region. This information is important because it informs land and wildlife managers about the timing and location of habitat availability. Data with an accurate timestamp that indicate the presence of water, the percent of the area inundated with water, and the spatial distribution of playa wetlands with water are needed for a host of resource inventory, monitoring, and research applications. For example, the distribution of inundated wetlands forms the spatial pattern of available habitat for resident shorebirds and water birds, stop-over habitats for migratory birds, connectivity and clustering of wetland habitats, and surface waters that recharge the Ogallala aquifer; there is considerable variability in the distribution of playa wetlands holding water through time. Documentation of these spatially and temporally intricate processes, here, provides data required to assess connections between inundation and multiple environmental drivers, such as climate, land use, soil, and topography. Climate drivers are understood to interact with land cover, land use and soil attributes in determining the amount of water that flows overland into playa wetlands. Results indicated significant spatial variability represented by differences in the percent of playas inundated among States within the GPLCC. Further, analysis-of-variance comparison of differences in inundation between years showed significant differences in all cases. Although some connections with seasonal moisture patterns may be observed, the complex spatial-temporal gradients of precipitation, temperature, soils, and land use need to be combined as covariates in multivariate models to effectively account for

  10. Physiologic and anatomic characterization of the brain surface glia barrier of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Michael K; Mayer, Nasima; Mayer, Fahima; Bainton, Roland J

    2011-09-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) physiology requires special chemical, metabolic, and cellular privileges for normal function, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) structures are the anatomic and physiologic constructs that arbitrate communication between the brain and body. In the vertebrate BBB, two primary cell types create CNS exclusion biology, a polarized vascular endothelium (VE), and a tightly associated single layer of astrocytic glia (AG). Examples of direct action by the BBB in CNS disease are constantly expanding, including key pathophysiologic roles in multiple sclerosis, stroke, and cancer. In addition, its role as a pharmacologic treatment obstacle to the brain is long standing; thus, molecular model systems that can parse BBB functions and understand the complex integration of sophisticated cellular anatomy and highly polarized chemical protection physiology are desperately needed. Compound barrier structures that use two primary cell types (i.e., functional bicellularity) are common to other humoral/CNS barrier structures. For example, invertebrates use two cell layers of glia, perineurial and subperineurial, to control chemical access to the brain, and analogous glial layers, fenestrated and pseudocartridge, to maintain the blood-eye barrier. In this article, we summarize our current understanding of brain-barrier glial anatomy in Drosophila, demonstrate the power of live imaging as a screening methodology for identifying physiologic characteristics of BBB glia, and compare the physiologies of Drosophila barrier layers to the VE/AG interface of vertebrates. We conclude that many unique BBB physiologies are conserved across phyla and suggest new methods for modeling CNS physiology and disease. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    In the contemporary world, engineers and designers face huge challenges as they shift towards novel organizational concepts such as ‘concurrent engineering’ in order to manage increasing product diversity so as to satisfy customer demands while trying to accelerate the design process to deal...... with the competitive realities of a global market and decreasing product life cycles. In this environment, the coordination and integration of the myriads of interdependent and yet distributed and concurrent design activities becomes enormously complex. It thus seems as if CSCW technologies may be indispensable...... if concurrent engineering is to succeed. On the basis of ethnographic studies of cooperative design, the paper attempts to characterize cooperative work in the domain of design and to outline a set of crucial research problems to be addressed if CSCW is to help engineers and de-signers meet the challenges...

  12. Effects of oxytocin and vasopressin on the neural response to unreciprocated cooperation within brain regions involved in stress and anxiety in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Hackett, Patrick D; DeMarco, Ashley C; Feng, Chunliang; Stair, Sabrina; Haroon, Ebrahim; Ditzen, Beate; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Rilling, James K

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety disorders are characterized by hyperactivity in both the amygdala and the anterior insula. Interventions that normalize activity in these areas may therefore be effective in treating anxiety disorders. Recently, there has been significant interest in the potential use of oxytocin (OT), as well as vasopressin (AVP) antagonists, as treatments for anxiety disorders. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, pharmaco- fMRI study, 153 men and 151 women were randomized to treatment with either 24 IU intranasal OT, 20 IU intranasal AVP, or placebo and imaged with fMRI as they played the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game with same-sex human and computer partners. In men, OT attenuated the fMRI response to unreciprocated cooperation (CD), a negative social interaction, within the amygdala and anterior insula. This effect was specific to interactions with human partners. In contrast, among women, OT unexpectedly attenuated the amygdala and anterior insula response to unreciprocated cooperation from computer but not human partners. Among women, AVP did not significantly modulate the response to unreciprocated cooperation in either the amygdala or the anterior insula. However, among men, AVP attenuated the BOLD response to CD outcomes with human partners across a relatively large cluster including the amygdala and the anterior insula, which was contrary to expectations. Our results suggest that OT may decrease the stress of negative social interactions among men, whereas these effects were not found in women interacting with human partners. These findings support continued investigation into the possible efficacy of OT as a treatment for anxiety disorders.

  13. Guiding Brain Tumor Resection Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanoparticles and a Hand-Held Raman Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The current difficulty in visualizing the true extent of malignant brain tumors during surgical resection represents one of the major reasons for the poor prognosis of brain tumor patients. Here, we evaluated the ability of a hand-held Raman scanner, guided by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles, to identify the microscopic tumor extent in a genetically engineered RCAS/tv-a glioblastoma mouse model. In a simulated intraoperative scenario, we tested both a static Raman imaging device and a mobile, hand-held Raman scanner. We show that SERS image-guided resection is more accurate than resection using white light visualization alone. Both methods complemented each other, and correlation with histology showed that SERS nanoparticles accurately outlined the extent of the tumors. Importantly, the hand-held Raman probe not only allowed near real-time scanning, but also detected additional microscopic foci of cancer in the resection bed that were not seen on static SERS images and would otherwise have been missed. This technology has a strong potential for clinical translation because it uses inert gold–silica SERS nanoparticles and a hand-held Raman scanner that can guide brain tumor resection in the operating room. PMID:25093240

  14. Reproducibility of brain-cognition relationships using three cortical surface-based protocols: An exhaustive analysis based on cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Kenia; Madsen, Sarah K; Joshi, Anand A; Joshi, Shantanu H; Román, Francisco J; Villalon-Reina, Julio; Burgaleta, Miguel; Karama, Sherif; Janssen, Joost; Marinetto, Eugenio; Desco, Manuel; Thompson, Paul M; Colom, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    People differ in their cognitive functioning. This variability has been exhaustively examined at the behavioral, neural and genetic level to uncover the mechanisms by which some individuals are more cognitively efficient than others. Studies investigating the neural underpinnings of interindividual differences in cognition aim to establish a reliable nexus between functional/structural properties of a given brain network and higher order cognitive performance. However, these studies have produced inconsistent results, which might be partly attributed to methodological variations. In the current study, 82 healthy young participants underwent MRI scanning and completed a comprehensive cognitive battery including measurements of fluid, crystallized, and spatial intelligence, along with working memory capacity/executive updating, controlled attention, and processing speed. The cognitive scores were obtained by confirmatory factor analyses. T1 -weighted images were processed using three different surface-based morphometry (SBM) pipelines, varying in their degree of user intervention, for obtaining measures of cortical thickness (CT) across the brain surface. Distribution and variability of CT and CT-cognition relationships were systematically compared across pipelines and between two cognitively/demographically matched samples to overcome potential sources of variability affecting the reproducibility of findings. We demonstrated that estimation of CT was not consistent across methods. In addition, among SBM methods, there was considerable variation in the spatial pattern of CT-cognition relationships. Finally, within each SBM method, results did not replicate in matched subsamples. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Relationship Between Surface-Based Brain Morphometric Measures and Intelligence in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of History of Language Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balardin, Joana Bisol; Sato, João Ricardo; Vieira, Gilson; Feng, Yeu; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh; Murphy, Declan; Ecker, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of conditions that show abnormalities in the neuroanatomy of multiple brain regions. The variability in the development of intelligence and language among individuals on the autism spectrum has long been acknowledged, but it remains unknown whether these differences impact on the neuropathology of ASD. In this study, we aimed to compare associations between surface-based regional brain measures and general intelligence (IQ) scores in ASD individuals with and without a history of language delay. We included 64 ASD adults of normal intelligence (37 without a history of language delay and 27 with a history of language delay and 80 neurotypicals). Regions with a significant association between verbal and nonverbal IQ and measures of cortical thickness (CT), surface area, and cortical volume were first identified in the combined sample of individuals with ASD and controls. Thicker dorsal frontal and temporal cortices, and thinner lateral orbital frontal and parieto-occipital cortices were associated with greater and lower verbal IQ scores, respectively. Correlations between cortical volume and verbal IQ were observed in similar regions as revealed by the CT analysis. A significant difference between ASD individuals with and without a history of language delay in the association between CT and verbal IQ was evident in the parieto-occipital region. These results indicate that ASD subgroups defined on the basis of differential language trajectories in childhood can have different associations between verbal IQ and brain measures in adulthood despite achieving similar levels of cognitive performance. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The potential for brain injury on selected surfaces used by cheerleaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Brenda J; Smith, Gary A

    2009-01-01

    Although playground surfaces have been investigated for fall impact attenuation, the surfaces that cheerleaders use have received little attention. To determine (1) the critical height for selected surfaces used by cheerleaders at or below which a serious head impact injury from a fall is unlikely to occur, (2) the critical heights for non-impact-absorbing surfaces for comparison purposes, and (3) the effect of soil moisture and grass height on g(max) (which is defined as the multiple of g [acceleration due to gravity at the earth's surface at sea level: ie, 32.2 feet x s(-1) x s(-1)] that represents the maximum deceleration experienced during an impact) and the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) at the critical height for a dry grass surface. Observational study. A local cheerleading gym, indoor locations within the authors' institution, and various outdoor locations. g(max), HIC, and critical height. Critical heights for the surfaces tested ranged from 0.5 ft (0.15 m) for concrete and vinyl tile installed over concrete to more than 11 ft (3.35 m) for a spring floor. Increases in grass height and soil moisture resulted in an increase in the critical height for grass surfaces. Only spring floors and 4-in (0.10-m)-thick landing mats placed on traditional foam floors had critical heights greater than 10.5 ft (3.20 m), thus providing enough impact-absorbing capacity for performance of 2-level stunts. The potential for serious head impact injuries can be minimized by increasing the shock-absorbing capacity of the surface, decreasing the height from which the person falls, or both. Cheerleaders and cheerleading coaches should use the critical heights reported in this study to compare the relative impact-absorbing capacities of the various surfaces tested, with critical height as an indicator of the impact-absorption capacity of the surface. The findings of this study can be used to select the most appropriate surface for the type of maneuver to be performed, based on the

  17. 3D surface analysis of hippocampal microvasculature in the irradiated brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Brianna M; Acharya, Munjal M; Allen, Barrett D; Benke, Sarah N; Hultgren, Nan W; Baulch, Janet E; Limoli, Charles L

    2016-06-01

    Cranial irradiation used to control CNS malignancies can also disrupt the vasculature and impair neurotransmission and cognition. Here we describe two distinct methodologies for quantifying early and late radiation injury in CNS microvasculature. Intravascular fluorescently labeled lectin was used to visualize microvessels in the brain of the irradiated mouse 2 days post exposure and RECA-1 immunostaining was similarly used to visualize microvessels in the brain of the irradiated rat 1-month post exposure. Confocal microscopy, image deconvolution and 3-dimensional rendering methods were used to define vascular structure in a ∼4 × 10(7) μm(3) defined region of the brain. Quantitative analysis of these 3D images revealed that irradiation caused significant short- and long-term reductions in capillary density, diameter and volume. In mice, irradiation reduced mean vessel volume from 2,250 to 1,470 μm(3) and mean vessel diameter from 5.0 to 4.5 μm, resulting in significant reductions of 34% and 10%, in the hippocampus respectively. The number of vessel branch points and area was also found to also drop significantly in mice 2 days after irradiation. For rats, immunostaining revealed a significant, three-fold drop in capillary density 1 month after exposure compared to controls. Such radiation-induced disruption of the CNS microvasculature may be contributory if not causal to any number of neurocognitive side effects that manifest in cancer patients following cranial radiotherapy. This study demonstrates the utility of two distinct methodologies for quantifying these important adverse effects of radiotherapy. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:341-349, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Imaging of molecular surface dynamics in brain slices using single-particle tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermann, N.B.; Sokoll, S.; Klueva, J.; Missler, M.; Wiegert, J.S.; Sibarita, J.B.; Heine, M.

    2014-01-01

    Organization of signalling molecules in biological membranes is crucial for cellular communication. Many receptors, ion channels and cell adhesion molecules are associated with proteins important for their trafficking, surface localization or function. These complexes are embedded in a lipid

  19. Application of stereological methods to estimate post-mortem brain surface area using 3T MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlong, Carolyn; García-Fiñana, Marta; Puddephat, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Cavalieri and Vertical Sections methods of design based stereology were applied in combination with 3 tesla (i.e. 3T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to estimate cortical and subcortical volume, area of the pial surface, area of the grey-white matter boundary, and thickness of the cerebral...... cortex. The material comprises eight human cadaveric cerebri which had been separated into sixteen cerebral hemisphere specimens prior to embedding in agar gel. The results from MRI were compared with corresponding 'gold standard' values subsequently obtained by application of the same methodology using...... physical sectioning of the specimens. 95% agreement intervals revealed poor agreement between MR imaging and physical sectioning, specially for pial surface and thickness, as well as cerebral cortex and subcortex volumes. On average, pial surface area was estimated to be almost half the extent using MRI...

  20. Neurological abnormalities in full-term asphyxiated newborns and salivary S100B testing: the "Cooperative Multitask against Brain Injury of Neonates" (CoMBINe) international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzolo, Diego; Pluchinotta, Francesca; Bashir, Moataza; Aboulgar, Hanna; Said, Hala Mufeed; Iman, Iskander; Ivani, Giorgio; Conio, Alessandra; Tina, Lucia Gabriella; Nigro, Francesco; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Michetti, Fabrizio; Di Iorio, Romolo; Marinoni, Emanuela; Zimmermann, Luc J; Gavilanes, Antonio D W; Vles, Hans J S; Kornacka, Maria; Gruszfeld, Darek; Frulio, Rosanna; Sacchi, Renata; Ciotti, Sabina; Risso, Francesco M; Sannia, Andrea; Florio, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in newborns: its prognosis depends both on the severity of the asphyxia and on the immediate resuscitation to restore oxygen supply and blood circulation. Therefore, we investigated whether measurement of S100B, a consolidated marker of brain injury, in salivary fluid of PA newborns may constitute a useful tool for the early detection of asphyxia-related brain injury. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 292 full-term newborns admitted to our NICUs, of whom 48 suffered PA and 244 healthy controls admitted at our NICUs. Saliva S100B levels measurement longitudinally after birth; routine laboratory variables, neurological patterns, cerebral ultrasound and, magnetic resonance imaging were performed. The primary end-point was the presence of neurological abnormalities at 12-months after birth. S100B salivary levels were significantly (P3.25 MoM S100B achieved a sensitivity of 100% (CI5-95%: 89.3%-100%) and a specificity of 100% (CI5-95%: 98.6%-100%) as a single marker for predicting the occurrence of abnormal neurological outcome (area under the ROC curve: 1.000; CI5-95%: 0.987-1.0). S100B protein measurement in saliva, soon after birth, is a useful tool to identify which asphyxiated infants are at risk of neurological sequelae.

  1. Neurological abnormalities in full-term asphyxiated newborns and salivary S100B testing: the "Cooperative Multitask against Brain Injury of Neonates" (CoMBINe international study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gazzolo

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia (PA is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in newborns: its prognosis depends both on the severity of the asphyxia and on the immediate resuscitation to restore oxygen supply and blood circulation. Therefore, we investigated whether measurement of S100B, a consolidated marker of brain injury, in salivary fluid of PA newborns may constitute a useful tool for the early detection of asphyxia-related brain injury.We conducted a cross-sectional study in 292 full-term newborns admitted to our NICUs, of whom 48 suffered PA and 244 healthy controls admitted at our NICUs. Saliva S100B levels measurement longitudinally after birth; routine laboratory variables, neurological patterns, cerebral ultrasound and, magnetic resonance imaging were performed. The primary end-point was the presence of neurological abnormalities at 12-months after birth.S100B salivary levels were significantly (P3.25 MoM S100B achieved a sensitivity of 100% (CI5-95%: 89.3%-100% and a specificity of 100% (CI5-95%: 98.6%-100% as a single marker for predicting the occurrence of abnormal neurological outcome (area under the ROC curve: 1.000; CI5-95%: 0.987-1.0.S100B protein measurement in saliva, soon after birth, is a useful tool to identify which asphyxiated infants are at risk of neurological sequelae.

