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Sample records for brain stem descending

  1. Brain tumor stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Thomas; Schwamborn, Jens C

    2010-06-01

    Since the end of the 'no-new-neuron' theory, emerging evidence from multiple studies has supported the existence of stem cells in neurogenic areas of the adult brain. Along with this discovery, neural stem cells became candidate cells being at the origin of brain tumors. In fact, it has been demonstrated that molecular mechanisms controlling self-renewal and differentiation are shared between brain tumor stem cells and neural stem cells and that corruption of genes implicated in these pathways can direct tumor growth. In this regard, future anticancer approaches could be inspired by uncovering such redundancies and setting up treatments leading to exhaustion of the cancer stem cell pool. However, deleterious effects on (normal) neural stem cells should be minimized. Such therapeutic models underline the importance to study the cellular mechanisms implicated in fate decisions of neural stem cells and the oncogenic derivation of adult brain cells. In this review, we discuss the putative origins of brain tumor stem cells and their possible implications on future therapies. PMID:20370314

  2. The dynamics of cysteine proteinase activity in brain structures of irrigated rat descendants during ontogenetic development

    OpenAIRE

    Чорна, Валентина Іванівна; Лянна, Ольга Леонідівна

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the work was to investigate the kind of lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L activity dependency in brain structures of irradiated rat descendants during ontogenetic development. It was shown that fractional x-ray radiation (25 cGy) of the female rats induced different changes of cathepsin L activity levels and their redistribution in brain structures of female rats’ descendants during postnatal development with the advantages of nonsedimentational activity that had maximum at the 6th da...

  3. Similarity on neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in transgenic brain tumor mouse models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanqun Qiao; Qingquan Li; Gang Peng; Jun Ma; Hongwei Fan; Yingbin Li

    2013-01-01

    Although it is believed that glioma is derived from brain tumor stem cells, the source and molecular signal pathways of these cells are stil unclear. In this study, we used stable doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse brain tumor models (c-myc+/SV40Tag+/Tet-on+) to explore the malignant trans-formation potential of neural stem cells by observing the differences of neural stem cel s and brain tumor stem cells in the tumor models. Results showed that chromosome instability occurred in brain tumor stem cells. The numbers of cytolysosomes and autophagosomes in brain tumor stem cells and induced neural stem cel s were lower and the proliferative activity was obviously stronger than that in normal neural stem cells. Normal neural stem cells could differentiate into glial fibril ary acidic protein-positive and microtubule associated protein-2-positive cells, which were also negative for nestin. However, glial fibril ary acidic protein/nestin, microtubule associated protein-2/nestin, and glial fibril ary acidic protein/microtubule associated protein-2 double-positive cells were found in induced neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cel s. Results indicate that induced neural stem cells are similar to brain tumor stem cells, and are possibly the source of brain tumor stem cells.

  4. Cancer stem cells and brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Castillo, Ana; Aguilar Morante, Diana; Morales-García, José A.; Dorado, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Besides the role of normal stem cells in organogenesis, cancer stem cells are thought to be crucial for tumorigenesis. Most current research on human tumors is focused on molecular and cellular analysis of the bulk tumor mass. However, evidence in leukemia and, more recently, in solid tumors suggests that the tumor cell population is heterogeneous. In recent years, several groups have described the existence of a cancer stem cell population in different brain tumors. These neural cancer stem ...

  5. Brain tumor stem cell dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Bozzuto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Issues regarding cancer stem cell (CSC movement are important in neurosphere biology as cell-cell or cell-environment interactions may have significant impacts on CSC differentiation and contribute to the heterogeneity of the neurosphere. Aims. Despite the growing body of literature data on the biology of brain tumor stem cells, floating CSC-derived neurospheres have been scarcely characterized from a morphological and ultrastructural point of view. Results. Here we report a morphological and ultrastructural characterization performed by live imaging and scanning electron microscopy. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM CSC-derived neurospheres are heterogeneous and are constituted by cells, morphologically different, capable of forming highly dynamic structures. These dynamic structures are regulated by not serendipitous cell-cell interactions, and they synchronously pulsate following a cyclic course made of "fast" and "slow" alternate phases. Autocrine/paracrine non canonical Wnt signalling appears to be correlated with the association status of neurospheres. Conclusions. The results obtained suggest that GBM CSCs can behave both as independents cells and as "social" cells, highly interactive with other members of its species, giving rise to a sort of "multicellular organism".

  6. Cerebral and brain stem Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two patients with central nervous system manifestations of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, both with brain stem involvement, are reported. The onset of symptoms was at an age when the diagnosis might not have been considered. (orig.)

  7. Similarity on neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in transgenic brain tumor mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Guanqun; Li, Qingquan; Peng, Gang; Ma, Jun; Fan, Hongwei; Li, Yingbin

    2013-01-01

    Although it is believed that glioma is derived from brain tumor stem cells, the source and molecular signal pathways of these cells are still unclear. In this study, we used stable doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse brain tumor models (c-myc+/SV40Tag+/Tet-on+) to explore the malignant trans-formation potential of neural stem cells by observing the differences of neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in the tumor models. Results showed that chromosome instability occurred in brain t...

  8. Brain stem death and organ donation.

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Organs for donation are in short supply in the United Kingdom, resulting in allegations that relatives of potential donors are not being asked for consent. Legislation on "required request" has been proposed to overcome this. The incidence, causes, complications, and patterns of organ donation in brain stem dead patients in one referral centre were studied over 12 months. Data were collected on all patients fulfilling criteria for brain stem death or considered suitable for donating organs af...

  9. A Case Report of Brain Stem Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nazari

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain and spinal cord tumors are the most frequent neoplasms after leukemia in children. Brain stem glioma is responsible for 10-20% of brain tumors in this group and often found in pons presenting with cerebellar signs, cranial nerve palsies, pyramidal signs and eventually increased intracranial pressure Case Report: In this article we reported an 11 year old girl affected with brain stem tumor with signs of headache, dizziness, vomiting and ataxia. Strabismus due to palsy of sixth cranial nerve, and dysarthria was observed. Conclusion: Children complaining of vomiting, headache and dizziness for a long time must be assessed for brain tumor in posterior fossa that sometimes may lead to increased intracranial pressure. An exact neurological examination can be worth guide to diagnosis.

  10. Human Nerual Stem Cells for Brain Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung U.; Lee, Hong J.; In H Park; Chu, Kon; Lee, Soon T.; Kim, Manho; Roh, Jae K.; Kim, Seung K.; Wang, Kyu C.

    2008-01-01

    Cell replacement therapy and gene transfer to the diseased or injured brain have provided the basis for the development of potentially powerful new therapeutic strategies for a broad spectrum of human neurological diseases including Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), stroke, spinal cord injury and brain cancer. In recent years, neurons and glial cells have successfully been generated from neural stem cells, a...

  11. Topodiagnostic investigations on the sympathoexcitatory brain stem pathway using a new method of three dimensional brain stem mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Marx, J.; IANNETTI, G.; Mika-Gruettner, A; Thoemke, F; Fitzek, S; Vucurevic, G; Urban, P.; Stoeter, P; Cruccu, G.; Hopf, H.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To study the incompletely understood sympathoexcitatory pathway through the human brain stem, using a new method of three dimensional brain stem mapping on the basis of digitally postprocessed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  12. Computed tomography of the brain stem with intrathecal metrizamide. Part 1: the normal brain stem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed anatomy of the brain stem and cervicomedullary junction can be accurately demonstrated with metrizamide computed tomographic cisternography. Specifically surface anatomy is unusually well outlined. Nine distinct and easily recognizable levels of section are described: four levels in the medulla, three in the pons, and two in the mesencephalon. Surface features of the brain stem, fine details in the floor of the fourth ventricle, cranial nerves, and vascular structures are shown and discussed

  13. The brain stem function in patients with brain bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A syndrome of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) is occasionally found in patients with brain bladder. To evaluate the brain stem function in cases of brain bladder, urodynamic study, dynamic CT scan of the brain stem (DCT) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) were performed. The region of interest of DCT aimed at the posterolateral portion of the pons. The results were analysed in contrast with the presense of DSD in urodynamic study. DCT studies were performed in 13 cases with various brain diseases and 5 control cases without neurological diseases. Abnormal patterns of the time-density curve consisted of low peak value, prolongation of filling time and low rapid washout ratio (low clearance ratio) of the contrast medium. Four of 6 cases with DSD showed at least one of the abnormal patterns of the time-density curve bilaterally. In 7 cases without DSD none showed bilateral abnormality of the curve and in 2 of 7 cases only unilateral abnormality was found. ABR was performed in 8 patients with brain diseases. The interpeak latency of the wave I-V (I-V IPL) was considered to be prolonged in 2 cases with DSD compared to that of 4 without DSD. In 2 cases with DSD who had normal DCT findings, measurement of the I-V IPL was impossible due to abnormal pattern of the ABR wave. Above mentioned results suggests the presence of functional disturbance at the posterolateral portion of the pons in cases of brain bladder with DSD. (author)

  14. Auditory brain-stem responses in syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenhall, U; Roupe, G

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of auditory brain-stem electrical responses (BSER) provides an effective means of detecting lesions in the auditory pathways. In the present study the wave patterns were analysed in 11 patients with secondary or latent syphilis with no clinical symptoms referrable to the central nervous system and in two patients with congenital syphilis and general paralysis. Decreased amplitudes and prolonged latencies occurred frequently in patients with secondary and with advanced syphilis. This ...

  15. BRAIN STEM EVOKED RESPONSE AUDIOMETRY A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain stem evoked response audiometry (BERA is a useful objective assessment of hearing. Major advantage of this procedure is its ability to test even infants in whom conventional audiometry may not be useful. This investigation can be used as a screening test for deafness in high risk infants. Early diagnosis and rehabilitation will reduce disability in these children. This article attempts to review the published literature on this subject.

  16. Brain tumour stem cells: the undercurrents of human brain cancer and their relationship to neural stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dirks, Peter B.

    2007-01-01

    Conceptual and technical advances in neural stem cell biology are being applied to the study of human brain tumours. These studies suggest that human brain tumours are organized as a hierarchy and are maintained by a small number of tumour cells that have stem cell properties. Most of the bulk population of human brain tumours comprise cells that have lost the ability to initiate and maintain tumour growth. Although the cell of origin for human brain tumours is uncertain, recent evidence poin...

  17. Milrinone in Enterovirus 71 Brain Stem Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Min

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) was implicated in a widespread outbreak of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) across the Asia Pacific area since 1997 and has also been reported sporadically in patients with brain stem encephalitis. Neurogenic shock with pulmonary edema (PE) is a fatal complication of EV71 infection. Among inotropic agents, milrinone is selected as a therapeutic agent for EV71- induced PE due to its immunopathogenesis. Milrinone is a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor that has both inotropic and vasodilator effects. Its clinical efficacy has been shown by modulating inflammation, reducing sympathetic over-activity, and improving survival in patients with EV71-associated PE. Milrinone exhibits immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in the management of systemic inflammatory responses in severe EV71 infection. PMID:27065870

  18. Milrinone in Enterovirus 71 Brain Stem Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Min

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) was implicated in a widespread outbreak of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) across the Asia Pacific area since 1997 and has also been reported sporadically in patients with brain stem encephalitis. Neurogenic shock with pulmonary edema (PE) is a fatal complication of EV71 infection. Among inotropic agents, milrinone is selected as a therapeutic agent for EV71- induced PE due to its immunopathogenesis. Milrinone is a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor that has both inotropic and vasodilator effects. Its clinical efficacy has been shown by modulating inflammation, reducing sympathetic over-activity, and improving survival in patients with EV71-associated PE. Milrinone exhibits immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in the management of systemic inflammatory responses in severe EV71 infection. PMID:27065870

  19. Brain Cancer Stem Cells: Current Status on Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Bernier

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, an aggressive brain tumor of astrocytic/neural stem cell origin, represents one of the most incurable cancers. GBM tumors are highly heterogeneous. However, most tumors contain a subpopulation of cells that display neural stem cell characteristics in vitro and that can generate a new brain tumor upon transplantation in mice. Hence, previously identified molecular pathways regulating neural stem cell biology were found to represent the cornerstone of GBM stem cell self-renewal mechanism. GBM tumors are also notorious for their resistance to radiation therapy. Notably, GBM “cancer stem cells” were also found to be responsible for this radioresistance. Herein, we will analyze the data supporting or not the cancer stem cell model in GBM, overview the current knowledge regarding GBM stem cell self-renewal and radioresistance molecular mechanisms, and discuss the potential therapeutic application of these findings.

  20. Brain Cancer Stem Cells: Current Status on Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchino, Sabrina; Abdouh, Mohamed [Developmental Biology Laboratory, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, 5415 Boul. l' Assomption, Montreal, H1T 2M4 (Canada); Bernier, Gilbert, E-mail: gbernier.hmr@ssss.gouv.qc.ca [Developmental Biology Laboratory, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, 5415 Boul. l' Assomption, Montreal, H1T 2M4 (Canada); Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2011-03-30

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor of astrocytic/neural stem cell origin, represents one of the most incurable cancers. GBM tumors are highly heterogeneous. However, most tumors contain a subpopulation of cells that display neural stem cell characteristics in vitro and that can generate a new brain tumor upon transplantation in mice. Hence, previously identified molecular pathways regulating neural stem cell biology were found to represent the cornerstone of GBM stem cell self-renewal mechanism. GBM tumors are also notorious for their resistance to radiation therapy. Notably, GBM “cancer stem cells” were also found to be responsible for this radioresistance. Herein, we will analyze the data supporting or not the cancer stem cell model in GBM, overview the current knowledge regarding GBM stem cell self-renewal and radioresistance molecular mechanisms, and discuss the potential therapeutic application of these findings.

  1. Brain Cancer Stem Cells: Current Status on Glioblastoma Multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor of astrocytic/neural stem cell origin, represents one of the most incurable cancers. GBM tumors are highly heterogeneous. However, most tumors contain a subpopulation of cells that display neural stem cell characteristics in vitro and that can generate a new brain tumor upon transplantation in mice. Hence, previously identified molecular pathways regulating neural stem cell biology were found to represent the cornerstone of GBM stem cell self-renewal mechanism. GBM tumors are also notorious for their resistance to radiation therapy. Notably, GBM “cancer stem cells” were also found to be responsible for this radioresistance. Herein, we will analyze the data supporting or not the cancer stem cell model in GBM, overview the current knowledge regarding GBM stem cell self-renewal and radioresistance molecular mechanisms, and discuss the potential therapeutic application of these findings

  2. Neurosyphilis Involving Cranial Nerves in Brain Stem: 2 Case Reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurosyphilis uncommonly presents with cranial neuropathies in acute syphilitic meningitis and meningovascular neurosyphilis. We now report two cases in which the meningeal form of neurosyphilis involved cranial nerves in the brain stem: the oculomotor and trigeminal nerve.

  3. Ischemic and hemorrhagic brain stem lesions mimicking diabetic ophthalmoplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, T; Segawa, F; Ogawa, K; Kurihara, T; Kinoshita, M

    1995-05-01

    Two patients with diabetes mellitus, one of them with an isolated third cranial nerve palsy and the other with an isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy, are presented. MRI investigations including diffusion-weighted MRI revealed a small ischemic brain stem lesion in the former and a small hemorrhagic brain stem lesion in the latter. In the former case wallerian degeneration of the nerve fascicle within the mesencephalon was also detected. These cases indicate that vascular accidents of the brain stem may masquerade as fascicular or infranuclear disturbance of the oculomotor or abducens nerve; therefore, it is important to include brain stem lesions into the differential diagnosis of isolated ophthalmoplegia. Thorough investigation by MRI including diffusion-weighted MRI is helpful for correct diagnosis. PMID:7656493

  4. Neurosyphilis Involving Cranial Nerves in Brain Stem: 2 Case Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sung Sang; Heo, Sung Hyuk [Dept. of Neurology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Neurosyphilis uncommonly presents with cranial neuropathies in acute syphilitic meningitis and meningovascular neurosyphilis. We now report two cases in which the meningeal form of neurosyphilis involved cranial nerves in the brain stem: the oculomotor and trigeminal nerve.

  5. Neonatal bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis caused by brain stem haemorrhage.

    OpenAIRE

    Blazer, S; Hemli, J A; Sujov, P O; Braun, J

    1989-01-01

    We describe a neonate with severe bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis caused by haemorrhage in the lower brain stem. To our knowledge this association has not been previously reported in the English medical literature.

  6. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: brain stem involvement in a peculiar pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common pattern in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, is in the cerebral hemisphere white matter on T2-weighted images with or without atrophy. Brain-stem lesions are rare. We report brain-stem involvement in two children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. A peculiar pattern, with involvement of the pons with extension to both middle cerebellar peduncles and substantia nigra but sparing the pontine tegmentum, is suggested. (orig.)

  7. Training stem cells for treatment of malignant brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengwen; Calvin; Li; Mustafa; H; Kabeer; Long; T; Vu; Vic; Keschrumrus; Hong; Zhen; Yin; Brent; A; Dethlefs; Jiang; F; Zhong; John; H; Weiss; William; G; Loudon

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of malignant brain tumors remains a challenge. Stem cell technology has been applied in the treatment of brain tumors largely because of the ability of some stem cells to infiltrate into regions within the brain where tumor cells migrate as shown in preclinical studies. However, not all of these efforts can translate in the effective treatment that improves the quality of life for pa-tients. Here, we perform a literature review to identify the problems in the field. Given the lack of efficacy of most stem cell-based agents used in the treatment of malignant brain tumors, we found that stem cell distribution(i.e., only a fraction of stem cells applied capable of targeting tumors) are among the limiting factors. We provide guidelines for potential improvements in stem cell distribution. Specifically, we use an engineered tissue graft platform that replicates the in vivo microenvironment, and provide our data to validate that this culture platform is viable for producing stem cells that have better stem cell distribution than with the Petri dish culture system.

  8. MRI of the incisural plane: assessment of normal brain stem position by age and transtentorial brain stem shift in disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standardization on MRI of an anatomic plane passing through the tectum of the midbrain based on fixed landmarks allows assessment of the position of the brain stem during development and in normal adulthood, and comparison with its position in disease states. The level of the tectum relative to this incisural plane changes during normal cranial growth as well as in the presence of masses, frank brain stem herniation correlating with altered consciousness. (orig.)

  9. Nanomedicine Approaches to Modulate Neural Stem Cells in Brain Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tiago; Boto, Carlos; Saraiva, Cláudia M; Bernardino, Liliana; Ferreira, Lino

    2016-06-01

    We explore the concept of modulating neural stem cells and their niches for brain repair using nanotechnology-based approaches. These approaches include stimulating cell proliferation, recruitment, and differentiation to functionally recover damaged areas. Nanoscale-engineered materials potentially overcome limited crossing of the blood-brain barrier, deficient drug delivery, and cell targeting. PMID:26917252

  10. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  11. Brain stem hypoplasia associated with Cri-du-Chat syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University Hospital, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries.

  12. Brain stem hypoplasia associated with Cri-du-Chat syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries.

  13. Brain stem and thalamus antioxidative defense in experimental sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Ninković Milica; Maličević Ž.; Stojanović Dragica; Vasiljević Ivana; Jovanović Marina; Đukić Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Although brain complications in sepsis are not rare, early pathophysiologic events had not been made clear yet. We have considered antioxidative components-glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration in two brain integrative centers, i.e the brain stem (BS) and thalamus. Sepsis was induced in adult male Wistar rats (200-250 g) by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) with inoculation of Escherichia coli suspension (ATCC 25922) (n=40). The control group w...

  14. Are there fetal stem cells in the maternal brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Osman; Cekin, Necmi; Taştemir, Deniz; Tunç, Erdal; Güzel, Ali İrfan; Meral, Demet; Demirbek, Bülent

    2013-03-01

    Fetal cells can enter maternal blood during pregnancy but whether they can also cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the maternal brain remains poorly understood. Previous results suggest that fetal cells are summoned to repair damage to the mother's brain. If this is confirmed, it would open up new and safer avenues of treatment for brain damage caused by strokes and neural diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether a baby's stem cells can enter the maternal brain during pregnancy. Deceased patients who had at least one male offspring and no history of abortion and blood transfusion were included in this study. DNA was extracted from brain tissue samples of deceased women using standard phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation methods. Genomic DNA was screened by quantitative fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction amplification together with short tandem repeat markers specific to the Y chromosome, and 13, 18, 21 and X. Any foreign DNA residues that could be used to interpret the presence of fetal stem cells in the maternal brain were monitored. Results indicated that fetal stem cells can not cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the maternal brain. PMID:25206703

  15. Are there fetal stem cells in the maternal brain?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman Demirhan; Necmi (C)ekin; Deniz Ta(s)temir; Erdal Tun(c); Ali irfan Güzel; Demet Meral; Bülent Demirbek

    2013-01-01

    Fetal cells can enter maternal blood during pregnancy but whether they can also cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the maternal brain remains poorly understood. Previous results suggest that fetal cells are summoned to repair damage to the mother's brain. If this is confirmed, it would open up new and safer avenues of treatment for brain damage caused by strokes and neural diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether a baby's stem cells can enter the maternal brain during pregnancy. Deceased patients who had at least one male offspring and no history of abortion and blood transfusion were included in this study. DNA was extracted from brain tissue samples of deceased women using standard phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation methods. Genomic DNA was screened by quantitative fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction amplification together with short tandem repeat markers specific to the Y chromosome, and 13, 18, 21 and X. Any foreign DNA residues that could be used to interpret the presence of fetal stem cells in the maternal brain were monitored. Results indicated that fetal stem cells can not cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the maternal brain.

  16. Development of neural stem cell in the adult brain

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Xin; Kang, Eunchai; Liu, Cindy Y.; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2008-01-01

    New neurons are continuously generated in the dentate gyrus of the mammalian hippocampus and in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles throughout life. The origin of these new neurons is believed to be from multipotent adult neural stem cells. Aided by new methodologies, significant progress has been made in the characterization of neural stem cells and their development in the adult brain. Recent studies have also begun to reveal essential extrinsic and intrinsic molecular mechani...

  17. Scaffold and stem cell based modeling of brain disease

    OpenAIRE

    Karpiak, Jerome V.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular models of brain disease involve genetic modulation, geometric patterning, neurophysiologic monitoring and analyses of both primary and immortalized cell lines. Additionally, recent neurological disease models often necessitate in vitro directed differentiation and maturation of human stem cell lines. To advance human stem cell based neural disease models within this evolving field, adaptive approaches of progressive complexity are essential. First, I invented an adaptable 3D laminar ...

  18. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  19. Treatment Options for Childhood Brain Stem Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, coordination, and ability to walk normally, and how well the muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This may also be called a neuro ...

  20. Stages of Childhood Brain Stem Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, coordination, and ability to walk normally, and how well the muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This may also be called a neuro ...

  1. Gene regulatory networks in embryonic stem cells and brain development

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Dhimankrishna; Yan, Xiaowei; Tian, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are endowed with the ability to generate multiple cell lineages and carries great therapeutic potentials in regenerative medicines. Future application of ESCs in human health and diseases will embark on the delineation of molecular mechanisms that define the biology of ESCs. Here we discuss how the finite ESC components mediate the intriguing task of brain development and exhibits biomedical potentials to cure diverse neurological disorders.

  2. Pediatric brain stem tumors: analysis of 25 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charts of 25 pediatric patients with brain stem tumors have been reviewed. The use of computed tomography was found to have been valuable in diagnosis and follow-up, as well as in the design of radiation therapy portals. Radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy with VM-26 (4'-1 demethyl-epipodophyllo toxin B-D-thenylidene glucoside) and CCNU(1-2-chloroethyl-methyl-3-Cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea) were the treatment employed. (M.A.C.)

  3. Rescue of Brain Function Using Tunneling Nanotubes Between Neural Stem Cells and Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Yu, Xiaowen; Xie, Chong; Tan, Zijian; Tian, Qi; Zhu, Desheng; Liu, Mingyuan; Guan, Yangtai

    2016-05-01

    Evidence indicates that neural stem cells (NSCs) can ameliorate cerebral ischemia in animal models. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying one of the neuroprotective effects of NSCs: tunneling nanotube (TNT) formation. We addressed whether the control of cell-to-cell communication processes between NSCs and brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and, particularly, the control of TNT formation could influence the rescue function of stem cells. In an attempt to mimic the cellular microenvironment in vitro, a co-culture system consisting of terminally differentiated BMECs from mice in a distressed state and NSCs was constructed. Additionally, engraftment experiments with infarcted mouse brains revealed that control of TNT formation influenced the effects of stem cell transplantation in vivo. In conclusion, our findings provide the first evidence that TNTs exist between NSCs and BMECs and that regulation of TNT formation alters cell function. PMID:26041660

  4. The taxonomy of brain cancer stem cells: what's in a name?

    OpenAIRE

    Gutmann, David H.

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing recognition that stem cells play vital roles in the formation, maintenance, and potential targeted treatment of brain tumors, there has been an exponential increase in basic laboratory and translational research on these cell types. However, there are several different classes of stem cells germane to brain cancer, each with distinct capabilities and functions. In this perspective, we discuss the types of stem cells relevant to brain tumor pathogenesis, and suggest a nomen...

  5. Brain tumor stem cells as research and treatment targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most malignant forms of human cancer. Despite intensive treatment, the mean survival of GBM patients remains about 1 year. Recent cancer studies revealed that cancer tissues are pathologically heterogeneous and only a small population of cells has the specific ability to reinitiate cancer. This small cell population is called cancer stem cells (CSCs); in brain tumors these are known as brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs). The identification of BTSCs yielded new insights into chemo- and radioresistance, by which BTSCs can survive selectively and initiate recurrence. Research focused on BTSCs as treatment targets may contribute to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. Clinical and basic research studies gradually led to improved outcomes in patients with brain tumors. Stupp et al. reported a mean survival of 14.6 months in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients treated with radiotherapy plus temozolomide and 12.1 months in those subjected to radiotherapy alone. Earlier cancer therapies primarily targeted rapidly dividing cells but not minor populations of slowly dividing cells that contain BTSCs. Accumulating evidence suggests that BTSCs may represent an excellent tool for discovering new strategies to treat GBM patients. In this review, we present evidence supporting the CSC model of tumor progression, and discuss difficulties encountered in CSC research and experimental and therapeutic implications. (author)

  6. The effects of stress on brain and adrenal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Celis, M F R; Bornstein, S R; Androutsellis-Theotokis, A; Andoniadou, C L; Licinio, J; Wong, M-L; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M

    2016-05-01

    The brain and adrenal are critical control centers that maintain body homeostasis under basal and stress conditions, and orchestrate the body's response to stress. It is noteworthy that patients with stress-related disorders exhibit increased vulnerability to mental illness, even years after the stress experience, which is able to generate long-term changes in the brain's architecture and function. High levels of glucocorticoids produced by the adrenal cortex of the stressed subject reduce neurogenesis, which contributes to the development of depression. In support of the brain-adrenal connection in stress, many (but not all) depressed patients have alterations in the components of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis, with enlarged adrenal cortex and increased glucocorticoid levels. Other psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder and depression, are also associated with abnormalities in hippocampal volume and hippocampal function. In addition, hippocampal lesions impair the regulation of the LHPA axis in stress response. Our knowledge of the functional connection between stress, brain function and adrenal has been further expanded by two recent, independent papers that elucidate the effects of stress on brain and adrenal stem cells, showing similarities in the way that the progenitor populations of these organs behave under stress, and shedding more light into the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of tissues to stress. PMID:26809844

  7. Pediatric brain stem gliomas: Comparison of evaluation by CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a direct comparison of the role of CT and MR imaging in the pretreatment and posttreatment evaluation of pediatric brain-stem gliomas. Thirty-four patients with presumed brain-stem gliomas were imaged by both CT and MR over the past 53 months. Twenty-two males and 12 females ranged in age from 3 to 17 years. Fifteen patients had tumor confirmed by biopsy. Thirteen children with nonneoplastic brain-stem lesions were imaged. MR proved superior to CT in both the pretreatment and posttreatment evaluation of patients with brain-stem gliomas. Pathologic correlation to the images is made in selected cases

  8. Tomographic criteria of gliomas in the brain stem in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between Computed Tomography Imaging, histopathological and prognostic data is evaluated by reviewing 37 cases of brain stem neoplasm in infants. The results indicate a presence of a cystic lesion with solid mural nodule as the single prognostic criteria of a greater survival rate. Such finding frequently corresponds to Pilocytic Astrocytomas. No correlations between contrast enhancement and prognostic was found. The association between the prognostic value to the densitometric characteristics of the lesions was not possible. It was concluded that the evaluations of the extension of such lesion is fundamental. Therefore, Magnetic Resonance Imaging has more value than computed tomography. (M.A.C.)

  9. The Descending Helium Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helseth, Lars Egil

    2014-01-01

    I describe a simple and fascinating experiment wherein helium leaks out of a rubber balloon, thereby causing it to descend. An estimate of the volumetric leakage rate is made by measuring its rate of descent.

  10. The BRAIN Initiative Provides a Unifying Context for Integrating Core STEM Competencies into a Neurobiology Course

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    The Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative introduced by the Obama Administration in 2013 presents a context for integrating many STEM competencies into undergraduate neuroscience coursework. The BRAIN Initiative core principles overlap with core STEM competencies identified by the AAAS Vision and Change report and other entities. This neurobiology course utilizes the BRAIN Initiative to serve as the unifying theme that facilitates a primary emphasis ...

  11. Brain micro-ecologies: neural stem cell niches in the adult mammalian brain

    OpenAIRE

    Riquelme, Patricio A; Drapeau, Elodie; Doetsch, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Neurogenesis persists in two germinal regions in the adult mammalian brain, the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone in the hippocampal formation. Within these two neurogenic niches, specialized astrocytes are neural stem cells, capable of self-renewing and generating neurons and glia. Cues within the niche, from cell–cell interactions to diffusible factors, are spatially and temporally coordinated to regulate proliferation and neurogenesis, ultimately affect...

  12. Mapping the calcitonin receptor in human brain stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Rebekah L; Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Waldvogel, Henry J; Faull, Richard L M; Tajti, János; Edvinsson, Lars; Hay, Debbie L; Walker, Christopher S

    2016-05-01

    The calcitonin receptor (CTR) is relevant to three hormonal systems: amylin, calcitonin, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Receptors for amylin and calcitonin are targets for treating obesity, diabetes, and bone disorders. CGRP receptors represent a target for pain and migraine. Amylin receptors (AMY) are a heterodimer formed by the coexpression of CTR with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). CTR with RAMP1 responds potently to both amylin and CGRP. The brain stem is a major site of action for circulating amylin and is a rich site of CGRP binding. This study aimed to enhance our understanding of these hormone systems by mapping CTR expression in the human brain stem, specifically the medulla oblongata. Widespread CTR-like immunoreactivity was observed throughout the medulla. Dense CTR staining was noted in several discrete nuclei, including the nucleus of the solitary tract, the hypoglossal nucleus, the cuneate nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus, the gracile nucleus, and the inferior olivary nucleus. CTR staining was also observed in the area postrema, the lateral reticular nucleus, and the pyramidal tract. The extensive expression of CTR in the medulla suggests that CTR may be involved in a wider range of functions than currently appreciated. PMID:26911465

  13. Cytokine Immunopathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 Brain Stem Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Min Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is one of the most important causes of herpangina and hand, foot, and mouth disease. It can also cause severe complications of the central nervous system (CNS. Brain stem encephalitis with pulmonary edema is the severe complication that can lead to death. EV71 replicates in leukocytes, endothelial cells, and dendritic cells resulting in the production of immune and inflammatory mediators that shape innate and acquired immune responses and the complications of disease. Cytokines, as a part of innate immunity, favor the development of antiviral and Th1 immune responses. Cytokines and chemokines play an important role in the pathogenesis EV71 brain stem encephalitis. Both the CNS and the systemic inflammatory responses to infection play important, but distinctly different, roles in the pathogenesis of EV71 pulmonary edema. Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and milrinone, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has been shown to modulate inflammation, to reduce sympathetic overactivity, and to improve survival in patients with EV71 autonomic nervous system dysregulation and pulmonary edema.

