WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain surface cooperative

  1. Production of a faithful realistic phantom to human head and thermal neutron flux measurement on the brain surface. Cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kumada, Hiroaki; Kishi, Toshiaki; Torii, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Junzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Endo, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira; Nose, Tadao [Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Thermal neutron flux is determined using the gold wires in current BNCT irradiation, so evaluation of arbitrary points after the irradiation is limited in the quantity of these detectors. In order to make up for the weakness, dose estimation of a patient is simulated by a computational dose calculation supporting system. In another way without computer simulation, a medical irradiation condition can be replicate experimentally using of realistic phantom which was produced from CT images by rapid prototyping technique. This phantom was irradiated at a same JRR-4 neutron beam as clinical irradiation condition of the patient and the thermal neutron distribution on the brain surface was measured in detail. This experimental evaluation technique using a realistic phantom is applicable to in vitro cell irradiation experiments for radiation biological effects as well as in-phantom experiments for dosimetry under the nearly medical irradiation condition of patient. (author)

  2. Production of a faithful realistic phantom to human head and thermal neutron flux measurement on the brain surface. Cooperative research

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, K; Kishi, T; Kumada, H; Matsumura, A; Nose, T; Torii, Y; Uchiyama, J; Yamamoto, T

    2002-01-01

    Thermal neutron flux is determined using the gold wires in current BNCT irradiation, so evaluation of arbitrary points after the irradiation is limited in the quantity of these detectors. In order to make up for the weakness, dose estimation of a patient is simulated by a computational dose calculation supporting system. In another way without computer simulation, a medical irradiation condition can be replicate experimentally using of realistic phantom which was produced from CT images by rapid prototyping technique. This phantom was irradiated at a same JRR-4 neutron beam as clinical irradiation condition of the patient and the thermal neutron distribution on the brain surface was measured in detail. This experimental evaluation technique using a realistic phantom is applicable to in vitro cell irradiation experiments for radiation biological effects as well as in-phantom experiments for dosimetry under the nearly medical irradiation condition of patient.

  3. Social Interaction in a Cooperative Brain-computer Interface Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obbink, Michel; Gürkök, Hayrettin; Plass - Oude Bos, D.; Hakvoort, Gido; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Camurri, Antonio; Costa, Cristina

    Does using a brain-computer interface (BCI) influence the social interaction between people when playing a cooperative game? By measuring the amount of speech, utterances, instrumental gestures and empathic gestures during a cooperative game where two participants had to reach a certain goal, and

  4. Cooperation driven coherence: Brains working hard together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerianos, Anastasios; Sun, Yu; Chen, Yu; Woong, Kian Fong; Taya, Fumihiko; Arico, Pietro; Borghini, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio; Thakor, Nitish

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to look at the difference in coupling of EEG activity of participant pairs while they perform a cooperative, concurrent, independent yet different task at high and low difficulty levels. Participants performed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) designed Multi-Attribute Task Battery (MATB-II) task which simulates a pilot and copilot operating an aircraft. Each participant in the pair was responsible for 2 out of 4 subtasks which were independent and different from one another while all tasks occurs concurrently in real time with difficulty levels being the frequency that adjustments are required for each subtask. We found that as the task become more difficult, there was more coupling between the pilot and copilot.

  5. Workbench surface editor of brain cortical surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Douglas E.; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Serra, Luis

    1996-04-01

    We have developed a 3D reach-in tool to manually reconstruct 3D cortical surface patches from 2D brain atlas images. The first application of our cortex editor is building 3D functional maps, specifically Brodmann's areas. This tool may also be useful in clinical practice to adjust incorrectly mapped atlas regions due to the deforming effect of lesions. The cortex editor allows a domain expert to control the correlation of control points across slices. Correct correlation has been difficult for 3D reconstruction algorithms because the atlas slices are far apart and because of the complex topology of the cortex which differs so much from slice to slice. Also, higher precision of the resulting surfaces is demanded since these define 3D brain atlas features upon which future stereotactic surgery may be based. The cortex editor described in this paper provides a tool suitable for a domain expert to use in defining the 3D surface of a Brodmann's area.

  6. MR imaging of brain surface structures: Surface anatomy scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, K.; Koga, S.; Asahina, M.; Kanno, T.; Asahina, K.

    1987-01-01

    Preoperative evaluation of brain surface anatomy, including cortical sulci and veins, relative to cerebral and cerebellar lesions is an important subject for surgeons. Until now, no imaging modality existed that allowed direct visualization of brain surface anatomy. A new MR imaging technique (surface anatomy scanning) was developed to visualize brain surface structures. The technique uses a spin-echo pulse sequence with long repetition and echo times, thick sections and a surface coil. Cortical sulci, fissures, veins, and intracranial lesions were clearly identified with this technique. Initial clinical results indicate that surface anatomy scanning is useful for lesion localization and for detailed evaluation of cortical and subcortical lesions

  7. MR imaging of brain surface structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, Kazuhiro; Anno, Hirofumi; Takesita, Gen; Koga, Sukehiko; Kanno, Tetuo; Sakakibara, Tatuo; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Saito, Sigeki.

    1989-01-01

    An imaging technique that permits direct and non-invasive visualization of brain surface structures was proposed. This technique (Surface anatomy scanning, SAS) consists of long TE-long TR spin echo sequence, thick slice and surface coil. Initial clinical trials in 31 patients with various cerebral pathology showed excellent visualization of sulci, gyri and major cortical veins on the lateral surface of the brain together with cortical and subcortical lesions. Our preliminary results indicate that the SAS is an effective method for the diagnosis and localization of cortical and subcortical pathology, and the possible application of SAS to the surgical and the radiation therapy planning is sugessted. (author)

  8. Brain Interaction during Cooperation: Evaluating Local Properties of Multiple-Brain Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciaraffa, Nicolina; Borghini, Gianluca; Aricò, Pietro; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Colosimo, Alfredo; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Thakor, Nitish V; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-07-21

    Subjects' interaction is the core of most human activities. This is the reason why a lack of coordination is often the cause of missing goals, more than individual failure. While there are different subjective and objective measures to assess the level of mental effort required by subjects while facing a situation that is getting harder, that is, mental workload, to define an objective measure based on how and if team members are interacting is not so straightforward. In this study, behavioral, subjective and synchronized electroencephalographic data were collected from couples involved in a cooperative task to describe the relationship between task difficulty and team coordination, in the sense of interaction aimed at cooperatively performing the assignment. Multiple-brain connectivity analysis provided information about the whole interacting system. The results showed that averaged local properties of a brain network were affected by task difficulty. In particular, strength changed significantly with task difficulty and clustering coefficients strongly correlated with the workload itself. In particular, a higher workload corresponded to lower clustering values over the central and parietal brain areas. Such results has been interpreted as less efficient organization of the network when the subjects' activities, due to high workload tendencies, were less coordinated.

  9. Cooperativity in Surface Bonding and Hydrogen Bonding of Water and Hydroxyl at Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiros, T.; Ogasawara, H.; Naslund, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    of the mixed phase at metal surfaces. The surface bonding can be considered to be similar to accepting a hydrogen bond, and we can thereby apply general cooperativity rules developed for hydrogen-bonded systems. This provides a simple understanding of why water molecules become more strongly bonded...... to the surface upon hydrogen bonding to OH and why the OH surface bonding is instead weakened through hydrogen bonding to water. We extend the application of this simple model to other observed cooperativity effects for pure water adsorption systems and H3O+ on metal surfaces.......We examine the balance of surface bonding and hydrogen bonding in the mixed OH + H2O overlayer on Pt(111), Cu(111), and Cu(110) via density functional theory calculations. We find that there is a cooperativity effect between surface bonding and hydrogen bonding that underlies the stability...

  10. Preliminary notes on brain weight variation across labrid fish species with different levels of cooperative behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta C.SOARES; Gon(c)alo I.ANDR(E); José R.PAULA

    2015-01-01

    Brain size and weight vary tremendously in the animal kingdom.It has been suggested that brain structural development must evolve balanced between the advantages of dealing with greater social challenges and the energetic costs of maintaining and developing larger brains.Here we ask if interspecific differences in cooperative behaviour (i.e.cleaning behaviour) are related to brain weight variations in four close-related species of Labrid fish:two are obligatory cleanerfish throughout their entire life (Labroides dimidiatus and L.bicolor),one facultative cleaner fish Labropsis australis and one last species that never engage in cleaning Labrichthys unilineatus.We first search for the link between the rate of species' cooperation and its relative brain weight,and finally,if the degree of social complexity and cooperation are reflected in the weight of its major brain substructures.Overall,no differences were found in relative brain weight (in relation to body weight) across species.Fine-scale differences were solely demonstrated for the facultative cleaner L.australis,at the brainstem level.Furthermore,data visual examination indicates that the average cerebellum and brainstem weights appear to be larger for L.dimidiatus.Because variation was solely found at specific brain areas (such as cerebellum and brainstem) and not for the whole brain weight values,it suggests that species social-ecological and cognitive demands may be directly contributing to a selective investment in relevant brain areas.This study provides first preliminary evidence that links potential differences in cognitive ability in cooperative behaviour to how these may mediate the evolution of brain structural development in non-mammal vertebrate groups [Current Zoology 61 (2):274-280,2015].

  11. Cooperation between brain and islet in glucose homeostasis and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael W.; Seeley, Randy J.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Woods, Stephen C.; Morton, Gregory J.; Myers, Martin G.; D'Alessio, David

    2014-01-01

    Although a prominent role for the brain in glucose homeostasis was proposed by scientists in the nineteenth century, research throughout most of the twentieth century focused on evidence that the function of pancreatic islets is both necessary and sufficient to explain glucose homeostasis, and that diabetes results from defects of insulin secretion, action or both. However, insulin-independent mechanisms, referred to as ‘glucose effectiveness’, account for roughly 50% of overall glucose disposal, and reduced glucose effectiveness also contributes importantly to diabetes pathogenesis. Although mechanisms underlying glucose effectiveness are poorly understood, growing evidence suggests that the brain can dynamically regulate this process in ways that improve or even normalize glycaemia in rodent models of diabetes. Here we present evidence of a brain-centred glucoregulatory system (BCGS) that can lower blood glucose levels via both insulin-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and propose a model in which complex and highly coordinated interactions between the BCGS and pancreatic islets promote normal glucose homeostasis. Because activation of either regulatory system can compensate for failure of the other, defects in both may be required for diabetes to develop. Consequently, therapies that target the BCGS in addition to conventional approaches based on enhancing insulin effects may have the potential to induce diabetes remission, whereas targeting just one typically does not. PMID:24201279

  12. MR brain scan tissues and structures segmentation: local cooperative Markovian agents and Bayesian formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherrer, B.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate magnetic resonance brain scan segmentation is critical in a number of clinical and neuroscience applications. This task is challenging due to artifacts, low contrast between tissues and inter-individual variability that inhibit the introduction of a priori knowledge. In this thesis, we propose a new MR brain scan segmentation approach. Unique features of this approach include (1) the coupling of tissue segmentation, structure segmentation and prior knowledge construction, and (2) the consideration of local image properties. Locality is modeled through a multi-agent framework: agents are distributed into the volume and perform a local Markovian segmentation. As an initial approach (LOCUS, Local Cooperative Unified Segmentation), intuitive cooperation and coupling mechanisms are proposed to ensure the consistency of local models. Structures are segmented via the introduction of spatial localization constraints based on fuzzy spatial relations between structures. In a second approach, (LOCUS-B, LOCUS in a Bayesian framework) we consider the introduction of a statistical atlas to describe structures. The problem is reformulated in a Bayesian framework, allowing a statistical formalization of coupling and cooperation. Tissue segmentation, local model regularization, structure segmentation and local affine atlas registration are then coupled in an EM framework and mutually improve. The evaluation on simulated and real images shows good results, and in particular, a robustness to non-uniformity and noise with low computational cost. Local distributed and cooperative MRF models then appear as a powerful and promising approach for medical image segmentation. (author)

  13. ABrIL - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab : a cloud based computation environment for cooperative neuroimaging projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves Tafula, Sérgio M; Moreira da Silva, Nádia; Rozanski, Verena E; Silva Cunha, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience is an increasingly multidisciplinary and highly cooperative field where neuroimaging plays an important role. Neuroimaging rapid evolution is demanding for a growing number of computing resources and skills that need to be put in place at every lab. Typically each group tries to setup their own servers and workstations to support their neuroimaging needs, having to learn from Operating System management to specific neuroscience software tools details before any results can be obtained from each setup. This setup and learning process is replicated in every lab, even if a strong collaboration among several groups is going on. In this paper we present a new cloud service model - Brain Imaging Application as a Service (BiAaaS) - and one of its implementation - Advanced Brain Imaging Lab (ABrIL) - in the form of an ubiquitous virtual desktop remote infrastructure that offers a set of neuroimaging computational services in an interactive neuroscientist-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). This remote desktop has been used for several multi-institution cooperative projects with different neuroscience objectives that already achieved important results, such as the contribution to a high impact paper published in the January issue of the Neuroimage journal. The ABrIL system has shown its applicability in several neuroscience projects with a relatively low-cost, promoting truly collaborative actions and speeding up project results and their clinical applicability.

  14. Generic strong coupling behavior of Cooper pairs in the surface of superfluid nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillet, N. [DPTA/Service de Physique nucleaire, CEA/DAM Ile de France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Sandulescu, N. [DPTA/Service de Physique nucleaire, CEA/DAM Ile de France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)]|[Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 76900 Bucharest (Romania)]|[Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS, UMR 8608, Orsay, F-91406 (France); Schuck, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS, UMR 8608, Orsay, F-91406 (France)]|[Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay, F-91505 (France)

    2007-01-15

    With realistic HFB calculations, using the D1S Gogny force, we reveal a generic behavior of concentration of small sized Cooper pairs (2-3 fm) in the surface of superfluid nuclei. This study confirms and extends previous results given in the literature that use more schematic approaches. It is shown that the strong concentration of pair probability of small Cooper pairs in the nuclear surface is a quite general and generic feature and that nuclear pairing is much closer to the strong coupling regime than previously assumed.

  15. Generic strong coupling behavior of Cooper pairs in the surface of superfluid nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillet, N.; Sandulescu, N.; Schuck, P.

    2007-01-01

    With realistic HFB calculations, using the D1S Gogny force, we reveal a generic behavior of concentration of small sized Cooper pairs (2-3 fm) in the surface of superfluid nuclei. This study confirms and extends previous results given in the literature that use more schematic approaches. It is shown that the strong concentration of pair probability of small Cooper pairs in the nuclear surface is a quite general and generic feature and that nuclear pairing is much closer to the strong coupling regime than previously assumed

  16. Towards real-time diffuse optical tomography for imaging brain functions cooperated with Kalman estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingyuan; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Dongyuan; Ding, Xuemei; Dan, Mai; Pan, Tiantian; Wang, Yihan; Li, Jiao; Zhou, Zhongxing; Zhang, Limin; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2018-02-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive neuroimaging method to monitor the cerebral hemodynamic through the optical changes measured at the scalp surface. It has played a more and more important role in psychology and medical imaging communities. Real-time imaging of brain function using NIRS makes it possible to explore some sophisticated human brain functions unexplored before. Kalman estimator has been frequently used in combination with modified Beer-Lamber Law (MBLL) based optical topology (OT), for real-time brain function imaging. However, the spatial resolution of the OT is low, hampering the application of OT in exploring some complicated brain functions. In this paper, we develop a real-time imaging method combining diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and Kalman estimator, much improving the spatial resolution. Instead of only presenting one spatially distributed image indicating the changes of the absorption coefficients at each time point during the recording process, one real-time updated image using the Kalman estimator is provided. Its each voxel represents the amplitude of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) associated with this voxel. We evaluate this method using some simulation experiments, demonstrating that this method can obtain more reliable spatial resolution images. Furthermore, a statistical analysis is also conducted to help to decide whether a voxel in the field of view is activated or not.

  17. Clinical application of synthesized brain surface imaging for preoperative simulation of brain biopsy under local anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Yuko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Imai, Fumihiro; Fujisawa, Kazuhisa; Takeshita, Gen; Kanno, Tetsuo; Koga, Sukehiko

    1994-01-01

    Surface anatomy scanning (SAS) is the technique which permits the direct visualization of brain surface structures, including cortical sulci, guri, subcortical lesions as well as skin markings for craniotomy. A synthesized brain surface image is a technique that combines MR angiography (MRA) with SAS, and it proposed by us for detecting cerebral superficial veins with these surface structures on the same image. The purpose of this report is to present the result of applying the synthesized brain surface image to the preoperative simulation of biopsy under local anesthesia in 2 cases of multiple metastatic brain tumors. The parameters for SAS were TR/TE=50/40 msec, flip angle=60deg by the fast T 2 technique using refocused FID in steady-state (STERF technique). SAS images were processed by gray scale reversal. The MRA data were acquired with two-dimensional time of flight (TOF) sequence after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. Before imaging, the water-filled plastic tubes were placed on the patients scalp as markings for craniotomy. Their positions were planned by the neurosurgeons. On SAS, the markings for burr-hole appeared located above the tumors. However on the synthesized brain surface images, the positions of burr-hole were considered to be inadequate, since superficial cerebral vein and sinus were also visualized in the area of the markings. From these results, the positions of burr-hole were reset to avoid the venous structures, and so as to include the lesions in operations. The biopsies were performed successfully and safely because the venous structure could be excluded from the operative field. By this technique it was easy to confirm the relationships among lesions, skin markings and venous structures. The technique described appears to be a useful method for preoperative simulation of biopsies for multiple metastatic brain tumors under local anesthesia. (author)

  18. ASIC subunit ratio and differential surface trafficking in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junjun; Xu, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Yu-Qing; Xu, Jiangping; Hu, Youjia; Zha, Xiang-ming

    2016-01-08

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are key mediators of acidosis-induced responses in neurons. However, little is known about the relative abundance of different ASIC subunits in the brain. Such data are fundamental for interpreting the relative contribution of ASIC1a homomers and 1a/2 heteromers to acid signaling, and essential for designing therapeutic interventions to target these channels. We used a simple biochemical approach and semi-quantitatively determined the molar ratio of ASIC1a and 2 subunits in mouse brain. Further, we investigated differential surface trafficking of ASIC1a, ASIC2a, and ASIC2b. ASIC1a subunits outnumber the sum of ASIC2a and ASIC2b. There is a region-specific variation in ASIC2a and 2b expression, with cerebellum and striatum expressing predominantly 2b and 2a, respectively. Further, we performed surface biotinylation and found that surface ASIC1a and ASIC2a ratio correlates with their total expression. In contrast, ASIC2b exhibits little surface presence in the brain. This result is consistent with increased co-localization of ASIC2b with an ER marker in 3T3 cells. Our data are the first semi-quantitative determination of relative subunit ratio of various ASICs in the brain. The differential surface trafficking of ASICs suggests that the main functional ASICs in the brain are ASIC1a homomers and 1a/2a heteromers. This finding provides important insights into the relative contribution of various ASIC complexes to acid signaling in neurons.

  19. Glycogen metabolism in brain and neurons - astrocytes metabolic cooperation can be altered by pre- and neonatal lead (Pb) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Falkowska, Anna; Gutowska, Izabela; Gąssowska, Magdalena; Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Agnieszka; Tarnowski, Maciej; Chibowska, Karina; Goschorska, Marta; Lubkowska, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2017-09-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental neurotoxin which particularly affects the developing brain but the molecular mechanism of its neurotoxicity still needs clarification. The aim of this paper was to examine whether pre- and neonatal exposure to Pb (concentration of Pb in rat offspring blood below the "threshold level") may affect the brain's energy metabolism in neurons and astrocytes via the amount of available glycogen. We investigated the glycogen concentration in the brain, as well as the expression of the key enzymes involved in glycogen metabolism in brain: glycogen synthase 1 (Gys1), glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM, an isoform active in astrocytes; and PYGB, an isoform active in neurons) and phosphorylase kinase β (PHKB). Moreover, the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) was evaluated to analyze whether Pb poisoning during the early phase of life may affect the neuron-astrocytes' metabolic cooperation. This work shows for the first time that exposure to Pb in early life can impair brain energy metabolism by reducing the amount of glycogen and decreasing the rate of its metabolism. This reduction in brain glycogen level was accompanied by a decrease in Gys1 expression. We noted a reduction in the immunoreactivity and the gene expression of both PYGB and PYGM isoform, as well as an increase in the expression of PHKB in Pb-treated rats. Moreover, exposure to Pb induced decrease in connexin 43 immunoexpression in all the brain structures analyzed, both in astrocytes as well as in neurons. Our data suggests that exposure to Pb in the pre- and neonatal periods results in a decrease in the level of brain glycogen and a reduction in the rate of its metabolism, thereby reducing glucose availability, which as a further consequence may lead to the impairment of brain energy metabolism and the metabolic cooperation between neurons and astrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy Metabolism of the Brain, Including the Cooperation between Astrocytes and Neurons, Especially in the Context of Glycogen Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Falkowska, Anna; Gutowska, Izabela; Goschorska, Marta; Nowacki, Przemys?aw; Chlubek, Dariusz; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen metabolism has important implications for the functioning of the brain, especially the cooperation between astrocytes and neurons. According to various research data, in a glycogen deficiency (for example during hypoglycemia) glycogen supplies are used to generate lactate, which is then transported to neighboring neurons. Likewise, during periods of intense activity of the nervous system, when the energy demand exceeds supply, astrocyte glycogen is immediately converted to lactate, s...

  1. BRAIN Journal - The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Female Medical Students' Happiness and Social Support

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Taghinezhad; Rahim Pendar; Samira Rahimi; Maryam Jamalzadeh; Mahboobeh Azadikhah

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cooperative learning has appeared as a new approach to teaching. This approach is utilized for small heterogeneous groups of students who cooperate to achieve a common goal. This study aimed at investigating the impact of cooperative learning on female medical students’ happiness and social support. To this end, 72 female students of medicine at Shiraz Medical School were selected using cluster sampling and divided into experimental and control groups. The students were administe...

  2. NIRS-Based Hyperscanning Reveals Inter-brain Neural Synchronization during Cooperative Jenga Game with Face-to-Face Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Mok, Charis; Witt, Emily E; Pradhan, Anjali H; Chen, Jingyuan E; Reiss, Allan L

    2016-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an increasingly popular technology for studying social cognition. In particular, fNIRS permits simultaneous measurement of hemodynamic activity in two or more individuals interacting in a naturalistic setting. Here, we used fNIRS hyperscanning to study social cognition and communication in human dyads engaged in cooperative and obstructive interaction while they played the game of Jenga™. Novel methods were developed to identify synchronized channels for each dyad and a structural node-based spatial registration approach was utilized for inter-dyad analyses. Strong inter-brain neural synchrony (INS) was observed in the posterior region of the right middle and superior frontal gyrus, in particular Brodmann area 8 (BA8), during cooperative and obstructive interaction. This synchrony was not observed during the parallel game play condition and the dialog section, suggesting that BA8 was involved in goal-oriented social interaction such as complex interactive movements and social decision-making. INS was also observed in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), in particular Brodmann 9, during cooperative interaction only. These additional findings suggest that BA9 may be particularly engaged when theory-of-mind (ToM) is required for cooperative social interaction. The new methods described here have the potential to significantly extend fNIRS applications to social cognitive research.

  3. Cooperation in carbon source degradation shapes spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on hydrated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecon, Robin; Or, Dani

    2017-03-06

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural microbial communities exhibit a high level of spatial organization at the micrometric scale that facilitate ecological interactions and support biogeochemical cycles. Microbial patterns are difficult to study definitively in natural environments due to complex biodiversity, observability and variable physicochemical factors. Here, we examine how trophic dependencies give rise to self-organized spatial patterns of a well-defined bacterial consortium grown on hydrated surfaces. The model consortium consisted of two Pseudomonas putida mutant strains that can fully degrade the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene. We demonstrated that obligate cooperation in toluene degradation (cooperative mutualism) favored convergence of 1:1 partner ratio and strong intermixing at the microscale (10-100 μm). In contrast, competition for benzoate, a compound degraded independently by both strains, led to distinct segregation patterns. Emergence of a persistent spatial pattern has been predicted for surface attached microbial activity in liquid films that mediate diffusive exchanges while permitting limited cell movement (colony expansion). This study of a simple microbial consortium offers mechanistic glimpses into the rules governing the assembly and functioning of complex sessile communities, and points to general principles of spatial organization with potential applications for natural and engineered microbial systems.

  4. Energy Metabolism of the Brain, Including the Cooperation between Astrocytes and Neurons, Especially in the Context of Glycogen Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowska, Anna; Gutowska, Izabela; Goschorska, Marta; Nowacki, Przemysław; Chlubek, Dariusz; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena

    2015-10-29

    Glycogen metabolism has important implications for the functioning of the brain, especially the cooperation between astrocytes and neurons. According to various research data, in a glycogen deficiency (for example during hypoglycemia) glycogen supplies are used to generate lactate, which is then transported to neighboring neurons. Likewise, during periods of intense activity of the nervous system, when the energy demand exceeds supply, astrocyte glycogen is immediately converted to lactate, some of which is transported to the neurons. Thus, glycogen from astrocytes functions as a kind of protection against hypoglycemia, ensuring preservation of neuronal function. The neuroprotective effect of lactate during hypoglycemia or cerebral ischemia has been reported in literature. This review goes on to emphasize that while neurons and astrocytes differ in metabolic profile, they interact to form a common metabolic cooperation.

  5. Imaging method of brain surface anatomy structures using conventional T2-weighted MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, Masahiko; Machida, Yoshio; Yoshida, Tadatoki; Katada, Kazuhiro.

    1992-01-01

    As a non-invasive technique for visualizing the brain surface structure by MRI, surface anatomy scanning (SAS) and the multislice SAS methods have been developed. Both techniques require additional MRI scanning to obtain images for the brain surface. In this paper, we report an alternative method to obtain the brain surface image using conventional T2-weighted multislice images without any additional scanning. The power calculation of the image pixel values, which is incorporated in the routine processing, has been applied in order to enhance the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contrast. We think that this method is one of practical approaches for imaging the surface anatomy of the brain. (author)

  6. Structural brain aging and speech production: a surface-based brain morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Deschamps, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    While there has been a growing number of studies examining the neurofunctional correlates of speech production over the past decade, the neurostructural correlates of this immensely important human behaviour remain less well understood, despite the fact that previous studies have established links between brain structure and behaviour, including speech and language. In the present study, we thus examined, for the first time, the relationship between surface-based cortical thickness (CT) and three different behavioural indexes of sublexical speech production: response duration, reaction times and articulatory accuracy, in healthy young and older adults during the production of simple and complex meaningless sequences of syllables (e.g., /pa-pa-pa/ vs. /pa-ta-ka/). The results show that each behavioural speech measure was sensitive to the complexity of the sequences, as indicated by slower reaction times, longer response durations and decreased articulatory accuracy in both groups for the complex sequences. Older adults produced longer speech responses, particularly during the production of complex sequence. Unique age-independent and age-dependent relationships between brain structure and each of these behavioural measures were found in several cortical and subcortical regions known for their involvement in speech production, including the bilateral anterior insula, the left primary motor area, the rostral supramarginal gyrus, the right inferior frontal sulcus, the bilateral putamen and caudate, and in some region less typically associated with speech production, such as the posterior cingulate cortex.

  7. Gap43 transcription modulation in the adult brain depends on sensory activity and synaptic cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Rosskothen-Kuhl

    Full Text Available Brain development and learning is accompanied by morphological and molecular changes in neurons. The growth associated protein 43 (Gap43, indicator of neurite elongation and synapse formation, is highly expressed during early stages of development. Upon maturation of the brain, Gap43 is down-regulated by most neurons with the exception of subdivisions such as the CA3 region of hippocampus, the lateral superior olive (LSO and the central inferior colliculus (CIC. Little is known about the regulation of this mRNA in adult brains. We found that the expression of Gap43 mRNA in specific neurons can be modulated by changing sensory activity of the adult brain. Using the central auditory system of rats as a model, Gap43 protein and mRNA levels were determined in LSO and CIC of hearing-experienced rats unilaterally or bilaterally deafened or unilaterally stimulated by a cochlear implant (CI. Our data indicate that Gap43 is a marker useful beyond monitoring neuronal growth and synaptogenesis, reflecting also specific patterns of synaptic activities on specific neurons. Thus, unilateral loss of input to an adult auditory system directly causes asymmetrical expression of Gap43 mRNA between LSOs or CICs on both sides of the brainstem. This consequence can be prevented by simple-patterned stimulation of a dysfunctional ear by way of a CI. We suggest that as a function of input balance and activity pattern, Gap43 mRNA expression changes as cells associate converging afferent signals.

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury: Exploring the Role of Cooperative Extension in Kansas Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Debra M.; Garcia, Jane Mertz

    2012-01-01

    TBI"options" helps survivors of traumatic brain injury and their families identify, locate, and contact helpful organizations in their local communities to promote successful living. This article discusses the role of county agents in the program and the support offered by community partners. Results of pre- and post-surveys for both…

  9. High-precision surface formation and the 3-D shaded display of the brain obtained from CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niki, Noboru; Higuti, Kiyofumi; Takahashi, Yoshizo

    1986-01-01

    High-precision reconstruction of surface and 3-D shaded display of the target organ and lesions, obtained from CT images, aid in medical recognition. Firstly, this paper points out some problems of using a conventional method, in which brain surface is reconstructed from the known contour of brain slices, in 3-D shaded display of the brain in a dog. Secondly, a new high-precision technique for reconstructing complex brain surface from brain contour is proposed. The principle of the technique consists of extracting data of outline surface and fissures, smoothing of brain contour, and recomposition of the data of outline surface and fissures into a composite surface image. Finally, the validity of the method was verified by successfully reconstructing complex brain surface from the contour of dog brain slices. In addition, it was possible to cut brain surface, obtained by the newly developed technique, in any voluntary plane and to display CT values on the sections. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Correction: Cecotti, H. and Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Cecotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper (Cecotti, H.; Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355: Due to an internal error, the reference numbers in the original published paper were not shown, and the error was not due to the authors. The former main text should be replaced as below.

  11. Formation of plasmon pulses in the cooperative decay of excitons of quantum dots near a metal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shesterikov, A. B.; Gubin, M. Yu. [Vladimir State University (Russian Federation); Gladush, M. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation); Prokhorov, A. V., E-mail: avprokhorov33@mail.ru [Vladimir State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The formation of pulses of surface electromagnetic waves at a metal–dielectric boundary is considered in the process of cooperative decay of excitons of quantum dots distributed near a metal surface in a dielectric layer. It is shown that the efficiency of exciton energy transfer to excited plasmons can, in principle, be increased by selecting the dielectric material with specified values of the complex permittivity. It is found that in the mean field approximation, the semiclassical model of formation of plasmon pulses in the system under study is reduced to the pendulum equation with the additional term of nonlinear losses.

  12. High-precision surface formation method and the 3-D shaded display of the brain obtained from CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niki, Noboru; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    Our aim is to display the precise 3-D appearance of the brain based on data provided by CT images. For this purpose, we have developed a method of precisely forming surfaces from brain contours. The method expresses the brain surface as the sum of several partial surfaces. Each partial surface is individually constructed from respective parts of brain contours. The brain surface is finally made up of a superposition of partial surfaces. Two surface formation algorithms based on this principle are presented. One expresses the brain surface as the sum of a brain outline surface and sulcus surfaces. The other expresses the brain surface as the sum of surfaces in the same part of the brain. The effectiveness of these algorithms is shown by evaluation of contours obtained from dog and human brain samples and CT images. The latter algorithm is shown to be superior for high-resolution CT images. Optional cut-away views of the brain constructed by these algorithms are also shown. (author)

  13. NT-pro brain natriuretic peptide levels and the risk of death in the cooperative study of sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Roberto F; Hildesheim, Mariana; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Remaley, Alan T; Kato, Gregory J; Gladwin, Mark T

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiological studies support a hypothesis that pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of sickle cell disease (SCD) that is associated with a high risk of death and evolves as a complication of haemolytic anaemia. This fundamental hypothesis has been recently challenged and remains controversial. In order to further test this hypothesis in a large and independent cohort of SCD patients we obtained plasma samples from the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease (CSSCD) for analysis of a biomarker, N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), which is elevated in the setting of pulmonary arterial and venous hypertension. A NT-pro-BNP value previously identified to predict PH in adults with SCD was used to determine the association between the risk of mortality in 758 CSSCD participants (428 children and 330 adults). An abnormally high NT-proBNP level ≥160ng/l was present in 27·6% of adult SCD patients. High levels were associated with markers of haemolytic anaemia, such as low haemoglobin level (P<0·001), high lactate dehydrogenase (P<0·001), and high total bilirubin levels (P<0·007). A NT-proBNP level ≥160ng/l was an independent predictor of mortality (RR 6·24, 95% CI 2·9-13·3, P<0·0001). These findings provide further support for an association between haemolytic anaemia and cardiovascular complications in this patient population. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Establishment of the method of surface shaded display for brain PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangsong; Tang Anwu; He Zuoxiang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To establish the method of surface shaded display (SSD) for brain PET imaging. Methods: The original brain PET images volume data were transferred to the personal computer by the local area network, and scaled into 256 grayscale values between 0 and 255. An appropriate threshold could be selected with three differential methods: depended on the histogram or maximum percentage of the volume data and the opposite value percentage of the lesion. The list of vertices and triangles describing the contour surface was produced with a high resolution three dimensional (3D) surface construction algorithm. Results: The final software of SSD for brain PET imaging with interactive user interface can produce 3D brain PET images which can be rotated, scaled, and saved or outputted with several image formats. Conclusion: The method of SSD for brain PET imaging can directly and integrally reflect the surface of brain cortex, and be helpful to locate lesions and display the range of lesions, but can not reflect the severity of lesions, nor can display the structure under brain cortex

  15. 77 FR 38709 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP) AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... Research Program (STEP). The FHWA anticipates that the STEP or a similar program to provide resources for... stakeholders that can leverage limited research funding in the STEP with other stakeholders and partners in...

  16. 75 FR 38605 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP) AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... Research Program (STEP). The FHWA anticipates that the STEP or a similar program to provide resources for... limited research funding in the STEP with other stakeholders and partners in order to increase the total...

  17. 76 FR 50312 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP) AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... Research Program (STEP). The FHWA anticipates that the STEP or a similar program to provide resources for... limited research funding in the STEP with other stakeholders and partners in order to increase the total...

  18. Multivariate tensor-based brain anatomical surface morphometry via holomorphic one-forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Chan, Tony F; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Here we introduce multivariate tensor-based surface morphometry using holomorphic one-forms to study brain anatomy. We computed new statistics from the Riemannian metric tensors that retain the full information in the deformation tensor fields. We introduce two different holomorphic one-forms that induce different surface conformal parameterizations. We applied this framework to 3D MRI data to analyze hippocampal surface morphometry in Alzheimer's Disease (AD; 26 subjects), lateral ventricular surface morphometry in HIV/AIDS (19 subjects) and cortical surface morphometry in Williams Syndrome (WS; 80 subjects). Experimental results demonstrated that our method powerfully detected brain surface abnormalities. Multivariate statistics on the local tensors outperformed other TBM methods including analysis of the Jacobian determinant, the largest eigenvalue, or the pair of eigenvalues, of the surface Jacobian matrix.

  19. Visualization of brain surface structures by weighted summation technique using multislice MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Yoshio; Hatanaka, Masahiko; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Tadatoki; Katada, Kazuhiro.

    1991-01-01

    Surface anatomy scanning (SAS) technique which visualizes brain surface structures has been developed since 1987. In this paper, we propose a modified method called 'multislice SAS', which also generates such surface structure images, and has several advantages compared with conventional SAS technique. The conventional SAS technique uses a very long echo time sequence (e.g. SE(3000, 250)) with a thick slice and a surface coil to enhance CSF on the brain surface. Our modified technique also uses a long echo time sequence. But, added multislice images, each appropriately weighted, are used in stead of a thick slice and a surface coil. Our basic studies have shown that this modified method has the following advantage: Several surface images with slightly different summation directions are obtained, and they are used for stereographic display and cine display. This is very useful for visualizing the spatial relationship of brain surface structures. By choosing appropriate weighting, we can obtain clinically legible surface images. This technique dose not require a surface coil. It means that flexibility of selecting imaging direction is high. We can make a lot of modifications, because the original multislice images of weighted summation are arbitrary. And we also clarify some limitation or disadvantage of this modified method. In conclusion, we think that this technique is one of the practical approaches for surface anatomy imaging. (author)

  20. The International Research Training Group on "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" as an Example of German-American Cooperation in Doctoral Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Frank; Gur, Ruben C.