  2. Systematization, distribution and territory of the caudal cerebral artery on the brain's surface of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Díaz de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Meleagris gallopavo heads with their neck segments were used. Animals were contained and euthanized with the association of mebezonium iodide, embutramide and tetracaine hydrochloride (T 61, Intervet by intravenous injection. The arterial system was rinsed with cold saline solution (15°C, with 5000IU heparin and filled with red-colored latex. The samples were fixed in 20% formaldehyde for seven days. The brains were removed with a segment of cervical spinal cord and after, the dura-mater was removed and the arteries dissected. The cerebral carotid arteries, after the intercarotid anastomosis, were projected around the hypophysis, until they reached the tuber cinereum and divided into their terminal branches, the caudal branch and the rostral branch. The rostral branch was projected rostrolateralwards and gave off, in sequence, two collateral branches, the caudal cerebral and the middle cerebral arteries and the terminal branch was as cerebroethmoidal artery. The caudal cerebral artery of one antimere formed the interhemispheric artery, which gave off dorsal hemispheric branches to the convex surface of both antimeres. Its dorsal tectal mesencephalic branch, of only one antimere, originated the dorsal cerebellar artery. In the interior of the cerebral transverse fissure, after the origin of the dorsal tectal mesencephalic artery, the caudal cerebral artery emitted occipital hemispheric branches, pineal branches and medial hemispheric branches, on both antimeres. The caudal cerebral artery's territory comprehended the entire surface of the dorsal hemioptic lobe, the rostral surface of the cerebellum, the diencephalic structures, the caudal pole and the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere and in the convex surface, the sagittal eminence except for its most rostral third. Due to the asymmetry found in the caudal cerebral arteries' ramifications, the models were classified into three types and their respective subtypes.

  3. Integration of sparse electrophysiological measurements with preoperative MRI using 3D surface estimation in deep brain stimulation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husch, Andreas; Gemmar, Peter; Thunberg, Johan; Hertel, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Intraoperative microelectrode recordings (MER) have been used for several decades to guide neurosurgeons during the implantation of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) electrodes, especially when targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to suppress the symptoms of Parkinson's Disease. The standard approach is to use an array of up to five MER electrodes in a fixed configuration. Interpretation of the recorded signals yields a spatially very sparse set of information about the morphology of the respective brain structures in the targeted area. However, no aid is currently available for surgeons to intraoperatively integrate this information with other data available on the patient's individual morphology (e.g. MR imaging data used for surgical planning). This integration might allow surgeons to better determine the most probable position of the electrodes within the target structure during surgery. This paper suggests a method for reconstructing a surface patch from the sparse MER dataset utilizing additional a priori knowledge about the geometrical configuration of the measurement electrodes. The conventional representation of MER measurements as intervals of target region/non-target region is therefore transformed into an equivalent boundary set representation, allowing ecient point-based calculations. Subsequently, the problem is to integrate the resulting patch with a preoperative model of the target structure, which can be formulated as registration problem minimizing a distance measure between the two surfaces. When restricting this registration procedure to translations, which is reasonable given certain geometric considerations, the problem can be solved globally by employing an exhaustive search with arbitrary precision in polynomial time. The proposed method is demonstrated using bilateral STN/Substantia Nigra segmentation data from preoperative MRIs of 17 Patients with simulated MER electrode placement. When using simulated data of heavily perturbed electrodes

  4. Where’s Waldo? How perceptual, cognitive, and emotional brain processes cooperate during learning to categorize and find desired objects in a cluttered scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Cheng; Grossberg, Stephen; Cao, Yongqiang

    2014-01-01

    The Where’s Waldo problem concerns how individuals can rapidly learn to search a scene to detect, attend, recognize, and look at a valued target object in it. This article develops the ARTSCAN Search neural model to clarify how brain mechanisms across the What and Where cortical streams are coordinated to solve the Where’s Waldo problem. The What stream learns positionally-invariant object representations, whereas the Where stream controls positionally-selective spatial and action representations. The model overcomes deficiencies of these computationally complementary properties through What and Where stream interactions. Where stream processes of spatial attention and predictive eye movement control modulate What stream processes whereby multiple view- and positionally-specific object categories are learned and associatively linked to view- and positionally-invariant object categories through bottom-up and attentive top-down interactions. Gain fields control the coordinate transformations that enable spatial attention and predictive eye movements to carry out this role. What stream cognitive-emotional learning processes enable the focusing of motivated attention upon the invariant object categories of desired objects. What stream cognitive names or motivational drives can prime a view- and positionally-invariant object category of a desired target object. A volitional signal can convert these primes into top-down activations that can, in turn, prime What stream view- and positionally-specific categories. When it also receives bottom-up activation from a target, such a positionally-specific category can cause an attentional shift in the Where stream to the positional representation of the target, and an eye movement can then be elicited to foveate it. These processes describe interactions among brain regions that include visual cortex, parietal cortex, inferotemporal cortex, prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, basal ganglia (BG), and superior colliculus (SC

  5. Permeability surface area product analysis in malignant brain edema prediction - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volny, O; Cimflova, P; Lee, T-Y; Menon, B K; d'Esterre, C D

    2017-05-15

    Using an extended CT perfusion acquisition (150s), we sought to determine the association between perfusion parameters and malignant edema after ischemic stroke. Patients (from prospective study PROVE-IT, NCT02184936) with terminal internal carotid artery±proximal middle cerebral occlusion were involved. CTA was assessed for clot location and status of leptomeningeal collaterals. The following CTP parameters were calculated within the ischemic territory and contralaterally: permeability surface area product (PS), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV). PS was calculated using the adiabatic approximation to the Johnson and Wilson model. Outcome was evaluated by midline shift and infarction volume on follow-up imaging. Of 200 patients enrolled, 7 patients (3.5%) had midline shift≥5mm (2 excluded for poor-quality scans). Five patients with midline shift and 5 matched controls were analysed. There was no significant difference in mean PS, CBF and CBV within the ischemic territory between the two groups. A CBV threshold of 1.7ml/100g had the highest AUC=0.72, 95% CI=0.54-0.90 for early midline shift prediction, sensitivity and specificity were 0.83 and 0.67 respectively. Our preliminary results did not show significant differences in permeability surface area analysis if analysed for complete ischemic region. CBV parameter had the highest accuracy and there was a trend for the mean PS values for midline shift prediction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1 is present in hyaline membranes and modulates surface tension of surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griese Matthias

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1 is a secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein that binds various bacteria and is thought to participate in innate pulmonary host defense. We hypothesized that pulmonary DMBT1 could contribute to respiratory distress syndrome in neonates by modulating surfactant function. Methods DMBT1 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry and mRNA in situ hybridization in post-mortem lungs of preterm and full-term neonates with pulmonary hyaline membranes. The effect of human recombinant DMBT1 on the function of bovine and porcine surfactant was measured by a capillary surfactometer. DMBT1-levels in tracheal aspirates of ventilated preterm and term infants were determined by ELISA. Results Pulmonary DMBT1 was localized in hyaline membranes during respiratory distress syndrome. In vitro addition of human recombinant DMBT1 to the surfactants increased surface tension in a dose-dependent manner. The DMBT1-mediated effect was reverted by the addition of calcium depending on the surfactant preparation. Conclusion Our data showed pulmonary DMBT1 expression in hyaline membranes during respiratory distress syndrome and demonstrated that DMBT1 increases lung surface tension in vitro. This raises the possibility that DMBT1 could antagonize surfactant supplementation in respiratory distress syndrome and could represent a candidate target molecule for therapeutic intervention in neonatal lung disease.

  7. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) is present in hyaline membranes and modulates surface tension of surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hanna; End, Caroline; Renner, Marcus; Helmke, Burkhard M; Gassler, Nikolaus; Weiss, Christel; Hartl, Dominik; Griese, Matthias; Hafner, Mathias; Poustka, Annemarie; Mollenhauer, Jan; Poeschl, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Background Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) is a secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein that binds various bacteria and is thought to participate in innate pulmonary host defense. We hypothesized that pulmonary DMBT1 could contribute to respiratory distress syndrome in neonates by modulating surfactant function. Methods DMBT1 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry and mRNA in situ hybridization in post-mortem lungs of preterm and full-term neonates with pulmonary hyaline membranes. The effect of human recombinant DMBT1 on the function of bovine and porcine surfactant was measured by a capillary surfactometer. DMBT1-levels in tracheal aspirates of ventilated preterm and term infants were determined by ELISA. Results Pulmonary DMBT1 was localized in hyaline membranes during respiratory distress syndrome. In vitro addition of human recombinant DMBT1 to the surfactants increased surface tension in a dose-dependent manner. The DMBT1-mediated effect was reverted by the addition of calcium depending on the surfactant preparation. Conclusion Our data showed pulmonary DMBT1 expression in hyaline membranes during respiratory distress syndrome and demonstrated that DMBT1 increases lung surface tension in vitro. This raises the possibility that DMBT1 could antagonize surfactant supplementation in respiratory distress syndrome and could represent a candidate target molecule for therapeutic intervention in neonatal lung disease. PMID:17908325

  8. Cortical surface-based analysis reduces bias and variance in kinetic modeling of brain PET data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Douglas N; Svarer, Claus; Fisher, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    -based smoothing, level of smoothing, use of voxelwise partial volume correction (PVC), and PVC masking threshold. PVC was implemented using the Muller-Gartner method with the masking out of voxels with low gray matter (GM) partial volume fraction. Dynamic PET scans of an antagonist serotonin-4 receptor...... radioligand ([(11)C]SB2307145) were collected on sixteen healthy subjects using a Siemens HRRT PET scanner. Kinetic modeling was used to compute maps of non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) after preprocessing. The results showed a complicated interaction between smoothing, PVC, and masking on BPND...... estimates. Volume-based smoothing resulted in large bias and intersubject variance because it smears signal across tissue types. In some cases, PVC with volume smoothing paradoxically caused the estimated BPND to be less than when no PVC was used at all. When applied in the absence of PVC, cortical surface...

  9. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  10. Cooperative catalysis designing efficient catalysts for synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, René

    2015-01-01

    Written by experts in the field, this is a much-needed overview of the rapidly emerging field of cooperative catalysis. The authors focus on the design and development of novel high-performance catalysts for applications in organic synthesis (particularly asymmetric synthesis), covering a broad range of topics, from the latest progress in Lewis acid / Br?nsted base catalysis to e.g. metal-assisted organocatalysis, cooperative metal/enzyme catalysis, and cooperative catalysis in polymerization reactions and on solid surfaces. The chapters are classified according to the type of cooperating acti

  11. Investigating Cooperative Behavior in Ecological Settings: An EEG Hyperscanning Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlenia Toppi

    Full Text Available The coordinated interactions between individuals are fundamental for the success of the activities in some professional categories. We reported on brain-to-brain cooperative interactions between civil pilots during a simulated flight. We demonstrated for the first time how the combination of neuroelectrical hyperscanning and intersubject connectivity could provide indicators sensitive to the humans' degree of synchronization under a highly demanding task performed in an ecological environment. Our results showed how intersubject connectivity was able to i characterize the degree of cooperation between pilots in different phases of the flight, and ii to highlight the role of specific brain macro areas in cooperative behavior. During the most cooperative flight phases pilots showed, in fact, dense patterns of interbrain connectivity, mainly linking frontal and parietal brain areas. On the contrary, the amount of interbrain connections went close to zero in the non-cooperative phase. The reliability of the interbrain connectivity patterns was verified by means of a baseline condition represented by formal couples, i.e. pilots paired offline for the connectivity analysis but not simultaneously recorded during the flight. Interbrain density was, in fact, significantly higher in real couples with respect to formal couples in the cooperative flight phases. All the achieved results demonstrated how the description of brain networks at the basis of cooperation could effectively benefit from a hyperscanning approach. Interbrain connectivity was, in fact, more informative in the investigation of cooperative behavior with respect to established EEG signal processing methodologies applied at a single subject level.

  12. Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease using brain SPECT with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Asano, Tetsuichi; Kogure, Daiji; Abe, Shine; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Takasaki, Masaru [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    We compared the diagnostic usefulness of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) with that of standard transaxial images in brain SPECT in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The subjects consisted of 69 patients with AD and 60 patients with non-AD, including vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease with dementia, frontotemporal dementia, other dementing diseases and neuropsychiatric diseases. Standard transaxial section and 3D-SSP SPECT images with N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I] iodoamphetamine were blindly interpreted by three examiners and were classified into the following three patterns: typical AD, atypical AD, and not indicative AD patterns. The 3D-SSP images demonstrated reductions of cerebral blood flow in the parieto-temporal association cortex and posterior cingulate gyrus more clearly and easily than the standard transaxial images. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 85% with 3D-SSP and 83% and 82% with standard transaxial section respectively. 3D-SSP was especially useful for early or atypical AD which showed no characteristic perfusion abnormalities on standard transaxial images. These results suggest that SPECT with 3D-SSP provides an sensitive as well as accurate tool for the diagnosis of AD. (author)

  13. Curved reformat of the paediatric brain MRI into a 'flat-earth map' - standardised method for demonstrating cortical surface atrophy resulting from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ewan; Andronikou, Savvas; Vedajallam, Schadie; Chacko, Anith; Thai, Ngoc Jade

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is optimally imaged with brain MRI in the neonatal period. However neuroimaging is often also performed later in childhood (e.g., when parents seek compensation in cases of alleged birth asphyxia). We describe a standardised technique for creating two curved reconstructions of the cortical surface to show the characteristic surface changes of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in children imaged after the neonatal period. The technique was applied for 10 cases of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and also for age-matched healthy children to assess the visibility of characteristic features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. In the abnormal brains, fissural or sulcal widening was seen in all cases and ulegyria was identifiable in 7/10. These images could be used as a visual aid for communicating MRI findings to clinicians and other interested parties.

  14. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  15. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  16. NH3 adsorption on PtM (Fe, Co, Ni) surfaces: cooperating effects of charge transfer, magnetic ordering and lattice strain

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, Satadeep; Yoo, SJ; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Lee, SC

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of a molecule or group with an atom which is less electronegative than oxygen (0) and directly interacting with the surface is very relevant to development of PtM (M = 3d-transition metal) catalysts with high activity. Here, we present theoretical analysis of the adsorption of NH3 molecule (N being less electronegative than 0) on (111) surfaces of PtM (Fe, Co, Ni) alloys using the first principles density functional approach. We find that, while NH3-Pt interaction is stronger than ...

  17. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  18. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  19. Cooperative Transmembrane Penetration of Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haizhen; Ji, Qiuju; Huang, Changjin; Zhang, Sulin; Yuan, Bing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Physical penetration of lipid bilayer membranes presents an alternative pathway for cellular delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) besides endocytosis. NPs delivered through this pathway could reach the cytoplasm, thereby opening the possibility of organelle-specific targeting. Herein we perform dissipative particle dynamics simulations to elucidate the transmembrane penetration mechanisms of multiple NPs. Our simulations demonstrate that NPs’ translocation proceeds in a cooperative manner, where the interplay of the quantity and surface chemistry of the NPs regulates the translocation efficiency. For NPs with hydrophilic surfaces, the increase of particle quantity facilitates penetration, while for NPs with partly or totally hydrophobic surfaces, the opposite highly possibly holds. Moreover, a set of interesting cooperative ways, such as aggregation, aggregation-dispersion, and aggregation-dispersion-reaggregation of the NPs, are observed during the penetration process. We find that the penetration behaviors of multiple NPs are mostly dominated by the changes of the NP-membrane force components in the membrane plane direction, in addition to that in the penetration direction, suggesting a different interaction mechanism between the multiple NPs and the membrane compared with the one-NP case. These results provide a fundamental understanding in the underlying mechanisms of cooperative penetration of NPs, and shed light on the NP-based drug and gene delivery. PMID:26013284

  20. Response surface optimization, Ex vivo and In vivo investigation of nasal spanlastics for bioavailability enhancement and brain targeting of risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Fatma Elzahraa; Elsayed, Ibrahim; Gad, Mary Kamal; Elshafeey, Ahmed Hassen; Mohamed, Magdi Ibrahim

    2017-09-15

    Transnasal brain drug targeting could ensure better drug delivery to the brain through the olfactory pathway. Risperidone bioavailability is 66% in extensive metabolizers and 82% in slow metabolizers. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of the nanovesicular spanlastics to effectively deliver risperidone through the nasal route to the brain and increase its bioavailability. Spanlastics formulae, composed of span and polyvinyl alcohol, were designed based on central composite statistical design. The planned formulae were prepared using ethanol injection method. The prepared formulae were characterized by testing their particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency. The optimized formula having the lowest particle size, polydispersity index, the highest zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency was subjected to further investigations including characterization of its rheological properties, elasticity, transmission electron microscopy, in vitro diffusion, ex vivo permeation, histopathology and in vivo biodistribution. The optimized formula was composed of 5mg/mL span and 30mg/mL polyvinyl alcohol. It showed significantly higher transnasal permeation and better distribution to the brain, when compared to the used control regarding the brain targeting efficiency and the drug transport percentage (2.16 and 1.43 folds increase, respectively). The study introduced a successful and promising formula to directly and effectively carry the drug from nose to brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...... divers theoretical and conceptual frameworks to study collective action with a human ecosystem approach and develop one with a stronger anthropological reference....

  2. Analysis of brain metabolism changes induced by acute potassium cyanide intoxication by 31P NMR in vivo using chronically implanted surface coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decorps, M; Lebas, J F; Leviel, J L; Confort, S; Remy, C; Benabid, A L

    1984-03-12

    Chronic implantation of surface coils on the skull has been developed to record 31P NMR spectra of the brain in unanesthetized rats. Intraperitoneal sublethal potassium cyanide doses induce strong and reversible changes in high-energy phosphate compounds in the brain, similar in part to those induced by ischemia. These effects are dose-dependent as far as phosphocreatine, inorganic orthophosphates and pH are concerned; ATP does not seem to be altered by KCN doses ranging from 3 to 5 mg/kg but starts decreasing at a dose of 6 mg/kg. The fraction of Mg2+ complexed ATP which could be estimated as about 90% was not affected by KCN intoxication. For high doses (6 mg/kg) a new peak, appearing on the upfield side of the inorganic phosphate peak, may correspond to an acidic compartment, the significance of which is discussed.