  14. Location of cat brain stem neurons that drive sweating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafton, Anthony D; McAllen, Robin M

    2013-05-15

    The brain stem premotor pathways controlling most noncardiovascular sympathetic outflows are unknown. Here, we mapped the brain stem neurons that drive sweating, by microinjecting excitant amino acid (L-glutamate or D,L-homocysteate: 0.4-3 nmol) into 420 sites over the pons and medulla of eight chloralose-anesthetized cats (70 mg/kg iv). Sweating was recorded by the electrodermal potential at the ipsilateral forepaw pad. Responses were classified as immediate (10 s latency). Immediate responses were obtained from 16 sites (1-3 per animal) and were accompanied by no change in blood pressure. Those sites were clustered between the facial nucleus and the pyramidal tract in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVMM). Microinjections into 33 surrounding sites caused delayed electrodermal responses of lesser amplitude, while the remaining 371 sites evoked none. To retrogradely label bulbospinal neurons that may mediate electrodermal responses, fluorescent latex microspheres were injected into the region of the intermediolateral cell column in the fourth thoracic segment in an earlier preparatory procedure on six of the animals. A cluster of retrogradely labeled neurons was identified between the facial nucleus and the pyramidal tract. Neurons in this discrete region of the RVMM, thus, drive sweating in the cat's paw and may do so via direct spinal projections. PMID:23467325

  15. [Non-lethal brain stem hematomas in hypertensive patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel-Maroger, A; Metzger, J; Bories, J; Gardeur, D; Verger, J B; Noël, M C

    1982-01-01

    Brain stem hemorrhages (peduncular, pontine, medullary) were demonstrated by CT scan in hypertensive patients, the outcome being favorable without surgical intervention. Such lesions are considered as being usually massive and fatal. A review of the literature show that hemorrhages in the brain stem represent 5 to 9 p. cent of intraparenchymatous hemorrhages, and are usually located in the pons. A favorable course was known to occur before the use of computed tomography: the rare cases described were often related to subacute hematomas in young normotensive subjects which could be treated by surgery with or without ventricular shunting. Clinical diagnosis is based on the rapid progressive course of the disorder and the location of the lesion. Computed tomography provides an immediate correlation between anatomical and clinical findings, and allows a better evaluation of semiological and prognostic features that were previously considered well established. A major element appears to be the degree to which the hematoma is tolerated. As far as possible neurosurgical procedures should be avoided in hypertensive patients. PMID:7146726

  16. Correlation between heat shock protein 70 expression in the brain stem and sudden death after experimental traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lian-xu; XU Xiao-hu; LIU Chao; PAN Su-yue; ZHU Jia-zhen; ZHANG Cheng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the patterns of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) biosynthesis following traumatic brain injury, and observe the effect of HSP70 induction on the function of the vital center in the brain stem. Methods: Rat models of sudden death resulted form traumatic brain injury were produced, and HSP70 expression in the rat brain stem was determined by immunohistochemistry, the induction of HSP70 mRNA detected by RT-PCR. Results: The level of HSP70 mRNA was prominently elevated in the brain stem as early as 1 5 min following the impact injury, while HSP70 expression was only observed 3 to 6 h after the injury. It was also observed that the levels of HSP70 mRNA but not the protein were elevated in the brain stem of sudden death rats. Conclusion: The synthesis of HSP70 was significantly enhanced in the brain stem following traumatic injury, and the expression of HSP70 is beneficial to eliminate the stress agents, and to sustain the cellular protein homeostasis. When the injury disturbs the synthesis of HSP70 to disarm the protective mechanism of heat-shock proteins, dysfunction of the vital center in the brain stem, and consequently death may occur. Breach in the synchronization of HSP70 mRNA-protein can be indicative of fatal damage to the nerve cells.

  17. Tumourigenicity and Immunogenicity of Induced Neural Stem Cell Grafts Versus Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Grafts in Syngeneic Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mou; Yao, Hui; Dong, Qin; Zhang, Hongtian; Yang, Zhijun; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Jianwei; Xu, Minhui; Xu, Ruxiang

    2016-01-01

    Along with the development of stem cell-based therapies for central nervous system (CNS) disease, the safety of stem cell grafts in the CNS, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neural stem cells (iNSCs), should be of primary concern. To provide scientific basis for evaluating the safety of these stem cells, we determined their tumourigenicity and immunogenicity in syngeneic mouse brain. Both iPSCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were able to form tumours in the mouse brain, leading to tissue destruction along with immune cell infiltration. In contrast, no evidence of tumour formation, brain injury or immune rejection was observed with iNSCs, neural stem cells (NSCs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). With the help of gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, we detected significantly elevated levels of chemokines in the brain tissue and serum of mice that developed tumours after ESC or iPSC transplantation. Moreover, we also investigated the interactions between chemokines and NF-κB signalling and found that NF-κB activation was positively correlated with the constantly rising levels of chemokines, and vice versa. In short, iNSC grafts, which lacked any resulting tumourigenicity or immunogenicity, are safer than iPSC grafts. PMID:27417157

  18. Transplantation of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jindou Jiang; Xingyao Bu; Meng Liu; Peixun Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Results from the present study demonstrated that transplantation of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into the lesion site in rat brain significantly ameliorated brain tissue pathological changes and brain edema, attenuated glial cell proliferation, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression. In addition, the number of cells double-labeled for 5-bromodeoxyuridine/glial fibrillary acidic protein and cells expressing nestin increased. Finally, blood vessels were newly generated, and the rats exhibited improved motor and cognitive functions. These results suggested that transplantation of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promoted brain remodeling and improved neurological functions following traumatic brain injury.

  19. Intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes neural regeneration after traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Anbari, Fatemeh; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Khoradmehr, Arezoo; Sadeghian, Fatemeh; Fesahat, Farzaneh; Nabi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the supplement of lost nerve cells in rats with traumatic brain injury by intravenous administration of allogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, this study established a Wistar rat model of traumatic brain injury by weight drop impact acceleration method and administered 3 × 106 rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via the lateral tail vein. At 14 days after cell transplantation, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into neurons and astrocytes in injured rat...

  20. Descendants of Slaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the Danish television documentary series Slavernes Slægt (Descendants of Slaves, 2005) has been to enhance public awareness of Danish colonial history. As is typical of contemporary mediated memories, the account of national history is combined with 'small histories' that focus on live...

  1. Proliferation of differentiated glial cells in the brain stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas, P C; Cavalcante, L A

    1998-02-01

    Classical studies of macroglial proliferation in muride rodents have provided conflicting evidence concerning the proliferating capabilities of oligodendrocytes and microglia. Furthermore, little information has been obtained in other mammalian orders and very little is known about glial cell proliferation and differentiation in the subclass Metatheria although valuable knowledge may be obtained from the protracted period of central nervous system maturation in these forms. Thus, we have studied the proliferative capacity of phenotypically identified brain stem oligodendrocytes by tritiated thymidine radioautography and have compared it with known features of oligodendroglial differentiation as well as with proliferation of microglia in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. We have detected a previously undescribed ephemeral, regionally heterogeneous proliferation of oligodendrocytes expressing the actin-binding, ensheathment-related protein 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), that is not necessarily related to the known regional and temporal heterogeneity of expression of CNPase in cell bodies. On the other hand, proliferation of microglia tagged by the binding of Griffonia simplicifolia B4 isolectin, which recognizes an alpha-D-galactosyl-bearing glycoprotein of the plasma membrane of macrophages/microglia, is known to be long lasting, showing no regional heterogeneity and being found amongst both ameboid and differentiated ramified cells, although at different rates. The functional significance of the proliferative behavior of these differentiated cells is unknown but may provide a low-grade cell renewal in the normal brain and may be augmented under pathological conditions. PMID:9686148

  2. Proliferation of differentiated glial cells in the brain stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barradas P.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies of macroglial proliferation in muride rodents have provided conflicting evidence concerning the proliferating capabilities of oligodendrocytes and microglia. Furthermore, little information has been obtained in other mammalian orders and very little is known about glial cell proliferation and differentiation in the subclass Metatheria although valuable knowledge may be obtained from the protracted period of central nervous system maturation in these forms. Thus, we have studied the proliferative capacity of phenotypically identified brain stem oligodendrocytes by tritiated thymidine radioautography and have compared it with known features of oligodendroglial differentiation as well as with proliferation of microglia in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. We have detected a previously undescribed ephemeral, regionally heterogeneous proliferation of oligodendrocytes expressing the actin-binding, ensheathment-related protein 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase, that is not necessarily related to the known regional and temporal heterogeneity of expression of CNPase in cell bodies. On the other hand, proliferation of microglia tagged by the binding of Griffonia simplicifolia B4 isolectin, which recognizes an alpha-D-galactosyl-bearing glycoprotein of the plasma membrane of macrophages/microglia, is known to be long lasting, showing no regional heterogeneity and being found amongst both ameboid and differentiated ramified cells, although at different rates. The functional significance of the proliferative behavior of these differentiated cells is unknown but may provide a low-grade cell renewal in the normal brain and may be augmented under pathological conditions.

  3. Radiosensitivity of brain cancer stem cells from malignant glicoma cell line U251 in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the radiosensitivity of brain cancer stem cells of different conditions isolated from malignant glioma cell line U251 irt vitro. Methods: The brain cancer stem cells in U251 or the brain cancer stem cells isolated from U251 were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays. TUNEL and Annexin-FITC were employed to detect the apoptosis. The brain cancer stem cells were subcutaneously transplanted to nude mouse. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle. Results: The brain cancer stem cells isolated from malignant glioma cell line U251 were in active cell cycle and sensitive to 60Co γ-rays. Thed apoptotic cells were increased obviously after irradiation. After subcutaneously transplanted to unde mouse, there was no tumor appear. However; the brain cancer stem cells existed in U251 were in G0-G1 and resisted to 60Co γ-rays. They differentiated into the parent glioma type after traqnsplantation. Conclusions: The brain cancer stem cells existed in the malignant glioma cell line is resisted to irradiation, and this phenomenon may explain the glioma relapse irt situ after radiation therapy. (authors)

  4. NFL-lipid nanocapsules for brain neural stem cell targeting in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carradori, Dario; Saulnier, Patrick; Préat, Véronique; des Rieux, Anne; Eyer, Joel

    2016-09-28

    The replacement of injured neurons by the selective stimulation of neural stem cells in situ represents a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The peptide NFL-TBS.40-63 showed specific interactions towards neural stem cells of the subventricular zone. The aim of our work was to produce a NFL-based drug delivery system able to target neural stem cells through the selective affinity between the peptide and these cells. NFL-TBS.40-63 (NFL) was adsorbed on lipid nanocapsules (LNC) whom targeting efficiency was evaluated on neural stem cells from the subventricular zone (brain) and from the central canal (spinal cord). NFL-LNC were incubated with primary neural stem cells in vitro or injected in vivo in adult rat brain (right lateral ventricle) or spinal cord (T10). NFL-LNC interactions with neural stem cells were different depending on the origin of the cells. NFL-LNC showed a preferential uptake by neural stem cells from the brain, while they did not interact with neural stem cells from the spinal cord. The results obtained in vivo correlate with the results observed in vitro, demonstrating that NFL-LNC represent a promising therapeutic strategy to selectively deliver bioactive molecules to brain neural stem cells. PMID:27503706

  5. Potential of Neural Stem Cells for the Treatment of Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Taupin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs are self-renewing multipotent cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system, neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. As such they hold the promise to treat a broad range of neurological diseases and injuries. Neural progenitor and stem cells have been isolated and characterized in vitro, from adult, fetal and post-mortem tissues, providing sources of material for cellular therapy. However, NSCs are still elusive cells and remain to be unequivocally identified and characterized, limiting their potential use for therapy. Neural progenitor and stem cells, isolated and cultured in vitro, can be genetically modified and when transplanted migrate to tumor sites in the brain. These intrinsic properties of neural progenitor and stem cells provide tremendous potential to bolster the translation of NSC research to therapy. It is proposed to combine gene therapy and cellular therapy to treat brain cancers. Hence, neural progenitor and stem cells provide new opportunities for the treatment of brain cancers.

  6. Analysis of the brain-stem white-matter tracts with diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have reviewed the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brain stem in 19 subjects, consisting of 15 normal volunteers and four multi-system atrophy patients. The study was performed with 1.5 T MRI scanners. DTI was correlated with an automated program allowing superposition of the structural anatomy. Axial, sagittal, and coronal images demonstrated major white-matter fibers within the brain stem, including cortico-spinal tracts, transverse pontine fibers, and medial lemniscus. Smaller fibers, such as medial longitudinal fascicles and central tegmental tracts are difficult to visualize. To identify the anatomical orientation of the brain stem, white-matter fibers will help us understand the different functional disease processes, and DTI will play an important role for the evaluation of the different white matter fibers in the brain stem. (orig.)

  7. Schwann Cells Transplantation Promoted and the Repair of Brain Stem Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG WAN; YI-HUA AN; MEI-ZHEN SUN; YA-ZHUO ZHANG; ZHONG-CHENG WANG

    2003-01-01

    To explore the possibility of Schwann cells transplantation to promote the repair of injured brain stem reticular structure in rats. Methods Schwann cells originated from sciatic nerves of 1 to 2-day-old rats were expanded and labelled by BrdU in vitro, transplanted into rat brain stem reticular structure that was pre-injured by electric needle stimulus. Immunohistochemistry and myelin-staining were used to investigate the expression of BrdU, GAP-43 and new myelination respectively. Results BrdU positive cells could be identified for up to 8 months and their number increased by about 23%, which mainly migrated toward injured ipsilateral cortex. The GAP-43expression reached its peak in 1 month after transplantation and was significantly higher than that in the control group. New myelination could be seen in destructed brain stem areas. Conclusion The transplantation of Schwann cells can promote the restoration of injured brain stem reticular structure.

  8. Evaluation of Auditory Brain Stems Evoked Response in Newborns With Pathologic Hyperbilirubinemia in Mashhad, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Okhravi, Tooba; Tarvij Eslami, Saeedeh; Hushyar Ahmadi, Ali; Nassirian, Hossain; Najibpour, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice is a common cause of sensorneural hearing loss in children. Objectives: We aimed to detect the neurotoxic effects of pathologic hyperbilirubinemia on brain stem and auditory tract by auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR) which could predict early effects of hyperbilirubinemia. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was performed on newborns with pathologic hyperbilirubinemia. The inclusion criteria were healthy term and near term (35 - 37 weeks) newbor...

  9. [Auditory hallucinations in lesions of the brain stem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, J; Decroix, J P; Masson, C

    1987-01-01

    Since the publication by Jean Lhermitte in 1922 of his paper on hallucinosis, the peduncular type has been described as a purely visual phenomenon. However, limited brain stem lesions can give rise to analogous manifestations in the auditory field. Five cases of auditory hallucinosis are reviewed, the first four resulting from a lesion of tegmentum of pons responsible for contralateral hemi-anesthesia and homolateral facial palsy with paralysis of laterality. Central type hypoacusis and a severe disorder of localization of sounds revealed a lesion of trapezoid body. The fifth case resulted from a peduncular lesion in region supplied by superior cerebellar artery, the auditory deficit being related to a lesion of inferior corpus quadrigeminum. In one patient, the auditory hallucinosis was followed by a period of visual hallucinations and oneiric delusions. Both auditory and visual hallucinosis can be related to hypnagogic hallucinations. Dream mechanisms (the geniculo-occipital spikes system) escape from normal inhibitory control exerted by the raphe nuclei. Auditory deafferentation could predispose to auditory hallucinosis. PMID:3629075

  10. Organization of descending neurons in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cynthia T; Bhandawat, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Neural processing in the brain controls behavior through descending neurons (DNs) - neurons which carry signals from the brain to the spinal cord (or thoracic ganglia in insects). Because DNs arise from multiple circuits in the brain, the numerical simplicity and availability of genetic tools make Drosophila a tractable model for understanding descending motor control. As a first step towards a comprehensive study of descending motor control, here we estimate the number and distribution of DNs in the Drosophila brain. We labeled DNs by backfilling them with dextran dye applied to the neck connective and estimated that there are ~1100 DNs distributed in 6 clusters in Drosophila. To assess the distribution of DNs by neurotransmitters, we labeled DNs in flies in which neurons expressing the major neurotransmitters were also labeled. We found DNs belonging to every neurotransmitter class we tested: acetylcholine, GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine and octopamine. Both the major excitatory neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) and the major inhibitory neurotransmitter (GABA) are employed equally; this stands in contrast to vertebrate DNs which are predominantly excitatory. By comparing the distribution of DNs in Drosophila to those reported previously in other insects, we conclude that the organization of DNs in insects is highly conserved. PMID:26837716

  11. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls and nerve injury: restoring an imbalance between descending monoamine inhibitions and facilitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Kirsty; Patel, Ryan; Goncalves, Leonor; Townson, Louisa; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs) utilize descending inhibitory controls through poorly understood brain stem pathways. The human counterpart, conditioned pain modulation, is reduced in patients with neuropathy aligned with animal data showing a loss of descending inhibitory noradrenaline controls together with a gain of 5-HT3 receptor-mediated facilitations after neuropathy. We investigated the pharmacological basis of DNIC and whether it can be restored after neuropathy. Deep dorsal horn neurons were activated by von Frey filaments applied to the hind paw, and DNIC was induced by a pinch applied to the ear in isoflurane-anaesthetized animals. Spinal nerve ligation was the model of neuropathy. Diffuse noxious inhibitory control was present in control rats but abolished after neuropathy. α2 adrenoceptor mechanisms underlie DNIC because the antagonists, yohimbine and atipamezole, markedly attenuated this descending inhibition. We restored DNIC in spinal nerve ligated animals by blocking 5-HT3 descending facilitations with the antagonist ondansetron or by enhancing norepinephrine modulation through the use of reboxetine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, NRI) or tapentadol (μ-opioid receptor agonist and NRI). Additionally, ondansetron enhanced DNIC in normal animals. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls are reduced after peripheral nerve injury illustrating the central impact of neuropathy, leading to an imbalance in descending excitations and inhibitions. Underlying noradrenergic mechanisms explain the relationship between conditioned pain modulation and the use of tapentadol and duloxetine (a serotonin, NRI) in patients. We suggest that pharmacological strategies through manipulation of the monoamine system could be used to enhance DNIC in patients by blocking descending facilitations with ondansetron or enhancing norepinephrine inhibitions, so possibly reducing chronic pain. PMID:26010460

  12. Isolation, cultivation and identification of brain glioma stem cells by magnetic bead sorting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuping Zhou; Chao Zheng; Qiong Shi; Xiang Li; Zhigang Shen; Rutong Yu

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a detailed process for obtaining brain glioma stem cells from freshly dissected human brain glioma samples using an immunomagnetic bead technique combined with serum-free media pressure screening. Furthermore, the proliferation, differentiation and self-renewal biological features of brain glioma stem cells were identified. Results showed that a small number of CD133 positive tumor cells isolated from brain glioma samples survived as a cell suspension in serum-free media and proliferated. Subcultured CD133 positive cells maintained a potent self-renewal and proliferative ability, and expressed the stem cell-specific markers CD133 and nestin. After incubation with fetal bovine serum, the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein and microtubule associated protein 2 positive cells increased significantly, indicating that the cultured brain glioma stem cells can differentiate into astrocytes and neurons. Western blot analysis showed that tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog was highly expressed in tumor spheres compared with the differentiated tumor cells. These experimental findings indicate that the immunomagnetic beads technique is a useful method to obtain brain glioma stem cells from human brain tumors.

  13. Are human dental papilla-derived stem cell and human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantations suitable for treatment of Parkinson's disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyung Ho Yoon; Joongkee Min; Nari Shin; Yong Hwan Kim; Jin-Mo Kim; Yu-Shik Hwang; Jun-Kyo Francis Suh; Onyou Hwang; Sang Ryong Jeon

    2013-01-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells has been reported as a possible approach for replacing impaired dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we tested the efficacy of early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells and human brain-derived neural stem cells in rat models of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease. Rats received a unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into right medial forebrain bundle, followed 3 weeks later by injections of PBS, early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells, or human brain-derived neural stem cells into the ipsilateral striatum. All of the rats in the human dental papilla-derived stem cell group died from tumor formation at around 2 weeks following cell transplantation. Postmortem examinations revealed homogeneous malignant tumors in the striatum of the human dental papilla-derived stem cell group. Stepping tests revealed that human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantation did not improve motor dysfunction. In apomorphine-induced rotation tests, neither the human brain-derived neural stem cell group nor the control groups (PBS injection) demonstrated significant changes. Glucose metabolism in the lesioned side of striatum was reduced by human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantation. [18 F]-FP-CIT PET scans in the striatum did not demonstrate a significant increase in the human brain-derived neural stem cell group. Tyrosine hydroxylase (dopaminergic neuronal marker) staining and G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 (A9 dopaminergic neuronal marker) were positive in the lesioned side of striatum in the human brain-derived neural stem cell group. The use of early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells confirmed its tendency to form tumors. Human brain-derived neural stem cells could be partially differentiated into dopaminergic neurons, but they did not secrete dopamine.

  14. Neural stem cells harvested from live brains by antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, C N P; Tsui, Y P; Ho, A S L; Shum, D K Y; Chan, Y S; Wu, C T; Li, H W; Tsang, S C Edman; Yung, K K L

    2013-11-18

    It stems from the magnetism: The extraction of stem/progenitor cells from the brain of live animals is possible using antibodies conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles (Ab-MNPs). The Ab-MNPs are introduced to a rat's brain with a superfine micro-syringe. The stem cells attach to the Ab-MNPs and are magnetically isolated and removed. They can develop into neurospheres and differentiate into different types of cells outside the subject body. The rat remains alive and healthy. PMID:24108547

  15. Amplification of neural stem cell proliferation by intermediate progenitor cells in Drosophila brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Bruno C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mammalian brain, neural stem cells divide asymmetrically and often amplify the number of progeny they generate via symmetrically dividing intermediate progenitors. Here we investigate whether specific neural stem cell-like neuroblasts in the brain of Drosophila might also amplify neuronal proliferation by generating symmetrically dividing intermediate progenitors. Results Cell lineage-tracing and genetic marker analysis show that remarkably large neuroblast lineages exist in the dorsomedial larval brain of Drosophila. These lineages are generated by brain neuroblasts that divide asymmetrically to self renew but, unlike other brain neuroblasts, do not segregate the differentiating cell fate determinant Prospero to their smaller daughter cells. These daughter cells continue to express neuroblast-specific molecular markers and divide repeatedly to produce neural progeny, demonstrating that they are proliferating intermediate progenitors. The proliferative divisions of these intermediate progenitors have novel cellular and molecular features; they are morphologically symmetrical, but molecularly asymmetrical in that key differentiating cell fate determinants are segregated into only one of the two daughter cells. Conclusion Our findings provide cellular and molecular evidence for a new mode of neurogenesis in the larval brain of Drosophila that involves the amplification of neuroblast proliferation through intermediate progenitors. This type of neurogenesis bears remarkable similarities to neurogenesis in the mammalian brain, where neural stem cells as primary progenitors amplify the number of progeny they generate through generation of secondary progenitors. This suggests that key aspects of neural stem cell biology might be conserved in brain development of insects and mammals.

  16. Stem cells modified by brain-derived neurotrophic fac-tor to promote stem cells differentiation into neurons and enhance neuromotor function after brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Sai; LIU Xiao-zhi; LIU Zhen-lin; WANG Yan-min; HU Qun-liang; MA Tie-zhu; SUN Shi-zhong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To promote stem cells differentiation into neurons and enhance neuromotor function after brain in-jury through brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induction.Methods: Recombinant adenovirus vector was ap-plied to the transfection of BDNF into human-derived um-bilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to deter-mine the secretion phase of BDNF. The brain injury model of athymic mice induced by hydraulic pressure percussion was established for transplantation of stem cells into the edge of injury site. Nerve function scores were obtained, and the expression level of transfected and non-transfected BDNF, proportion of neuron specific enolase (NSE) andglial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the number of apoptosis cells were compared respectively. Results: The BDNF expression achieved its stabiliza-tion at a high level 72 hours after gene transfection. The mouse obtained a better score of nerve function, and the proportion of the NSE-positive cells increased significantly (P<0.05), but GFAP-positive cells decreased in BDNF-UCMSCs group compared with the other two groups (P<0.05). At the site of high expression of BDNF, the number of apoptosis cells decreased markedly.Conclusion: BDNF gene can promote the differentia-tion of the stem cells into neurons rather than gliai cells, and enhance neuromotor function after brain injury.

  17. Stem cell-based therapies for tumors in the brain: are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Khalid

    2016-08-01

    Advances in understanding adult stem cell biology have facilitated the development of novel cell-based therapies for cancer. Recent developments in conventional therapies (eg, tumor resection techniques, chemotherapy strategies, and radiation therapy) for treating both metastatic and primary tumors in the brain, particularly glioblastoma have not resulted in a marked increase in patient survival. Preclinical studies have shown that multiple stem cell types exhibit inherent tropism and migrate to the sites of malignancy. Recent studies have validated the feasibility potential of using engineered stem cells as therapeutic agents to target and eliminate malignant tumor cells in the brain. This review will discuss the recent progress in the therapeutic potential of stem cells for tumors in the brain and also provide perspectives for future preclinical studies and clinical translation. PMID:27282399

  18. Characterization of TLX Expression in Neural Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells in Adult Brains

    OpenAIRE

    Shengxiu Li; Guoqiang Sun; Kiyohito Murai; Peng Ye; Yanhong Shi

    2012-01-01

    TLX has been shown to play an important role in regulating the self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem cells in adult brains. However, the cellular distribution of endogenous TLX protein in adult brains remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used immunostaining with a TLX-specific antibody to show that TLX is expressed in both neural stem cells and transit-amplifying neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult mouse brains. Then, using a double thymidine analo...

  19. Are there fetal stem cells in the maternal brain?☆

    OpenAIRE

    DEMIRHAN, OSMAN; Çekin, Necmi; Taştemir, Deniz; Tunç, Erdal; Güzel, Ali İrfan; Meral, Demet; Demirbek, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    Fetal cells can enter maternal blood during pregnancy but whether they can also cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the maternal brain remains poorly understood. Previous results suggest that fetal cells are summoned to repair damage to the mother's brain. If this is confirmed, it would open up new and safer avenues of treatment for brain damage caused by strokes and neural diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether a baby's stem cells can enter the maternal brain during preg...

  20. Expression of c-jun in brain stem following moderate lateral fluid percussion brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of c-jun in brain stem following moderate lateral fluid percussion brain injury in rats, and to observe the temporal patterns of its expressions following percussion.METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal control, sham operation control and injury groups. The rats of injury group subjected to moderate lateral fluid percussion injury (0.2 mPa), and then were subdivided into 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h and 12 h groups according to the time elapsed after injury. The expression of c-jun was studied by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. RESULTS: After percussion for 15 min, Jun positive neurons increased in brain stem progressively, and peaked at 12h. At 5min after percussion, the induction of c-jun mRNA was increased, and remained elevated up to 1h-2h after brain injury. CONCLUSION: The induction and expression of the c-jun in brain stem after fluid percussion brain injury were increased rapidly and lasted for a long time.

  1. Cancer Stem Cells in Brain Tumors and Their Lineage Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Doo-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the development of novel targeted chemotherapies, the prognosis of malignant glioma remains dismal. The chemo-resistance of this tumor is attributed to tumor heterogeneity. To explain this unique chemo- resistance, the concept of cancer stem cells has been evoked. Cancer stem cells, a subpopulation of whole tumor cells, are now regarded as candidate therapeutic targets. Here, the author reviews and discusses the cancer stem cell concept.

  2. The preventive effects of neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells intra-ventricular injection on brain stroke in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stroke is one of the most important causes of disability in developed countries and, unfortunately, there is no effective treatment for this major problem of central nervous system (CNS; cell therapy may be helpful to recover this disease. In some conditions such as cardiac surgeries and neurosurgeries, there are some possibilities of happening brain stroke. Inflammation of CNS plays an important role in stroke pathogenesis, in addition, apoptosis and neural death could be the other reasons of poor neurological out come after stroke. In this study, we examined the preventive effects of the neural stem cells (NSCs and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs intra-ventricular injected on stroke in rats. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of neural and MSCs for stroke in rats. Materials and Methods: The MSCs were isolated by flashing the femurs and tibias of the male rats with appropriate media. The NSCs were isolated from rat embryo ganglion eminence and they cultured NSCs media till the neurospheres formed. Both NSCs and MSCs were labeled with PKH26-GL. One day before stroke, the cells were injected into lateral ventricle stereotactically. Results: During following for 28 days, the neurological scores indicated that there are better recoveries in the groups received stem cells and they had less lesion volume in their brain measured by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Furthermore, the activities of caspase-3 were lower in the stem cell received groups than control group and the florescent microscopy images showed that the stem cells migrated to various zones of the brains. Conclusion: Both NSCs and MSCs are capable of protecting the CNS against ischemia and they may be good ways to prevent brain stroke consequences situations.

  3. Delayed radiation injury of brain stem after radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical characteristics, MRI findings, diagnosis, treatment and prognostic factors of patients with radiation induced brain stem injury in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: From January 1991 to January 2001, 24 patients with radiation injury of brain stem were treated, 14 males and 10 females. The latency ranged from 6 to 38 months, with a median of 18 months. The lesions were located in the pons in 10 patients, mesencephalon + pons in 4, pons + medulla oblongata in 5, medulla oblongata in 2 and mesencephalon + pons + medulla oblongata in 3. MRI findings showed that the injury was chiefly presented as hypointensity foci on T1WI and hyperintensity foci on T2WI. Results: Eighteen patients were treated with dexamethasone in the early phase, with symptoms relieved in 12 patients but unimproved in 6 patients. Eight 44% patients died within the 8-38 months, leaving 16 patients surviving for 0.5 to 6.0 years. Conclusions: Radiation injury of brain stem has a short latency with severe symptoms, signifying poor prognosis. It is suggested that adequate reduction of irradiation volume and dose at the brain stem should be able to lower the incidence of brain stem injury

  4. Anatomy of brain-stem white-matter tracts shown by diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We acquired high-resolution MRI and anisotropically diffusion-weighted images (DWI) with direction-selective gradients of the brain stem in 20 healthy volunteers, to identify brain-stem structures such as white-matter tracts and nuclei which show diffusion anisotropy. After averaging and superposition of individual cuts, the images were projected onto appropriate plates of the Schaltenbrand and Wahren anatomical atlas. We identified 20 structures - white-matter tracts and some nuclei - with high contrast. The direction of fibres could be determined as areas of increased (parallel to) or decreased diffusion (perpendicular to the gradient). This study may contribute to understanding of the functional anatomy of the brain stem. (orig.)

  5. Patient-derived stem cells: pathways to drug discovery for brain diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Mackay-Sim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of drug discovery through stem cell biology is based on technological developments whose genesis is now coincident. The first is automated cell microscopy with concurrent advances in image acquisition and analysis, known as high content screening (HCS. The second is patient-derived stem cells for modelling the cell biology of brain diseases. HCS has developed from the requirements of the pharmaceutical industry for high throughput assays to screen thousands of chemical compounds in the search for new drugs. HCS combines new fluorescent probes with automated microscopy and computational power to quantify the effects of compounds on cell functions. Stem cell biology has advanced greatly since the discovery of genetic reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. There is now a rush of papers describing their generation from patients with various diseases of the nervous system. Although the majority of these have been genetic diseases, iPSCs have been generated from patients with complex diseases (schizophrenia and sporadic Parkinson’s disease. Some genetic diseases are also modelled in embryonic stem cells generated from blastocysts rejected during in vitro fertilisation. Neural stem cells have been isolated from post-mortem brain of Alzheimer’s patients and neural stem cells generated from biopsies of the olfactory organ of patients is another approach. These “olfactory neurosphere-derived” cells demonstrate robust disease-specific phenotypes in patients with schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. High content screening is already in use to find small molecules for the generation and differentiation of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. The challenges for using stem cells for drug discovery are to develop robust stem cell culture methods that meet the rigorous requirements for repeatable, consistent quantities of defined cell types at the industrial scale necessary for high

  6. Brain Cancer Stem Cells Display Preferential Sensitivity to Akt Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Eyler, Christine E.; Foo, Wen-Chi; LaFiura, Katherine M.; McLendon, Roger E.; Hjelmeland, Anita B.; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2008-01-01

    Malignant brain tumors are among the most lethal cancers, and conventional therapies are largely limited to palliation. Novel therapies targeted against specific molecular pathways may offer improved efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to conventional therapies, but initial clinical trials of molecular targeted agents in brain cancer therapy have been frequently disappointing. In brain tumors and other cancers, subpopulations of tumor cells have recently been characterized by their ability...

  7. Development of functional human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons in mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Muotri, Alysson R.; Nakashima, Kinichi; Toni, Nicolas; Sandler, Vladislav M.; Gage, Fred H

    2005-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent entities, theoretically capable of generating a whole-body spectrum of distinct cell types. However, differentiation of these cells has been observed only in culture or during teratoma formation. Our results show that human embryonic stem cells implanted in the brain ventricles of embryonic mice can differentiate into functional neural lineages and generate mature, active human neurons that successfully integrate into the adult mouse forebrain. Moreo...

  8. Correlation of auditory brain stem response and the MRI measurements in neuro-degenerative disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Hidekazu (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate correlations of several MRI measurements of the cranium and brain, functioning as a volume conductor, to the auditory brain stem response (ABR) in neuro-degenerative disorders. The subjects included forty-seven patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and sixteen of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Statistically significant positive correlations were found between I-V and III-V interpeak latencies (IPLs) and the area of cranium and brain in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between I-III and III-V IPLs and the area in the longitudinal section of those with ALS. And, also there were statistically significant correlations between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of brain stem as well as that of the cranium in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of the cerebrum in the longitudinal section of ALS. In conclusion, in the ABR, the IPLs were prolonged and the amplitude of the V wave was decreased while the MRI size of the cranium and brain increased. When the ABR is applied to neuro-degenerative disorders, it might be important to consider not only the conduction of the auditory tracts in the brain stem, but also the correlations of the size of the cranium and brain which act as a volume conductor. (author).