    2008-01-01

    The International Research Training Group "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" (IRTG 1328), funded by the German Research Council (DFG), is a German-American cooperation. Its major aims are interdisciplinary and international scientific cooperation and the support of young scientists…

  1. Multivariate Tensor-based Brain Anatomical Surface Morphometry via Holomorphic One-Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yalin; Chan, Tony F.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Here we introduce multivariate tensor-based surface morphometry using holomorphic one-forms to study brain anatomy. We computed new statistics from the Riemannian metric tensors that retain the full information in the deformation tensor fields. We introduce two different holomorphic one-forms that induce different surface conformal parameterizations. We applied this framework to 3D MRI data to analyze hippocampal surface morphometry in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD; 26 subjects), lateral ventricula...

  2. Sensitivity analysis of brain morphometry based on MRI-derived surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gregory J.; Teng, Xia; Schoenemann, P. T.; Budinger, Thomas F.

    1998-07-01

    Quantification of brain structure is important for evaluating changes in brain size with growth and aging and for characterizing neurodegeneration disorders. Previous quantification efforts using ex vivo techniques suffered considerable error due to shrinkage of the cerebrum after extraction from the skull, deformation of slices during sectioning, and numerous other factors. In vivo imaging studies of brain anatomy avoid these problems and allow repetitive studies following progression of brain structure changes due to disease or natural processes. We have developed a methodology for obtaining triangular mesh models of the cortical surface from MRI brain datasets. The cortex is segmented from nonbrain tissue using a 2D region-growing technique combined with occasional manual edits. Once segmented, thresholding and image morphological operations (erosions and openings) are used to expose the regions between adjacent surfaces in deep cortical folds. A 2D region- following procedure is then used to find a set of contours outlining the cortical boundary on each slice. The contours on all slices are tiled together to form a closed triangular mesh model approximating the cortical surface. This model can be used for calculation of cortical surface area and volume, as well as other parameters of interest. Except for the initial segmentation of the cortex from the skull, the technique is automatic and requires only modest computation time on modern workstations. Though the use of image data avoids many of the pitfalls of ex vivo and sectioning techniques, our MRI-based technique is still vulnerable to errors that may impact the accuracy of estimated brain structure parameters. Potential inaccuracies include segmentation errors due to incorrect thresholding, missed deep sulcal surfaces, falsely segmented holes due to image noise and surface tiling artifacts. The focus of this paper is the characterization of these errors and how they affect measurements of cortical surface

  3. Converting chemical energy into electricity through a functionally cooperating device with diving-surfacing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mengmeng; Cheng, Mengjiao; Ju, Guannan; Zhang, Yajun; Shi, Feng

    2014-11-05

    A smart device that can dive or surface in aqueous medium has been developed by combining a pH-responsive surface with acid-responsive magnesium. The diving-surfacing cycles can be used to convert chemical energy into electricity. During the diving-surfacing motion, the smart device cuts magnetic flux lines and produces a current, demonstrating that motional energy can be realized by consuming chemical energy of magnesium, thus producing electricity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Surface Support Systems for Co-Operative and Integrated Human/Robotic Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Human and robotic partnerships to realize space goals can enhance space missions and provide increases in human productivity while decreasing the hazards that the humans are exposed to. For lunar exploration, the harsh environment of the moon and the repetitive nature of the tasks involved with lunar outpost construction, maintenance and operation as well as production tasks associated with in-situ resource utilization, make it highly desirable to use robotic systems in co-operation with human activity. A human lunar outpost is functionally examined and concepts for selected human/robotic tasks are discussed in the context of a lunar outpost which will enable the presence of humans on the moon for extended periods of time.

  5. Surface smoothing: a way back in early brain morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Julien; Intwali, Victor; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Hüppi, Petra S.; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Dubois, Jessica; Germanaud, David

    2013-01-01

    In this article we propose to investigate the analogy between early cortical folding process and cortical smoothing by mean curvature flow. First, we introduce a one-parameter model that is able to fit a developmental trajectory as represented in a Volume-Area plot and we propose an efficient optimization strategy for parameter estimation. Second, we validate the model on forty cortical surfaces of preterm newborns by comparing global geometrical indices and trajectories of central sulcus along developmental and simulation time. PMID:24505715

  6. Whole brain diffeomorphic metric mapping via integration of sulcal and gyral curves, cortical surfaces, and images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jia; Younes, Laurent; Qiu, Anqi

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm for whole brain registration where sulcal and gyral curves, cortical surfaces, and intensity images are simultaneously carried from one subject to another through a flow of diffeomorphisms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the diffeomorphic metric from one brain to another is derived in a shape space of intensity images and point sets (such as curves and surfaces) in a unified manner. We describe the Euler–Lagrange equation associated with this algorithm with respect to momentum, a linear transformation of the velocity vector field of the diffeomorphic flow. The numerical implementation for solving this variational problem, which involves large-scale kernel convolution in an irregular grid, is made feasible by introducing a class of computationally friendly kernels. We apply this algorithm to align magnetic resonance brain data. Our whole brain mapping results show that our algorithm outperforms the image-based LDDMM algorithm in terms of the mapping accuracy of gyral/sulcal curves, sulcal regions, and cortical and subcortical segmentation. Moreover, our algorithm provides better whole brain alignment than combined volumetric and surface registration (Postelnicu et al., 2009) and hierarchical attribute matching mechanism for elastic registration (HAMMER) (Shen and Davatzikos, 2002) in terms of cortical and subcortical volume segmentation. PMID:21281722

  7. Analysis of neuron–astrocyte metabolic cooperation in the brain of db/db mice with cognitive decline using 13C NMR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Hong; Zheng, Yongquan; Wang, Dan; Cai, Aimin; Lin, Qiuting; Zhao, Liangcai; Chen, Minjiang; Deng, Mingjie; Ye, Xinjian; Gao, Hongchang

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes has been linked to cognitive impairment, but its potential metabolic mechanism is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore neuron–astrocyte metabolic cooperation in the brain of diabetic (db/db, BKS.Cg-m+/+ Leprdb/J) mice with cognitive decline using 13C NMR technique in combination with intravenous [2-13C]-acetate and [3-13C]-lactate infusions. We found that the 13C-enrichment from [2-13C]-acetate into tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, succinate, was significant...

  8. Mid-sagittal plane and mid-sagittal surface optimization in brain MRI using a local symmetry measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Skoglund, Karl; Ryberg, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    , the mid-sagittal plane is not always planar, but a curved surface resulting in poor partitioning of the brain hemispheres. To account for this, this paper also investigates an optimization strategy which fits a thin-plate spline surface to the brain data using a robust least median of squares estimator...

  9. The cooperation of the functional activation areas in human brain: an application of event-related fMRI study of the voluntary motor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Enzhong; Tian Jie; Dai Ruwei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To detect the cooperation of the functional activation areas in human brain using event-related fMRI technique developed in recent years. Methods: Forty-four subjects were selected in this experiment and scanned by GE Signa Horizon 1.5 Tesla superconductive MR system. A CUE-GO paradigm was used in this experiment. The data were analyzed in SUN and SGI workstation. Results: The activation areas were found in contralateral primary motor area (Ml), bilateral supplementary motor areas (SMA), pre-motor areas (PMA), basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices. The time-signal curve of Ml was a typical single-peak curve, but the curves in PMA, basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices were double-peak curves. SMA had 2 parts, one was Pre-SMA, and another was SMA Proper. The curve was double-peak type in Pre-SMA and single-peak type in SMA Proper. There was difference between the time-signal intensity curves in above-mentioned areas. Conclusion: (1) Ml is mainly associated with motor execution, while others with both motor preparation and execution. There are differences in the function at the variant areas in the brain. (2) The fact that bilateral SMA, PMA, basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices were activated, is different from what the classical theories told. (3) Event-related fMRI technique has higher temporary and spatial resolutions. (4) There is cooperation among different cortical areas, basal ganglia, and cerebellum

  10. Cooperative Control of Unmanned Surface Vessels and Unmanned Underwater Vessels for Asset Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    are met as well. APPENDIX A –CODE FOR SIMPLE SURFACE PRIMARY SIMULATION % Input Variables cap desired 0.95; xd 2000; yd 2000...50 for t 1:1:50 % Capability Calculations if ((640/(2*sqrt((yd y1)^2 + ( xd x1)^2)*tand(24/2))) > 3) & ((640/(2*sqrt((yd...y2)^2 + ( xd x2)^2)*tand(24/2))) > 3) c1 1 0.0000000000000001*sqrt((yd y1)^2 + ( xd x1)^2); c2 (1 0.0000000000000001

  11. Trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume maturation in normal brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ducharme

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of developmental trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual typically-developing subjects with repeated scanning (1–3 per subject, total scans n=753 from 4.9 to 22.3 years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models, with statistical correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory. Analyses were performed with and without controlling for total brain volume. These data are provided for reference and comparison with other databases. Further discussion and interpretation on cortical developmental trajectories can be found in the associated Ducharme et al.׳s article “Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development – the importance of quality control procedures” (Ducharme et al., 2015 [1].

  12. The Drosophila surface glia transcriptome: evolutionary conserved blood-brain barrier processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K DeSalvo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCentral nervous system (CNS function is dependent on the stringent regulation of metabolites, drugs, cells, and pathogens exposed to the CNS space. Cellular blood-brain barrier (BBB structures are highly specific checkpoints governing entry and exit of all small molecules to and from the brain interstitial space, but the precise mechanisms that regulate the BBB are not well understood. In addition, the BBB has long been a challenging obstacle to the pharmacologic treatment of CNS diseases; thus model systems that can parse the functions of the BBB are highly desirable. In this study, we sought to define the transcriptome of the adult Drosophila melanogaster BBB by isolating the BBB surface glia with FACS and profiling their gene expression with microarrays. By comparing the transcriptome of these surface glia to that of all brain glia, brain neurons, and whole brains, we present a catalog of transcripts that are selectively enriched at the Drosophila BBB. We found that the fly surface glia show high expression of many ABC and SLC transporters, cell adhesion molecules, metabolic enzymes, signaling molecules, and components of xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Using gene sequence-based alignments, we compare the Drosophila and Murine BBB transcriptomes and discover many shared chemoprotective and small molecule control pathways, thus affirming the relevance of invertebrate models for studying evolutionary conserved BBB properties. The Drosophila BBB transcriptome is valuable to vertebrate and insect biologists alike as a resource for studying proteins underlying diffusion barrier development and maintenance, glial biology, and regulation of drug transport at tissue barriers.

  13. The Drosophila surface glia transcriptome: evolutionary conserved blood-brain barrier processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Michael K; Hindle, Samantha J; Rusan, Zeid M; Orng, Souvinh; Eddison, Mark; Halliwill, Kyle; Bainton, Roland J

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) function is dependent on the stringent regulation of metabolites, drugs, cells, and pathogens exposed to the CNS space. Cellular blood-brain barrier (BBB) structures are highly specific checkpoints governing entry and exit of all small molecules to and from the brain interstitial space, but the precise mechanisms that regulate the BBB are not well understood. In addition, the BBB has long been a challenging obstacle to the pharmacologic treatment of CNS diseases; thus model systems that can parse the functions of the BBB are highly desirable. In this study, we sought to define the transcriptome of the adult Drosophila melanogaster BBB by isolating the BBB surface glia with fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and profiling their gene expression with microarrays. By comparing the transcriptome of these surface glia to that of all brain glia, brain neurons, and whole brains, we present a catalog of transcripts that are selectively enriched at the Drosophila BBB. We found that the fly surface glia show high expression of many ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and solute carrier (SLC) transporters, cell adhesion molecules, metabolic enzymes, signaling molecules, and components of xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Using gene sequence-based alignments, we compare the Drosophila and Murine BBB transcriptomes and discover many shared chemoprotective and small molecule control pathways, thus affirming the relevance of invertebrate models for studying evolutionary conserved BBB properties. The Drosophila BBB transcriptome is valuable to vertebrate and insect biologists alike as a resource for studying proteins underlying diffusion barrier development and maintenance, glial biology, and regulation of drug transport at tissue barriers.

  14. Variations and asymmetries in regional brain surface in the genus Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzeau, Antoine; Holloway, Ralph L; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique

    2012-06-01

    Paleoneurology is an important field of research within human evolution studies. Variations in size and shape of an endocast help to differentiate among fossil hominin species whereas endocranial asymmetries are related to behavior and cognitive function. Here we analyse variations of the surface of the frontal, parieto-temporal and occipital lobes among different species of Homo, including 39 fossil hominins, ten fossil anatomically modern Homo sapiens and 100 endocasts of extant modern humans. We also test for the possible asymmetries of these features in a large sample of modern humans and observe individual particularities in the fossil specimens. This study contributes important new information about the brain evolution in the genus Homo. Our results show that the general pattern of surface asymmetry for the different regional brain surfaces in fossil species of Homo does not seem to be different from the pattern described in a large sample of anatomically modern H. sapiens, i.e., the right hemisphere has a larger surface than the left, as do the right frontal, the right parieto-temporal and the left occipital lobes compared with the contra-lateral side. It also appears that Asian Homo erectus specimens are discriminated from all other samples of Homo, including African and Georgian specimens that are also sometimes included in that taxon. The Asian fossils show a significantly smaller relative size of the parietal and temporal lobes. Neandertals and anatomically modern H. sapiens, who share the largest endocranial volume of all hominins, show differences when considering the relative contribution of the frontal, parieto-temporal and occipital lobes. These results illustrate an original variation in the pattern of brain organization in hominins independent of variations in total size. The globularization of the brain and the enlargement of the parietal lobes could be considered derived features observed uniquely in anatomically modern H. sapiens. Copyright

  15. Applied clinical and pathogenetic aspects of interdisciplinary cooperation in the diagnosis and treatment of concussion of brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Hertsev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issues of pathogenesis and diagnostics of different variants of dizziness, as one of the main symptoms of traumatic brain injury. Along with traumatic brain injury raises concussion of the labyrinth benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and others described a range of diagnostic assessment techniques and differential diagnosis of post-traumatic nystagmus, as well as the adequacy of the practical application of a number of vestibulometric studies, caloric tests, tests, medical maneuvers, and their effectiveness from a position of evidence-based medicine.

  16. Multidentate-Protected Colloidal Gold Nanocrystals: pH Control of Cooperative Precipitation and Surface Layer Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairdolf, Brad A.; Nie, Shuming

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal gold nanocrystals with broad size tunability and unusual pH-sensitive properties have been synthesized by using multidentate polymer ligands. Containing both carboxylic functional groups and sterically hindered aliphatic chains, the multidentate ligands are able to both reduce gold precursors and to stabilize gold nanoclusters during nucleation and growth. The “as-synthesized” nanocrystals are protected by an inner coordinating layer and an outer polymer layer, and are soluble in water and polar solvents. When the solution pH is lowered by just 0.6 units (from pH 4.85 to 4.25), the particles undergo a dramatic cooperative transition from being soluble to insoluble, allowing rapid isolation, purification, and redispersion of the multidentate-protected nanocrystals. A surprise finding is that when a portion of the surface carboxylate groups is neutralized by protonation, the particles irreversibly shed their outer polymer layer and become soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. Further, the multidentate polymer coatings are permeable to small organic molecules, in contrast to tightly packed self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols on gold. These insights are important towards the design of “smart” imaging and therapeutic nanoparticles that are activated by small pH changes in the tumor interstitial space or endocytic organelles. PMID:21510704

  17. Effect of Anti-Sticking Nanostructured Surface Coating on Minimally Invasive Electrosurgical Device in Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Han-Yi; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chiang, Hsi-Jen; Lin, Li-Hsiang

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent of thermal injury in the brain after the use of a minimally invasive electrosurgical device with a nanostructured copper-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC-Cu) surface coating. To effectively utilize an electrosurgical device in clinical surgery, it is important to decrease the thermal injury to the adjacent tissues. The surface characteristics and morphology of DLC-Cu thin film was evaluated using a contact angle goniometer, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Three-dimensional biomedical brain models were reconstructed using magnetic resonance images to simulate the electrosurgical procedure. Results indicated that the temperature was reduced significantly when a minimally invasive electrosurgical device with a DLC-Cu thin film coating (DLC-Cu-SS) was used. Temperatures decreased with the use of devices with increasing film thickness. Thermographic data revealed that surgical temperatures in an animal model were significantly lower with the DLC-Cu-SS electrosurgical device compared to an untreated device. Furthermore, the DLC-Cu-SS device created a relatively small region of injury and lateral thermal range. As described above, the biomedical nanostructured film reduced excessive thermal injury with the use of a minimally invasive electrosurgical device in the brain.

  18. Detergency of stainless steel surface soiled with human brain homogenate: an XPS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, M. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, UMR 5513 LTDS, 69 134 Ecully (France) and Laboratoires ANIOS, 59 260 Lille-Hellemmes (France)]. E-mail: marlene.richard@ec-lyon.fr; Le Mogne, Th. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, UMR 5513 LTDS, 69 134 Ecully (France); Perret-Liaudet, A. [Hopital Neurologique de Lyon et INSERM U512, 69 394 Lyon (France); Rauwel, G. [Laboratoires ANIOS, 59 260 Lille-Hellemmes (France); Criquelion, J. [Laboratoires ANIOS, 59 260 Lille-Hellemmes (France); De Barros, M.I. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, UMR 5513 LTDS, 69 134 Ecully (France); Cetre, J.C. [Unite d' Hygiene et d' Epidemiologie, Hopital de la Croix Rousse, 69 317 Lyon (France); Martin, J.M. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, UMR 5513 LTDS, 69 134 Ecully (France)

    2005-02-15

    In the detergency field of re-usable medical devices, a special attention is focused on the non conventional transmissible agent called prions which is a proteinaceous infectious agent. Few cleaning procedures are effective against prions and few techniques are available to study cleaning effectiveness with respect to proteins in general. In our study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to evaluate the effectiveness of detergent formulations to remove proteins from stainless steel surface soiled with a brain homogenate (BH) from human origin. Our results showed that XPS is a reliable surface analysis technique to study chemical species remaining on surface and substrate properties after cleaning procedures. A semi-quantitative evaluation of the detergency effectiveness could also be performed.

  19. Detergency of stainless steel surface soiled with human brain homogenate: an XPS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, M.; Le Mogne, Th.; Perret-Liaudet, A.; Rauwel, G.; Criquelion, J.; De Barros, M.I.; Cetre, J.C.; Martin, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the detergency field of re-usable medical devices, a special attention is focused on the non conventional transmissible agent called prions which is a proteinaceous infectious agent. Few cleaning procedures are effective against prions and few techniques are available to study cleaning effectiveness with respect to proteins in general. In our study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to evaluate the effectiveness of detergent formulations to remove proteins from stainless steel surface soiled with a brain homogenate (BH) from human origin. Our results showed that XPS is a reliable surface analysis technique to study chemical species remaining on surface and substrate properties after cleaning procedures. A semi-quantitative evaluation of the detergency effectiveness could also be performed

  20. Nanoparticle technology for treatment of Parkinson's disease: the role of surface phenomena in reaching the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Gómez, Gerardo; Cortés, Hernán; Magaña, Jonathan J; Leyva-García, Norberto; Quintanar-Guerrero, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-07-01

    The absence of a definitive treatment for Parkinson's disease has driven the emerging investigation in the search for novel therapeutic alternatives. At present, the formulation of different drugs on nanoparticles has represented several advantages over conventional treatments. This type of multifunctional carrier, owing to its size and composition, has different interactions in biological systems that can lead to a decrease in ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, this review focuses on the latest advances in obtaining nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease and provides an overview of technical aspects in the design of brain drug delivery of nanoparticles and an analysis of surface phenomena, a key aspect in the development of functional nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cortical surface-based analysis reduces bias and variance in kinetic modeling of brain PET data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Douglas N; Svarer, Claus; Fisher, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory (i.e., voxelwise) spatial methods are commonly used in neuroimaging to identify areas that show an effect when a region-of-interest (ROI) analysis cannot be performed because no strong a priori anatomical hypothesis exists. However, noise at a single voxel is much higher than noise...... in a ROI making noise management critical to successful exploratory analysis. This work explores how preprocessing choices affect the bias and variability of voxelwise kinetic modeling analysis of brain positron emission tomography (PET) data. These choices include the use of volume- or cortical surface...

  2. Multi circular-cavity surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain at 4 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, A. I.; Solis-Najera, S. E.; Vázquez, F.; Wang, R. L.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2014-11-01

    Animal models in medical research has been used to study humans diseases for several decades. The use of different imaging techniques together with different animal models offers a great advantage due to the possibility to study some human pathologies without the necessity of chirurgical intervention. The employ of magnetic resonance imaging for the acquisition of anatomical and functional images is an excellent tool because its noninvasive nature. Dedicated coils to perform magnetic resonance imaging experiments are obligatory due to the improvement on the signal-to-noise ratio and reduced specific absorption ratio. A specifically designed surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain is proposed based on the multi circular-slot coil. Numerical simulations of the magnetic and electric fields were also performed using the Finite Integration Method to solve Maxwell's equations for this particular coil design and, to study the behavior of various vector magnetic field configurations and specific absorption ratio. Monkey's brain images were then acquired with a research-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging system at 4T, to evaluate the anatomical images with conventional imaging sequences. This coil showed good quality images of a monkey's brain and full compatibility with standard pulse sequences implemented in research-dedicated imager.

  3. SU-E-J-171: Surface Imaging Based Intrafraction Motion Assessments for Whole Brain Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiant, D; Vanderstraeten, C; Maurer, J; Pursley, J; Terrell, J; Sintay, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify and characterize intrafraction motion for whole brain radiotherapy treatments in open face masks using 3D surface imaging. Methods: Fifteen whole brain patients were monitored with 3D surface imaging over a total of 202 monitoring sessions. Mean translations and rotations were calculated over each minute, each session, and over all sessions combined. The percentage of each session that the root mean square (RMS) of the linear translations were outside of 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, and 5 mm were determined for each patient. Correlations between mean translations per minute and time and between standard deviation per minute and time were evaluated using Pearson's r value. Results: The mean RMS translation averaged over all patients was 1.45 mm +/− 1.52 mm. The patients spent an average of 18%, 10%, 6%, and 3% of the monitoring time outside of 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, and 5 mm RMS tolerances, respectively. The RMS values averaged over all patients were 1.31 mm +/− 0.98 mm, 1.52 +/- 1.04, and 1.30 mm +/− 0.71 mm over the 1th, 5th, and 10th minutes of monitoring, respectively. Neither, the RMS values (p = 0.15) or the standard deviations of the RMS values (p = 0.16) showed significant correlations with time. Conclusion: The patients were positioned within 2 mm of isocenter, which was the initial set-up tolerance, for the majority of their treatments. The average position changed by < 0.3 mm over 10 minutes of monitoring. Short term movements, reflected by the standard deviations, where on the order of 1 mm. This immobilization system provides adequate immobilization over a course of treatment for whole brain radiotherapy. This system may also be suitable for head and neck or stereotactic radiosurgery treatments as well

  4. Analysis of neuron–astrocyte metabolic cooperation in the brain of db/db mice with cognitive decline using 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong; Zheng, Yongquan; Wang, Dan; Cai, Aimin; Lin, Qiuting; Zhao, Liangcai; Chen, Minjiang; Deng, Mingjie; Ye, Xinjian

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes has been linked to cognitive impairment, but its potential metabolic mechanism is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore neuron–astrocyte metabolic cooperation in the brain of diabetic (db/db, BKS.Cg-m+/+ Leprdb/J) mice with cognitive decline using 13C NMR technique in combination with intravenous [2-13C]-acetate and [3-13C]-lactate infusions. We found that the 13C-enrichment from [2-13C]-acetate into tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, succinate, was significantly decreased in db/db mice with cognitive decline compared with wild-type (WT, C57BLKS/J) mice, while an opposite result was obtained after [3-13C]-lactate infusion. Relative to WT mice, db/db mice with cognitive decline had significantly lower 13C labeling percentages in neurotransmitters including glutamine, glutamate, and γ-aminobutyric acid after [2-13C]-acetate infusion. However, [3-13C]-lactate resulted in increased 13C-enrichments in neurotransmitters in db/db mice with cognitive decline. This may indicate that the disturbance of neurotransmitter metabolism occurred during the development of cognitive decline. In addition, a reduction in 13C-labeling of lactate and an increase in gluconeogenesis were found from both labeled infusions in db/db mice with cognitive decline. Therefore, our results suggest that the development of cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes may be implicated to an unbalanced metabolism in neuron–astrocyte cooperation and an enhancement of gluconeogenesis. PMID:26762505

  5. Analysis of neuron-astrocyte metabolic cooperation in the brain of db/db mice with cognitive decline using 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong; Zheng, Yongquan; Wang, Dan; Cai, Aimin; Lin, Qiuting; Zhao, Liangcai; Chen, Minjiang; Deng, Mingjie; Ye, Xinjian; Gao, Hongchang

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes has been linked to cognitive impairment, but its potential metabolic mechanism is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore neuron-astrocyte metabolic cooperation in the brain of diabetic (db/db, BKS.Cg-m +/+ Leprdb/J) mice with cognitive decline using 13 C NMR technique in combination with intravenous [2- 13 C]-acetate and [3- 13 C]-lactate infusions. We found that the 13 C-enrichment from [2- 13 C]-acetate into tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, succinate, was significantly decreased in db/db mice with cognitive decline compared with wild-type (WT, C57BLKS/J) mice, while an opposite result was obtained after [3- 13 C]-lactate infusion. Relative to WT mice, db/db mice with cognitive decline had significantly lower 13 C labeling percentages in neurotransmitters including glutamine, glutamate, and γ-aminobutyric acid after [2- 13 C]-acetate infusion. However, [3- 13 C]-lactate resulted in increased 13 C-enrichments in neurotransmitters in db/db mice with cognitive decline. This may indicate that the disturbance of neurotransmitter metabolism occurred during the development of cognitive decline. In addition, a reduction in 13 C-labeling of lactate and an increase in gluconeogenesis were found from both labeled infusions in db/db mice with cognitive decline. Therefore, our results suggest that the development of cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes may be implicated to an unbalanced metabolism in neuron-astrocyte cooperation and an enhancement of gluconeogenesis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Riemannian metric optimization on surfaces (RMOS) for intrinsic brain mapping in the Laplace-Beltrami embedding space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahm, Jin Kyu; Shi, Yonggang

    2018-05-01

    Surface mapping methods play an important role in various brain imaging studies from tracking the maturation of adolescent brains to mapping gray matter atrophy patterns in Alzheimer's disease. Popular surface mapping approaches based on spherical registration, however, have inherent numerical limitations when severe metric distortions are present during the spherical parameterization step. In this paper, we propose a novel computational framework for intrinsic surface mapping in the Laplace-Beltrami (LB) embedding space based on Riemannian metric optimization on surfaces (RMOS). Given a diffeomorphism between two surfaces, an isometry can be defined using the pullback metric, which in turn results in identical LB embeddings from the two surfaces. The proposed RMOS approach builds upon this mathematical foundation and achieves general feature-driven surface mapping in the LB embedding space by iteratively optimizing the Riemannian metric defined on the edges of triangular meshes. At the core of our framework is an optimization engine that converts an energy function for surface mapping into a distance measure in the LB embedding space, which can be effectively optimized using gradients of the LB eigen-system with respect to the Riemannian metrics. In the experimental results, we compare the RMOS algorithm with spherical registration using large-scale brain imaging data, and show that RMOS achieves superior performance in the prediction of hippocampal subfields and cortical gyral labels, and the holistic mapping of striatal surfaces for the construction of a striatal connectivity atlas from substantia nigra. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain surface anatomy in adults with autism: the relationship between surface area, cortical thickness, and autistic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Christine; Ginestet, Cedric; Feng, Yue; Johnston, Patrick; Lombardo, Michael V; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Suckling, John; Palaniyappan, Lena; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Williams, Steven C; Bullmore, Edward T; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brammer, Michael; Murphy, Declan G M

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of brain anatomy in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have mostly been based on measures of cortical volume (CV). However, CV is a product of 2 distinct parameters, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), that in turn have distinct genetic and developmental origins. To investigate regional differences in CV, SA, and CT as well as their relationship in a large and well-characterized sample of men with ASD and matched controls. Multicenter case-control design using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Medical Research Council UK Autism Imaging Multicentre Study. A total of 168 men, 84 diagnosed as having ASD and 84 controls who did not differ significantly in mean (SD) age (26 [7] years vs 28 [6] years, respectively) or full-scale IQ (110 [14] vs 114 [12], respectively). Between-group differences in CV, SA, and CT investigated using a spatially unbiased vertex-based approach; the degree of spatial overlap between the differences in CT and SA; and their relative contribution to differences in regional CV. Individuals with ASD differed from controls in all 3 parameters. These mainly consisted of significantly increased CT within frontal lobe regions and reduced SA in the orbitofrontal cortex and posterior cingulum. These differences in CT and SA were paralleled by commensurate differences in CV. The spatially distributed patterns for CT and SA were largely nonoverlapping and shared only about 3% of all significantly different locations on the cerebral surface. Individuals with ASD have significant differences in CV, but these may be underpinned by (separable) variations in its 2 components, CT and SA. This is of importance because both measures result from distinct developmental pathways that are likely modulated by different neurobiological mechanisms. This finding may provide novel targets for future studies into the etiology of the condition and a new way to fractionate the disorder.

  8. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  9. The advantages of the surface Laplacian in brain-computer interface research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J

    2015-09-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems frequently use signal processing methods, such as spatial filtering, to enhance performance. The surface Laplacian can reduce spatial noise and aid in identification of sources. In BCI research, these two functions of the surface Laplacian correspond to prediction accuracy and signal orthogonality. In the present study, an off-line analysis of data from a sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI task dissociated these functions of the surface Laplacian by comparing nearest-neighbor and next-nearest neighbor Laplacian algorithms. The nearest-neighbor Laplacian produced signals that were more orthogonal while the next-nearest Laplacian produced signals that resulted in better accuracy. Both prediction and signal identification are important for BCI research. Better prediction of user's intent produces increased speed and accuracy of communication and control. Signal identification is important for ruling out the possibility of control by artifacts. Identifying the nature of the control signal is relevant both to understanding exactly what is being studied and in terms of usability for individuals with limited motor control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Localization, correlation, and visualization of electroencephalographic surface electrodes and brain anatomy in epilepsy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H.; O'Brien, Terence J.; Robb, Richard A.; Sharbrough, Frank W.

    1997-05-01

    Advances in neuroimaging have enhanced the clinician's ability to localize the epileptogenic zone in focal epilepsy, but 20-50 percent of these cases still remain unlocalized. Many sophisticated modalities have been used to study epilepsy, but scalp electrode recorded electroencephalography is particularly useful due to its noninvasive nature and excellent temporal resolution. This study is aimed at specific locations of scalp electrode EEG information for correlation with anatomical structures in the brain. 3D position localizing devices commonly used in virtual reality systems are used to digitize the coordinates of scalp electrodes in a standard clinical configuration. The electrode coordinates are registered with a high- resolution MRI dataset using a robust surface matching algorithm. Volume rendering can then be used to visualize the electrodes and electrode potentials interpolated over the scalp. The accuracy of the coordinate registration is assessed quantitatively with a realistic head phantom.

  11. Three-dimensional reconstruction of brain surface anatomy: technique comparison between flash and diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jianzhong; Wang Zhikang; Gong Xiangyang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare two methods 3D flash and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) in reconstructing the brain surface anatomy, and to evaluate their displaying ability, advantages, limitations and clinical application. Methods: Thrity normal cases were prospectively examined with 3D flash sequence and echo-planar DWI. Three-dimensional images were acquired with volume-rendering on workstation. Brain surface structures were evaluated and scored by a group of doctors. Results: Main structures of brain surface were clearly displayed on three-dimensional images based on 3D flash sequence. Average scores were all above 2.50. For images based on DWI, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus, precentral sulcus, central sulcus, postcentral sulcus, intraparietal sulcus and superior frontal sulcus were best shown with average scores between 2.60-2.75, However, supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, lateral sulcus, inferior frontal sulcus could not be well shown, with average scores between 1.67-2.48. Middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, superior temporal sulcus and inferior temporal sulcus can only get scores from 0.88 to 1.27. Scores of images based on 3D flash were much higher than that based on DWI with distinct differentiations, P values were all below 0.01. Conclusion: Three-dimensional images based on 3D flash can really display brain surface structures. It is very useful for anatomic researches. Three-dimensional reconstruction of brain surface based on DWI is a worthy technique to display brain surface anatomy, especially for frontal and parietal structures. (authors)

  12. Surface-based brain morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging in schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landin-Romero, Ramón; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J; Kumfor, Fiona; Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Madre, Mercè; Maristany, Teresa; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Amann, Benedikt L

    2017-01-01

    The profile of grey matter abnormalities and related white-matter pathology in schizoaffective disorder has only been studied to a limited extent. The aim of this study was to identify grey- and white-matter abnormalities in patients with schizoaffective disorder using complementary structural imaging techniques. Forty-five patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition criteria and Research Diagnostic Criteria for schizoaffective disorder and 45 matched healthy controls underwent structural-T1 and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to enable surface-based brain morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analyses. Analyses were conducted to determine group differences in cortical volume, cortical thickness and surface area, as well as in fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity. At a threshold of p = 0.05 corrected, all measures revealed significant differences between patients and controls at the group level. Spatial overlap of abnormalities was observed across the various structural neuroimaging measures. In grey matter, patients with schizoaffective disorder showed abnormalities in the frontal and temporal lobes, striatum, fusiform, cuneus, precuneus, lingual and limbic regions. White-matter abnormalities were identified in tracts connecting these areas, including the corpus callosum, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, anterior thalamic radiation, uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle. The spatial overlap of abnormalities across the different imaging techniques suggests widespread and consistent brain pathology in schizoaffective disorder. The abnormalities were mainly detected in areas that have commonly been reported to be abnormal in schizophrenia, and to some extent in bipolar disorder, which may explain the clinical and aetiological overlap in these disorders.

  13. Three-dimensional brain-surface MR images of brain anomalies in Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy and its differentiation from Duchenne muscular dystrophy with severe mental retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Tatsushi; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Shimizu, Teruo; Iwata, Makoto; Kanazawa, Ichiro (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Matsumura, Kiichiro

    1993-12-01

    Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is the second most common form of muscular dystrophy in Japan and is peculiarly associated with brain anomalies such as micropolygyria. Since these anomalies are preferentially observed on the brain surface, it is difficult to identify them by either X-ray CT or conventional MRI. In addition, FCMD has an atypical (mild) form in which the patients are capable of walking. In such cases, clinical differential diagnosis from Duchenne muscular dystrophy with severe mental retardation (DMD-MR) is not necessarily easy. We analyzed the brain-surface structures of 4 typical FCMD cases. 1 atypical FCMD case, 4 DMD-MR cases, and 1 undiagnosed case using a method of 3-dimensional (3-D) brain-surface MR imaging; we then compared the results with dystrophin immuno-stainings of the biopsied skeletal muscles. In both typical and atypical FCMD cases, micropolygyria could be clearly demonstrated, with individual variations. The 3-D images were verified by neuropathology. Of the 4 DMD-MR cases, 3 cases showed no gyral abnormality. However, in 1 DMD-MR case the diagnosis was corrected to atypical FCMD because of micropolygyria found on 3-D MRI. The one undiangosed case was diagnosed as DMD-MR on the basis of 3-D MRI. There was a good correspondence between the results of the 3-D imaging and the dystrophin test. Recently, some FCMD cases with a complete deficiency of dystrophin have been reported. Therefore, the detection of brain anomalies is important for the precise diagnosis of FCMD; the present method is considered effective for this purpose. (author).

  14. Three-dimensional brain-surface MR images of brain anomalies in Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy and its differentiation from Duchenne muscular dystrophy with severe mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Tatsushi; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Shimizu, Teruo; Iwata, Makoto; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Matsumura, Kiichiro.