  3. THE SIZE AND SURFACE COATING OF NANOSILVER DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER (RBEC4) CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linking the physical properties of nanoparticles with differences in their biological activity is critical for understanding their potential toxicity and mode of action. The influence of aggregate size, surface coating, and surface charge on nanosilver's (nanoAg) movement through...

  4. Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-582 Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Program Information Program Name Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) DoD Component Navy Joint Participants United States Marine Corps; United...dated June 16, 2004 CEC December 2015 SAR March 17, 2016 12:13:59 UNCLASSIFIED 5 Mission and Description Mission The Cooperative Engagement Capability

  5. Futures for energy cooperatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A listing of Federal agencies and programs with potential funding for community-scale cooperatives using conservation measures and solar technologies is presented in Section 1. Section 2 presents profiles of existing community energy cooperatives describing their location, history, membership, services, sources of finance and technical assistance. A condensed summary from a recent conference on Energy Cooperatives featuring notes on co-op members' experiences, problems, and opportunities is presented in Section 3. Section 4 lists contacts for additional information. A National Consumer Cooperative Bank Load Application is shown in the appendix.

  6. Synthetic Yeast Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Wenying; Burton, Justin

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation is wide-spread and has been postulated to drive major transitions in evolution. However, Darwinian selection favors ``cheaters'' that consume benefits without paying a fair cost. How did cooperation evolve against the threat of cheaters? To investigate the evolutionary trajectories of cooperation, we created a genetically tractable system that can be observed as it evolves from inception. The system consists of two engineered yeast strains -- a red-fluorescent strain that requires adenine and releases lysine and a yellow-fluorescent strain that requires lysine and releases adenine. Cells that consume but not supply metabolites would be cheaters. From the properties of two cooperating strains, we calculated and experimentally verified the minimal initial cell densities required for the viability of the cooperative system in the absence of exogenously added adenine and lysine. Strikingly, evolved cooperative systems were viable at 100-fold lower initial cell densities than their ancestors. We are investigating the nature and diversity of pro-cooperation changes, the dynamics of cooperator-cheater cocultures, and the effects of spatial environment on cooperation and cheating.

  7. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  8. Cooper pairs in atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittel, S. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, 19716 Delaware (United States); Dussel, G. G. [Departamento de Fisica J.J. Giambiagi, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dukelsky, J.; Sarriguren, P. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    We describe recent efforts to study Cooper pairs in atomic nuclei. We consider a self-consistent Hartree Fock mean field for the even Sm isotopes and compare results based on three treatments of pairing correlations: a BCS treatment, a number-projected BCS treatment and an exact treatment using the Richardson Ansatz. Significant differences are seen in the pairing correlation energies. Furthermore, because it does not average over the properties of the fermion pairs, the Richardson solution permits a more meaningful definition of the Cooper wave function and of the fraction of pairs that are collective. Our results confirm that only a few pairs near the Fermi surface in realistic atomic nuclei are collective. (Author)

  9. Proto-cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Read, James E; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre...

  10. Making Cooperative Learning Powerful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Just about everyone loves the "idea" of cooperative learning, children working productively and excitedly in groups, everyone getting along and enthusiastically helping one another learn. This article presents five strategies that teachers can use to get the greatest benefit possible from cooperative learning and ensure that…

  11. Can Altruism Hinder Cooperation?

    OpenAIRE

    Keisuke Nakao

    2008-01-01

    This note considers the effects of altruism on cooperation in the context of a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma. Altruism has two conflicting impacts on cooperation: One is to reduce the temptation for defection the other is to make the future punishment ineffective. The total effect of altruism hinges on the shape of players'' cost functions.

  12. Helping Children Cooperate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    There are occasions in life when the competitive process is appropriate. But when people consider the relationships in their lives--with friends, family members, coworkers, and the larger community--they realize the value of cooperation. When adults give children the chance to cooperate, to work together toward a solution or a common goal like…

  13. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  14. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  15. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed...... the communication and sociological values of the actors involved and saw it as essential for their way of cooperating. The cooperation included and combined elements of traditional industrial building production, with concepts and initiatives that had to be understood by means of sociological analysis. Tentatively...... the companies in the case can be understood as possessing a social capital which is enforced and united by initiatives of the main contractor. The social capital was built up and maintained through the actual constitution of cooperation already in the initial phase of bidding before the building process...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain ... called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life— ...

  17. Network modularity promotes cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-05-07

    Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  19. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  20. A Visual Description of the Dissection of the Cerebral Surface Vasculature and Associated Meninges and the Choroid Plexus from Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, John F.; Thomas, Monzy; Patterson, Tucker A.; George, Nysia I.; Runnells, Jeffrey A.; Levi, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    This video presentation was created to show a method of harvesting the two most important highly vascular structures, not residing within the brain proper, that support forebrain function. They are the cerebral surface (superficial) vasculature along with associated meninges (MAV) and the choroid plexus which are necessary for cerebral blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis. The tissue harvested is suitable for biochemical and physiological analysis, and the MAV has been shown to be sensitive to damage produced by amphetamine and hyperthermia 1,2. As well, the major and minor cerebral vasculatures harvested in MAV are of potentially high interest when investigating concussive types of head trauma. The MAV dissected in this presentation consists of the pial and some of the arachnoid membrane (less dura) of the meninges and the major and minor cerebral surface vasculature. The choroid plexus dissected is the structure that resides in the lateral ventricles as described by Oldfield and McKinley3,4,5,6. The methods used for harvesting these two tissues also facilitate the harvesting of regional cortical tissue devoid of meninges and larger cerebral surface vasculature, and is compatible with harvesting other brain tissues such as striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, etc. The dissection of the two tissues takes from 5 to 10 min total. The gene expression levels for the dissected MAV and choroid plexus, as shown and described in this presentation can be found at GSE23093 (MAV) and GSE29733 (choroid plexus) at the NCBI GEO repository. This data has been, and is being, used to help further understand the functioning of the MAV and choroid plexus and how neurotoxic events such as severe hyperthermia and AMPH adversely affect their function. PMID:23183685

  1. Cooperation in lovers: An fNIRS-based hyperscanning study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yafeng; Cheng, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhenxin; Li, Xianchun; Hu, Yi

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated interactive exchange in lovers and the associated interpersonal brain synchronization (IBS) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. Three types of female-male dyads, lovers, friends, and strangers, performed a cooperation task during which brain activity was recorded in right frontoparietal regions. We measured better cooperative behavior in lover dyads compared with friend and stranger dyads. Lover dyads demonstrated increased IBS in right superior frontal cortex, which also covaried with their task performance. Granger causality analyses in lover dyads revealed stronger directional synchronization from females to males than from males to females, suggesting different roles for females and males during cooperation. Our study refines the theoretical explanation of romantic interaction between lovers. Hum Brain Mapp 38:831-841, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Surface functionalizing of a lipid nanosystem to promote brain targeting: step-by-step design and physico-chemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar-Bernal, M J; García-Esteban, E; Sánchez-Soto, P J; Rabasco, A M; González-Rodríguez, M L

    2016-11-01

    The use of lipid nanosystems as drug delivery to the central nervous system may be advantageous over the current strategies. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize functionalized liposomes for treatment of brain diseases. The covalent method of coupling IgG to liposomes via the derivatized lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[4-(p-maleimidophenyl)butyramide](MPB-PE) was investigated. Optimized coupling conditions are shown to result in the efficient conjugation of IgG to liposomes containing low concentrations of MPB-PE (3/1 SH:IgG). The qualitative analysis has shown that after the extrusion process, more homogeneous populations of vesicles have been obtained with a nanometric size suitable to be effective to further anchor the protein. Negative values of zeta potential demonstrate that they are stable systems. Lyophilization was used to maintain the stability of the formulation. These very interesting results encourage further investigations to formulate peptide- and protein-loaded immunoliposomes, making targeting of liposomes as an attractive approach for brain drug delivery.

  3. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  4. Solar cooperatives; Genosse Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Dierk

    2010-06-15

    Not a boom but a trend: Increasingly, solar power plants and other renewables-based systems are financed by cooperatives. This organizational structure requires long-term strategies and some idealism. (orig.)

  5. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  6. On Cooper's Nonparametric Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeidler, James

    1978-01-01

    The basic assumption of Cooper's nonparametric test for trend (EJ 125 069) is questioned. It is contended that the proper assumption alters the distribution of the statistic and reduces its usefulness. (JKS)

  7. Cooperation among microorganisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Wingreen, Ned S.; Levin, Simon A

    2006-01-01

    Understanding cooperation among microorganisms presents conceptual and mathematical challenges at the interface of evolutionary biology and the theory of emergent properties of independent agents, two of the most exciting areas in modern mathematical biology.

  8. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  9. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  10. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  11. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effectiveness of cooperative learning on discipline problems, interdependence between students, and teacher-student interactions. Explains how to group students and introduces a laboratory activity on covalent and ionic bonds. (YDS)

  12. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  13. Cooperating mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  14. From cooperation to globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-01-01

    Globalization is seen as a consequence of cross-border business. This complex and irreversible process can be seen as an extension of capitalist relations of production or increased interdependence in the economic system. Globalization has given rise to more and more fields of activity worldwide. To meet the challenges of business globalization, many companies form strategic alliances, cooperate or merge with other companies. Cooperation is seen by many companies as an alternative path to suc...

  15. Cooperative Team Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    framework and motivation for this mathematical formalization for cooperative principles. The insight was the quantification of an individual’s...theories need to be formalized so they can better inform mathematical and computational models. The interest is clearly there. This conference was meant...this mathematical formalization for cooperative principles. The insight was the quantification of an individual’s contribution to the group effort

  16. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) is present in hyaline membranes and modulates surface tension of surfactant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Hanna; End, Caroline; Renner, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    to the surfactants increased surface tension in a dose-dependent manner. The DMBT1-mediated effect was reverted by the addition of calcium depending on the surfactant preparation. CONCLUSION: Our data showed pulmonary DMBT1 expression in hyaline membranes during respiratory distress syndrome and demonstrated...... that DMBT1 increases lung surface tension in vitro. This raises the possibility that DMBT1 could antagonize surfactant supplementation in respiratory distress syndrome and could represent a candidate target molecule for therapeutic intervention in neonatal lung disease....

  17. 30 CFR 48.24 - Cooperative training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative training program. 48.24 Section 48... Surface Areas of Underground Mines § 48.24 Cooperative training program. (a) An operator of a mine may conduct his own training programs, or may participate in training programs conducted by MSHA, or may...

  18. Cyanide poisoning of a Cooper's hawk ( Accipiter cooperii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J Christian

    2017-03-01

    A Cooper's hawk ( Accipiter cooperii) was found dead in a ditch leading from a heap leach pad at a gold mine in Nevada. Observations at autopsy included an absence of external lesions, traces of subcutaneous and coronary fat, no food in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and no lesions in the viscera. Cyanide concentrations (µg/g ww) were 5.04 in blood, 3.88 in liver, and 1.79 in brain. No bacteria or viruses were isolated from tissues, and brain cholinesterase activity was within the normal range for a Cooper's hawk.

  19. Practical design of a 4 Tesla double-tuned RF surface coil for interleaved 1H and 23Na MRI of rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alecci, M; Romanzetti, S; Kaffanke, J; Celik, A; Wegener, H P; Shah, N J

    2006-08-01

    MRI is proving to be a very useful tool for sodium quantification in animal models of stroke, ischemia, and cancer. In this work, we present the practical design of a dual-frequency RF surface coil that provides (1)H and (23)Na images of the rat head at 4 T. The dual-frequency RF surface coil comprised of a large loop tuned to the (1)H frequency and a smaller co-planar loop tuned to the (23)Na frequency. The mutual coupling between the two loops was eliminated by the use of a trap circuit inserted in the smaller coil. This independent-loop design was versatile since it enabled a separate optimisation of the sensitivity and RF field distributions of the two coils. To allow for an easy extension of this simple double-tuned coil design to other frequencies (nuclei) and dimensions, we describe in detail the practical aspects of the workbench design and MRI testing using a phantom that mimics in vivo conditions. A comparison between our independent-loop, double-tuned coil and a single-tuned (23)Na coil of equal size obtained with a phantom matching in vivo conditions, showed a reduction of the (23)Na sensitivity (about 28 %) because of signal losses in the trap inductance. Typical congruent (1)H and (23)Na rat brain images showing good SNR ((23)Na: brain 7, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid 11) and spatial resolution ((23)Na: 1.25 x 1.25 x 5mm(3)) are also reported. The in vivo SNR values obtained with this coil were comparable to, if not better than, other contemporary designs in the literature.

  20. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  5. Fundamental Limits of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, Angel; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation is viewed as a key ingredient for interference management in wireless systems. This paper shows that cooperation has fundamental limitations. The main result is that even full cooperation between transmitters cannot in general change an interference-limited network to a noise-limited network. The key idea is that there exists a spectral efficiency upper bound that is independent of the transmit power. First, a spectral efficiency upper bound is established for systems that rely on pilot-assisted channel estimation; in this framework, cooperation is shown to be possible only within clusters of limited size, which are subject to out-of-cluster interference whose power scales with that of the in-cluster signals. Second, an upper bound is also shown to exist when cooperation is through noncoherent communication; thus, the spectral efficiency limitation is not a by-product of the reliance on pilot-assisted channel estimation. Consequently, existing literature that routinely assumes the high-power spect...

  6. Motif structure and cooperation in real-world complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mostafa; Rabiee, Hamid R.; Jalili, Mahdi

    2010-12-01

    Networks of dynamical nodes serve as generic models for real-world systems in many branches of science ranging from mathematics to physics, technology, sociology and biology. Collective behavior of agents interacting over complex networks is important in many applications. The cooperation between selfish individuals is one of the most interesting collective phenomena. In this paper we address the interplay between the motifs’ cooperation properties and their abundance in a number of real-world networks including yeast protein-protein interaction, human brain, protein structure, email communication, dolphins’ social interaction, Zachary karate club and Net-science coauthorship networks. First, the amount of cooperativity for all possible undirected subgraphs with three to six nodes is calculated. To this end, the evolutionary dynamics of the Prisoner’s Dilemma game is considered and the cooperativity of each subgraph is calculated as the percentage of cooperating agents at the end of the simulation time. Then, the three- to six-node motifs are extracted for each network. The significance of the abundance of a motif, represented by a Z-value, is obtained by comparing them with some properly randomized versions of the original network. We found that there is always a group of motifs showing a significant inverse correlation between their cooperativity amount and Z-value, i.e. the more the Z-value the less the amount of cooperativity. This suggests that networks composed of well-structured units do not have good cooperativity properties.

  7. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  8. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  9. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy......, not least in the power sector. Over the years, five focus areas have been addressed. Energy security of supply triggered the Nordic cooperation with the need to develop a long-term energy policy. This required decision-making support and energy systems analyses based on reliable and valid data, modelling...... the borders long before the politicians supported and pushed for further cooperation. Energy efficiency was addressed by a portfolio of activities ranging from knowledge-sharing, public campaigns, labelling and standardisation of products. The need to address environmental degradation was inspired by the UN...

  10. Synchrony and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Heath, Chip

    2009-01-01

    Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members.

  11. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  12. Cooperative strategies in innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratner Svetlana Valerevna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge economy one of the conventional ways to obtain economic agents access to new knowledge and technology is the creation and implementation of specific cooperative strategies, such as the formation of alliances with other economic agents. Combining competencies partners in joint research and development has a positive impact on innovation, but it is a partial convergence of competences partners that in the long term can lead to the unification of competences agents economic system and reduce their innovative activity. In this paper, we propose an effective method of information management in the implementation of a cooperative strategy of innovation.

  13. Membership in cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eba Gaminde Egia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the practical application of one of the cooperative principles, «voluntary and free membership», referring to the entering of members in cooperative societies. We will first explain the meaning of this principle, and then bring up its normative regulation, with special emphasis on those aspects in which our autonomic laws differ, and ending with a brief reference to the economic aspect and the different ways to make contributions and their consequences.Received: 31 May 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  14. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  15. Swept-source optical coherence tomography powered by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser enables 2.3-mm-deep brain imaging in mice in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-10-01

    We report noninvasive, in vivo optical imaging deep within a mouse brain by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), enabled by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). VCSEL SS-OCT offers a constant signal sensitivity of 105 dB throughout an entire depth of 4.25 mm in air, ensuring an extended usable imaging depth range of more than 2 mm in turbid biological tissue. Using this approach, we show deep brain imaging in mice with an open-skull cranial window preparation, revealing intact mouse brain anatomy from the superficial cerebral cortex to the deep hippocampus. VCSEL SS-OCT would be applicable to small animal studies for the investigation of deep tissue compartments in living brains where diseases such as dementia and tumor can take their toll.