  9. Correlation of auditory brain stem response and the MRI measurements in neuro-degenerative disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate correlations of several MRI measurements of the cranium and brain, functioning as a volume conductor, to the auditory brain stem response (ABR) in neuro-degenerative disorders. The subjects included forty-seven patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and sixteen of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Statistically significant positive correlations were found between I-V and III-V interpeak latencies (IPLs) and the area of cranium and brain in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between I-III and III-V IPLs and the area in the longitudinal section of those with ALS. And, also there were statistically significant correlations between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of brain stem as well as that of the cranium in the longitudinal section of SCD patients, and between the amplitude of the V wave and the area of the cerebrum in the longitudinal section of ALS. In conclusion, in the ABR, the IPLs were prolonged and the amplitude of the V wave was decreased while the MRI size of the cranium and brain increased. When the ABR is applied to neuro-degenerative disorders, it might be important to consider not only the conduction of the auditory tracts in the brain stem, but also the correlations of the size of the cranium and brain which act as a volume conductor. (author)

  10. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Mouse Brain Stem and Cervical Spinal Cord

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Joong Hee; Haldar, Justin; Liang, Zhi-Pei; Song, Sheng-Kwei

    2008-01-01

    In vivo diffusion tensor imaging measurements of the mouse brain stem and cervical spinal cord are presented. Utilizing actively decoupled transmit/receive coils, high resolution diffusion images (117 × 59 × 500 μm3) were acquired at 4.7 T within an hour. Both brain stem and cervical spine displayed clear gray-white matter contrast. The cervical spinal cord white matter showed similar tissue characteristics as seen in the thoracic cord. The coherent fiber orientation in the white matter was o...

  11. Aberrant brain stem morphometry associated with sleep disturbance in drug-naïve subjects with Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Han; Jung, Won Sang; Choi, Woo Hee; Lim, Hyun Kook

    2016-01-01

    Objective Among patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), sleep disturbances are common and serious noncognitive symptoms. Previous studies of AD patients have identified deformations in the brain stem, which may play an important role in the regulation of sleep. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relationship between sleep disturbances and alterations in brain stem morphology in AD. Materials and methods In 44 patients with AD and 40 healthy elderly controls, sleep disturbances were measured using the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep subscale. We employed magnetic resonance imaging-based automated segmentation tools to examine the relationship between sleep disturbances and changes in brain stem morphology. Results Analyses of the data from AD subjects revealed significant correlations between the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep-subscale scores and structural alterations in the left posterior lateral region of the brain stem, as well as normalized brain stem volumes. In addition, significant group differences in posterior brain stem morphology were observed between the AD group and the control group. Conclusion This study is the first to analyze an association between sleep disturbances and brain stem morphology in AD. In line with previous findings, this study lends support to the possibility that brain stem structural abnormalities might be important neurobiological mechanisms underlying sleep disturbances associated with AD. Further longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27601903

  12. Sonic hedgehog controls stem cell behavior in the postnatal and adult brain

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Veronica; Lim, D A; Dahmane, Nadia; Sanchez, Pilar; Brionne, T. C.; Herzberg, C. D.; Gitton, Yorick; Carleton, Alan; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Ruiz Altaba, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling controls many aspects of ontogeny, orchestrating congruent growth and patterning. During brain development, Shh regulates early ventral patterning while later on it is critical for the regulation of precursor proliferation in the dorsal brain, namely in the neocortex, tectum and cerebellum. We have recently shown that Shh also controls the behavior of cells with stem cell properties in the mouse embryonic neocortex, and additional studies have implicated it in t...

  13. Physics strategies for sparing neural stem cells during whole-brain radiation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean; Hwang, Andrew; Barani, Igor J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Currently, there are no successful long-term treatments or preventive strategies for radiation-induced cognitive impairments, and only a few possibilities have been suggested. One such approach involves reducing the dose to neural stem cell compartments (within and outside of the hippocampus) during whole-brain radiation treatments for brain metastases. This study investigates the fundamental physics issues associated with the sparing of neural stem cells during photon radiotherapy for brain metastases. Methods: Several factors influence the stem cell dose: intracranial scattering, collimator leakage, beam energy, and total number of beams. The relative importance of these factors is investigated through a set of radiation therapy plans, which are all variations of an initial 6 MV intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan designed to simultaneously deliver a whole-brain dose of 30 Gy and maximally reduce stem cell compartment dose. Additionally, an in-house leaf segmentation algorithm was developed that utilizes jaw motion to minimize the collimator leakage. Results: The plans are all normalized such that 50% of the PTV receives 30 Gy. For the initial 6 MV IMRT plan, 50% of the stem cells receive a dose greater than 6.3 Gy. Calculations indicate that 3.6 Gy of this dose originates from intracranial scattering. The jaw-tracking segmentation algorithm, used in conjunction with direct machine parameter optimization, reduces the 50% stem cell dose to 4.3 and 3.7 Gy for 6 and 10 MV treatment beams, respectively. Conclusions: Intracranial scattering alone is responsible for a large dose contribution to the stem cell compartment. It is, therefore, important to minimize other contributing factors, particularly the collimator leakage, to maximally reduce dose to these critical structures. The use of collimator jaw tracking in conjunction with modern collimators can minimize this leakage.

  14. Brain stem and cerebellar atrophy in chronic progressive neuro-Behçet's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoto, Masafumi, E-mail: mkanoto@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Iida-Nishi 2-2-2, 990-9585 Yamagata (Japan); Hosoya, Takaaki, E-mail: thosoya@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Iida-Nishi 2-2-2, 990-9585 Yamagata (Japan); Toyoguchi, Yuuki, E-mail: c-elegans_0201g@mail.goo.ne.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Iida-Nishi 2-2-2, 990-9585 Yamagata (Japan); Oda, Atsuko, E-mail: a.oda@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Iida-Nishi 2-2-2, 990-9585 Yamagata (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Chronic progressive neuro-Behçet's disease (CPNBD) resembles multiple sclerosis (MS) on patient background and image findings, and therefore is difficult to diagnose. The purpose is to identify the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of CPNBD and to clarify the differences between the MRI findings of CPNBD and those of MS. Materials and methods: The subjects consist of a CPNBD group (n = 4; 1 male and 3 females; mean age, 51 y.o.), a MS group (n = 19; 3 males and 16 females; mean age, 45 y.o.) and a normal control group (n = 23; 10 males and 13 females; mean age, 45 y.o.). Brain stem atrophy, cerebellar atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy were retrospectively evaluated in each subjects. In middle sagittal brain MR images, the prepontine distance was measured as an indirect index of brain stem and cerebellar atrophy and the pontine and mesencephalic distance was measured as a direct index of brain stem atrophy. These indexes were statistically analyzed. Results: Brain stem atrophy, cerebellar atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy were seen in all CPNBD cases. Prepontine distance was significantly different between the CPNBD group and the MS group (p < 0.05), and between the CPNBD group and the normal control group (p < 0.001). Pontine and mesencephalic distance were significantly different between the CPNBD group and the MS group (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 respectively), and between the CPNBD group and the normal control group (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Chronic progressive neuro-Behçet's disease should be considered in patients with brain stem and cerebellar atrophy in addition to leukoencephalopathy similar to that seen in multiple sclerosis.

  15. Syrinx of the Spinal Cord and Brain Stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... imaging (MRI) of the entire spinal cord and brain is done after paramagnetic contrast agent, such as ... neurosurgeon may make a hole in a syrinx to drain it and prevent it from expanding, but surgery ...

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ameliorates brain stem cardiovascular dysregulation during experimental temporal lobe status epilepticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yi Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE is an acute, prolonged epileptic crisis with a mortality rate of 20-30%; the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We assessed the hypothesis that brain stem cardiovascular dysregulation occurs during SE because of oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, a key nucleus of the baroreflex loop; to be ameliorated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF via an antioxidant action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a clinically relevant experimental model of temporal lobe SE (TLSE using Sprague-Dawley rats, sustained hippocampal seizure activity was accompanied by progressive hypotension that was preceded by a reduction in baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone; heart rate and baroreflex-mediated cardiac responses remained unaltered. Biochemical experiments further showed concurrent augmentation of superoxide anion, phosphorylated p47(phox subunit of NADPH oxidase and mRNA or protein levels of BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB, angiotensin AT1 receptor subtype (AT1R, nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II or peroxynitrite in RVLM. Whereas pretreatment by microinjection bilaterally into RVLM of a superoxide dismutase mimetic (tempol, a specific antagonist of NADPH oxidase (apocynin or an AT1R antagonist (losartan blunted significantly the augmented superoxide anion or phosphorylated p47(phox subunit in RVLM, hypotension and the reduced baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone during experimental TLSE, pretreatment with a recombinant human TrkB-Fc fusion protein or an antisense bdnf oligonucleotide significantly potentiated all those events, alongside peroxynitrite. However, none of the pretreatments affected the insignificant changes in heart rate and baroreflex-mediated cardiac responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that formation of peroxynitrite by a reaction between superoxide anion generated by NADPH oxidase in RVLM on activation by AT1R and NOS II

  17. Defunct brain stem cardiovascular regulation underlies cardiovascular collapse associated with methamphetamine intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Faith CH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intoxication from the psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH because of cardiovascular collapse is a common cause of death within the abuse population. For obvious reasons, the heart has been taken as the primary target for this METH-induced toxicity. The demonstration that failure of brain stem cardiovascular regulation, rather than the heart, holds the key to cardiovascular collapse induced by the pesticide mevinphos implicates another potential underlying mechanism. The present study evaluated the hypothesis that METH effects acute cardiovascular depression by dampening the functional integrity of baroreflex via an action on brain stem nuclei that are associated with this homeostatic mechanism. Methods The distribution of METH in brain and heart on intravenous administration in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and the resultant changes in arterial pressure (AP, heart rate (HR and indices for baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone and cardiac responses were evaluated, alongside survival rate and time. Results Intravenous administration of METH (12 or 24 mg/kg resulted in a time-dependent and dose-dependent distribution of the psychostimulant in brain and heart. The distribution of METH to neural substrates associated with brain stem cardiovascular regulation was significantly larger than brain targets for its neurological and psychological effects; the concentration of METH in cardiac tissues was the lowest among all tissues studied. In animals that succumbed to METH, the baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone and cardiac response were defunct, concomitant with cessation of AP and HR. On the other hand, although depressed, those two indices in animals that survived were maintained, alongside sustainable AP and HR. Linear regression analysis further revealed that the degree of dampening of brain stem cardiovascular regulation was positively and significantly correlated with the concentration of METH in key neural

  18. Role of adrenal catecholamines in cerebrovasodilation evoked from brain stem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors studied whether adrenal medullary catecholamines (CAs) contribute to the metabolically linked increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) elicited by electrical stimulation of the dorsal medullary reticular formation (DMRF). Rats were anesthetized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated. The DMRF was electrically stimulated with intermittent trains of pulses through microelectrodes stereotaxically implanted. Blood gases were controlled and, during stimulation, arterial pressure was maintained within the autoregulated range for rCBF. rCBF and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability were determined in homogenates of brain regions by using [14C]iodoantipyrine and α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), respectively, as tracers. Plasma CAs (epinephrine and norepinephrine) were measured radioenzymatically. DMRF stimulation increased rCBF throughout the brain and elevated plasma CAs substantially. Acute bilateral adrenalectomy abolished the increase in plasma epinephrine, reduced the increases in flow in cerebral cortex, and abolished them elsewhere in brain. They conclude that the increases in rCBF elicited from the DMRF has two components, one dependent on, and the other independent of CAs. Since the BBB is impermeable to CAs and DMRF stimulation fails to open the BBB, the results suggest that DMRF stimulations allows, through a mechanism not yet determined, circulating CAs to act on brain and affect brain function

  19. Stem cells and treatment of brain and spinal cord injury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, Suppl.1 (2009), s. 40-40. ISSN 1742-464X. [Congress of the Federation-of-European-Biochemical-Societies /34./. 04.07.2009-09.07.2009, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  20. Paediatric brain-stem gliomas: MRI, FDG-PET and histological grading correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jong Won; Kim, In-One; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, Woo Sun; Moon, Sung Gyu; Kim, Tae Jung; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Chi, Je Geun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea); Wang, Kyu-Chang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea); Chung, June Key [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-09-15

    MRI and FDG-PET may predict the histological grading of paediatric brain-stem gliomas. To assess MRI findings and metabolic imaging using FDG-PET of brain-stem gliomas based on histological grading. Included in the study were 20 paediatric patients (age 3-14 years, mean 8.2 years) with brain-stem glioma (five glioblastomas, ten anaplastic astrocytomas and five low-grade astrocytomas). MR images were assessed for the anatomical site of tumour origin, focality, pattern of tumour growth, and enhancement. All glioblastomas were located in the pons and showed diffuse pontine enlargement with focally exophytic features. Eight anaplastic astrocytomas were located in the pons and demonstrated diffuse pontine enlargement without exophytic features. Low-grade astrocytomas were located in the pons, midbrain or medulla and showed focally exophytic growth features and peripheral enhancement. In 12 patients in whom FDG-PET was undertaken, glioblastomas showed hypermetabolic or hypometabolic lesions, anaplastic astrocytomas showed no metabolic change or hypometabolic lesions and low-grade astrocytomas showed hypometabolism compared with the cerebellum. MRI findings correlated well with histological grading of brain-stem gliomas and MRI may therefore predict the histological grading. FDG-PET may be helpful in differentiating between anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastomas among high-grade tumours. (orig.)

  1. Are human dental papilla-derived stem cell and human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantations suitable for treatment of Parkinson's disease?★

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Hyung Ho; Min, Joongkee; Shin, Nari; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Mo; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis; Hwang, Onyou; Jeon, Sang Ryong

    2013-01-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells has been reported as a possible approach for replacing impaired dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we tested the efficacy of early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells and human brain-derived neural stem cells in rat models of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease. Rats received a unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into right medial forebrain bundle, followed 3 weeks later by injections of PBS, early-stage human dental papilla-der...

  2. Stem cells and therapy of brain and spinal cord injury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva; Jendelová, Pavla; Glogarová, Kateřina; Urdzíková, Lucia; Lesný, Petr; Hampl, Aleš; Dvořák, Petr

    Hradec Králové, 2003, s. 65. ISBN 80-239-1413-8. [Symposium of the Czech Society of Histo- and Cytochemistry with International Participation /40./. Hradec Králové (CZ), 16.09.2003-19.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  3. MRI measurements of the brain stem and cerebellum in high functioning autistic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Tayama, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Masahito; Murakawa, Kazuyoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-01-01

    To determine involvements of the brain stem and/or cerebellum in autism, we compared midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of high functioning autistic children with those of normal controls. We found that the midbrain and medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in these autistic children than in the control children. The pons area did not differ between the two groups, nor was there any difference in the cerebellar vermis area. The ratio of the brain stem and cerebellum to the posterior fossa area did not differ significantly between the high functioning autistic and the control children. The development of the cerebellar vermis area was delayed in autistic children as compared with that in the control children. Thus, it was suggested that significant anatomical changes in the midbrain and medulla oblongata existed in the autistic children. (author).

  4. MRI measurements of the brain stem and cerebellum in high functioning autistic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine involvements of the brain stem and/or cerebellum in autism, we compared midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of high functioning autistic children with those of normal controls. We found that the midbrain and medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in these autistic children than in the control children. The pons area did not differ between the two groups, nor was there any difference in the cerebellar vermis area. The ratio of the brain stem and cerebellum to the posterior fossa area did not differ significantly between the high functioning autistic and the control children. The development of the cerebellar vermis area was delayed in autistic children as compared with that in the control children. Thus, it was suggested that significant anatomical changes in the midbrain and medulla oblongata existed in the autistic children. (author)

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, coordination, and ability to walk normally, and how well the muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This may also be called a neuro ...

  6. Stem Cells Expand Insights into Human Brain Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Michael A

    2016-04-01

    Substantial expansion in the number of cerebral cortex neurons is thought to underlie cognitive differences between humans and other primates, although the mechanisms underlying this expansion are unclear. Otani et al. (2016) utilize PSC-derived brain organoids to study how species-specific differences in cortical progenitor proliferation may underlie cortical evolution. PMID:27058930

  7. Does State Merit-Based Aid Stem Brain Drain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Ness, Erik C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors use college enrollment and migration data to test the brain drain hypothesis. Their results suggest that state merit scholarship programs do indeed stanch the migration of "best and brightest" students to other states. In the aggregate and on average, the implementation of state merit aid programs increases the total…

  8. Aberrant brain-stem morphometry associated with sleep disturbance in drug-naïve subjects with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ji Han Lee,1 Won Sang Jung,2 Woo Hee Choi,3 Hyun Kook Lim4 1Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA; 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, 4Department of Psychiatry, Saint Vincent Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, South Korea Objective: Among patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, sleep disturbances are common and serious noncognitive symptoms. Previous studies of AD patients have identified deformations in the brain stem, which may play an important role in the regulation of sleep. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relationship between sleep disturbances and alterations in brain stem morphology in AD.Materials and methods: In 44 patients with AD and 40 healthy elderly controls, sleep disturbances were measured using the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep subscale. We employed magnetic resonance imaging-based automated segmentation tools to examine the relationship between sleep disturbances and changes in brain stem morphology.Results: Analyses of the data from AD subjects revealed significant correlations between the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep-subscale scores and structural alterations in the left posterior lateral region of the brain stem, as well as normalized brain stem volumes. In addition, significant group differences in posterior brain stem morphology were observed between the AD group and the control group.Conclusion: This study is the first to analyze an association between sleep disturbances and brain stem morphology in AD. In line with previous findings, this study lends support to the possibility that brain stem structural abnormalities might be important neurobiological mechanisms underlying sleep disturbances associated with AD. Further longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, sleep, brain stem, MRI, shape analysis

  9. Classic and novel stem cell niches in brain homeostasis and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruihe; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2015-12-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) critical for the continued production of new neurons and glia are sequestered in distinct areas of the brain called stem cell niches. Until recently, only two forebrain sites, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the anterolateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus, have been recognized adult stem cell niches (Alvarez-Buylla and Lim, 2004; Doetsch et al., 1999a, 1999b; Doetsch, 2003a, 2003b; Lie et al., 2004; Ming and Song, 2005). Nonetheless, the last decade has been witness to a growing literature suggesting that in fact the adult brain contains stem cell niches along the entire extent of the ventricular system. These niches are capable of widespread neurogenesis and gliogenesis, particularly after injury (Barnabé-Heider et al., 2010; Carlén et al., 2009; Decimo et al., 2012; Lin et al., 2015; Lindvall and Kokaia, 2008; Robins et al., 2013) or other inductive stimuli (Bennett et al., 2009; Cunningham et al., 2012; Decimo et al., 2011; Kokoeva et al., 2007, 2005; Lee et al., 2012a, 2012b; Migaud et al., 2010; Pencea et al., 2001b; Sanin et al., 2013; Suh et al., 2007; Sundholm-Peters et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2005; Zhang et al., 2007). This review focuses on the role of these novel and classic brain niches in maintaining adult neurogenesis and gliogenesis in response to normal physiological and injury-related pathological cues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroprotection. PMID:25931262

  10. STEM CELL-PAVED BIOBRIDGE FACILITATES NEURAL REPAIR IN TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Yankee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Modified mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs display a unique mechanism of action during the repair phase of traumatic brain injury by exhibiting the ability to build a biobridge between the neurogenic niche and the site of injury. Immunohistochemistry and laser capture assay have visualized this biobridge in the area between the neurogenic subventricular zone and the injured cortex. This biobridge expresses high levels of extracellular matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs, which are initially co-localized with a stream of transplanted MSCs, but later this region contains only few to non-detectable grafts and becomes overgrown by newly recruited host cells. We have reported that long-distance migration of host cells from the neurogenic niche to the injured brain site can be attained via these transplanted stem cell-paved biobridges, which serve as a key regenerative process for the initiation of endogenous repair mechanisms. Thus far the two major schools of discipline in stem cell repair mechanisms support the idea of “cell replacement” and the bystander effects of “trophic factor secretion.” Our novel observation of stem cell-paved biobridges as pathways for directed migration of host cells from neurogenic niche towards the injured brain site adds another mode of action underlying stem cell therapy. More in-depth investigations on graft-host interaction will likely aid translational research focused on advancing this stem cell-paved biobridge from its current place, as an equally potent repair mechanism as cell replacement and trophic factor secretion, into a new treatment strategy for traumatic brain injury and other neurological disorders.

  11. Neurogenesis in the brain stem of the rabbit: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aid of (3H)-thymidine autoradiography, neurogenesis was documented in the nuclear groups of the medulla oblongata, pons, and mid-brain, as well as in the brain stem reticular formation of the rabbit. Following single injections of (3H)-thymidine, counts were taken of intensely labeled neurons within the nuclei of the functional columns related to the cranial nerves, nuclei of several other functional classifications, and nuclei that did not fit into a functional category. In the brain stem as a whole, neurogenesis was found to occur between days 10.0 and 18.5 of gestation: however, the majority of nuclei studied contained intensely neurons only between days 12.0 and 15.0. Only in the pontine nucleus and the tectum were intensely labeled cells observed as late as day 18.5. Directional gradients of histogenesis were often observed within, as well as between, various nuclei. Within the nuclear columns related to the cranial nerves, a clear mediolateral spread of neurogenesis was observable such that nuclei of the motor columns reached a peak in neurogenesis before those in the sensory columns. Likewise, a mediolateral proliferation pattern was seen in the brain stem reticular formation. Other individual directional gradients were discernible; however, in the brain stem as a whole, distinct overall gradients were not observable. In many individual nuclei, gradients in neuron size were observed such that large neurons preferentially arose prior to smaller neurons. Information pertaining to gradients in neurogenesis, as well as to relationships among functionally related nuclei, are discussed

  12. cGMP modulates stem cells differentiation to neurons in brain in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pinedo, U; Rodrigo, R; Cauli, O; Herraiz, S; Garcia-Verdugo, J-M; Pellicer, B; Pellicer, A; Felipo, V

    2010-02-17

    During brain development neural stem cells may differentiate to neurons or to other cell types. The aim of this work was to assess the role of cGMP (cyclic GMP) in the modulation of differentiation of neural stem cells to neurons or non-neuronal cells. cGMP in brain of fetuses was reduced to 46% of controls by treating pregnant rats with nitroarginine-methylester (L-NAME) and was restored by co-treatment with sildenafil.Reducing cGMP during brain development leads to reduced differentiation of stem cells to neurons and increased differentiation to non-neuronal cells. The number of neurons in the prefrontal cortex originated from stem cells proliferating on gestational day 14 was 715+/-14/mm(2) in control rats and was reduced to 440+/-29/mm(2) (61% of control) in rats treated with L-NAME. In rats exposed to L-NAME plus sildenafil, differentiation to neurons was completely normalized, reaching 683+/-11 neurons/mm(2). In rats exposed to sildenafil alone the number of cells labelled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and NeuN was 841+/-16/mm(2). In prefrontal cortex of control rats 48% of the neural stem cells proliferating in gestational day 14 differentiate to neurons, but only 24% in rats exposed to L-NAME. This was corrected by sildenafil, 40% of cells differentiate to neurons. Similar results were obtained for neurons proliferating during all developmental period. Treatment with L-NAME did not reduce the total number of cells labelled with BrdU, further supporting that L-NAME reduces selectively the differentiation of stem cells to neurons. Similar results were obtained in hippocampus. Treatment with L-NAME reduced the differentiation of neural stem cells to neurons, although the effect was milder than in prefrontal cortex. These results support that cGMP modulates the fate of neural stem cells in brain in vivo and suggest that high cGMP levels promote its differentiation to neurons while reduced cGMP levels promote differentiation to non-neuronal cells. PMID:19958812

  13. Effect of Acupuncture on the Auditory Evoked Brain Stem Potential in Parkinson's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲玲; 何崇; 刘跃光; 朱莉莉

    2002-01-01

    @@ Under the auditory evoked brain stem potential (ABP) examination, the latent period of V wave and the intermittent periods of III-V peak and I-V peak were significantly shortened in Parkinson's disease patients of the treatment group (N=29) after acupuncture treatment. The difference of cumulative scores in Webster's scale was also decreased in correlation analysis. The increase of dopamine in the brain and the excitability of the dopamine neurons may contribute to the therapeutic effects, in TCM terms, of subduing the pathogenic wind and tranquilizing the mind.

  14. Long-term meditation is associated with increased gray matter density in the brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Beek, Martijn van; Skewes, Joshua;

    2009-01-01

    Extensive practice involving sustained attention can lead to changes in brain structure. Here, we report evidence of structural differences in the lower brainstem of participants engaged in the long-term practice of meditation. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we observed higher gray matter...... density in lower brain stem regions of experienced meditators compared with age-matched nonmeditators. Our findings show that long-term practitioners of meditation have structural differences in brainstem regions concerned with cardiorespiratory control. This could account for some of the...... cardiorespiratory parasympathetic effects and traits, as well as the cognitive, emotional, and immunoreactive impact reported in several studies of different meditation practices....

  15. Adult-Onset Leukoencephalopathy with Brain Stem and Spinal Cord Involvement and Normal Lactate: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özdem Ertürk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and high lactate (LBSL is a recently described leukoencephalopathy with a genetically proven underlying defect. Clinical features are slowly progressive pyramidal, cerebellar and dorsal column dysfunction with childhood or rarely adult onset. The genetic basis of the disease was recently identified, which concerned mutations in the DARS2 gene encoding mitochondrial aspartly-tRNA synthetase. The disease has distinct magnetic resonance imaging findings including inhomogeneous cerebral white matter abnormalities and selective brain stem and spinal cord tract involvement. Additionally, there are usually increased lactate levels on magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS of the abnormal white matter. In this case report, we describe the clinical and radiological features of a patient with genetically proven adult-onset LBSL and normal lactate levels on MRS.

  16. Endovascular treatment of brain-stem arteriovenous malformations: safety and efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment of brain-stem arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), reviewing six cases managed in the last 5 years. There were four patients who presented with bleeding, one with a progressive neurological deficit and one with obstructive hydrocephalus. Of the six patients, one showed 100%, one 90%, two 75% and two about 50% angiographic obliteration of the AVM after embolisation; the volume decreased about 75% on average. Five patients had a good outcome and one an acceptable outcome, with a mild postprocedure neurological deficit; none had further bleeding during midterm follow-up. Endovascular management of a brain-stem AVM may be an alternative to treatment such as radiosurgery and microsurgery in selected cases. It may be not as risky as previously thought. Embolisation can reduce the size of the AVM and possibly make it more treatable by radiosurgery and decrease the possibility of radiation injury. (orig.)

  17. Early changes of auditory brain stem evoked response after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma - a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, S.K.; Wei, W.I.; Sham, J.S.T.; Choy, D.T.K.; Hui, Y. (Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (Hong Kong))

    1992-10-01

    A prospective study of the effect of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma on hearing was carried out on 49 patients who had pure tone, impedance audiometry and auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR) recordings before, immediately, three, six and 12 months after radiotherapy. Fourteen patients complained of intermittent tinnitus after radiotherapy. We found that 11 initially normal ears of nine patients developed a middle ear effusion, three to six months after radiotherapy. There was mixed sensorineural and conductive hearing impairment after radiotherapy. Persistent impairment of ABR was detected immediately after completion of radiotherapy. The waves I-III and I-V interpeak latency intervals were significantly prolonged one year after radiotherapy. The study shows that radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma impairs hearing by acting on the middle ear, the cochlea and the brain stem auditory pathway. (Author).

  18. Evaluation of normal and pathologic appearance in skull base and brain stem with metrizamide CT cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metrizamide CT cisternography was performed in accordance with prone 600 head-down method, to study the normal anatomy of the skull base and brain stem. Cases of empty sellae, Rathke's cleft cyst, mucocele trigeminal neurinoma, pons glioma, acoustic neurinoma and jugular foramen tumor were studied together. As side effects of MCTC there were headache, vomiting and appearance of slow waves on EEG, but no convulsion. Transient encephalopathy was noted when 250 mgI/ml, 12 ml, was used. Using MCTC, it is possible to identify the vertebral artery, posterior inferior cerebellar artery, basillar artery, vessels forming Willis ring as well as II, III, V, VII and VIII cranial nerves. Further, by measuring the brain stem parts on various levels, it may become possible to detect early changes of degenerative disease. (author)

  19. Auditory Brain Stem Processing in Reptiles and Amphibians: Roles of Coupled Ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, Katie L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Comparative approaches to the auditory system have yielded great insight into the evolution of sound localization circuits, particularly within the nonmammalian tetrapods. The fossil record demonstrates multiple appearances of tympanic hearing, and examination of the auditory brain stem of various...... groups can reveal the organizing effects of the ear across taxa. If the peripheral structures have a strongly organizing influence on the neural structures, then homologous neural structures should be observed only in groups with a homologous tympanic ear. Therefore, the central auditory systems of...... anurans (frogs), reptiles (including birds), and mammals should all be more similar within each group than among the groups. Although there is large variation in the peripheral auditory system, there is evidence that auditory brain stem nuclei in tetrapods are homologous and have similar functions among...

  20. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells: Rational for Use as a Neuroprotectant in Ischemic Brain Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadar Arien-Zakay

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cells for reparative medicine was first proposed more than three decades ago. Hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow, peripheral blood and human umbilical cord blood (CB have gained major use for treatment of hematological indications. CB, however, is also a source of cells capable of differentiating into various non-hematopoietic cell types, including neural cells. Several animal model reports have shown that CB cells may be used for treatment of neurological injuries. This review summarizes the information available on the origin of CB-derived neuronal cells and the mechanisms proposed to explain their action. The potential use of stem/progenitor cells for treatment of ischemic brain injuries is discussed. Issues that remain to be resolved at the present stage of preclinical trials are addressed.

  1. Mutations in DARS Cause Hypomyelination with Brain Stem and Spinal Cord Involvement and Leg Spasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Taft, Ryan J.; Vanderver, Adeline; Leventer, Richard J.; Damiani, Stephen A.; Simons, Cas; Grimmond, Sean M.; Miller, David; Schmidt, Johanna; Lockhart, Paul J.; Pope, Kate; Ru, Kelin; Crawford, Joanna; Rosser, Tena; de Coo, Irenaeus F.M.; Juneja, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Inherited white-matter disorders are a broad class of diseases for which treatment and classification are both challenging. Indeed, nearly half of the children presenting with a leukoencephalopathy remain without a specific diagnosis. Here, we report on the application of high-throughput genome and exome sequencing to a cohort of ten individuals with a leukoencephalopathy of unknown etiology and clinically characterized by hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and leg sp...

  2. Stemming the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa: a systemic review of policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Zimbudzi

    2013-01-01

    Africa has been losing professionally trained health workers who are the core of the health system of this continent for many years. Faced with an increased burden of disease and coupled by a massive exodus of the health workforce, the health systems of many African nations are risking complete paralysis. Several studies have suggested policy options to reduce brain drain from Africa. The purpose of this paper is to review possible policies, which can stem the impact of health professional br...

  3. Role of the brain stem in tibial inhibition of the micturition reflex in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroni, Matthew C; Slater, Rick C; Shen, Bing; Xiao, Zhiying; Wang, Jicheng; Lee, Andy; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the role of the brain stem in inhibition of bladder reflexes induced by tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) in α-chloralose-anesthetized decerebrate cats. Repeated cystometrograms (CMGs) were performed by infusing saline or 0.25% acetic acid (AA) to elicit normal or overactive bladder reflexes, respectively. TNS (5 or 30 Hz) at three times the threshold (3T) intensity for inducing toe movement was applied for 30 min between CMGs to induce post-TNS inhibition or applied during the CMGs to induce acute TNS inhibition. Inhibition was evident as an increase in bladder capacity without a change in amplitude of bladder contractions. TNS applied for 30 min between saline CMGs elicited prolonged (>2 h) poststimulation inhibition that significantly (P < 0.05) increased bladder capacity to 30-60% above control; however, TNS did not produce this effect during AA irritation. TNS applied during CMGs at 5 Hz but not 30 Hz significantly (P < 0.01) increased bladder capacity to 127.3 ± 6.1% of saline control or 187.6 ± 5.0% of AA control. During AA irritation, naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) administered intravenously (1 mg/kg) or directly to the surface of the rostral brain stem (300-900 μg) eliminated acute TNS inhibition and significantly (P < 0.05) reduced bladder capacity to 62.8 ± 22.6% (intravenously) or 47.6 ± 25.5% (brain stem application). Results of this and previous studies indicate 1) forebrain circuitry rostral to the pons is not essential for TNS inhibition; and 2) opioid receptors in the brain stem have a critical role in TNS inhibition of overactive bladder reflexes but are not involved in inhibition of normal bladder reflexes. PMID:26017973

  4. The contribution of drug resistant cancer stem cells to paediatric brain tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Recent studies have revealed that cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist in malignant disease. Additionally, it is proposed that these cells may survive following chemotherapy, and hence contribute to tumour relapse. A significant mechanism of drug resistance in CSCs is believed to be the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that efflux cytotoxic agents out of cells. The objective of this study was to study the existence of CSCs in a panel of primary paediatric brain tu...

  5. Availability of transplantable organs from brain stem dead donors in intensive care units.

    OpenAIRE

    Gore, S M; Taylor, R. M.; Wallwork, J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--By audit from January to June 1989 to quantify, separately for hearts, kidneys, liver, lungs and corneas, the possible increases in transplantable organs from brain stem dead potential donors in intensive care units and to compare them with the increases achieved in October-November 1989, during intense, national publicity about transplantation. DESIGN--Prospective audit of all deaths in intensive care units in England from 1 January to 30 June 1989 and subsequent case study of the...