    1993-01-01

    Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is the second most common form of muscular dystrophy in Japan and is peculiarly associated with brain anomalies such as micropolygyria. Since these anomalies are preferentially observed on the brain surface, it is difficult to identify them by either X-ray CT or conventional MRI. In addition, FCMD has an atypical (mild) form in which the patients are capable of walking. In such cases, clinical differential diagnosis from Duchenne muscular dystrophy with severe mental retardation (DMD-MR) is not necessarily easy. We analyzed the brain-surface structures of 4 typical FCMD cases. 1 atypical FCMD case, 4 DMD-MR cases, and 1 undiagnosed case using a method of 3-dimensional (3-D) brain-surface MR imaging; we then compared the results with dystrophin immuno-stainings of the biopsied skeletal muscles. In both typical and atypical FCMD cases, micropolygyria could be clearly demonstrated, with individual variations. The 3-D images were verified by neuropathology. Of the 4 DMD-MR cases, 3 cases showed no gyral abnormality. However, in 1 DMD-MR case the diagnosis was corrected to atypical FCMD because of micropolygyria found on 3-D MRI. The one undiangosed case was diagnosed as DMD-MR on the basis of 3-D MRI. There was a good correspondence between the results of the 3-D imaging and the dystrophin test. Recently, some FCMD cases with a complete deficiency of dystrophin have been reported. Therefore, the detection of brain anomalies is important for the precise diagnosis of FCMD; the present method is considered effective for this purpose. (author)

  15. An automatic rat brain extraction method based on a deformable surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehua; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhuo, Jiachen; Gullapalli, Rao P; Zara, Jason M

    2013-08-15

    The extraction of the brain from the skull in medical images is a necessary first step before image registration or segmentation. While pre-clinical MR imaging studies on small animals, such as rats, are increasing, fully automatic imaging processing techniques specific to small animal studies remain lacking. In this paper, we present an automatic rat brain extraction method, the Rat Brain Deformable model method (RBD), which adapts the popular human brain extraction tool (BET) through the incorporation of information on the brain geometry and MR image characteristics of the rat brain. The robustness of the method was demonstrated on T2-weighted MR images of 64 rats and compared with other brain extraction methods (BET, PCNN, PCNN-3D). The results demonstrate that RBD reliably extracts the rat brain with high accuracy (>92% volume overlap) and is robust against signal inhomogeneity in the images. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  17. Rutile TiO₂ particles exert size and surface coating dependent retention and lesions on the murine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Bai, Ru; Li, Bai; Ge, Cuicui; Du, Jiangfeng; Liu, Ying; Le Guyader, Laurent; Zhao, Yuliang; Wu, Yanchuan; He, Shida; Ma, Yongmei; Chen, Chunying

    2011-11-10

    The rising commercial use and large-scale production of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) may lead to unintended exposure to humans. The central nervous system (CNS) is a potential susceptible target of the inhaled NPs, but so far the amount of studies on this aspect is limited. Here, we focus on the potential neurological lesion in the brain induced by the intranasally instilled titanium dioxide (TiO₂) particles in rutile phase and of various sizes and surface coatings. Female mice were intranasally instilled with four different types of TiO₂ particles (i.e. two types of hydrophobic particles in micro- and nano-sized without coating and two types of water-soluble hydrophilic nano-sized particles with silica surface coating) every other day for 30 days. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to determine the titanium contents in the sub-brain regions. Then, the pathological examination of brain tissues and measurements of the monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the sub-brain regions were performed. We found significant up-regulation of Ti contents in the cerebral cortex and striatum after intranasal instillation of hydrophilic TiO₂ NPs. Moreover, TiO₂ NPs exposure, in particular the hydrophilic NPs, caused obvious morphological changes of neurons in the cerebral cortex and significant disturbance of the monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the sub-brain regions studied. Thus, our results indicate that the surface modification of the NPs plays an important role on their effects on the brain. In addition, the difference in neurotoxicity of the two types of hydrophilic NPs may be induced by the shape differences of the materials. The present results suggest that physicochemical properties like size, shape and surface modification of the nanomaterials should be considered when evaluating their neurological effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multimodal surface-based morphometry reveals diffuse cortical atrophy in traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorenson Donna J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI often present with significant cognitive deficits without corresponding evidence of cortical damage on neuroradiological examinations. One explanation for this puzzling observation is that the diffuse cortical abnormalities that characterize TBI are difficult to detect with standard imaging procedures. Here we investigated a patient with severe TBI-related cognitive impairments whose scan was interpreted as normal by a board-certified radiologist in order to determine if quantitative neuroimaging could detect cortical abnormalities not evident with standard neuroimaging procedures. Methods Cortical abnormalities were quantified using multimodal surfaced-based morphometry (MSBM that statistically combined information from high-resolution structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Normal values of cortical anatomy and cortical and pericortical DTI properties were quantified in a population of 43 healthy control subjects. Corresponding measures from the patient were obtained in two independent imaging sessions. These data were quantified using both the average values for each lobe and the measurements from each point on the cortical surface. The results were statistically analyzed as z-scores from the mean with a p Results The TBI patient showed significant regional abnormalities in cortical thickness, gray matter diffusivity and pericortical white matter integrity that replicated across imaging sessions. Consistent with the patient's impaired performance on neuropsychological tests of executive function, cortical abnormalities were most pronounced in the frontal lobes. Conclusions MSBM is a promising tool for detecting subtle cortical abnormalities with high sensitivity and selectivity. MSBM may be particularly useful in evaluating cortical structure in TBI and other neurological conditions that produce diffuse abnormalities in both cortical structure and tissue properties.

  19. Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease using brain SPECT with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Asano, Tetsuichi; Kogure, Daiji; Abe, Shine; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Takasaki, Masaru

    2001-01-01

    We compared the diagnostic usefulness of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) with that of standard transaxial images in brain SPECT in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The subjects consisted of 69 patients with AD and 60 patients with non-AD, including vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease with dementia, frontotemporal dementia, other dementing diseases and neuropsychiatric diseases. Standard transaxial section and 3D-SSP SPECT images with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine were blindly interpreted by three examiners and were classified into the following three patterns: typical AD, atypical AD, and not indicative AD patterns. The 3D-SSP images demonstrated reductions of cerebral blood flow in the parieto-temporal association cortex and posterior cingulate gyrus more clearly and easily than the standard transaxial images. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 85% with 3D-SSP and 83% and 82% with standard transaxial section respectively. 3D-SSP was especially useful for early or atypical AD which showed no characteristic perfusion abnormalities on standard transaxial images. These results suggest that SPECT with 3D-SSP provides an sensitive as well as accurate tool for the diagnosis of AD. (author)

  20. Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection of brain perfusion SPECT improves diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Norinari; Machida, Kikuo

    2003-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is diagnosed by either inspection of the brain perfusion SPECT, or three-dimensional stereotactic surface display (3D-SSP). The purpose was to compare diagnostic performances of these methods. Sixteen nuclear medicine physicians independently interpreted 99m Tc-ECD SPECT in one session and SPECT with 3D-SSP in another session without clinical information for 50 studies of AD patients and 40 studies of healthy volunteers. Probabilities of AD were reported according to a subjective scale from 0% (normal) to 100% (definite AD). Receiver operating characteristics curves were generated to calculate areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (Az's) for the inspection as well as for an automated diagnosis based on a mean Z value in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri in a 3D-SSP template. Mean Az for visual interpretation of SPECT alone (0.679±0.058) was significantly smaller than that for visual interpretation of both SPECT and 3D-SSP (0.778±0.060). Az for the automated diagnosis (0.883±0.037) was significantly greater than that for both modes of visual interpretation. 3D-SSP enhanced performance of the nuclear medicine physicians inspecting SPECT. Performance of the automated diagnosis exceeded that of the physicians inspecting SPECT with and without 3D-SSP. (author)

  1. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  2. A novel merozoite surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum (MSP-3 identified by cellular-antibody cooperative mechanism antigenicity and biological activity of antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Oeuvray

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the identification of a 48kDa antigen targeted by antibodies which inhibit Plasmodium falciparum in vitro growth by cooperation with blood monocytes in an ADCI assay correlated to the naturally acquired protection. This protein is located on the surface of the merozoite stage of P. falciparum, and is detectable in all isolates tested. Epidemiological studies demonstrated that peptides derived from the amino acid sequence of MSP-3 contain potent B and T-cell epitopes recognized by a majority of individuals living in endemic areas. Moreover human antibodies either purified on the recombinant protein, or on the synthetic peptide MSP-3b, as well as antibodies raised in mice, were all found to promote parasite killing mediated by monocytes.

  3. Brain SPECT in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, M.; Baulieu, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author)

  4. The adult brain tissue response to hollow fiber membranes of varying surface architecture with or without cotransplanted cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning

    A variety of biomaterials have been chronically implanted into the central nervous system (CNS) for repair or therapeutic purposes. Regardless of the application, chronic implantation of materials into the CNS induces injury and elicits a wound healing response, eventually leading to the formation of a dense extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich scar tissue that is associated with the segregation of implanted materials from the surrounding normal tissue. Often this reaction results in impaired performance of indwelling CNS devices. In order to enhance the performance of biomaterial-based implantable devices in the CNS, this thesis investigated whether adult brain tissue response to implanted biomaterials could be manipulated by changing biomaterial surface properties or further by utilizing the biology of co-transplanted cells. Specifically, the adult rat brain tissue response to chronically implanted poly(acrylonitrile-vinylchloride) (PAN-PVC) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) of varying surface architecture were examined temporally at 2, 4, and 12 weeks postimplantation. Significant differences were discovered in the brain tissue response to the PAN-PVC HFMs of varying surface architecture at 4 and 12 weeks. To extend this work, whether the soluble factors derived from a co-transplanted cellular component further affect the brain tissue response to an implanted HFM in a significant way was critically exploited. The cells used were astrocytes, whose ability to influence scar formation process following CNS injury by physical contact with the host tissue had been documented in the literature. Data indicated for the first time that astrocyte-derived soluble factors ameliorate the adult brain tissue reactivity toward HFM implants in an age-dependent manner. While immature astrocytes secreted soluble factors that suppressed the brain tissue reactivity around the implants, mature astrocytes secreted factors that enhanced the gliotic response. These findings prove the feasibility

  5. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  6. The Drosophila surface glia transcriptome: evolutionary conserved blood-brain barrier processes

    OpenAIRE

    DeSalvo, Michael K.; Hindle, Samantha J.; Rusan, Zeid M.; Orng, Souvinh; Eddison, Mark; Halliwill, Kyle; Bainton, Roland J.

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) function is dependent on the stringent regulation of metabolites, drugs, cells, and pathogens exposed to the CNS space. Cellular blood-brain barrier (BBB) structures are highly specific checkpoints governing entry and exit of all small molecules to and from the brain interstitial space, but the precise mechanisms that regulate the BBB are not well understood. In addition, the BBB has long been a challenging obstacle to the pharmacologic treatment of CNS diseases; ...

  7. A combined solenoid-surface RF coil for high-resolution whole-brain rat imaging on a 3.0 Tesla clinical MR scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R; Yuan, Chun; Hayes, Cecil E

    2010-09-01

    Rat brain models effectively simulate a multitude of human neurological disorders. Improvements in coil design have facilitated the wider utilization of rat brain models by enabling the utilization of clinical MR scanners for image acquisition. In this study, a novel coil design, subsequently referred to as the rat brain coil, is described that exploits and combines the strengths of both solenoids and surface coils into a simple, multichannel, receive-only coil dedicated to whole-brain rat imaging on a 3.0 T clinical MR scanner. Compared with a multiturn solenoid mouse body coil, a 3-cm surface coil, a modified Helmholtz coil, and a phased-array surface coil, the rat brain coil improved signal-to-noise ratio by approximately 72, 61, 78, and 242%, respectively. Effects of the rat brain coil on amplitudes of static field and radiofrequency field uniformity were similar to each of the other coils. In vivo, whole-brain images of an adult male rat were acquired with a T(2)-weighted spin-echo sequence using an isotropic acquisition resolution of 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.25 mm(3) in 60.6 min. Multiplanar images of the in vivo rat brain with identification of anatomic structures are presented. Improvement in signal-to-noise ratio afforded by the rat brain coil may broaden experiments that utilize clinical MR scanners for in vivo image acquisition. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Exact mapping of the dx2-y2 Cooper-pair wavefunction onto the spin fluctuations in cuprates: the Fermi surface as a driver for 'high Tc' superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Ross D; Harrison, Neil; Singleton, John

    2009-01-01

    We propose that the extraordinarily high superconducting transition temperatures in the cuprates are driven by an exact mapping of the d x 2 -y 2 Cooper-pair wavefunction onto the incommensurate spin fluctuations observed in neutron-scattering experiments. This is manifested in the direct correspondence between the inverse of the incommensurability factor δ seen in inelastic neutron-scattering experiments and the measured superconducting coherence length ξ 0 . Strikingly, the relationship between ξ 0 and δ is valid for both La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x , suggesting a common mechanism for superconductivity across the entire hole-doped cuprate family. Using data from recent quantum-oscillation experiments in the cuprates, we propose that the fluctuations responsible for superconductivity are driven by a Fermi-surface instability. On the basis of these findings, one can specify the optimal characteristics of a solid that will exhibit 'high T c ' superconductivity. (fast track communication)

  9. Landsat classification of surface-water presence during multiple years to assess response of playa wetlands to climatic variability across the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, Daniel J.; Rover, Jennifer R.

    2018-02-15

    To improve understanding of the distribution of ecologically important, ephemeral wetland habitats across the Great Plains, the occurrence and distribution of surface water in playa wetland complexes were documented for four different years across the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GPLCC) region. This information is important because it informs land and wildlife managers about the timing and location of habitat availability. Data with an accurate timestamp that indicate the presence of water, the percent of the area inundated with water, and the spatial distribution of playa wetlands with water are needed for a host of resource inventory, monitoring, and research applications. For example, the distribution of inundated wetlands forms the spatial pattern of available habitat for resident shorebirds and water birds, stop-over habitats for migratory birds, connectivity and clustering of wetland habitats, and surface waters that recharge the Ogallala aquifer; there is considerable variability in the distribution of playa wetlands holding water through time. Documentation of these spatially and temporally intricate processes, here, provides data required to assess connections between inundation and multiple environmental drivers, such as climate, land use, soil, and topography. Climate drivers are understood to interact with land cover, land use and soil attributes in determining the amount of water that flows overland into playa wetlands. Results indicated significant spatial variability represented by differences in the percent of playas inundated among States within the GPLCC. Further, analysis-of-variance comparison of differences in inundation between years showed significant differences in all cases. Although some connections with seasonal moisture patterns may be observed, the complex spatial-temporal gradients of precipitation, temperature, soils, and land use need to be combined as covariates in multivariate models to effectively account for

  10. Interorganizational Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    Administrative Services Officer , Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs, Office of the Chief Financial Officer , Office of the Chief ...Nations. • Clarifies the role of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Transition Initiatives and its relationship...Centralize interorganizational cooperation within the command group. Under this model, the chief of staff or a special staff officer within the command

  11. Effects of oxytocin and vasopressin on the neural response to unreciprocated cooperation within brain regions involved in stress and anxiety in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Hackett, Patrick D; DeMarco, Ashley C; Feng, Chunliang; Stair, Sabrina; Haroon, Ebrahim; Ditzen, Beate; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Rilling, James K

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety disorders are characterized by hyperactivity in both the amygdala and the anterior insula. Interventions that normalize activity in these areas may therefore be effective in treating anxiety disorders. Recently, there has been significant interest in the potential use of oxytocin (OT), as well as vasopressin (AVP) antagonists, as treatments for anxiety disorders. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, pharmaco- fMRI study, 153 men and 151 women were randomized to treatment with either 24 IU intranasal OT, 20 IU intranasal AVP, or placebo and imaged with fMRI as they played the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game with same-sex human and computer partners. In men, OT attenuated the fMRI response to unreciprocated cooperation (CD), a negative social interaction, within the amygdala and anterior insula. This effect was specific to interactions with human partners. In contrast, among women, OT unexpectedly attenuated the amygdala and anterior insula response to unreciprocated cooperation from computer but not human partners. Among women, AVP did not significantly modulate the response to unreciprocated cooperation in either the amygdala or the anterior insula. However, among men, AVP attenuated the BOLD response to CD outcomes with human partners across a relatively large cluster including the amygdala and the anterior insula, which was contrary to expectations. Our results suggest that OT may decrease the stress of negative social interactions among men, whereas these effects were not found in women interacting with human partners. These findings support continued investigation into the possible efficacy of OT as a treatment for anxiety disorders.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging for radiotherapy planning of brain cancer patients using immobilization and surface coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanvey, S.; Glegg, M.; Foster, J.

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the compatibility of a head and neck immobilization device with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The immobilization device is used to position a patient in the same way as when receiving a computed tomography (CT) scan for radiotherapy planning and radiation treatment. The advantage of using immobilization in MR is improved accuracy in CT/MR image registration enabling greater confidence in the delineation of structures. The main practical difficulty in using an immobilization device in MRI is that physical constraints make their use incompatible with head imaging coils. Within this paper we describe a method for MR imaging of the brain which allows the use of head and neck immobilization devices. By a series of image quality tests we obtained the same or better image quality as a multi-channel head coil.

  13. Systematization, distribution and territory of the caudal cerebral artery on the brain's surface of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Díaz de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Meleagris gallopavo heads with their neck segments were used. Animals were contained and euthanized with the association of mebezonium iodide, embutramide and tetracaine hydrochloride (T 61, Intervet by intravenous injection. The arterial system was rinsed with cold saline solution (15°C, with 5000IU heparin and filled with red-colored latex. The samples were fixed in 20% formaldehyde for seven days. The brains were removed with a segment of cervical spinal cord and after, the dura-mater was removed and the arteries dissected. The cerebral carotid arteries, after the intercarotid anastomosis, were projected around the hypophysis, until they reached the tuber cinereum and divided into their terminal branches, the caudal branch and the rostral branch. The rostral branch was projected rostrolateralwards and gave off, in sequence, two collateral branches, the caudal cerebral and the middle cerebral arteries and the terminal branch was as cerebroethmoidal artery. The caudal cerebral artery of one antimere formed the interhemispheric artery, which gave off dorsal hemispheric branches to the convex surface of both antimeres. Its dorsal tectal mesencephalic branch, of only one antimere, originated the dorsal cerebellar artery. In the interior of the cerebral transverse fissure, after the origin of the dorsal tectal mesencephalic artery, the caudal cerebral artery emitted occipital hemispheric branches, pineal branches and medial hemispheric branches, on both antimeres. The caudal cerebral artery's territory comprehended the entire surface of the dorsal hemioptic lobe, the rostral surface of the cerebellum, the diencephalic structures, the caudal pole and the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere and in the convex surface, the sagittal eminence except for its most rostral third. Due to the asymmetry found in the caudal cerebral arteries' ramifications, the models were classified into three types and their respective subtypes.

  14. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for brain metastases from pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a Japanese multi-institutional cooperative study (JLGK1401).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takuya; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Sato, Yasunori; Yomo, Shoji; Kondoh, Takeshi; Nagano, Osamu; Serizawa, Toru; Tsugawa, Takahiko; Okamoto, Hisayo; Akabane, Atsuya; Aita, Kazuyasu; Sato, Manabu; Jokura, Hidefumi; Kawagishi, Jun; Shuto, Takashi; Kawai, Hideya; Moriki, Akihito; Kenai, Hiroyuki; Iwai, Yoshiyasu; Gondo, Masazumi; Hasegawa, Toshinori; Yasuda, Soichiro; Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Nagatomo, Yasushi; Watanabe, Shinya; Hashimoto, Naoya

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE In 1999, the World Health Organization categorized large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung as a variant of large cell carcinoma, and LCNEC now accounts for 3% of all lung cancers. Although LCNEC is categorized among the non-small cell lung cancers, its biological behavior has recently been suggested to be very similar to that of a small cell pulmonary malignancy. The clinical outcome for patients with LCNEC is generally poor, and the optimal treatment for this malignancy has not yet been established. Little information is available regarding management of LCNEC patients with brain metastases (METs). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for patients with brain METs from LCNEC. METHODS The Japanese Leksell Gamma Knife Society planned this retrospective study in which 21 Gamma Knife centers in Japan participated. Data from 101 patients were reviewed for this study. Most of the patients with LCNEC were men (80%), and the mean age was 67 years (range 39-84 years). Primary lung tumors were reported as well controlled in one-third of the patients. More than half of the patients had extracranial METs. Brain metastasis and lung cancer had been detected simultaneously in 25% of the patients. Before GKRS, brain METs had manifested with neurological symptoms in 37 patients. Additionally, prior to GKRS, resection was performed in 17 patients and radiation therapy in 10. A small cell lung carcinoma-based chemotherapy regimen was chosen for 48 patients. The median lesion number was 3 (range 1-33). The median cumulative tumor volume was 3.5 cm 3 , and the median radiation dose was 20.0 Gy. For statistical analysis, the standard Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine post-GKRS survival. Competing risk analysis was applied to estimate GKRS cumulative incidences of maintenance of neurological function and death, local recurrence, appearance of new lesions, and complications. RESULTS The overall median survival time

  15. HIT'91 (prospective, co-operative study for the treatment of malignant brain tumors in childhood): accuracy and acute toxicity of the irradiation of the craniospinal axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortmann, R.D.; Timmermann, B.; Bamberg, M.; Kuehl, J.; Willich, N.; Flentje, M.; Meisner, C.

    1999-01-01

    Background: It was the aim of the quality control program of the randomized trial HIT '91 (intensive chemotherapy before irradiation versus maintenance chemotherapy after irradiation) to assess prospectively the quality of neuroaxis irradiation with respect to the protocol guidelines and to evaluate acute toxicity with respect to treatment arm. Patients, Materials and Methods: Data of 134 patients undergoing irradiation of the craniospinal axis were available. Positioning aids, shielding techniques, treatment machines, choice of energy, total dose and fractionation were evaluated. A total of 651 simulation and verification films were analyzed to assess the coverage of the clinical target volume (whole brain, posterior fossa, sacral nerve roots) and deviations of field alignment between simulation and verification of first treatment. Field matching between whole brain and adjacent cranial spinal fields was analyzed with respect to site and width of junction. Acute maximal side effects were evaluated according to a modified WHO score for neurotoxicity, infections, skin, mucosa and myelotoxicity. Results: In 91.3% of patients contemporary positioning aids and individualized shielding techniques were used to assure a reproducible treatment. In 98 patients (73.1%) linear accelerators and in 36 patients (26.8%) 60 Cobalt machines were used. Single and total dose were administered according to the protocol guidelines in more than 90% of patients. In 20.2% of patients the cribriform plate, in 1.4% the middle cranial fossa and in 21.1% the posterior fossa and in 4.5% the 2nd sacral segment were incompletely encompassed by the treatment portals. Ninety-five percent of deviations of field alignment were less than 13.0 mm (whole brain) and 12 mm (cranial spinal field) with a random error between 4.9 and 7.6 mm (whole brain) and 6.9 mm and 9.9 mm (spinal canal), respectively. In 77.5% of patients the junctions between whole brain and cranial spinal fields were placed without a

  16. All-diamond functional surface micro-electrode arrays for brain-slice neural analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vahidpour, F.; Curley, L.; Biró, I.; McDonald, M.; Croux, D.; Pobedinskas, P.; Haenen, K.; Giugliano, M.; Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Kavan, Ladislav; Nesládek, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 1532347. ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : impedance spectroscopy * microelectrode arrays * surface termination Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 1.775, year: 2016

  17. Application of stereological methods to estimate post-mortem brain surface area using 3T MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlong, Carolyn; García-Fiñana, Marta; Puddephat, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Cavalieri and Vertical Sections methods of design based stereology were applied in combination with 3 tesla (i.e. 3T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to estimate cortical and subcortical volume, area of the pial surface, area of the grey-white matter boundary, and thickness of the cerebral...

  18. Three-dimensional surface display with [sup 123]I-IMP brain perfusion imaging in patients with dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomino, Yoshio; Tachibana, Hisao; Sugita, Minoru [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    1994-04-01

    We reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) surface images from SPECT data with N-isopropyl-p [[sup 123]I]-iodo-amphetamine ([sup 123]I-IMP) in 27 patients with Parkinson's disease (group 1), 16 patients with Alzheimer's disease (group 2), 9 patients with Binswanger's disease (group 3), and 11 elderly normal subjects (control group). Three-D reconstruction was performed using distance-shaded method at the threshold levels at intervals of 5% from 45% to 80%. In the control group, no perfusion defects were found in any region at threshold values below 60%, although the frontal and temporal cortices occasionally showed perfusion defects at threshold levels from 60% to 80%. In the group 1 of patients with dementia, perfusion defects were diffuse, particularly in the parietal and temporal cortices even at a threshold of 45%. The group 2 also showed diffuse perfusion defects, particularly in parietal and temporal cortices even at threshold levels as low as 45%. The primary visual cortex was less affected in this group. The demented patients in the group 1 demonstrated perfusion defects similar to those of patients in the group 2, although perfusion defects were more prominent in the group 2. In the group 3, patchy perfusion defects were found most frequently in the frontal region. Perfusion defects in the cerebellum and sensory motor cortex were more frequent in the group 3 than the other two groups, as well as the control group. The demented patients in the group 1 showed perfusion defects in the temporal and parietal cortices and demonstrated a perfusion pattern similar to those in the group 2. The patterns of brain perfusion in the group 3 were obviously different from those in the other two groups. In conclusion, 3D surface display of brain perfusion imaging may be useful for evaluating the cortical hypoperfusion regions in patients with dementia. It may also be of value in the differential diagnosis of cognitive disorders. (J.P.N.).

  19. Integration of sparse electrophysiological measurements with preoperative MRI using 3D surface estimation in deep brain stimulation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husch, Andreas; Gemmar, Peter; Thunberg, Johan; Hertel, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Intraoperative microelectrode recordings (MER) have been used for several decades to guide neurosurgeons during the implantation of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) electrodes, especially when targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to suppress the symptoms of Parkinson's Disease. The standard approach is to use an array of up to five MER electrodes in a fixed configuration. Interpretation of the recorded signals yields a spatially very sparse set of information about the morphology of the respective brain structures in the targeted area. However, no aid is currently available for surgeons to intraoperatively integrate this information with other data available on the patient's individual morphology (e.g. MR imaging data used for surgical planning). This integration might allow surgeons to better determine the most probable position of the electrodes within the target structure during surgery. This paper suggests a method for reconstructing a surface patch from the sparse MER dataset utilizing additional a priori knowledge about the geometrical configuration of the measurement electrodes. The conventional representation of MER measurements as intervals of target region/non-target region is therefore transformed into an equivalent boundary set representation, allowing ecient point-based calculations. Subsequently, the problem is to integrate the resulting patch with a preoperative model of the target structure, which can be formulated as registration problem minimizing a distance measure between the two surfaces. When restricting this registration procedure to translations, which is reasonable given certain geometric considerations, the problem can be solved globally by employing an exhaustive search with arbitrary precision in polynomial time. The proposed method is demonstrated using bilateral STN/Substantia Nigra segmentation data from preoperative MRIs of 17 Patients with simulated MER electrode placement. When using simulated data of heavily perturbed electrodes

  20. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1 is present in hyaline membranes and modulates surface tension of surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griese Matthias

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1 is a secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein that binds various bacteria and is thought to participate in innate pulmonary host defense. We hypothesized that pulmonary DMBT1 could contribute to respiratory distress syndrome in neonates by modulating surfactant function. Methods DMBT1 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry and mRNA in situ hybridization in post-mortem lungs of preterm and full-term neonates with pulmonary hyaline membranes. The effect of human recombinant DMBT1 on the function of bovine and porcine surfactant was measured by a capillary surfactometer. DMBT1-levels in tracheal aspirates of ventilated preterm and term infants were determined by ELISA. Results Pulmonary DMBT1 was localized in hyaline membranes during respiratory distress syndrome. In vitro addition of human recombinant DMBT1 to the surfactants increased surface tension in a dose-dependent manner. The DMBT1-mediated effect was reverted by the addition of calcium depending on the surfactant preparation. Conclusion Our data showed pulmonary DMBT1 expression in hyaline membranes during respiratory distress syndrome and demonstrated that DMBT1 increases lung surface tension in vitro. This raises the possibility that DMBT1 could antagonize surfactant supplementation in respiratory distress syndrome and could represent a candidate target molecule for therapeutic intervention in neonatal lung disease.

  1. Transboundary cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, D.

    2006-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants near national borders requires a close bilateral co-operation to cope with accidents having off-site radiological impacts. For example in 1978 such an agreement was signed by the German and Swiss government. The accident at the Chernobyl NPP changed the international co-operation in the framework of international consequence management. International conventions were agreed to insure a timely notification and international assistance in case of an accident with transboundary effects. In order to fulfill these conventions several procedures were introduced. In addition, bilateral agreements were signed also with countries which are not operating nuclear power plants near national borders. Since then no accident took place that would have required any notification. However, following the experience the expectations to these networks have changed considerably and hence sustainable development is required to cope with new challenges such as long term consequences management, new radiological threats, faster international assistance, media and public concerns, and technical evolution of communications systems. (author)

  2. Where's Waldo? How perceptual, cognitive, and emotional brain processes cooperate during learning to categorize and find desired objects in a cluttered scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eGrossberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Where’s Waldo problem concerns how individuals can rapidly learn to search a scene to detect, attend, recognize, and look at a valued target object in it. This article develops the ARTSCAN Search neural model to clarify how brain mechanisms across the What and Where cortical streams are coordinated to solve the Where's Waldo problem. The What stream learns positionally-invariant object representations, whereas the Where stream controls positionally-selective spatial and action representations. The model overcomes deficiencies of these computationally complementary properties through What and Where stream interactions. Where stream processes of spatial attention and predictive eye movement control modulate What stream processes whereby multiple view- and positionally-specific object categories are learned and associatively linked to view- and positionally-invariant object categories through bottom-up and attentive top-down interactions. Gain fields control the coordinate transformations that enable spatial attention and predictive eye movements to carry out this role. What stream cognitive-emotional learning processes enable the focusing of motivated attention upon the invariant object categories of desired objects. What stream cognitive names or motivational drives can prime a view- and positionally-invariant object category of a desired target object. A volitional signal can convert these primes into top-down activations that can, in turn, prime What stream view- and positionally-specific categories. When it also receives bottom-up activation from a target, such a positionally-specific category can cause an attentional shift in the Where stream to the positional representation of the target, and an eye movement can then be elicited to foveate it. These processes describe interactions among brain regions that include visual cortex, parietal cortex inferotemporal cortex, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia, and superior colliculus.

  3. Three-dimensional surface display of brain perfusion with 123I-IMP in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, H.; Kawabata, K.; Tomino, Y.; Sugita, M.; Fukuchi, M.

    1994-01-01

    We reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) surface images from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data using N-isopropyl-p[ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) in 27 patients with Parkinson's disease and 11 normal control subjects. The 3D reconstruction was performed using distance-shaded methods at threshold levels with an interval of 5% from 45-80%. Any area of decreased perfusion at each threshold level was visualised as a defect area by the algorithm. In nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease, perfusion defects were frequently found in the parietal cortex at a threshold value of 65%. In demented patients, perfusion defects were frequently seen at thresholds of 45-65%, and were more marked in the temporal and parietal cortex bilaterally. This suggests that dementia in Parkinson's disease is related to a reduction of perfusion in the temporoparietal cortex. (orig.)

  4. Surface and volume three-dimensional displays of Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT images in stroke patients with three-head gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.J.; Slevin, J.T.; Schleenbaker, R.E.; Mills, B.J.; Magoun, S.L.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates volume and surface 3D displays in Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT imaging in stroke patients. Using a triple-head gamma camera interfaced with a 64-bit supercomputer, 20 patients with stroke were studied. Each patient was imaged 30-60 minutes after an intravenous injection of 20 mCi of Tc-99m HMPAO. SPECT images as well as planar images were routinely obtained; volume and surface 3D display then proceeded, with the process requiring 5-10 minutes. Volume and surface 3D displays show the brain from all angles; thus the location and extension of lesion(s) in the brain are much easier to appreciate. While a cerebral lesion(s) was more clearly delineated by surface 3D imaging, crossed cerebellar diaschisis in seven patients was clearly exhibited with volume 3D but not with surface 3D imaging. Volume and surface 3D displays enhance continuity of structures and understanding of spatial relationships

  5. Cortical thickness, surface area, and volume of the brain reward system in alcohol dependence: relationships to relapse and extended abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Tosun, Duygu; Buckley, Shannon; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Mon, Anderson; Fryer, Susanna L; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2011-06-01

    At least 60% of those treated for an alcohol use disorder will relapse. Empirical study of the integrity of the brain reward system (BRS) is critical to understanding the mechanisms of relapse as this collection of circuits is implicated in the development and maintenance of all forms of addictive disorders. This study compared thickness, surface area, and volume in neocortical components of the BRS among nonsmoking light-drinking controls (controls), individuals who remained abstinent and those who relapsed after treatment. Seventy-five treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals (abstinent for 7±3 days) and 43 controls completed 1.5T proton magnetic resonance imaging studies. Parcellated morphological data were obtained for following bilateral components of the BRS: rostral and caudal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), rostral and caudal middle and superior frontal gyri, amygdala and hippocampus as well as for 26 other bilateral neocortical regions. Alcohol-dependent participants were followed over 12-months after baseline study and were classified as abstainers (no alcohol consumption; n=24) and relapsers (any alcohol consumption; n=51) at follow-up. Relapsers and abstainers demonstrated lower cortical thickness in the vast majority of BRS regions as well as lower global thickness compared to controls. Relapsers had lower total BRS surface area than both controls and abstainers, but abstainers were not significantly different from controls on any surface area measure. Relapsers demonstrated lower volumes than controls in the majority of regions, while abstainers showed lower volumes than controls in the superior frontal gyrus, insula, amygdala, and hippocampus, bilaterally. Relapsers exhibited smaller volumes than abstainers in the right rostral middle and caudal middle frontal gyri and the lateral OFC, bilaterally. In relapsers, lower baseline volumes and surface areas in multiple regions were associated with

  6. HIT`91 (prospective, co-operative study for the treatment of malignant brain tumors in childhood): accuracy and acute toxicity of the irradiation of the craniospinal axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortmann, R.D.; Timmermann, B.; Bamberg, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Kuehl, J. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Children`s Hospital; Willich, N. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Flentje, M. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Meisner, C. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Medical Information Processing

    1999-04-01

    Background: It was the aim of the quality control program of the randomized trial HIT `91 (intensive chemotherapy before irradiation versus maintenance chemotherapy after irradiation) to assess prospectively the quality of neuroaxis irradiation with respect to the protocol guidelines and to evaluate acute toxicity with respect to treatment arm. Patients, Materials and Methods: Data of 134 patients undergoing irradiation of the craniospinal axis were available. Positioning aids, shielding techniques, treatment machines, choice of energy, total dose and fractionation were evaluated. A total of 651 simulation and verification films were analyzed to assess the coverage of the clinical target volume (whole brain, posterior fossa, sacral nerve roots) and deviations of field alignment between simulation and verification of first treatment. Field matching between whole brain and adjacent cranial spinal fields was analyzed with respect to site and width of junction. Acute maximal side effects were evaluated according to a modified WHO score for neurotoxicity, infections, skin, mucosa and myelotoxicity. Results: In 91.3% of patients contemporary positioning aids and individualized shielding techniques were used to assure a reproducible treatment. In 98 patients (73.1%) linear accelerators and in 36 patients (26.8%) {sup 60}Cobalt machines were used. Single and total dose were administered according to the protocol guidelines in more than 90% of patients. In 20.2% of patients the cribriform plate, in 1.4% the middle cranial fossa and in 21.1% the posterior fossa and in 4.5% the 2nd sacral segment were incompletely encompassed by the treatment portals. Ninety-five percent of deviations of field alignment were less than 13.0 mm (whole brain) and 12 mm (cranial spinal field) with a random error between 4.9 and 7.6 mm (whole brain) and 6.9 mm and 9.9 mm (spinal canal), respectively. In 77.5% of patients the junctions between whole brain and cranial spinal fields were placed

  7. Curved reformat of the paediatric brain MRI into a 'flat-earth map' - standardised method for demonstrating cortical surface atrophy resulting from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ewan; Andronikou, Savvas; Vedajallam, Schadie; Chacko, Anith; Thai, Ngoc Jade

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is optimally imaged with brain MRI in the neonatal period. However neuroimaging is often also performed later in childhood (e.g., when parents seek compensation in cases of alleged birth asphyxia). We describe a standardised technique for creating two curved reconstructions of the cortical surface to show the characteristic surface changes of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in children imaged after the neonatal period. The technique was applied for 10 cases of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and also for age-matched healthy children to assess the visibility of characteristic features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. In the abnormal brains, fissural or sulcal widening was seen in all cases and ulegyria was identifiable in 7/10. These images could be used as a visual aid for communicating MRI findings to clinicians and other interested parties.

  8. Cooperative catalysis designing efficient catalysts for synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, René

    2015-01-01

    Written by experts in the field, this is a much-needed overview of the rapidly emerging field of cooperative catalysis. The authors focus on the design and development of novel high-performance catalysts for applications in organic synthesis (particularly asymmetric synthesis), covering a broad range of topics, from the latest progress in Lewis acid / Br?nsted base catalysis to e.g. metal-assisted organocatalysis, cooperative metal/enzyme catalysis, and cooperative catalysis in polymerization reactions and on solid surfaces. The chapters are classified according to the type of cooperating acti

  9. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part the are reviewed: Co-operation with IAEA; Participation of the Slovakia on the 41 st session of the General Conference; The comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization; Co-operation with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; co-operation with the European Commission; Fulfillment of obligations resulting from the international contracting documents

  10. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  11. Brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feistel, H.