  16. Cooperatives between truth and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Krueger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current declaration of the International Cooperative Alliance on cooperative identity since its 1995 Centennial Conference (which was held in Manchester makes no distinction between cooperation and cooperative. The lack of distinction between cooperation and cooperative has caused the Decennial Cooperative Action Plan to define cooperatives as a form, while their materiality is regarded as managerial: a business (activity under a cooperative form. An identity that is close to us cannot be reduced to form, without this being a problem. Therefore, the value underlying this identity —cooperation— must have a substantial basis, even if it is idealised, if it is to affect us.Received: 27.03.2014Accepted: 12.05.2014

  17. Surface-Based fMRI-Driven Diffusion Tractography in the Presence of Significant Brain Pathology: A Study Linking Structure and Function in Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnington, Ross; Boyd, Roslyn N.; Rose, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography analyses are difficult to perform in the presence of brain pathology. Automated methods that rely on cortical parcellation for structural connectivity studies often fail, while manually defining regions is extremely time consuming and can introduce human error. Both methods also make assumptions about structure-function relationships that may not hold after cortical reorganisation. Seeding tractography with functional-MRI (fMRI) activation is an emerging method that reduces these confounds, but inherent smoothing of fMRI signal may result in the inclusion of irrelevant pathways. This paper describes a novel fMRI-seeded dMRI-analysis pipeline based on surface-meshes that reduces these issues and utilises machine-learning to generate task specific white matter pathways, minimising the requirement for manually-drawn ROIs. We directly compared this new strategy to a standard voxelwise fMRI-dMRI approach, by investigating correlations between clinical scores and dMRI metrics of thalamocortical and corticomotor tracts in 31 children with unilateral cerebral palsy. The surface-based approach successfully processed more participants (87%) than the voxel-based approach (65%), and provided significantly more-coherent tractography. Significant correlations between dMRI metrics and five clinical scores of function were found for the more superior regions of these tracts. These significant correlations were stronger and more frequently found with the surface-based method (15/20 investigated were significant; R2 = 0.43–0.73) than the voxelwise analysis (2 sig. correlations; 0.38 & 0.49). More restricted fMRI signal, better-constrained tractography, and the novel track-classification method all appeared to contribute toward these differences. PMID:27487011

  18. Surface-Based fMRI-Driven Diffusion Tractography in the Presence of Significant Brain Pathology: A Study Linking Structure and Function in Cerebral Palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee B Reid

    Full Text Available Diffusion MRI (dMRI tractography analyses are difficult to perform in the presence of brain pathology. Automated methods that rely on cortical parcellation for structural connectivity studies often fail, while manually defining regions is extremely time consuming and can introduce human error. Both methods also make assumptions about structure-function relationships that may not hold after cortical reorganisation. Seeding tractography with functional-MRI (fMRI activation is an emerging method that reduces these confounds, but inherent smoothing of fMRI signal may result in the inclusion of irrelevant pathways. This paper describes a novel fMRI-seeded dMRI-analysis pipeline based on surface-meshes that reduces these issues and utilises machine-learning to generate task specific white matter pathways, minimising the requirement for manually-drawn ROIs. We directly compared this new strategy to a standard voxelwise fMRI-dMRI approach, by investigating correlations between clinical scores and dMRI metrics of thalamocortical and corticomotor tracts in 31 children with unilateral cerebral palsy. The surface-based approach successfully processed more participants (87% than the voxel-based approach (65%, and provided significantly more-coherent tractography. Significant correlations between dMRI metrics and five clinical scores of function were found for the more superior regions of these tracts. These significant correlations were stronger and more frequently found with the surface-based method (15/20 investigated were significant; R2 = 0.43-0.73 than the voxelwise analysis (2 sig. correlations; 0.38 & 0.49. More restricted fMRI signal, better-constrained tractography, and the novel track-classification method all appeared to contribute toward these differences.

  19. Pathological tremor prediction using surface EMG and acceleration: potential use in “ON-OFF” demand driven deep brain stimulator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ishita; Graupe, Daniel; Tuninetti, Daniela; Shukla, Pitamber; Slavin, Konstantin V.; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Corcos, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We present a proof of concept for a novel method of predicting the onset of pathological tremor using non-invasively measured surface electromyogram (sEMG) and acceleration from tremor-affected extremities of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Essential tremor (ET). Approach The tremor prediction algorithm uses a set of spectral (fourier and wavelet) and non-linear time series (entropy and recurrence rate) parameters extracted from the non-invasively recorded sEMG and acceleration signals. Main results The resulting algorithm is shown to successfully predict tremor onset for all 91 trials recorded in 4 PD patients and for all 91 trials recorded in 4 ET patients. The predictor achieves a 100% sensitivity for all trials considered, along with an overall accuracy of 85.7% for all ET trials and 80.2% for all PD trials. By using a Pearson’s chi-square test, the prediction results are shown to significantly differ from a random prediction outcome. Significance The tremor prediction algorithm can be potentially used for designing the next generation of non-invasive closed-loop predictive ON-OFF controllers for deep brain stimulation (DBS), used for suppressing pathological tremor in such patients. Such a system is based on alternating ON and OFF DBS periods, an incoming tremor being predicted during the time intervals when DBS is OFF, so as to turn DBS back ON. The prediction should be a few seconds before tremor re-appears so that the patient is tremor-free for the entire DBS ON-OFF cycle as well as the tremor-free DBS OFF interval should be maximized in order to minimize the current injected in the brain and battery usage. PMID:23658233

  20. Cooperative Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G. M.; Kimura, H.

    2013-01-01

    In and out of the classroom, life would be unthinkable without interacting with fellow humans. This book urges more cooperative and group activities in the English language classroom for all the advantages: students use the target language more, help each other with comprehension, receive attention from peers as well as the teacher, are motivated…

  1. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more

  2. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  3. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D; Cunningham, C T; Armstrong, G W

    2003-02-10

    A cooperative control architecture is presented that allows a fleet of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) to collect data in a parallel, coordinated and optimal manner. The architecture is designed to react to a set of unpredictable events thereby allowing data collection to continue in an optimal manner.

  4. Physicality and Cooperative Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Popescu-Belis, Andrei; Stiefelhagen, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    CSCW researchers have increasingly come to realize that material work setting and its population of artefacts play a crucial part in coordination of distributed or co-located work. This paper uses the notion of physicality as a basis to understand cooperative work. Using examples from an ongoing

  5. Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Patricia L. Kennedy; Rob Yaksich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    The Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) is intermediate in size between the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and the Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus), northern North America's other two accipiters. The two sexes are almost alike in plumage, but as in both of the other species, the female is noticeably larger. According to Wheeler and Clark (1995), a...

  6. Designs for Cooperative Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Robin

    Educators are moving toward models of instruction that contain a myriad of interaction patterns among teachers and students. This shift from didactic teaching models to intensely involving designs is difficult for teachers, but is made easier if seen as a gradual change. This book provides an overview of 12 cooperative interaction designs for the…

  7. Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Malone; Jingjing Liang; Edmond C. Packee

    2009-01-01

    The Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory (CAFI) is a comprehensive database of boreal forest conditions and dynamics in Alaska. The CAFI consists of field-gathered information from numerous permanent sample plots distributed across interior and south-central Alaska including the Kenai Peninsula. The CAFI currently has 570 permanent sample plots on 190 sites...

  8. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  9. Communication, Coordination, Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nancy Oft; Wiper, Kathie Tippens

    Speech communication teachers at both secondary and postsecondary school levels must cooperate to improve oral communication education. Despite the importance of oral communication skills, speech courses are rarely required in high school. Teachers must tell school boards, higher education boards, and faculties of the importance of speaking and…

  10. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  11. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  12. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  13. Organizational Fluidity and Sustainable Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Glance, N S; Glance, Natalie; Huberman, Bernardo

    1993-01-01

    Abstract We show that fluid organizations display higher levels of cooperation than attainable by groups with either a fixed social structure or lacking one altogether. By moving within the organization, individuals cause restructurings that facilitate cooperation. Computer experiments simulating fluid organizations faced with a social dilemma reveal a myriad of complex cooperative behaviors that result from the interplay between individual strategies and structural changes. Significantly, fluid organizations can display long cycles of sustained cooperation interrupted by short bursts of defection.

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, and ongoing research that helps ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies ... medication. This information may someday make it possible to predict who ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... fear hub," which activates our natural "fight-or-flight" response to confront or escape from a dangerous ...

  17. Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Brain lesions By Mayo Clinic Staff A brain lesion is an abnormality seen on a brain-imaging test, such as ... tomography (CT). On CT or MRI scans, brain lesions appear as dark or light spots that don' ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  19. Forestry cooperatives: past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach

    2006-01-01

    Forest landowner cooperatives are not a new phenomenon, but past efforts to create and sustain these businesses have been largely unsuccessful in the U.S. Before and just after World War II saw significant investment in cooperative development that failed to create durable business. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly describe the history of forestry cooperatives...

  20. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  1. The governance of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.

  2. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  3. Cooperation preferences and framing effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit Dit Dariel, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results from an experiment investigating whether framing affects the elicitation and predictive power of preferences for cooperation, i.e., the willingness to cooperate with others. Cooperation preferences are elicited in three treatments using the method of Fischbacher,

  4. Cooperative competition for future mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunen, E. van; Kwakkernaat, M.R.J.A.E.; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2011, the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) was held, providing the possibility for teams to develop and compare their cooperative driving solutions in a competitive setting. The challenge was organized to further accelerate developments in the area of cooperative driving. Nine

  5. Cooperative Learning in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    A methodology that has not received as much attention in the physical education setting as in other subject areas is cooperative learning. Cooperative learning has been used for many years in math, science, and history, but not until recently has the concept been applied to physical education. Research conducted on cooperative learning has shown…

  6. Enlightening Advantages of Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This appraisal discusses the notion that cooperative learning enhances learners' emotional and social performance. It also observes the perception that cooperative learning dramatically improves students' academic accomplishment. This review also examines the definition of cooperative learning and attempts to define it through the lens of renowned…

  7. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu., E-mail: konstantin.yu.arutyunov@jyu.fi [National Research University Higher School of Economics , Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems RAS , Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Lehtinen, J.S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Junctionless Cooper pair box. • Quantum phase slips. • Coulomb blockade and gate modulation of the Coulomb gap. - Abstract: Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current–voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  8. Cooperative Retransmissions Through Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, Jalaluddin; Foh, Chuan Heng

    2011-01-01

    Interference in wireless networks is one of the key capacity-limiting factors. Recently developed interference-embracing techniques show promising performance on turning collisions into useful transmissions. However, the interference-embracing techniques are hard to apply in practical applications due to their strict requirements. In this paper, we consider utilising the interference-embracing techniques in a common scenario of two interfering sender-receiver pairs. By employing opportunistic listening and analog network coding (ANC), we show that compared to traditional ARQ retransmission, a higher retransmission throughput can be achieved by allowing two interfering senders to cooperatively retransmit selected lost packets at the same time. This simultaneous retransmission is facilitated by a simple handshaking procedure without introducing additional overhead. Simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed cooperative retransmission.

  9. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  10. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    For decades the US has had a hegemonic position in the Middle East. A key country in this respect has been Egypt. However, in recent decades the EU has made itself increasingly felt in the region. Due to enlargements the EU came geographically much closer, and the Internal Market has generated...... a gravitational pull which goes beyond economic problems. Furthermore, the EU has gradually built up a coherent policy on many fields. The EU has become the “reform anchor” and most important cooperation partner for Egypt. The progress towards increasing Egypt’s “Stake in the Internal Market” places cooperation...... to see the US and EU as rivals. Their roles are rather complementary. The article explores developments in a long-term perspective. Internal and structural developments have had a heavy impact, but at important junctions ideas and strategies for gaining political legitimacy were powerful factors too...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News & Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) ...

  12. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  13. Network Formation and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Balmaceda

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we adopt Granovetter's view expressed in his famous article ''Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness'' , where he argues that the concept of man in economics is extremely undersocialized because it ignores the importance of social networks. In so doing the incentives to mutual cooperation in social matching games in which the social network is endogenously determined are studied. The main result shows that in atomized societies where there is no inform...

  14. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing traffic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web browsing user experience on mobile phones.

  15. Gender and Cooperation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 9-12. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner’s dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation...... between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average....

  16. Surface Characteristics of Nanoparticles Determine Their Intracellular Fate in and Processing by Human Blood-Brain Barrier Endothelial Cells In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, Julia V.; Kalicharan, Dharamdajal; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A.; Weksler, Babette; Hoekstra, Dick; Zuhorn, Inge S.

    A polarized layer of endothelial cells that comprises the blood-brain barrier (BBB) precludes access of systemically administered medicines to brain tissue. Consequently, there is a need for drug delivery vehicles that mediate transendothelial transport of such medicines. Endothelial cells use a

  17. Cooperate or Free Ride?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the role of the three Scandinavian central banks in the establishment of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in 1930, and in the international lender of last resort operation towards Austria in 1931. I argue that small central banks were reluctant supporters...... of international cooperation. On the other hand, the evidence seems to confirm Kindleberger's hypothesis that small countries were free riding during the international financial crisis of 1931, and that therefore there is a need for some coordinating mechanism, or a hegemon, in such crises....

  18. Curved reformat of the paediatric brain MRI into a 'flat-earth map' - standardised method for demonstrating cortical surface atrophy resulting from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Ewan [Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Bristol (United Kingdom); Andronikou, Savvas [Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Bristol (United Kingdom); University of Bristol, CRICBristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Vedajallam, Schadie; Chacko, Anith; Thai, Ngoc Jade [University of Bristol, CRICBristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is optimally imaged with brain MRI in the neonatal period. However neuroimaging is often also performed later in childhood (e.g., when parents seek compensation in cases of alleged birth asphyxia). We describe a standardised technique for creating two curved reconstructions of the cortical surface to show the characteristic surface changes of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in children imaged after the neonatal period. The technique was applied for 10 cases of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and also for age-matched healthy children to assess the visibility of characteristic features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. In the abnormal brains, fissural or sulcal widening was seen in all cases and ulegyria was identifiable in 7/10. These images could be used as a visual aid for communicating MRI findings to clinicians and other interested parties. (orig.)

  19. Effects of surface functionalization of hydrophilic NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Eu3+ on glutamate and GABA transport in brain synaptosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, Bartlomiej; Kociołek, Daria; Banski, Mateusz; Borisova, Tatiana; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Borysov, Arsenii; Dudarenko, Marina; Podhorodecki, Artur

    2017-08-01

    Specific rare earth doped nanocrystals (NCs), a recent class of nanoparticles with fluorescent features, have great bioanalytical potential. Neuroactive properties of NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Eu3+ were assessed based on the analysis of their effects on glutamate- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport process in nerve terminals isolated from rat brain (synaptosomes). Two types of hydrophilic NCs were examined in this work: (i) coated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and (ii) with OH groups at the surface. It was found that NaYF4:Eu3+-PEG and NaYF4:Eu3+-OH within the concentration range of 0.5-3.5 and 0.5-1.5 mg/ml, respectively, did not influence Na+-dependent transporter-dependent l-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA uptake and the ambient level of the neurotransmitters in the synaptosomes. An increase in NaYF4:Eu3+-PEG and NaYF4:Eu3+-OH concentrations up to 7.5 and 3.5 mg/ml, respectively, led to the (1) attenuation of the initial velocity of uptake of l-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA and (2) elevation of ambient neurotransmitters in the suspension of nerve terminals. In the mentioned concentrations, nanocrystals did not influence acidification of synaptic vesicles that was shown with pH-sensitive fluorescent dye acridine orange, however, decreased the potential of the plasma membrane of synaptosomes. In comparison with other nanoparticles studied with similar methodological approach, NCs start to exhibit their effects on neurotransmitter transport at concentrations several times higher than those shown for carbon dots, detonation nanodiamonds and an iron storage protein ferritin, whose activity can be registered at 0.08, 0.5 and 0.08 mg/ml, respectively. Therefore, NCs can be considered lesser neurotoxic as compared to above nanoparticles.

  20. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by neurons that carries ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: ... of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  3. Models in cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef

    2008-01-01

    This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in cooperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The properties of these solution concepts and their interrelations on several classes of crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games are studied. Applications of the investigated models to many economic situations are indicated as well. The second edition is highly enlarged and contains new results and additional sections in the different chapters as well as one new chapter.

  4. Teleworking through cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Minervini

    2006-07-01

    scheme is strictly connected to new technologies and cooperation is an important dimension of teleworking. In our study, cooperation is found performed both in social relations between employers and employees and in institutionalized relations between managers and unions. Although the two forms of cooperation, here called “social trustee cooperation” and “institutional cooperation”, are often thought as prerequisites of “best practices” of new working arrangements, our case studies demonstrate that cooperation has not always arisen that make possible to implement practices of teleworking. By focusing on cooperative relations, the results of different case studies in industry and in the service sector are discussed, thus intending to contribute to the development of sociological debate on telework.

  5. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  6. Federated Structures for Cooperative Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, James M.

    1997-01-01

    A comparative institutional economics approach is used to investigate the question of whether the governance structure of cooperatives is flawed in ways that would make it an inefficient or ineffective organization form for the political-social-economic environment at this turn to the new century. Cooperatives in four settings around the globe were studied intensively. The findings suggest that, while greater use of federated cooperatives and co-op-IOF hybrid models is required, the cooperati...

  7. Regional cooperation in transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  8. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  9. Successful Industry/Academia Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The control literature is rich on impressive applications of advanced control, and within almost any industrial sector there are numerous examples of successful advanced control applications. Nevertheless, there is a widespread belief that there is still a wide potential for increased cooperation...... between academia and industry within this area. In this position paper, it is advocated that one of the enablers for successful cooperation between industry and academia within the control area is a proper framework for cooperation projects between companies and universities. Some suggestions...... by less complex but industrially feasible solutions. The proposed approach is illustrated by three case studies of successful industrial/academic cooperation....

  10. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  11. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ... grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies show that brain ... imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure. mutation —A change in ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function ... chart how the brain develops over time in healthy people and are working to compare that with ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress Coalition ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can lead to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits ... tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on ...