  6. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regulate Blood Brain Barrier Integrity in Traumatic Brain Injury Through Production of the Soluble Factor TIMP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menge, Tyler; Zhao, Yuhai; Zhao, Jing; Wataha, Kathryn; Geber, Michael; Zhang, Jianhu; Letourneau, Phillip; Redell, John; Shen, Li; Wang, Jing; Peng, Zhalong; Xue, Hasen; Kozar, Rosemary; Cox, Charles S.; Khakoo, Aarif Y.; Holcomb, John B.; Dash, Pramod K.; Pati, Shibani

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MCSs) have been shown to have therapeutic potential in multiple disease states associated with vascular instability including traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) is identified as the soluble factor produced by MSCs that can recapitulate the beneficial effects of MSCs on endothelial function and blood brain barrier (BBB) compromise in TBI. Attenuation of TIMP3 expression in MSCs completely abrogates the effect of MSCs on BBB permeability and stability, while intravenous administration of rTIMP3 alone can inhibit BBB permeability in TBI. Our results demonstrate that MSCs increase circulating levels of soluble TIMP3, which inhibits VEGF-A induced breakdown of endothelial AJs in vitro and in vivo. These findings elucidate a clear molecular mechanism for the effects of MSCs on the BBB in TBI, and directly demonstrate a role for TIMP3 in regulation of BBB integrity. PMID:23175708

  7. VEGF-mediated angiogenesis stimulates neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the premature brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the effects of angiogenesis on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the premature brain. We observed the changes in neurogenesis that followed the stimulation and inhibition of angiogenesis by altering vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in a 3-day-old rat model. VEGF expression was overexpressed by adenovirus transfection and down-regulated by siRNA interference. Using immunofluorescence assays, Western blot analysis, and real-time PCR methods, we observed angiogenesis and the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the number of vWF-positive areas peaked at day 7, and they were highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at every time point. The number of neural stem cells, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the subventricular zone gradually increased over time in the VEGF up-regulation group. Among the three groups, the number of these cells was highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at the same time point. Western blot analysis and real-time PCR confirmed these results. These data suggest that angiogenesis may stimulate the proliferation of neural stem cells and differentiation into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the premature brain.

  8. VEGF-mediated angiogenesis stimulates neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the premature brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jinqiao, E-mail: jinqiao1977@163.com [Institute of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Fudan University (China); Sha, Bin [Department of Neonatology, Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wanyuan Road, Shanghai 201102 (China); Zhou, Wenhao, E-mail: zhou_wenhao@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Neonatology, Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wanyuan Road, Shanghai 201102 (China); Yang, Yi [Institute of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Fudan University (China)

    2010-03-26

    This study investigated the effects of angiogenesis on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the premature brain. We observed the changes in neurogenesis that followed the stimulation and inhibition of angiogenesis by altering vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in a 3-day-old rat model. VEGF expression was overexpressed by adenovirus transfection and down-regulated by siRNA interference. Using immunofluorescence assays, Western blot analysis, and real-time PCR methods, we observed angiogenesis and the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the number of vWF-positive areas peaked at day 7, and they were highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at every time point. The number of neural stem cells, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the subventricular zone gradually increased over time in the VEGF up-regulation group. Among the three groups, the number of these cells was highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at the same time point. Western blot analysis and real-time PCR confirmed these results. These data suggest that angiogenesis may stimulate the proliferation of neural stem cells and differentiation into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the premature brain.

  9. Brain stem global gene expression profiles in human spina bifida embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhao; Xiang Li; Wan-I Lie; Quanren He; Ting Zhang; Xiaoying Zheng; Ran Zhou; Jun Xie

    2011-01-01

    Environmental and genetic factors influence the occurrence of neural tube defects, such as spina bifida.Specific disease expression patterns will help to elucidate the pathogenesis of disease.However, results obtained from animal models, which often exhibit organism specificity, do not fully explain the mechanisms of human spina bifida onset.In the present study, three embryos with a gestational age of approximately 17 weeks and a confirmed diagnosis of spina bifida, as well as 3 age-matched normal embryos, were obtained from abortions.Fetal brain stem tissues were dissected for RNA isolation, and microarray analyses were conducted to examine profiles of gene expression in brain stems of spina bifida and normal embryos using Affymetrix HG-U1 33A 2.0 GeneChip arrays.Of the 14 500 gene transcripts examined, a total of 182 genes exhibited at least 2.5-fold change in expression, including 140 upregulated and 42 downregulated genes.These genes were placed into 19 main functional categories according to the Gene Ontology Consortium database for biological functions.Of the 182 altered genes, approximately 50% were involved in cellular apoptosis, growth, adhesion, cell cycle, stress, DNA replication and repair, signal transduction, nervous system development, oxidoreduction, immune responses, and regulation of gene transcription.Gene expression in multiple biological pathways was altered in the brain stem of human spina bifida embryos.

  10. MRI findings of radiation encephalopathy of brain stem after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study MRI findings and clinical manifestation of radiation encephalopathy (RE) of brain stem. Methods: MRI findings and clinical symptoms in 51 patients with RE of brain stem after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer were reviewed. Results: Clinical symptoms included number weakness or paralysis in the limbs and symptoms of damaged cranial nerves. All lesions appeared hypo- or iso-intense on spin echo(SE) T1-weighted images and inhomogeneous and mixed hyper- and iso-intense on Turbo spin echo (TSE) T2-weighted images. The lesions were located in mesencephalon, pons, medulla, basilar part of pons, basilar part of pons and medulla oblongata in 2,7,3,9 and 30 patients respectively. The enhancement patterns included irregular rings in 39 patients, spotty in 3 and no enhancement in 9 patients. Mass effect was minimal in all patients. On follow-up MRI, the lesions disappeared in 4 patients, did not change in size and shape in 8 patients and enlarged in 2 patients. Conclusion: MRI could demonstrate the characteristic findings of RE of brain stem. MRI findings sometimes are not consistent with the clinical symptoms

  11. Therapeutic Potential of Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells on Brain Damage of a Model of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Nikravesh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human cord blood-derived stem cells are a rich source of stem cells as well as precursors. With regard to the researchers have focused on the therapeutic potential of stem cell in the neurological disease such as stroke, the aim of this study was the investiga-tion of the therapeutic effects of human cord blood-derived stem cells in cerebral ischemia on rat. Methods: This study was carried out on young rats. Firstly, to create a laboratory model of ischemic stroke, carotid artery of animals was occluded for 30 minutes. Then, umbilical cord blood cells were isolated and labeled using bromodeoxyuridine and 2×105 cells were injected into the experimental group via the tail vein. Rats with hypoxic condi-tions were used as a sham group. A group of animals did not receive any injection or sur-geries were used as a control. Results: Obtained results were evaluated based on behavior-al responses and immunohistochemistry, with emphasis on areas of putamen and caudate nucleus in the control, sham and experimental groups. Our results indicated that behavioral recovery was observed in the experimental group compared to the either the sham or the control group. However, histological studies demonstrated a low percent of tissue injury in the experimental group in comparison with the sham group. Conclusion: Stem cell trans-plantation is beneficial for the brain tissue reparation after hypoxic ischemic cell death.

  12. A stable and reproducible human blood-brain barrier model derived from hematopoietic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Cecchelli

    Full Text Available The human blood brain barrier (BBB is a selective barrier formed by human brain endothelial cells (hBECs, which is important to ensure adequate neuronal function and protect the central nervous system (CNS from disease. The development of human in vitro BBB models is thus of utmost importance for drug discovery programs related to CNS diseases. Here, we describe a method to generate a human BBB model using cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells. The cells were initially differentiated into ECs followed by the induction of BBB properties by co-culture with pericytes. The brain-like endothelial cells (BLECs express tight junctions and transporters typically observed in brain endothelium and maintain expression of most in vivo BBB properties for at least 20 days. The model is very reproducible since it can be generated from stem cells isolated from different donors and in different laboratories, and could be used to predict CNS distribution of compounds in human. Finally, we provide evidence that Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway mediates in part the BBB inductive properties of pericytes.

  13. In Vivo Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Endogenous Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Rodent Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Mei Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain have a significant level of neurogenesis plasticity. In vivo monitoring of adult endogenous NSCs would be of great benefit to the understanding of the neurogenesis plasticity under normal and pathological conditions. Here we show the feasibility of in vivo targeted MR imaging of endogenous NSCs in adult mouse brain by intraventricular delivery of monoclonal anti-CD15 antibody conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. After intraventricular administration of these nanoparticles, the subpopulation of NSCs in the anterior subventricular zone and the beginning of the rostral migratory stream could be in situ labeled and were in vivo visualized with 7.0-T MR imaging during a period from 1 day to 7 days after the injection. Histology confirmed that the injected targeted nanoparticles were specifically bound to CD15 positive cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix. Our results suggest that in vivo targeted MR imaging of endogenous neural stem cells in adult rodent brain could be achieved by using anti-CD15-SPIONs as the molecular probe; and this targeting imaging strategy has the advantage of a rapid in vivo monitoring of the subpopulation of endogenous NSCs in adult brains.

  14. Differentiation and characterization of human pluripotent stem cell-derived brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Matthew J; Wilson, Hannah K; Canfield, Scott G; Qian, Tongcheng; Palecek, Sean P; Shusta, Eric V

    2016-05-15

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical component of the central nervous system (CNS) that regulates the flux of material between the blood and the brain. Because of its barrier properties, the BBB creates a bottleneck to CNS drug delivery. Human in vitro BBB models offer a potential tool to screen pharmaceutical libraries for CNS penetration as well as for BBB modulators in development and disease, yet primary and immortalized models respectively lack scalability and robust phenotypes. Recently, in vitro BBB models derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have helped overcome these challenges by providing a scalable and renewable source of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). We have demonstrated that hPSC-derived BMECs exhibit robust structural and functional characteristics reminiscent of the in vivo BBB. Here, we provide a detailed description of the methods required to differentiate and functionally characterize hPSC-derived BMECs to facilitate their widespread use in downstream applications. PMID:26518252

  15. Induction of neuro-protective/regenerative genes in stem cells infiltrating post-ischemic brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Gokhan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Although the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells (BMSC has been demonstrated in different experimental models of ischemic stroke, it remains unclear how stem cells (SC induce neuroprotection following stroke. In this study, we describe a novel method for isolating BMSC that infiltrate postischemic brain tissue and use this method to identify the genes that are persistently activated or depressed in BMSC that infiltrate brain tissue following ischemic stroke. Methods- Ischemic strokes were induced in C57BL/6 mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 1 h, followed by reperfusion. BMSC were isolated from H-2 Kb-tsA58 (immortomouse™ mice, and were administered (i.v. 24 h after reperfusion. At the peak of therapeutic improvement (14 days after the ischemic insult, infarcted brain tissue was isolated, and the BMSC were isolated by culturing at 33°C. Microarray analysis and RT-PCR were performed to compare differential gene expression between naïve and infiltrating BMSC populations. Results- Z-scoring revealed dramatic differences in the expression of extracellular genes between naïve and infiltrating BMSC. Pair-wise analysis detected 80 extracellular factor genes that were up-regulated (≥ 2 fold, P Conclusions- BMSC infiltrating the post-ischemic brain exhibit persistent epigenetic changes in gene expression for numerous extracellular genes, compared to their naïve counterparts. These genes are relevant to the neuroprotection, regeneration and angiogenesis previously described following stem cell therapy in animal models of ischemic stroke.

  16. Nanoparticle-mediated transcriptional modification enhances neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells following transplantation in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Tzeng, Stephany Y; Liu, Xiaoyan; Tammia, Markus; Cheng, Yu-Hao; Rolfe, Andrew; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Ning; Green, Jordan J; Wen, Xuejun; Mao, Hai-Quan

    2016-04-01

    Strategies to enhance survival and direct the differentiation of stem cells in vivo following transplantation in tissue repair site are critical to realizing the potential of stem cell-based therapies. Here we demonstrated an effective approach to promote neuronal differentiation and maturation of human fetal tissue-derived neural stem cells (hNSCs) in a brain lesion site of a rat traumatic brain injury model using biodegradable nanoparticle-mediated transfection method to deliver key transcriptional factor neurogenin-2 to hNSCs when transplanted with a tailored hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel, generating larger number of more mature neurons engrafted to the host brain tissue than non-transfected cells. The nanoparticle-mediated transcription activation method together with an HA hydrogel delivery matrix provides a translatable approach for stem cell-based regenerative therapy. PMID:26828681

  17. Methodology to assess response to stereotactic irradiation in lesions of the brain stem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Magnetic resonance image changes were measured at various time points after patients were treated with stereotactic irradiation to brain lesions in and around the brain stem. Results were correlated with the dose of ionizing radiation given to the same anatomical region. The methodology was developed to assess its utility in predicting brain stem injury and lesion response to high-dose, single-fraction radiation treatments. Materials and Methods: We developed a computerized system for spatially correlating and analyzing changes in T1 weighted, gadolinium enhanced, 3-D magnetic resonance (MR) image sets at multiple time points after treatment with stereotactic brain irradiation. Using this system, we were able to compare post-treatment with pre-treatment images used for computerized treatment planning. The treatment planning image sets contained the dose-volume information for each treatment. The measured quantities included pixel value, size of enhanced region, and dose point value. Twelve patients, having a minimum follow-up after radiosurgery of 6 months and brain lesions of various types, were selected for review: 1 glioma, 4 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas, 1 cavernous hemangioma, 1 ependymoma, 1 primitive neuroectodermal tumor, 1 meningioma, and 3 metastases. Patient ages ranged from 3 to 59 years at time of treatment. The prescription doses to the lesions ranged from 12 to 20 Gy. The severity and duration of complications were noted for each. Results: Image intensity changes were measured and correlated with dose on a pixel-by-pixel basis in order to plot the time course of the changes. The estimate of spatial accuracy for locating the dose and voxel of tissue was within 2 mm. The sequelae of radiologic changes to irradiation were mixed. We observed increases as well as decreases in the density of the irradiated region with time after treatment which depended on the patient. One patient had nearly complete disappearance of the enhancing

  18. Radiation and misonidazole in children with brain stem gliomas and supratentorial glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a series of 484 children with intracranial tumors referred to the Royal Marsden Hospital for radiotherapy, there were 47 (12%) examples of inoperable pontine and medullary tumors for which the 5-year survival rate was 17%. The limited local tumor mass in brain stem tumors, the absence of cerebro-spinal or distant metastases, and their often initial good but short-lived response to irradiation, all support the trial of a chemical radiosensitizing agent with which to try and achieve greater and more prolonged local control of the disease. Since the prognosis for cerebral hemisphere glioblastoma, which is relatively uncommon in children, is also extremely poor, such cases were included in this pilot study. The problems and possible risks associated with combined radiotherapy and a chemical radiosensitizer in children with brain tumors is discussed. So far, 8 children with brain stem tumors and 3 children with cerebral hemisphere gliomas heave been treated in this study. In addtion, data is also available on 3 children re-treated for incurrent medulloblastomas. Preliminary observations regarding experience with this small series will be reported including blood misonidazole levels, drug tolerance and the possible influence of anticonvulsants and steriods on toxicity

  19. Brain stem and cerebellum volumetric analysis of Machado Joseph disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S T Camargos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Machado-Joseph disease, or spinocerebellar ataxia type 3(MJD/SCA3, is the most frequent late onset spinocerebellar ataxia and results from a CAG repeat expansion in the ataxin-3 gene. Previous studies have found correlation between atrophy of cerebellum and brainstem with age and CAG repeats, although no such correlation has been found with disease duration and clinical manifestations. In this study we test the hypothesis that atrophy of cerebellum and brainstem in MJD/SCA3 is related to clinical severity, disease duration and CAG repeat length as well as to other variables such as age and ICARS (International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale. Whole brain high resolution MRI and volumetric measurement with cranial volume normalization were obtained from 15 MJD/SCA3 patients and 15 normal, age and sex-matchedcontrols. We applied ICARS and compared the score with volumes and CAG number, disease duration and age. We found significant correlation of both brain stem and cerebellar atrophy with CAG repeat length, age, disease duration and degree of disability. The Spearman rank correlation was stronger with volumetric reduction of the cerebellum than with brain stem. Our data allow us to conclude that volumetric analysis might reveal progressive degeneration after disease onset, which in turn is linked to both age and number of CAG repeat expansions in SCA 3.

  20. Adaptor protein LNK is a negative regulator of brain neural stem cell proliferation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlenius, Henrik; Devaraju, Karthikeyan; Monni, Emanuela; Oki, Koichi; Wattananit, Somsak; Darsalia, Vladimer; Iosif, Robert E; Torper, Olof; Wood, James C; Braun, Sebastian; Jagemann, Lucas; Nuber, Ulrike A; Englund, Elisabet; Jacobsen, Sten-Eirik W; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Zaal

    2012-04-11

    Ischemic stroke causes transient increase of neural stem and progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ), and migration of newly formed neuroblasts toward the damaged area where they mature to striatal neurons. The molecular mechanisms regulating this plastic response, probably involved in structural reorganization and functional recovery, are poorly understood. The adaptor protein LNK suppresses hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal, but its presence and role in the brain are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that LNK is expressed in NSPCs in the adult mouse and human SVZ. Lnk(-/-) mice exhibited increased NSPC proliferation after stroke, but not in intact brain or following status epilepticus. Deletion of Lnk caused increased NSPC proliferation while overexpression decreased mitotic activity of these cells in vitro. We found that Lnk expression after stroke increased in SVZ through the transcription factors STAT1/3. LNK attenuated insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling by inhibition of AKT phosphorylation, resulting in reduced NSPC proliferation. Our findings identify LNK as a stroke-specific, endogenous negative regulator of NSPC proliferation, and suggest that LNK signaling is a novel mechanism influencing plastic responses in postischemic brain. PMID:22496561

  1. Stemming the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa: a systemic review of policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Zimbudzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has been losing professionally trained health workers who are the core of the health system of this continent for many years. Faced with an increased burden of disease and coupled by a massive exodus of the health workforce, the health systems of many African nations are risking complete paralysis. Several studies have suggested policy options to reduce brain drain from Africa. The purpose of this paper is to review possible policies, which can stem the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa. A systemic literature review was conducted. Cinahl, Science Direct and PubMed databases were searched with the following terms: health professional brain drain from Africa and policies for reducing impact of brain drain from Africa. References were also browsed for relevant articles. A total of 425 articles were available for the study but only 23 articles met the inclusion criteria. The review identified nine policy options, which were being implemented in Africa, but the most common was task shifting which had success in several African countries. This review has demonstrated that there is considerable consensus on task shifting as the most appropriate and sustainable policy option for reducing the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa.

  2. Comparitive Study Between Cnventional and Hyperfractionaltion Radiation Therapy for The Treatment of Brain Stem Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Fares * (MD, Mamdouh Salama** (MD Manal Moawad

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain stem tumors are special challenge because primarily of their location and the neurologic effect caused by these groups of tumors (Paul 1997. Radiation therapy improves survival for brain stem tumors and stabilizes or reverses neurologic dysfunction in 75-90% of patients. The main domain of applicability of hyperfractionation would be in tumor sites where the dose limiting tissue is late reacting and whose effective control requires the delivery of doses beyond tolerance (Awwad, 1990, hence the rationale for the use of hyperfractionation in brain stem lesions. The purpose of this work is to find out the best radiation protocol in this group of patients comparing conventional fractionation and hyperafractionation. This study included 46 patients which brainstem tumors treated in Radiation Oncology and Neurosurgery Departments Ain Shams University between February 1998 and May 2000. These patients had been randomly distributed in 2 groups A and B. The first group treated by conventional radiotherapy protocol and the second group treated by hyperfractionation radiation protocol. By the end of the study, the median over all survival and median time for disease progression were calculated for each group. Age, neurologic status at presentation and anatomical location were significant prognostic factors. By the end of this study clicinal evalualion had no significant difference between both groups but the median over all survival for the two groups was 10.5 months, the median survival for group A was 9.4 months and that for group B was 11.5 months which was statistically significant P < 0.02. On the other hand the percentage of patient with one year survival for group A & B (22%, 32% respectively. The rate of acute (early reaction of radiation is slightly higher in hyperfracticmaticm than conventional fractionation but the late reactions occur with same frequency with both regimens.

  3. Dosimetric analysis of trigeminal nerve, brain stem doses in CyberKnife radiosurgery of trigeminal neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CyberKnife radiosurgery treatment of Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is performed as a non-invasive image guided procedure. The prescription dose for TN is very high. The brainstem is the adjacent critical organ at risk (OAR) which is prone to receive the very high target dose of TN. The present study is to analyze the dose distribution inside the tiny trigeminal nerve target and also to analyze the dose fall off in the brain stem. Seven TN cases treated between November 2010 and January 2012 were taken for this study retrospectively. The treatment plans were analyzed for target dose conformity, homogeneity and dose coverage. In the brainstem the volume doses D1% and D2% were taken for analyzing the higher doses in the brain stem. The dose fall off was analyzed in terms of D5% and D10%. The mean value of maximum dose within the trigeminal nerve target was 73.5±2.1 Gy (P=0.0007) and the minimum dose was 50.0±4.1Gy (P=0.1315). The mean conformity index was 2.19 and the probable reason could be the smallest CyberKnife collimator of 5mm used in the treatment plan. The mean D1%, of the brainstem was 10.5±2.1Gy(P=0.5316) and the mean value of the maximum point dose within the brainstem was 35.6±3.8Gy. This shows the degree of dose fall off within the brainstem. Though the results of the present study are showing superior sparing of brain stem and reasonable of target coverage, it is necessary to execute the treatment plan with greater accuracy in CyberKnife as the immobilization is noninvasive and frameless. (author)

  4. The treatment of brain stem and thalamic gliomas with 78 Gy of hyperfractionated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To see whether increasing the dose of hyperfractionated radiation therapy from 72 to 78 Gy would increase survival time in patients with gliomas, particularly those with brain stem or thalamic tumors. Methods: Seventy-eight patients with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of a brain stem or thalamic glioma were enrolled in a trial to receive 78 Gy (1.0 Gy twice a day). Six patients with disease in other sites were also treated. The initial response to therapy was determined by comparing pretreatment magnetic resonance images and neurological examinations with those obtained within 2 weeks of completing therapy; subsequent responses were determined from bimonthly follow-up images. Time-to-tumor progression was measured from the date radiation therapy began until the date of documented radiographic or clinical progression. Survival time was measured from the date radiation therapy began until the date of death. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to estimate the effects of specific variables on survival. Results: Of 81 evaluable patients, 68 received ≥ 76 Gy, 10 received between 70 and 75 Gy, and 3 received between 60 and 68 Gy. The overall response or stabilization rate was 70.4%. Tumor size decreased in 30.8% of patients; 39.5% had stable disease, and 29.6% had immediate progression. The median survival time was 12.7 months (16.1 months for adults and 10.8 months for children). The median time to tumor progression was 9.0 months (11.4 months for adults and 8.4 months for children). A duration of symptoms ≤ 2 months and a diffuse lesion were each associated with shorter survival and progression times. Conclusions: For patients with brain stem or thalamic gliomas, increasing the dose of radiation therapy from 72 to 78 Gy did not significantly improve survival. Different treatment strategies are clearly needed

  5. 660 nm red light-enhanced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic brain damage treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianchao Li; Wensheng Hou; Xiaoying Wu; Wei Jiang; Haiyan Chen; Nong Xiao; Ping Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for neonatal hy-poxic-ischemic brain damage. However, the in vivo transplantation effects are poor and their survival, colonization and differentiation efifciencies are relatively low. Red or near-infrared light from 600-1,000 nm promotes cellular migration and prevents apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the combination of red light with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be effective for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. In this study, the migra-tion and colonization of cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on primary neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation were detected using Transwell assay. The results showed that, after a 40-hour irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm2, an increasing number of green lfuorescence-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migrated towards hypoxic-ischemic damaged primary neurons. Meanwhile, neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 106 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, followed by irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm2 for 7 successive days. Shuttle box test results showed that, after phototherapy and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, the active avoidance response rate of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage rats was significantly increased, which was higher than that after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation alone. Experimental ifndings indicate that 660 nm red light emitting diode irradiation promotes the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, thereby enhancing the contribution of cell transplantation in the treatment of hypox-ic-ischemic brain damage.

  6. Science Letters: Brain natriuretic peptide: A potential indicator of cardiomyogenesis after autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplantation?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Nan; WANG Jian-an

    2006-01-01

    We observed in a pilot study that there was a transient elevation of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level shortly after the transplantation in the patient with ischemic heart failure, which is unexplainable by the simultaneous increase of the cardiac output and six-minute walk distance. Similar findings were observed in the phase I trial. We postulated on the basis of the finding of Fukuda in vitro that this transient elevation of BNP level against the improvement of cardiac function and exercise capacity might indicate cardiomyogenesis in patients after mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Further study is warranted to verify the hypothesis.

  7. Apples to origins: Identifying brain tumor stem cell genes by comparing transcriptomes of normal and cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wortham, Matthew; Yan, Hai

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms whereby medulloblastoma stem cells coordinate tumor propagation are poorly understood. Utilizing microarray analysis, Corno and colleagues draw parallels and distinctions between medulloblastoma stem cells from the Ptch+/− mouse and normal neural stem cells, identifying Ebf3 as a cancer stem cell-specific transcript critical for tumor growth.

  8. Maternal Inflammation Contributes to Brain Overgrowth and Autism-Associated Behaviors through Altered Redox Signaling in Stem and Progenitor Cells

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    Janel E. Le Belle

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A period of mild brain overgrowth with an unknown etiology has been identified as one of the most common phenotypes in autism. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal inflammation during critical periods of embryonic development can cause brain overgrowth and autism-associated behaviors as a result of altered neural stem cell function. Pregnant mice treated with low-dose lipopolysaccharide at embryonic day 9 had offspring with brain overgrowth, with a more pronounced effect in PTEN heterozygotes. Exposure to maternal inflammation also enhanced NADPH oxidase (NOX-PI3K pathway signaling, stimulated the hyperproliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells, increased forebrain microglia, and produced abnormal autism-associated behaviors in affected pups. Our evidence supports the idea that a prenatal neuroinflammatory dysregulation in neural stem cell redox signaling can act in concert with underlying genetic susceptibilities to affect cellular responses to environmentally altered cellular levels of reactive oxygen species.

  9. Neurogenic plasticity of mesenchymal stem cell, an alluring cellular replacement for traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Soumya; Muthuraju, Sangu; Hadi, Raisah Ab; Huat, Tee Jong; Singh, Shailja; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Jaafar, Hasnan

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) imposes horrendous neurophysiological alterations leading to most devastating forms of neuro-disability. Which includes impaired cognition, distorted locomotors activity and psychosomatic disability in both youths and adults. Emerging evidence from recent studies has identified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as one of the promising category of stem cells having excellent neuroregenerative capability in TBI victims. Some of the clinical and animal studies reported that MSCs transplantation could cure neuronal damage as well as improve cognitive and locomotors behaviors in TBI. However, mechanism behind their broad spectrum neuroregenerative potential in TBI has not been reviewed yet. Therefore, in the present article, we present a comprehensive data on the important attributes of MSCs, such as neurotransdifferentiation, neuroprotection, axonal repair and plasticity, maintenance of blood-brain integrity, reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and immunomodulation. We have reviewed in detail the crucial neurogenic capabilities of MSCs in vivo and provided consolidated knowledge regarding their cellular remodeling in TBI for future therapeutic implications. PMID:26763886

  10. Mutations in DARS Cause Hypomyelination with Brain Stem and Spinal Cord Involvement and Leg Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Ryan J.; Vanderver, Adeline; Leventer, Richard J.; Damiani, Stephen A.; Simons, Cas; Grimmond, Sean M.; Miller, David; Schmidt, Johanna; Lockhart, Paul J.; Pope, Kate; Ru, Kelin; Crawford, Joanna; Rosser, Tena; de Coo, Irenaeus F.M.; Juneja, Monica; Verma, Ishwar C.; Prabhakar, Prab; Blaser, Susan; Raiman, Julian; Pouwels, Petra J.W.; Bevova, Marianna R.; Abbink, Truus E.M.; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Wolf, Nicole I.

    2013-01-01

    Inherited white-matter disorders are a broad class of diseases for which treatment and classification are both challenging. Indeed, nearly half of the children presenting with a leukoencephalopathy remain without a specific diagnosis. Here, we report on the application of high-throughput genome and exome sequencing to a cohort of ten individuals with a leukoencephalopathy of unknown etiology and clinically characterized by hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity (HBSL), as well as the identification of compound-heterozygous and homozygous mutations in cytoplasmic aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (DARS). These mutations cause nonsynonymous changes to seven highly conserved amino acids, five of which are unchanged between yeast and man, in the DARS C-terminal lobe adjacent to, or within, the active-site pocket. Intriguingly, HBSL bears a striking resemblance to leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and elevated lactate (LBSL), which is caused by mutations in the mitochondria-specific DARS2, suggesting that these two diseases might share a common underlying molecular pathology. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that mutations in tRNA synthetases can cause a broad range of neurologic disorders. PMID:23643384

  11. 660 nm red light-enhanced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic brain damage treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xianchao; Hou, Wensheng; Wu, Xiaoying; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Haiyan; Xiao, Nong; Zhou, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. However, the in vivo transplantation effects are poor and their survival, colonization and differentiation efficiencies are relatively low. Red or near-infrared light from 600–1,000 nm promotes cellular migration and prevents apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the combination of red light with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be effective for the tr...

  12. Strain differences in pH-sensitive K+ channel-expressing cells in chemosensory and nonchemosensory brain stem nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Martino, Paul F.; Olesiak, S.; Batuuka, D.; Riley, D; Neumueller, S.; Forster, H. V.; Hodges, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    The ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex is inherently low in inbred Brown Norway (BN) rats compared with other strains, including inbred Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. Since the brain stem expression of various pH-sensitive ion channels may be determinants of the CO2 chemoreflex, we tested the hypothesis that there would be fewer pH-sensitive K+ channel-expressing cells in BN relative to SS rats within brain stem sites associated with respiratory chemoreception, such as the nucleus tractus solitarius...

  13. Physical weight loading induces expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 in the brain stem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon W Shim

    Full Text Available Sustaining brain serotonin is essential in mental health. Physical activities can attenuate mental problems by enhancing serotonin signaling. However, such activity is not always possible in disabled individuals or patients with dementia. Knee loading, a form of physical activity, has been found to mimic effects of voluntary exercise. Focusing on serotonergic signaling, we addressed a question: Does local mechanical loading to the skeleton elevate expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (tph2 that is a rate-limiting enzyme for brain serotonin? A 5 min knee loading was applied to mice using 1 N force at 5 Hz for 1,500 cycles. A 5-min treadmill running was used as an exercise (positive control, and a 90-min tail suspension was used as a stress (negative control. Expression of tph2 was determined 30 min - 2 h in three brain regions --frontal cortex (FC, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH, and brain stem (BS. We demonstrated for the first time that knee loading and treadmill exercise upregulated the mRNA level of tph2 in the BS, while tail suspension downregulated it. The protein level of tph2 in the BS was also upregulated by knee loading and downregulated by tail suspension. Furthermore, the downregulation of tph2 mRNA by tail suspension can be partially suppressed by pre-application of knee loading. The expression of tph2 in the FC and VMH was not significantly altered with knee loading. In this study we provided evidence that peripheral mechanical loading can activate central tph2 expression, suggesting that physical cues may mediate tph2-cathalyzed serotonergic signaling in the brain.

  14. Interaction between nonviral reprogrammed fibroblast stem cells and trophic factors for brain repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Anisman, H; Bobyn, J; Hayley, S

    2014-10-01

    There are currently no known treatment options that actually halt or permanently reverse the pathology evident in any neurodegenerative condition. Arguably, one of the most promising avenues for creating viable neuronal treatments could involve the combined use of cell replacement and gene therapy. Given the complexity of the neurodegenerative process, it stands to reason that adequate therapy should involve not only the replacement of loss neurons/synapses but also the interruption of multiple pro-death pathways. Thus, we propose the use of stem cells that are tailored to express specific trophic factors, thereby potentially encouraging synergistic effects between the stem cell properties and those of the trophic factors. The trophic factors, brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), glial cell-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1, in particular, have demonstrated neuroprotective actions in a number of animal models. Importantly, we use a nonviral approach, thereby minimizing the potential risk for DNA integration and tumor formation. The present study involved the development of a nonviral reprogramming system to transform adult mature mouse fibroblasts into progressive stages of cell development. We also tailored these stem cells to individually express each of the trophic factors, including BDNF, GDNF, FGF2, and IGF1. Significantly, central infusion of BDNF-expressing stem cells prevented the in vivo loss of neurons associated with infusion of the endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This is particularly important in light of the role of inflammatory processes that are posited to play in virtually all neurodegenerative states. Hence, the present results support the utility of using combined gene and cell-targeting approaches for neuronal pathology. PMID:24677069

  15. Spatial and Functional Architecture of the Mammalian Brain Stem Respiratory Network: A Hierarchy of Three Oscillatory Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J C; Abdala, A. P. L.; Koizumi, H.; Rybak, I. A.; Paton, J. F. R.

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian central pattern generators (CPGs) producing rhythmic movements exhibit extremely robust and flexible behavior. Network architectures that enable these features are not well understood. Here we studied organization of the brain stem respiratory CPG. By sequential rostral to caudal transections through the pontine-medullary respiratory network within an in situ perfused rat brain stem–spinal cord preparation, we showed that network dynamics reorganized and new rhythmogenic mechanisms ...