    1991-01-01

    Brain SPECT investigations have gained broad acceptance since the introduction of the lipophilic tracer Tc-99m-HMPAO. Depending on equipment and objectives in different departments, the examinations can be divided into three groups: 1. Under normal conditions and standardised patient preparation the 'rest' SPECT can be performed in every department with a tomographic camera. In cerebrovascular disease there is a demand for determination of either the perfusion reserve in reversible ischemia or prognostic values in completed stroke. In cases of dementia, SPECT may yield useful results according to differential diagnosis. Central cerebral system involvement in immunologic disease may be estimated with higher sensitivity than in conventional brain imaging procedures. In psychiatric diseases there is only a relative indication for brain SPECT, since results during recent years have been contradictory and may be derived only in interventional manner. In brain tumor diagnostics SPECT with Tl-201 possibly permits grading. In inflammatory disease, especially in viral encephalitis, SPECT may be used to obtain early diagnosis. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can be distinguished from other forms of dementia and, consequently, the necessity for shunting surgery can be recognised. 2. In departments equipped for emergency cases an 'acute' SPECT can be performed in illnesses with rapid changing symptoms such as different forms of migraine, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures (so-called 'ictal SPECT') or urgent forms like trauma. 3. In cooperation with several departments brain SPECT can be practised as an interventional procedure in clinical and in scientific studies. (orig./MG) [de

  12. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...

  13. THE SIZE AND SURFACE COATING OF NANOSILVER DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER (RBEC4) CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linking the physical properties of nanoparticles with differences in their biological activity is critical for understanding their potential toxicity and mode of action. The influence of aggregate size, surface coating, and surface charge on nanosilver's (nanoAg) movement through...

  14. Cooperation, trust and confidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, T.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Urze, P.C.G.D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental complexity may strain cooperative relationships, both within and beyond organizations, for two reasons. First, when complexity implies uncertainty the predictability of change disappears. Secondly, change may and often will entail different estimates of the cooperating partners on the

  15. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  16. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) is present in hyaline membranes and modulates surface tension of surfactant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Hanna; End, Caroline; Renner, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) is a secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein that binds various bacteria and is thought to participate in innate pulmonary host defense. We hypothesized that pulmonary DMBT1 could contribute to respiratory distress syndrome...

  17. Cooperatives as Entrants

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Sexton; Terri A. Sexton

    1987-01-01

    A potential shortcoming of game-theoretic models in industrial organization is their failure to consider consumers as players. We introduce a customer coalition --- a cooperative -- as a potential entrant and compare the cooperative entry threat with that posed by the usual for-profit entrant. We identify four fundamental distinctions between cooperative and for-profit entrants and demonstrate that the strategic interplay between a cooperative and an incumbent firm may differ markedly from th...

  18. Choosing the cooperative option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, G. (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (United States))

    1999-06-01

    Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.

  19. Inertia in Cooperative Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Jerker

    1997-01-01

    Which organization model is appropriate for a cooperative enterprise depends on the prerequisites in its business environment. When conditions are changing, the firm must adapt itself. The entry of Sweden, Finland, and Austria into the European Union led to radical changes for agricultural cooperation, especially for Swedish cooperatives since agricultural policy was not allowed a transitional period. After two years, Swedish cooperatives have still not adapted their organization model despit...

  20. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  1. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  2. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  3. A visual description of the dissection of the cerebral surface vasculature and associated meninges and the choroid plexus from rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, John F; Thomas, Monzy; Patterson, Tucker A; George, Nysia I; Runnells, Jeffrey A; Levi, Mark S

    2012-11-14

    This video presentation was created to show a method of harvesting the two most important highly vascular structures, not residing within the brain proper, that support forebrain function. They are the cerebral surface (superficial) vasculature along with associated meninges (MAV) and the choroid plexus which are necessary for cerebral blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis. The tissue harvested is suitable for biochemical and physiological analysis, and the MAV has been shown to be sensitive to damage produced by amphetamine and hyperthermia. As well, the major and minor cerebral vasculatures harvested in MAV are of potentially high interest when investigating concussive types of head trauma. The MAV dissected in this presentation consists of the pial and some of the arachnoid membrane (less dura) of the meninges and the major and minor cerebral surface vasculature. The choroid plexus dissected is the structure that resides in the lateral ventricles as described by Oldfield and McKinley. The methods used for harvesting these two tissues also facilitate the harvesting of regional cortical tissue devoid of meninges and larger cerebral surface vasculature, and is compatible with harvesting other brain tissues such as striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, etc. The dissection of the two tissues takes from 5 to 10 min total. The gene expression levels for the dissected MAV and choroid plexus, as shown and described in this presentation can be found at GSE23093 (MAV) and GSE29733 (choroid plexus) at the NCBI GEO repository. This data has been, and is being, used to help further understand the functioning of the MAV and choroid plexus and how neurotoxic events such as severe hyperthermia and AMPH adversely affect their function.

  4. Intranasal delivery of Huperzine A to the brain using lactoferrin-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hongchen; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Yiyun; Mu, Hongjie; Wu, Zimei

    2018-01-01

    Background Safe and effective delivery of therapeutic drugs to the brain is important for successful therapy of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Purpose To develop Huperzine A (HupA)-loaded, mucoadhesive and targeted polylactide-co-glycoside (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with surface modification by lactoferrin (Lf)-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC) (HupA Lf-TMC NPs) for efficient intranasal delivery of HupA to the brain for AD treatment. Methods HupA Lf-TMC NPs were prepared using the emulsion–solvent evaporation method and optimized using the Box–Behnken design. The particle size, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, adhesion and in vitro release behavior were investigated. The cellular uptake was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the NPs. In vivo imaging system was used to investigate brain targeting effect of NPs after intranasal administration. The biodistribution of Hup-A NPs after intranasal administration was determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results Optimized HupA Lf-TMC NPs had a particle size of 153.2±13.7 nm, polydispersity index of 0.229±0.078, zeta potential of +35.6±5.2 mV, drug entrapment efficiency of 73.8%±5.7%, and sustained release in vitro over a 48 h period. Adsorption of mucin onto Lf-TMC NPs was 86.9%±1.8%, which was significantly higher than that onto PLGA NPs (32.1%±2.5%). HupA Lf-TMC NPs showed lower toxicity in the 16HBE cell line compared with HupA solution. Qualitative and quantitative cellular uptake experiments indicated that accumulation of Lf-TMC NPs was higher than nontargeted analogs in 16HBE and SH-SY5Y cells. In vivo imaging results showed that Lf-TMC NPs exhibited a higher fluorescence intensity in the brain and a longer residence time than nontargeted NPs. After intranasal administration, Lf-TMC NPs facilitated the distribution of HupA in the brain, and the values of the drug targeting index in the mouse

  5. Intranasal delivery of Huperzine A to the brain using lactoferrin-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingqing; Wang, Aiping; Hua, Hongchen; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Yiyun; Mu, Hongjie; Wu, Zimei; Sun, Kaoxiang

    2018-01-01

    Safe and effective delivery of therapeutic drugs to the brain is important for successful therapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To develop Huperzine A (HupA)-loaded, mucoadhesive and targeted polylactide-co-glycoside (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with surface modification by lactoferrin (Lf)-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC) (HupA Lf-TMC NPs) for efficient intranasal delivery of HupA to the brain for AD treatment. HupA Lf-TMC NPs were prepared using the emulsion-solvent evaporation method and optimized using the Box-Behnken design. The particle size, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, adhesion and in vitro release behavior were investigated. The cellular uptake was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the NPs. In vivo imaging system was used to investigate brain targeting effect of NPs after intranasal administration. The biodistribution of Hup-A NPs after intranasal administration was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Optimized HupA Lf-TMC NPs had a particle size of 153.2±13.7 nm, polydispersity index of 0.229±0.078, zeta potential of +35.6±5.2 mV, drug entrapment efficiency of 73.8%±5.7%, and sustained release in vitro over a 48 h period. Adsorption of mucin onto Lf-TMC NPs was 86.9%±1.8%, which was significantly higher than that onto PLGA NPs (32.1%±2.5%). HupA Lf-TMC NPs showed lower toxicity in the 16HBE cell line compared with HupA solution. Qualitative and quantitative cellular uptake experiments indicated that accumulation of Lf-TMC NPs was higher than nontargeted analogs in 16HBE and SH-SY5Y cells. In vivo imaging results showed that Lf-TMC NPs exhibited a higher fluorescence intensity in the brain and a longer residence time than nontargeted NPs. After intranasal administration, Lf-TMC NPs facilitated the distribution of HupA in the brain, and the values of the drug targeting index in the mouse olfactory bulb, cerebrum (with hippocampus

  6. Cooperative Trust Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the more widely recognized competitive (non-cooperative) game theory. Cooperative game theory focuses on what groups of self-interested agents can...provides immediate justification for using non-cooperative game theory as the basis for modeling the purely competitive agents. 2.4. Superadditive...the competitive and altruistic contributions of the subset team. Definition: Given a payoff function ( ) in a subset team game , the total marginal

  7. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  8. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  9. Revisiting Einstein's brain in Brain Awareness Week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Chen, Su; Zeng, Lidan; Zhou, Lin; Hou, Shengtao

    2014-10-01

    Albert Einstein's brain has long been an object of fascination to both neuroscience specialists and the general public. However, without records of advanced neuro-imaging of his brain, conclusions regarding Einstein's extraordinary cognitive capabilities can only be drawn based on the unique external features of his brain and through comparison of the external features with those of other human brain samples. The recent discovery of 14 previously unpublished photographs of Einstein's brain taken at unconventional angles by Dr. Thomas Stoltz Harvey, the pathologist, ignited a renewed frenzy about clues to explain Einstein's genius. Dr. Dean Falk and her colleagues, in their landmark paper published in Brain (2013; 136:1304-1327), described in such details about the unusual features of Einstein's brain, which shed new light on Einstein's intelligence. In this article, we ask what are the unique structures of his brain? What can we learn from this new information? Can we really explain his extraordinary cognitive capabilities based on these unique brain structures? We conclude that studying the brain of a remarkable person like Albert Einstein indeed provides us a better example to comprehensively appreciate the relationship between brain structures and advanced cognitive functions. However, caution must be exercised so as not to over-interpret his intelligence solely based on the understanding of the surface structures of his brain.

  10. High-resolution surface and volume-based in vivo atlas of the serotonin system in the healthy brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Ganz, Melanie; Svarer, Claus

    ) was performed using the FS PET pipeline [7] with a Multilinear Reference Tissue Model 2 [8] for all tracers, using a high-binding region for estimating k2', with the exception of [18F]Altanserin for which steady-state quantification (BPP) was used. The individual BP maps were then averaged for each tracer...... to create the final maps. Results: Surface and volume-based average BPND and BPP maps were created for all tracers (Figures 1-4). The availability of structural MRI enabled us to perform accurate normalization in both surface and volume, a quality previously absent from similar work [9]. These maps...

  11. A comparative study of surface- and volume-based techniques for the automatic registration between CT and SPECT brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagadis, George C.; Delibasis, Konstantinos K.; Matsopoulos, George K.; Mouravliansky, Nikolaos A.; Asvestas, Pantelis A.; Nikiforidis, George C.

    2002-01-01

    Image registration of multimodality images is an essential task in numerous applications in three-dimensional medical image processing. Medical diagnosis can benefit from the complementary information in different modality images. Surface-based registration techniques, while still widely used, were succeeded by volume-based registration algorithms that appear to be theoretically advantageous in terms of reliability and accuracy. Several applications of such algorithms for the registration of CT-MRI, CT-PET, MRI-PET, and SPECT-MRI images have emerged in the literature, using local optimization techniques for the matching of images. Our purpose in this work is the development of automatic techniques for the registration of real CT and SPECT images, based on either surface- or volume-based algorithms. Optimization is achieved using genetic algorithms that are known for their robustness. The two techniques are compared against a well-established method, the Iterative Closest Point--ICP. The correlation coefficient was employed as an independent measure of spatial match, to produce unbiased results. The repeated measures ANOVA indicates the significant impact of the choice of registration method on the magnitude of the correlation (F=4.968, p=0.0396). The volume-based method achieves an average correlation coefficient value of 0.454 with a standard deviation of 0.0395, as opposed to an average of 0.380 with a standard deviation of 0.0603 achieved by the surface-based method and an average of 0.396 with a standard deviation equal to 0.0353 achieved by ICP. The volume-based technique performs significantly better compared to both ICP (p<0.05, Neuman Keuls test) and the surface-based technique (p<0.05, Neuman-Keuls test). Surface-based registration and ICP do not differ significantly in performance

  12. Predisposed to cooperate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Costello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in Toronto and Geneva indicates that asylum seekers and refugees are predisposed to be cooperative with the refugee status determination system and other immigration procedures, and that the design of alternatives to detention can create, foster and support this cooperative predisposition – or can undermine or even demolish it.

  13. Proto-cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Read, James E; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre...

  14. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own

  15. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  16. Helping Children Cooperate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    There are occasions in life when the competitive process is appropriate. But when people consider the relationships in their lives--with friends, family members, coworkers, and the larger community--they realize the value of cooperation. When adults give children the chance to cooperate, to work together toward a solution or a common goal like…

  17. Practical design of a 4 Tesla double-tuned RF surface coil for interleaved 1H and 23Na MRI of rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alecci, M; Romanzetti, S; Kaffanke, J; Celik, A; Wegener, H P; Shah, N J

    2006-08-01

    MRI is proving to be a very useful tool for sodium quantification in animal models of stroke, ischemia, and cancer. In this work, we present the practical design of a dual-frequency RF surface coil that provides (1)H and (23)Na images of the rat head at 4 T. The dual-frequency RF surface coil comprised of a large loop tuned to the (1)H frequency and a smaller co-planar loop tuned to the (23)Na frequency. The mutual coupling between the two loops was eliminated by the use of a trap circuit inserted in the smaller coil. This independent-loop design was versatile since it enabled a separate optimisation of the sensitivity and RF field distributions of the two coils. To allow for an easy extension of this simple double-tuned coil design to other frequencies (nuclei) and dimensions, we describe in detail the practical aspects of the workbench design and MRI testing using a phantom that mimics in vivo conditions. A comparison between our independent-loop, double-tuned coil and a single-tuned (23)Na coil of equal size obtained with a phantom matching in vivo conditions, showed a reduction of the (23)Na sensitivity (about 28 %) because of signal losses in the trap inductance. Typical congruent (1)H and (23)Na rat brain images showing good SNR ((23)Na: brain 7, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid 11) and spatial resolution ((23)Na: 1.25 x 1.25 x 5mm(3)) are also reported. The in vivo SNR values obtained with this coil were comparable to, if not better than, other contemporary designs in the literature.

  18. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  19. Sugar for the brain: the role of glucose in physiological and pathological brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergenthaler, Philipp; Lindauer, Ute; Dienel, Gerald A; Meisel, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    The mammalian brain depends upon glucose as its main source of energy, and tight regulation of glucose metabolism is critical for brain physiology. Consistent with its critical role for physiological brain function, disruption of normal glucose metabolism as well as its interdependence with cell death pathways forms the pathophysiological basis for many brain disorders. Here, we review recent advances in understanding how glucose metabolism sustains basic brain physiology. We synthesize these findings to form a comprehensive picture of the cooperation required between different systems and cell types, and the specific breakdowns in this cooperation that lead to disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intranasal delivery of Huperzine A to the brain using lactoferrin-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng QQ

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Qingqing Meng,1,* Aiping Wang,1,2,* Hongchen Hua,1 Ying Jiang,1 Yiyun Wang,1 Hongjie Mu,1 Zimei Wu,1 Kaoxiang Sun1 1School of Pharmacy, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Drug Delivery System and Biotech Drugs in Universities of Shandong, Yantai University, Yantai, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Long-Acting and Targeting Drug Delivery System, Shandong Luye Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Yantai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Safe and effective delivery of therapeutic drugs to the brain is important for successful therapy of Alzheimer’s disease (AD.Purpose: To develop Huperzine A (HupA-loaded, mucoadhesive and targeted polylactide-co-glycoside (PLGA nanoparticles (NPs with surface modification by lactoferrin (Lf-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC (HupA Lf-TMC NPs for efficient intranasal delivery of HupA to the brain for AD treatment.Methods: HupA Lf-TMC NPs were prepared using the emulsion–solvent evaporation method and optimized using the Box–Behnken design. The particle size, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, adhesion and in vitro release behavior were investigated. The cellular uptake was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the NPs. In vivo imaging system was used to investigate brain targeting effect of NPs after intranasal administration. The biodistribution of Hup-A NPs after intranasal administration was determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.Results: Optimized HupA Lf-TMC NPs had a particle size of 153.2±13.7 nm, polydispersity index of 0.229±0.078, zeta potential of +35.6±5.2 mV, drug entrapment efficiency of 73.8%±5.7%, and sustained release in vitro over a 48 h period. Adsorption of mucin onto Lf-TMC NPs was 86.9%±1.8%, which was significantly higher than that onto PLGA NPs (32.1%±2.5%. HupA Lf-TMC NPs showed lower toxicity

  1. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  2. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  3. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    Brundtland Commission Report, and climate change became a common concern. Energy technology cooperation was an integral part of Nordic energy policy cooperation from the very beginning. The Nordic Energy Research Programme was established with funding from each of the Nordic countries, and was earmarked...... by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy...

  4. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data......-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web...

  5. Swept-source optical coherence tomography powered by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser enables 2.3-mm-deep brain imaging in mice in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-10-01

    We report noninvasive, in vivo optical imaging deep within a mouse brain by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), enabled by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). VCSEL SS-OCT offers a constant signal sensitivity of 105 dB throughout an entire depth of 4.25 mm in air, ensuring an extended usable imaging depth range of more than 2 mm in turbid biological tissue. Using this approach, we show deep brain imaging in mice with an open-skull cranial window preparation, revealing intact mouse brain anatomy from the superficial cerebral cortex to the deep hippocampus. VCSEL SS-OCT would be applicable to small animal studies for the investigation of deep tissue compartments in living brains where diseases such as dementia and tumor can take their toll.

  6. Three-dimensional surface display of brain perfusion with [sup 123]I-IMP in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, H [Fifth Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Kawabata, K [Fifth Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Tomino, Y [Fifth Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Sugita, M [Fifth Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Fukuchi, M [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    1994-05-01

    We reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) surface images from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data using N-isopropyl-p[[sup 123]I]-iodoamphetamine ([sup 123]I-IMP) in 27 patients with Parkinson's disease and 11 normal control subjects. The 3D reconstruction was performed using distance-shaded methods at threshold levels with an interval of 5% from 45-80%. Any area of decreased perfusion at each threshold level was visualised as a defect area by the algorithm. In nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease, perfusion defects were frequently found in the parietal cortex at a threshold value of 65%. In demented patients, perfusion defects were frequently seen at thresholds of 45-65%, and were more marked in the temporal and parietal cortex bilaterally. This suggests that dementia in Parkinson's disease is related to a reduction of perfusion in the temporoparietal cortex. (orig.)

  7. Surface-Based fMRI-Driven Diffusion Tractography in the Presence of Significant Brain Pathology: A Study Linking Structure and Function in Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnington, Ross; Boyd, Roslyn N.; Rose, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography analyses are difficult to perform in the presence of brain pathology. Automated methods that rely on cortical parcellation for structural connectivity studies often fail, while manually defining regions is extremely time consuming and can introduce human error. Both methods also make assumptions about structure-function relationships that may not hold after cortical reorganisation. Seeding tractography with functional-MRI (fMRI) activation is an emerging method that reduces these confounds, but inherent smoothing of fMRI signal may result in the inclusion of irrelevant pathways. This paper describes a novel fMRI-seeded dMRI-analysis pipeline based on surface-meshes that reduces these issues and utilises machine-learning to generate task specific white matter pathways, minimising the requirement for manually-drawn ROIs. We directly compared this new strategy to a standard voxelwise fMRI-dMRI approach, by investigating correlations between clinical scores and dMRI metrics of thalamocortical and corticomotor tracts in 31 children with unilateral cerebral palsy. The surface-based approach successfully processed more participants (87%) than the voxel-based approach (65%), and provided significantly more-coherent tractography. Significant correlations between dMRI metrics and five clinical scores of function were found for the more superior regions of these tracts. These significant correlations were stronger and more frequently found with the surface-based method (15/20 investigated were significant; R2 = 0.43–0.73) than the voxelwise analysis (2 sig. correlations; 0.38 & 0.49). More restricted fMRI signal, better-constrained tractography, and the novel track-classification method all appeared to contribute toward these differences. PMID:27487011

  8. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  9. Mutual cooperation with Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orstein, Roberto M.

    1998-01-01

    The history of the nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Argentina is outlined in the framework of the changing political circumstances. Reference is made to the agreements between both countries and to its implementation

  10. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  11. From cooperation to globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is seen as a consequence of cross-border business. This complex and irreversible process can be seen as an extension of capitalist relations of production or increased interdependence in the economic system. Globalization has given rise to more and more fields of activity worldwide. To meet the challenges of business globalization, many companies form strategic alliances, cooperate or merge with other companies. Cooperation is seen by many companies as an alternative path to success. In recent years joint international associations, licensing, co-production agreements, joint research programs, exploration of consortia and other cooperative relationships between two or more corporations with potential have increased. We notice a cooperation tendency among small-sized companies, especially among those from the developing countries.

  12. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  13. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  14. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  15. On Cooper's Nonparametric Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeidler, James

    1978-01-01

    The basic assumption of Cooper's nonparametric test for trend (EJ 125 069) is questioned. It is contended that the proper assumption alters the distribution of the statistic and reduces its usefulness. (JKS)

  16. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  17. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  18. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  19. Nuclear cooperation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cooperation agreements are reviewed in tabular form, especially agreements with developing countries. The reporting countries are the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, Australia, Japan, and France. A separate EURATOM list is annexed

  20. Pathological tremor prediction using surface electromyogram and acceleration: potential use in ‘ON-OFF’ demand driven deep brain stimulator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ishita; Graupe, Daniel; Tuninetti, Daniela; Shukla, Pitamber; Slavin, Konstantin V.; Verhagen Metman, Leo; Corcos, Daniel M.

    2013-06-01

    Objective. We present a proof of concept for a novel method of predicting the onset of pathological tremor using non-invasively measured surface electromyogram (sEMG) and acceleration from tremor-affected extremities of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET). Approach. The tremor prediction algorithm uses a set of spectral (Fourier and wavelet) and nonlinear time series (entropy and recurrence rate) parameters extracted from the non-invasively recorded sEMG and acceleration signals. Main results. The resulting algorithm is shown to successfully predict tremor onset for all 91 trials recorded in 4 PD patients and for all 91 trials recorded in 4 ET patients. The predictor achieves a 100% sensitivity for all trials considered, along with an overall accuracy of 85.7% for all ET trials and 80.2% for all PD trials. By using a Pearson’s chi-square test, the prediction results are shown to significantly differ from a random prediction outcome. Significance. The tremor prediction algorithm can be potentially used for designing the next generation of non-invasive closed-loop predictive ON-OFF controllers for deep brain stimulation (DBS), used for suppressing pathological tremor in such patients. Such a system is based on alternating ON and OFF DBS periods, an incoming tremor being predicted during the time intervals when DBS is OFF, so as to turn DBS back ON. The prediction should be a few seconds before tremor re-appears so that the patient is tremor-free for the entire DBS ON-OFF cycle and the tremor-free DBS OFF interval should be maximized in order to minimize the current injected in the brain and battery usage.

  1. Pathological tremor prediction using surface EMG and acceleration: potential use in “ON-OFF” demand driven deep brain stimulator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ishita; Graupe, Daniel; Tuninetti, Daniela; Shukla, Pitamber; Slavin, Konstantin V.; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Corcos, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We present a proof of concept for a novel method of predicting the onset of pathological tremor using non-invasively measured surface electromyogram (sEMG) and acceleration from tremor-affected extremities of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Essential tremor (ET). Approach The tremor prediction algorithm uses a set of spectral (fourier and wavelet) and non-linear time series (entropy and recurrence rate) parameters extracted from the non-invasively recorded sEMG and acceleration signals. Main results The resulting algorithm is shown to successfully predict tremor onset for all 91 trials recorded in 4 PD patients and for all 91 trials recorded in 4 ET patients. The predictor achieves a 100% sensitivity for all trials considered, along with an overall accuracy of 85.7% for all ET trials and 80.2% for all PD trials. By using a Pearson’s chi-square test, the prediction results are shown to significantly differ from a random prediction outcome. Significance The tremor prediction algorithm can be potentially used for designing the next generation of non-invasive closed-loop predictive ON-OFF controllers for deep brain stimulation (DBS), used for suppressing pathological tremor in such patients. Such a system is based on alternating ON and OFF DBS periods, an incoming tremor being predicted during the time intervals when DBS is OFF, so as to turn DBS back ON. The prediction should be a few seconds before tremor re-appears so that the patient is tremor-free for the entire DBS ON-OFF cycle as well as the tremor-free DBS OFF interval should be maximized in order to minimize the current injected in the brain and battery usage. PMID:23658233

  2. Attraction and cooperative behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Donja Darai; Silvia Grätz

    2012-01-01

    Being good-looking seems to generate substantial benefits in many social interactions, making the "beauty premium" a not to be underrated economic factor. This paper investigates how physical attractiveness enables people to generate these benefits in the case of cooperation, using field data from a modified one-shot prisoner's dilemma played in a high-stakes television game show. While attractive contestants are not more or less cooperative than less attractive ones, facial attractiveness pr...

  3. Cooperative games and network structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    This thesis covers various research topics involving cooperative game theory, a mathematical tool to analyze the cooperative behavior within a group of players. The focus is mainly on interrelations between operations research and cooperative game theory by analyzing specific types of cooperative

  4. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition) than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown), the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions) and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection). However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants) also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  5. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  6. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed the communic......The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed...... the companies in the case can be understood as possessing a social capital which is enforced and united by initiatives of the main contractor. The social capital was built up and maintained through the actual constitution of cooperation already in the initial phase of bidding before the building process....... The management logic of the main contractor is interpreted as based on a sociology-inspired understanding focusing on norms and social values rather than on contractual (law) and functional (engineering) logic, which had hitherto been prevalent in Danish construction management....

  7. The story of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Taek

    1989-09-01

    This book gives descriptions of technical cooperation, which is about why does technology transfer?, process of technology transfer with model, decisive cause and cooperation of technology transfer, cost and effect of technology transfer, historical experience of technology transfer, cases of technology transfer by field such as rubber tire, medicine and computer industry and automobile industry, technology transfer process and present condition of technical cooperation, and strategy for rising of technical cooperation : selection of technology for object of cooperation and development of human resources.

  8. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, James

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions.

  9. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  10. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  11. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  12. Membership in cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eba Gaminde Egia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the practical application of one of the cooperative principles, «voluntary and free membership», referring to the entering of members in cooperative societies. We will first explain the meaning of this principle, and then bring up its normative regulation, with special emphasis on those aspects in which our autonomic laws differ, and ending with a brief reference to the economic aspect and the different ways to make contributions and their consequences.Received: 31 May 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  13. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  14. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  15. GLAM: Glycogen-derived Lactate Absorption Map for visual analysis of dense and sparse surface reconstructions of rodent brain structures on desktop systems and virtual environments

    KAUST Repository

    Agus, Marco; Boges, Daniya; Gagnon, Nicolas; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Hadwiger, Markus; Cali, Corrado

    2018-01-01

    Human brain accounts for about one hundred billion neurons, but they cannot work properly without ultrastructural and metabolic support. For this reason, mammalian brains host another type of cells called “glial cells”, whose role is to maintain proper conditions for efficient neuronal function. One type of glial cell, astrocytes, are involved in particular in the metabolic support of neurons, by feeding them with lactate, one byproduct of glucose metabolism that they can take up from blood vessels, and store it under another form, glycogen granules. These energy-storage molecules, whose morphology resembles to spheres with a diameter ranging 10–80 nanometers roughly, can be easily recognized using electron microscopy, the only technique whose resolution is high enough to resolve them. Understanding and quantifying their distribution is of particular relevance for neuroscientists, in order to understand where and when neurons use energy under this form. To answer this question, we developed a visualization technique, dubbed GLAM (Glycogen-derived Lactate Absorption Map), and customized for the analysis of the interaction of astrocytic glycogen on surrounding neurites in order to formulate hypotheses on the energy absorption mechanisms. The method integrates high-resolution surface reconstruction of neurites, astrocytes, and the energy sources in form of glycogen granules from different automated serial electron microscopy methods, like focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) or serial block face electron microscopy (SBEM), together with an absorption map computed as a radiance transfer mechanism. The resulting visual representation provides an immediate and comprehensible illustration of the areas in which the probability of lactate shuttling is higher. The computed dataset can be then explored and quantified in a 3D space, either using 3D modeling software or virtual reality environments. Domain scientists have evaluated the technique by

  16. GLAM: Glycogen-derived Lactate Absorption Map for visual analysis of dense and sparse surface reconstructions of rodent brain structures on desktop systems and virtual environments

    KAUST Repository

    Agus, Marco

    2018-05-21

    Human brain accounts for about one hundred billion neurons, but they cannot work properly without ultrastructural and metabolic support. For this reason, mammalian brains host another type of cells called “glial cells”, whose role is to maintain proper conditions for efficient neuronal function. One type of glial cell, astrocytes, are involved in particular in the metabolic support of neurons, by feeding them with lactate, one byproduct of glucose metabolism that they can take up from blood vessels, and store it under another form, glycogen granules. These energy-storage molecules, whose morphology resembles to spheres with a diameter ranging 10–80 nanometers roughly, can be easily recognized using electron microscopy, the only technique whose resolution is high enough to resolve them. Understanding and quantifying their distribution is of particular relevance for neuroscientists, in order to understand where and when neurons use energy under this form. To answer this question, we developed a visualization technique, dubbed GLAM (Glycogen-derived Lactate Absorption Map), and customized for the analysis of the interaction of astrocytic glycogen on surrounding neurites in order to formulate hypotheses on the energy absorption mechanisms. The method integrates high-resolution surface reconstruction of neurites, astrocytes, and the energy sources in form of glycogen granules from different automated serial electron microscopy methods, like focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) or serial block face electron microscopy (SBEM), together with an absorption map computed as a radiance transfer mechanism. The resulting visual representation provides an immediate and comprehensible illustration of the areas in which the probability of lactate shuttling is higher. The computed dataset can be then explored and quantified in a 3D space, either using 3D modeling software or virtual reality environments. Domain scientists have evaluated the technique by

  17. Cooperatives between truth and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Krueger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current declaration of the International Cooperative Alliance on cooperative identity since its 1995 Centennial Conference (which was held in Manchester makes no distinction between cooperation and cooperative. The lack of distinction between cooperation and cooperative has caused the Decennial Cooperative Action Plan to define cooperatives as a form, while their materiality is regarded as managerial: a business (activity under a cooperative form. An identity that is close to us cannot be reduced to form, without this being a problem. Therefore, the value underlying this identity —cooperation— must have a substantial basis, even if it is idealised, if it is to affect us.Received: 27.03.2014Accepted: 12.05.2014

  18. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  19. 33 CFR 165.709 - Security Zone; Charleston Harbor, Cooper River, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Cooper River, South Carolina. 165.709 Section 165.709 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.709 Security Zone; Charleston Harbor, Cooper River, South Carolina. (a) Regulated area. The Coast Guard is establishing a fixed security zone on all waters of the Cooper River, bank-to-bank and surface...

  20. Cooperative social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Acera Manero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital consists of the contributions of members and associates, both mandatory and voluntary. From an accounting point of view, it is a liability figure that expresses the value of a portion of the equity of the cooperative. Its inclusion in the liability is not the fact that it is a debt but by its nature unenforceable.

  1. Supranational Cooperation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Deugd, Nienke; Stamm, Katharina; Westerman, Wim

    The sovereign debt crisis and the euro crisis have prompted heads of state and government in Europe to intensify supranational cooperation. However, some political leaders and policy makers aim for more. They propose the introduction of a common European economic government that would prevent Europe

  2. Systematic, Cooperative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Paula M.

    Evaluation procedures based on a systematic evaluation methodology, decision-maker validity, new measurement and design techniques, low cost, and a high level of cooperation on the part of the school staff were used in the assessment of a public school mathematics program for grades 3-8. The mathematics curriculum was organized into Spirals which…

  3. Non-Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe non-cooperative game models and discuss game theoretic solution concepts. Some applications are also noted. Conventional theory focuses on the question ‘how will rational players play?’, and has the Nash equilibrium at its core. We discuss this concept and its interpretations, as well as

  4. Cooperative Technolgy Deployed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, E.; Velt, R. in 't

    2011-01-01

    After the successful demonstrations of cooperative technology by the CVIS and Safespot projects the question remains how this technology can be successfully deployed. This question is explored by the Field Operational Test project FREILOT, which aims to provide fuel economy applications that must be

  5. Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Patricia L. Kennedy; Rob Yaksich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    The Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) is intermediate in size between the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and the Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus), northern North America's other two accipiters. The two sexes are almost alike in plumage, but as in both of the other species, the female is noticeably larger. According to Wheeler and Clark (1995), a...

  6. Cooperative courseware authoring support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicheva, D.; Aroyo, L.M.; Cristea, A.I.

    2003-01-01

    We refined our knowledge classification and indexing approach applied in our previously developed system AIMS (Agentbased Information Management System) by introducing ontology-oriented support for cooperative courseware authoring. In order to provide a basis for formal semantics and reasoning in

  7. Can war foster cooperation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Blattman, C.; Chytilová, Julie; Henrich, J.; Miguel, E.; Mitts, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-274 ISSN 0895-3309 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : war * conflict * cooperation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.727, year: 2016

  8. Robust Dynamic Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauso, D.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2006-01-01

    Classical cooperative game theory is no longer a suitable tool for those situations where the values of coalitions are not known with certainty. Recent works address situations where the values of coalitions are modelled by random variables. In this work we still consider the values of coalitions as

  9. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more

  10. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  11. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  12. Discover new cooperation forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    In spite of the good forecasts concerning the supply and demand, the gas market is full of uncertainties because of the competition and the industrial reorganizing. Producers and operators try to define new forms of cooperation allowing the attainments protection and at the same time allowing to take advantage of the market opportunities with a shared risk. (A.L.B.)

  13. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities in international co-operation carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. Professionality of the Bohunice NPPs staff was highly appreciated by inviting them to be the OSART team members

  14. Marketing co-operatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); C.P. Veerman (Cees)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractMarketing co-operatives (MCs) are analysed from an incomplete contracting perspective. The requirement of the domination of control by the members of a MC is a threat to the survival of a MC in markets where the level of asset specificity at the processing stage of production is

  15. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  16. Random and cooperative sequential adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. W.

    1993-10-01

    Irreversible random sequential adsorption (RSA) on lattices, and continuum "car parking" analogues, have long received attention as models for reactions on polymer chains, chemisorption on single-crystal surfaces, adsorption in colloidal systems, and solid state transformations. Cooperative generalizations of these models (CSA) are sometimes more appropriate, and can exhibit richer kinetics and spatial structure, e.g., autocatalysis and clustering. The distribution of filled or transformed sites in RSA and CSA is not described by an equilibrium Gibbs measure. This is the case even for the saturation "jammed" state of models where the lattice or space cannot fill completely. However exact analysis is often possible in one dimension, and a variety of powerful analytic methods have been developed for higher dimensional models. Here we review the detailed understanding of asymptotic kinetics, spatial correlations, percolative structure, etc., which is emerging for these far-from-equilibrium processes.

  17. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  18. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Fan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including "what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?" and "what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?" Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  19. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  20. Effects of surface functionalization of hydrophilic NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Eu3+ on glutamate and GABA transport in brain synaptosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, Bartlomiej; Kociołek, Daria; Banski, Mateusz; Borisova, Tatiana; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Borysov, Arsenii; Dudarenko, Marina; Podhorodecki, Artur

    2017-08-01

    Specific rare earth doped nanocrystals (NCs), a recent class of nanoparticles with fluorescent features, have great bioanalytical potential. Neuroactive properties of NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Eu3+ were assessed based on the analysis of their effects on glutamate- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport process in nerve terminals isolated from rat brain (synaptosomes). Two types of hydrophilic NCs were examined in this work: (i) coated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and (ii) with OH groups at the surface. It was found that NaYF4:Eu3+-PEG and NaYF4:Eu3+-OH within the concentration range of 0.5-3.5 and 0.5-1.5 mg/ml, respectively, did not influence Na+-dependent transporter-dependent l-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA uptake and the ambient level of the neurotransmitters in the synaptosomes. An increase in NaYF4:Eu3+-PEG and NaYF4:Eu3+-OH concentrations up to 7.5 and 3.5 mg/ml, respectively, led to the (1) attenuation of the initial velocity of uptake of l-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA and (2) elevation of ambient neurotransmitters in the suspension of nerve terminals. In the mentioned concentrations, nanocrystals did not influence acidification of synaptic vesicles that was shown with pH-sensitive fluorescent dye acridine orange, however, decreased the potential of the plasma membrane of synaptosomes. In comparison with other nanoparticles studied with similar methodological approach, NCs start to exhibit their effects on neurotransmitter transport at concentrations several times higher than those shown for carbon dots, detonation nanodiamonds and an iron storage protein ferritin, whose activity can be registered at 0.08, 0.5 and 0.08 mg/ml, respectively. Therefore, NCs can be considered lesser neurotoxic as compared to above nanoparticles.