  5. Silviculture in cooperation with hunters: The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Reitz; Andrea Hille; Susan Stout

    2004-01-01

    The long history of deer overabundance in Pennsylvania is associated with very high reforestation costs and substantial threats to diversity and sustainability. In response to this legacy, several landowners and agency personnel formed the Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative (KQDC) in partnership with the Sand County Foundation. This Cooperative focuses on about 74,000...

  6. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi

    2009-01-01

    extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short......This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data...... rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing trafic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear...

  7. Brain-Based Teaching/Learning and Implications for Religious Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jean Marie

    2002-01-01

    Argues that physical activity and water can increase brain activity, and hence, learning. Findings of neuroscientists regarding the brain can inform educators. Brain-based teaching emphasizes teamwork, cooperative learning, and global responsibility. Argues against gathering information without relevance. Connects brain-based learning concepts to…

  8. The financing of cooperative businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ispizua

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Concern for adequate funding, both at birth and consolidation of the cooperative enterprise, has been, is and will be a constant concern in the cooperative world. So, have emerged in the legal field, a number of financial instruments of various kinds: as equity securities or special interests that seek to cover traditional financing gaps.

  9. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. Progress of international evaluation cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The international evaluation cooperation started to remove the differences among major nuclear data libraries such as JENDL, ENDF, and JEF. The results obtained from the cooperation have been used to improve the quality of the libraries. This paper describes the status of the ongoing projects and several remarkable results so far obtained from the projects already finished. (author)

  11. Subsidizing R&D cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.

    2001-01-01

    A framework is developed with which the implementation of two commonly used R&D-stimulating policies can be evaluated: providing R&D subsidies and sustaining the formation of R&D cooperatives. Subsidized R&D cooperatives can also be analyzed. The analysis shows that providing R&D subsidies is more

  12. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  13. Market Competition and Efficient Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    We find that in market-partners, market experience has adverse effects on the efficiency of cooperation on both market-winner and market-loser pairs. In market-strangers, pairs of market-winners manage to cooperate more efficiently. These results indicate that it is not market experience per se that

  14. Cooperative processes in image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.

  15. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...

  16. Decision making and cooperation restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2000-01-01

    Decision making by various individuals can result in conflicts or cooperation between these individuals. Game theory deals with both the mathematical modeling of these situations of conflict and cooperation and with the analysis of these models using math atical techniques. This thesis focuses on

  17. The early evolution of cooperation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czárán, T.; Aanen, Duur K.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation is difficult to understand, because cheaters-individuals who profit without cooperating themselves-have a benefit in interaction with cooperators. Cooperation among humans is even more difficult to understand, because cooperation occurs in large groups, making

  18. Non-cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara-Greve, Takako

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for university juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in economics, applied mathematics, and related fields. Each chapter is structured so that a core concept of that chapter is presented with motivations, useful applications are given, and related advanced topics are discussed for future study. Many helpful exercises at various levels are provided at the end of each chapter. Therefore, this book is most suitable for readers who intend to study non-cooperative game theory rigorously for both theoretical studies and applications. Game theory consists of non-cooperative games and cooperative games. This book covers only non-cooperative games, which are major tools used in current economics and related areas. Non-cooperative game theory aims to provide a mathematical prediction of strategic choices by decision makers (players) in situations of conflicting interest. Through the logical analyses of strategic choices, we obtain a better understanding of social (economic, business) probl...

  19. The Dose Makes The Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Cetin, Uzay

    2016-01-01

    Explaining cooperation is one of the greatest challenges for basic scientific research. We proposed an agent-based model to study co-evolution of memory and cooperation. In our model, reciprocal agents with limited memory size play Prisoner's Dilemma Game iteratively. The characteristic of the environment, whether it is threatening or not, is embedded in the payoff matrix. Our findings are as follows. (i) Memory plays a critical role in the protection of cooperation. (ii) In the absence of threat, subsequent generations loose their memory and are consequently invaded by defectors. (iii) In contrast, the presence of an appropriate level of threat triggers the emergence of a self-protection mechanism for cooperation within subsequent generations. On the evolutionary level, memory size acts like an immune response of the population against aggressive defection. (iv) Even more extreme threat results again in defection. Our findings boil down to the following: The dose of the threat makes the cooperation.

  20. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... cooperation patterns of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and research and development (R&D) intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level...... of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic...

  1. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education......The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... axis —A brain-body circuit which plays a critical role in the body's response to stress. impulse — ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... time in healthy people and are working to compare that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental ... the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of cells in the body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading ... the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting messages. ... specialized brain systems. We have many specialized brain systems that work ... research are listed below. Amygdala —The brain's "fear hub," which ...

  6. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  7. Advisory and autonomous cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the traffic efficiency of an advisory cooperative driving system, Advisory Acceleration Control is examined and compared to the efficiency of an autonomous cooperative driving system, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. The algorithms and implementation thereof are explained. The

  8. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing...

  9. Surgery with cooperative robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Amy C; Berg, Kyle A; Dumpert, Jason; Wood, Nathan A; Visty, Abigail Q; Rentschler, Mark E; Platt, Stephen R; Farritor, Shane M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2008-03-01

    Advances in endoscopic techniques for abdominal procedures continue to reduce the invasiveness of surgery. Gaining access to the peritoneal cavity through small incisions prompted the first significant shift in general surgery. The complete elimination of external incisions through natural orifice access is potentially the next step in reducing patient trauma. While minimally invasive techniques offer significant patient advantages, the procedures are surgically challenging. Robotic surgical systems are being developed that address the visualization and manipulation limitations, but many of these systems remain constrained by the entry incisions. Alternatively, miniature in vivo robots are being developed that are completely inserted into the peritoneal cavity for laparoscopic and natural orifice procedures. These robots can provide vision and task assistance without the constraints of the entry incision, and can reduce the number of incisions required for laparoscopic procedures. In this study, a series of minimally invasive animal-model surgeries were performed using multiple miniature in vivo robots in cooperation with existing laparoscopy and endoscopy tools as well as the da Vinci Surgical System. These procedures demonstrate that miniature in vivo robots can address the visualization constraints of minimally invasive surgery by providing video feedback and task assistance from arbitrary orientations within the peritoneal cavity.

  10. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Promotion of technical cooperation in the field of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jung Kyung; Jung, Duk Yung; Suh, Seong Seog; Park, Myung Nam; Kim, Young Mi; Cho, Moo Kyung [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study aims to improve the quality of human resources and the capability of research and development through the promotion of technical cooperation with foreign energy organizations possessing advanced technologies, and at the same time to contribute to internationalizing energy technology through the active involvement in multilateral technical cooperation programs with international organizations. To attain these aims, practical cooperative relations has been strengthened with 34 organizations from 11 countries including 6 organizations with which new cooperative agreements has been concluded in 1995 from the USA, Australia, China, and Russia, through the promotion of the continuous exchange of information and personnel, and international joint projects. And also the positive participation in technical cooperation programs and research projects organized or sponsored by APEC, IEA, UNDP, UNESCO, WEC has been made. In addition, for the improvement in research capability, 200 researchers has been dispatched abroad for the presentation of papers, of for the discussion of joint research projects, and 30 foreign experts through diverse overseas personnel exchange programs including Brain Pool Program were invited for the contribution of advancing research projects. (author). 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. THE MARKETING OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES

    OpenAIRE

    Razvan-Nicolae, DECUSEARA; Sorin-Daniel, MANOLE

    2013-01-01

    Cooperatives have proven to be a business model that has endured over time, even during the economic crisis. Even if they don’t have the scale of large companies, they manage, through their ability to adapt, to overcome challenges offered by the market they are acting. The fact that their members are working in these cooperatives makes them to engage more actively in cooperative work and also to be more responsible, in the end, working for them. Even if they don’t have marketing budgets, coop...

  13. Density of founder cells affects spatial pattern formation and cooperation in Bacillus subtilis biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Weissing, Franz J; Kuipers, Oscar P; Kovács, Ákos T

    2014-01-01

    In nature, most bacteria live in surface-attached sedentary communities known as biofilms. Biofilms are often studied with respect to bacterial interactions. Many cells inhabiting biofilms are assumed to express ‘cooperative traits', like the secretion of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). These traits can enhance biofilm-related properties, such as stress resilience or colony expansion, while being costly to the cells that express them. In well-mixed populations cooperation is difficult to achieve, because non-cooperative individuals can reap the benefits of cooperation without having to pay the costs. The physical process of biofilm growth can, however, result in the spatial segregation of cooperative from non-cooperative individuals. This segregation can prevent non-cooperative cells from exploiting cooperative neighbors. Here we examine the interaction between spatial pattern formation and cooperation in Bacillus subtilis biofilms. We show, experimentally and by mathematical modeling, that the density of cells at the onset of biofilm growth affects pattern formation during biofilm growth. At low initial cell densities, co-cultured strains strongly segregate in space, whereas spatial segregation does not occur at high initial cell densities. As a consequence, EPS-producing cells have a competitive advantage over non-cooperative mutants when biofilms are initiated at a low density of founder cells, whereas EPS-deficient cells have an advantage at high cell densities. These results underline the importance of spatial pattern formation for competition among bacterial strains and the evolution of microbial cooperation. PMID:24694715

  14. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  15. SU-E-J-74: Evaluation of the Commercial Prototype Open Face Mask Used with Surface Rendering Imaging System for Proton Therapy Patients with Cancers of the Brain and Head: Successful Preclinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamalui-Hunter, M; Li, Z

    2012-06-01

    Evaluation of the commercial prototype open face mask (Fibreplast, Q-FixTM) used with surface rendering imaging system (AlignRTTM, London, UK) for setup and monitoring of proton therapy patients with cancers of the brain and head. Fibreplastic open face masks were used with Base-of-Skull frame/moldcare pillow. Two sizes of the pre-made cutouts in the masks were investigated: leaveing open skin surface in the oval-shaped area between (I) upper lip and forehead boss, II) between mandible and forehead boss in superior-inferior direction; and between zygomatic (cheek-) bones/sphenoid bones laterally. Calibration of AlignRT system was verified with SRS cube phantom (VisionRT)and 2D X-ray patient positioning system (DIPS, IBA). The accuracy of translational shifts and rotations was a) verified using a head&neck phantom and b) tested using volunteers. Within AlignRT software, only the open area was used as ROI for the registration; the option 'Intracranial SRS' used for surface capture. For the isocenter determination accuracy within 0.3mm/0.2 degrees, the head&neck phantom registration was performed with the 0.5mm/0.5 degree accuracy; the volunteer tests showed the registration accuracy within 0.5mm ±0.2mm (1 s)/0.7±0.2 (1 s) degree. The simulation of the noise in the surface data such as eye blinking and attempts to swallow/chew was performed, with negligible effect on the registration. No significant differences between the study results between the masks of type (I) and (II) were noticed. The AlignRT surface rendering system has sufficient accuracy when used with the open face head&neck mask for localization/registration of the proton therapy patients with tumors of the head and brain. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  17. Turnbull - Cooperative Palouse Prairie Restoration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A new Cooperative Weed Management Area (CWMA) was formed to tackle invasive plant issues within the region surrounding the refuge. This CWMA provides an opportunity...

  18. The Long Way Toward Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Foth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand why cooperation between health care professionals is still often problematic, we carried out 25 semistructured face-to-face expert interviews with physicians and nurses in different rural and urban areas in northern Germany. Using Mayring’s qualitative content analysis method to analyze the data collected, we found that doctors and nurses interpreted interprofessional conflicts differently. Nursing seems to be caught in a paradoxical situation: An increasing emphasis is placed on achieving interprofessional cooperation but the core areas of nursing practice are subject to increasing rationalization in the current climate of health care marketization. The subsequent and systematic devaluation of nursing work makes it difficult for physicians to acknowledge nurses’ expertise. We suggest that to ameliorate interprofessional cooperation, nursing must insist on its own logic of action thereby promoting its professionalization; interprofessional cooperation cannot take place until nursing work is valued by all members of the health care system.

  19. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Dalsgaard; Morten Flate Paulsen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optima...

  20. INFORMATION SECURITY IN LOGISTICS COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Małkus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation of suppliers of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, wholesalers, retailers in the form of the supply chain, as well as outsourcing of specialized logistics service require ensuring adequate support of information. It concerns the use of appropriate computer tools. The security of information in such conditions of collaboration becomes the important problem for parties of contract. The objective of the paper is to characterize main issues relating to security of information in logistics cooperation.

  1. COOPERATION BETWEEN TEACHER AND PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidija NOVLJAN

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The cooperation between the teacher and parents is very sensitive and significant field in context of promotion the development of the disabled children.With that in this article are elaborate many questions connected with successful communication between the teacher and parents. In the some time we have been engrossed in factors which made obstruct in communication, the tasks and the large register of the forms of cooperation in which are build in the huge experience come by former practice.

  2. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Ramazi

    Full Text Available For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are sent from one neuron to another. Share Science News New BRAIN Grants BRAIN Cell Census Launched ... human volunteers PubMed Central: An archive of life sciences journals NIH Research Fact Sheets NIH Office of ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to change the way she thinks about and reacts to things that may trigger her depression. Several ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Careers at NIMH Staff Directories Getting to NIMH Transforming the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses. Search ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain involved in creating and filing new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) ...

  7. Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex ( ... brain. Using MEG, some scientists have found a specific pattern of brain activity that may help predict ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, and ongoing research that helps us better understand and treat disorders. Mental disorders are common. You may have a ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... doctor that she had experienced long periods of deep sadness throughout her teenage years, but had never ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... but can still remember past events and learned skills, and carry on a conversation, all which rely ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's ... resonance imaging (MRI) mdash;An imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such ... released it increases the chance that the neuron will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding how the brain functions. Another type of brain scan called magnetoencephalography, or MEG, can ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... front of the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early-life experiences may have made it ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Evidence shows that they can be related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the ... brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain can lead to mental disorders, ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How ... cell, and responds to signals from the environment; this all helps the cell maintain its balance with ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each ... of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the nucleus, cytoplasm, and ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the ... for the cell to work properly including small structures called cell organelles. Dendrites branch off from the ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Opportunities & Announcements Funding Strategy for Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Labs at NIMH Labs ... normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in ... communication signal sent between neurons by which neurons communicate with each other. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mdash; ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... Grants BRAIN Cell Census Launched How DNA Shapes Human Gene Expression More General Health Information from NIH ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain ... studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disorder and to tailor the treatment for a person's specific conditions. Such brain research help increase the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain ... the normal brain's structure develops and matures helps scientists understand what goes wrong in mental illnesses. Scientists ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental ... and are working to compare that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you ... of DNA. Sometimes this copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that causes the gene ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies Advanced technologies are also making it faster, easier, and more ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The brain continues maturing well into a person's early 20s. Knowing how the brain is wired and ... for mental disorders. This could greatly help in early detection, more tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... her feelings. Brain Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many ... unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ... the body's response to stress. impulse —An electrical communication signal sent between neurons by which neurons communicate ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... in her life. She began to think of suicide because she felt like things weren't going ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells ... A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in ... or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play a role ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ... mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the ... healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... leaves the cell, and responds to signals from the environment; this all helps the cell maintain its balance ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and her husband questions about Sarah's symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early- ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... and her husband questions about Sarah's symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early- ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and aiding the flow of information to the front of the brain, which is linked to thought ... and aiding the flow of information to the front of the brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play a role ... depression helps Sarah to better cope with her feelings. Brain Research Modern research tools and techniques are ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the flow of information to the front of the brain, ... the neuron will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells required for normal function and ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's ... as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can cause ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it increases the chance that the neuron will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells ... This area of the brain also helps to control the amygdala during stressful events. Some research shows ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding how the brain functions. Another type of brain scan called magnetoencephalography, ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in ... occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, such as ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment for a person's specific conditions. Such brain research help increase the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This knowledge is allowing scientists ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... of contact for receiving impulses on a neuron, branching off from the cell body. dopamine —A neurotransmitter ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Publications Help for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News & Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a major mood circuit called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain ... in creating and filing new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A brain-body circuit which plays ...

  20. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate have been ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain involved in ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain involved in creating and filing new memories. hypothalmic- ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons working together form ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's early 20s. ... that regulates many functions, including mood, appetite, and sleep. synapse —The tiny gap between neurons, where nerve impulses are sent from one neuron to ... of Deep Brain Stimulation Brain’s Alertness Circuitry Revealed New BRAIN Grants ...

  6. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inside of the brain (ventricles) or surrounding your brain and spinal cord to drain the excess fluid into an external bag. Sometimes it may then be necessary to introduce a shunt system — which consists of a ... brain and ending in your abdominal cavity. Rehabilitative therapy. ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow there are differences in ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... another important research tool in understanding how the brain functions. Another type of brain scan called magnetoencephalography, or ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, ...

  9. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the member...

  10. Adherence to cooperative principles among agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural cooperatives in the area largely adhered to the cooperatives principles. However, capacity building on innovative financial sourcing and loan recovery mechanisms should be embarked upon by management to enhance the adherence. Keywords: Cooperatives principles, loan recovery, agricultural cooperatives ...

  11. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative... for expenditure from the appropriation “Cooperative Work, Forest Service.” If a State, county or other...

  12. Astronaut Gordon Cooper during flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, relaxes while waiting for weight and balance tests to begin (03974); Cooper prior to entering the Mercury Spacecraft for a series of simulated flight tests. During these tests NASA doctors, engineers and technicians monitor Cooper's performance (03975); Cooper undergoing suit pressurization tests (03976).