  16. Descendents on local curves: Stationary theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pandharipande, R

    2011-01-01

    The stable pairs theory of local curves in 3-folds (equivariant with respect to the scaling 2-torus) is studied with stationary descendent insertions. Reduction rules are found to lower descendents when higher than the degree. Factorization then yields a simple proof of rationality in the stationary case and a proof of the functional equation related to inverting q. The method yields an effective determination of stationary descendent integrals. Particular descendent series in the cap geometry play a special role and are calculated exactly using the stable pairs vertex and an analysis of the solution of the quantum differential equation for the Hilbert scheme of points of the plane.

  17. Establishment of 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-yu XIAO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells.  Methods Rat 9L gliosarcoma stem-like cells were cultured in serum-free suspension. The expression of CD133 and nestin were tested by immunohistochemistry. A total of 48 inbredline male F344 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, and 9L tumor sphere cells and 9L monolayer cells were respectively implanted into the right caudate nucleus of F344 rats in 2 groups. Survival time was observed and determined using the method of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Fourteen days after implantation or when the rats were dying, their brains were perfused and sectioned for HE staining, and CD133 and nestin were detected by immunohistochemistry.  Results Rat 9L tumor spheres were formed with suspension culture in serum-free medium. The gliomas formed in both groups were invasive without obvious capsule. More new vessels, bleeding and necrosis could be detected in 9L tumor spheres group. The tumor cells in both groups were positive for CD133 and nestin. There was no significant difference in the expression of CD133 and nestin between 2 groups (P > 0.05, for all. According to the expression of nestin, the tumors formed by 9L tumor sphere cells were more invasive. The median survival time of the rats bearing 9L tumor sphere cells was 15 d (95%CI: 15.219-15.781, and the median survival time of the rats bearing 9L monolayer cells was 21 d (95%CI: 20.395-21.605. There was significant difference between 2 groups (χ2 = 12.800, P = 0.000.  Conclusions 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells is successfully established, which provides a glioma model for the future research. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.012

  18. Archetypal Analysis of Orpheus Descending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xue-ting

    2014-01-01

    田纳西·威廉斯是二十世纪美国戏剧领域的卓越领军剧作家。他一生作品颇丰,撰写六十多部戏剧作品。1957年出版的《神琴下凡》修改自1940年的《天使之战》。本文尝试借用弗莱的原型批评,分析《神琴下凡》与希腊神话俄耳甫斯与欧律狄刻故事在情节发展和背景设置的相似点。%Tennessee Williams was one of the most prominent playwrights in twentieth century American theatre, and, apparently, he was the most poetic and tender. Orpheus Descending, published in 1957, depicts the tragic life of a wanderer Val. Its plot and setting bears a similarity to the Greek myth of Orpheus and Eurydice. This thesis will focus on discussion of this similarity from the perspective of archetypal criticism.

  19. Nop2 is expressed during proliferation of neural stem cells and in adult mouse and human brain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosi, N.; Alic, I.; Kolacevic, M.; Vrsaljko, N.; Milosevic, N.J.; Sobol, Margaryta; Philimonenko, Anatoly; Hozák, Pavel; Gajovic, S.; Pochet, R.; Mitrecic, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1597, FEB 9 (2015), s. 65-76. ISSN 1872-6240 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA MPO FR-TI3/588 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Nop2 * Brain * Stem cells * Stroke * Nucleolus * Cell cycle Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Nop2 is expressed during proliferation of neural stem cells and in adult mouse and human brain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosi, N.; Alic, I.; Kolačevic, M.; Vrsaljko, N.; Miloševic, N.J.; Sobol, Margaryta; Filimonenko, Anatolij; Hozák, Pavel; Gajovic, S.; Pochet, R.; Mitrečic, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1597, February (2015), s. 65-76. ISSN 1872-6240 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA MPO FR-TI3/588 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Nop2 * Brain * Stem cells * Stroke Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology

  1. Human umbilical cord blood stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor for optic nerve injury: a biomechanical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-jun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment for optic nerve injury by brain-derived neurotrophic factor or the transplantation of human umbilical cord blood stem cells has gained progress, but analysis by biomechanical indicators is rare. Rabbit models of optic nerve injury were established by a clamp. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body received a one-time injection of 50 μg brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 10 6 human umbilical cord blood stem cells. After 30 days, the maximum load, maximum stress, maximum strain, elastic limit load, elastic limit stress, and elastic limit strain had clearly improved in rabbit models of optical nerve injury after treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor or human umbilical cord blood stem cells. The damage to the ultrastructure of the optic nerve had also been reduced. These findings suggest that human umbilical cord blood stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor effectively repair the injured optical nerve, improve biomechanical properties, and contribute to the recovery after injury.

  2. Human umbilical cord blood stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor for optic nerve injury:a biomechanical evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-jun Zhang; Ya-jun Li; Xiao-guang Liu; Feng-xiao Huang; Tie-jun Liu; Dong-mei Jiang; Xue-man Lv; Min Luo

    2015-01-01

    Treatment for optic nerve injury by brain-derived neurotrophic factor or the transplantation of human umbilical cord blood stem cells has gained progress, but analysis by biomechanical indicators is rare. Rabbit models of optic nerve injury were established by a clamp. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body received a one-time injection of 50 μg brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 106 human umbilical cord blood stem cells. After 30 days, the maximum load, max-imum stress, maximum strain, elastic limit load, elastic limit stress, and elastic limit strain had clearly improved in rabbit models of optical nerve injury after treatment with brain-derived neu-rotrophic factor or human umbilical cord blood stem cells. The damage to the ultrastructure of the optic nerve had also been reduced. These ifndings suggest that human umbilical cord blood stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor effectively repair the injured optical nerve, im-prove biomechanical properties, and contribute to the recovery after injury.

  3. Cognitive improvement following transvenous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in a rat model of traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongfei Li; Chun Yang; Rongmei Qu; Huiying Yang; Meichun Yu; Hui Tao; Jingxing Dai; Lin Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) transplantation for the repair of traumatic brain injury remain poorly understood. The present study observed neurological functional changes in a rat model of traumatic brain injury following ADMSC transplantation via the tail vein.Cell transplants were observed in injured cerebral cortex, and expression of brain-derived nerve growth factor was significantly increased in the injured hippocampus following transplantation. Results demonstrated that transvenous ADMSC transplants migrated to the injured cerebral cortex and significantly improved cognitive function.

  4. Modeling learning in brain stem and cerebellar sites responsible for VOR plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, K. J.; Didier, A. J.; Baker, J. F.; Peterson, B. W.

    1998-01-01

    A simple model of vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) function was used to analyze several hypotheses currently held concerning the characteristics of VOR plasticity. The network included a direct vestibular pathway and an indirect path via the cerebellum. An optimization analysis of this model suggests that regulation of brain stem sites is critical for the proper modification of VOR gain. A more physiologically plausible learning rule was also applied to this network. Analysis of these simulation results suggests that the preferred error correction signal controlling gain modification of the VOR is the direct output of the accessory optic system (AOS) to the vestibular nuclei vs. a signal relayed through the cerebellum via floccular Purkinje cells. The potential anatomical and physiological basis for this conclusion is discussed, in relation to our current understanding of the latency of the adapted VOR response.

  5. Dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells mediated by co-cultured rat striatal brain slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Mohammad Raffaqat; Andreasen, Christian Maaløv; Lippert, Solvej Kølvraa;

    2008-01-01

    differentiation, we co-cultured cells from a human neural forebrain-derived stem cell line (hNS1) with rat striatal brain slices. In brief, coronal slices of neonatal rat striatum were cultured on semiporous membrane inserts placed in six-well trays overlying monolayers of hNS1 cells. After 12 days of co......-induced areas. The presence of dopamine in the conditioned culture medium was confirmed by HPLC analysis. Interestingly, not all striatal slice cultures induced TH-expression in underlying hNS1 cells. Common to TH-inductive cultures was, however, the presence of degenerating, necrotic areas, suggesting that...... factors released during striatal degeneration were responsible for the dopaminergic induction of the hNS1 cells. Ongoing experiments aim to identify such factors by comparing protein profiles of media conditioned by degenerating (necrotic) versus healthy striatal slice cultures....

  6. Brain stem death as the vital determinant for resumption of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Y W Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spontaneous circulation returns to less than half of adult cardiac arrest victims who received in-hospital resuscitation. One clue for this disheartening outcome arises from the prognosis that asystole invariably takes place, after a time lag, on diagnosis of brain stem death. The designation of brain stem death as the point of no return further suggests that permanent impairment of the brain stem cardiovascular regulatory machinery precedes death. It follows that a crucial determinant for successful revival of an arrested heart is that spontaneous circulation must resume before brain stem death commences. Here, we evaluated the hypothesis that maintained functional integrity of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, a neural substrate that is intimately related to brain stem death and central circulatory regulation, holds the key to the vital time-window between cardiac arrest and resumption of spontaneous circulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An animal model of brain stem death employing the pesticide mevinphos as the experimental insult in Sprague-Dawley rats was used. Intravenous administration of lethal doses of mevinphos elicited an abrupt cardiac arrest, accompanied by elevated systemic arterial pressure and anoxia, augmented neuronal excitability and enhanced microvascular perfusion in RVLM. This period represents the vital time-window between cardiac arrest and resumption of spontaneous circulation in our experimental model. Animals with restored spontaneous circulation exhibited maintained neuronal functionality in RVLM beyond this critical time-window, alongside resumption of baseline tissue oxygen and enhancement of local blood flow. Intriguingly, animals that subsequently died manifested sustained anoxia, diminished local blood flow, depressed mitochondrial electron transport activities and reduced ATP production, leading to necrotic cell death in RVLM. That amelioration of mitochondrial dysfunction and

  7. Evaluation of radiation therapy for pediatric brain stem glioma by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of radiation therapy on 29 brain stem gliomas in childhood were evaluated by computed tomography (CT). The patients received radiation of 2 Gy/day as a single fraction, 5 day a week with a total dose of 40 to 60 Gy. Initial CT findings of brain stem gliomas were divided into two types; diffuse and localized. Of 29 children, 5 had localized and 24 had diffuse tumor. Histological diagnoses were available for 18 patients, 4 with localized and 14 with diffuse tumor. All of the localized tumors were astrocytomas and diffuse tumors included 13 anaplastic gliomas (glioblastomas), 3 anaplastic astrocytomas, and one astrocytoma. Complete response or partial response to radiation therapy was observed on CT in 100% (5/5) of the localized tumors and 46% (11/13) of the diffuse tumors at the first evaluation. Contrary to expectation, low-grade gliomas responded much better to radiation therapy than high-grade gliomas. The response rates were 80% (4/5) in astrocytoma, 67% (2/3) in anaplastic astrocytoma, and 38% (5/13) in anaplastic glioma. In the follow-up CT after radiation therapy, a delayed effect was observed in only one of the 24 diffuse tumors. Nine of 10 children who had a re-irradiation following the recurrence experienced very little benefit. None of the patients with localized tumors have shown evidence of tumor progression or recurrence, and the quality of their life has been exellent. On the other hand, all of the patients with diffuse tumor died within 20 months after initial treatment. The results of this study suggest that radiation therapy is beneficial for localized tumors but not for diffuse tumors, and new treatments need to be developed for diffuse tumors. (author)

  8. Preventive sparing of spinal cord and brain stem in the initial irradiation of locally advanced head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Paolo; Piras, Sara; Porru, Sergio; Massazza, Federica; Fadda, Giuseppina; Solla, Ignazio; Piras, Denise; Deidda, Maria Assunta; Amichetti, Maurizio; Possanzini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Since reirradiation in recurrent head and neck patients is limited by previous treatment, a marked reduction of maximum doses to spinal cord and brain stem was investigated in the initial irradiation of stage III/IV head and neck cancers. Eighteen patients were planned by simultaneous integrated boost, prescribing 69.3 Gy to PTV1 and 56.1 Gy to PTV2. Nine 6 MV coplanar photon beams at equispaced gantry angles were chosen for each patient. Step-and-shoot IMRT was calculated by direct machine parameter optimization, with the maximum number of segments limited to 80. In the standard plan, optimization considered organs at risk (OAR), dose conformity, maximum dose < 45 Gy to spinal cord and < 50 Gy to brain stem. In the sparing plans, a marked reduction to spinal cord and brain stem were investigated, with/without changes in dose conformity. In the sparing plans, the maximum doses to spinal cord and brain stem were reduced from the initial values (43.5 ± 2.2 Gy and 36.7 ± 14.0 Gy), without significant changes on the other OARs. A marked difference (-15.9 ± 1.9 Gy and -10.1 ± 5.7 Gy) was obtained at the expense of a small difference (-1.3% ± 0.9%) from initial PTV195% coverage (96.6% ± 0.9%). Similar difference (-15.7 ± 2.2 Gy and -10.2 ± 6.1 Gy) was obtained compromising dose conformity, but unaffecting PTV195% and with negligible decrease in PTV295% (-0.3% ± 0.3% from the initial 98.3% ± 0.8%). A marked spinal cord and brain stem preventive sparing was feasible at the expense of a decrease in dose conformity or slightly compromising target coverage. A sparing should be recommended in highly recurrent tumors, to make potential reirradiation safer. PMID:24423836

  9. Therapeutics with SPION-labeled stem cells for the main diseases related to brain aging: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarim LT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Larissa T Alvarim,1,3,* Leopoldo P Nucci,2,* Javier B Mamani,1 Luciana C Marti,1 Marina F Aguiar,1,2 Helio R Silva,1,3 Gisele S Silva,1 Mariana P Nucci-da-Silva,4 Elaine A DelBel,5,6 Lionel F Gamarra1–31Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Universidade Federal de São Paulo, UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Departamento de Radiologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil; 5Universidade de São Paulo-Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 6NAPNA- Núcleo de Apoio a Pesquisa em Neurociências Aplicadas, São Paulo, Brazil*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The increase in clinical trials assessing the efficacy of cell therapy for structural and functional regeneration of the nervous system in diseases related to the aging brain is well known. However, the results are inconclusive as to the best cell type to be used or the best methodology for the homing of these stem cells. This systematic review analyzed published data on SPION (superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-labeled stem cells as a therapy for brain diseases, such as ischemic stroke, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and dementia. This review highlights the therapeutic role of stem cells in reversing the aging process and the pathophysiology of brain aging, as well as emphasizing nanotechnology as an important tool to monitor stem cell migration in affected regions of the brain.Keywords: iron oxide, dementia, stem cell, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, sclerosis disease, brain aging

  10. In vitro delineation of human brain-stem anatomy using a small resonator: correlation with macroscopic and histological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to investigate the potential of an experimental animal coil using a commercial MRI unit to delineate the anatomical structure of the human brain stem. Three formaldehyde-fixed brain-stem specimens were examined by MRI and sectioned perpendicular to their longitudinal axis. The images were compared with gross anatomy and myelin-stained histological sections. Fibre tracts and nuclei which were not evident on examination of the unstained specimen were readily identified by MRI. Due to its inherent grey/white matter contrast, MRI with a high-resolution coil delineates anatomical structures in a way comparable to the myelin-stained histological sections. However, pigmented structures, readily visible on examination of the unstained specimen were discernible on neither MRI nor on myelin-stained sections. The excellent anatomical detail and grey/white matter contrast provided by these images could make MRI a useful adjunct to the pathologist investigating brain disease. (orig.)

  11. High-resolution anatomy of the human brain stem using 7-T MRI: improved detection of inner structures and nerves?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizewski, Elke R. [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Neuroradiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Maderwald, Stefan [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Linn, Jennifer; Bochmann, Katja [LMU Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Dassinger, Benjamin [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Neuroradiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Department of Neuroradiology, Giessen (Germany); Forsting, Michael [University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, Departments of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Ladd, Mark E. [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, Departments of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the value of 7 Tesla (7 T) MRI for the depiction of brain stem and cranial nerve (CN) anatomy. Six volunteers were examined at 7 T using high-resolution SWI, MPRAGE, MP2RAGE, 3D SPACE T2, T2, and PD images to establish scanning parameters targeted at optimizing spatial resolution. Direct comparisons between 3 and 7 T were performed in two additional subjects using the finalized sequences (3 T: T2, PD, MPRAGE, SWAN; 7 T: 3D T2, MPRAGE, SWI, MP2RAGE). Artifacts and the depiction of structures were evaluated by two neuroradiologists using a standardized score sheet. Sequences could be established for high-resolution 7 T imaging even in caudal cranial areas. High in-plane resolution T2, PD, and SWI images provided depiction of inner brain stem structures such as pons fibers, raphe, reticular formation, nerve roots, and periaqueductal gray. MPRAGE and MP2RAGE provided clear depiction of the CNs. 3D T2 images improved depiction of inner brain structure in comparison to T2 images at 3 T. Although the 7-T SWI sequence provided improved contrast to some inner structures, extended areas were influenced by artifacts due to image disturbances from susceptibility differences. Seven-tesla imaging of basal brain areas is feasible and might have significant impact on detection and diagnosis in patients with specific diseases, e.g., trigeminal pain related to affection of the nerve root. Some inner brain stem structures can be depicted at 3 T, but certain sequences at 7 T, in particular 3D SPACE T2, are superior in producing anatomical in vivo images of deep brain stem structures. (orig.)

  12. High-resolution anatomy of the human brain stem using 7-T MRI: improved detection of inner structures and nerves?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the value of 7 Tesla (7 T) MRI for the depiction of brain stem and cranial nerve (CN) anatomy. Six volunteers were examined at 7 T using high-resolution SWI, MPRAGE, MP2RAGE, 3D SPACE T2, T2, and PD images to establish scanning parameters targeted at optimizing spatial resolution. Direct comparisons between 3 and 7 T were performed in two additional subjects using the finalized sequences (3 T: T2, PD, MPRAGE, SWAN; 7 T: 3D T2, MPRAGE, SWI, MP2RAGE). Artifacts and the depiction of structures were evaluated by two neuroradiologists using a standardized score sheet. Sequences could be established for high-resolution 7 T imaging even in caudal cranial areas. High in-plane resolution T2, PD, and SWI images provided depiction of inner brain stem structures such as pons fibers, raphe, reticular formation, nerve roots, and periaqueductal gray. MPRAGE and MP2RAGE provided clear depiction of the CNs. 3D T2 images improved depiction of inner brain structure in comparison to T2 images at 3 T. Although the 7-T SWI sequence provided improved contrast to some inner structures, extended areas were influenced by artifacts due to image disturbances from susceptibility differences. Seven-tesla imaging of basal brain areas is feasible and might have significant impact on detection and diagnosis in patients with specific diseases, e.g., trigeminal pain related to affection of the nerve root. Some inner brain stem structures can be depicted at 3 T, but certain sequences at 7 T, in particular 3D SPACE T2, are superior in producing anatomical in vivo images of deep brain stem structures. (orig.)

  13. Neural stem cells secrete factors facilitating brain regeneration upon constitutive Raf-Erk activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yong-Hee; Yi, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Chang, Mi-Yoon; Jo, A-Young; Kim, Jinyoung; Park, Chang-Hwan; Cho, Je-Yoel; Choi, Young-Jin; Sun, Woong; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular Raf-Erk signaling pathway is activated during neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, and neuronal and astrocytic differentiation. A key question is how this signal can evoke multiple and even opposing NSC behaviors. We show here, using a constitutively active Raf (ca-Raf), that Raf-Erk activation in NSCs induces neuronal differentiation in a cell-autonomous manner. By contrast, it causes NSC proliferation and the formation of astrocytes in an extrinsic autocrine/paracrine manner. Thus, treatment of NSCs with medium (CM) conditioned in ca-Raf-transduced NSCs (Raf-CM; RCM) became activated to form proliferating astrocytes resembling radial glial cells (RGCs) or adult-type NSCs. Infusion of Raf-CM into injured mouse brains caused expansion of the NSC population in the subventricular zone, followed by the formation of new neurons that migrated to the damaged site. Our study shows an example how molecular mechanisms dissecting NSC behaviors can be utilized to develop regenerative therapies in brain disorders. PMID:27554447

  14. Recent advances in the involvement of long non-coding RNAs in neural stem cell biology and brain pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PanagiotisKPolitis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of non-coding genome has recently uncovered a growing list of formerly unknown regulatory long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs with important functions in stem cell pluripotency, development and homeostasis of several tissues. Although thousands of lncRNAs are expressed in mammalian brain in a highly patterned manner, their roles in brain development have just begun to emerge. Recent data suggest key roles for these molecules in gene regulatory networks controlling neuronal and glial cell differentiation. Analysis of the genomic distribution of genes encoding for lncRNAs indicates a physical association of these regulatory RNAs with transcription factors (TFs with well-established roles in neural differentiation, suggesting that lncRNAs and TFs may form coherent regulatory networks with important functions in neural stem cells (NSCs. Additionally, many studies show that lncRNAs are involved in the pathophysiology of brain-related diseases/disorders. Here we discuss these observations and investigate the links between lncRNAs, brain development and brain-related diseases. Understanding the functions of lncRNAs in NSCs and brain organogenesis could revolutionize the basic principles of developmental biology and neuroscience.

  15. Brain injury expands the numbers of neural stem cells and progenitors in the SVZ by enhancing their responsiveness to EGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A Lazzarino

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an increase in the numbers of neural precursors in the SVZ (subventricular zone after moderate ischaemic injuries, but the extent of stem cell expansion and the resultant cell regeneration is modest. Therefore our studies have focused on understanding the signals that regulate these processes towards achieving a more robust amplification of the stem/progenitor cell pool. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the role of the EGFR [EGF (epidermal growth factor receptor] in the regenerative response of the neonatal SVZ to hypoxic/ischaemic injury. We show that injury recruits quiescent cells in the SVZ to proliferate, that they divide more rapidly and that there is increased EGFR expression on both putative stem cells and progenitors. With the amplification of the precursors in the SVZ after injury there is enhanced sensitivity to EGF, but not to FGF (fibroblast growth factor-2. EGF-dependent SVZ precursor expansion, as measured using the neurosphere assay, is lost when the EGFR is pharmacologically inhibited, and forced expression of a constitutively active EGFR is sufficient to recapitulate the exaggerated proliferation of the neural stem/progenitors that is induced by hypoxic/ischaemic brain injury. Cumulatively, our results reveal that increased EGFR signalling precedes that increase in the abundance of the putative neural stem cells and our studies implicate the EGFR as a key regulator of the expansion of SVZ precursors in response to brain injury. Thus modulating EGFR signalling represents a potential target for therapies to enhance brain repair from endogenous neural precursors following hypoxic/ischaemic and other brain injuries.

  16. Adenovirus-mediated human brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changsheng Wang; Jianhua Lin; Chaoyang Wu; Rongsheng Chen

    2011-01-01

    Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor were successfully obtained using a gene transfection method, then intravenously transplanted into rats with spinal cord injury. At 1, 3, and 5 weeks after transplantation, the expression of ??brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurofilament-200 was upregulated in the injured spinal cord, spinal cord injury was alleviated, and Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores of hindlimb motor function were significantly increased. This evidence suggested that intravenous transplantation of adenovirus- mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene-modified rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells could play a dual role, simultaneously providing neural stem cells and neurotrophic factors.

  17. Topological descendants DDK and KM realizations

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz; Gato-Rivera, Beatriz; Rosado, Jose Ignacio

    1994-01-01

    The "minimal matter + scalar" system can be embedded into the twisted N=2 topological algebra in two ways: a la DDK or a la KM. Here we present some results concerning the topological descendants and their DDK and KM realizations. In particular, we prove four "no-ghost" theorems (two for null states) regarding the reduction of the topological descendants into secon- daries of the "minimal matter + scalar" conformal field theory. We write down the relevant expressions for the case of level 2 descendants.

  18. Efficient and Rapid Derivation of Primitive Neural Stem Cells and Generation of Brain Subtype Neurons From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Yiping; Shin, Soojung; Jha, Balendu Shekhar; Liu, Qiuyue; Sheng, Jianting; Li, Fuhai; Zhan, Ming; Davis, Janine; Bharti, Kapil; Zeng, Xianmin; Rao, Mahendra; Malik, Nasir; Mohan C. Vemuri

    2013-01-01

    This study developed a highly efficient serum-free pluripotent stem cell (PSC) neural induction medium that can induce human PSCs into primitive neural stem cells (NSCs) in 7 days, obviating the need for time-consuming, laborious embryoid body generation or rosette picking. This method of primitive NSC derivation sets the stage for the scalable production of clinically relevant neural cells for cell therapy applications in good manufacturing practice conditions.

  19. Suicide awareness of japanese family descendants

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Tiemi Kawaziri Diogo; Marcos Hirata Soares; Júlia Trevisan Martins

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to comprehend the meaning of suicide for Japanese descendants. This was a qualitative study, based on Grounded Theory, using a structured interview with sixteen questions, digitally recorded. Subjects were ten descendants who were interviewed in 2011. The opinions of the interviewed showed factors of psychological, social and cultural origin involved in suicide, such as: heredity, religion, mental health, personality characteristics and interpersonal relationships, pleasure a...

  20. A descendent relation in genus 2

    OpenAIRE

    Belorousski, Pasha; Pandharipande, Rahul

    1998-01-01

    A new codimension 2 relation among descendent strata in the moduli space of stable, 3-pointed, genus 2 curves is found. The space of pointed admissible double covers is used in the calculation. The resulting differential equations satisfied by the genus 2 gravitational potentials of varieties in Gromov-Witten theory are described. These are analogous to the WDVV-equations in genus 0 and Getzler's equations in genus 1. As an application, genus 2 descendent invariants of the projective plane ar...

  1. Identification and culture of neural stem cells isolated from adult rat subventricular zone following fluid percussion brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze proliferation and differentiation of glial fibrillary acid protein(GFAP)-and nestin-positive(GFAP+/nestin+)cells isolated from the subventricular zone following fluid percussion brain injury to determine whether GFAP+/nestin+ cells exhibit characteristics of neural stem cells.Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats,aged 12 weeks and weighing 200-250 g,were randomly and evenly assigned to normal control group and model group.In the model group,a rat model of fluid percussion brain injury was es...

  2. Patterns of recurrence in brain stem gliomas: evidence for craniospinal dissemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The 3-year survival rate of pediatric patients with infiltrating brain stem gliomas (BSG) is < 10%. Treatment involves local field radiation, and local failure has been the hallmark of recurrence. With therapeutic advances and improved radiographic monitoring, perceived and actual patterns of failure may change. We report patterns of recurrence in a group of patients with close follow-up, treated on an institutional protocol incorporating hyperfractionated involved-field radiation therapy and concomitant carboplatin, who have been uniformly staged and treated and have undergone MRI surveillance. Methods and Materials: From 1990-1995, 18 pediatric patients with BSG were treated on a Phase I-II trial of concurrent carboplatin and hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Eight had surgical procedures to document histology. Nine had hydrocephalus prior to death. All had pretreatment brain and spine MRIs, with and without gadolinium, that showed no other evidence of disease. Treatment consisted of 72.00 Gy involved-field hyperfractionated radiation therapy and dose-escalating concomitant carboplatin. Results: Fifteen children have had progression of disease (median PFS = 9 months); and 13 have died (median OS = 14 months). Fourteen of the 15 children with progression had local failures, 8 of whom had evidence of noncontiguous spinal (4) or intracranial (7) disease documented by MRI or autopsy. One child with local control developed an intracranial metastasis. None had clinical manifestations of leptomeningeal disease. Conclusion: Leptomeningeal dissemination occurred within 1 month of local progression in nearly 30% of our patients and, overall, occurred in 50% prior to death. This high incidence may reflect close MRI surveillance or a changing pattern of recurrence. Because the majority of leptomeningeal disease occurs in the setting of local progression, treatment efforts must be directed primarily toward local control. However, management of leptomeningeal

  3. The Brain Microenvironment Preferentially Enhances the Radioresistance of CD133+ Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jamal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumor xenografts initiated from glioblastoma (GBM CD133+ tumor stem-like cells (TSCs are composed of TSC and non-TSC subpopulations, simulating the phenotypic heterogeneity of GBMs in situ. Given that the discrepancies between the radiosensitivity of GBM cells in vitro and the treatment response of patients suggest a role for the microenvironment in GBM radioresistance, we compared the response of TSCs and non-TSCs irradiated under in vitro and orthotopic conditions. As a measure of radioresponse determined at the individual cell level, γH2AX and 53BP1 foci were quantified in CD133+ cells and their differentiated (CD133- progeny. Under in vitro conditions, no difference was detected between CD133+ and CD133- cells in foci induction or dispersal after irradiation. However, irradiation of orthotopic xenografts initiated from TSCs resulted in the induction of fewer γH2AX and 53BP1 foci in CD133+ cells compared to their CD133- counterparts within the same tumor. Xenograft irradiation resulted in a tumor growth delay of approximately 7 days with a corresponding increase in the percentage of CD133+ cells at 7 days after radiation, which persisted to the onset of neurologic symptoms. These results suggest that, although the radioresponse of TSCs and non-TSCs does not differ under in vitro growth conditions, CD133+ cells are relatively radioresistant under intracerebral growth conditions. Whereas these findings are consistent with the suspected role for TSCs as a determinant of GBM radioresistance, these data also illustrate the dependence of the cellular radioresistance on the brain microenvironment.

  4. Therapy of brain stem tumors - palliative conception with prospect of curative success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1969 to 1981, 23 patients with tumors in the pons region were irradiated at the Department of Radiotherapy of the West German Tumor Center in Essen. The age of the patients ranged from 18 months to 50 years. Fifteen patients (65%) were younger than 18 years, one was 25 years old, and seven were between 40 and 50 years old. In two cases the histologic diagnosis of an astrocytoma I and astrocytoma II could be confirmed by exploratory excision and cyst punction, respectively. Nineteen patients received a shunt system (ventriculoatrial shunt) prior to radiotherapy in order to achieve a pressure reduction. After a follow-up period of 1.5 to 12 years, eleven patients are alive, and twelve patients died from a local recurrence or from progressive tumor growth. The five-year survival rate is 47%. Five of the surviving patients show no or only slight adverse effects on their general condition and are able to attend school or carry out their profession (in Karnofsky: 90 to 100%). Four other patients suffering from marked remaining neurologic symptoms are able to take care of themselves (Karnofsky: 70 to 80%). Two patients need permanent nursing (Karnofsky: 50 to 60%). Because of the local propagation tendency of pons tumors, radiotherapy should be locally restricted to the brain stem and the adjacent brain structures, e.g. cerebellum and proximal neck marrow. The authors recommend target volumes of 55 to 60 Gy, which must be applied within 6 to 8 weeks, taking into account the age of patients. This palliative therapy conception should be applied routinely in the hope of bringing about a curative treatment to this group of patients. (orig.)

  5. Presenilins are required for maintenance of neural stem cells in the developing brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo-Young

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The early embryonic lethality of mutant mice bearing germ-line deletions of both presenilin genes precluded the study of their functions in neural development. We therefore employed the Cre-loxP technology to generate presenilin conditional double knockout (PS cDKO mice, in which expression of both presenilins is inactivated in neural progenitor cells (NPC or neural stem cells and their derivative neurons and glia beginning at embryonic day 11 (E11. In PS cDKO mice, dividing NPCs labeled by BrdU are decreased in number beginning at E13.5. By E15.5, fewer than 20% of NPCs remain in PS cDKO mice. The depletion of NPCs is accompanied by severe morphological defects and hemorrhages in the PS cDKO embryonic brain. Interkinetic nuclear migration of NPCs is also disrupted in PS cDKO embryos, as evidenced by displacement of S-phase and M-phase nuclei in the ventricular zone of the telencephalon. Furthermore, the depletion of neural progenitor cells in PS cDKO embryos is due to NPCs exiting cell cycle and differentiating into neurons rather than reentering cell cycle between E13.5 and E14.5 following PS inactivation in most NPCs. The length of cell cycle, however, is unchanged in PS cDKO embryos. Expression of Notch target genes, Hes1 and Hes5, is significantly decreased in PS cDKO brains, whereas Dll1 expression is up-regulated, indicating that Notch signaling is effectively blocked by PS inactivation. These findings demonstrate that presenilins are essential for neural progenitor cells to re-enter cell cycle and thus ensure proper expansion of neural progenitor pool during embryonic neural development.