  1. Curved reformat of the paediatric brain MRI into a 'flat-earth map' - standardised method for demonstrating cortical surface atrophy resulting from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Ewan [Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Bristol (United Kingdom); Andronikou, Savvas [Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Bristol (United Kingdom); University of Bristol, CRICBristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Vedajallam, Schadie; Chacko, Anith; Thai, Ngoc Jade [University of Bristol, CRICBristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is optimally imaged with brain MRI in the neonatal period. However neuroimaging is often also performed later in childhood (e.g., when parents seek compensation in cases of alleged birth asphyxia). We describe a standardised technique for creating two curved reconstructions of the cortical surface to show the characteristic surface changes of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in children imaged after the neonatal period. The technique was applied for 10 cases of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and also for age-matched healthy children to assess the visibility of characteristic features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. In the abnormal brains, fissural or sulcal widening was seen in all cases and ulegyria was identifiable in 7/10. These images could be used as a visual aid for communicating MRI findings to clinicians and other interested parties. (orig.)

  2. Curved reformat of the paediatric brain MRI into a 'flat-earth map' - standardised method for demonstrating cortical surface atrophy resulting from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Ewan; Andronikou, Savvas; Vedajallam, Schadie; Chacko, Anith; Thai, Ngoc Jade

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is optimally imaged with brain MRI in the neonatal period. However neuroimaging is often also performed later in childhood (e.g., when parents seek compensation in cases of alleged birth asphyxia). We describe a standardised technique for creating two curved reconstructions of the cortical surface to show the characteristic surface changes of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in children imaged after the neonatal period. The technique was applied for 10 cases of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and also for age-matched healthy children to assess the visibility of characteristic features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. In the abnormal brains, fissural or sulcal widening was seen in all cases and ulegyria was identifiable in 7/10. These images could be used as a visual aid for communicating MRI findings to clinicians and other interested parties. (orig.)

  3. Cooperating for assisting intelligently operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezillon, P.; Cases, E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule

    1995-01-01

    We are in the process of an intelligent cooperative system in a nuclear plant application. The system must cooperate with an operator who accomplishes a task of supervision of a real-world process. We point out in the paper that a cooperation between a cooperative system and an operator has two modes: a waking state and a participating state. During the waking state, the system observes the operator's behavior and the consequences on the process. During the participation state, the cooperative system builds jointly with the user a solution to the problem. In our approach, the cooperation depends on the system capabilities to explain, to incrementally acquire knowledge and to make explicit the context of the cooperation. We develop these ideas in the framework of the design of the cooperative system in the nuclear plant. (authors). 22 refs., 1 fig

  4. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  5. CTBTO international cooperation workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Cooperation Workshop took place in Vienna, Austria, on 16 and 17 November 1998, with the participation of 104 policy/decision makers, Research and Development managers and diplomatic representatives from 58 States Signatories to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Workshop attempted to develop Treaty stipulations to: promote cooperation to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Treaty; enable member states to strengthen national implementation of verification measures, and to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes. The potential benefits arising from the CTBT monitoring, analysis and data communication systems are multifaceted, and as yet unknown. This Workshop provided the opportunity to examine some of these possibilities. An overview of the CTBT verification regime on the general aspects of the four monitoring technologies (seismic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides), including some of the elements that are the subject of international cooperation, were presented and discussed. Questions were raised on the potential benefits that can be derived by participating in the CTBT regime and broad-based discussions took place. Several concrete proposals on ways and means to facilitate and promote cooperation among States Signatories were suggested. The main points discussed by the participants can be summarized as follows: the purpose of the CTBT Organization is to assist member states to monitor Treaty compliance; the CTBT can be a highly effective technological tool which can generate wide-ranging data, which can be used for peaceful purposes; there are differences in the levels of technology development in the member states that is why peaceful applications should be supported by the Prep Com for the benefit of all member states, whether developed or developing, training being a key element to optimize the CTBT

  6. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  7. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  8. International cooperation for operating safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1989-03-01

    The international-cooperation organization in nuclear safety domain is discussed. The nuclear energy Direction Committee is helped by the Security Committee for Nuclear Power Plants in the cooperation between security organizations of member countries and in the safety and nuclear activity regulations. The importance of the cooperation between experts in human being and engine problems is underlined. The applied methods, exchange activities and activity analysis, and the cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency and international organizations is analysed [fr

  9. Cooperation in regional nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newstead, C.M.; Lee, D.S.; Spitalnik, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the nuclear training currently being undertaken in the countries of the co-authors, and considers the degree to which training problems are amenable to common solutions such as cooperative regional training programs. Different types of cooperation are discussed including the development of regional and international training centers, cooperative bilateral and multilateral training, and the proposed US International Nuclear Safety Training Academy. The paper provides suggestions of ways for enhancing regional cooperation

  10. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  11. Conditional cooperation on three continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocher, M.G.; Cherry, T.; Kroll, S.; Netzer, R.; Sutter, M.

    2007-01-01

    We show in a public goods experiment on three continents that conditional cooperation is a universal behavioral regularity. Yet, the number of conditional cooperators and the extent of conditional cooperation are much higher in the U.S.A. than anywhere else.

  12. The governance of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.

  13. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  14. Forestry cooperatives: past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach

    2006-01-01

    Forest landowner cooperatives are not a new phenomenon, but past efforts to create and sustain these businesses have been largely unsuccessful in the U.S. Before and just after World War II saw significant investment in cooperative development that failed to create durable business. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly describe the history of forestry cooperatives...

  15. Cooperate or Free Ride?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    of international cooperation. On the other hand, the evidence seems to confirm Kindleberger's hypothesis that small countries were free riding during the international financial crisis of 1931, and that therefore there is a need for some coordinating mechanism, or a hegemon, in such crises....... in the establishment of the BIS and free riders in the Austrian crisis, even though there were marked differences in their attitude to international cooperation. These results run counter to the views of those International Political Economy (IPE) theorists who argue that small states should be in favour......In this article, I discuss the role of the three Scandinavian central banks in the establishment of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in 1930, and in the international lender of last resort operation towards Austria in 1931. I argue that small central banks were reluctant supporters...

  16. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu., E-mail: konstantin.yu.arutyunov@jyu.fi [National Research University Higher School of Economics , Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems RAS , Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Lehtinen, J.S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Junctionless Cooper pair box. • Quantum phase slips. • Coulomb blockade and gate modulation of the Coulomb gap. - Abstract: Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current–voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  17. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  18. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  19. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...... research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development...

  20. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    a gravitational pull which goes beyond economic problems. Furthermore, the EU has gradually built up a coherent policy on many fields. The EU has become the “reform anchor” and most important cooperation partner for Egypt. The progress towards increasing Egypt’s “Stake in the Internal Market” places cooperation......For decades the US has had a hegemonic position in the Middle East. A key country in this respect has been Egypt. However, in recent decades the EU has made itself increasingly felt in the region. Due to enlargements the EU came geographically much closer, and the Internal Market has generated...... to see the US and EU as rivals. Their roles are rather complementary. The article explores developments in a long-term perspective. Internal and structural developments have had a heavy impact, but at important junctions ideas and strategies for gaining political legitimacy were powerful factors too...

  1. Strategies of inducing cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, M.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the four experiments described in this paper are very consistent, and they can be summarized as follows: (1) The ''nonpunitive'' strategy was most effective in eliciting cooperative behavior from the subjects and, overall, resulted in the highest joint outcomes as well as the highest outcomes for the accomplice. (2) The effectiveness of the turn-the-other-cheek strategy was very much influenced by the competitiveness of the situation; the more competitive the incentives of the subjects, the more massively they exploited the accomplice who employed this strategy. (3) The punitive deterrent strategy elicited more agressive and self-protective, as well as less cooperative, behavior from the subjects than did the other strategies

  2. Problems of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noramli, M.

    1987-01-01

    The main principles of the IAEA technical co-operation program, which intends to answer the requirements of the member states as regards technical assistance, are presented. IAEA offers its assistance in the supervision and financial support of the projects, which promise direct and quick profit to the member states. Projects related to the satisfaction of the main demands of humanity, industrial use, energy generation, radiation protection and other fields, which can promote the contribution of nuclear power generation to the course of peace, protection of health and thriving of states, are among them. 35 million dollars (USA) was allocated for the IAEA technical assistance and realization of the co-operation program in 1987

  3. Enresa International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 with the mandate to undertake responsibility for radioactive waste management in Spain. From the very beginning, ENRESA was fully aware of the fact that international cooperation plays a very important role in the development of national programmes. Aspects such as the setting up of international databases, the development and validation of models or site characterization technique such enormous efforts and amounts of resources that they could hardly be undertaken individually. Furthermore, joint participation in research, development and demonstration projects reinforces the level of confidence, not only in the decision-making process but also in the technologies, techniques and practices used. ENRESA's participation in the international contexts is largely defined, on the one hand, by the needs arising from its technical programme, as reflected in the General Radioactive Waste Plan and in the Research and Development Plan, and on the other by the need to support spanish governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental forums. The formula for cooperation varies according to needs, this cooperation generally being accomplished by means of bilateral agreements with other institutions having similar competence or by participating in the programmes of inter-governmental organizations. In particular, ENRESA has reached cooperation agreements with most of the agencies with similar responsibilities in other countries and participates very actively in the programmes of the European Union, the Nuclear energy Agency (NEA/OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  4. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  5. Diversity and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruner, Justin Pearce

    2014-01-01

    The present dissertation is an exploration of the effect of diversity on social contract formation and the evolution of cooperation. This work stems from the pioneering efforts of economist Arthur Robson, who first explored the role of costless pre-game communication in strategic interactions. When communication is permitted, individuals playing a game can condition their behavior on the signal received from their counterpart. For my purposes, I interpret these signals as racial markers or cu...

  6. Cooperative communication within and between single nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ningmu; Zhou, Xiaochun; Chen, Guanqun; Andoy, Nesha May; Jung, Won; Liu, Guokun; Chen, Peng

    2018-06-01

    Enzymes often show catalytic allostery in which reactions occurring at different sites communicate cooperatively over distances of up to a few nanometres. Whether such effects can occur with non-biological nanocatalysts remains unclear, even though these nanocatalysts can undergo restructuring and molecules can diffuse over catalyst surfaces. Here we report that phenomenologically similar, but mechanistically distinct, cooperative effects indeed exist for nanocatalysts. Using spatiotemporally resolved single-molecule catalysis imaging, we find that catalytic reactions on a single Pd or Au nanocatalyst can communicate with each other, probably via hopping of positively charged holes on the catalyst surface, over 102 nanometres and with a temporal memory of 101 to 102 seconds, giving rise to positive cooperativity among its surface active sites. Similar communication is also observed between individual nanocatalysts, however it operates via a molecular diffusion mechanism involving negatively charged product molecules, and its communication distance is many micrometres. Generalization of these long-range intra- and interparticle catalytic communication mechanisms may introduce a novel conceptual framework for understanding nanoscale catalysis.

  7. Brain-Based Teaching/Learning and Implications for Religious Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jean Marie

    2002-01-01

    Argues that physical activity and water can increase brain activity, and hence, learning. Findings of neuroscientists regarding the brain can inform educators. Brain-based teaching emphasizes teamwork, cooperative learning, and global responsibility. Argues against gathering information without relevance. Connects brain-based learning concepts to…

  8. AFRA: Supporting regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) provides a framework for African Member States to intensify their collaboration through programmes and projects focused on the specific shared needs of its members. It is a formal intergovernmental agreement which entered into force in 1990. In the context of AFRA, Regional Designated Centres for training and education in radiation protection (RDCs) are established African institutions able to provide services, such as training of highly qualified specialists or instructors needed at the national level and also to facilitate exchange of experience and information through networks of services operating in the field

  9. Brain SPECT in children; Explorations scintigraphiques en neurologie et psychiatrie de l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyot, M. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France)

    1996-12-31

    Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author). 18 refs.

  10. Building an organic computing device with multiple interconnected brains

    OpenAIRE

    Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Chiuffa, Gabriela; Lebedev, Mikhail; Yadav, Amol; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we proposed that Brainets, i.e. networks formed by multiple animal brains, cooperating and exchanging information in real time through direct brain-to-brain interfaces, could provide the core of a new type of computing device: an organic computer. Here, we describe the first experimental demonstration of such a Brainet, built by interconnecting four adult rat brains. Brainets worked by concurrently recording the extracellular electrical activity generated by populations of cortical ...

  11. Financial problems and cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.

    1994-12-31

    For a Bank, an usual way to attract new clients is by offering better interest rates depending on the amount of money that the client deposits in an account: {open_quotes}The more money you have the higher interest rate you get{close_quotes}. For a company is also a common practice to offer their clients discounts connected with the number of units of the product they order: {open_quotes}The more you order, the lower price per unit you pay{close_quotes}. From these situations arises the possibility to take profit if the clients cooperate and join their money or their orders. Hence, we define a new class of cooperative games called Financial Games. We study basic properties and necessary conditions for a game to belong to this class of games and we define the concept of duality for Financial games. The core is always non-empty and, moreover, Financial games are always totally balanced. We look at some special amputations lying in the Core and we study the reduced game on the j{sup th} player at {rvec x} where x{sub j} = b{sub j} = v(N) {minus} v(N {minus} j).

  12. Precompetitive cooperative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the current worldwide technology environment, it is essential for the U.S. microelectronics industry, and especially for the integrated circuit portion of that industry, that precompetitive cooperative research alliances be formed and funded at a level that enables them to be effective in rapidly advancing technology. It is important to realize that technology advances with or without our direct participation. If we do not aggressively participate we are quickly left behind. Increasing complexity and miniaturization have been the themes in semiconductor technology. Many are aware that what began in the early 60's with a few masking steps and minimum dimensions measured in mils, has now evolved to a level of sophistication requiring a 100 MIP workstation for IC design and the investment of nearly $400 million dollars in fab cost to produce today's microchips. The leading nations of the world have come to realize that their future well- being is closely tied to their ability to compete in this hi- tech environment. Industry coalitions have been formed to exploit the early ramifications of emerging technologies. Improvements in overseas manufacturing have been made and continue unabated with new products, new processes, and new services being introduced at an increasing rate. Many foreign governments are now actively involved in formulating and conducting industrial and technology policies to aid their hi-tech industry. To meet these challenges, U.S. firms, with U.S. government cooperation, must respond

  13. Teleworking through cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Minervini

    2006-07-01

    scheme is strictly connected to new technologies and cooperation is an important dimension of teleworking. In our study, cooperation is found performed both in social relations between employers and employees and in institutionalized relations between managers and unions. Although the two forms of cooperation, here called “social trustee cooperation” and “institutional cooperation”, are often thought as prerequisites of “best practices” of new working arrangements, our case studies demonstrate that cooperation has not always arisen that make possible to implement practices of teleworking. By focusing on cooperative relations, the results of different case studies in industry and in the service sector are discussed, thus intending to contribute to the development of sociological debate on telework.

  14. Soft cooperation systems and games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J. R.; Gallego, I.; Jiménez-Losada, A.; Ordóñez, M.

    2018-04-01

    A cooperative game for a set of agents establishes a fair allocation of the profit obtained for their cooperation. In order to obtain this allocation, a characteristic function is known. It establishes the profit of each coalition of agents if this coalition decides to act alone. Originally players are considered symmetric and then the allocation only depends on the characteristic function; this paper is about cooperative games with an asymmetric set of agents. We introduced cooperative games with a soft set of agents which explains those parameters determining the asymmetry among them in the cooperation. Now the characteristic function is defined not over the coalitions but over the soft coalitions, namely the profit depends not only on the formed coalition but also on the attributes considered for the players in the coalition. The best known of the allocation rules for cooperative games is the Shapley value. We propose a Shapley kind solution for soft games.

  15. Models in cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef

    2008-01-01

    This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in cooperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The properties of these solution concepts and their interrelations on several classes of crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games are studied. Applications of the investigated models to many economic situations are indicated as well. The second edition is highly enlarged and contains new results and additional sections in the different chapters as well as one new chapter.

  16. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M.; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict cooperation with a partner who self-identifies as Republican or Democrat in two samples before (n = 362) and after (n = 366) the 2012 US presidential election. Liberals show slightly more concern for their partners’ outcomes compared to conservatives (study 1), and in study 2 this relation is supported by a meta-analysis (r = .15). However, in study 1, political ideology did not relate to cooperation in general. Both Republicans and Democrats extend more cooperation to their in-group relative to the out-group, and this is explained by expectations of cooperation from in-group versus out-group members. We discuss the relation between political ideology and cooperation within and between groups. PMID:29593363

  17. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  18. ITDB Cooperation With International Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    IAEA illicit trafficking database cooperates with many international organizations. Among these organizations are Interpol, Universal Postal Union,and World Customs Organization. Other organizations are Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN-Department of Disarmament Affairs and UN office for Drug and Crime. The cooperation with Interpol involves consultations on issues of training and technical assistance and other matters of common interest.

  19. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  20. Regional cooperation in transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  1. Engineering co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryniszak, W

    1981-06-01

    A purposeful employment policy for human energy is basic to solving the energy dilemma, but a lack of understanding about human behavior has allowed man's exploitive characteristics to dominate during the Inductrial Revolution. England is dependent on trade to survive, but the importance of size in world competition is seen in the trend toward multinational and partnership enterprises. Reflecting this increasing competition, the engineering industries see a need for government policies that acknowledge the importance of technology and the effects of those policies on productivity. Engineering progress requires the creativity of optimistic idealism and the realism of implementing new ideas. The training and nurturing of human resources should begin by broadening the education of engineers to emphasize the concepts of quality and cooperation between government and industry. Engineers and scientists, who work within society, need to understand national demands and to operate in accordance with the highest moral standards. (DCK)

  2. Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  3. 75 FR 10319 - Cooper Tools-Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,602] Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From... January 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Division, a subsidiary of...

  4. When do people cooperate? The neuroeconomics of prosocial decision making

    OpenAIRE

    DECLERCK, Carolyn H.; BOONE, Christophe; EMONDS, Griet

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the roots of prosocial behavior is an interdisciplinary research endeavor that has generated an abundance of empirical data across many disciplines. This review integrates research findings from different fields into a theoretical framework that can account for when prosocial behavior is likely to occur. Specifically, we propose that the motivation to cooperate is generated by the reward system in the brain (extending from striatum to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex), and tha...

  5. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  6. Brain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become a Member Home Early Development & Well-Being Brain Development A child’s brain undergoes an amazing period of development from birth ... neural connections each second. The development of the brain is influenced by many factors, including a child’s ...

  7. Cooperative newsvendor games : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montrucchio, L.; Norde, H.; Ozen, U.; Scarsini, M.; Slikker, M.; Choi, T.-M.

    2012-01-01

    In this survey, we review some of the main contributions to the cooperative approach of newsvendor situations. We show how newsvendor situations with several retailers can be modeled as a transferable-utility cooperative game and we concentrate on one solution concept: the core. First, we examine

  8. Gender and Cooperation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 9-12. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner’s dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation...

  9. Monitoring emotions and cooperative behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorbunov, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation among people in teams that are bound to perform a common goal is one of the main factors determining success of these teams. Cooperation becomes even more important for small teams performing long-term missions in isolation. Examples of such missions include missions performed on the

  10. Subsidizing R&D cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.

    2001-01-01

    A framework is developed with which the implementation of two commonly used R&D-stimulating policies can be evaluated: providing R&D subsidies and sustaining the formation of R&D cooperatives. Subsidized R&D cooperatives can also be analyzed. The analysis shows that providing R&D subsidies is more

  11. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  12. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  13. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...

  14. The financing of cooperative businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ispizua

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Concern for adequate funding, both at birth and consolidation of the cooperative enterprise, has been, is and will be a constant concern in the cooperative world. So, have emerged in the legal field, a number of financial instruments of various kinds: as equity securities or special interests that seek to cover traditional financing gaps.

  15. Marketing Cooperatives and Financial Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, G.W.J.; Veerman, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between the financial structure of marketing cooperatives and the requirement of the domination of control by the members of the cooperative is analysed with an emphasis on incomplete contracts and system complementarities. It is argued that the disappearance of shortage markets in

  16. Progress of international evaluation cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The international evaluation cooperation started to remove the differences among major nuclear data libraries such as JENDL, ENDF, and JEF. The results obtained from the cooperation have been used to improve the quality of the libraries. This paper describes the status of the ongoing projects and several remarkable results so far obtained from the projects already finished. (author)

  17. Making Cooperative Learning Groups Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, James; De Jong, Cherie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of cooperative-learning groups with middle school students. Describes cooperative-learning techniques, including group roles, peer evaluation, and observation and monitoring. Considers grouping options, including group size and configuration, dyads, the think-pair-share lecture, student teams achievement divisions, jigsaw groups,…

  18. Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2004-01-01

    As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

  19. Rate equation for creatine kinase predicts the in vivo reaction velocity: 31P NMR surface coil studies in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle of the living rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittl, J.A.; DeLayre, J.; Ingwall, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Brain, heart, and skeletal muscle contain four different creatine kinase isozymes and various concentrations of substrates for the creatine kinase reaction. To identify if the velocity of the creatine kinase reaction under cellular conditions is regulated by enzyme activity and substrate concentrations as predicted by the rate equation, the authors used 31 P NMR and spectrophotometric techniques to measure reaction velocity, enzyme content, isozyme distribution, and concentrations of substrates in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle of living rat under basal or resting conditions. The total tissue activity of creatine kinase in the direction of MgATP synthesis provided an estimate for V/sub max/ and exceeded the NMR-determined in vivo reaction velocities by an order of magnitude. The isozyme composition varied among the three tissues: >99% BB for brain; 14% MB, 61% MM, and 25% mitochondrial for heart; and 98% MM and 2% mitochondrial for skeletal muscle. The NMR-determined reaction velocities agreed with predicted values from the creatine kinase rate equation. The concentrations of free creatine and cytosolic MgADP, being less than or equal to the dissociation constants for each isozyme, were dominant terms in the creatine kinase rate equation for predicting the in vivo reaction velocity. Thus, they observed that the velocity of the creatine kinase reaction is regulated by total tissue enzyme activity and by the concentrations of creatine and MgADP in a manner that is independent of isozyme distribution

  20. Nuclear energy and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Keiichi

    1981-01-01

    There is no need to emphasize that nuclear energy cannot be developed without international cooperation at either the industrial or the academic level. In the meanwhile, there have been some marked political, economic and social changes in recent years which are posing constraints to the international cooperation in nuclear energy. The problems and constraints impeding nuclear power programs cannot be overcome by only one nation; international cooperation with common efforts to solve the problems is essential. Nuclear energy is different from fossil energy resources in that it is highly technology-intensive while others are resource-intensive. International cooperation in technology has an entirely different importance in the field of nuclear energy. Educational institutions will play a role in a new era of the international cooperation. (Mori, K.)

  1. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...... feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education...

  2. Non-cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara-Greve, Takako

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for university juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in economics, applied mathematics, and related fields. Each chapter is structured so that a core concept of that chapter is presented with motivations, useful applications are given, and related advanced topics are discussed for future study. Many helpful exercises at various levels are provided at the end of each chapter. Therefore, this book is most suitable for readers who intend to study non-cooperative game theory rigorously for both theoretical studies and applications. Game theory consists of non-cooperative games and cooperative games. This book covers only non-cooperative games, which are major tools used in current economics and related areas. Non-cooperative game theory aims to provide a mathematical prediction of strategic choices by decision makers (players) in situations of conflicting interest. Through the logical analyses of strategic choices, we obtain a better understanding of social (economic, business) probl...

  3. Brain Basics: Know Your Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... however, the brain is beginning to relinquish its secrets. Scientists have learned more about the brain in ... through the activity of these lobes. At the top of each temporal lobe is an area responsible ...

  4. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  5. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  6. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-01-01

    research described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future

  7. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  8. Emotions and cooperation in economic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselhuhn, Michael P; Mellers, Barbara A

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, we examine decisions to cooperate in economic games. We investigate which payoffs give players the greatest pleasure and whether the pleasure they feel about payoffs predicts their decisions to cooperate. To do this, we modify the ultimatum and dictator games by asking players to consider a fixed set of offers and report their preferences over all offers. Players also report the pleasure they imagine feeling from each possible payoff. Results show that players differ in the extent to which they derive pleasure from fairness or greediness. They also differ in the extent to which their choices depend on what we call "strategic" and "non-strategic" pleasure. Strategic pleasure is the expected pleasure of offers, whereas non-strategic pleasure is the pleasure of accepted payoffs. Players whose pleasure primarily depends on larger payoffs tend to make fair offers in the ultimatum game and selfish offers in the dictator game. They maximize strategic pleasure in the ultimatum game and non-strategic pleasure in the dictator game. Players who derive greater pleasure from fairness tend to act fairly in both games. These players maximize non-strategic pleasure. Brain imaging studies should address the question of whether the observed differences in pleasure and preference are systematically linked to differences in neurological activation.

  9. Application of cooperative and non-cooperative games in large-scale water quantity and quality management: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjouri, Najmeh; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, two cooperative and non-cooperative methodologies are developed for a large-scale water allocation problem in Southern Iran. The water shares of the water users and their net benefits are determined using optimization models having economic objectives with respect to the physical and environmental constraints of the system. The results of the two methodologies are compared based on the total obtained economic benefit, and the role of cooperation in utilizing a shared water resource is demonstrated. In both cases, the water quality in rivers satisfies the standards. Comparing the results of the two mentioned approaches shows the importance of acting cooperatively to achieve maximum revenue in utilizing a surface water resource while the river water quantity and quality issues are addressed.

  10. Surgery with cooperative robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Amy C; Berg, Kyle A; Dumpert, Jason; Wood, Nathan A; Visty, Abigail Q; Rentschler, Mark E; Platt, Stephen R; Farritor, Shane M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2008-03-01

    Advances in endoscopic techniques for abdominal procedures continue to reduce the invasiveness of surgery. Gaining access to the peritoneal cavity through small incisions prompted the first significant shift in general surgery. The complete elimination of external incisions through natural orifice access is potentially the next step in reducing patient trauma. While minimally invasive techniques offer significant patient advantages, the procedures are surgically challenging. Robotic surgical systems are being developed that address the visualization and manipulation limitations, but many of these systems remain constrained by the entry incisions. Alternatively, miniature in vivo robots are being developed that are completely inserted into the peritoneal cavity for laparoscopic and natural orifice procedures. These robots can provide vision and task assistance without the constraints of the entry incision, and can reduce the number of incisions required for laparoscopic procedures. In this study, a series of minimally invasive animal-model surgeries were performed using multiple miniature in vivo robots in cooperation with existing laparoscopy and endoscopy tools as well as the da Vinci Surgical System. These procedures demonstrate that miniature in vivo robots can address the visualization constraints of minimally invasive surgery by providing video feedback and task assistance from arbitrary orientations within the peritoneal cavity.

  11. Brain-to-brain synchrony in parent-child dyads and the relationship with emotion regulation revealed by fNIRS-based hyperscanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Vanessa; Gerloff, Christian; Scharke, Wolfgang; Konrad, Kerstin

    2018-05-25

    Parent-child synchrony, the coupling of behavioral and biological signals during social contact, may fine-tune the child's brain circuitries associated with emotional bond formation and the child's development of emotion regulation. Here, we examined the neurobiological underpinnings of these processes by measuring parent's and child's prefrontal neural activity concurrently with functional near-infrared spectroscopy hyperscanning. Each child played both a cooperative and a competitive game with the parent, mostly the mother, as well as an adult stranger. During cooperation, parent's and child's brain activities synchronized in the dorsolateral prefrontal and frontopolar cortex (FPC), which was predictive for their cooperative performance in subsequent trials. No significant brain-to-brain synchrony was observed in the conditions parent-child competition, stranger-child cooperation and stranger-child competition. Furthermore, parent-child compared to stranger-child brain-to-brain synchrony during cooperation in the FPC mediated the association between the parent's and the child's emotion regulation, as assessed by questionnaires. Thus, we conclude that brain-to-brain synchrony may represent an underlying neural mechanism of the emotional connection between parent and child, which is linked to the child's development of adaptive emotion regulation. Future studies may uncover whether brain-to-brain synchrony can serve as a neurobiological marker of the dyad's socio-emotional interaction, which is sensitive to risk conditions, and can be modified by interventions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Promotion of technical cooperation in the field of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jung Kyung; Jung, Duk Yung; Suh, Seong Seog; Park, Myung Nam; Kim, Young Mi; Cho, Moo Kyung [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study aims to improve the quality of human resources and the capability of research and development through the promotion of technical cooperation with foreign energy organizations possessing advanced technologies, and at the same time to contribute to internationalizing energy technology through the active involvement in multilateral technical cooperation programs with international organizations. To attain these aims, practical cooperative relations has been strengthened with 34 organizations from 11 countries including 6 organizations with which new cooperative agreements has been concluded in 1995 from the USA, Australia, China, and Russia, through the promotion of the continuous exchange of information and personnel, and international joint projects. And also the positive participation in technical cooperation programs and research projects organized or sponsored by APEC, IEA, UNDP, UNESCO, WEC has been made. In addition, for the improvement in research capability, 200 researchers has been dispatched abroad for the presentation of papers, of for the discussion of joint research projects, and 30 foreign experts through diverse overseas personnel exchange programs including Brain Pool Program were invited for the contribution of advancing research projects. (author). 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Advisory and autonomous cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the traffic efficiency of an advisory cooperative driving system, Advisory Acceleration Control is examined and compared to the efficiency of an autonomous cooperative driving system, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. The algorithms and implementation thereof are explained. The

  14. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Cooperation: the foundation of improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmer, T P; Spuhler, V J; Berwick, D M; Nolan, T W

    1998-06-15

    Cooperation--working together to produce mutual benefit or attain a common purpose--is almost inseparable from the quest for improvement. Although the case for cooperation can be made on ethical grounds, neither the motivation for nor the effects of cooperation need to be interpreted solely in terms of altruism. Cooperation can be a shrewd and pragmatic strategy for accomplishing personal goals in an interdependent system. Earlier papers in this series have explored the conceptual roots of modern approaches to improvement, which lie in systems theory. To improve systems, we must usually attend first and foremost to interactions. Among humans, "better interaction" is almost synonymous with "better cooperation." Physicians have ample opportunities and, indeed, an obligation to cooperate with other physicians in the same or different specialties, with nurses and other clinical workers, with administrators, and with patients and families. Many intellectual disciplines have made cooperation an object of study. These include anthropology; social psychology; genetics; biology; mathematics; game theory; linguistics; operations research; economics; and, of course, moral and rational philosophy. Scientifically grounded methods to enhance cooperation include developing a shared purpose; creating an open, safe environment; including all who share a common purpose and encouraging diverse viewpoints; negotiating agreement; and insisting on fairness and equity in the application of rules. These methods apply at the organizational level and at the level of the individual physician. This paper describes the application of these methods at the organizational level and focuses on one especially successful example of system-level cooperation in a care delivery site where interactions matter a great deal: the modern intensive care unit.

  16. Cross sector and interdisciplinary cooperation in brain injury rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ane Søndergaard; Hansen, Tia G. B.

    Formidling til dansk publikum af den poster, der er blevet præsenteret på den 10. verdenskongres om hjerneskade i San Francisco d. 20.3.14.......Formidling til dansk publikum af den poster, der er blevet præsenteret på den 10. verdenskongres om hjerneskade i San Francisco d. 20.3.14....

  17. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, W.Y.; Chen, J.H.; Kim, D.H.; Simmons, R.B.V.; Surguri, S.

    1985-01-01

    A review has been conducted of a number of multi-national and bilateral arrangements between governments and between utility-sponsored organizations which provide the framework for international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety. These arrangements include the routine exchange operational data, experiences, technical reports and regulatory data, provision of special assistance when requested, collaboration in safety research, and the holding of international conferences and seminars. Areas which may be better suited for cooperation on a regional basis are identified. These areas include: exchange of operational data and experience, sharing of emergency planning information, and collaboration in safety research. Mechanisms to initiate regional cooperation in these areas are suggested

  18. Surface boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-22

    In this paper, we introduce a surface boxplot as a tool for visualization and exploratory analysis of samples of images. First, we use the notion of volume depth to order the images viewed as surfaces. In particular, we define the median image. We use an exact and fast algorithm for the ranking of the images. This allows us to detect potential outlying images that often contain interesting features not present in most of the images. Second, we build a graphical tool to visualize the surface boxplot and its various characteristics. A graph and histogram of the volume depth values allow us to identify images of interest. The code is available in the supporting information of this paper. We apply our surface boxplot to a sample of brain images and to a sample of climate model outputs.

  19. Surface boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.; Johnson, Christopher; Potter, Kristin; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Sun, Ying

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a surface boxplot as a tool for visualization and exploratory analysis of samples of images. First, we use the notion of volume depth to order the images viewed as surfaces. In particular, we define the median image. We use an exact and fast algorithm for the ranking of the images. This allows us to detect potential outlying images that often contain interesting features not present in most of the images. Second, we build a graphical tool to visualize the surface boxplot and its various characteristics. A graph and histogram of the volume depth values allow us to identify images of interest. The code is available in the supporting information of this paper. We apply our surface boxplot to a sample of brain images and to a sample of climate model outputs.

  20. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  1. Brain glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Linea Lykke Frimodt; Müller, Margit S; Walls, Anne B

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia....... In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been an emerging understanding in brain energy metabolism: that glycogen is more than just a convenient way to store energy for use in emergencies-it is a highly dynamic molecule with versatile implications in brain function, i.e., synaptic...... activity and memory formation. In line with the great spatiotemporal complexity of the brain and thereof derived focus on the basis for ensuring the availability of the right amount of energy at the right time and place, we here encourage a closer look into the molecular and subcellular mechanisms...

  2. Density of founder cells affects spatial pattern formation and cooperation in Bacillus subtilis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Weissing, Franz J; Kuipers, Oscar P; Kovács, Akos T

    2014-10-01

    In nature, most bacteria live in surface-attached sedentary communities known as biofilms. Biofilms are often studied with respect to bacterial interactions. Many cells inhabiting biofilms are assumed to express 'cooperative traits', like the secretion of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). These traits can enhance biofilm-related properties, such as stress resilience or colony expansion, while being costly to the cells that express them. In well-mixed populations cooperation is difficult to achieve, because non-cooperative individuals can reap the benefits of cooperation without having to pay the costs. The physical process of biofilm growth can, however, result in the spatial segregation of cooperative from non-cooperative individuals. This segregation can prevent non-cooperative cells from exploiting cooperative neighbors. Here we examine the interaction between spatial pattern formation and cooperation in Bacillus subtilis biofilms. We show, experimentally and by mathematical modeling, that the density of cells at the onset of biofilm growth affects pattern formation during biofilm growth. At low initial cell densities, co-cultured strains strongly segregate in space, whereas spatial segregation does not occur at high initial cell densities. As a consequence, EPS-producing cells have a competitive advantage over non-cooperative mutants when biofilms are initiated at a low density of founder cells, whereas EPS-deficient cells have an advantage at high cell densities. These results underline the importance of spatial pattern formation for competition among bacterial strains and the evolution of microbial cooperation.

  3. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  4. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  5. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  6. Cooperative and supportive neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sree Hari Rao, V.; Raja Sekhara Rao, P.

    2007-01-01

    This Letter deals with the concepts of co-operation and support among neurons existing in a network which contribute to their collective capabilities and distributed operations. Activational dynamical properties of these networks are discussed

  7. Nuclear cooperation within the CAEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katchanov, A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the situation and the perspectives of the nuclear cooperation between USSR and the different countries participating in the CAEM (USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, German Democratic Republic, Poland, Romania and Cuba) and Yugoslavia [fr

  8. States, Social Capital and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting...... in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...... or undermine cooperative behavior. In both cases we focus on the important mechanisms by which each one contributes to the development of cooperative behavior and collective goods. We conclude by extending our arguments to a brief analysis of one of the world’s newest and largest collective goods...