  13. Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2004-01-01

    As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

  14. Targeted delivery of rosmarinic acid across the blood-brain barrier for neuronal rescue using polyacrylamide-chitosan-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles with surface cross-reacting material 197 and apolipoprotein E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yung-Chih; Rajesh, Rajendiran

    2017-08-07

    Rosmarinic acid-loaded polyacrylamide-chitosan-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (RA-PAAM-CH-PLGA NPs) were grafted with cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) for targeting of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and rescuing degenerated neurons. The polymeric nanocarriers were prepared by microemulsion, solvent diffusion, grafting, and surface modification, and CRM197-ApoE-RA-PAAM-CH-PLGA NPs were used to treat human brain-microvascular endothelial cells, RWA264.7 cells, and Aβ-insulted SK-N-MC cells. Experimental results revealed that an increase in the weight percentage of PAAM decreased the particle size, zeta potential, and grafting efficiency of CRM197 and ApoE. In addition, surface DSPE-PEG(2000) could protect CRM197-ApoE-RA-PAAM-CH-PLGA NPs against uptake by RWA264.7 cells. An increase in the concentration of CRM197 and ApoE decreased the transendothelial electrical resistance and increased the ability of propidium iodide and RA to cross the BBB. The order in the viability of apoptotic SK-N-MC cells was CRM197-ApoE-RA-PAAM-CH-PLGA NPs > CRM197-RA-PAAM-CH-PLGA NPs > RA. Thus, CRM197-ApoE-RA-PAAM-CH-PLGA NPs can be a promising formulation to deliver RA to Aβ-insulted neurons in the pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Partial Cooperative Equilibria: Existence and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Ghintran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the solution concepts of partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria. The partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium is axiomatically characterized by using notions of rationality, consistency and converse consistency with regard to reduced games. We also establish sufficient conditions for which partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria exist in supermodular games. Finally, we provide an application to strategic network formation where such solution concepts may be useful.

  16. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-22

    In this paper, we introduce a surface boxplot as a tool for visualization and exploratory analysis of samples of images. First, we use the notion of volume depth to order the images viewed as surfaces. In particular, we define the median image. We use an exact and fast algorithm for the ranking of the images. This allows us to detect potential outlying images that often contain interesting features not present in most of the images. Second, we build a graphical tool to visualize the surface boxplot and its various characteristics. A graph and histogram of the volume depth values allow us to identify images of interest. The code is available in the supporting information of this paper. We apply our surface boxplot to a sample of brain images and to a sample of climate model outputs.

  18. Games people play - towards an enactive view of cooperation in social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Alexander Engemann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The field of social neuroscience has made considerable progress in unraveling the neural correlates of human cooperation by making use of brain imaging methods. Within this field, neuroeconomic research has drawn on paradigms from experimental economics, such as the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Trust Game. These paradigms capture the topic of conflict in cooperation, while focusing strongly on outcome-related decision processes. Cooperation, however, does not equate with that perspective, but relies on additional psychological processes and events, including shared intentions and mutually coordinated joint action. These additional facets of cooperation have been successfully addressed by research in developmental psychology, cognitive science, and social philosophy. Corresponding neuroimaging data, however, is still sparse. Therefore, in this paper, we present a juxtaposition of these mutually related but mostly independent trends in cooperation research. We propose that the neuroscientific study of cooperation could benefit from paradigms and concepts employed in developmental psychology and social philosophy. Bringing both to a neuroimaging environment might allow studying the neural correlates of cooperation by using formal models of decision-making as well as capturing the neural responses that underlie joint action scenarios, thus, promising to advance our understanding of the nature of human cooperation.

  19. Games people play—toward an enactive view of cooperation in social neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engemann, Denis A.; Bzdok, Danilo; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Vogeley, Kai; Schilbach, Leonhard

    2012-01-01

    The field of social neuroscience has made considerable progress in unraveling the neural correlates of human cooperation by making use of brain imaging methods. Within this field, neuroeconomic research has drawn on paradigms from experimental economics, such as the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) and the Trust Game. These paradigms capture the topic of conflict in cooperation, while focusing strongly on outcome-related decision processes. Cooperation, however, does not equate with that perspective, but relies on additional psychological processes and events, including shared intentions and mutually coordinated joint action. These additional facets of cooperation have been successfully addressed by research in developmental psychology, cognitive science, and social philosophy. Corresponding neuroimaging data, however, is still sparse. Therefore, in this paper, we present a juxtaposition of these mutually related but mostly independent trends in cooperation research. We propose that the neuroscientific study of cooperation could benefit from paradigms and concepts employed in developmental psychology and social philosophy. Bringing both to a neuroimaging environment might allow studying the neural correlates of cooperation by using formal models of decision-making as well as capturing the neural responses that underlie joint action scenarios, thus, promising to advance our understanding of the nature of human cooperation. PMID:22675293

  20. Dark matters: exploitation as cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Partha

    2012-04-21

    The empirical literature on human cooperation contains studies of communitarian institutions that govern the provision of public goods and management of common property resources in poor countries. Scholars studying those institutions have frequently used the Prisoners' Dilemma game as their theoretical tool-kit. But neither the provision of local public goods nor the management of local common property resources involves the Prisoners' Dilemma. That has implications for our reading of communitarian institutions. By applying a fundamental result in the theory of repeated games to a model of local common property resources, it is shown that communitarian institutions can harbour exploitation of fellow members, something that would not be possible in societies where cooperation amounts to overcoming the Prisoners' Dilemma. The conclusion we should draw is that exploitation can masquerade as cooperation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...... al, 2007; Nguyen, 2007; Mweemba, C.E. 2007). The purpose of these overviews was to position the research findings on the extent and nature of local-level water-related conflict and cooperation in the context of ongoing efforts to improve the policy, legal and administrative water governance framework...

  2. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  3. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Cao

    Full Text Available Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks. This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels meet, they play the (anti- coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic. We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  4. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and R&D intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level of innovativeness increase the likelihood...... of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice...

  5. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  6. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2014-01-01

    The ability of groups to implement efficiency-enhancing institutions is emerging as a central theme of research in economics. This paper explores voting on a scheme of intergroup competition, which facilitates cooperation in a social dilemma situation. Experimental results show that the competitive...... scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular, but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains...

  7. Developing Praxis in Conflictual Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    . The presentation will discuss and analyse some empirical material from a project on conflictual cooperation in the building business. The analysis opens an opportunity to discuss and expand Lave and Wenger's notion of situated learning. The authors' original intention of understanding learning as an integral...... of the house leaves traces which we must take into account in our ensuing acts. Additionally it will be argued that the professionals may constitute different communities on the building site. This does not mean that the building site is a community of practice, all the same the conflictual cooperation...

  8. States, Social Capital and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting...... in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...

  9. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  10. The sound of cooperation: Musical influences on cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Kevin M; Yan, Jubo; Wansink, Brian; Schulze, William D

    2017-03-01

    Music as an environmental aspect of professional workplaces has been closely studied with respect to consumer behavior while sparse attention has been given to its relevance for employee behavior. In this article, we focus on the influence of music upon cooperative behavior within decision-making groups. Based on results from two extended 20-round public goods experiments, we find that happy music significantly and positively influences cooperative behavior. We also find a significant positive association between mood and cooperative behavior. Consequently, while our studies provide partial support for the relevance of affect in relation to cooperation within groups, we also show an independently important function of happy music that fits with a theory of synchronous and rhythmic activity as a social lubricant. More generally, our findings indicate that music and perhaps other atmospheric variables that are designed to prime consumer behavior might have comparably important effects for employees and consequently warrant closer investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Let's Cooperate! Integrating Cooperative Learning Into a Lesson on Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineke, Patricia R

    2017-04-01

    Cooperative learning is an effective teaching strategy that promotes active participation in learning and can be used in academic, clinical practice, and professional development settings. This article describes that strategy and provides an example of its use in a lesson about ethics. J Contin Nurs Educ. 2017;48(4):154-156. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Cooperation for knowledge demands know-how for cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. de la Rive Box (Louk)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractValedictory Address by Louk de la Rive Box, Professor of international cooperation and Rector of the International Institute of Social Studies (22 April 2010). Which Knowledge and for Which Development? Old Timers and New Players More than a decade ago the cyber-revolution gave rise

  13. Cooperative assembly in targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Debra

    2012-02-01

    Described as cell analogues, liposomes are self-assembled lipid bilayer spheres that encapsulate aqueous volumes. Liposomes offer several drug delivery advantages due to their structural versatility related to size, composition, bilayer fluidity, and ability to encapsulate a large variety of compounds non-covalently. However, liposomes lack the structural information embedded within cell membranes. Partitioning of unsaturated and saturated lipids into liquid crystalline (Lα) and gel phase (Lβ) domains, respectively, affects local molecular diffusion and elasticity. Liposome microdomains may be used to pattern molecules, such as antibodies, on the liposome surface to create concentrated, segregated binding regions. We have synthesized, characterized, and evaluated a series of homogeneous and heterogeneous liposomal vehicles that target inflamed endothelium. These drug delivery vehicles are designed to complement the heterogeneous presentation of lipids and receptors on endothelial cells (ECs). EC surfaces are dynamic; they segregate receptors within saturated lipid microdomains on the cell surface to regulate binding and signaling events. We have demonstrated that cooperative binding of two antibodies enhances targeting by multiple fold. Further, we have shown that organization of these antibodies on the surface can further enhance cell uptake. The data suggest that EC targeting may be enhanced by designing liposomes that mirror the segregated structure of lipid and receptor molecules involved in neutrophil-EC adhesion. This strategy is employed in an atherosclerotic mouse model in vivo.

  14. Cooperation in wireless networks principles and applications : real egoistic behavior is to cooperate!

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzek, Frank HP

    2006-01-01

    Covers the underlying principles of cooperative techniques as well as several applications demonstrating the use of such techniques in practical systems. This book also summarizes the strength of cooperation for wireless communication systems, motivating the use of cooperative techniques.

  15. Learning to cooperate is essential for progress in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickau, Jonathan J.

    2012-06-01

    At the 10th Frontiers of Fundamental Physics symposium, Gerard't Hooft stated that, for some of the advances we hope to see in Physics during the future, there must be a great deal of cooperation between physicists from different disciplines, as well as mathematicians, programmers, technologists, and others. This requires us to evolve a new mindset; however, as so much of our past progress has come out of a fiercely competitive process - especially since a critical review of our ideas about reality remains essential to making clear progress and checking our progress. We must also address the fact that some frameworks appear incompatible, as with relativity and quantum mechanics, whose unification remains distant despite years of attempts to find a quantum gravity theory. I explore the idea that playful exploration, using both left-brained and right-brained approaches to learning, allows us to resolve conflicting ideas by taking advantage of innate human developmental and learning strategies and brain structure. It may thus foster the kind of interdisciplinary cooperation we are hoping to see.

  16. Brain glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Linea Lykke Frimodt; Müller, Margit S; Walls, Anne B

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia....... In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been an emerging understanding in brain energy metabolism: that glycogen is more than just a convenient way to store energy for use in emergencies-it is a highly dynamic molecule with versatile implications in brain function, i.e., synaptic...... activity and memory formation. In line with the great spatiotemporal complexity of the brain and thereof derived focus on the basis for ensuring the availability of the right amount of energy at the right time and place, we here encourage a closer look into the molecular and subcellular mechanisms...

  17. Brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, H R

    1999-05-01

    Current law in the United States authorizes physicians to diagnose brain death by applying generally accepted neurologic criteria for determining loss of function of the entire brain. This article offers a medical-legal perspective on problems that may arise with respect to the determination of brain death. These include the possibility of diagnostic error, conceptual disagreements that may constrain the use of neurologic criteria to diagnose death, and the conflation of brain death and loss of consciousness. This article also addresses legal aspects of the debate over whether to expand the definition of brain death to include permanent unconsciousness. Although existing laws draw a clear distinction between brain death and the persistent vegetative state, many courts have authorized removal of life support from individuals whose unconsciousness is believed to be permanent on proof that removal accords with preferences expressed before sentience was lost.

  18. Defecting or not defecting: how to "read" human behavior during cooperative games by EEG measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio De Vico Fallani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the neural mechanisms responsible for human social interactions is difficult, since the brain activities of two or more individuals have to be examined simultaneously and correlated with the observed social patterns. We introduce the concept of hyper-brain network, a connectivity pattern representing at once the information flow among the cortical regions of a single brain as well as the relations among the areas of two distinct brains. Graph analysis of hyper-brain networks constructed from the EEG scanning of 26 couples of individuals playing the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma reveals the possibility to predict non-cooperative interactions during the decision-making phase. The hyper-brain networks of two-defector couples have significantly less inter-brain links and overall higher modularity--i.e., the tendency to form two separate subgraphs--than couples playing cooperative or tit-for-tat strategies. The decision to defect can be "read" in advance by evaluating the changes of connectivity pattern in the hyper-brain network.

  19. Navigating the complex path between the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR and cooperation: an endophenotype approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Haas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although cooperation represents a core facet of human social behavior there exists considerable variability across people in terms of the tendency to cooperate. One factor that may contribute to individual differences in cooperation is a key gene within the oxytocin system, the oxytocin reception gene (OXTR. In this article, we aim to bridge the gap between the OXTR gene and cooperation by using an endophenotype approach. We present evidence that the association between the OXTR gene and cooperation may in part be due to how the OXTR gene affects brain systems involved in emotion recognition, empathy/theory of mind, social communication and social reward seeking. There is evidence that the OXTR gene may influence the functional anatomy of the amygdala, visual cortex, anterior cingulate and superior temporal gyrus. However, it is currently unknown how the OXTR gene may be linked to the functional anatomy of other relevant brain regions that include the fusiform gyrus, superior temporal sulcus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, temporoparietal junction and nucleus accumbens. We conclude by highlighting potential future research directions that may elucidate the path between OXTR and complex behaviors such as cooperation.

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons working together form ...

  1. SME Cooperation on Innovation & Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how cooperation of SMEs can enable innovation and growth. The research is conducted in a four-year period with 24 SMEs participating from different industry branches. The research is now in the late part of the 3rd. year starting in 2013 and finished January 2017...

  2. Statistical physics of human cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž; Jordan, Jillian J.; Rand, David G.; Wang, Zhen; Boccaletti, Stefano; Szolnoki, Attila

    2017-05-01

    Extensive cooperation among unrelated individuals is unique to humans, who often sacrifice personal benefits for the common good and work together to achieve what they are unable to execute alone. The evolutionary success of our species is indeed due, to a large degree, to our unparalleled other-regarding abilities. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of human cooperation remains a formidable challenge. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that it is important to focus on the collective behavior that emerges as the result of the interactions among individuals, groups, and even societies. Non-equilibrium statistical physics, in particular Monte Carlo methods and the theory of collective behavior of interacting particles near phase transition points, has proven to be very valuable for understanding counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes. By treating models of human cooperation as classical spin models, a physicist can draw on familiar settings from statistical physics. However, unlike pairwise interactions among particles that typically govern solid-state physics systems, interactions among humans often involve group interactions, and they also involve a larger number of possible states even for the most simplified description of reality. The complexity of solutions therefore often surpasses that observed in physical systems. Here we review experimental and theoretical research that advances our understanding of human cooperation, focusing on spatial pattern formation, on the spatiotemporal dynamics of observed solutions, and on self-organization that may either promote or hinder socially favorable states.

  3. Trends and Issues in Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Thomas J., Ed.; Patterson, Lewis D., Ed.

    The program for the semiannual Cooperative Program Seminar, held October 9-10, 1973, in Washington, D.C. is presented in this document. At this seminar plans were made to broaden the program focus from just consortium concerns to include the full range of interests in systems of interdependence in postsecondary education. These proceedings, to the…

  4. Investment financing in cooperative firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Cuomo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available By general agreement, one of the main obstacles to the growth of producer cooperatives is difficult investment financing, due to inadequate Capitalisation levels and the resulting inability to lodge sufficient collateral with lenders. Moreover, worker-owned firms are considered not very reliable because they suffer from problems of moral hazard and insufficient commitment. Unfortunately, the literature on this issue is not extensive and has weaknesses that are highlighted in the paper. By means of its critical analysis, it is possible to provide evidence that the funding difficulties caused by the particular structure of cooperative firms can be effectively tackled by creating an institutional framework within which cooperatives would be offered a wider range of organizational options comparable to those open to traditional enterprises. Finally, it is proved that the willingness of the members to fund the operations of their cooperative with loan capital may not be enough to mobilize external credit. For member financings to persuade potential providers of funds to place trust in a firm, third-party claims must necessarily qualify as senior debt and be repaid before the claims of the partners are settled.

  5. Cooperation: New Players in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hugon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalisation and the current global financial crisis, new players are emerging in cooperation in Africa. These partners loosen financial constraints and conditionalities, increase the room for manoeuvre and stimulate commodity markets. On the other hand, they also increase the risks of renewed indebtedness and potentially weaken the coordination of aid policies. Do these partnerships call the new cooperation practices of OECD countries into question? Do they justify the return to a realpolitik or are they repeating the earlier mistakes of industrial powers? Can these mistakes be corrected? The question also arises as to whether the global crisis, which has a profound effect on Africa, will lead to a withdrawal or to a passing of the baton on to new, emerging powers. This article highlights the new geopolitical issues concerning Africa in a multipolar world, then discusses the new players involved in cooperation in Africa, before going on to explore the horizons that are opening up for cooperation in Africa, in particular with regard to the global crisis.