  6. Tipifarnib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Progressive High-Grade Glioma, Medulloblastoma, Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor, or Brain Stem Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  7. Critical appraisal of cerebral blood flow measured from brain stem and cerebellar regions after 133 Xe inhalation in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Validity of regional blood flow (rCBF) measurements recorded over the human posterior fossa after 133Xe inhalation was tested. Recording of counts from both brain stem and cerebellum (BSC) was reproducible and contamination by counts derived from surrounding anatomical structures was low and no greater than that found over hemispheres. BSC flow values showed significant correlation with the state of awareness as judged by clinical and EEG evaluation

  8. Testing the hypothesis of neurodegeneracy in respiratory network function with a priori transected arterially perfused brain stem preparation of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah E; Dutschmann, Mathias

    2016-05-01

    Degeneracy of respiratory network function would imply that anatomically discrete aspects of the brain stem are capable of producing respiratory rhythm. To test this theory we a priori transected brain stem preparations before reperfusion and reoxygenation at 4 rostrocaudal levels: 1.5 mm caudal to obex (n = 5), at obex (n = 5), and 1.5 (n = 7) and 3 mm (n = 6) rostral to obex. The respiratory activity of these preparations was assessed via recordings of phrenic and vagal nerves and lumbar spinal expiratory motor output. Preparations with a priori transection at level of the caudal brain stem did not produce stable rhythmic respiratory bursting, even when the arterial chemoreceptors were stimulated with sodium cyanide (NaCN). Reperfusion of brain stems that preserved the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) showed spontaneous and sustained rhythmic respiratory bursting at low phrenic nerve activity (PNA) amplitude that occurred simultaneously in all respiratory motor outputs. We refer to this rhythm as the pre-BötC burstlet-type rhythm. Conserving circuitry up to the pontomedullary junction consistently produced robust high-amplitude PNA at lower burst rates, whereas sequential motor patterning across the respiratory motor outputs remained absent. Some of the rostrally transected preparations expressed both burstlet-type and regular PNA amplitude rhythms. Further analysis showed that the burstlet-type rhythm and high-amplitude PNA had 1:2 quantal relation, with burstlets appearing to trigger high-amplitude bursts. We conclude that no degenerate rhythmogenic circuits are located in the caudal medulla oblongata and confirm the pre-BötC as the primary rhythmogenic kernel. The absence of sequential motor patterning in a priori transected preparations suggests that pontine circuits govern respiratory pattern formation. PMID:26888109

  9. Transplantation of human neural stem cells restores cognition in an immunodeficient rodent model of traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Haus, DL; Lopez-Velazquez, L; Gold, EM; Cunningham, KM; Perez, H; Anderson, AJ; Cummings, BJ

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans can result in permanent tissue damage and has been linked to cognitive impairment that lasts years beyond the initial insult. Clinically effective treatment strategies have yet to be developed. Transplantation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) has the potential to restore cognition lost due to injury, however, the vast majority of rodent TBI/hNSC studies to date have evaluated cognition only at early time points, typically

  10. A meta-analysis of efficacy in pre-clinical human stem cell therapies for traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, J.; Phelan, M; Cummings, BJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Objectives: Evaluate the preclinical evidence for human cell therapies for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI), determine behavioral effect sizes for modified and non-modified cells, and identify variables that correlate with greater effect sizes. Methods: A literature search identified 58 animal studies of TBI using human stem cells. Each study received a Quality Index (QI) score based on existing guidelines. Effect sizes for cell therapies were determined for ...

  11. Gene expression analysis of neuronal precursors from adult mouse brain and differential screen for neural stem cell markers

    OpenAIRE

    Pennartz, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    In the adult mouse brain, neuronal precursor cells continuously emanate from neural stem cells (NSC) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migrate into the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate to serve as replenishment for GABAergic interneurons. During the migration process, PSA-NCAM (Polysialic acid-Neural cell adhesion molecule) specifically marks the neuronal precursors (PSA+ cells). This phenomenon was exploited in the framework of this doctoral thesis to isolate a homogeneous cel...

  12. Depletion of neural stem cells from the subventricular zone of adult mouse brain using cytosine b‐Arabinofuranoside

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanbari, Amir; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh; Bahmanpour, Soghra; Golmohammadi, Mohammad Ghasem; Sharififar, Sharareh; Azari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside along the ventricular axis of the mammalian brain. They divide infrequently to maintain themselves and the down‐stream progenitors. Due to the quiescent property of NSCs, attempts to deplete these cells using antimitotic agents such as cytosine b‐Aarabinofuranoside (Ara‐C) have not been successful. We hypothesized that implementing infusion gaps in Ara‐C kill paradigms would recruit the quiescent NSCs and subsequently eliminate them from t...

  13. C1–C2 arthrodesis after transoral odontoidectomy and suboccipital craniectomy for ventral brain stem compression in Chiari I patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Steven W.; Heilman, Carl B.; Riesenburger, Ron I.; Kryzanski, James

    2008-01-01

    Chiari I malformations are often associated with congenital craniocervical anomalies such as platybasia, basilar invagination, and retroflexion of the odontoid process. Management of ventral brain stem compression associated with Chiari I malformations remains controversial, but several authors report a significant rate of failure with suboccipital decompression alone in the presence of pronounced ventral brain stem compression (VBSC). Treatment options described in the literature for these p...

  14. Combining acellular nerve allografts with brain-derived neurotrophic factor transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells restores sciatic nerve injury better than either intervention alone

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Gechen; Ka, Ka; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts from bilateral sciatic nerves, and repaired 10-mm sciatic nerve defects in rats using these grafts and brain-derived neurotrophic factor transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Experiments were performed in three groups: the acellular nerve allograft bridging group, acellular nerve allograft + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and the acellular nerve allograft + brain-derived neurotrophic factor transfected bone...

  15. Susceptibility-weighted imaging of the venous networks around the brain stem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Ming; Lin, Zhong-Xiao; Zhang, Nu [Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou (China); Zhang, Xiao-Fen; Qiao, Hui-Huang; Chen, Cheng-Chun [Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Human Anatomy, Wenzhou (China); Ren, Chuan-Gen; Li, Jian-Ce [Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Radiology, The 1nd Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou (China)

    2014-10-18

    The venous network of the brainstem is complex and significant. Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a practical technique which is sensitive to veins, especially tiny veins. Our purpose of this study was to evaluate the visualization of the venous network of brainstem by using SWI at 3.0 T. The occurrence rate of each superficial veins of brainstem was evaluated by using SWI on a 3 T MR imaging system in 60 volunteers. The diameter of the lateral mesencephalic vein and peduncular vein were measured by SWI using the reconstructed mIP images in the sagittal view. And the outflow of the veins of brainstem were studied and described according to the reconstructed images. The median anterior pontomesencephalic vein, median anterior medullary vein, peduncular vein, right vein of the pontomesencephalic sulcus, and right lateral anterior pontomesencephalic vein were detected in all the subjects (100 %). The outer diameter of peduncular vein was 1.38 ± 0.26 mm (range 0.8-1.8 mm). The lateral mesencephalic vein was found in 75 % of the subjects and the mean outer diameter was 0.81 ± 0.2 mm (range 0.5-1.2 mm). The inner veins of mesencephalon were found by using SWI. The venous networks around the brain stem can be visualized by SWI clearly. This result can not only provide data for anatomical study, but also may be available for the surgical planning in the infratentorial region. (orig.)

  16. Molecular control of brain size: Regulators of neural stem cell life, death and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proper development of the brain and other organs depends on multiple parameters, including strictly controlled expansion of specific progenitor pools. The regulation of such expansion events includes enzymatic activities that govern the correct number of specific cells to be generated via an orchestrated control of cell proliferation, cell cycle exit, differentiation, cell death etc. Certain proteins in turn exert direct control of these enzymatic activities and thus progenitor pool expansion and organ size. The members of the Cip/Kip family (p21Cip1/p27Kip1/p57Kip2) are well-known regulators of cell cycle exit that interact with and inhibit the activity of cyclin-CDK complexes, whereas members of the p53/p63/p73 family are traditionally associated with regulation of cell death. It has however become clear that the roles for these proteins are not as clear-cut as initially thought. In this review, we discuss the roles for proteins of the Cip/Kip and p53/p63/p73 families in the regulation of cell cycle control, differentiation, and death of neural stem cells. We suggest that these proteins act as molecular interfaces, or 'pilots', to assure the correct assembly of protein complexes with enzymatic activities at the right place at the right time, thereby regulating essential decisions in multiple cellular events.

  17. Brain stem adenosine receptors modulate centrally mediated hypotensive responses in conscious rats: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha N. Nassar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine is implicated in the modulation of cardiovascular responses either at the peripheral or at central level in experimental animals. However, there are no dedicated reviews on the involvement of adenosine in mediating the hypotensive response of centrally administered clonidine in general and specifically in aortically barodenervated rats (ABD. The conscious ABD rat model exhibits surgically induced baroreflex dysfunction and exaggerated hypotensive response, compared with conscious sham-operated (SO rats. The current review focuses on, the role of adenosine receptors in blood pressure (BP regulation and their possible crosstalk with other receptors e.g. imidazoline (I1 and alpha (α2A adrenergic receptor (AR. The former receptor is a molecular target for clonidine, whose hypotensive effect is enhanced approx. 3-fold in conscious ABD rats. We also discussed how the balance between the brain stem adenosine A1 and A2A receptors is regulated by baroreceptors and how such balance influences the centrally mediated hypotensive responses. The use of the ABD rat model yielded insight into the downstream signaling cascades following clonidine-evoked hypotension in a surgical model of baroreflex dysfunction.

  18. GFAP expression is regulated by Pax3 in brain glioma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xing; Liu, Xiaojiang; Ni, Lanchun; Shi, Wei; Zhu, Hui; Shi, Jinlong; Chen, Jian; Gu, Zhikai; Gao, Yilu; Lan, Qing; Huang, Qingfeng

    2016-09-01

    Glioblastomas are understood to evolve from brain glioma stem cells (BGSCs), and yet the biology underlying this model of tumorigenesis is largely unknown. Paired box 3 protein (Pax3) is a member of the paired box (Pax) family of transcription factors that is normally expressed during embryonic development, but has recently been implicated in tumorigenesis. The present study demonstrated that Pax3 is differentially expressed in U87MG human glioma cell, BGSC and normal 1800 human astrocyte lines. Herein, we identified that the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a major intermediate filament protein of mature astrocytes, is directly downregulated during the differentiation of BGSCs via the binding of Pax3 to the promoter region of GFAP. Moreover, siRNA silencing of Pax3 arrested BGSC differentiation, while overexpression of Pax3 promoted the differentiation in BGSCs. Furthermore, we studied the cell proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, differentiation and expression of Pax3 and GFAP in Pax3 siRNA-knockdown and Pax3-overexpressing BGSC models by CCK-8, Transwell migration, flow cytometry and western blot assays. The results indicate that Pax3 regulates GFAP expression, and that Pax3 may contribute to the evolution of BGSCs towards malignancy. PMID:27432276

  19. Wnt3a, a Protein Secreted by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Neuroprotective and Promotes Neurocognitive Recovery Following Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuhai; Gibb, Stuart L; Zhao, Jing; Moore, Anthony N; Hylin, Michael J; Menge, Tyler; Xue, Hasen; Baimukanova, Gyulnar; Potter, Daniel; Johnson, Evan M; Holcomb, John B; Cox, Charles S; Dash, Pramod K; Pati, Shibani

    2016-05-01

    Intravenous administration of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to reduce blood brain barrier compromise and improve neurocognition following traumatic brain injury (TBI). These effects occur in the absence of engraftment and differentiation of these cells in the injured brain. Recent studies have shown that soluble factors produced by MSCs mediate a number of the therapeutic effects. In this study, we sought to determine if intravenous administration of MSCs (IV-MSCs) could enhance hippocampal neurogenesis following TBI. Our results demonstrate that IV-MSC treatment attenuates loss of neural stem cells and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in TBI injured mice. As Wnt signaling has been implicated in neurogenesis, we measured circulating Wnt3a levels in serum following IV-MSC administration and found a significant increase in Wnt3a. Concurrent with this increase, we detected increased activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, IV recombinant Wnt3a treatment provided neuroprotection, promoted neurogenesis, and improved neurocognitive function in TBI injured mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for Wnt3a in the therapeutic potential of MSCs and identify Wnt3a as a potential stand-alone therapy or as part of a combination therapeutic strategy for the treatment of TBI. Stem Cells 2016;34:1263-1272. PMID:26840479

  20. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve: viscoelasticity characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xue-Man; Liu, Yan; Wu, Fei; Yuan, Yi; Luo, Min

    2016-04-01

    The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 μg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 10(6) human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery. PMID:27212930

  1. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve: viscoelasticity characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-man Lv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 µg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 106 human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery.

  2. Non-virally engineered human adipose mesenchymal stem cells produce BMP4, target brain tumors, and extend survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangraviti, Antonella; Tzeng, Stephany Y; Gullotti, David; Kozielski, Kristen L; Kim, Jennifer E; Seng, Michael; Abbadi, Sara; Schiapparelli, Paula; Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Vescovi, Angelo; Brem, Henry; Olivi, Alessandro; Tyler, Betty; Green, Jordan J; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for enabling non-viral nanobiotechnology to allow safe and effective gene therapy and cell therapy, which can be utilized to treat devastating diseases such as brain cancer. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) display high anti-glioma tropism and represent a promising delivery vehicle for targeted brain tumor therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that non-viral, biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) can be used to engineer hAMSCs with higher efficacy (75% of cells) than leading commercially available reagents and high cell viability. To accomplish this, we engineered a poly(beta-amino ester) (PBAE) polymer structure to transfect hAMSCs with significantly higher efficacy than Lipofectamine™ 2000. We then assessed the ability of NP-engineered hAMSCs to deliver bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), which has been shown to have a novel therapeutic effect by targeting human brain tumor initiating cells (BTIC), a source of cancer recurrence, in a human primary malignant glioma model. We demonstrated that hAMSCs genetically engineered with polymeric nanoparticles containing BMP4 plasmid DNA (BMP4/NP-hAMSCs) secrete BMP4 growth factor while maintaining their multipotency and preserving their migration and invasion capacities. We also showed that this approach can overcome a central challenge for brain therapeutics, overcoming the blood brain barrier, by demonstrating that NP-engineered hAMSCs can migrate to the brain and penetrate the brain tumor after both intranasal and systemic intravenous administration. Critically, athymic rats bearing human primary BTIC-derived tumors and treated intranasally with BMP4/NP-hAMSCs showed significantly improved survival compared to those treated with control GFP/NP-hAMCSs. This study demonstrates that synthetic polymeric nanoparticles are a safe and effective approach for stem cell-based cancer-targeting therapies. PMID:27240162

  3. Repair of spinal cord injury by neural stem cells transfected with brain-derived neurotrophic factor-green fluorescent protein in rats A double effect of stem cells and growth factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yansong Wang; Gang Lü

    2010-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF)can significantly promote nerve regeneration and repair.High expression of the BDNF-green fluorescent protein(GFP)gene persists for a long time after transfection into neural stem cells.Nevertheless,little is known about the biological characteristics of BDNF-GFP modified nerve stem cells in vivo and their ability to induce BDNF expression or repair spinal cord injury.In the present study,we transplanted BDNF-GFP transgenic neural stem cells into a hemisection model of rats.Rats with BDNF-GFP stem cells exhibited significantly increased BDNF expression and better locomotor function compared with stem cells alone.Cellular therapy with BDNF-GFP transgenic stem cells can improve outcomes better than stem cells alone and may have therapeutic potential for spinal cord injury.

  4. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment for repair of traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-xiao Zhou; Zhi-gang Liu; Xiao-jiao Liu; Qian-xue Chen

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) for repair of traumatic brain injury has been used in the clinic. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment has long been widely used as an adjunctive therapy for treating traumatic brain injury. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO treatment is expected to yield better therapeutic effects on traumatic brain injury. In this study, we established rat models of severe traumatic brain injury by pressurized lfuid (2.5–3.0 atm impact force). The injured rats were then administered UC-MSC transplantationvia the tail vein in combination with HBO treatment. Compared with monotherapy, aquaporin 4 expression decreased in the injured rat brain, but growth-associated protein-43 expression, calaxon-like structures, and CM-Dil-positive cell number increased. Following combination therapy, however, rat cognitive and neurological function signiifcantly improved. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO therapyfor repair of traumatic brain injury shows better therapeutic effects than monotherapy and signiifcantly promotes recovery of neurological functions.

  5. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment for repair of traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-xiao Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs for repair of traumatic brain injury has been used in the clinic. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO treatment has long been widely used as an adjunctive therapy for treating traumatic brain injury. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO treatment is expected to yield better therapeutic effects on traumatic brain injury. In this study, we established rat models of severe traumatic brain injury by pressurized fluid (2.5-3.0 atm impact force. The injured rats were then administered UC-MSC transplantation via the tail vein in combination with HBO treatment. Compared with monotherapy, aquaporin 4 expression decreased in the injured rat brain, but growth-associated protein-43 expression, calaxon-like structures, and CM-Dil-positive cell number increased. Following combination therapy, however, rat cognitive and neurological function significantly improved. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO therapyfor repair of traumatic brain injury shows better therapeutic effects than monotherapy and significantly promotes recovery of neurological functions.

  6. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment for repair of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hai-Xiao; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Xiao-Jiao; Chen, Qian-Xue

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) for repair of traumatic brain injury has been used in the clinic. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment has long been widely used as an adjunctive therapy for treating traumatic brain injury. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO treatment is expected to yield better therapeutic effects on traumatic brain injury. In this study, we established rat models of severe traumatic brain injury by pressurized fluid (2.5-3.0 atm impact force). The injured rats were then administered UC-MSC transplantation via the tail vein in combination with HBO treatment. Compared with monotherapy, aquaporin 4 expression decreased in the injured rat brain, but growth-associated protein-43 expression, calaxon-like structures, and CM-Dil-positive cell number increased. Following combination therapy, however, rat cognitive and neurological function significantly improved. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO therapyfor repair of traumatic brain injury shows better therapeutic effects than monotherapy and significantly promotes recovery of neurological functions. PMID:26981097

  7. In vitro and in vivo platform to evaluate the potential of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for neural stem cell applications after mouse ischemic brain injury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pongrac, I.; Dobrivojevic, M.; Brkic, L.; Babič, Michal; Manescu, A.; Regul, J.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Giuliani, A.; Horák, Daniel; Gajovic, S.

    Zagreb : University of Zagreb School of Medicine, 2015. s. 37-38. [GlowBrain Final Conference "Stem cell and biomaterial applications for brain repair". 27.05.2015-31.05.2015, Zagreb] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316120 - GLOWBRAIN Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanoparticles * biomedicine Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  8. Transplantation of primed human fetal neural stem cells improves cognitive function in rats after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Prough, Donald S; McAdoo, David J; Grady, James J; Parsley, Margaret O; Ma, Long; Tarensenko, Yevgeniya I; Wu, Ping

    2006-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often produces cognitive impairments by primary or secondary neuronal loss. Stem cells are a potential tool to treat TBI. However, most previous studies using rodent stem or progenitor cells failed to correlate cell grafting and cognitive improvement. Furthermore, the efficacy of fetal human neural stem cells (hNSCs) for ameliorating TBI cognitive dysfunction is undetermined. This study therefore characterized phenotypic differentiation, neurotrophic factor expression and release and functional outcome of grafting hNSCs into TBI rat brains. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a moderate parasagittal fluid percussion TBI followed by ipsilateral hippocampal transplantation of hNSCs or vehicle 1 day post-injury. Prior to grafting, hNSCs were treated in vitro for 7 days with our previously developed priming procedure. Significant spatial learning and memory improvements were detected by the Morris water maze (MWM) test in rats 10 days after receiving hNSC grafts. Morphological analyses revealed that hNSCs survived and differentiated mainly into neurons in the injured hippocampus at 2 weeks after grafting. Furthermore, hNSCs expressed and released glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in vitro and when grafted in vivo, as detected by RT-PCR, immunostaining, microdialysis and ELISA. This is the first direct demonstration of the release of a neurotrophic factor in conjunction with stem cell grafting. In conclusion, human fetal neural stem cell grafts improved cognitive function of rats with acute TBI. Grafted cells survived and differentiated into neurons and expressed and released GNDF in vivo, which may help protect host cells from secondary damage and aid host regeneration. PMID:16904107

  9. In vivo tracking of {sup 111}In-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in acute brain trauma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon-Kee [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Neuroregeneration and Stem Cell Research, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bok-Nam [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Woo-Young [Institute for Neuroregeneration and Stem Cell Research, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jin Young [Institute for Neuroregeneration and Stem Cell Research, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gwang [Institute for Neuroregeneration and Stem Cell Research, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Brain Disease Research Center, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Young Hwan [Institute for Neuroregeneration and Stem Cell Research, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yhahn@ajou.ac.kr

    2010-04-15

    Introduction: This study was to evaluate the in vivo distribution of intravenously transplanted bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in an acute brain trauma model by {sup 111}In-tropolone labeling. Methods: Rat BMSCs were labeled with 37 MBq {sup 111}In-tropolone. Their labeling efficiency and in vitro retention rate were measured. The viability and proliferation of labeled BMSCs were evaluated for 14 days after labeling. The biodistribution of {sup 111}In-labeled BMSCs in trauma models was compared with those of sham-operated rats and normal rats on gamma camera images. The migration of {sup 111}In-BMSCs to the traumatic brain was evaluated using confocal microscope. Results: The labeling efficiency of {sup 111}In-BMSCs was 66{+-}5%, and their retention rate was 85.3% at 1 h after labeling. There was no difference in the number of viable cells between {sup 111}In-BMSCs and controls at 48 h after labeling. However, the proliferation of {sup 111}In-BMSCs was inhibited after the third day of labeling, and it did not reach confluency. On gamma camera images, most of the {sup 111}In-BMSCs uptake was observed in the liver and spleen at the second day of injection. The brain uptake of {sup 111}In-BMSCs was detected prominently in trauma models (1.4%) than in sham-operated (0.5%) or normal rats (0.3%). Radiolabeled BMSCs were observed at the traumatic brain on the confocal microscope as they have a homing capacity, although its proliferation capacity was suppressed. Conclusion: Although growth inhibition by {sup 111}In-labeling need to be evaluated further prior to use in humans, {sup 111}In-labeled BMSCs are useful for the tracking of intravenously transplanted mesenchymal stem cells in brain disease models.

  10. Variation of radiation-sensitivity of neural stem and progenitor cell populations within the developing mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the DNA damage response (DDR) of fetal neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPC), since exposure to ionizing radiation can severely impair the brain development. We compared apoptosis induction in the dorsal tel-encephalon and the lateral ganglionic eminences (LGE) of mouse embryos after an in utero irradiation. We used two thymidine analogs, together with the physical position of nuclei within brain structures, to determine the fate of irradiated NSPC. NSPC did not activate an apparent protein 21(p21)- dependent G1/S checkpoint within the LGE as their counterparts within the dorsal tel-encephalon. However, the levels of radiation induced apoptosis differed between the two tel-encephalic regions, due to the high radiation sensitivity of intermediate progenitors of the LGE. Besides radial glial cells, that function as neural stem cells, were more resistant and were reoriented toward self-renewing within hours following irradiation. The lack of the p21-dependent-cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition appears to be a general feature of NSPC in the developing brain. However, we found variation of radiation response in function of the types of NSPC. Factors involved in DDR and those involved in the regulation of neurogenesis are intricately linked in determining the cell fate after irradiations. (authors)

  11. 脑干听觉诱发电位在脑干梗死诊断中的应用%Application of brain stem auditory evoked potential machine in diagnosis of brain stem infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙凌

    2015-01-01

    目的 对脑干听觉诱发电位(BAEP)检测在脑干梗死诊断中的应用价值进行分析探讨.方法 30例脑干梗死患者作为观察组, 对其分别进行头颅CT或核磁共振(MRI)及BAEP检查, 对比3种检查方法 检测阳性率.以30例健康志愿者作为对照组, 对比两组研究对象的BAEP检测结果 .结果 BAEP检测阳性率为83.33%, MRI检测阳性率为56.67%, CT检测阳性率为46.67%, BAEP检测阳性率明显高于MRI及CT, 差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).观察组患者Ⅲ波及Ⅴ波潜伏期(PL), Ⅰ~Ⅲ波及Ⅲ~Ⅴ波峰间潜伏期(IPL)延长同对照组比较, 差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 对脑干梗死患者采用BAEP检查敏感性较高, 可为该病的早期诊断提供依据.%Objective To analyze and investigate application value of brain stem auditory evoked potential machine (BAEP) in diagnosis of brain stem infarction.Methods There were 30 patients with brain stem infarction as observation group. They received head CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and BAEP for examination. Comparison was made on positive rate across the 3 examination methods. Another 30 healthy volunteers were taken as control group. BAEP detection outcomes were compared between the two groups.Results Positive rate of BAEP was 83.33%, that of MRI was 56.67%, and that of CT was 46.67%. BAEP had much higher positive rate than MRI and CT, and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). The difference of prolonged Ⅲ wave and Ⅴ wave peak latencies (PL), Ⅰ~Ⅲ wave and Ⅲ~Ⅴ wave interpeak latencies (IPL) had statistical significance between the observation group and the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Implement of BAEP for brain stem infarction patients shows high sensitivity in detection, and it can provide reference for early diagnosis.

  12. CD44v6 regulates growth of brain tumor stem cells partially through the AKT-mediated pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Jijiwa

    Full Text Available Identification of stem cell-like brain tumor cells (brain tumor stem-like cells; BTSC has gained substantial attention by scientists and physicians. However, the mechanism of tumor initiation and proliferation is still poorly understood. CD44 is a cell surface protein linked to tumorigenesis in various cancers. In particular, one of its variant isoforms, CD44v6, is associated with several cancer types. To date its expression and function in BTSC is yet to be identified. Here, we demonstrate the presence and function of the variant form 6 of CD44 (CD44v6 in BTSC of a subset of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. Patients with CD44(high GBM exhibited significantly poorer prognoses. Among various variant forms, CD44v6 was the only isoform that was detected in BTSC and its knockdown inhibited in vitro growth of BTSC from CD44(high GBM but not from CD44(low GBM. In contrast, this siRNA-mediated growth inhibition was not apparent in the matched GBM sample that does not possess stem-like properties. Stimulation with a CD44v6 ligand, osteopontin (OPN, increased expression of phosphorylated AKT in CD44(high GBM, but not in CD44(low GBM. Lastly, in a mouse spontaneous intracranial tumor model, CD44v6 was abundantly expressed by tumor precursors, in contrast to no detectable CD44v6 expression in normal neural precursors. Furthermore, overexpression of mouse CD44v6 or OPN, but not its dominant negative form, resulted in enhanced growth of the mouse tumor stem-like cells in vitro. Collectively, these data indicate that a subset of GBM expresses high CD44 in BTSC, and its growth may depend on CD44v6/AKT pathway.

  13. A detrimental effect of a combined chemotherapy-radiotherapy approach in children with diffuse intrinsic brain stem gliomas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the proportion of patients that survive at least 1 year following treatment with hyperfractionated radiotherapy (HRT) to a dose of 70.2 Gy on Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) study no. 8495 with that of patients treated with similar radiotherapy plus cisplatinum given by continuous infusion on weeks 1, 3, and 5 of radiotherapy on POG no. 9239. Methods and Materials: The eligibility criteria for the two studies were identical and included age 3 to 21 years, previously untreated tumor involving the brain stem of which two-thirds was in the pons, history less than 6 months, and clinical findings typical for diffuse intrinsic brain stem glioma, including cranial nerve deficits, long tract signs, and ataxia. The outcome of 57 patients who were treated at the 70.2 Gy dose level of POG no. 8495 between May 1986 and February 1988 was compared with that of 64 patients treated with identical radiotherapy plus cisplatinum on POG no. 9239 between June 1992 and March 1996. Results: The number of patients accrued to POG no. 9239 was determined to guarantee that the probability was at least 0.80 of correctly detecting that the 1-year survival rate exceeded that of patients on POG no. 8495 by 0.2. However, the z value for this test was -1.564, giving a p value of 0.9411. That is, there is almost sufficient evidence to conclude that survival for patients receiving HRT plus cisplatinum on POG no. 9239 was worse than that for patients receiving the same radiotherapy alone on POG no. 8495. Conclusion: The finding that patients who received cisplatinum given as a radiosensitizing agent concurrent with HRT fared less well than those receiving the same dose of HRT alone was unexpected and is clearly a cause for concern as many current protocols for patients with diffuse intrinsic brain stem gliomas call for use of chemotherapeutic and/or biological agents given concurrent with radiotherapy

  14. A STUDY OF HEARING EVALUATION FOR NEONATES WITH HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA USING OTOACOUSTIC EMISSION AND BRAIN STEM AUDITORY EVOKED RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jaundice is one of the most common problems occurring in newborns. Although most of jaundiced patients are normal; because of the bilirubin toxicity, high serum levels can lead to kernicterus. It is important to identify and evaluate the jaundice early to prevent complications like bilirubin encephalopathy leading to hearing loss. Such early detection is possible only if some form of routine screening is used, one of which is otoacoustic emission. By detecting the hearing loss in time with screening methods we can ensure normal language development by appropriate intervention like hearing aids and infant stimulation. In this study otoacoustic emission will be followed by brain stem auditory evoked response and the results will be analyzed to look for the effectiveness of using otoacoustic emission for mass screening. METHODOLOGY: after obtaining approval and clearance from the institutional ethics committee this study included 105 children which satisfied the inclusion criteria. A standard case record was maintained for each subject. The neonate was subjected to otoacoustic emission just before discharge from the hospital. Otoacoustic emission was followed by brain stem auditory evoked response and the results compiled. Result of brain stem auditory evoked response was taken as gold standard and the results were analyzed. RESULTS: Abnormal OAE changes were seen in 6 and abnormal BERA was seen in 9 babies out of a total of 105 babies tested with hyperbilirubinemia. CONCLUSION: use of otoacoustic emissions as initial screening test provides as easy, cost effective and quick method to detect infants with hearing loss. As it is less invasive and less time consuming than BERA, dpOAE can be used as initial screening method for hearing loss in infants with BERA being reserved for infants that fail dpOAE.

  15. Spatial and functional architecture of the mammalian brain stem respiratory network: a hierarchy of three oscillatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J C; Abdala, A P L; Koizumi, H; Rybak, I A; Paton, J F R

    2007-12-01

    Mammalian central pattern generators (CPGs) producing rhythmic movements exhibit extremely robust and flexible behavior. Network architectures that enable these features are not well understood. Here we studied organization of the brain stem respiratory CPG. By sequential rostral to caudal transections through the pontine-medullary respiratory network within an in situ perfused rat brain stem-spinal cord preparation, we showed that network dynamics reorganized and new rhythmogenic mechanisms emerged. The normal three-phase respiratory rhythm transformed to a two-phase and then to a one-phase rhythm as the network was reduced. Expression of the three-phase rhythm required the presence of the pons, generation of the two-phase rhythm depended on the integrity of Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes and interactions between them, and the one-phase rhythm was generated within the pre-Bötzinger complex. Transformation from the three-phase to a two-phase pattern also occurred in intact preparations when chloride-mediated synaptic inhibition was reduced. In contrast to the three-phase and two-phase rhythms, the one-phase rhythm was abolished by blockade of persistent sodium current (I(NaP)). A model of the respiratory network was developed to reproduce and explain these observations. The model incorporated interacting populations of respiratory neurons within spatially organized brain stem compartments. Our simulations reproduced the respiratory patterns recorded from intact and sequentially reduced preparations. Our results suggest that the three-phase and two-phase rhythms involve inhibitory network interactions, whereas the one-phase rhythm depends on I(NaP). We conclude that the respiratory network has rhythmogenic capabilities at multiple levels of network organization, allowing expression of motor patterns specific for various physiological and pathophysiological respiratory behaviors. PMID:17913982

  16. Implanted stem cells - a promising tool for therapy of brain and spinal cord injuries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva

    Krakow, 2004. s. 24. [Annual Meeting of the European Stem Cell Therapeutics Excellence Centre (STEC) /2./. 07.06.2004-08.06.2004, Krakow] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065 Keywords : bone marrow stem cells * bone marow hematopoetic cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  17. Imaging and fate of stem cells labeled with superparamgnetic nanoparticles in brain and spinal cord injury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva

    Iowa, 2004. s. 17. [Stem Cell Biology Development and Plasticity A Growth Factor and Signal Transduction Symposium. 16.09.2004-19.09.2004, Iowa] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065 Keywords : stem cells * nanoparticles Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  18. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells markedly attenuate brain infarct size and improve neurological function in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheuk-Kwan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs on brain infarction area (BIA and neurological status in a rat model of acute ischemic stroke (IS was investigated. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n = 30 were divided into IS plus intra-venous 1 mL saline (at 0, 12 and 24 h after IS induction (control group and IS plus intra-venous ADMSCs (2.0 × 106 (treated interval as controls (treatment group after occlusion of distal left internal carotid artery. The rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were harvested on day 21 after the procedure. Results The results showed that BIA was larger in control group than in treatment group (p Conclusions ADMSC therapy significantly limited BIA and improved sensorimotor dysfunction after acute IS.

  19. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Genetically Engineered to Overexpress Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Improve Outcomes in Huntington's Disease Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kari; Dahlenburg, Heather; Nelson, Haley; Fink, Kyle D; Cary, Whitney; Hendrix, Kyle; Annett, Geralyn; Torrest, Audrey; Deng, Peter; Gutierrez, Joshua; Nacey, Catherine; Pepper, Karen; Kalomoiris, Stefanos; D Anderson, Johnathon; McGee, Jeannine; Gruenloh, William; Fury, Brian; Bauer, Gerhard; Duffy, Alexandria; Tempkin, Theresa; Wheelock, Vicki; Nolta, Jan A

    2016-05-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal degenerative autosomal dominant neuropsychiatric disease that causes neuronal death and is characterized by progressive striatal and then widespread brain atrophy. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a lead candidate for the treatment of HD, as it has been shown to prevent cell death and to stimulate the growth and migration of new neurons in the brain in transgenic mouse models. BDNF levels are reduced in HD postmortem human brain. Previous studies have shown efficacy of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC)/BDNF using murine MSCs, and the present study used human MSCs to advance the therapeutic potential of the MSC/BDNF platform for clinical application. Double-blinded studies were performed to examine the effects of intrastriatally transplanted human MSC/BDNF on disease progression in two strains of immune-suppressed HD transgenic mice: YAC128 and R6/2. MSC/BDNF treatment decreased striatal atrophy in YAC128 mice. MSC/BDNF treatment also significantly reduced anxiety as measured in the open-field assay. Both MSC and MSC/BDNF treatments induced a significant increase in neurogenesis-like activity in R6/2 mice. MSC/BDNF treatment also increased the mean lifespan of the R6/2 mice. Our genetically modified MSC/BDNF cells set a precedent for stem cell-based neurotherapeutics and could potentially be modified for other neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and some forms of Parkinson's disease. These cells provide a platform delivery system for future studies involving corrective gene-editing strategies. PMID:26765769

  20. A retinoic acid-enhanced, multicellular human blood-brain barrier model derived from stem cell sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Ethan S.; Al-Ahmad, Abraham; Azarin, Samira M.; Palecek, Sean P.; Shusta, Eric V.