  9. Heuristics for Cooperative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    behaviors of cooperating humans are not necessary for simple tasks. Those of cooperating wolves or wasps might perform more reliably and could be...observed in wolves (Mech 1970), lions (Schaller 1972), and coyotes (Robinson 1952, Hamlin 1979). In coyotes this behavior seems to be directed toward...predation in Yellowstone National Park. J. Mammal. 33:470-476. value - low Schaller, G. B. 1972. The Serengeti lion: a study of predator-prey relationships

  10. Managing the evolution of cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Dormann, Julian; Ehrmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Management scholars have long stressed the importance of evolutionary processses for inter-firm cooperation but have mostly missed the promising opportunity to incorporate ideas from evolutionary theories into the analysis of collaborative arrangements. In this paper, we first present three rules for the evolution of cooperation - kinship selection, direct reciprocity, and indirect reciprocity. Second, we apply our theoretical considerations, enriched with ideas from cultural anthropology, to...

  11. International cooperation in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanisms of international co-operations, co-ordinated by International Atomic Energy Agency, are presented. These co-operations are related to international safety standards, to the safety of the four hundred existing reactors in operation, to quick help and information in case of emergency, and to the already valid international conventions. The relation between atomic energy and environmental protection is also discussed briefly. (K.A.)

  12. Regional and Global Monetary Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Lamberte; Peter J. Morgan

    2012-01-01

    The increasing occurrence of national, regional, and global financial crises, together with their rising costs and complexity, have increased calls for greater regional and global monetary cooperation. This is particularly necessary in light of volatile capital flow movements that can quickly transmit crisis developments in individual countries to other countries around the world. Global financial safety nets (GFSNs) are one important area for monetary cooperation. This paper reviews the c...

  13. INFORMATION SECURITY IN LOGISTICS COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Małkus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation of suppliers of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, wholesalers, retailers in the form of the supply chain, as well as outsourcing of specialized logistics service require ensuring adequate support of information. It concerns the use of appropriate computer tools. The security of information in such conditions of collaboration becomes the important problem for parties of contract. The objective of the paper is to characterize main issues relating to security of information in logistics cooperation.

  14. Assessment of a cooperative workstation.

    OpenAIRE

    Beuscart, R. J.; Molenda, S.; Souf, N.; Foucher, C.; Beuscart-Zephir, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    Groupware and new Information Technologies have now made it possible for people in different places to work together in synchronous cooperation. Very often, designers of this new type of software are not provided with a model of the common workspace, which is prejudicial to software development and its acceptance by potential users. The authors take the example of a task of medical co-diagnosis, using a multi-media communication workstation. Synchronous cooperative work is made possible by us...

  15. When do people cooperate? The neuroeconomics of prosocial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, Carolyn H; Boone, Christophe; Emonds, Griet

    2013-02-01

    Understanding the roots of prosocial behavior is an interdisciplinary research endeavor that has generated an abundance of empirical data across many disciplines. This review integrates research findings from different fields into a novel theoretical framework that can account for when prosocial behavior is likely to occur. Specifically, we propose that the motivation to cooperate (or not), generated by the reward system in the brain (extending from the striatum to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex), is modulated by two neural networks: a cognitive control system (centered on the lateral prefrontal cortex) that processes extrinsic cooperative incentives, and/or a social cognition system (including the temporo-parietal junction, the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala) that processes trust and/or threat signals. The independent modulatory influence of incentives and trust on the decision to cooperate is substantiated by a growing body of neuroimaging data and reconciles the apparent paradox between economic versus social rationality in the literature, suggesting that we are in fact wired for both. Furthermore, the theoretical framework can account for substantial behavioral heterogeneity in prosocial behavior. Based on the existing data, we postulate that self-regarding individuals (who are more likely to adopt an economically rational strategy) are more responsive to extrinsic cooperative incentives and therefore rely relatively more on cognitive control to make (un)cooperative decisions, whereas other-regarding individuals (who are more likely to adopt a socially rational strategy) are more sensitive to trust signals to avoid betrayal and recruit relatively more brain activity in the social cognition system. Several additional hypotheses with respect to the neural roots of social preferences are derived from the model and suggested for future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 30 CFR 931.30 - State-Federal cooperative agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 7401, et seq., and implementing regulations. 7. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251... INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NEW MEXICO § 931.30 State-Federal cooperative agreement. The State of New Mexico (State) acting through the Governor and the...

  17. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  18. International cooperation on breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.E.; Kratzer, M.B.; Leslie, K.E.; Paige, H.W.; Shantzis, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    In March 1977, as the result of discussions which began in the fall of 1976, the Rockefeller Foundation requested International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) to undertake a study of the role of international cooperation in the development and application of the breeder reactor. While there had been considerable international exchange in the development of breeder technology, the existence of at least seven major national breeder development programs raised a prima facie issue of the adequacy of international cooperation. The final product of the study was to be the identification of options for international cooperation which merited further consideration and which might become the subject of subsequent, more detailed analysis. During the course of the study, modifications in U.S. breeder policy led to an expansion of the analysis to embrace the pros and cons of the major breeder-related policy issues, as well as the respective views of national governments on those issues. The resulting examination of views and patterns of international collaboration emphasizes what was implicit from the outset: Options for international cooperation cannot be fashioned independently of national objectives, policies and programs. Moreover, while similarity of views can stimulate cooperation, this cannot of itself provide compelling justification for cooperative undertakings. Such undertakings are influenced by an array of other national factors, including technological development, industrial infrastructure, economic strength, existing international ties, and historic experience

  19. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  20. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Ramazi

    Full Text Available For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  1. Cooperation and deception in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katie; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2017-08-01

    Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates. In experimental food competitions, primates flexibly manipulate group-mates' behavior to tactically deceive them. Deception can infiltrate cooperative interactions, such as when one takes an unfair share of meat after a coordinated hunt. In order to counter competition of this sort, primates maintain cooperation through partner choice, partner control, and third party punishment. Yet humans appear to stand alone in their ability to understand others' beliefs, which allows us not only to deceive others with the explicit intent to create a false belief, but it also allows us to put ourselves in others' shoes to determine when cheaters need to be punished, even if we are not directly disadvantaged by the cheater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. International cooperation for Mars exploration and sample return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Eugene H.; Boynton, William V.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Carr, Michael H.; Kitchell, Jennifer H.; Mazur, Peter; Pace, Norman R.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Solomon, Sean C.; Wasserburg, Gerald J.

    1990-01-01

    The National Research Council's Space Studies Board has previously recommended that the next major phase of Mars exploration for the United States involve detailed in situ investigations of the surface of Mars and the return to earth for laboratory analysis of selected Martian surface samples. More recently, the European space science community has expressed general interest in the concept of cooperative Mars exploration and sample return. The USSR has now announced plans for a program of Mars exploration incorporating international cooperation. If the opportunity becomes available to participate in Mars exploration, interest is likely to emerge on the part of a number of other countries, such as Japan and Canada. The Space Studies Board's Committee on Cooperative Mars Exploration and Sample Return was asked by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to examine and report on the question of how Mars sample return missions might best be structured for effective implementation by NASA along with international partners. The committee examined alternatives ranging from scientific missions in which the United States would take a substantial lead, with international participation playing only an ancillary role, to missions in which international cooperation would be a basic part of the approach, with the international partners taking on comparably large mission responsibilities. On the basis of scientific strategies developed earlier by the Space Studies Board, the committee considered the scientific and technical basis of such collaboration and the most mutually beneficial arrangements for constructing successful cooperative missions, particularly with the USSR.

  3. Sex differences in brain organization: implications for human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanske-Petitpierre, V; Chen, A C

    1985-12-01

    This article reviews current knowledge in two major research domains: sex differences in neuropsychophysiology, and in human communication. An attempt was made to integrate knowledge from several areas of brain research with human communication and to clarify how such a cooperative effort may be beneficial to both fields of study. By combining findings from the area of brain research, a communication paradigm was developed which contends that brain-related sex differences may reside largely in the area of communication of emotion.

  4. The Neural Responses to Social Cooperation in Gain and Loss Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    Full Text Available Cooperation is pervasive and constitutes the core behavioral principle of human social life. Previous studies have revealed that mutual cooperation was reliably correlated with two reward-related brain regions, the ventral striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, this study sought to investigate how the loss and gain contexts modulated the neural responses to mutual cooperation. Twenty-five female participants were scanned when they played a series of one-shot prisoner's dilemma games in the loss and gain contexts. Specifically, participants and partners independently chose to either cooperate with each other or not, and each was awarded or deprived of (in the gain context or the loss context, respectively a sum of money which depended upon the interaction of their choices. Behavioral results indicated that participants cooperated in nearly half of the experiment trials and reported higher level of positive emotions for mutual cooperation in both contexts, but they cooperated more in the gain than in the loss context. At the neural level, stronger activities in the orbitofrontal cortex were observed for mutual cooperation compared with the other three outcomes in both contexts, while stronger activation in ventral striatum associated with mutual cooperation was observed in the gain context only. Together, our data indicated that, even in the one-shot interaction under loss context, participants still exhibited preference for cooperation and the rewarding experience from a mutually cooperative social interaction activated the ventral striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex, but the loss context weakened the association between the ventral striatum activation and mutual cooperation.

  5. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    The techniques of brain imaging and results in perfusion studies and delayed images are outlined. An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the brain scan in a variety of common problems is discussed, especially as compared with other available procedures. Both nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions are considered. (Auth/C.F.)

  6. Fiscal 1999 international cooperation project report. Development of high-precision quantitative analysis technology for catalyst surfaces by electron spectroscopy; 1999 nendo denshi bunkoho ni yoru shokubai hyomen koseido teiryo bunseki bijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project targets to make analysis of surface chemical phenomena of solid catalysts possible, and establish the basis of intelligent design for catalytic materials, through development of an advanced electron spectroscopy for surface analysis. In fiscal 1999, the research was promoted by using the diffraction grating and driving mechanism introduced in fiscal 1998, and by developing the measurement result on silicon oxide films by radiation beam photoelectron spectroscopy. The measurement technique was established by the optimized measurement process which can treat variable parameters as constant. The analysis result of measurement data in fiscal 1999 showed the dependence of an electron damping length in silicon oxide films on radiation photon energy. The energy dependence well agreed with a theoretically obtained inelastic mean free path of electrons qualitatively, while was smaller by nearly 30% than the latter quantitatively. Measurement was made on the damping length in oxidation-active Gd and Nd oxide films. In both cases of Si and Si oxide film substrates, oxidation of substrates or formation of silicate was observed. (NEDO)

  7. Cooperation for a competitive position: The impact of hospital cooperation behavior on organizational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Vera Antonia; Hinz, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Several public policy initiatives, particularly those involving managed care, aim to enhance cooperation between partners in the health care sector because it is expected that such cooperation will reduce costs and generate additional revenue. However, empirical evidence regarding the effects of cooperation on hospital performance is scarce, particularly with respect to creating a comprehensive measure of cooperation behavior. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of hospital cooperation behavior on organizational performance. We differentiate between horizontal and vertical cooperation using two alternative measures-cooperation depth and cooperation breadth-and include the interaction effects between both cooperation directions. Data are derived from a survey of German hospitals and combined with objective performance information from annual financial statements. Generalized linear regression models are used. The study findings provide insight into the nature of hospitals' cooperation behavior. In particular, we show that there are negative synergies between horizontal administrative cooperation behavior and vertical cooperation behavior. Whereas the depth and breadth of horizontal administrative cooperation positively affect financial performance (when there is no vertical cooperation), vertical cooperation positively affects financial performance (when there is no horizontal administrative cooperation) only when cooperation is broad (rather than deep). Horizontal cooperation is generally more effective than vertical cooperation at improving financial performance. Hospital managers should consider the negative interaction effect when making decisions about whether to recommend a cooperative relationship in a horizontal or vertical direction. In addition, managers should be aware of the limited financial benefit of cooperation behavior.

  8. Culture and Cooperation during the Interwar Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara Popa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the most important Publications of the International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (1925-1946 we will explore the ideas concerning culture and personalities involved in the intellectual cooperation during the Interwar Period. Pointing out the role that the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation had and the Romanian contribution to this cooperation is another purpose of this article.

  9. Cooperative decision making in a stochastic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative game theory is a mathematical tool to analyze situations involving several individuals who can obtain certain benefits by cooperating. The main questions this theory addresses are who will cooperate with whom and how will the corresponding benefits be divided. Most results of cooperative

  10. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the member...

  11. Astronaut Gordon Cooper during flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, relaxes while waiting for weight and balance tests to begin (03974); Cooper prior to entering the Mercury Spacecraft for a series of simulated flight tests. During these tests NASA doctors, engineers and technicians monitor Cooper's performance (03975); Cooper undergoing suit pressurization tests (03976).

  12. International nuclear cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yong-Kyu

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power project traditionally involve huge financial investment, highly sophisticated technology, and long lead time. Many countries, particularly developing ones, find it impossible to implement their nuclear power programs without technical cooperation and assistance from advanced countries. In this Asia and Pacific Region, seven countries have commercial nuclear power units in operation and/or under construction. Korea has six nuclear power units in operation, and three under construction. Active nuclear cooperation has been instrumental in implementing her abmitious nuclear power programs successfully. Nuclear cooperation is one of the widely recognized necessities, which is quite often talked about among the countries of the Asia and Pacific Region. But the differences in nuclear maturity and national interests among those in the region seem to be standing against it. Given the constraints, it is not easy to select appropriate areas for cooperation. There is no doubt, however, that they should include the nuclear policy, nuclear safety, radwaste management, radiological protection, and the management of nuclear units. In order to effectively promote nuclear cooperation in the Region, the scope of RCA activities must be expanded to include the nuclear power area. The Regional Nuclear Data Bank, the Regional Training Center and the Nuclear Emergency Response Center, for example, would be the effective tools for cooperation to meet the demands of the countries in the Region. In view of the technological gap between Japan and all others in the region, we cannot speak of a regional nuclear cooperation without heavily counting on Japan, the most advanced nuclear state in the region. For these reasons, Japan is expected to share an increasing portion of her nuclear technology with others. (author)

  13. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induces sustained intracellular Ca2+ elevation through the up-regulation of surface transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) channels in rodent microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Yoshito; Kato, Takahiro A; Seki, Yoshihiro; Ohgidani, Masahiro; Sagata, Noriaki; Horikawa, Hideki; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Sato-Kasai, Mina; Hayakawa, Kohei; Inoue, Ryuji; Kanba, Shigenobu; Monji, Akira

    2014-06-27

    Microglia are immune cells that release factors, including proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO), and neurotrophins, following activation after disturbance in the brain. Elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) is important for microglial functions such as the release of cytokines and NO from activated microglia. There is increasing evidence suggesting that pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders is related to the inflammatory responses mediated by microglia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin well known for its roles in the activation of microglia as well as in pathophysiology and/or treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we sought to examine the underlying mechanism of BDNF-induced sustained increase in [Ca(2+)]i in rodent microglial cells. We observed that canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) channels contribute to the maintenance of BDNF-induced sustained intracellular Ca(2+) elevation. Immunocytochemical technique and flow cytometry also revealed that BDNF rapidly up-regulated the surface expression of TRPC3 channels in rodent microglial cells. In addition, pretreatment with BDNF suppressed the production of NO induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), which was prevented by co-adiministration of a selective TRPC3 inhibitor. These suggest that BDNF induces sustained intracellular Ca(2+) elevation through the up-regulation of surface TRPC3 channels and TRPC3 channels could be important for the BDNF-induced suppression of the NO production in activated microglia. We show that TRPC3 channels could also play important roles in microglial functions, which might be important for the regulation of inflammatory responses and may also be involved in the pathophysiology and/or the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Regional cooperation in nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.; Muntzing, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    In November 1985, PBNCC (the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee) was formally established. Currently six Pacific Basin members have been participating in PBNCC: Canada, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Taiwan of Chian, and the United States of America. The People's Republic of China has sent observes to the PBNCC meetings. The technical contents of PBWCC working groups are as follows: 1. Regional cooperative for pooled spare parts of nuclear power plants and inventory management; 2. Regional cooperation in nuclear training; 3. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety; 4. Regional cooperation in Codes and Standards; 5. Regional Cooperation in public acceptance; 6. Regional cooperation on radwaste management. (Liu)

  15. Theoretical and methodological bases of the cooperation and the cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alberto Rivera Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work has the purpose to approach the theoretical and methodological foundations of the rise of the cooperatives. In this article are studied the logical antecedents of the cooperativism, the premises  establish by  the Industrial Revolution for the emergence of the first modern cooperative “The Pioneers of Rochdale”  that  is  the inflection point of  cooperativism, until analyzing the contributions of the whole thinking  of the time that maintain this process.

  16. Forskningsoversigt - Effekterne af Cooperative Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    Kan Cooperative Learning - en undervisningsform hvor lærerens tid ved tavlen mindskes og hvor de lærende samarbejder om stoffet - maksimere de lærendes indlæring og medvirke til en forbedring af deres interpersonelle og kommunikative kompetencer, samt øge deres motivation for læring? Den megen...... forskning fra USA viser, at Cooperative Learning øger lærerens bevidsthed om, hvilken adfærd, han er medvirkende til at skabe blandt de lærende. Og den øger lærerens bevidsthed omkring interaktioner i klasserummet, og giver god plads og taletid til hver enkelt lærende. Set i lyset heraf kan Cooperative......, at Cooperative Learning har lige så høj grad af positiv effekt, som den viser sig at have på grundskoleområdet. Det er sigtet med denne oversigt over den empiriske forskning. Til start præsenteres Cooperative Learning som metode, dens rødder og udvikling, dernæst skitseres den omfattende forskning omkring...

  17. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W.; Dancey, Janet E.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Horvath, L. Elise; Perez, Edith A.; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M.; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a long-standing history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the U.S. based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the U.S., and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the U.S. or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the U.S. and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to U.S. policies that restrict drug distribution outside the U.S. This manuscript serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551

  19. Partial Cooperative Equilibria: Existence and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Ghintran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the solution concepts of partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria. The partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium is axiomatically characterized by using notions of rationality, consistency and converse consistency with regard to reduced games. We also establish sufficient conditions for which partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria exist in supermodular games. Finally, we provide an application to strategic network formation where such solution concepts may be useful.

  20. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was ac...

  1. Two Domains of Vimentin Are Expressed on the Surface of Lymph Node, Bone and Brain Metastatic Prostate Cancer Lines along with the Putative Stem Cell Marker Proteins CD44 and CD133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Nicole F. [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Maurer, Jochen [Sanford-Burnham, Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Sheng, Huiming [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Bensussan, Armand [INSERM U976, Hôpital Saint Louis, F-75475 Paris (France); Department of Immunology, Dermatology and Oncology, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMRS976 F-75475 Paris (France); Maricic, Igor; Kumar, Vipin [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Laboratory of Autoimmunity, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Braciak, Todd A., E-mail: tbraciak@tpims.org [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2011-07-13

    Vimentin was originally identified as an intermediate filament protein present only as an intracellular component in many cell types. However, this protein has now been detected on the surface of a number of different cancer cell types in a punctate distribution pattern. Increased vimentin expression has been indicated as an important step in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required for the metastasis of prostate cancer. Here, using two vimentin-specific monoclonal antibodies (SC5 and V9 directed against the coil one rod domain and the C-terminus of the vimentin protein, respectively), we examined whether either of these domains would be displayed on the surface of three commonly studied prostate cancer cell lines isolated from different sites of metastases. Confocal analysis of LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines (derived from lymph node, bone or brain prostate metastases, respectively) demonstrated that both domains of vimentin are present on the surface of these metastatic cancer cell types. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that vimentin expression was readily detected along with CD44 expression but only a small subpopulation of prostate cancer cells expressed vimentin and the putative stem cell marker CD133 along with CD44. Finally, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) nanoparticles that target vimentin could bind and internalize into tested prostate cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that at least two domains of vimentin are present on the surface of metastatic prostate cancer cells and suggest that vimentin could provide a useful target for nanoparticle- or antibody- cancer therapeutic agents directed against highly invasive cancer and/or stem cells.

  2. Defecting or not defecting: how to "read" human behavior during cooperative games by EEG measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio De Vico Fallani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the neural mechanisms responsible for human social interactions is difficult, since the brain activities of two or more individuals have to be examined simultaneously and correlated with the observed social patterns. We introduce the concept of hyper-brain network, a connectivity pattern representing at once the information flow among the cortical regions of a single brain as well as the relations among the areas of two distinct brains. Graph analysis of hyper-brain networks constructed from the EEG scanning of 26 couples of individuals playing the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma reveals the possibility to predict non-cooperative interactions during the decision-making phase. The hyper-brain networks of two-defector couples have significantly less inter-brain links and overall higher modularity--i.e., the tendency to form two separate subgraphs--than couples playing cooperative or tit-for-tat strategies. The decision to defect can be "read" in advance by evaluating the changes of connectivity pattern in the hyper-brain network.

  3. Formation, “Gold Rule” for the cooperative development

    OpenAIRE

    Alcides López Labrada

    2013-01-01

    Before the arising of the cooperative movement in the world, cooperation already existed. So, it is logical to affirm that there can be cooperation without cooperative movement. But there cannot be cooperative movement without cooperation, because cooperation is an indispensable premise for the existence of cooperative movement. Both the precursors of the cooperative movement and the classics of Marxism agreed on the necessity of cooperative formation. Lenin called socialism “the regime o...

  4. Cooperative Cloudlet for Pervasive Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef Jamal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of cooperation in wireless communication has got significant attention from both academia and industrial persons towards to address the performance drawbacks of wireless sensor network due to reason of user’s high mobility and lack of resources of network. The future wireless systems should be highly heterogeneous and interconnected because motivating cooperative relaying has to apply on the future mobile network for efficient results and future demand. As currently the mobile computing is facing latency and battery drainage issues which need to address and solve hence in this work we are proposed mobile - centric and opportunistic communication architecture. In this work mobile devices which are in the range of Wi - Fi of each other can create cluste r with each other and can create an ad - hoc cooperative cloud using Relay Spot[1 - 4]. The Collaboration between these devices can enable them to resourcefully use the augmentation without any infrastructure.

  5. Regional cooperation prospects in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki

    2006-01-01

    The Republic of Korea follows a well-established nuclear nonproliferation policy and could consider regional cooperation as proposed by many nuclear experts over the years. Real problems exist in establishing cooperation, but as the nuclear industry continues to grow, the motivation increases. The US should be a partner in the regional cooperation also. This paper summarizes significant advances made by the NNCA in applying remote monitoring technologies to support international safeguards in the ROK, providing the technical foundation for the use of these technologies for transparency between partner countries. Concrete steps are proposed to form an institutional and then a governmental approach for transparency in the use of nuclear material and even, eventual establishment of a regional safeguards inspection regime. (author)

  6. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    in the five countries and discuss its implications. The present paper synthesizes possible ‘blind spots’ in the national policy, legal or administrative water governance frameworks with reference to the identified types of water-related conflictive and cooperative situations identified during the inventories.......In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...

  7. International cooperation in production inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limousin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear pressure equipment, like the reactor pressure vessel or steam generators, are manufactured in many countries all around the world. As only few reactors were built in the 90's, most of the nuclear safety authorities have lost part of their know how in component manufacturing oversight. For these two reasons, vendor inspection is a key area for international cooperation. On the one hand, ASN has bilateral relationships with several countries (USA, Finland, China...) to fulfill specific purposes. On the other hand, ASN participates in international groups like the MDEP ( Multinational Design Evaluation Program). A MDEP working group dedicated to vendor inspection cooperation enables exchanges of informations (inspection program plan, inspection findings...) among the regulators. Join inspections are organized. International cooperation could lead in the long term to an harmonization of regulatory practices. (author)

  8. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... by taking the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was utilized to analyse cross-border innovation...... of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic...

  9. Learning to cooperate is essential for progress in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickau, Jonathan J.

    2012-06-01

    At the 10th Frontiers of Fundamental Physics symposium, Gerard't Hooft stated that, for some of the advances we hope to see in Physics during the future, there must be a great deal of cooperation between physicists from different disciplines, as well as mathematicians, programmers, technologists, and others. This requires us to evolve a new mindset; however, as so much of our past progress has come out of a fiercely competitive process - especially since a critical review of our ideas about reality remains essential to making clear progress and checking our progress. We must also address the fact that some frameworks appear incompatible, as with relativity and quantum mechanics, whose unification remains distant despite years of attempts to find a quantum gravity theory. I explore the idea that playful exploration, using both left-brained and right-brained approaches to learning, allows us to resolve conflicting ideas by taking advantage of innate human developmental and learning strategies and brain structure. It may thus foster the kind of interdisciplinary cooperation we are hoping to see.

  10. Fashion, Cooperation, and Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people’s cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed. PMID:23382799

  11. Cooperation, framing and political attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Wengström, Erik Roland

    This paper shows that political attitudes are linked to cooperative behavior in an incentivized experiment with a large sample randomly drawn from the Danish population. However, this relationship depends on the way the experiment is framed. In the standard game in which subjects give to a public...... good, contributions are the same regardless of political attitudes. In an economically equivalent version, in which subjects take from a public good, left-wingers cooperate significantly more than subjects in the middle or to the right of the political spectrum. Through simulation techniques we find...

  12. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  13. Some aspects of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera A, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    The present work deals with some aspects of International cooperation which are directly related with Science and Technology in general, but which have total validity in Nuclear Science and Technology. It is meant particularly for Latin-American countries as a whole. Some ideas meant to review the factors that act on the development of Science and Technology are briefly developed; the number of positive achievements reached in Sc. and T.; is recounted; the problems to be overcome in Sc. and T. are numbered and, finally, some propositions for increasing international cooperation in Science and Technology are exposed. (Author)

  14. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  15. Cooperative Localization for Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Urup, Daniel Nygaard; Meyer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hybrid message passing method for distributed cooperative localization and tracking of mobile agents. Belief propagation and mean field message passing are employed for, respectively, the motion-related and measurementrelated part of the factor graph. Using a Gaussian belief approxim......We propose a hybrid message passing method for distributed cooperative localization and tracking of mobile agents. Belief propagation and mean field message passing are employed for, respectively, the motion-related and measurementrelated part of the factor graph. Using a Gaussian belief...

  16. Cooperation for knowledge demands know-how for cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. de la Rive Box (Louk)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractValedictory Address by Louk de la Rive Box, Professor of international cooperation and Rector of the International Institute of Social Studies (22 April 2010). Which Knowledge and for Which Development? Old Timers and New Players More than a decade ago the cyber-revolution gave rise

  17. The sound of cooperation: Musical influences on cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Kevin M; Yan, Jubo; Wansink, Brian; Schulze, William D

    2017-03-01

    Music as an environmental aspect of professional workplaces has been closely studied with respect to consumer behavior while sparse attention has been given to its relevance for employee behavior. In this article, we focus on the influence of music upon cooperative behavior within decision-making groups. Based on results from two extended 20-round public goods experiments, we find that happy music significantly and positively influences cooperative behavior. We also find a significant positive association between mood and cooperative behavior. Consequently, while our studies provide partial support for the relevance of affect in relation to cooperation within groups, we also show an independently important function of happy music that fits with a theory of synchronous and rhythmic activity as a social lubricant. More generally, our findings indicate that music and perhaps other atmospheric variables that are designed to prime consumer behavior might have comparably important effects for employees and consequently warrant closer investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Let's Cooperate! Integrating Cooperative Learning Into a Lesson on Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineke, Patricia R

    2017-04-01

    Cooperative learning is an effective teaching strategy that promotes active participation in learning and can be used in academic, clinical practice, and professional development settings. This article describes that strategy and provides an example of its use in a lesson about ethics. J Contin Nurs Educ. 2017;48(4):154-156. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Accelerating cooperative systems' development through the Grand Cooperative Driving challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.; Malone, K.M.; Katwijk, R. van; Gerrits, A.

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative driving systems comprise an important research area. They are considered a promising solution for reducing traffic congestion, reducing environmental impact and improving traffic safety and driver comfort. The key to these systems is the communication and interaction between vehicles and

  20. International cooperation workshop. Regional workshop for CTBTO international cooperation: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Pursuant to the 1999 programme of work, and following the International Cooperation Workshop held in Vienna, Austria, in 1998, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO (Prep Com) held a regional Workshop for CTBTO International Cooperation in Cairo. The purpose of the workshop was to identify how and by what means the Africa region can promote international cooperation in CTBT verification related technologies, and how the region can benefit from and contribute to Prep Com activity. PTS staff briefed the 40 participants from 22 African States who attended the Workshop on general aspects, including costs, of the establishment and operation of the CTBT verification system, including its four monitoring technologies. Participants were informed on opportunities for local institutions in the establishment of monitoring stations and on possible support for national and regional data centres. National experts presented their research and development activities and reviewed existing experiences on bi/multi-lateral cooperation. The main points of the discussion focused on the need to engage governments to advance signature/ratification, and further training opportunities for African states

  1. Sex differences in neural and behavioral signatures of cooperation revealed by fNIRS hyperscanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph M.; Liu, Ning; Cui, Xu; Vrticka, Pascal; Saggar, Manish; Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Reiss, Allan L.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers from multiple fields have sought to understand how sex moderates human social behavior. While over 50 years of research has revealed differences in cooperation behavior of males and females, the underlying neural correlates of these sex differences have not been explained. A missing and fundamental element of this puzzle is an understanding of how the sex composition of an interacting dyad influences the brain and behavior during cooperation. Using fNIRS-based hyperscanning in 111 same- and mixed-sex dyads, we identified significant behavioral and neural sex-related differences in association with a computer-based cooperation task. Dyads containing at least one male demonstrated significantly higher behavioral performance than female/female dyads. Individual males and females showed significant activation in the right frontopolar and right inferior prefrontal cortices, although this activation was greater in females compared to males. Female/female dyad’s exhibited significant inter-brain coherence within the right temporal cortex, while significant coherence in male/male dyads occurred in the right inferior prefrontal cortex. Significant coherence was not observed in mixed-sex dyads. Finally, for same-sex dyads only, task-related inter-brain coherence was positively correlated with cooperation task performance. Our results highlight multiple important and previously undetected influences of sex on concurrent neural and behavioral signatures of cooperation. PMID:27270754

  2. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  3. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  4. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  5. Brain abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found. However, the most common source is a lung infection. Less often, a heart infection is the cause. The following raise your chance of developing a brain abscess: A weakened immune system (such as in people ...

  6. Cooperation in wireless networks principles and applications : real egoistic behavior is to cooperate!

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzek, Frank HP

    2006-01-01

    Covers the underlying principles of cooperative techniques as well as several applications demonstrating the use of such techniques in practical systems. This book also summarizes the strength of cooperation for wireless communication systems, motivating the use of cooperative techniques.

  7. Cooperative effects in (ethanol)3-water heterotetramers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, Sol; Espinal, Juan F; Mondragon, Fanor

    2009-01-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT: B3LYP/6-31 + G(d)) was used for the optimization of clusters on the potential energy surface of (ethanol)3-water heterotetramers. The tetramerization energies can reach values up to -21.00 kcal/ mol. This energy can not be obtained by just considering the contributions from interactions between two cluster molecules, which suggests of the presence of global cooperative effects (positive). These effects are reflected in smaller hydrogen bond distances and smaller oxygen-oxygen distances, as well as in greater elongations of the O-H proton donor bond with a stronger red-shift in the heterotetramers compared to the ethanol-water heterodimers and the ethanol dimer. The largest cooperativity effect was observed in the four hydrogen bonds arranged in the largest possible cyclic geometric pattern, where all the molecules act as proton acceptor and donor simultaneously. A similar analysis to the characterization of (ethanol)3-water heterotetramers was carried out on (methanol)3-water heterotetramers, and ethanol and methanol tetramers, whose comparison showed a great similarity between all evaluated parameters for the clusters with equal geometric pattern.

  8. Brain imaging and brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage

  9. Prenatal temperature shocks reduce cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchoslav, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Climate change has not only led to a sustained rise in mean global temperature over the past decades, but also increased the frequency of extreme weather events. This paper explores the effect of temperature shocks in utero on later-life taste for cooperation. Using historical climate data combined

  10. Market competition and efficient cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    We use laboratory experiments to study the causal effects of favorable and unfavorable competitive market experience on cooperation in a subsequent social dilemma game. The issues we study are part of the broader topic of whether there are behavioral spillovers between different spheres of social

  11. Cooperation: New Players in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hugon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalisation and the current global financial crisis, new players are emerging in cooperation in Africa. These partners loosen financial constraints and conditionalities, increase the room for manoeuvre and stimulate commodity markets. On the other hand, they also increase the risks of renewed indebtedness and potentially weaken the coordination of aid policies. Do these partnerships call the new cooperation practices of OECD countries into question? Do they justify the return to a realpolitik or are they repeating the earlier mistakes of industrial powers? Can these mistakes be corrected? The question also arises as to whether the global crisis, which has a profound effect on Africa, will lead to a withdrawal or to a passing of the baton on to new, emerging powers. This article highlights the new geopolitical issues concerning Africa in a multipolar world, then discusses the new players involved in cooperation in Africa, before going on to explore the horizons that are opening up for cooperation in Africa, in particular with regard to the global crisis.

  12. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that "transparency" is a unique feature of social networking services.…

  13. International Business : cooperation within networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anne van Delft

    2011-01-01

    Internationalisation is the expansion of a firms operations to foreign markets and includes not only import and export but also foreign direct investments and international cooperation. Today’s globalising economy has resulted in a growing number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) undertaking

  14. Diversified Cooperative Training. A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This bibliography describes 52 materials available for use in cooperative education classes and career and guidance counseling. The materials include books, pamphlets, and brochures, films, curriculum guides, study guides, and workbooks. A few are suited for use with special needs students. Materials for inclusion in the bibliography were located…

  15. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  16. Competition, cooperation, and corporate culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosfeld, M.; von Siemens, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation between workers can be of substantial value to a firm, yet its level often varies substantially between firms. We show that these differences can unfold in a competitive labor market if workers have heterogeneous social preferences and preferences are private information. In our model,

  17. School Discipline: A Cooperative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Henry W.

    1976-01-01

    To stem the tide of student misbehavior, teachers and administrators must present a united front. Cooperative discipline procedures can be effective when they are firm, fair, and offer the misbehaving student a personal option. Practical suggestions on disciplinary procedures are offered here. (Editor/RK)

  18. Participatory Evaluation in Development Cooperation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge Shared : Participatory Evaluation in Development Cooperation ... du développement, évaluation, études environnementales, travail social, développement communautaire, développement rural, santé publique internationale, sans oublier les autres disciplines reliées au développement durable et équitable.

  19. Fifty years of Technical Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established in Vienna in 1957. The Statute of the IAEA, approved by 81 nations, founded the organization on three pillars: nuclear verification; safety and security; and the transfer of technology. Today, these three pillars still remain at the heart of the organization's work. However, the way in which the IAEA carries out this work, particularly with regard to technology transfer, has changed greatly over the years. When the IAEA opened for business, nuclear science and technology were in their infancy. Many Member States had no nuclear capacity at all. The IAEA's 'technical assistance' programme, as it was then known, was modest. Early projects were small in scale and short lived, focusing mainly on building human capacities and creating institutions and facilities that would support the introduction of nuclear technology in a safe and effective manner. Today, the picture is more complex. Instead of merely offering assistance, the IAEA focuses on cooperation for sustainable socioeconomic development, building on the skills and infrastructure that Member States have acquired over the past five decades. Member States are full partners in the process, guiding the IAEA's technical cooperation activities, setting national and regional priorities, and offering training opportunities and technical support to the IAEA and to other Member States. Technical cooperation between developing countries is facilitated and supported through regional cooperative agreements. Regional centres of expertise play an important role in sharing the benefits of nuclear science and technology among Member States

  20. [Child protection--cooperation and conflict management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbeck, Birgit; Hermans, Björn Enno

    2010-01-01

    When people have to deal with conflicts or opposing views they often refer to the term cooperation. But after lengthy discussions the question may be raised if it is more useful not to cooperate. The authors of this article analyse why cooperation is often called for but frequently fails. In this article key prerequisites for successful cooperation are described before the authors present their practical method of 'sYpport'. 'SYpport' mostly refers to trans-institutional cooperation and focuses on the required attitude of those involved. The authors' simple but crucial conclusion is that cooperation requires faith in others.

  1. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.

    2006-12-01

    Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.

  2. Review: Leon N. Cooper's Science and Human Experience: Values, Culture, and the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Gary S

    2015-01-01

    Why are we reviewing a book written by someone who shared in the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physics for work on superconductivity? Because shortly after winning the prize, Leon N. Cooper transitioned into brain research-specifically, the biological basis of memory. He became director of the Brown University Institute for Brain and Neural Systems, whose interdisciplinary program allowed him to integrate research on the brain, physics, and even philosophy. His new book tackles a diverse spectrum of topics and questions, including these: Does science have limits? Where does order come from? Can we understand consciousness?