  6. International cooperation for the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engfeldt, Lars-Göran; Kjellén, Bo; Liefferink, Duncan

    2003-01-01

    European Environmental Programme was written. Environmental work in the Authors of this chapter European context was initially based on economic cooperation and not until much later did it achieve a status of its own in the Maastricht and Amsterdam treaties. The second large UN conference for environment...

  7. Beginning of a scientific cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria V. Mikhaylova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Article reviews the All-Russian Science and Practice Conference “Culture and politics of interethnic and interreligious relations” held in Yakutsk on November 29-30, 2015. In scope of cooperation between Moscow University for the Humanities and North-Eastern Federal University Ch.K. Lamazhaa, Doctor of Philosophy, participated in the conference.

  8. Cross-border Innovation Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    Introduction Increase in innovation cooperation of firms is related to; faster product life cycles, complexity of technology and sharing of risk Choice between different partners is based on significance of the knowledge they offer and cost savings (Balderboes et al. 2004). Choosing a foreign par...

  9. Competitive Cooperation: The Iceberg Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jerry L.

    Competitive athletes' scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test create an iceberg-like pattern known as the "Iceberg Profile." Their scores for tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion are low while their scores on vigor juts upward creating the "Iceberg Profile." Persons in a cooperative relationship are often…

  10. COOPERATIVE PROFESSIONALISM IN THEATRE ARTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    procurement, and enhancement of theatre profession, reduction of production cost, employment provision, high yielding profit, articulated welfare, participative management and cooperative spirit. “The arts generally suffer inadequate or scarce investment. It was observed that theatres' financial plight indicates the situation's ...

  11. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  12. Interface: Schools and Police Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauvelt, Peter D.

    The climate between police and schools has changed from an adversarial one in the 1960s and 1970s to one in which both sides recognize the many advantages to be gained through cooperation. The criminal justice system is made up of three elements: police, courts, and corrections. Tempering the criminal justice system are the community norms which…

  13. Market competition and efficient cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    We use laboratory experiments to study the causal effects of favorable and unfavorable competitive market experience on cooperation in a subsequent social dilemma game. The issues we study are part of the broader topic of whether there are behavioral spillovers between different spheres of social

  14. Competition, cooperation, and corporate culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosfeld, M.; von Siemens, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation between workers can be of substantial value to a firm, yet its level often varies substantially between firms. We show that these differences can unfold in a competitive labor market if workers have heterogeneous social preferences and preferences are private information. In our model,

  15. Communicating Cooperative Robots with Bluetooth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Son, L.T.; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2001-01-01

    A generic architecture for system of cooperating communicating mobile robots is presented. An overall structure is defined from a modularity viewpoint, where a number of generic modules are identified; low level communication interface, network layer services such as initial and adaptive network...

  16. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...

  17. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    The ability of groups to implement efficiency-enhancing institutions is emerging as a central theme of research in economics. This paper explores voting on a scheme of intergroup competition which facilitates cooperation in a social dilemma situation. Experimental results show that the competitiv...

  18. Oxytocin modulates the link between adult attachment and cooperation through reduced betrayal aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment examined whether and how the relationship between individual differences in social attachment and cooperation is modulated by brain oxytocin, a neuropeptide implicated both in parent-child bonding, and in social approach. Healthy males completed a validated attachment style measure,

  19. Perspectives on New Frontiers for Arab-European Co-operation in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubtana, Abdalla

    2003-01-01

    Cooperation in higher education between the Arab world and Europe and America must be pushed in the following main directions: (1) efforts to stem and reverse the brain drain; (2) development of non-conventional forms of higher education; (3) development of research programs and infrastructure; and (4) promotion and use of information and…

  20. Cooperative Projects - Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubotz, Wiebke; Brücher, Tim; Vamborg, Freja

    2017-04-01

    Today's research in Germany is often organized in large projects and collaborations, so-called cooperative projects ("Verbundprojekte" in German). These projects are defined by a large number of members (more than 50) and participating institutes, e.g. institutes of research organizations such as the Max-Planck society and the Leibniz association, Helmholtz centres, and universities. For coordination purposes these projects usually have a general project manager or project coordinator close to the speaker of the project. Despite this overarching position, it is often challenging for the project manager to really overview the entire project as he is, for example, not involved in the individual institute's recruitment processes or research connections to other institutes via other projects. Additionally, there is neither a formal obligation for the principal investigators and project scientists to report changes within their sub-projects, nor any formal dependency between these sub-projects and the coordination office to ensure a contemporary update of changes and progress in their specific tasks of the project. Therefore, the idea of a coordinating position to oversee the entire cooperative project is sometimes difficult to reach. Furthermore, project managers usually have no formal connection to other project managers. This means that recurrent tasks, for which cooperation between project managers would be helpful, need to be reinvented for each project anew. Due to the lack of this more formalized cooperation between project managers, acquired expertise is often lost. We will illustrate the challenges of this kind of project management based on projects at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (Hamburg) and the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research (GEOMAR, Kiel), but also point out opportunities that arise within a large collaboration of partners. Moreover, we present an approach to coordinate management processes in order to overcome some of the aforementioned

  1. Defectors Can Create Conditions That Rescue Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Waite

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation based on the production of costly common goods is observed throughout nature. This is puzzling, as cooperation is vulnerable to exploitation by defectors which enjoy a fitness advantage by consuming the common good without contributing fairly. Depletion of the common good can lead to population collapse and the destruction of cooperation. However, population collapse implies small population size, which, in a structured population, is known to favor cooperation. This happens because small population size increases variability in cooperator frequency across different locations. Since individuals in cooperator-dominated locations (which are most likely cooperators will grow more than those in defector-dominated locations (which are most likely defectors, cooperators can outgrow defectors globally despite defectors outgrowing cooperators in each location. This raises the possibility that defectors can lead to conditions that sometimes rescue cooperation from defector-induced destruction. We demonstrate multiple mechanisms through which this can occur, using an individual-based approach to model stochastic birth, death, migration, and mutation events. First, during defector-induced population collapse, defectors occasionally go extinct before cooperators by chance, which allows cooperators to grow. Second, empty locations, either preexisting or created by defector-induced population extinction, can favor cooperation because they allow cooperator but not defector migrants to grow. These factors lead to the counterintuitive result that the initial presence of defectors sometimes allows better survival of cooperation compared to when defectors are initially absent. Finally, we find that resource limitation, inducible by defectors, can select for mutations adaptive to resource limitation. When these mutations are initially present at low levels or continuously generated at a moderate rate, they can favor cooperation by further reducing local

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in the brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, a disorder that affects a person's ability to move as they want to, resulting in ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The brain's "fear hub," which activates our natural "fight-or-flight" response to confront or escape from a dangerous ... The brain's "fear hub," which helps activate the fight-or-flight response and is also involved in emotions and ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells required for normal function and plays an important ... of neurons and their interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the front of the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in the brain. Problems in ... Problems in making or using glutamate have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... axis —A brain-body circuit which plays a critical role in the body's response to stress. impulse — ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... And as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such children to those with normal brain development may help scientists to pinpoint when and where ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's early 20s. ... Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah ... had problems getting to sleep and generally felt tired, listless, and had no ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such children to those with normal brain development may help scientists to pinpoint when and where mental disorders begin and perhaps how to slow or stop ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such children to those with normal brain development may help scientists to pinpoint when and where ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity ... the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive functions, such as judgment, decision making, and problem solving. ... brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our physical surroundings but also factors that can affect our bodies, such as sleep, diet, or stress. These factors may act alone ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain ... had problems getting to sleep and generally felt tired, listless, and had no ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... her symptoms were not caused by a stroke, brain tumor, or similar conditions, Sarah's doctor referred her to a psychiatrist, a type of medical doctor who is an expert on mental ... of serotonin in the brain and help reduce symptoms of depression. Sarah also ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... begun to chart how the brain develops over time in healthy people and are working to compare that with brain development in ... Other medical professionals who can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or ... gets "the blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ... imaging (MRI) mdash;An imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure. mutation — ...

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induces sustained intracellular Ca2+ elevation through the up-regulation of surface transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) channels in rodent microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Yoshito; Kato, Takahiro A; Seki, Yoshihiro; Ohgidani, Masahiro; Sagata, Noriaki; Horikawa, Hideki; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Sato-Kasai, Mina; Hayakawa, Kohei; Inoue, Ryuji; Kanba, Shigenobu; Monji, Akira

    2014-06-27

    Microglia are immune cells that release factors, including proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO), and neurotrophins, following activation after disturbance in the brain. Elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) is important for microglial functions such as the release of cytokines and NO from activated microglia. There is increasing evidence suggesting that pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders is related to the inflammatory responses mediated by microglia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin well known for its roles in the activation of microglia as well as in pathophysiology and/or treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we sought to examine the underlying mechanism of BDNF-induced sustained increase in [Ca(2+)]i in rodent microglial cells. We observed that canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) channels contribute to the maintenance of BDNF-induced sustained intracellular Ca(2+) elevation. Immunocytochemical technique and flow cytometry also revealed that BDNF rapidly up-regulated the surface expression of TRPC3 channels in rodent microglial cells. In addition, pretreatment with BDNF suppressed the production of NO induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), which was prevented by co-adiministration of a selective TRPC3 inhibitor. These suggest that BDNF induces sustained intracellular Ca(2+) elevation through the up-regulation of surface TRPC3 channels and TRPC3 channels could be important for the BDNF-induced suppression of the NO production in activated microglia. We show that TRPC3 channels could also play important roles in microglial functions, which might be important for the regulation of inflammatory responses and may also be involved in the pathophysiology and/or the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Review: Leon N. Cooper's Science and Human Experience: Values, Culture, and the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Gary S

    2015-01-01

    Why are we reviewing a book written by someone who shared in the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physics for work on superconductivity? Because shortly after winning the prize, Leon N. Cooper transitioned into brain research-specifically, the biological basis of memory. He became director of the Brown University Institute for Brain and Neural Systems, whose interdisciplinary program allowed him to integrate research on the brain, physics, and even philosophy. His new book tackles a diverse spectrum of topics and questions, including these: Does science have limits? Where does order come from? Can we understand consciousness?

  3. Between-group competition and human cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikael Puurtinen; Tapio Mappes

    2009-01-01

    .... Further, group competition intensifies the moral emotions of anger and guilt associated with violations of the cooperative norm. The results suggest an important role for group conflict in the evolution of human cooperation and moral emotions.

  4. Evidence for strategic cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N; El Mouden, Claire; West, Stuart A

    2017-06-14

    Humans may cooperate strategically, cooperating at higher levels than expected from their short-term interests, to try and stimulate others to cooperate. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulated the extent an individual's behaviour is known to others, and hence whether or not strategic cooperation is possible. In contrast with many previous studies, we avoided confounding factors by preventing individuals from learning during the game about either pay-offs or about how other individuals behave. We found clear evidence for strategic cooperators-just telling some individuals that their groupmates would be informed about their behaviour led to them tripling their initial level of cooperation, from 17 to 50%. We also found that many individuals play as if they do not understand the game, and their presence obscures the detection of strategic cooperation. Identifying such players allowed us to detect and study strategic motives for cooperation in novel, more powerful, ways. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. The incorporation of a cooperative society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar Garteiz-Aurrecoa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Spanish General Law regulates cooperatives and qualifies them as economic entities for conducting business, so its commercial nature is recognized aside positions that defend the absence of profit in cooperatives.

  6. Cooperative Agreement on Pesticide Safety Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is awarding the eXtension Foundation with a cooperative agreement to establish a system to distribute EPA funds to Pesticide Safety Education Programs (PSEPs) in State Cooperative Extension Services at Land Grant Universities.

  7. U.S. — France Counterterrorism Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Ivkina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the examination of the ground aspects of the U.S. — France counterterrorism cooperation. Main forms and realization principles of this cooperation after September 11, 2001 are under analysis.

  8. Cooperation: integrating evolutionary and ecological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sam P

    2006-11-21

    Putting a competitive squeeze on a cooperative group has long been considered to encourage cheats. Now we learn that competition, by driving diversification among cooperators, can create groups that are both more productive and more resistant to defection.

  9. The virtual cooperation platform in enterprise and supplier cooperation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Wei; Wu, Cheng-Ru; Liao, Chia-Chun

    2010-08-01

    Abstract This study examines the use of the virtual enterprise network supplier supply-chain model of business behavior in creating synergies of cooperation. To explore virtual network behavior, it evaluates 60 samples, taken from of a few supply chains, and 17 items meeting certain behavioral criteria. Such an analysis may help to reduce costs and processing time effectively, as well as promote effective communication. Furthermore, the study of behavior in this electronic setting is a reliable and useful assessment method.

  10. Between-group competition and human cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Puurtinen, Mikael; Mappes, Tapio

    2008-01-01

    A distinctive feature of human behaviour is the widespread occurrence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Explaining the maintenance of costly within-group cooperation is a challenge because the incentive to free ride on the efforts of other group members is expected to lead to decay of cooperation. However, the costs of cooperation can be diminished or overcome when there is competition at a higher level of organizational hierarchy. Here we show that competition between groups resolv...

  11. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  12. On the relative advantage of cooperatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm......We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm...

  13. Analysis of Cooperativity by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Brown

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative binding pervades Nature. This review discusses the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC in the identification and characterisation of cooperativity in biological interactions. ITC has broad scope in the analysis of cooperativity as it determines binding stiochiometries, affinities and thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy in a single experiment. Examples from the literature are used to demonstrate the applicability of ITC in the characterisation of cooperative systems.

  14. Analysis of cooperativity by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan

    2009-08-04

    Cooperative binding pervades Nature. This review discusses the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in the identification and characterisation of cooperativity in biological interactions. ITC has broad scope in the analysis of cooperativity as it determines binding stiochiometries, affinities and thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy in a single experiment. Examples from the literature are used to demonstrate the applicability of ITC in the characterisation of cooperative systems.

  15. Building partner cooperation between teachers and parents

    OpenAIRE

    Steh, Barbara; Kalin, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the goals of teacher-parent cooperation, various potential models for establishing mutual cooperation, and the conditions required to achieve quality interactive cooperation. The partnership model is highlighted as an optimal model of interactive cooperation between teachers and parents, as it includes the distribution of expertise and control with the purpose of ensuring optimal education for children. It enables the creation of an interactive working relationship in whic...

  16. Adherence to Cooperative Principles among Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. This study assessed agricultural cooperatives' level of adherence to cooperative guiding principles in Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling procedure was used to select 126 respondents for the study. Data on group characteristics, level of awareness, adherence and constraints to adherence to cooperative ...

  17. Comparative Productivity Between Farmer Cooperator and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the role of cooperatives in agricultural productivity in Kwara state, Nigeria. Ninety (90) farmer cooperators and ninety (90) non-cooperator farmer households were randomly sampled across the state. The study data were analysed using the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and the Ordinary Least Squares ...

  18. Understanding Cooperation in Inter-Organisational Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponisio, Laura; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Riemens, Lourens; van Eck, Pascal; Krishnamurthy, Sandeep; Isaías, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    Cooperation in inter-organisational networks usually requires considerable up-front investments in information technology (IT) specific for this cooperation. It is therefore of great importance that participants in a network select the partners for which it is most likely that cooperation will

  19. Qualitative elements constituting effective agricultural cooperatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural cooperatives like all cooperatives are built on the principle of cooperation and community spirit, also known as ubuntu. They are widely promoted as a positive force for collective effort in smallholder agriculture development. However, research suggests that they generally have not been effective and successful ...

  20. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperator organization. 1220.107 Section 1220.107... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor organization...

  1. Cooperative Learning in the Physical Education Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Steven E.; Wilson, Rolayne

    1991-01-01

    Presents guidelines for promoting and using cooperative learning in physical education. To establish cooperative learning, teachers must plan for specific group dynamics. Physical educators need to understand their roles with groups and how groups should be structured. The article offers two cooperative learning lesson examples. (SM)

  2. 75 FR 9246 - Cooperative Share Loan Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Cooperative Share Loan Insurance AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... cooperative housing loan insurance will be published to update existing policies, and better enable mortgagees to submit cooperative share loans for FHA insurance. This new publication will provide instructions...

  3. Culture, Cooperation, and the General Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berigan, Nick; Irwin, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Solutions to social dilemmas require cooperation. Given that there are commonly multiple avenues for cooperation, sometimes social dilemmas require coordination of strategies in addition to sufficient cooperation to be successful. This study examines one social dilemma where such coordination is necessary: supporting the general welfare. Using…

  4. Agricultural Co-Operatives in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tefera, Delelegne A.; Bijman, Jos; Slingerland, Maja A.

    2017-01-01

    To what extent can co-operatives strengthen rural development in sub-Saharan Africa? This paper explores the development of agricultural co-operatives in Ethiopia, particularly the changes in economic functions. Co-operative development in Ethiopia has been strongly influenced by various political

  5. Building up active membership in cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Sergaki, P.; Dijk, van G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Active membership is crucial for agricultural cooperatives as it engenders better performance. It even is the key for cooperative competitiveness. Active membership, however, decreases in many cooperatives. Thus, it is important to know what galvanizes members to become active members. The

  6. Treatment of capital in Brasilian cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergílio Frederico Perius

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The early history of the cooperative system never taxed much importance to capital formation in cooperatives. The first German consumer cooperative had no equity in their accounting records. We want to analyze, even though the capital was not essential, what is its function actually.