    2014-02-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) models are often used to investigate BBB function and screen brain-penetrating therapeutics, but it has been difficult to construct a human model that possesses an optimal BBB phenotype and is readily scalable. To address this challenge, we developed a human in vitro BBB model comprising brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), pericytes, astrocytes and neurons derived from renewable cell sources. First, retinoic acid (RA) was used to substantially enhance BBB phenotypes in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived BMECs, particularly through adherens junction, tight junction, and multidrug resistance protein regulation. RA-treated hPSC-derived BMECs were subsequently co-cultured with primary human brain pericytes and human astrocytes and neurons derived from human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to yield a fully human BBB model that possessed significant tightness as measured by transendothelial electrical resistance (~5,000 Ωxcm2). Overall, this scalable human BBB model may enable a wide range of neuroscience studies.

  1. Neurodegeneration from mitochondrial insufficiency: nutrients, stem cells, growth factors, and prospects for brain rebuilding using integrative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Parris M

    2005-12-01

    Degenerative brain disorders (neurodegeneration) can be frustrating for both conventional and alternative practitioners. A more comprehensive, integrative approach is urgently needed. One emerging focus for intervention is brain energetics. Specifically, mitochondrial insufficiency contributes to the etiopathology of many such disorders. Electron leakages inherent to mitochondrial energetics generate reactive oxygen free radical species that may place the ultimate limit on lifespan. Exogenous toxins, such as mercury and other environmental contaminants, exacerbate mitochondrial electron leakage, hastening their demise and that of their host cells. Studies of the brain in Alzheimer's and other dementias, Down syndrome, stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Friedreich's ataxia, aging, and constitutive disorders demonstrate impairments of the mitochondrial citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes. Imaging or metabolic assays frequently reveal energetic insufficiency and depleted energy reserve in brain tissue in situ. Orthomolecular nutrients involved in mitochondrial metabolism provide clinical benefit. Among these are the essential minerals and the B vitamin group; vitamins E and K; and the antioxidant and energetic cofactors alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10; CoQ10), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced (NADH). Recent advances in the area of stem cells and growth factors encourage optimism regarding brain regeneration. The trophic nutrients acetyl L-carnitine (ALCAR), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), and phosphatidylserine (PS) provide mitochondrial support and conserve growth factor receptors; all three improved cognition in double-blind trials. The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enzymatically combined with GPC and PS to form membrane phospholipids for nerve cell expansion. Practical recommendations are presented for integrating these

  2. Suicide awareness of japanese family descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Tiemi Kawaziri Diogo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to comprehend the meaning of suicide for Japanese descendants. This was a qualitative study, based on Grounded Theory, using a structured interview with sixteen questions, digitally recorded. Subjects were ten descendants who were interviewed in 2011. The opinions of the interviewed showed factors of psychological, social and cultural origin involved in suicide, such as: heredity, religion, mental health, personality characteristics and interpersonal relationships, pleasure and pain at work, stigma and consequences of the act on the family. Family without case of suicide showed attitudes of prejudice and judgment, while those with case displayed feelings of pain in their reports. It was concluded that the Japanese rigid culture, personality, interpersonal communication and the way family and work have effects on their behavior are predisposing factors to suicide, as well as the identification of these factors contributes to a better performance of the nurse.

  3. Clinical significance of measurement of serum NSE, NPY and TNF-α levels in pediatric patients with hand-foot and mouth disease complicated with brain stem encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum NSE, NPY and TNF-α levels in pediatric patients with hand-foot and mouth disease complicated with brain stem encephalitis. Methods: Serum NSE, NPY and TNF-α levels were determined with RIA in 34 pediatric patients with hand-foot and mouth disease complicated with brain stem encephalitis and 30 controls. Results: The serum NSE, NPY and TNF-α levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), Serum TNF-α and NSE, NPY levels were mutually positively correlated (r=0.4716, 0.5184, P<0.01). Conclusion: Detection of NSE, NPY and TNF-α levels was helpful for the prediction of treatment efficacy in patients with hand-foot and mouth disease complicated with brain stem encephalitis. (authors)

  4. Descending endografts for type A dissections: con.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko; Sandhu, Harleen K; Estrera, Anthony L

    2016-05-01

    An important goal of surgical repair of type A aortic dissection is to resect the intimal tear. Studies on the fate of residual dissection after acute type A aortic dissection repair in the past decade have driven surgeons to seek procedures to avoid distal reoperation. Aggressive surgical approach with total arch replacement in acute type A dissection has demonstrated lower incidence of distal reoperation and slower aortic growth rate compared to less aggressive ascending/hemiarch repair. Recently, successful results of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in type B aortic dissection have encouraged surgeons to further attack acute type A aortic dissection with hybrid approach: antegrade endografting in the descending thoracic true lumen as an adjunct to hemiarch or total arch repair. However, is the hybrid approach with simultaneous descending endografting justified in all the acute type A aortic dissection cases? The outcomes of the hybrid approach reported by the several groups have demonstrated 80-100% of false lumen thrombus formation in the proximal descending aorta (stented segment); however, the complete obliteration of the false lumen is only 17-50%. The incidence of distal reoperation/reintervention after hybrid approach is as high as 14% and an adjunctive procedure is often performed. Moreover, there are concerns about additional risks associated with the hybrid procedures, such as spinal cord injury (SCI), stent graft induced new entry and stroke. The data on this new approach are still very limited. Hence, further study is warranted to prove its safety and durability. PMID:27386411

  5. Taurine Induces Proliferation of Neural Stem Cells and Synapse Development in the Developing Mouse Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Mattu Chetana Shivaraj; Guillaume Marcy; Guoliang Low; Jae Ryun Ryu; Xianfeng Zhao; Rosales, Francisco J.; Goh, Eyleen L.K.

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid present in high concentrations in mammalian tissues. It has been implicated in several processes involving brain development and neurotransmission. However, the role of taurine in hippocampal neurogenesis during brain development is still unknown. Here we show that taurine regulates neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the developing brain as well as in cultured early postnatal (P5) hippocampal progenitor cells and hippoc...

  6. Stem cell therapy to protect and repair the developing brain: a review of mechanisms of action of cord blood and amnion epithelial derived cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie eCastillo-Melendez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the research, clinical and wider community there is great interest in the use of stem cells to reduce the progression, or indeed repair brain injury. Perinatal brain injury may result from acute or chronic insults sustained during fetal development, during the process of birth, or in the newborn period. The most readily identifiable outcome of perinatal brain injury is cerebral palsy, however this is just one consequence in a spectrum of mild to severe neurological deficits. As we review, there are now clinical trials taking place worldwide targeting cerebral palsy with stem cell therapies. It will likely be many years before strong evidence-based results emerge from these trials. With such trials underway, it is both appropriate and timely to address the physiological basis for the efficacy of stem-like cells in preventing damage to, or regenerating, the newborn brain. Appropriate experimental animal models are best placed to deliver this information. Cell availability, the potential for immunological rejection, ethical and logistical considerations, together with the propensity for native cells to form terratomas, make it unlikely that embryonic or fetal stem cells will be practical. Fortunately, these issues do not pertain to the use of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs, or umbilical cord blood (UCB stem cells that are readily and economically obtained from the placenta and umbilical cord discarded at birth. These cells have the potential for transplantation to the newborn where brain injury is diagnosed or even suspected. We will explore the novel characteristics of hAECs and undifferentiated UCB cells, as well as UCB-derived endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem cells, and how immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory properties are principal mechanisms of action that are common to these cells, and which in turn may ameliorate the cerebral hypoxia and inflammation that are final pathways in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain

  7. Induced Neural Stem Cells Achieve Long-Term Survival and Functional Integration in the Adult Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Hemmer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated cells can be converted directly into multipotent neural stem cells (i.e., induced neural stem cells [iNSCs]. iNSCs offer an attractive alternative to induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC technology with regard to regenerative therapies. Here, we show an in vivo long-term analysis of transplanted iNSCs in the adult mouse brain. iNSCs showed sound in vivo long-term survival rates without graft overgrowths. The cells displayed a neural multilineage potential with a clear bias toward astrocytes and a permanent downregulation of progenitor and cell-cycle markers, indicating that iNSCs are not predisposed to tumor formation. Furthermore, the formation of synaptic connections as well as neuronal and glial electrophysiological properties demonstrated that differentiated iNSCs migrated, functionally integrated, and interacted with the existing neuronal circuitry. We conclude that iNSC long-term transplantation is a safe procedure; moreover, it might represent an interesting tool for future personalized regenerative applications.

  8. Detection of neural stem cells function in rats with traumatic brain injury by manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Hai-liang; SUN Hua-ping; WU Xing; SHA Hong-ying; FENG Xiao-yuan; ZHU Jian-hong

    2011-01-01

    Background Previously we had successfully tracked adult human neural stem cells (NSCs) labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs) in host human brain after transplantation In vivo non-invasively by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the function of the transplanted NSCs could not be evaluated by the method. In the study, we applied manganese-enhanced MRI (ME-MRI) to detect NSCs function after implantation in brain of rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI) In vivo.Methods Totally 40 TBI rats were randomly divided into 4 groups with 10 rats in each group. In group 1, the TBI rats did not receive NSCs transplantation. MnCl2-4H2O was intravenously injected, hyperosmolar mannitol was delivered to disrupt rightside blood brain barrier, and its contralateral forepaw was electrically stimulated. In group 2, the TBI rats received NSCs (labeled with SPIO) transplantation, and the ME-MRI procedure was same to group 1. In group 3, the TBI rats received NSCs (labeled with SPIO) transplantation, and the ME-MRI procedure was same to group 1, but diltiazem was introduced during the electrical stimulation period. In group 4, the TBI rats received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) injection, and the ME-MRI procedure was same to group 1.Results Hyperintense signals were detected by ME-MRI in the cortex areas associated with somatosensory in TBI rats of group 2. These signals, which could not be induced in TBI rats of groups 1 and 4, disappeared when diltiazem was introduced in TBI rats of group 3.Conclusion In this initial study, we mapped implanted NSCs activity and its functional participation within local brain area in TBI rats by ME-MRI technique, paving the way for further pre-clinical research.

  9. Expiratory muscle control during vomiting - Role of brain stem expiratory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. D.; Tan, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    The neural mechanisms controlling the muscles involved during vomiting were examined using decerebrated cats. In one experiment, the activity of the ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons was recorded during induced 'fictive vomiting' (i.e., a series of bursts of coactivation of abdominal and phrenic nerves that would be expected to produce expulsion in unparalyzed animals) and vomiting. In a second, abdominal muscle electromyographic and nerve activity were compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons as they cross the midline between C1 and the obex (the procedure that is known to abolish expiratory modulation of internal intercostal muscle activity). The results of the study indicate that the abdominal muscles are controlled differently during respiration and vomiting.

  10. In vitro characterization of pralidoxime transport and acetylcholinesterase reactivation across MDCK cells and stem cell-derived human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BC1-hBMECs)

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Erin; Minn, IL; Chambers, Janice E.; Searson, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Current therapies for organophosphate poisoning involve administration of oximes, such as pralidoxime (2-PAM), that reactivate the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Studies in animal models have shown a low concentration in the brain following systemic injection. Methods To assess 2-PAM transport, we studied transwell permeability in three Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCKII) cell lines and stem cell-derived human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BC1-hBMECs). To determine whether 2-...

  11. Definition of genetic events directing the development of distinct types of brain tumors from postnatal neural stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Falk; Meyer, Katharina; Braun, Sebastian; Ek, Sara; Spang, Rainer; Pfenninger, Cosima V; Artner, Isabella; Prost, Gaëlle; Chen, Xinbin; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Judkins, Alexander R; Englund, Elisabet; Nuber, Ulrike A

    2012-07-01

    Although brain tumors are classified and treated based upon their histology, the molecular factors involved in the development of various tumor types remain unknown. In this study, we show that the type and order of genetic events directs the development of gliomas, central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid-like tumors from postnatal mouse neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC/NPC). We found that the overexpression of specific genes led to the development of these three different brain tumors from NSC/NPCs, and manipulation of the order of genetic events was able to convert one established tumor type into another. In addition, loss of the nuclear chromatin-remodeling factor SMARCB1 in rhabdoid tumors led to increased phosphorylation of eIF2α, a central cytoplasmic unfolded protein response (UPR) component, suggesting a role for the UPR in these tumors. Consistent with this, application of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib led to an increase in apoptosis of human cells with reduced SMARCB1 levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that the order of genetic events determines the phenotypes of brain tumors derived from a common precursor cell pool, and suggest that the UPR may represent a therapeutic target in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors. PMID:22719073

  12. Neural stem cells and neuro/gliogenesis in the central nervous system: understanding the structural and functional plasticity of the developing, mature, and diseased brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Seki, Tatsunori; Imayoshi, Itaru; Tamamaki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Hitoshi, Seiji

    2016-05-01

    Neurons and glia in the central nervous system (CNS) originate from neural stem cells (NSCs). Knowledge of the mechanisms of neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is fundamental to our understanding of how complex brain architecture and function develop. NSCs are present not only in the developing brain but also in the mature brain in adults. Adult neurogenesis likely provides remarkable plasticity to the mature brain. In addition, recent progress in basic research in mental disorders suggests an etiological link with impaired neuro/gliogenesis in particular brain regions. Here, we review the recent progress and discuss future directions in stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology by introducing several topics presented at a joint meeting of the Japanese Association of Anatomists and the Physiological Society of Japan in 2015. Collectively, these topics indicated that neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is a common event occurring in many brain regions at various ages in animals. Given that significant structural and functional changes in cells and neural networks are accompanied by neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs and the integration of newly generated cells into the network, stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology provides a good platform from which to develop an integrated understanding of the structural and functional plasticity that underlies the development of the CNS, its remodeling in adulthood, and the recovery from diseases that affect it. PMID:26578509

  13. Time course of lesion development in patients with acute brain stem infarction and correlation with NIHSS score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly sensitive in detecting acute supratentorial cerebral ischemia and Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) lesion size has been shown to correlate strongly with the neurologic deficit in middle cerebral artery territory stroke. However, data concerning infratentorial strokes are rare. We examined the size and evolution of acute brain stem ischemic lesions and their relationship to neurological outcome. Methods: brain stem infarctions of 11 patients were analyzed. We performed DWI in all patients and in 7/11 patients within 24 h, T2W sequences within the first 2 weeks (10/11 patients) and follow-up MRI (MR2) within 3-9 months (median 4.8 months) later (12/12 patients). Lesion volumes were compared with early and follow-up neurologic deficit as determined by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Results: the relative infarct volumes--with MR2 lesion size set to 100%--decreased over the time (P<0.02) with a mean shrinking factor of 3.3 between DWI (MR0) and the follow-up MRT (P<0.02), and 1.6 between early T2W (MR1) and MR2 (P<0.04). The mean DWI volume size (MR0) was larger than the early T2W (P<0.02). Although neurological outcome was good in all patients (mean NIHSS score of 1.3 at follow-up), early NIHSS and follow-up NIHSS scores were strongly correlated (r=0.9, P<0.00). NIHSS score at follow-up was highly correlated with lesion size of DWI (MR0; r=0.71, P<0.04) and T2W of MR1 (r=0.86, P<0.001). Conclusions: in this study, we saw a shrinking of the brain stem infarct volume according to clinical improvement of patients. Great extension of restricted diffusion in the acute stage does not necessarily implicate a large resulting infarction or a bad clinical outcome

  14. Potential of embryonic and adult stem cells to treat brain and spinal cord injury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva

    Praha : -, 2005. s. 6-6. [Annual Congress of the European Society of Gene Therapy /13./. 29.10.2005-01.11.2005, Praha] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A065; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/03/1189 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : embryonic stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  15. Use of adult stem cells to treat brain and spinal cord injury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva

    Bristol : organizer, 2005. s. 229-230. [International Meeting of The Physiological Society and FEPS. 20.07.2005-23.07.2005, Bristol] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A065; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/03/1189 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  16. Imaging stem cells labeled with superparamagnetic nanoparticles in brain and spinal cord

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva; Jendelová, Pavla; Hájek, M.

    Heidlberg : EMBL, 2006. s. 27-27. [International Summer School on Molecular Imaging. 04.09.2006-08.09.2006, Heidlberg] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Marrow stromal cells * Embryonic stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  17. Imaging the fate of implanted stem cells in brain and spinal cord injury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva

    Innsbruck : organizátor, 2003, s. 1. [FENS Winter School 2003. Kitzbuehel (AT), 07.12.2003-14.12.2003] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Stem cells * spinal cord injury Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  18. Descending projections of the hamster intergeniculate leaflet: relationship to the sleep/arousal and visuomotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.

    2005-01-01

    The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), homolog of the primate pregeniculate nucleus, modulates circadian rhythms. However, its extensive anatomical connections suggest that it may regulate other systems, particularly those for visuomotor function and sleep/arousal. Here, descending IGL-efferent pathways are identified with the anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, with projections to over 50 brain stem nuclei. Projections of the ventral lateral geniculate are similar, but more limited. Many of the nuclei with IGL afferents contribute to circuitry governing visuomotor function. These include the oculomotor, trochlear, anterior pretectal, Edinger-Westphal, and the terminal nuclei; all layers of the superior colliculus, interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray, nucleus of the optic tract, the inferior olive, and raphe interpositus. Other target nuclei are known to be involved in the regulation of sleep, including the lateral dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmentum. The dorsal raphe also receives projections from the IGL and may contribute to both sleep/arousal and visuomotor function. However, the locus coeruleus and medial vestibular nucleus, which contribute to sleep and eye movement regulation and which send projections to the IGL, do not receive reciprocal projections from it. The potential involvement of the IGL with the sleep/arousal system is further buttressed by existing evidence showing IGL-efferent projections to the ventrolateral preoptic area, dorsomedial, and medial tuberal hypothalamus. In addition, the great majority of all regions receiving IGL projections also receive input from the orexin/hypocretin system, suggesting that this system contributes not only to the regulation of sleep, but to eye movement control as well.

  19. Vascular-derived TGF-β increases in the stem cell niche and perturbs neuro-genesis during aging and following irradiation in the adult mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuro-genesis decreases during aging and following cranial radiotherapy, causing a progressive cognitive decline that is currently untreatable. However, functional neural stem cells remained present in the sub-ventricular zone of high dose irradiated and aged mouse brains. We therefore investigated whether alterations in the neurogenic niches are perhaps responsible for the neuro-genesis decline. This hypothesis was supported by the absence of proliferation of neural stem cells that were engrafted into the vascular niches of irradiated host brains. Moreover, we observed a marked increase in TGF-β1 production by endothelial cells in the stem cell niche in both middle-aged and irradiated mice. In co-cultures, irradiated brain endothelial cells induced the apoptosis of neural stem/progenitor cells via TGF-β/Smad3 signalling. Strikingly, the blockade of TGF-β signalling in vivo using a neutralizing antibody or the selective inhibitor SB-505124 significantly improved neuro-genesis in aged and irradiated mice, prevented apoptosis and increased the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells. These findings suggest that anti-TGF-β-based therapy may be used for future interventions to prevent neurogenic collapse following radiotherapy or during aging. (authors)

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells induce T-cell tolerance and protect the preterm brain after global hypoxia-ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reint K Jellema

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE in preterm infants is a severe disease for which no curative treatment is available. Cerebral inflammation and invasion of activated peripheral immune cells have been shown to play a pivotal role in the etiology of white matter injury, which is the clinical hallmark of HIE in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to assess the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of intravenously delivered mesenchymal stem cells (MSC in an ovine model of HIE. In this translational animal model, global hypoxia-ischemia (HI was induced in instrumented preterm sheep by transient umbilical cord occlusion, which closely mimics the clinical insult. Intravenous administration of 2 x 10(6 MSC/kg reduced microglial proliferation, diminished loss of oligodendrocytes and reduced demyelination, as determined by histology and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI, in the preterm brain after global HI. These anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of MSC were paralleled by reduced electrographic seizure activity in the ischemic preterm brain. Furthermore, we showed that MSC induced persistent peripheral T-cell tolerance in vivo and reduced invasion of T-cells into the preterm brain following global HI. These findings show in a preclinical animal model that intravenously administered MSC reduced cerebral inflammation, protected against white matter injury and established functional improvement in the preterm brain following global HI. Moreover, we provide evidence that induction of T-cell tolerance by MSC might play an important role in the neuroprotective effects of MSC in HIE. This is the first study to describe a marked neuroprotective effect of MSC in a translational animal model of HIE.

  1. Brain Stem Infarction Due to Basilar Artery Dissection in a Patient with Moyamoya Disease Four Years after Successful Bilateral Revascularization Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takatsugu; Fujimura, Miki; Mugikura, Shunji; Endo, Hidenori; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-06-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disease with an unknown etiology and is characterized by intrinsic fragility in the intracranial vascular walls such as the affected internal elastic lamina and thinning medial layer. The association of MMD with intracranial arterial dissection is extremely rare, whereas that with basilar artery dissection (BAD) has not been reported previously. A 46-year-old woman developed brain stem infarction due to BAD 4 years after successful bilateral superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis with indirect pial synangiosis for ischemic-onset MMD. She presented with sudden occipitalgia and subsequently developed transient dysarthria and mild hemiparesis. Although a transient ischemic attack was initially suspected, her condition deteriorated in a manner that was consistent with left hemiplegia with severe dysarthria. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed brain stem infarction, and MR angiography delineated a double-lumen sign in the basilar artery, indicating BAD. She was treated conservatively and brain stem infarction did not expand. One year after the onset of brain stem infarction, her activity of daily living is still dependent (modified Rankin Scale of 4), and there were no morphological changes associated with BAD or recurrent cerebrovascular events during the follow-up period. The association of MMD with BAD is extremely rare. While considering the common underlying pathology such as an affected internal elastic lamina and fragile medial layer, the occurrence of BAD in a patient with MMD in a stable hemodynamic state is apparently unique. PMID:27068774

  2. Calcium-dependent plateau potentials in rostral ambiguus neurons in the newborn mouse brain stem in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Feldman, J L

    1997-01-01

    Calcium-dependent plateau potentials in rostral ambiguus neurons in the newborn mouse brain stem in vitro. J. Neurophysiol. 78: 2483-2492, 1997. The nucleus ambiguus contains vagal and glossopharyngeal motoneurons and preganglionic neurons involved in respiration, swallowing, vocalization, and...... control of heart beat. Here we show that the rostral compact formation's ambiguus neurons, which control the esophageal phase of swallowing, display calcium-dependent plateau potentials in response to tetanic orthodromic stimulation or current injection. Whole cell recordings were made from visualized...... rostral ambiguus neurons have a Ca2+-activated inward current carried by Na+. Synaptic activation of this conductance may generate prolonged spike activity in these neurons during the esophageal phase of swallowing....

  3. Electroresponsive properties and membrane potential trajectories of three types of inspiratory neurons in the newborn mouse brain stem in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Champagnat, J; Denavit-Saubié, M

    1996-01-01

    with the aim of extending the classification of inspiratory neurons to include analysis of active membrane properties. 2. The slice generated a regular rhythmic motor output recorded as burst of action potentials on a XII nerve root with a peak to peak time of 11.5 +/- 3.4 s and a duration of 483......1. The electrophysiological properties of inspiratory neurons were studied in a rhythmically active thick-slice preparation of the newborn mouse brain stem maintained in vitro. Whole cell patch recordings were performed from 60 inspiratory neurons within the rostral ventrolateral part of the slice...... +/- 54 ms (means +/- SD, n = 50). Based on the electroresponsive properties and membrane potential trajectories throughout the respiratory cycle, three types of inspiratory neurons could be distinguished. 3. Type-1 neurons were spiking in the interval between the inspiratory potentials (n = 9) or silent...

  4. Assessment of Electrically Evoked Auditory Brain Stem Response of 30 Implanted Patients With Nucleus Multichannel Cochlear Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Soqrat Faghihzadeh

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Materials: Investigation of electrically evoked auditory brain stem response (EABR is a new issue, especially in implanted patients. Experiments were performed in C.I Center of Iranian Institute for Science and research expansion,1996 on 30 implanted patients with 22 spectra and MSP cochlear implant system and 30 normal subjects with the range of 3-33 years. Findings: I- EABR was obtained in the implanted patients. 2- Absolute latency of EABR waves is 1-1.5 ms shorter than ABR waves ‘P<0.05. 3-Absolute latency of wave V decreases as a function of electric stimulus magnitude (P<0.05. 4- No significant difference was observed in IPL Ill-V between ABR and EABR.

  5. Evaluation of auditory brain-stem evoked response in middle: Aged type 2 diabetes mellitus with normal hearing subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debadatta Mahallik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is commonly metabolic disorders of carbohydrate in which blood glucose levels are abnormally high due to relative or absolute insulin deficiency. In addition, it is characterized by abnormal metabolism of fat, protein resulting from insulin deficit or insulin action, or both. There are two broad categories of DM are designated as type 1 and type 2. Type 2 diabetes is due to predominantly insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency noninsulin-dependent DM. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than insulin-dependent DM. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess, if there is any abnormality in neural conduction in auditory brain-stem pathway in type 2 DM patients having normal hearing sensitivity when compared to age-matched healthy populations. Materials and Methods: This study included middle - aged 25 subjects having normal hearing with diabetes type 2 mellitus. All were submitted to the full audiological history taking, otological examination, basic audiological evaluation and auditory brain-stem response audiometry which was recorded in both ears, followed by calculation of the absolute latencies of wave I, III and V, as well as interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, I-V. Results: Type 2 DM patients showed significant prolonged absolute latencies of I, III (P = 0.001 and interpeak latencies I-III, III-V and I-V in left ear (P = 0.001 and absolute latencies of I, V (P = 0.001, interpeak latencies III-V was statistically significant in right ear. Conclusions: The prolonged absolute latencies and interpeak latencies suggests abnormal neural firing synchronization or in the transmission in the auditory pathways in normal hearing type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  6. SU-E-T-493: Analysis of the Impact of Range and Setup Uncertainties On the Dose to Brain Stem and Whole Brain in the Passively Scattered Proton Therapy Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, N; Zhu, X; Zhang, X; Poenisch, F; Li, H; Wu, R; Lii, M; Umfleet, W; Gillin, M; Mahajan, A; Grosshans, D [MD Anderson Cancer Ctr., Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the impact of range and setup uncertainties on various dosimetric indices that are used to assess normal tissue toxicities of patients receiving passive scattering proton beam therapy (PSPBT). Methods: Robust analysis of sample treatment plans of six brain cancer patients treated with PSPBT at our facility for whom the maximum brain stem dose exceeded 5800 CcGE were performed. The DVH of each plan was calculated in an Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) version 11 applying ±3.5% range uncertainty and ±3 mm shift of the isocenter in x, y and z directions to account for setup uncertainties. Worst-case dose indices for brain stem and whole brain were compared to their values in the nominal plan to determine the average change in their values. For the brain stem, maximum dose to 1 cc of volume, dose to 10%, 50%, 90% of volume (D10, D50, D90) and volume receiving 6000, 5400, 5000, 4500, 4000 CcGE (V60, V54, V50, V45, V40) were evaluated. For the whole brain, maximum dose to 1 cc of volume, and volume receiving 5400, 5000, 4500, 4000, 3000 CcGE (V54, V50, V45, V40 and V30) were assessed. Results: The average change in the values of these indices in the worst scenario cases from the nominal plan were as follows. Brain stem; Maximum dose to 1 cc of volume: 1.1%, D10: 1.4%, D50: 8.0%, D90:73.3%, V60:116.9%, V54:27.7%, V50: 21.2%, V45:16.2%, V40:13.6%,Whole brain; Maximum dose to 1 cc of volume: 0.3%, V54:11.4%, V50: 13.0%, V45:13.6%, V40:14.1%, V30:13.5%. Conclusion: Large to modest changes in the dosiemtric indices for brain stem and whole brain compared to nominal plan due to range and set up uncertainties were observed. Such potential changes should be taken into account while using any dosimetric parameters for outcome evaluation of patients receiving proton therapy.

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Expressing Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Enhance Endogenous Neurogenesis in an Ischemic Stroke Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hyun Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can ameliorate neurological deficits in ischemic stroke models. Among the various hypotheses that have been suggested to explain the therapeutic mechanism underlying these observations, neurogenesis is thought to be critical. To enhance the therapeutic benefits of human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hBM-MSCs, we efficiently modified hBM-MSCs by introduction of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene via adenoviral transduction mediated by cell-permeable peptides and investigated whether BDNF-modified hBM-MSCs (MSCs-BDNF contributed to functional recovery and endogenous neurogenesis in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. Transplantation of MSCs induced the proliferation of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU- positive cells in the subventricular zone. Transplantation of MSCs-BDNF enhanced the proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells more significantly, while suppressing cell death. Newborn cells differentiated into doublecortin (DCX- positive neuroblasts and Neuronal Nuclei (NeuN- positive mature neurons in the subventricular zone and ischemic boundary at higher rates in animals with MSCs-BDNF compared with treatment using solely phosphate buffered saline (PBS or MSCs. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and behavioral analysis revealed greater functional recovery in animals with MSCs-BDNF compared with the other groups. MSCs-BDNF exhibited effective therapeutic potential by protecting cell from apoptotic death and enhancing endogenous neurogenesis.

  8. MR tracking of stem cells labeled with superparamagnetic nanoparticles in ischemic brain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jendelová, Pavla; Glogarová, Kateřina; Urdzíková, Lucia; Kroupová, Jana; Herynek, V.; Dvořák, Petr; Hájek, M.; Syková, Eva

    č. 2 (2003), s. 35. ISSN 0894-1491. [European Meeting on Glial Cell Function in Health and Disease /6./. Berlín, 03.09.2003-06.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065; GA ČR GA304/03/1189 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:MSM 111300004 Keywords : Stem cells * Nanoparticles Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.677, year: 2003

  9. MRI tracking of transplanted stem cells used for brain and spinal cord injury repair

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva

    Košice : Univerzita Pavla Jozefa Šafárika v Košicích, 2005. s. 116-116. ISBN 80-7097-607-1. [International Symposium on Experimental and Clinical Neurobiology /5./. 19.09.2005-22.09.2005, Tatranská Lomnica - Stará Lesná] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  10. IL-6 deficiency leads to reduced metallothionein-I+II expression and increased oxidative stress in the brain stem after 6-aminonicotinamide treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Hidalgo, J

    2000-01-01

    -AN-injected IL-6KO mice reactive astrocytosis and recruitment of macrophages and T-lymphocytes were clearly reduced, as were BM leukopoiesis and spleen immune reaction. Expression of MT-I+II was significantly reduced while MT-III was increased. Oxidative stress, as determined by measuring nitrated...... brain stem gray matter areas and BM toxicity. In both normal and genetically IL-6-deficient mice (IL-6 knockout (IL-6KO) mice), the extent of astroglial degeneration/cell death in the brain stem was similar as determined from disappearance of GFAP immunoreactivity. In 6-AN-injected normal mice reactive...... tyrosine and malondialdehyde, was increased by 6-AN to a greater extent in IL-6KO mice. The blood-brain barrier to albumin was only disrupted in 6-AN-injected normal mice, which likely is due to the substantial migration of blood-derived inflammatory cells into the CNS. The present results demonstrate that...