  3. Inconscious, brain lateralization and parapsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alečković-Nikolić Mila S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have tried to show that it is impossible to study and understand the language of parapsychology without knowing the problem of 'conscious' and 'unconscious' process and issues of brain lateralization. We tried to clarify the different concepts of the notion of the unconscious and to classify all parapsychological phenomena that can be explored. But the real survey of human creativity and those of physical and cognitive abilities of the human mind which are not sufficiently explained today, can not be possible without the cooperation of psychological sciences, clinical psychology, psychopathology, biochemistry, linguistics and quantum physics.

  4. Surgical Resection Followed by Whole Brain Radiotherapy Versus Whole Brain Radiotherapy Alone for Single Brain Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rades, Dirk; Kieckebusch, Susanne; Haatanen, Tiina; Lohynska, Radka; Dunst, Juergen; Schild, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the outcome of surgical resection followed by whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with WBRT alone in patients treated for single brain metastasis. Methods and Materials: The data from 195 patients with single brain metastases were retrospectively evaluated. Of the 195 patients, 99 underwent resection of the metastasis followed by WBRT and 96 underwent WBRT alone. Seven additional potential prognostic factors were investigated: age, gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score, tumor type, interval between initial tumor diagnosis and WBRT, extracranial metastases, and recursive partitioning analysis class. Both treatment groups were well balanced for these factors. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved survival was associated with resection (relative risk [RR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.31; p < 0.001), lower recursive partitioning analysis class (RR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.22-2.06; p < 0.001), age ≤61 years (RR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61; p = 0.002), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score of 0-1 (RR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.70-3.59; p < 0.001), and the absence of extracranial metastases (RR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.41-2.79; p < 0.001). Improved local control was associated with resection (RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.41; p < 0.001) and age ≤61 years (RR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.09-2.88; p = 0.020). Improved brain control distant from the original site was associated with lower recursive partitioning analysis class (RR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.03-2.69; p < 0.035), age ≤61 years (RR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.12-2.96; p = 0.016), and the absence of extracranial metastases (RR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.52-3.88; p < 0.001). Improved control within the entire brain was associated with surgery (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.12-1.38; p < 0.001) and age ≤61 years (RR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.21-2.77; p = 0.004). Conclusion: In patients with a single brain metastasis, the addition of resection to WBRT improved survival, local control at the original metastatic site, and control

  5. The Regulatory Cooperation Forum, an Opportunity to Strengthen International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachaume, J.L.; Mamoru, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Regulatory Cooperation Forum (RCF) is a member-driven forum of nuclear power regulators created in 2010 that promotes the sharing of regulatory knowledge and experience through international cooperation and collaboration using the IAEA Safety Standards as its basis. The RCF involves countries with advanced nuclear power programmes, countries embarking on nuclear power for the first time and countries with smaller programmes considering expansion. The primary objectives of the RCF are: • To promote collaboration and cooperation among RCF members to improve coordination of support for regulatory infrastructure development; • To contribute to achieving and sustaining a high level of nuclear safety, consistent with the IAEA Safety Standards and Guidance; • To optimize resources among RCF members and avoid unnecessary support duplication through improved coordination. Membership of the RCF is open to all Member States of the IAEA. Participants in RCF activities will normally be senior representatives from regulatory bodies in Member States and from other providers, including the IAEA, European Commission (EC) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). So far, more than 30 countries are members of the RCF. The RCF has developed Action Plans to support Jordan, Vietnam, Belarus and Poland. The IAEA’s Nuclear Safety Action Plan urges Member States to strengthen the effectiveness of national regulatory bodies as well as base the development of their nuclear infrastructures on IAEA Safety Standards. The RCF assists Member States in implementing both of these actions for embarking, existing and expanding nuclear programmes. (author)

  6. Cooperative Security: New Horizons for International Order

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Richard; Mihalka, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... Both are controversial. Richard Cohen presents a compelling and highly original model of Cooperative Security -- a term that once was applied almost exclusively to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE...

  7. Understanding Heterogeneous Preferences of Cooperative Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Lans, van der I.A.; Garcia, P.; Dijk, van G.

    2009-01-01

    We study the heterogeneity in the preference structure of cooperative members. Using conjoint analysis the utility that members attach to intra-organizational and strategic attributes of their cooperative is elicited. Recognizing that members are not homogenous, a concomitant finitemixture

  8. Evidence for strategic cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N; El Mouden, Claire; West, Stuart A

    2017-06-14

    Humans may cooperate strategically, cooperating at higher levels than expected from their short-term interests, to try and stimulate others to cooperate. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulated the extent an individual's behaviour is known to others, and hence whether or not strategic cooperation is possible. In contrast with many previous studies, we avoided confounding factors by preventing individuals from learning during the game about either pay-offs or about how other individuals behave. We found clear evidence for strategic cooperators-just telling some individuals that their groupmates would be informed about their behaviour led to them tripling their initial level of cooperation, from 17 to 50%. We also found that many individuals play as if they do not understand the game, and their presence obscures the detection of strategic cooperation. Identifying such players allowed us to detect and study strategic motives for cooperation in novel, more powerful, ways. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Cooperative Agreement on Pesticide Safety Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is awarding the eXtension Foundation with a cooperative agreement to establish a system to distribute EPA funds to Pesticide Safety Education Programs (PSEPs) in State Cooperative Extension Services at Land Grant Universities.

  10. The incorporation of a cooperative society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar Garteiz-Aurrecoa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Spanish General Law regulates cooperatives and qualifies them as economic entities for conducting business, so its commercial nature is recognized aside positions that defend the absence of profit in cooperatives.

  11. Technology and Cooperation: The Behaviors of Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan K.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the pros and cons of library cooperation as exemplified by interlibrary loan and OCLC. Moving away from cooperation toward the more intensive use of local systems is suggested as one alternative for the future. (MES)

  12. Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives in Developing Society in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives in Developing Society in Relation to Poverty Alleviation and ... This paper illuminates the nature and inception of Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives and their ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  13. A Nucleolus for Stochastic Cooperative Games

    OpenAIRE

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper extends the definition of the nucleolus to stochastic cooperative games, that is, to cooperative games with random payoffs to the coalitions. It is shown that the nucleolus is nonempty and that it belongs to the core whenever the core is nonempty. Furthermore, it is shown for a particular class of stochastic cooperative games that the nucleolus can be determined by calculating the traditional nucleolus introduced by Schmeidler (1969) of a specific deterministic cooperative game.

  14. Cooperative Change and the Myth of Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Rokholt, Per Ove; Borgen, Svein Ole

    2000-01-01

    Much of the current research on agricultural cooperatives is biased towards weaknesses of the cooperative organization form. The literature says very little about the strengths and advantages of the cooperative form and what is necessary to develop the form's uniqueness into a sustainable competitive advantage. We argue that for cooperatives to remain viable and competitive, the advantages of the form must be clearly manifested. There is now a lack of systematic theorizing in this field. Typi...

  15. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  16. On the relative advantage of cooperatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm......We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm...

  17. Territorial Cooperation With Non-Eu Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cohard, Juan Carlos; Alfonso, Javier; Vázquez-Barquero, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    TERRITORIAL COOPERATION WITH NON-EU REGIONS Territorial Cooperation (TC) has been possible because there is a trajectory of many years of work invested by the local actors, participants who have become the architects of TC through the city or region involved. Transcontinental cooperation as studied by the European Union TERCO project is providing important lessons for understanding TC. The purpose of the presentation is to analyze the Andalusian-North of Morocco territorial cooperation during...

  18. Unmanned solar systems exploration - An arena for international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, D. H.; Pacault, R.

    1974-01-01

    Mission profiles for a Mars Surface Sample Return (MSSR) mission are considered. A profile using separate launches for a lander/ascent module and an orbiter/return system could use present technology and is appropriate for international cooperation. The achievement of clean interfaces between major building blocks and ease of controlling back contamination are advantages offered by the concept. A spatially distributed surface sample could be obtained by using multiple landers delivering samples to a common orbiter. The Pioneer Venus program, originally planned as a cooperative NASA-ESRO project, resulted in development of a standardized spacecraft bus yielding benefits at minimized cost. The first joint US-European planetary mission now planned is the launch of a Pioneer class orbiter to Jupiter in 1980. Feasibility studies are being conducted.

  19. Latin American cooperation on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Associacao Brasileira de Direito Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro)

    1984-01-01

    The cooperation between Latin American countries on nuclear matters in which Brazil should play a significant role is presented. The possible areas for cooperation, particularly the nuclear law, are focused. The cooperation should be developed on bilateral or multilateral basis, by governmental and non governmental entities. (Author) [pt

  20. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative... conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and...

  1. Treatment of capital in Brasilian cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergílio Frederico Perius

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The early history of the cooperative system never taxed much importance to capital formation in cooperatives. The first German consumer cooperative had no equity in their accounting records. We want to analyze, even though the capital was not essential, what is its function actually.

  2. Testing cooperative systems with the MARS simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, B.D.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of cooperative systems makes the use of high fidelity simulation essential in the development and testing of cooperative applications and their interactions with other cooperative systems. In SAFESPOT a simulator test bench is setup to test the safety margin applications running on

  3. Coordinating choice in partial cooperative equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider symmetric aggregative games and investigate partial cooperation between a portion of the players that sign a cooperative agreement and the rest of the players. Existence results of partial cooperative equilibria are obtained when the players who do not sign the agreement

  4. Need for cooperative work in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Acosta Padrón

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper claims for the use of cooperative work to achieve democratic, communicative and socializing learning; Furthermore, theoretical grounds for cooperative work are presented, from sociological and psychological positions about the development of cooperative work on the basis of Vigotsky, Kart Lewin and Dewey ́s works, among others.

  5. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperator organization. 1220.107 Section 1220.107... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor organization...

  6. Co-Operative Learning and Development Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, V.; McConnell, D.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the theory, nature, and benefits of cooperative learning. Considers the Cooperative Learning and Development Network (CLDN) trial in the JITOL (Just in Time Open Learning) project and examines the relationship between theories about cooperative learning and the reality of a group of professionals participating in a virtual cooperative…

  7. Agricultural Co-Operatives in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tefera, Delelegne A.; Bijman, Jos; Slingerland, Maja A.

    2017-01-01

    To what extent can co-operatives strengthen rural development in sub-Saharan Africa? This paper explores the development of agricultural co-operatives in Ethiopia, particularly the changes in economic functions. Co-operative development in Ethiopia has been strongly influenced by various political

  8. Building up active membership in cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Sergaki, P.; Dijk, van G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Active membership is crucial for agricultural cooperatives as it engenders better performance. It even is the key for cooperative competitiveness. Active membership, however, decreases in many cooperatives. Thus, it is important to know what galvanizes members to become active members. The

  9. Report: National Conference on Cooperative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    The conference report on cooperative vocational education contains four main sections. The first, background papers, contains three papers: Education in a Changing Society, Carl H. Madden; A Prospectus for Cooperative Vocational Education, William F. Pierce; and Critical Issues in Cooperative Vocational Education, Robert M. Worthington. The second…

  10. Proposals for regional cooperation in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaco, T.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation includes proposals for regional cooperation in Africa in the field of seismic monitoring and proposes future actions for establishing this cooperation. It emphasises the benefits of regional cooperation meaning scientific benefit from an established data base, as well as benefit in the field of geology, meteorology, geophysics and in unified budgets and logistics

  11. 50 CFR 81.3 - Cooperative Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CONSERVATION OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES OF FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PLANTS-COOPERATION WITH THE STATES § 81.3 Cooperative Agreement. Upon... Project Agreement can be approved for endangered or threatened species projects. A cooperative agreement...

  12. 75 FR 9246 - Cooperative Share Loan Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-14] Cooperative Share Loan... comments on the subject proposal. New guidance for cooperative housing loan insurance will be published to update existing policies, and better enable mortgagees to submit cooperative share loans for FHA...

  13. SME Cooperation on Innovation & Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how cooperation of SMEs can enable innovation and growth. The research is conducted in a four-year period with 24 SMEs participating from different industry branches. The research is now in the late part of the 3rd. year starting in 2013 and finished January 2017....... Preliminary findings are revealed here and discussed with the SMEs. Shorter-term cooperation and especially longer-term collaboration is important for SMEs to enable innovation and growth. The content of collaboration is based on the cross-disciplinary trinity of organisational- and managerial development......, business model development and financial development. The trinity requires time to get the specific insight on application for each SME. An enhanced contribution is made to the field of SMEs, to academia and to public bodies to understand the needed initiatives to support SMEs for innovation and growth...

  14. Developing Praxis in Conflictual Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    . The presentation will discuss and analyse some empirical material from a project on conflictual cooperation in the building business. The analysis opens an opportunity to discuss and expand Lave and Wenger's notion of situated learning. The authors' original intention of understanding learning as an integral......The present and Nielsen's abstracts argue that change and learning are two related aspects of praxis. The present abstract will investigate the relation between developing praxis and its organization, while Nielsen's abstract will investigate the relation between learning and changing praxis...... of the house leaves traces which we must take into account in our ensuing acts. Additionally it will be argued that the professionals may constitute different communities on the building site. This does not mean that the building site is a community of practice, all the same the conflictual cooperation...

  15. Cooperation between CERN and ITER

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    CERN and the International Fusion Organisation ITER have just signed a first cooperation agreeement. Kaname Ikeda, the Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organisation (ITER) (on the right) and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN, signing the agreement.The Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organization, Mr Kaname Ikeda, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement at a meeting on the Meyrin site on Thursday 6 March. One of the main purposes of this agreement is for CERN to give ITER the benefit of its experience in the field of technology as well as in administrative domains such as finance, procurement, human resources and informatics through the provision of consultancy services. Currently in its start-up phase at its Cadarache site, 70 km from Marseilles (France), ITER will focus its research on the scientific and technical feasibility of using fusion energy as a fu...

  16. Cooperative epidemics on multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi-Tafreshi, N.

    2016-04-01

    The spread of one disease, in some cases, can stimulate the spreading of another infectious disease. Here, we treat analytically a symmetric coinfection model for spreading of two diseases on a two-layer multiplex network. We allow layer overlapping, but we assume that each layer is random and locally loopless. Infection with one of the diseases increases the probability of getting infected with the other. Using the generating function method, we calculate exactly the fraction of individuals infected with both diseases (so-called coinfected clusters) in the stationary state, as well as the epidemic spreading thresholds and the phase diagram of the model. With increasing cooperation, we observe a tricritical point and the type of transition changes from continuous to hybrid. Finally, we compare the coinfected clusters in the case of cooperating diseases with the so-called "viable" clusters in networks with dependencies.

  17. Cooperative Diversity in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmit Diversity is an effective methodology for improving the quality and reliability of a wireless network by reducingthe effects of fading. As majority of the wireless devices (i.e. mobile handsets, etc are limited to only one antenna, especiallydue to hardware constraints, size and cost factors; cooperative communication can be utilized in order to generatetransmit diversity [1]. This enables single antenna wireless devices to share their antennas during transmission in such amanner that creates a virtual MIMO (multiple-input and multiple-output system [2] [3]. In this paper, we will analyze therecent developments and trends in this promising area of wireless Ad hoc networks. The article will also discuss variousmain cooperative signaling methods and will also observe their performance.

  18. Assessment of a cooperative workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuscart, R J; Molenda, S; Souf, N; Foucher, C; Beuscart-Zephir, M C

    1996-01-01

    Groupware and new Information Technologies have now made it possible for people in different places to work together in synchronous cooperation. Very often, designers of this new type of software are not provided with a model of the common workspace, which is prejudicial to software development and its acceptance by potential users. The authors take the example of a task of medical co-diagnosis, using a multi-media communication workstation. Synchronous cooperative work is made possible by using local ETHERNET or public ISDN Networks. A detailed ergonomic task analysis studies the cognitive functioning of the physicians involved, compares their behaviour in the normal and the mediatized situations, and leads to an interpretation of the likely causes for success or failure of CSCW tools.

  19. Carbon tariffs and cooperative outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyland, Terry; Zaccour, Georges

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of an international environmental agreement (IEA) on climate change, a country may be reluctant to unilaterally implement environmental actions, as this may lead to the relocation of firms to other, lax-on-pollution countries. To avoid this problem, while still taking care of the environment, a country may impose a carbon tariff that adjusts for the differences between its own carbon tax and the other country's tax. We consider two countries with a representative firm in each one, and characterize and contrast the equilibrium strategies and outcomes in three scenarios. In the first (benchmark) scenario, in a first stage the regulators in the two countries determine the carbon taxes noncooperatively, and in a second stage, the firms compete à la Cournot. In the second scenario, the regulators cooperate in determining the carbon taxes, while the firms still play a noncooperative Cournot game. In the third scenario, we add another player, e.g., the World Trade Organization, which announced a border tax in a prior stage; the game is then played as in the first scenario. Our two major results are (i) a border-tax adjustment (BTA) mimics quite well the cooperative solution in setting the carbon taxes as in scenario two. This means that a BTA may be a way around the lack of enthusiasm for an IEA. (ii) All of our simulations show that a partial correction of the difference in taxes is sufficient to maximize total welfare. In short, the conclusion is that a BTA may be used as a credible threat to achieve an outcome that is very close to the cooperative outcome. - Highlights: • One of the first studies to consider border-tax adjustment in a strategic context. • Border-tax adjustment can lead to an optimal outcome, in cooperative sense. • Optimal outcome is achieved with partial tax adjustment

  20. MMCD: Cooperative Downloading for Highway

    OpenAIRE

    OTA, Kaoru; DONG, Mianxiong; CHANG, Shan; ZHU, Hongzi

    2015-01-01

    Advances in low-power wireless communications and micro-electronics make a great impact on a transportation system and pervasive deployment of road-side units (RSU) is promising to provide drive-thru Internet to vehicular users anytime and anywhere. Downloading data packets from the RSU, however, is not always reliable because of high mobility of vehicles and high contention among vehicular users. Using inter-vehicle communication, cooperative downloading can maximize the amount of data packe...

  1. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  2. Heterogeneous Multi-Robot Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    express my heartfelt thanks to my thesis advisor . Rod Brooks. who supported and encouraged me throughout my time at MIT. He provided a good mixture of...group than is possible with individual robots alone. 25 26 CHAPTER 3. ALLIANCE: THE COOPERATIVE ROBO ,ARCHITECTURE’ discuss the implications of these...available, robot teams should take advantage of it; however, I do not want the team to experience total breakdown when communication becomes unavailable

  3. Interbrains cooperation: Hyperscanning and self-perception in joint actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the neural bases of cooperative behaviors and social self-perception underlying the execution of joint actions by using a hyperscanning brain paradigm with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We firstly found that an artificial positive feedback on the cognitive performance was able to affect the self-perception of social position and hierarchy (higher social ranking) for the dyad, as well as the cognitive performance (decreased error rate, ER, and response times, RTs). In addition, the shared cognitive strategy was concurrently improved within the dyad after this social reinforcing. Secondly, fNIRS measures revealed an increased brain activity in the postfeedback condition for the dyad. Moreover, an interbrain similarity was found for the dyads during the task, with higher coherent prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity for the interagents in the postfeedback condition. Finally, a significant prefrontal brain lateralization effect was revealed, with the left hemisphere being more engaged during the postfeedback condition. To summarize, the self-perception, the cognitive performance, and the shared brain activity were all reinforced by the social feedback within the dyad.

  4. Cooperative catalysis by silica-supported organic functional groups

    OpenAIRE

    Margelefsky, Eric L.; Zeidan, Ryan K.; Davis, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid inorganic–organic materials comprising organic functional groups tethered from silica surfaces are versatile, heterogeneous catalysts. Recent advances have led to the preparation of silica materials containing multiple, different functional groups that can show cooperative catalysis; that is, these functional groups can act together to provide catalytic activity and selectivity superior to what can be obtained from either monofunctional materials or homogeneous catalysts. This tutorial...

  5. Cooperation in research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanna, R.

    1977-01-01

    In planning scientific programs for rapid and extensive peaceful applications of atomic energy in any developing country, it is not fully realized that one of the most important inputs is a strong research and development (R and D) base with a well-oriented training program. The paper discusses the various ways in which R and D is required to assist in both indigenous and turnkey projects. The R and D organization should be broad based; i.e., it should have physicists, chemists (particularly specialists in water chemistry), health physicists, and engineers (particularly metallurgists for materials development, study of corrosion problems, etc.). The role of electronic engineers is also very significant from the viewpoint of designing reactor control systems. Another important advantage of having an R and D program is its general technological fallout, which aids the entire industrial structure of the country. The concept of regional cooperation is very important, particularly for atomic energy programs in developing countries that have similar conditions and levels of technological skills. This cooperation can be bilateral or multilateral under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Scientists from several countries have been trained in our Center, and we also had a very successful India-Philippines-Agency Project in which scientists from many countries in the region participated in cooperative research programs

  6. Brain Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... relationship with your doctor(s): • Always report changes in cognition/memory and mood (depression, anxiety). • Make sure your physician ... joint pain. • Exercise regularly. Adequate physical exercise enhances cognition/memory. • Train the Brain! “If you don’t use ...

  7. Robot brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babuska, R.

    2011-01-01

    The brain hosts complex networks of neurons that are responsible for behavior in humans and animals that we generally call intelligent. I is not easy to give an exact definition of intelligence – for the purpose of this talk it will suffice to say that we refer to intelligence as a collection of

  8. Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Frattasi, Simone; Figueiras, Joao

    2011-01-01

    Conventional software applications are usually operated on a platform similar to the one on which they were developed and tested. Wireless application development, on the other hand, is more challenging because applications are developed on one platform (like UNIX or Windows) and deployed on a to...

  9. Semiautomatic and Automatic Cooperative Inversion of Seismic and Magnetotelluric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Cuong V. A.; Harris, Brett D.; Pethick, Andrew M.; Takam Takougang, Eric M.; Howe, Brendan

    2016-09-01

    Natural source electromagnetic methods have the potential to recover rock property distributions from the surface to great depths. Unfortunately, results in complex 3D geo-electrical settings can be disappointing, especially where significant near-surface conductivity variations exist. In such settings, unconstrained inversion of magnetotelluric data is inexorably non-unique. We believe that: (1) correctly introduced information from seismic reflection can substantially improve MT inversion, (2) a cooperative inversion approach can be automated, and (3) massively parallel computing can make such a process viable. Nine inversion strategies including baseline unconstrained inversion and new automated/semiautomated cooperative inversion approaches are applied to industry-scale co-located 3D seismic and magnetotelluric data sets. These data sets were acquired in one of the Carlin gold deposit districts in north-central Nevada, USA. In our approach, seismic information feeds directly into the creation of sets of prior conductivity model and covariance coefficient distributions. We demonstrate how statistical analysis of the distribution of selected seismic attributes can be used to automatically extract subvolumes that form the framework for prior model 3D conductivity distribution. Our cooperative inversion strategies result in detailed subsurface conductivity distributions that are consistent with seismic, electrical logs and geochemical analysis of cores. Such 3D conductivity distributions would be expected to provide clues to 3D velocity structures that could feed back into full seismic inversion for an iterative practical and truly cooperative inversion process. We anticipate that, with the aid of parallel computing, cooperative inversion of seismic and magnetotelluric data can be fully automated, and we hold confidence that significant and practical advances in this direction have been accomplished.

  10. Brain SPECT in neurology: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartenstein, P.; Essen Univ.; Weiller, C.; Essen Univ.

    1994-01-01

    SPECT of the brain with radiopharmaceuticals monitoring regional cerebral blood flow, receptor binding and metabolism offers a wide variety of potentially clinically useful applications. These can be found in neuro-oncology, epilepsy, cerebrovascular diseases, extrapyramidal disorders, dementia and the determination of brain death. The evaluation of the benefit of these methods in routine use requires a close cooperation between nuclear medicine physicians and neurologists, not only in the interpretation and analysis of the actual clinical studies, but also in the design and realization of clinically oriented research with large series of patients. (orig.) [de

  11. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  12. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  13. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain Tumors What's in ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  14. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain and ... healthy, and remove waste products. All About the Brain The brain is made up of three main ...

  15. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  16. Evolution of Cooperation in Public Goods Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Chengyi; Zhang Juanjuan; Wang Jinsong; Wang Yiling

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of cooperation with evolutionary public goods games based on finite populations, where four pure strategies: cooperators, defectors, punishers and loners who are unwilling to participate are considered. By adopting approximate best response dynamics, we show that the magnitude of rationality not only quantitatively explains the experiment results in [Nature (London) 425 (2003) 390], but also it will heavily influence the evolution of cooperation. Compared with previous results of infinite populations, which result in two equilibriums, we show that there merely exists a special equilibrium and the relevant high value of bounded rationality will sustain cooperation. In addition, we characterize that loner's payoff plays an active role in the maintenance of cooperation, which will only be warranted for the low and moderate values of loner's payoff. It thus indicates the effects of rationality and loner's payoff will influence the cooperation. Finally, we highlight the important result that the introduction of voluntary participation and punishment will facilitate cooperation greatly. (general)

  17. The Creative Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Ned

    1982-01-01

    Outlines the differences between left-brain and right-brain functioning and between left-brain and right-brain dominant individuals, and concludes that creativity uses both halves of the brain. Discusses how both students and curriculum can become more "whole-brained." (Author/JM)

  18. Cooperation and Development: a study of case in network cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Alisson Westarb Cruz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop new surviving strategies and competitive advantage by individuals and organizations make cooperation to obtain complementary competences and potentialities very important, through the insertion of social actors in multiple networks of relationships and interactions.  This research was made in an Association Network of Carrinheiros[1] located in Curitiba and in the coast of Paraná.  The objective of the study was to analyze the structural characteristics of the network and its implications to develop collective actions. The data was collected through questionnaires, interviews, document analysis, and the daily direct observation of the network.  An interaction system between individuals and organizations from various sectors in society could be verified. This interaction stimulates the structured work connected to associations and cooperatives.  Between the actors of the network, concepts and realities are different, as well as individual objectives are distinct.  However, they converge to a common general objective that establish a common base for collaborative work.

  19. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, L.D.; Bennett, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Imaging with radionuclides should be used in a complementary fashion with other neuroradiologic techniques. It is useful in the early detection and evaluation of intracranial neoplasm, cerebrovascular accident and abscess, and in postsurgical follow-up. Cisternography yields useful information about the functional status of cerebrospinal fluid pathways. Computerized axial tomography is a new technique of great promise that produced a cross-sectional image of the brain

  20. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions

  1. Cooperation between territorial communities: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П. М. Любченко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem Setting. The paper analyzes the problems in the system of legal regulation of cooperation between communities, highlights the advantages and disadvantages of such cooperation in Ukrainian local government. Analysis of the recent researches and publications. The legal basis for cooperation in the field of local government are provisions of the Constitution and laws of Ukraine, by-laws. The organizational principles of communities cooperation, principles, forms and mechanisms of such cooperation and its promotion, financing and monitoring prescribed by the Law of Ukraine «On cooperation of local communities» 17 June 2014, which provides five possible forms of cooperation. Paper main body. The first form - delegation to one party of cooperation by another parties of cooperation execution of one or few tasks with transferring of appropriate resources - one of the most difficult to implement, therefore in Ukraine it is not yet implemented. The second form – realization of joint projects, involving coordination of activities between parties of cooperation and accumulating them for a certain period resources to joint implementation of appropriate measures - one of the most common. This  form is popular because of its simplicity and versatility. Parties are determining the purpose of the project, terms and conditions of its implementation, a list of activities and conditions for their implementation, financial liabilities, other forms of local governments participation in implementation of the project and mechanism of coordination. The third and fourth forms aimed on the creation and maintenance of communal enterprises, institutions and organizations - joint infrastructure projects by parties of cooperation. This form of cooperation with the prospect of widespread use because it is aimed at ensuring effective use of resources of local communities based on common application available in one of the subjects of cooperation of municipal

  2. Cooperative effects in spherical spasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    A fully analytical semiclassical theory of cooperative optical processes which occur in an ensemble of molecules embedded in a spherical core-shell nanoparticle is developed from first principles. Both the plasmonic Dicke effect and spaser generation are investigated for the designs in which...... a shell/core contains an arbitrarily large number of active molecules in the vicinity of a metallic core/shell. An essential aspect of the theory is an ab initio account of the feedback from the core/shell boundaries which significantly modifies the molecular dynamics. The theory provides rigorous, albeit...

  3. Modelling Cooperative Tumorigenesis in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The development of human metastatic cancer is a multistep process, involving the acquisition of several genetic mutations, tumour heterogeneity, and interactions with the surrounding microenvironment. Due to the complexity of cancer development in mammals, simpler model organisms, such as the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, are being utilized to provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. In this review, we highlight recent advances in modelling tumorigenesis using the Drosophila model, focusing on the cooperation of oncogenes or tumour suppressors, and the interaction of mutant cells with the surrounding tissue in epithelial tumour initiation and progression. PMID:29693007

  4. New environmentalism: A cooperative strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    A new cooperative spirit has invaded the world of environmental regulation, according to the author. He calls it the New Environmentalism. New Environmentalism is more flexible and more attentive to economics than the old command-and-control approach. It carries four basic principles: integration of environmental and economic goals; adoption of sound science practices; vigorous enforcement of existing laws; and fostering of concensus in the early stages of rule making. If these principles are practices by all parties EPA believes the waste problems facing the United States can be more effectively managed

  5. International cooperation for the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engfeldt, Lars-Göran; Kjellén, Bo; Liefferink, Duncan

    2003-01-01

    global environmental conference, the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, was convened on 5 June 1972 in Stockholm. This day in June is now yearly celebrated as the World Environment Day. The motto of the Conference “Only One Earth,” was a revolutionary concept for its time, but is today...... go on without concern for the environment. The international agenda for the environment influences the life of everyone: it determines the price for gasoline, where we can build summer houses, and what food we can buy. This chapter will describe how international cooperation for the environment has...

  6. Communicating Cooperative Robots with Bluetooth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Son, L.T.; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2001-01-01

    A generic architecture for system of cooperating communicating mobile robots is presented. An overall structure is defined from a modularity viewpoint, where a number of generic modules are identified; low level communication interface, network layer services such as initial and adaptive network...... structuring, routing and capacity management, overall behaviour which includes commitment to overall strategies as well as local behaviour like trajectory planning and navigation. Focus is kept on communication aspects and an example application of establishing a reliable wireless real-time communication...

  7. Evolution of international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, Bertrand

    1978-01-01

    The various stages of the history of the International Cooperation in nuclear matters are reviewed: isolationism period at the end of the war with the anglosaxon monopoly; opening period with the 1955 Geneva Conference and the creation of organisms within the framework of Euratom (the six European countries), of OCED (NEA) and of UNO (IAEA); industrial realizations period with Euratom research centres (Ispra, Geel, Karlsruhe and Petten) and the NEA enterprises (Halden, Dragon project, Eurochemic). The international industrial accords in the domains of exploitation and uranium enrichment are recalled and the program for the international evaluating of the fuel cycle (INFCE) is mentioned [fr

  8. Health data cooperatives - citizen empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, E; Kossmann, D; Brand, A

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of a Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on Health Record Banking. Healthcare is often ineffective and costs are steadily rising. This is in a large part due to the inaccessibility of medical and health data stored in multiple silos. Furthermore, in most cases molecular differences between individuals that result in different susceptibilities to drugs and diseases as well as targeted interventions cannot be taken into account. Technological advances in genome sequencing and the interaction of 'omics' data with environmental data on one hand and mobile health on the other, promise to generate the longitudinal health data that will form the basis for a more personalized, precision medicine. For this new medicine to become a reality, however, millions of personal health data sets have to be aggregated. The value of such aggregated personal data has been recognized as a new asset class and many commercial entities are competing for this new asset (e.g. Google, Facebook, 23andMe, PatientsLikeMe). The primary source and beneficiary of personal health data is the individual. As a collective, society should be the beneficiary of both the economic and health value of these aggregated data and (health) information. We posit that empowering citizens by providing them with a platform to safely store, manage and share their health-related data will be a necessary element in the transformation towards a more effective and efficient precision medicine. Such health data platforms should be organized as cooperatives that are solely owned and controlled by their members and not by shareholders. Members determine which data they want to share for example with doctors or to contribute to research for the benefit of their health and that of society. Members will also decide how the revenues generated by granting third parties access to the anonymized data that they agreed to share, should be invested in research, information or education. Currently no

  9. Foreign Cooperation Fruitful for Sinopec

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ On October 21, just the eve of Chinese President Jiang Zemin's visit to the United States, a total of 13 big-name enterprises in China and the United States signed five agreements in New York for cooperation in the petrochemical, telecom and energy fields with the contracted capital totaling US$4.7 billion. Of those deals, Sinopec Limited and ExxonMobil inked a framework agreement to beef up their bilateral strategic alliance and push ahead with their join venture projects developed in Southeast China's Guangdong Province and Fujian Province.

  10. Models of conflict and cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Gillman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Models of Conflict and Cooperation is a comprehensive, introductory, game theory text for general undergraduate students. As a textbook, it provides a new and distinctive experience for students working to become quantitatively literate. Each chapter begins with a "dialogue" that models quantitative discourse while previewing the topics presented in the rest of the chapter. Subsequent sections develop the key ideas starting with basic models and ending with deep concepts and results. Throughout all of the sections, attention is given to promoting student engagement with the material through re

  11. It is the cooperation, stupid!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somesh Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of aesthetics in medicine has resulted from society′s acknowledgement of the importance of physical beauty. This has led to an emerging conflict between allied specialties. The author introduces the concept of "Aesthetic Socialism" according to which everyone should have an opportunity to enhance or restore the beauty where it is missing or when it is lost due to disease, trauma or ageing. However, there are multiple aspects of aesthetics, which can not be addressed by a single specialty, therefore author recommends interdisciplinary cooperation rather than conflict to achieve aesthetic socialism.

  12. It is the Cooperation, Stupid!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Somesh

    2016-01-01

    The rise of aesthetics in medicine has resulted from society's acknowledgement of the importance of physical beauty. This has led to an emerging conflict between allied specialties. The author introduces the concept of "Aesthetic Socialism" according to which everyone should have an opportunity to enhance or restore the beauty where it is missing or when it is lost due to disease, trauma or ageing. However, there are multiple aspects of aesthetics, which can not be addressed by a single specialty, therefore author recommends interdisciplinary cooperation rather than conflict to achieve aesthetic socialism.

  13. Modelling Cooperative Tumorigenesis in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena E. Richardson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of human metastatic cancer is a multistep process, involving the acquisition of several genetic mutations, tumour heterogeneity, and interactions with the surrounding microenvironment. Due to the complexity of cancer development in mammals, simpler model organisms, such as the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, are being utilized to provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. In this review, we highlight recent advances in modelling tumorigenesis using the Drosophila model, focusing on the cooperation of oncogenes or tumour suppressors, and the interaction of mutant cells with the surrounding tissue in epithelial tumour initiation and progression.

  14. Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Lanir N; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the "majority-flipping attacker," does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker's outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.

  15. Launching "the evolution of cooperation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert

    2012-04-21

    This article describes three aspects of the author's early work on the evolution of the cooperation. First, it explains how the idea for a computer tournament for the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma was inspired by the artificial intelligence research on computer checkers and computer chess. Second, it shows how the vulnerability of simple reciprocity of misunderstanding or misimplementation can be eliminated with the addition of some degree of generosity or contrition. Third, it recounts the unusual collaboration between the author, a political scientist, and William D. Hamilton, an evolutionary biologist. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-cooperative planning theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogetoft, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Planning in a general sense is concerned with the design of communication and decision making mechanisms in organizations where information and choice are decentralized. Non-cooperative planning theory as it is developed in this book treats the incentive aspects hereof. It stresses how strategic behavior and opportunism may impede planning, and how this can be coped with via the organization of communication and decision making, the design of information and control systems, and the development of incentive schemes. In particular, the book contains a thorough investigation of incentive provision in information production.

  17. DOE/ABACC safeguards cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, J.M.; Toth, P.; Rubio, J.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) signed a safeguards cooperation agreement. The agreement provides for cooperation in the areas of nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for international safeguards applications. ABACC is an international safeguards organization responsible for verifying the commitments of a 1991 bilateral agreement between Argentina and Brazil in which both countries agreed to submit all nuclear material in all nuclear activities to a Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). DOE provides critical assistance (including equipment and training) through the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security to countries and international organizations to enhance their capabilities to control and verify nuclear material inventories. Specific activities initiated under the safeguards agreement include: (1) active US participation in ABACC's safeguards training courses, (2) joint development of specialized measurement training workshops, (3) characterization of laboratory standards, and (4) development and application of an extensive analytical laboratory comparison program. The results realized from these initial activities have been mutually beneficial in regard to strengthening the application of international safeguards in Argentina and Brazil

  18. Cooperative Learning and Interpersonal Synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Roy; Wijnants, Maarten L; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Bosman, Anna M T

    2017-04-01

    Cooperative learning has been shown to result in better task performance, compared to individual and competitive learning, and can lead to positive social effects. However, potential working mechanisms at a micro level remain unexplored. One potential working mechanism might be the level of interpersonal synchrony between cooperating individuals. It has been shown that increased levels of interpersonal synchrony are related to better cognitive performance (e.g., increased memory). Social factors also appear to be affected by the level of interpersonal synchrony, with more interpersonal synchrony leading to increased likeability. In the present study, interpersonal synchrony of postural sway and its relation to task performance and social factors (i.e., popularity, social acceptance, and likeability) was examined. To test this, 183 dyads performed a tangram task while each child stood on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board that recorded their postural sway. The results showed that lower levels of interpersonal synchrony were related to better task performance and those dyads who were on average more popular synchronized more. These results contradict previous findings. It is suggested that for task performance, a more loosely coupled system is better than a synchronized system. In terms of social competence, dyad popularity was associated with more interpersonal synchrony.