  7. Cooperation beyond the dyad: on simple models and a complex society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Players in Axelrod and Hamilton's model of cooperation were not only in a Prisoner's Dilemma, but by definition, they were also trapped in a dyad. But animals are rarely so restricted and even the option to interact with third parties allows individuals to escape from the Prisoner's Dilemma into a much more interesting and varied world of cooperation, from the apparently rare ‘parcelling’ to the widespread phenomenon of market effects. Our understanding of by-product mutualism, pseudo-reciprocity and the snowdrift game is also enriched by thinking ‘beyond the dyad’. The concepts of by-product mutualism and pseudo-reciprocity force us to think again about our basic definitions of cooperative behaviour (behaviour by a single individual) and cooperation (the outcome of an interaction between two or more individuals). Reciprocity is surprisingly rare outside of humans, even among large-brained ‘intelligent’ birds and mammals. Are humans unique in having extensive cooperative interactions among non-kin and an integrated cognitive system for mediating reciprocity? Perhaps, but our best chance for finding a similar phenomenon may be in delphinids, which also live in large societies with extensive cooperative interactions among non-relatives. A system of nested male alliances in bottlenose dolphins illustrates the potential and difficulties of finding a complex system of cooperation close to our own. PMID:20679112

  8. Two Domains of Vimentin Are Expressed on the Surface of Lymph Node, Bone and Brain Metastatic Prostate Cancer Lines along with the Putative Stem Cell Marker Proteins CD44 and CD133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Nicole F. [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Maurer, Jochen [Sanford-Burnham, Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Sheng, Huiming [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Bensussan, Armand [INSERM U976, Hôpital Saint Louis, F-75475 Paris (France); Department of Immunology, Dermatology and Oncology, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMRS976 F-75475 Paris (France); Maricic, Igor; Kumar, Vipin [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Laboratory of Autoimmunity, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Braciak, Todd A., E-mail: tbraciak@tpims.org [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2011-07-13

    Vimentin was originally identified as an intermediate filament protein present only as an intracellular component in many cell types. However, this protein has now been detected on the surface of a number of different cancer cell types in a punctate distribution pattern. Increased vimentin expression has been indicated as an important step in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required for the metastasis of prostate cancer. Here, using two vimentin-specific monoclonal antibodies (SC5 and V9 directed against the coil one rod domain and the C-terminus of the vimentin protein, respectively), we examined whether either of these domains would be displayed on the surface of three commonly studied prostate cancer cell lines isolated from different sites of metastases. Confocal analysis of LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines (derived from lymph node, bone or brain prostate metastases, respectively) demonstrated that both domains of vimentin are present on the surface of these metastatic cancer cell types. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that vimentin expression was readily detected along with CD44 expression but only a small subpopulation of prostate cancer cells expressed vimentin and the putative stem cell marker CD133 along with CD44. Finally, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) nanoparticles that target vimentin could bind and internalize into tested prostate cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that at least two domains of vimentin are present on the surface of metastatic prostate cancer cells and suggest that vimentin could provide a useful target for nanoparticle- or antibody- cancer therapeutic agents directed against highly invasive cancer and/or stem cells.

  9. Shame and honour drive cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Jennifer; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne; Milinski, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Can the threat of being shamed or the prospect of being honoured lead to greater cooperation? We test this hypothesis with anonymous six-player public goods experiments, an experimental paradigm used to investigate problems related to overusing common resources. We instructed the players that the two individuals who were least generous after 10 rounds would be exposed to the group. As the natural antithesis, we also test the effects of honour by revealing the identities of the two players who were most generous. The non-monetary, reputational effects induced by shame and honour each led to approximately 50 per cent higher donations to the public good when compared with the control, demonstrating that both shame and honour can drive cooperation and can help alleviate the tragedy of the commons. PMID:21632623

  10. Cooperative Localization for Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Urup, Daniel Nygaard; Meyer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hybrid message passing method for distributed cooperative localization and tracking of mobile agents. Belief propagation and mean field message passing are employed for, respectively, the motion-related and measurementrelated part of the factor graph. Using a Gaussian belief approxim......We propose a hybrid message passing method for distributed cooperative localization and tracking of mobile agents. Belief propagation and mean field message passing are employed for, respectively, the motion-related and measurementrelated part of the factor graph. Using a Gaussian belief...... approximation, only three real values per message passing iteration have to be broadcast to neighboring agents. Despite these very low communication requirements, the estimation accuracy can be comparable to that of particle-based belief propagation....

  11. Photonic Counterparts of Cooper Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, André; Júnior, Filomeno S. de Aguiar; de Melo e Souza, Reinaldo; Pena, Arthur Patrocínio; Monken, Carlos H.; Santos, Marcelo F.; Koiller, Belita; Jorio, Ado

    2017-11-01

    The microscopic theory of superconductivity raised the disruptive idea that electrons couple through the elusive exchange of virtual phonons, overcoming the strong Coulomb repulsion to form Cooper pairs. Light is also known to interact with atomic vibrations, as, for example, in the Raman effect. We show that photon pairs exchange virtual vibrations in transparent media, leading to an effective photon-photon interaction identical to that for electrons in the BCS theory of superconductivity, in spite of the fact that photons are bosons. In this scenario, photons may exchange energy without matching a quantum of vibration of the medium. As a result, pair correlations for photons scattered away from the Raman resonances are expected to be enhanced. An experimental demonstration of this effect is provided here by time-correlated Raman measurements in different media. The experimental data confirm our theoretical interpretation of a photonic Cooper pairing, without the need for any fitting parameters.

  12. [Multiprofessional cooperation in palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falckenberg, Maja

    2007-04-01

    "Nothing is more powerful than an idea whose time has come." (Victor Hugo) Originally referring to the beginning of the enlightenment (reconnaissance) of the French revolution the transcription of this words regarding to German palliative Care structures would mean a tremendous effort. The meaning of the new idea is a holistic kind of care for patients with a chronic disease at the end of their lives, so that they can die as most self determined as possible at a location of their choice. The special aim of palliative care, the need of interdisciplinary cooperation leading to multidisciplinary solutions is pointed out. The meaning of palliative care team as a team with special communication skills in between the team and with further cooperating partners is described. Communication in palliative care means more than telling facts.

  13. Cooperation between CERN and ITER

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN and the International Fusion Organisation ITER have just signed a first cooperation agreeement. Kaname Ikeda, the Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organisation (ITER) (on the right) and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN, signing the agreement.The Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organization, Mr Kaname Ikeda, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement at a meeting on the Meyrin site on Thursday 6 March. One of the main purposes of this agreement is for CERN to give ITER the benefit of its experience in the field of technology as well as in administrative domains such as finance, procurement, human resources and informatics through the provision of consultancy services. Currently in its start-up phase at its Cadarache site, 70 km from Marseilles (France), ITER will focus its research on the scientific and technical feasibility of using fusion energy as a fu...

  14. [Brain concussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pälvimäki, Esa-Pekka; Siironen, Jari; Pohjola, Juha; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Brain concussion is a common disturbance caused by external forces or acceleration affecting the head. It may be accompanied by transient loss of consciousness and amnesia. Typical symptoms include headache, nausea and dizziness; these may remain for a week or two. Some patients may experience transient loss of inability to create new memories or other brief impairment of mental functioning. Treatment is symptomatic. Some patients may suffer from prolonged symptoms, the connection of which with brain concession is difficult to show. Almost invariably the prognosis of brain concussion is good.

  15. A Distributed Quaternary Turbo Coded Cooperative Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALDINI FILHO, R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative communications achieve MIMO-like diversity gains by introducing a relay that creates an independent faded path between the source and the destination. Coded cooperation integrates cooperation with channel coding in order to increase the bit error rate (BER performance of cooperative communications. Turbo codewords can be built efficiently at the destination using encoded portions of the information sent by the source and the relay. This paper presents a distributed turbo cooperative coding scheme that utilizes convolutional codes defined over the finite ring of integers Z4 that performs better than its equivalent binary counterparts.

  16. Benevolent characteristics promote cooperative behaviour among humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Valerio; Smyth, Conor; Mylona, Kalliopi; Niblo, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is fundamental to the evolution of human society. We regularly observe cooperative behaviour in everyday life and in controlled experiments with anonymous people, even though standard economic models predict that they should deviate from the collective interest and act so as to maximise their own individual payoff. However, there is typically heterogeneity across subjects: some may cooperate, while others may not. Since individual factors promoting cooperation could be used by institutions to indirectly prime cooperation, this heterogeneity raises the important question of who these cooperators are. We have conducted a series of experiments to study whether benevolence, defined as a unilateral act of paying a cost to increase the welfare of someone else beyond one's own, is related to cooperation in a subsequent one-shot anonymous Prisoner's dilemma. Contrary to the predictions of the widely used inequity aversion models, we find that benevolence does exist and a large majority of people behave this way. We also find benevolence to be correlated with cooperative behaviour. Finally, we show a causal link between benevolence and cooperation: priming people to think positively about benevolent behaviour makes them significantly more cooperative than priming them to think malevolently. Thus benevolent people exist and cooperate more.

  17. Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Frattasi, Simone; Figueiras, Joao

    2011-01-01

    for mobile devices using the Java Platform, Micro Edition (Java ME) in particular, and how/when to use them. Sample applications and services will be demoed during the tutorial. The list of topics to be discussed include: - Application platforms (WAP, Java ME, BREW) - Designing wireless applications...... on a totally different platform like a mobile phone or a BlackBerry device. While wireless applications can be much smaller than conventional desktop applications, developers should think in the small in terms of the devices on which the applications will run and the environment in which they will operate...... - Wireless application programming models - Testing and deploying wireless applications - Applying the Service-Oriented Architecture - Web services for mobile devices - Securing wireless applications and service...

  18. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  19. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  20. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  1. Anatomy of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Young Adult Guidelines For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis ...

  2. Between-group competition and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puurtinen, Mikael; Mappes, Tapio

    2009-01-22

    A distinctive feature of human behaviour is the widespread occurrence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Explaining the maintenance of costly within-group cooperation is a challenge because the incentive to free ride on the efforts of other group members is expected to lead to decay of cooperation. However, the costs of cooperation can be diminished or overcome when there is competition at a higher level of organizational hierarchy. Here we show that competition between groups resolves the paradigmatic 'public goods' social dilemma and increases within-group cooperation and overall productivity. Further, group competition intensifies the moral emotions of anger and guilt associated with violations of the cooperative norm. The results suggest an important role for group conflict in the evolution of human cooperation and moral emotions.

  3. Novel Concepts of Cooperative Wireless Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    following a common strategy. Wireless devices share their resources (i.e. radio link, antenna, battery, processing unit, etc.) during cooperation using the short-range technology as the underlying communication platform. The amount of data exchanged over the short-range link diers from application...... to application. In some situations the short-range communication is not used at all in case all mobile devices have a predefined mutual understanding of their cooperativeness. The main reason of cooperation is threefold: first, the limit capability of wireless devices can be virtually enhanced by cooperation...... networks. An energy saving cooperative strategy for DVB-H in ii Abstract networks is designed as a primary attempt to illustrate the potential of cooperation application for multicast services. Furthermore, a cooperative retrans-mission scheme is proposed for reliable multicast service in wireless network...

  4. Cooperation Forms in the Aeronautics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela MOCENCO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of the world economy and the globally accelerated diversification of production led to the need of widening the economic cooperation. The need of cooperation increased in various sectors of the global economy, such as the transport industry, IT and commercial sector. The aeronautics industry is a representative sector of cooperation, where the exchange of knowledge and technology, the cooperation between universities, industries, research organizations, small and medium enterprises (SMEs, etc. and the free flow of ideas are crucial factors for the implementation and sustainability of a unique innovation system. The main objective of this paper is to identify the main forms of cooperation in the aircraft industry. The paper includes two important parts: the first part contains an analysis of the US and Europe aeronautics industry evolution, highlighting the cooperation forms and fields that emerged over time; and the second part comprises an analysis of the Romanian aircraft industry cooperation.

  5. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in ... stay focused on a task, and managing proper emotional reactions. Reduced ACC activity or damage to this ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at some point. Such disorders include depression , anxiety disorders , bipolar disorder , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) , and many others. ... differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with ... our original set of DNA. Sometimes this copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many aspects of life. ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... but can still remember past events and learned skills, and carry on a conversation, all which rely ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medicine, the term environment includes not only our physical surroundings but also factors that can affect our ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are sent from one neuron to another. Share Science News NIMH Director Gordon Elected AAAS Fellow NIMH Launches Director Twitter Account Ethics of Deep Brain Stimulation More General Health Information ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us Home About the Director Advisory Boards and Groups Strategic Plan Offices and Divisions Budget Careers at NIMH ... of the brain's executive functions, such as judgment, decision making, and problem solving. Different parts of the PFC ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate ... The amygdala also appears to be involved in learning to fear an event, such as touching a ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and certain abilities, such as a good singing voice. A gene is a segment of DNA that ... as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can cause ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause severe disability. ... disorders are brain disorders. Evidence shows that they can be related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Criteria (RDoC) Funding Funding Home Opportunities & Announcements Funding Strategy for Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works ...

  18. Brain abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including those with certain heart disorders, may receive antibiotics before dental or other procedures to help reduce the risk of infection. Alternative Names Abscess - brain; Cerebral abscess; CNS abscess Patient ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... focused on a task, and managing proper emotional reactions. Reduced ACC activity or damage to this brain ... 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Top

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... medicine, the term environment includes not only our physical surroundings but also factors that can affect our ...

  3. Brain Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that combining good nutrition with mental, social and physical activities may have a greater benefit in maintaining or improving brain health than any single activity. At the Alzheimer’s Association ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... focused on a task, and managing proper emotional reactions. Reduced ACC activity or damage to this brain ... of how environmental factors like diet, stress and post-natal care can change gene expression (when genes ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... specific protein. Scientists believe epigenetics play a major role in mental disorders and the effects of medications. ... feeling regions of the brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to reward systems in the brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, a disorder ... and her husband questions about Sarah's symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early- ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are sent from one neuron to another. Share Science News NIMH Launches Director Twitter Account Ethics of Deep Brain Stimulation Brain’s Alertness Circuitry Revealed More General Health Information from NIH MEDLINEPlus : Authoritative information from government ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's ... as sleep, diet, or stress. These factors may act alone or together in complex ways, to change ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... they can cause tremors or symptoms found in Parkinson's disease. Serotonin —helps control many functions, such as ... brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, a disorder that affects a person's ability ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into ... factors that can affect our bodies, such as sleep, diet, or stress. These factors may act alone ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... illnesses, such as depression, can occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, such as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that contains codes to make proteins and other important body chemicals. DNA also includes information to control ... cells required for normal function and plays an important role during early brain development. It may also ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... focused on a task, and managing proper emotional reactions. Reduced ACC activity or damage to this brain ... listless, and had no appetite most of the time. Weeks later, Sarah realized she was having trouble ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take ... slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to produce a specific protein. Scientists believe epigenetics play a major role in mental disorders and the ... thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... another as chemical or electrical signals. The brain begins as a small group of cells in the ... how she's responding to the treatment. She also begins regular talk therapy sessions with her psychiatrist. In ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... studied in mental health research are listed below. Amygdala —The brain's "fear hub," which activates our natural " ... confront or escape from a dangerous situation. The amygdala also appears to be involved in learning to ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... and information that the cell needs for growth, metabolism, and repair. Cytoplasm is the substance that fills ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This area of the brain also helps to control the amygdala during stressful events. Some research shows that people who have PTSD or ADHD have reduced activity in their PFCs. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) — the ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us Home About the Director Advisory Boards and Groups Strategic Plan Offices and Divisions Budget Careers at ... electrical signals. The brain begins as a small group of cells in the outer layer of a ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some point. Such disorders include depression , anxiety disorders , bipolar disorder , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) , and many others. ... differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... begun to chart how the brain develops over time in healthy people and are working to compare ... listless, and had no appetite most of the time. Weeks later, Sarah realized she was having trouble ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... who can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or clinical social workers. The psychiatrist asked Sarah and her ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also linked to reward systems in the brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, ... studies suggest that having too little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on neurons communicating with ... axon, most neurons release a chemical message (a neurotransmitter) which crosses the synapse and binds to receptors ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Using MEG, some scientists have found a specific pattern of brain activity that may help predict who ... people with depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies Advanced technologies are also making it faster, easier, ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Some people who develop a mental illness may recover completely; others may have repeated episodes of illness ... in early detection, more tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... from one neuron to another. Share Science News Ethics of Deep Brain Stimulation Brain’s Alertness Circuitry Revealed ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. ... and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This knowledge is allowing scientists ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... each other How changes in the brain can lead to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing ... understanding of genes and epigenetics may one day lead to genetic testing for people at risk for ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... glutamate —The most common neurotransmitter in a person's body, which increases neuronal activity, is involved in early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... network of neurons and their interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the brain's executive functions, such as judgment, decision making, and problem solving. Different parts of the PFC ... a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, as well as emotional control ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of cells in the body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the most common neurotransmitter, glutamate has ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bind onto, leading to more normal mood functioning. Dopamine —mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the ... reward systems in the brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, a disorder that ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the most common ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Amygdala —The brain's "fear hub," which activates our natural "fight-or-flight" response to confront or escape ... genes that appear to increase risk or provide protection from various mental disorders. Other genes may change ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and information that the cell needs for growth, metabolism, and repair. Cytoplasm is the substance that fills ... as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can cause ...