  19. Opting for co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    In 1986, after several attempts by a federal crown corporation to site a low-level radioactive waste management facility in Ontario, the federal government established an independent task force to advise it on a less confrontational approach. The Siting Process Task Force recommended the Cooperative Siting Process, which is based on voluntary participation of local communities in a collaborative joint decision making manner. Acting on this recommendation, the Minister of Energy appointed a new Siting Task Force in 1988 to implement the first three phases of the five-phase process. The Task Force was to promote an examination of scientific and public reports prepared for the Siting Process Task Force; draft guidelines for siting and impact management; outline the basic guidelines to address costs associated with different waste management techniques, distances travelled, compensation packages, site evaluation and rehabilitation; conduct regional and community information and consultation meetings; use the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office as one of its technical advisers; and report within 18 months on the process itself, volunteer communities, disposal options, terms of reference for negotiations with the volunteer communities, and detailed cost implications of implementing the defined options. This report contains the results of the Task Force's operations, outlining the process, describing communities that have volunteered to be low level waste management sites, presenting cost estimates for the remaining phases of the process and for disposal, and listing recommendations for completing the Cooperative Siting Process

  20. Keynote address: International nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    These meetings provide an important opportunity for the nuclear community to assess the scope and direction of its wide-ranging activities. Nuclear technology has given us the tools to understand and shape our physical environment in ways which can solve ancient problems of health, food supply, energy, and many others which affect the quality of our lives. International cooperation is necessary to secure the peaceful benefits of nuclear technology. Meeting global energy needs must be high on any priority list of issues for the coming decade and the 21st century. The satisfaction of energy needs is today and will increasingly be a crucial factor in international stability. Hand in hand with the need to assure energy sufficiency is the need to assure the long-term protection of the environment. Three key elements that give a useful framework for approaching the future of nuclear cooperation are technological factors, economic issues, and political acceptability. Technological avenues to greater safety must be vigorously pursued. Economic alternatives must be identified and objectively weighed. Most important of all, the framework of public confidence must be strengthened

  1. Mindfulness training increases cooperative decision making in economic exchanges: Evidence from fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ulrich; Gu, Xiaosi; Sharp, Carla; Hula, Andreas; Fonagy, Peter; Montague, P Read

    2016-09-01

    Emotions have been shown to exert influences on decision making during economic exchanges. Here we investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of a training regimen which is hypothesized to promote emotional awareness, specifically mindfulness training (MT). We test the hypothesis that MT increases cooperative economic decision making using fMRI in a randomized longitudinal design involving 8weeks of either MT or active control training (CT). We find that MT results in an increased willingness to cooperate indexed by higher acceptance rates to unfair monetary offers in the Ultimatum Game. While controlling for acceptance rates of monetary offers between intervention groups, subjects in the MT and CT groups show differential brain activation patterns. Specifically, a subset of more cooperative MT subjects displays increased activation in the septal region, an area linked to social attachment, which may drive the increased willingness to express cooperative behavior in the MT cohort. Furthermore, MT resulted in attenuated activity in anterior insula compared with the CT group in response to unfair monetary offers post-training, which may suggest that MT enables greater ability to effectively regulate the anterior insula and thereby promotes social cooperation. Finally, functional connectivity analyses show a coupling between the septal region and posterior insula in the MT group, suggesting an integration of interoceptive inputs. Together, these results highlight that MT may be employed in contexts where emotional regulation is required to promote social cooperation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gossip and ostracism promote cooperation in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb; Schultz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The widespread existence of cooperation is difficult to explain because individuals face strong incentives to exploit the cooperative tendencies of others. In the research reported here, we examined how the spread of reputational information through gossip promotes cooperation in mixed-motive settings. Results showed that individuals readily communicated reputational information about others, and recipients used this information to selectively interact with cooperative individuals and ostracize those who had behaved selfishly, which enabled group members to contribute to the public good with reduced threat of exploitation. Additionally, ostracized individuals responded to exclusion by subsequently cooperating at levels comparable to those who were not ostracized. These results suggest that the spread of reputational information through gossip can mitigate egoistic behavior by facilitating partner selection, thereby helping to solve the problem of cooperation even in noniterated interactions.

  3. Cooperative path planning of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Tsourdos, Antonios; Shanmugavel, Madhavan

    2010-01-01

    An invaluable addition to the literature on UAV guidance and cooperative control, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a dedicated, practical guide to computational path planning for UAVs. One of the key issues facing future development of UAVs is path planning: it is vital that swarm UAVs/ MAVs can cooperate together in a coordinated manner, obeying a pre-planned course but able to react to their environment by communicating and cooperating. An optimized path is necessary in order to ensure a UAV completes its mission efficiently, safely, and successfully. Focussing on the path planning of multiple UAVs for simultaneous arrival on target, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles also offers coverage of path planners that are applicable to land, sea, or space-borne vehicles. Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is authored by leading researchers from Cranfield University and provides an authoritative resource for researchers, academics and engineers working in...

  4. Recent developments in cooperative control and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Murphey, Robert; Pardalos, Panos

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several years, cooperative control and optimization has un­ questionably been established as one of the most important areas of research in the military sciences. Even so, cooperative control and optimization tran­ scends the military in its scope -having become quite relevant to a broad class of systems with many exciting, commercial, applications. One reason for all the excitement is that research has been so incredibly diverse -spanning many scientific and engineering disciplines. This latest volume in the Cooperative Systems book series clearly illustrates this trend towards diversity and creative thought. And no wonder, cooperative systems are among the hardest systems control science has endeavored to study, hence creative approaches to model­ ing, analysis, and synthesis are a must! The definition of cooperation itself is a slippery issue. As you will see in this and previous volumes, cooperation has been cast into many different roles and therefore has assumed many diverse meanings. P...

  5. Cooperative communications hardware, channel and PHY

    CERN Document Server

    Dohler, Mischa

    2010-01-01

    Facilitating Cooperation for Wireless Systems Cooperative Communications: Hardware, Channel & PHY focuses on issues pertaining to the PHY layer of wireless communication networks, offering a rigorous taxonomy of this dispersed field, along with a range of application scenarios for cooperative and distributed schemes, demonstrating how these techniques can be employed. The authors discuss hardware, complexity and power consumption issues, which are vital for understanding what can be realized at the PHY layer, showing how wireless channel models differ from more traditional

  6. Partner Choice in Raven (Corvus corax) Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa-Haas, Kenji; Schiestl, Martina; Bugnyar, Thomas; Massen, Jorg J M

    2016-01-01

    Although social animals frequently make decisions about when or with whom to cooperate, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of partner choice. Most previous studies compared different dyads' performances, though did not allow an actual choice among partners. We tested eleven ravens, Corvus corax, in triads, giving them first the choice to cooperate with either a highly familiar or a rather unfamiliar partner and, second, with either a friend or a non-friend using a cooperative string-pulling task. In either test, the ravens had a second choice and could cooperate with the other partner, given that this one had not pulled the string in the meantime. We show that during the experiments, these partner ravens indeed learn to wait and inhibit pulling, respectively. Moreover, the results of these two experiments show that ravens' preferences for a specific cooperation partner are not based on familiarity. In contrast, the ravens did show a preference based on relationship quality, as they did choose to cooperate significantly more with friends than with non-friends and they were also more proficient when cooperating with a friend. In order to further identify the proximate mechanism of this preference, we designed an open-choice experiment for the whole group where all birds were free to cooperate on two separate apparatuses. This set-up allowed us to distinguish between preferences for close proximity and preferences to cooperate. The results revealed that friends preferred staying close to each other, but did not necessarily cooperate with one another, suggesting that tolerance of proximity and not relationship quality as a whole may be the driving force behind partner choice in raven cooperation. Consequently, we stress the importance of experiments that allow such titrations and, suggest that these results have important implications for the interpretations of cooperation studies that did not include open partner choice.

  7. Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit m...

  8. Network Analysis of Cooperation in Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdošík Tomáš

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation on the tourism market causes that the competition is not formed only between stakeholders in a destination, but more and more it is created among destinations. Therefore tourism stakeholders in a destination have to act together and cooperate. The cooperative behaviour of destination stakeholders is seen as a main prerequisite of applying the cooperative destination management, which influences the competitiveness of destination on tourism market.

  9. Attribution models and the Cooperative Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Berlanga, Sebastian; Vilella, Cori

    2017-01-01

    The current paper studies the attribution model used by Google Analytics. Precisely, we use the Cooperative Game Theory to propose a fair distribution of the revenues among the considered channels, in order to facilitate the cooperation and to guarantee stability. We define a transferable utility convex cooperative game from the observed frequencies and we use the Shapley value to allocate the revenues among the di erent channels. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of an advertising...

  10. A niche marketing guide for lamb cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kazmierczak, Tamra Kirkpatrick; Bell, James B.

    1995-01-01

    The two types of niche markets targeted by lamb marketing cooperatives are described in this guide. The first type includes specialty middlemen outlets that cooperatives used to market lamb to specialized niches within the traditional meat marketing system of retail food stores, restaurants, food service outlets, and specialty distributors. The second type includes those outlets that cooperatives used to market lamb directly to the consumer, such as freezer markets, farmers' markets, mobile m...

  11. Effect of initial fraction of cooperators on cooperative behavior in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keizo Shigaki

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of initial fraction of cooperators on the evolution of cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma games. Compared with the results of heterogeneous networks, we find that there is a relatively low initial fraction of cooperators to guarantee higher equilibrium cooperative level. While this interesting phenomenon is contrary to the commonly shared knowledge that higher initial fraction of cooperators can provide better environment for the evolution of cooperation. To support our outcome, we explore the time courses of cooperation and find that the whole course can be divided into two sequent stages: enduring (END and expanding (EXP periods. At the end of END period, thought there is a limited number of cooperator clusters left for the case of low initial setup, these clusters can smoothly expand to hold the whole system in the EXP period. However, for high initial fraction of cooperators, superfluous cooperator clusters hinder their effective expansion, which induces many remaining defectors surrounding the cooperator clusters. Moreover, through intensive analysis, we also demonstrate that when the tendency of three cooperation cluster characteristics (cluster size, cluster number and cluster shape are consistent within END and EXP periods, the state that maximizes cooperation can be favored.

  12. Non-cooperative game theory in biology and cooperative reasoning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalak, Alihan; Smirnova, Elena; Jost, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    The readiness for spontaneous cooperation together with the assumptions that others share this cooperativity has been identified as a fundamental feature that distinguishes humans from other animals, including the great apes. At the same time, cooperativity presents an evolutionary puzzle because non-cooperators do better in a group of cooperators. We develop here an analysis of the process leading to cooperation in terms of rationality concepts, game theory and epistemic logic. We are, however, not attempting to reconstruct the actual evolutionary process. We rather want to provide the logical structure underlying cooperation in order to understand why cooperation is possible and what kind of reasoning and beliefs would lead to cooperative decision-making. Game theory depends on an underlying common belief in non-cooperative rationality of the players, and cooperativity similarly can utilize a common belief in cooperative rationality as its basis. We suggest a weaker concept of rational decision-making in games that encompasses both types of decision-making. We build this up in stages, starting from simple optimization, then using anticipation of the reaction of others, to finally arrive at reflexive and cooperative reasoning. While each stage is more difficult than the preceding, importantly, we also identify a reduction of complexity achieved by the consistent application of higher stage reasoning.

  13. Parochial trust and cooperation across 17 societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel; Liu, James H.

    2017-01-01

    International challenges such as climate change, poverty, and intergroup conflict require countries to cooperate to solve these complex problems. However, the political tide in many countries has shifted inward, with skepticism and reluctance to cooperate with other countries. Thus, cross-societal investigations are needed to test theory about trust and cooperation within and between groups. We conducted an experimental study in 17 countries designed to test several theories that explain why, who, and where people trust and cooperate more with ingroup members, compared with outgroup members. The experiment involved several interactions in the trust game, either as a trustor or trustee. We manipulated partner group membership in the trust game (ingroup, outgroup, or unknown) and if their reputation was at stake during the interaction. In addition to the standard finding that participants trust and cooperate more with ingroup than outgroup members, we obtained findings that reputational concerns play a decisive role for promoting trust and cooperation universally across societies. Furthermore, men discriminated more in favor of their ingroup than women. Individual differences in cooperative preferences, as measured by social value orientation, predicted cooperation with both ingroup and outgroup members. Finally, we did not find support for three theories about the cross-societal conditions that influence the degree of ingroup favoritism observed across societies (e.g., material security, religiosity, and pathogen stress). We discuss the implications for promoting cooperation within and between countries. PMID:29133403

  14. Theoretical Outline about Cooperative Entrepreneurial Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Fernández Lorenzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The essence of Cooperativism prints some particular characters to the cooperatives management process, especially the need to integrate the technical, economic and social edges in shaping and improving its. Considering that documented precedent studies have not led to analyze the whole process of cooperative management, but only to solve problems in specific subsystems, in this paper we the theoretical fundaments of Cooperatives Business Management System, under the criteria of integrity and balance between these edges, which is the basis for the proposal of functional subsystems to ensure the whole cooperatives performance.

  15. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species. PMID:26692287

  16. China-Africa: New Directions of Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L V Ponomarenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the policy of fifth generation of Chinese leadership with regard to African states. The article deals with the concept of “Chinese Dream”, which was first declared in Africa, an innovative model of international cooperation in the framework of the formation of “economic zone of the Silk Road”. The authors reveal three basic directions of cooperation - political, economic and humanitarian cooperation. Political cooperation is characterized by the activation of mutual visits at the highest level, the interaction in the framework of the UN General Assembly, participation in UN peacekeeping operations. Economic cooperation is characterized by the activation of bilateral trade, the transition to a “modernized version of” investment cooperation, implementation of the strategy of “going abroad” of Chinese products, imports of natural resources from Africa, creating jobs for the local population, financing of infrastructure projects, the transfer of labor-intensive industries in Africa. Humanitarian cooperation includes training program for Africa, the implementation of the Sino-African programs, technology partnerships, research and exchange, and the China-Africa Forum “Think Tank”. Cooperation in health care also plays an important role. The authors note that the new Chinese leadership declares transition to an upgraded version of the Sino-African cooperation.

  17. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A; Acheson, Daniel J; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-12-22

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species.

  18. Autonomic computing enabled cooperative networked design

    CERN Document Server

    Wodczak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of autonomic computing driven cooperative networked system design from an architectural perspective. As such it leverages and capitalises on the relevant advancements in both the realms of autonomic computing and networking by welding them closely together. In particular, a multi-faceted Autonomic Cooperative System Architectural Model is defined which incorporates the notion of Autonomic Cooperative Behaviour being orchestrated by the Autonomic Cooperative Networking Protocol of a cross-layer nature. The overall proposed solution not only advocates for the inc

  19. The evolution of cooperation in spatial groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianlei; Zhang Chunyan; Chu Tianguang

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We propose a model of evolutionary games in which individuals are organized into networked groups. → We show that the social dilemma can be resolved and high cooperation levels are attained. → Larger average group size would lead to lower cooperation level but higher average payoffs. → The results show that higher expectations can bring the system with larger average payoffs. - Abstract: Much of human cooperation remains an evolutionary riddle. There is evidence that individuals are often organized into groups in many social situations. Inspired by this observation, we propose a simple model of evolutionary public goods games in which individuals are organized into networked groups. Here, nodes in the network represent groups; the edges, connecting the nodes, refer to the interactions between the groups. Individuals establish public goods games with partners in the same group and migrate among neighboring groups depending on their payoffs and expectations. We show that the paradigmatic public goods social dilemma can be resolved and high cooperation levels are attained in structured groups, even in relatively harsh conditions for cooperation. Further, by means of numerical simulations and mean-field analysis, we arrive at the result: larger average group size and milder cooperation environment would lead to lower cooperation level but higher average payoffs of the entire population. Altogether, these results emphasize that our understanding of cooperation can be enhanced by investigations of how spatial groups of individuals affect the evolution dynamics, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation.

  20. Business Cooperation and Regional Productive Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Business Cooperation and Regional Productive Development in Chile, El ... program dedicated to strengthening independent policy research institutions, ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth.

  1. Study on Control of Brain Temperature for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    The brain hypothermia treatment is an attractive therapy for the neurologist because of its neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy patients. The present paper deals with the possibility of controlling the brain and other viscera in different temperatures from the viewpoint of system control. It is theoretically attempted to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment to cool only the head but to warm the body by using the simple apparatus such as the cooling cap, muffler and warming blanket. For this purpose, a biothermal system concerning the temperature difference between the brain and the other thoracico-abdominal viscus is synthesized from the biothermal model of hypothermic patient. The output controllability and the asymptotic stability of the system are examined on the basis of its structure. Then, the maximum temperature difference to be realized is shown dependent on the temperature range of the apparatus and also on the maximum gain determined from the coefficient matrices A, B and C of the biothermal system. Its theoretical analysis shows the realization of difference of about 2.5°C, if there is absolutely no constraint of the temperatures of the cooling cap, muffler and blanket. It is, however, physically unavailable. Those are shown by simulation example of the optimal brain temperature regulation using a standard adult database. It is thus concluded that the surface cooling and warming apparatus do no make it possible to realize the special brain hypothermia treatment, because the brain temperature cannot be cooled lower than those of other viscera in an appropriate temperature environment. This study shows that the ever-proposed good method of clinical treatment is in principle impossible in the actual brain hypothermia treatment.

  2. Facial Expression Recognition for Traumatic Brain Injured Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilyas, Chaudhary Muhammad Aqdus; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the issues associated with facial expression recognition of Traumatic Brain Insured (TBI) patients in a realistic scenario. These patients have restricted or limited muscle movements with reduced facial expressions along with non-cooperative behavior, impaired reason...

  3. Electromagnetic brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekihara, Kensuke

    2008-01-01

    Present imaging methods of cerebral neuro-activity like brain functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) secondarily measure only average activities within a time of the second-order (low time-resolution). In contrast, the electromagnetic brain imaging (EMBI) directly measures the faint magnetic field (10 -12 -10 -13 T) yielded by the cerebral activity with use of multiple arrayed sensors equipped on the head surface within a time of sub-millisecond order (high time-resolution). The sensor array technology to find the signal source from the measured data is common in wide areas like signal procession for radar, sonar, and epicenter detection by seismic wave. For estimating and reconstructing the active region in the brain in EMBI, the efficient method must be developed and this paper describes the direct and inverse problems concerned in signal and image processions of EMBI. The direct problem involves the cerebral magnetic field/lead field matrix and inverse problem for reconstruction of signal source, the MUSIC (multiple signal classification) algorithm, GLRT (generalized likelihood ratio test) scan, and adaptive beamformer. As an example, given are results of magnetic intensity changes (unit, fT) in the somatosensory cortex vs time (msec) measured by 160 sensors and of images reconstructed from EMBI and MRI during electric muscle afferent input from the hand. The real-time imaging is thus possible with EMBI and extremely, the EMBI image, the real-time cerebral signals, can inversely operate a machine, of which application directs toward the brain/machine interface development. (R.T.)

  4. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  5. COalitions in COOperation Networks (COCOON): Social Network Analysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory

    2012-01-01

    Sie, R. L. L. (2012). COalitions in COOperation Networks (COCOON): Social Network Analysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). September, 28, 2012, Open Universiteit in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  6. Cooperative Communications for Wireless Information Assurance: Secure Cooperative Communications and Testbed Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xiaohua

    2007-01-01

    ..., and have invented a new cooperative OFDM transmission scheme to combat transmission asynchronism. They are helpful to the development of future physical-layer wireless information assurance techniques as well as the cooperative communication techniques...

  7. 77 FR 26583 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group on Evaluation of Distributed Leak Detection Systems... Institute-- Cooperative Research Group on Evaluation of Distributed Leak Detection Systems--Performance... detection systems for offshore pipelines. Laboratory testing of distributed temperature and distributed...

  8. The good governance and management  of cooperative societies under cooperative values: a didactic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Souza de Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the administrative management of cooperative enterprises, the various cooperative laws establish the need to organize a social-democratic structure formed by all members of society.

  9. Cooperative and Competitive Contextual Effects on Social Cognitive and Empathic Neural Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhye Lee

    2018-06-01

    s trait empathy score and changing empathic brain activations along with the exposure to the cooperative and competitive social contexts.

  10. German-French PWR cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruess, F.; Vignon, D.

    1990-01-01

    In April 1989, the two leading European nuclear power plant vendors, Framatome and Siemens, signed an agreement on cooperation covering the joint development and worldwide marketing of pressurized water reactors. For this purpose a joint subsidiary, Nuclear Power International (NPI) was founded, in which equal interests are held by Framatome and Siemens. The firm has its headquarters in Paris and another sales office in Erlangen. Its main activities are the coordination of the development of a joint advanced pressurized water reactor technology and the marketing of pressurized water reactors. Until the joint technology under development has reached commercial maturity, the lines so far developed by the parent companies will continue to be distributed. (orig.) [de

  11. [PICS: pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morénas, J

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme (PICS) is a structure containing 34 participating authorities located worldwide (October 2008). It has been created in 1995 on the basis of the pharmaceutical inspection convention (PIC) settled by the European free trade association (EFTA) in1970. This scheme has different goals as to be an international recognised body in the field of good manufacturing practices (GMP), for training inspectors (by the way of an annual seminar and experts circles related notably to active pharmaceutical ingredients [API], quality risk management, computerized systems, useful for the writing of inspection's aide-memoires). PICS is also leading to high standards for GMP inspectorates (through regular crossed audits) and being a room for exchanges on technical matters between inspectors but also between inspectors and pharmaceutical industry.

  12. Cooperative OFDM underwater acoustic communications

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Xilin; Cheng, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Following underwater acoustic channel modeling, this book investigates the relationship between coherence time and transmission distances. It considers the power allocation issues of two typical transmission scenarios, namely short-range transmission and medium-long range transmission. For the former scenario, an adaptive system is developed based on instantaneous channel state information. The primary focus is on cooperative dual-hop orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). This book includes the decomposed fountain codes designed to enable reliable communications with higher energy efficiency. It covers the Doppler Effect, which improves packet transmission reliability for effective low-complexity mirror-mapping-based intercarrier interference cancellation schemes capable of suppressing the intercarrier interference power level. Designed for professionals and researchers in the field of underwater acoustic communications, this book is also suitable for advanced-level students in electrical enginee...

  13. Cooperative robots and sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khelil, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Mobile robots and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have enabled great potentials and a large space for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. Robotics and WSNs have mostly been considered as separate research fields and little work has investigated the marriage between these two technologies. However, these two technologies share several features, enable common cyber-physical applications and provide complementary support to each other.
 The primary objective of book is to provide a reference for cutting-edge studies and research trends pertaining to robotics and sensor networks, and in particular for the coupling between them. The book consists of five chapters. The first chapter presents a cooperation strategy for teams of multiple autonomous vehicles to solve the rendezvous problem. The second chapter is motivated by the need to improve existing solutions that deal with connectivity prediction, and proposed a genetic machine learning approach for link-quality prediction. The third chapter presents an arch...

  14. Cooperation and Defection in Ghetto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    We consider ghetto as a community of people ruled against their will by an external power. Members of the community feel that their laws are broken. However, attempts to leave ghetto makes their situation worse. We discuss the relation of the ghetto inhabitants to the ruling power in context of their needs, organized according to the Maslow hierarchy. Decisions how to satisfy successive needs are undertaken in cooperation with or defection the ruling power. This issue allows to construct the tree of decisions and to adopt the pruning technique from the game theory. Dynamics of decisions can be described within the formalism of fundamental equations. The result is that the strategy of defection is stabilized by the estimated payoff.

  15. Nuclear cooperation: challenges and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollapally, Deepa; Rajagopal, S.

    1997-01-01

    In this era of globalisation and technology flows, the nuclear field continues to retain strong barriers to international collaboration. From nuclear energy to non-proliferation however, the potential for concerted action exists. The International and Strategic Studies Unit of the National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS) held a two day seminar exploring the challenges and prospects for achieving mutual cooperation between states relating to all aspects of nuclear technology. This volume is based on the proceedings of the seminar. The broad themes that the seminar considered included disarmament and the security link; implementation and verification of nonproliferation regimes; transfer of technology and nuclear energy. The seminar culminated with a round table on confidence building

  16. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: From 1977 through...... 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree...

  17. Vendor audits: A cooperative program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    The litany of recent problems with substandard, fraudulent, or counterfeit materials has led to much scrutiny regarding the adequacy and effectiveness of licensee-performed vendor audits. To address these problems in the audit process, most licensees have dedicated significant additional technical and qualitative resources. In response to the limited availability of sufficient resources and expertise to perform more comprehensive and effective vendor audits, many licensees have recognize the advantages of cooperative programs to perform joint audits with other licensees on a regional basis. The Nuclear Procurement Issues Council (NUPIC) provides such a program on a national level, which has proven to be of significant benefit not only to licensees but also to vendors of nuclear safety-related items and services

  18. Lessons Learned from ISS Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, C.

    2002-01-01

    Forty years of human spaceflight activities are now culminating in the International Space Station program (ISS). The ISS involves fifteen nations, working together to create a permanently occupied orbital facility that will support scientific and potentially, commercial endeavours. The assembly of the ISS is scheduled to be completed later in this decade, after which it will be operated for at least ten years. At the strategic level, such a complex international project is highly dependent on the fifteen Partners' respective internal politics and foreign policies. On the operational level, Partners still have certain difficulties in issuing and agreeing to common technical procedures. As with almost all aspects of International Space Station cooperation, the Partners are going through a constant learning process, where they have to deal with complex political, legal and operational differences. Intergovernmental Agreement and the Memoranda of Understanding, the instruments forming the legal backbone of the International Space Station cooperation, are still lacking a fair number of arrangements that need to be created for completing and operating the Station. The whole endeavour is also a constant learning process at the operational level, as astronauts, cosmonauts, engineers and technicians on the ground with different cultural and educational backgrounds, learn to work together. One recent Space Shuttle mission to the Station showed the importance of standardising even trivial system components such as packaging labels, as it took the astronauts half a day more than planned to correctly unpack the equipment. This paper will provide a synthesis of some of the main lessons learned during the first few years of International Space Station's lifetime. Important political, legal and operational issues will be addressed and combined. This analysis will provide some guidelines and recommendations for future international space projects, such as an international human

  19. Brain-computer interface supported collaborative work: Implications for rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, C S; Lee, J; Bahn, S

    2013-01-01

    Working together and collaborating in a group can provide greater benefits for people with severe motor disability. However, it is still not clear how collaboration should be supported by BCI systems. The present study explored BCI-supported collaborative work by investigating differences in performance and brain activity between when a pair of users performs a task jointly with each other and when they do alone only through means of their brain activity. We found differences in performance and brain activity between different work conditions. The results of this research should provide fundamental knowledge of BCI-supported cooperative work.

  20. Can German wine cooperatives compete on quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how German cooperative wineries compete with private (i.e. non-cooperative wineries regarding reputation, quality categorization and varietal selection. Among the reasons why German cooperatives lag behind in terms of reputation for quality wine are organization principles of cooperatives and the difficulty to manage growers supplying grapes of different qualities. Cooperatives turn their supply of grapes into wine often classified as quality wine without much distinction. Conversely, privately owned wineries growing their own grapes may have more control over quality along their production chain and are able to produce more distinctive wines. In turn, they gain more reputation with final consumers with respect to quality. We analyze data for private and cooperative wineries from Germany. Our objective is to identify key differences in terms of reputation for quality wine production. Specifically, we look at interaction effects based on organizational form (cooperative vs. private and the German wine quality categorization (i.e. basic quality wine vs. Kabinett, Spätlese, or Auslese as well as varietal effects. We employ a hedonic pricing model to test the hypothesis that wines produced by private producers receive a reputation premium relative to cooperatives. Moreover, we hypothesize that private wineries receive a price premium relative to coopera- tives for other than basic quality wines and distinct varieties such as Riesling and Pinot Noir. The empirical analysis confirms both hypotheses. The estimated coefficients indicate that cooperatives are unable to gain quality premium for most quality cat- egories and gain price premiums only for non-distinct varieties such as Lemberger and Dornfelder. We can argue that German cooperatives are stuck in the low quality corner of the quality and variety spectrum and are currently not able to compete with private wineries in terms of quality. This result supports the observation

  1. Chromodynamics of cooperation in finite populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Traulsen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic idea of tag-based models for cooperation is that individuals recognize each other via arbitrary signals, so-called tags. If there are tags of different colors, then cooperators can always establish new signals of recognition. The resulting "chromodynamics" is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation. Cooperators use a secret tag until they are discovered by defectors who then destroy cooperation based on this tag. Subsequently, a fraction of the population manages to establish cooperation based on a new tag.We derive a mathematical description of stochastic evolutionary dynamics of tag-based cooperation in populations of finite size. Benefit and cost of cooperation are given by b and c. We find that cooperators are more abundant than defectors if b/c > 1+2u/v, where u is the mutation rate changing only the strategy and v is the mutation rate changing strategy and tag. We study specific assumptions for u and v in two genetic models and one cultural model.In a genetic model, tag-based cooperation only evolves if a gene encodes both strategy and tag. In a cultural model with equal mutation rates between all possible phenotypes (tags and behaviors, the crucial condition is b/c > (K+1/(K-1, where K is the number of tags. A larger number of tags requires a smaller benefit-to-cost ratio. In the limit of many different tags, the condition for cooperators to have a higher average abundance than defectors becomes b > c.

  2. Third-party punishment increases cooperation in children through (misaligned) expectations and conditional cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lergetporer, Philipp; Angerer, Silvia; Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela; Sutter, Matthias

    2014-05-13

    The human ability to establish cooperation, even in large groups of genetically unrelated strangers, depends upon the enforcement of cooperation norms. Third-party punishment is one important factor to explain high levels of cooperation among humans, although it is still somewhat disputed whether other animal species also use this mechanism for promoting cooperation. We study the effectiveness of third-party punishment to increase children's cooperative behavior in a large-scale cooperation game. Based on an experiment with 1,120 children, aged 7 to 11 y, we find that the threat of third-party punishment more than doubles cooperation rates, despite the fact that children are rarely willing to execute costly punishment. We can show that the higher cooperation levels with third-party punishment are driven by two components. First, cooperation is a rational (expected payoff-maximizing) response to incorrect beliefs about the punishment behavior of third parties. Second, cooperation is a conditionally cooperative reaction to correct beliefs that third party punishment will increase a partner's level of cooperation.

  3. 26 CFR 1.1382-3 - Taxable income of cooperatives; special deductions for exempt farmers' cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... deductions for exempt farmers' cooperatives. 1.1382-3 Section 1.1382-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Patrons § 1.1382-3 Taxable income of cooperatives; special deductions for exempt farmers' cooperatives. (a) In general. (1) Section 1382(c) provides that in determining the taxable income of a farmers', fruit...

  4. Women and International Intellectual Co-Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The article explores ways in which intellectual co-operation at the League of Nations [SDN] provided a space for the engagement of culturally elite women in intellectual co-operation circles in Geneva, Paris and a range of national contexts stretching across Europe, Latin America and Asia. It discusses the language of the "international mind" and…

  5. Child Participation in Family-School Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleš, Dubravka; Kuševic, Barbara; Širanovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the cooperation between families and schools from the perspective of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). Given that the principal purpose of the cooperation between families and schools is children's well-being, it is reasonable to expect the child's participation in situations of direct parent-teacher…

  6. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with these...

  7. 30 years of cooperation in neutron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescsenko, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    A brief account is presented of the cooperative efforts between the Physics Departments of the Debrecen Kossuth Lajos University, Hungary, and the Kiev Taras Shevchenko University, Ukraine. The fields of cooperation included time-of-flight experiments, high-intensity neutron generators, and neutron capture reactions. (R.P.)

  8. Construction of Trust Judgments within Cooperative Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evin, Agathe; Sève, Carole; Saury, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the aims of physical education (PE) is to develop social skills such as cooperation, teamwork, and mutual helping among students. Cooperation is a broad research topic, implicating several disciplines in the human sciences (e.g. psychology, sociology, linguistics, philosophy). It is also an important topic in various domains…

  9. Effective Communication between Preservice and Cooperating Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, Ji Ji; Moore, Jenifer; Smajic, Almir

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews research on communication between preservice and cooperating teachers during a teacher internship. The research reveals that poor communication between preservice teachers and cooperating teachers can cause barriers to planning lessons, feedback, and teaching experiences. Additionally, research indicates that…

  10. The Owen Value of Stochastic Cooperative Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Guo E

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider stochastic cooperative game and give it the definition of the Owen value, which is obtained by extending the classical case. Then we provide explicit expression for the Owen value of the stochastic cooperative game and discuss its existence and uniqueness.

  11. Motivation, Coordination and Cognition in Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Feng (Li)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA cooperative is a firm collectively owned by many independent input suppliers or buyers. This dissertation examines the nature of a cooperative and its efficiency compared with other governance structures from the perspectives of motivation, coordination and cognition. We find that the

  12. Left-forbidding cooperating distributed grammar systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goldefus, F.; Masopust, Tomáš; Meduna, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 411, 40-42 (2010), s. 3661-3667 ISSN 0304-3975 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : cooperating distributed grammar system * cooperating derivation mode * left-forbidding grammar * generative power * descriptional complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397510003440

  13. Activities and co-operations in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Dunjiu

    1991-01-01

    The items of activities and co-operations in 1990 are listed. It includes the meetings held by CNDC at home, the international meetings held in China, the international meetings, workshop or training course attended by chinese scientists and other activities and co-operations related to CNDC

  14. Understanding the nature of cooperation variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2014-01-01

    effects and the heterogeneity of cooperation behavior. We find that framing only has a small effect on the average level of cooperation but a substantial effect on behavioral heterogeneity explained almost exclusively by a corresponding change in the heterogeneity of beliefs about other subjects' behavior...

  15. Financing Agricultural Enterprises By Cooperative Societies In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on cooperative societies financing of agricultural enterprises in Mbaise Area of Imo State, Nigeria. The objectives includes, identification of sources of finance for the cooperative societies and types of agricultural enterprises financed, profitability of the enterprises and the members or loan beneficiaries ...

  16. Enhanced Cooperation under the Lisbon Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced cooperation is often regarded as being a way out of EU decision-making deadlock and as a major possibility of proceeding with European integration in selected areas. Although the mechanism has been in place since the Treaty of Amsterdam, enhanced cooperation has only recently become a

  17. Cooperative networks : The mobile tethering game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinescu, M.; Bouwman, H.; Djurica, M.; Durmus, Y.; Onur, E.; Reuver, M. de

    2012-01-01

    We propose an analysis of cooperation for data sharing and the behavioral aspects involved in the process of decision making. Starting with the tethering capabilities of recent devices we apply game theoretical principles and models, inquire what makes the cooperation work, and what are the

  18. Complementarity in R&D cooperation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderbos, R.A.; Carree, M.A.; Lokshin, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses the performance effects of simultaneous engagement in R&D cooperation with different partners (competitors, clients, suppliers, and universities and research institutes). We test whether these different types of R&D cooperation are complements in improving productivity. The

  19. A Precoded OFDMA System with User Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yao; Yatawatta, Sarod; Petropulu, Athina P.

    2010-01-01

    A new cooperative scheme for a two-user orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) uplink communication scenario is proposed. Each user is equipped with one transmit/receive antenna. Before transmission, inter-block linear precoding is introduced to pairs of blocks. The cooperative

  20. Subgame consistent cooperation a comprehensive treatise

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, David W K

    2016-01-01

    Strategic behavior in the human and social world has been increasingly recognized in theory and practice. It is well known that non-cooperative behavior could lead to suboptimal or even highly undesirable outcomes. Cooperation suggests the possibility of obtaining socially optimal solutions and the calls for cooperation are prevalent in real-life problems. Dynamic cooperation cannot be sustainable if there is no guarantee that the agreed upon optimality principle at the beginning is maintained throughout the cooperation duration. It is due to the lack of this kind of guarantees that cooperative schemes fail to last till its end or even fail to get started. The property of subgame consistency in cooperative dynamic games and the corresponding solution mechanism resolve this “classic” problem in game theory. This book is a comprehensive treatise on subgame consistent dynamic cooperation covering the up-to-date state of the art analyses in this important topic. It sets out to provide the theory, solution tec...