  11. Controlling micro- and nano-environment of tumor and stem cells for novel research and therapy of brain cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher Lloyd

    The use of modern technologies in cancer research has engendered a great deal of excitement. Many of these advanced approaches involve in-depth mathematical analyses of the inner working of cells, via genomic and proteomic analyses. However these techniques may not be ideal for the study of complex cell phenotypes and behaviors. This dissertation explores cancer and potential therapies through phenotypic analysis of cell behaviors, an alternative approach. We employ this experimental framework to study brain cancer (glioma), a particularly formidable example of this diverse ailment. Through the application of micro- and nanotechnology, we carefully control the surrounding environments of cells to understand their responses to various cues and to manipulate their behaviors. Subsequently we obtain clinically relevant information that allows better understanding of glioma, and enhancement of potential therapies. We first aim to address brain tumor dispersal, through analysis of cell migration. Utilizing nanometer-scale topographic models of the extracellular matrix, we study the migratory response of glioma cells to various stimuli in vitro. Second, we implement knowledge gained from these investigations to define characteristics of tumor progression in patients, and to develop treatments inhibiting cell migration. Next we use microfluidic and nanotopographic models to study the behaviors of stem cells in vitro. Here we attempt to improve their abilities to deliver therapeutic proteins to cancer, an innovative treatment approach. We analyze the multi-step process by which adipose-derived stem cells naturally home to tumor sites, and identify numerous environmental perturbations to enhance this behavior. Finally, we attempt to demonstrate that these cell culture-based manipulations can enhance the localization of adipose stem cells to glioma in vivo using animal models. Throughout this work we utilize environmental cues to analyze and induce particular behaviors in

  12. Cranial grafting of stem cell-derived microvesicles improves cognition and reduces neuropathology in the irradiated brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulch, Janet E; Acharya, Munjal M; Allen, Barrett D; Ru, Ning; Chmielewski, Nicole N; Martirosian, Vahan; Giedzinski, Erich; Syage, Amber; Park, Audrey L; Benke, Sarah N; Parihar, Vipan K; Limoli, Charles L

    2016-04-26

    Cancer survivors face a variety of challenges as they cope with disease recurrence and a myriad of normal tissue complications brought on by radio- and chemotherapeutic treatment regimens. For patients subjected to cranial irradiation for the control of CNS malignancy, progressive and debilitating cognitive dysfunction remains a pressing unmet medical need. Although this problem has been recognized for decades, few if any satisfactory long-term solutions exist to resolve this serious unintended side effect of radiotherapy. Past work from our laboratory has demonstrated the neurocognitive benefits of human neural stem cell (hNSC) grafting in the irradiated brain, where intrahippocampal transplantation of hNSC ameliorated radiation-induced cognitive deficits. Using a similar strategy, we now provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that cranial grafting of microvesicles secreted from hNSC affords similar neuroprotective phenotypes after head-only irradiation. Cortical- and hippocampal-based deficits found 1 mo after irradiation were completely resolved in animals cranially grafted with microvesicles. Microvesicle treatment was found to attenuate neuroinflammation and preserve host neuronal morphology in distinct regions of the brain. These data suggest that the neuroprotective properties of microvesicles act through a trophic support mechanism that reduces inflammation and preserves the structural integrity of the irradiated microenvironment. PMID:27044087

  13. Elevation of Brain Magnesium Potentiates Neural Stem Cell Proliferation in the Hippocampus of Young and Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shanshan; Liu, Yunpeng; Shi, Yang; Ma, Yihe; Hu, Yixin; Wang, Meiyan; Li, Xue

    2016-09-01

    In the adult brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) can self-renew and generate all neural lineage types, and they persist in the sub-granular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the cortex. Here, we show that dietary-supplemented - magnesium-L-threonate (MgT), a novel magnesium compound designed to elevate brain magnesium regulates the NSC pool in the adult hippocampus. We found that administration of both short- and long-term regimens of MgT, increased the number of hippocampal NSCs. We demonstrated that in young mice, dietary supplementation with MgT significantly enhanced NSC proliferation in the SGZ. Importantly, in aged mice that underwent long-term (12-month) supplementation with MgT, MgT did not deplete the hippocampal NSC reservoir but rather curtailed the age-associated decline in NSC proliferation. We further established an association between extracellular magnesium concentrations and NSC self-renewal in vitro by demonstrating that elevated Mg(2+) concentrations can maintain or increase the number of cultured hippocampal NSCs. Our study also suggests that key signaling pathways for cell growth and proliferation may be candidate targets for Mg(2+) 's effects on NSC self-renewal. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1903-1912, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26754806

  14. Cerebral transplantation of encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells improves cellular pathology after experimental traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heile, Anna M B; Wallrapp, Christine; Klinge, Petra M;

    2009-01-01

    -protective substance glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). METHODS: Thirty two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to five groups: controls (no CCI), CCI-only, CCI+eMSC, CCI+GLP-1 eMSC, and CCI+empty capsules. On day 14, cisternal cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) was sampled for measurement of GLP-1 concentration. Brains were...

  15. Transplantation of human neural stem/progenitor cells overexpressing galectin-1 improves functional recovery from focal brain ischemia in the mongolian gerbil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamane Junichi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transplantation of human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSPCs is a promising method to regenerate tissue from damage and recover function in various neurological diseases including brain ischemia. Galectin-1(Gal1 is a lectin that is expressed in damaged brain areas after ischemia. Here, we characterized the detailed Gal1 expression pattern in an animal model of brain ischemia. After brain ischemia, Gal1 was expressed in reactive astrocytes within and around the infarcted region, and its expression diminished over time. Previously, we showed that infusion of human Gal1 protein (hGal1 resulted in functional recovery after brain ischemia but failed to reduce the volume of the ischemic region. This prompted us to examine whether the combination of hNSPCs-transplantation and stable delivery of hGal1 around the ischemic region could reduce the ischemic volume and promote better functional recovery after brain ischemia. In this study, we transplanted hNSPCs that stably overexpressed hGal1 (hGal1-hNSPCs in a model of unilateral focal brain ischemia using Mongolian gerbils. Indeed, we found that transplantation of hGal1-hNSPCs both reduced the ischemic volume and improved deficits in motor function after brain ischemia to a greater extent than the transplantation of hNSPCs alone. This study provides evidence for a potential application of hGal1 with hNSPCs-transplantation in the treatment of brain ischemia.

  16. Effect of all-trans retinoic acid on the proliferation and differentiation of brain tumor stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Chao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of all-trans retinoic acid(ATRA on the proliferation and differentiation of brain tumor stem cells(BTSCs in vitro. Methods Limiting dilution and clonogenic assay were used to isolate and screen BTSCs from the fresh specimen of human brain glioblastoma. The obtained BTSCs, which were cultured in serum-free medium, were classified into four groups in accordance with the composition of the different treatments. The proliferation of the BTSCs was evaluated by MTT assay. The BTSCs were induced to differentiate in serum-containing medium, and classified into the ATRA group and control group. On the 10th day of induction, the expressions of CD133 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in the differentiated BTSCs were detected by immunofluorescence. The differentiated BTSCs were cultured in serum-free medium, the percentage and the time required for formation of brain tumor spheres (BTS were observed. Results BTSCs obtained by limiting dilution were all identified as CD133-positive by immunofluorescence. In serum-free medium, the proliferation of BTSCs in the ATRA group was observed significantly faster than that in the control group, but slower than that in the growth factor group and ATRA/growth factor group, and the size of the BTS in the ATRA group was smaller than that in the latter two groups(P P P P Conclusion ATRA can promote the proliferation and induce the differentiation of BTSCs, but the differentiation is incomplete, terminal differentiation cannot be achieved and BTSs can be formed again.

  17. Influence of hyperbaric oxygen on the differentiation of hypoxic/ischemic brain-derived neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengrong Peng; Sue Wang; Pingtian Xiao

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been previously shown that hyperbaric oxygen may promote proliferation of neural stem cells and reduce death of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs).OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on the differentiation of hypoxic/ischemic brain-derived NSCs into neuron-like cells and compare with high-concentration oxygen and high pressure.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An in vitro contrast study, performed at Laboratory of Neurology,Central South University between January and May 2006.MATERIALS: A hyperbaric oxygen chamber (YLC 0.5/1A) was provided by Wuhan Shipping Design Research Institute; mouse anti-rat microtubute-associated protein 2 monoclonal antibody by Jingmei Company, Beijing; mouse anti-rat glial fibrillary acidic protein monoclonal antibody by Neo Markers,USA; mouse anti-rat galactocerebroside monoclonal antibody by Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.,USA; and goat anti-mouse fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled secondary antibody by Wuhan Boster Bioengineering Co., Ltd., China.METHODS: Brain-derived NSCs isolated from brain tissues of neonatal Sprague Dawiey rats werecloned and passaged, and assigned into five groups: normal control, model, high-concentration oxygen, high pressure, and hyperbaric oxygen groups. Cells in the four groups, excluding the normal control group, were incubated in serum-containing DMEM/F12 culture medium. Hypoxic/ischemic models of NSCs were established in an incubator comprising 93% N2, 5% CO2, and 2% O2.Thereafter, cells were continuously cultured as follows: compressed air (0.2 MPa, 1 hour, once a day)in the high pressure group, compressed air+a minimum of 80% O2 in the hyperbaric oxygen group,and a minimum of 80% O2 in the high-concentration oxygen group. Cells in the normal control and model groups were cultured as normal.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At day 7 after culture, glial fibrillary acidic protein,microtubule-associated protein 2, and galactocerebroside immunofluorescence staining were examined to

  18. Stem cells and biomaterials in treatment of brain and spinal cord injury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva

    Prague : organizátor, 2007. s. 17-17. [6th Conference of the Czech Neuroscience Society. 19.11.2007-20.11.2007, Prague] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538; GA MZd(CZ) NR8339; GA ČR GA309/06/1246; GA MZd(CZ) 1A8697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology http://uemweb.biomed.cas.cz/cns/doc/Neurokonf07_prog.pdf

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment promotes neural stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhichun Feng; Jing Liu; Rong Ju

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage has been used clinically for many years, but its effectiveness remains controversial. In addition, the mechanism of this potential neuroprotective effect remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of hyperbaric oxygen on the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (7 days old) subjected to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Six hours after modeling, rats were treated with hyperbaric oxygen once daily for 7 days. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine positive and nestin positive cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats increased at day 3 after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and peaked at day 5. After hyperbaric oxygen treatment, the number of 5-bromo-2′- deoxyuridine positive and nestin positive cells began to increase at day 1, and was significantly higher than that in normal rats and model rats until day 21. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that hyperbaric oxygen treatment could attenuate pathological changes to brain tissue in neonatal rats, and reduce the number of degenerating and necrotic nerve cells. Our experimental findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen treatment enhances the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, and has therapeutic potential for promoting neurological recovery following brain injury.

  20. Effects of intravenous administration of bone marrow stromal stem cells on cognitive impairment of the whole-brain irradiated rat models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the effect of intravenous infusion of bone marrow stromal stem cells(MSCs) on cognitive function of rats after whole brain irradiation. Methods: MSCs were isolated and cultured from adult rats. After Sprague-Dawly female rats were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate, their whole cerebrum was irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy by 6 MV X-ray. Seven days after irradiation, 4 x 106 Hoechst33342-1abelled MSCs were intravenously injected into the tail vein of these rats. Four and 8 weeks after transplantation, the learning and memorizing ability was measured with the Y maze test. Immunohistochemical method was used to identify MSCs or ceils derived from MSCs in the brain. Results: The learning and memorizing ability of irradiation groups were significantly different from that of normal control group (P < 0.01). Significant improvement of cognitive impairment was observed in rats treated with MSCs at 4 and 8 weeks after transplantation as compared with the controll groups (P<0.05). This showed that the MSCs survived and were localized to the brain tissue. The number of Hoechst33342 immunohistofluorescence positive cells and double-immunostaining cells significantly decreased in 8 weeks group as compared with the 4 weeks group. Conclusion: Marrow stromal stem cells delivered to the irradiation brain tissue through intravenous route improve the cognitive impairment after whole brain irradiation. These cells may survive and differentiate in the brain tissue of irradiated rats. (authors)

  1. Intranasally administered mesenchymal stem cells promote a regenerative niche for repair of neonatal ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donega, Vanessa; Nijboer, Cora H; van Tilborg, Geralda; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2014-11-01

    Previous work from our group has shown that intranasal MSC-treatment decreases lesion volume and improves motor and cognitive behavior after hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage in neonatal mice. Our aim was to determine the kinetics of MSC migration after intranasal administration, and the early effects of MSCs on neurogenic processes and gliosis at the lesion site. HI brain injury was induced in 9-day-old mice and MSCs were administered intranasally at 10days post-HI. The kinetics of MSC migration were investigated by immunofluorescence and MRI analysis. BDNF and NGF gene expression was determined by qPCR analysis following MSC co-culture with HI brain extract. Nestin, Doublecortin, NeuN, GFAP, Iba-1 and M1/M2 phenotypic expression was assessed over time. MRI and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that MSCs reach the lesion site already within 2h after intranasal administration. At 12h after administration the number of MSCs at the lesion site peaks and decreases significantly at 72h. The number of DCX(+) cells increased 1 to 3days after MSC administration in the SVZ. At the lesion, GFAP(+)/nestin(+) and DCX(+) expression increased 3 to 5days after MSC-treatment. The number of NeuN(+) cells increased within 5days, leading to a dramatic regeneration of the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus at 18days after intranasal MSC administration. Interestingly, MSCs expressed significantly more BDNF gene when exposed to HI brain extract in vitro. Furthermore, MSC-treatment resulted in the resolution of the glial scar surrounding the lesion, represented by a decrease in reactive astrocytes and microglia and polarization of microglia towards the M2 phenotype. In view of the current lack of therapeutic strategies, we propose that intranasal MSC administration is a powerful therapeutic option through its functional repair of the lesion represented by regeneration of the cortical and hippocampal structure and decrease of gliosis. PMID:24945601

  2. Regulation of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells for neural repair - factors that promote neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the normal and damaged brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly eChristie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem/precursor cells in the adult brain reside in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. These cells primarily generate neuroblasts that normally migrate to the olfactory bulb and the dentate granule cell layer respectively. Following brain damage, such as traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke or in degenerative disease models, neural precursor cells from the SVZ in particular, can migrate from their normal route along the rostral migratory stream to the site of neural damage. This neural precursor cell response to neural damage is mediated by release of endogenous factors, including cytokines and chemokines produced by the inflammatory response at the injury site, and by the production of growth and neurotrophic factors. Endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis is frequently also directly or indirectly affected by neural damage. Administration of a variety of factors that regulate different aspects of neural stem/precursor biology often leads to improved functional motor and/or behavioural outcomes. Such factors can target neural stem/precursor proliferation, survival, migration and differentiation into appropriate neuronal or glial lineages. Newborn cells also need to subsequently survive and functionally integrate into extant neural circuitry, which may be the major bottleneck to the current therapeutic potential of neural stem/precursor cells. This review will cover the effects of a range of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that regulate neural stem /precursor cell functions. In particular it focuses on factors that may be harnessed to enhance the endogenous neural stem/precursor cell response to neural damage, highlighting those that have already shown evidence of preclinical effectiveness and discussing others that warrant further preclinical investigation.

  3. Hydrocephalus and Pressure on Brain Stem Cause Death in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khazaei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neurofibromatosis type 2 is an inherited autosomal dominant syndrome, charac-terized by multiple neoplasms of the central and peripheral nervous system associated with ocular abnormalities. The most common tumor associated with the disease is the vestibulo-cochlear and in later stages are meningioma and other brain tumors. Case Report: The patient was a 35 year old woman admitted to the Farshchian hospital in Hamadan due to unconciousness and respiratory distress She had sensorineural hearing loss and inability to see due to decrease visulal acuity. In addition, due to lower extremity paresis she has been unable to walk and wheelchair-dependent for many years. Brain CT scan and MRI showed multiple tumors in the posterior fossa causing obstructive hydrocephalus even-tually caused the patient's death . Conclusion: Brain tumors, especially in the posterior fossa can cause death in Neurofibroma-tosis type 2. Early surgery can be life saving. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2:167-170

  4. Biological and clinical implications of cancer stem cells in primary brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RuggeroDe Maria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite therapeutic advances, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains a lethal disease. The infiltrative nature of this disease and the presence of a cellular population resistant to current medical treatments account for the poor prognosis of these patients. Growing evidence indicates the existence of a fraction of cancer cells sharing the functional properties of adult stem cells, including self-renewal and a greater ability to escape chemo-radiotherapy-induced death stimuli. Therefore, these cells are commonly defined as cancer stem cells (GBM-SCs. The initial GBM-SC concept has been challenged, and refined according to the emerging molecular taxonomy of GBM. This allowed to postulate the existence of multiple CSC types, each one driving a given molecular entity. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly clear that GBM-SCs thrive through a dynamic and bidirectional interaction with the surrounding microenvironment. In this article, we discuss recent advances in GBM-SC biology, mechanisms through which these cells adapt to hostile conditions, pharmacological strategies for selectively killing GBM-SCs, and how novel CSC-associated endpoints have been investigated in the clinical setting.

  5. Stem cell glycolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Makoto

    2011-09-01

    Glycolipids are compounds containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety. Because of their expression patterns and the intracellular localization patterns, glycolipids, including stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEA-3, SSEA-4, and possibly SSEA-1) and gangliosides (e.g., GD3, GD2, and A2B5 antigens), have been used as marker molecules of stem cells. In this review, I will introduce glycolipids expressed in pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, very small embryonic-like stem cells, amniotic stem cells, and multilineage-differentiating stress enduring cells), multipotent stem cells (neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, fetal liver multipotent progenitor cells, and hematopoietic stem cells), and cancer stem cells (brain cancer stem cells and breast cancer stem cells), and discuss their availability as biomarkers for identifying and isolating stem cells. PMID:21161592

  6. Diagnostic criteria of the state of the distributed brain stem regulatory structures in cerebrovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorelov A.V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The clinical-neurophysiological study of 62 patients with history of subtentorial ischemic stroke was carried out in order to determine the criteria of dysfunction of morphologically distributed stem regulatory structures. It was revealed that these disorders are sustainable with the possibility of recourse and influence on the course of stroke. It was marked the influence of this disorders on the levels of consciousness, severity of state, recovery rate, asthenia level, sleep function. Manifestations of cerebral cardiac syndrome, impaired attention, orientation reaction, speed of sensomotoric acts are also marked. Patients with these disorders have low rates of recovery of functions. Neurophysiological criteria of these disorders are the lack of expressive reactions in electroencephalography, reduction of their overall level, instability of rhythm - generating structures and others.

  7. Imaging and fate of stem cells labeled with superparamagnetic nanoparticles in brain and spinal cord injury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva; Jendelová, Pavla; Hájek, Milan

    Brno : Vysoké učení technické v Brně, Fakulta strojního inženýrství, 2005 - (Šandera, P.). s. 119-119 ISBN 80-214-3044-3. [NANO ´05. 08.11.2005-10.11.2005, Brno] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A065; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/03/1189 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : brain * spinal cord Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  8. Cortical and brain stem changes in neural activity during static handgrip and postexercise ischemia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Mikael; Macefield, Vaughan G; Henderson, Luke A

    2010-01-01

    , and to differentiate between central command and reflex inputs, we used blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) of the whole brain (3 T). Subjects performed submaximal static handgrip exercise for 2 min followed by 6 min of PEI; MSNA was recorded on a separate day. During the contraction phase......Static isometric exercise increases muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and mean arterial pressure, both of which can be maintained at the conclusion of the exercise by occlusion of the arterial supply [postexercise ischemia (PEI)]. To identify the cortical and subcortical sites involved...

  9. Adult stem cells from the hyaluronic acid-rich node and duct system differentiate into neuronal cells and repair brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung J; Park, Sang H; Kim, Yu I; Hwang, Sunhee; Kwon, Patrick M; Han, In S; Kwon, Byoung S

    2014-12-01

    The existence of a hyaluronic acid-rich node and duct system (HAR-NDS) within the lymphatic and blood vessels was demonstrated previously. The HAR-NDS was enriched with small (3.0-5.0 μm in diameter), adult stem cells with properties similar to those of the very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs). Sca-1(+)Lin(-)CD45(-) cells were enriched approximately 100-fold in the intravascular HAR-NDS compared with the bone marrow. We named these adult stem cells "node and duct stem cells (NDSCs)." NDSCs formed colonies on C2C12 feeder layers, were positive for fetal alkaline phosphatase, and could be subcultured on the feeder layers. NDSCs were Oct4(+)Nanog(+)SSEA-1(+)Sox2(+), while VSELs were Oct4(+)Nanog(+)SSEA-1(+)Sox2(-). NDSCs had higher sphere-forming efficiency and proliferative potential than VSELs, and they were found to differentiate into neuronal cells in vitro. Injection of NDSCs into mice partially repaired ischemic brain damage. Thus, we report the discovery of potential adult stem cells that may be involved in tissue regeneration. The intravascular HAR-NDS may serve as a route that delivers these stem cells to their target tissues. PMID:25027245

  10. High Redshift Galaxy Populations and their Descendants

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Qi

    2008-01-01

    We study model predictions for three high-redshift galaxy populations: Lyman break galaxies at z~3 (LBGs), optically selected star-forming galaxies at z~2 (BXs), and distant red galaxies at z~2 (DRGs).Our galaxy formation model simultaneously reproduces the abundances, redshift distributions and clustering of all three observed populations. The star formation rates (SFRs) of model LBGs and BXs are lower than those quoted for real samples, reflecting different initial mass functions and scatter in model dust properties. About 85% of model galaxies selected as DRGs are star-forming, with SFRs ranging up to 100 M_sun/yr. Model LBGs, BXs and DRGs together account for less than half of all star formation over the range 1.510^{11}M_sun are classified as LBGs or BXs at the relevant redshifts, while 65% are classified as DRGs. Almost all model LBGs and BXs are central galaxies, but about a quarter of DRGs are satellites. Half of all LBG descendants at z=2 would be identified as BX's, but very few as DRGs. Clustering ...

  11. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.The level of noise and its dispersion was evaluated conducting research on the noise generated by emerging and descending aircrafts in National Vilnius Airport. Investigation was carried out at 2 measuring points located in a residential area. There are different types of aircrafts causing different sound levels. It has been estimated the largest exceedances that occur when an aircraft is approaching. In this case, the noisiest types of aircrafts are B733, B738 and AT72. The sound level varies from 70 to 85 dBA. The quietest aircrafts are RJ1H and F70. When taking off, the equivalent of the maximum sound level value of these aircrafts does not exceed the authorized limits. The paper describes the causes of noise in aircrafts, the sources of origin and the impact of noise on humans and the environment.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Transplantation of human neural stem cells restores cognition in an immunodeficient rodent model of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Daniel L; López-Velázquez, Luci; Gold, Eric M; Cunningham, Kelly M; Perez, Harvey; Anderson, Aileen J; Cummings, Brian J

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans can result in permanent tissue damage and has been linked to cognitive impairment that lasts years beyond the initial insult. Clinically effective treatment strategies have yet to be developed. Transplantation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) has the potential to restore cognition lost due to injury, however, the vast majority of rodent TBI/hNSC studies to date have evaluated cognition only at early time points, typically animals at long-term (≥2months) time points post-injury. We report that immunodeficient ATN rats demonstrate hippocampal-dependent spatial memory deficits (Novel Place, Morris Water Maze), but not non-spatial (Novel Object) or emotional/anxiety-related (Elevated Plus Maze, Conditioned Taste Aversion) deficits, at 2-3months post-TBI, confirming that ATN rats recapitulate some of the cognitive deficits found in immunosufficient animal strains. Approximately 9-25% of transplanted hNSCs survived for at least 5months post-transplantation and differentiated into mature neurons (NeuN, 18-38%), astrocytes (GFAP, 13-16%), and oligodendrocytes (Olig2, 11-13%). Furthermore, while this model of TBI (cortical impact) targets primarily cortex and the underlying hippocampus and generates a large lesion cavity, hNSC transplantation facilitated cognitive recovery without affecting either lesion volume or total spared cortical or hippocampal tissue volume. Instead, we have found an overall increase in host hippocampal neuron survival in hNSC transplanted animals and demonstrate that a correlation exists between hippocampal neuron survival and cognitive performance. Together, these findings support the use of immunodeficient rodents in models of TBI that involve the transplantation of human cells, and suggest that hNSC transplantation may be a viable, long-term therapy to restore cognition after brain injury. PMID:27079998

  13. Exophytic pilocytic astrocytoma of the brain stem in an adult with encasement of the caudal cranial nerve complex (IX-XII): presurgical anatomical neuroimaging using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a rare case of adult pilocytic astrocytoma in which exophytic growth from the brain stem presented as a right cerebellopontine angle mass. An initial MRI examination using T2- and T1-weighted images without and with contrast suggested the diagnosis of schwannoma. Subsequent use of 3D CISS (three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state) and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced 3D MP-RAGE (three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo) sequences led to the diagnosis of an exophytic brain stem tumor, documented the precise relationships of the tumor to cranial nerve VIII, revealed encasement of cranial nerves IX-XII (later confirmed intraoperatively), and provided the proper basis for planning surgical management. (orig.)

  14. Exophytic pilocytic astrocytoma of the brain stem in an adult with encasement of the caudal cranial nerve complex (IX-XII): presurgical anatomical neuroimaging using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousry, Indra; Yousry, Tarek A. [Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); Muacevic, Alexander; Olteanu-Nerbe, Vlad [Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Naidich, Thomas P. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York (United States)

    2004-07-01

    We describe a rare case of adult pilocytic astrocytoma in which exophytic growth from the brain stem presented as a right cerebellopontine angle mass. An initial MRI examination using T2- and T1-weighted images without and with contrast suggested the diagnosis of schwannoma. Subsequent use of 3D CISS (three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state) and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced 3D MP-RAGE (three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo) sequences led to the diagnosis of an exophytic brain stem tumor, documented the precise relationships of the tumor to cranial nerve VIII, revealed encasement of cranial nerves IX-XII (later confirmed intraoperatively), and provided the proper basis for planning surgical management. (orig.)

  15. Comparative transcriptome analysis in induced neural stem cells reveals defined neural cell identities in vitro and after transplantation into the adult rodent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Hallmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming technology enables the production of neural progenitor cells (NPCs from somatic cells by direct transdifferentiation. However, little is known on how neural programs in these induced neural stem cells (iNSCs differ from those of alternative stem cell populations in vitro and in vivo. Here, we performed transcriptome analyses on murine iNSCs in comparison to brain-derived neural stem cells (NSCs and pluripotent stem cell-derived NPCs, which revealed distinct global, neural, metabolic and cell cycle-associated marks in these populations. iNSCs carried a hindbrain/posterior cell identity, which could be shifted towards caudal, partially to rostral but not towards ventral fates in vitro. iNSCs survived after transplantation into the rodent brain and exhibited in vivo-characteristics, neural and metabolic programs similar to transplanted NSCs. However, iNSCs vastly retained caudal identities demonstrating cell-autonomy of regional programs in vivo. These data could have significant implications for a variety of in vitro- and in vivo-applications using iNSCs.

  16. Brain Stem and Entire Spinal Leptomeningeal Dissemination of Supratentorial Glioblastoma Multiforme in a Patient during Postoperative Radiochemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangyi; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shuai; Chen, Keyin; Zhou, Qiangyi; Yan, Chengrui; He, Huayu; Gao, Jun; Guan, Jian; Yang, Yi; Li, Yongning; Xing, Bing; Wang, Renzhi; Ma, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignancy of the central nervous system in adults. Macroscopically evident and symptomatic spinal metastases occur rarely. Autopsy series suggest that approximately 25% of patients with intracranial GBM have evidence of spinal subarachnoid seeding, although the exact incidence is not known as postmortem examination of the spine is not routinely performed.1–3 Herein, we present a rare case of symptomatic brain stem and entire spinal dissemination of GBM in a 36-year-old patient during postoperative adjuvant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide and cisplatin. Visual deterioration, intractable stomachache, and limb paralysis were the main clinical features. The results of cytological and immunohistochemical tests on the cerebrospinal fluid cells were highly suggestive of spinal leptomeningeal dissemination. After 1 month, the patient's overall condition deteriorated and succumbed to his disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of GBM dissemination presenting in this manner. Because GBM extracranial dissemination is rare, we also reviewed pertinent literature regarding this uncommon entity. Although metastases to spinal cord from GBM are uncommon, it is always important to have in mind when patients with a history of GBM present with symptoms that do not correlate with the primary disease pattern.

  17. Acupuncture Induces the Proliferation and Differentiation of Endogenous Neural Stem Cells in Rats with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuting; Chen, Weihao; Zhang, Yimin; Zhang, Yujuan; Chen, Ailian; Dai, Qiufu; Lin, Shujun; Lin, Hanyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate whether acupuncture induced the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods. 104 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal, model, and acupuncture groups. Each group was subdivided into three-day (3 d), seven-day (7 d), and fourteen-day (14 d) groups. The rat TBI model was established using Feeney's freefall epidural impact method. The rats in the acupuncture group were treated at acupoints (Baihui, Shuigou, Fengfu, Yamen, and bilateral Hegu). The normal and model groups did not receive acupuncture. The establishment of the rat TBI model and the therapeutic effect of acupuncture were assessed using neurobehavioral scoring and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The proliferation and differentiation of NSCs in TBI rats were analyzed using immunofluorescence microscopy. Results. The levels of nestin-expressing cells and bromodeoxyuridine/glial fibrillary acidic protein- (BrdU/GFAP-) and BrdU/S100 calcium-binding protein B-positive and BrdU/microtubule-associated protein 2- and BrdU/galactocerebrosidase-positive cells were more significantly increased at various time points in the acupuncture group than in the model group (P Acupuncture induced the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs, thereby promoting neural repair in the TBI rats. PMID:27313641

  18. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder symptomatic of a brain stem cavernoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Sandra; Thobois, Stephane; Peter-Derex, Laure

    2016-04-01

    A 75-year-old man complained of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), difficulty falling asleep and nocturnal agitation during sleep. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) was diagnosed and treated. Because of persistent EDS, snoring and nycturia, a nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) was performed. PSG showed high sleep fragmentation related to a moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment (CPAP) was proposed. Because of the persistence of abnormal nocturnal behaviours, characterized by screaming, punching and falling out of bed, a video-PSG with CPAP treatment was performed. The recording showed typical chin electromyography (EMG) activity increase associated with violent movements during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, suggesting REM sleep behaviour disorders (RBD). Clinical neurological examination found no parkinsonian syndrome, no dysautonomic sign and no neurological focal sign. Dopamine transporter imaging [123I-FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)] did not find any presynaptic dopaminergic pathways degeneration. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a vascular lesion suggestive of cavernoma located in the pons. The present case illustrates the complexity of sleep disturbance diagnosis with a possible entanglement of aetiologies responsible for nocturnal agitation, and confirms that an isolated pons cavernoma should be considered among the rare causes of RBD. PMID:26780965

  19. [Gastric myoelectric activity disturbance in patients with traumatic lesions of the brain stem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor, Piotr J; Madroszkiewicz, Dorota; Moskała, Marek; Madroszkiewicz, Ewa; Gościński, Igor

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of cranio-cerebral trauma on gastric myoelectric activity. Twenty four patients hospitalized in the Department of Neurotraumatology, Collegium Medicum of the Jagiellonian University were compared with a control group of 16 healthy volunteers matched for gender and age. Their gastric myoelectric activity was measured using standard cutaneous electrodes with Synectics, a Swedish system of data storage and analysis. Results of the study were analyzed at the Department of Pathophysiology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University. In the electrogastrography (EGG) recording of the control group the proportions of time with bradygastria (0.5-2 cpm), normogastria (2-4 cpm) and tachygastria (4-10 cpm) were 11.6 +/- 8%, 86.2 +/- 9% and 2.16 +/- 1.5% respectively. The signal amplitude was 181 +/- 11.5 microV2. In patients with a severe head injury followed by intracranial hypertension III degree and cerebral coma (the Glasgow Coma Scale score 4-7 points), the proportion of bradygastria in the total recording time amounted to 46.5 +/- 8%. In these patients also the signal amplitude was found to increase up to 766 microV2 (p = 0.0007). Our results indicate that in patients comatose due to a posttraumatic brainstem injury, the function of the brain-gut link is altered. There is a severe disorder of the upper gut motility, associated with gastric dysrhythmia--bradygastria resulting from an increased cholinergic output. This leads to intestinal feeding intolerance. PMID:15174250

  20. Auditory brain-stem evoked potentials in cat after kainic acid induced neuronal loss. I. Superior olivary complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaroor, M; Starr, A

    1991-01-01

    Auditory brain-stem potentials (ABRs) were studied in cats for up to 45 days after kainic acid had been injected unilaterally or bilaterally into the superior olivary complex (SOC) to produce neuronal destruction while sparing fibers of passage and the terminals of axons of extrinsic origin connecting to SOC neurons. The components of the ABR in cat were labeled by their polarity at the vertex (P, for positive) and their order of appearance (the arabic numerals 1, 2, etc.). Component P1 can be further subdivided into 2 subcomponents labeled P1a and P1b. The correspondences we have assumed between the ABR components in cat and man are indicated by providing a Roman numeral designation for the human component in parentheses following the feline notation, e.g., P4 (V). With bilateral SOC destruction, there was a significant and marked attenuation of waves P2 (III), P3 (IV), P4 (V), P5 (VI), and the sustained potential shift (SPS) amounting to as much as 80% of preoperative values. Following unilateral SOC destruction the attenuation of many of these same ABR components, in response to stimulation of either ear, was up to 50%. No component of the ABR was totally abolished even when the SOC was lesioned 100% bilaterally. In unilaterally lesioned cats with extensive neuronal loss (greater than 75%) the latencies of the components beginning at P3 (IV) were delayed to stimulation of the ear ipsilateral to the injection site but not to stimulation of the ear contralateral to the injection. Binaural interaction components of the ABR were affected in proportion to the attenuation of the ABR. These results are compatible with multiple brain regions contributing to the generation of the components of the ABR beginning with P2 (III) and that components P3 (IV), P4 (V), and P5 (VI) and the sustained potential shift depend particularly on the integrity of the neurons of the SOC bilaterally. The neurons of the lateral subdivision (LSO) and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body

  1. Bilateral cerebellar and brain stem infarction resulting from vertebral artery injury following cervical trauma without radiographic damage of the spinal column: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimata, Yoshikuni; Sato, Kotaro; Suzuki, Yoshiaki [Iwate Prefectural Chubu Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kitakami (Japan); Murakami, Hideki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Vertebral artery injury can be a complication of cervical spine injury. Although most cases are asymptomatic, the rare case progresses to severe neurological impairment and fatal outcomes. We experienced a case of bilateral cerebellar and brain stem infarction with fatal outcome resulting from vertebral artery injury associated with cervical spine trauma. A 69-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of tetraplegia after falling down the stairs and hitting his head on the floor. Marked bony damage of the cervical spine was not apparent on radiographs and CT scans, so the injury was initially considered to be a cervical cord injury without bony damage. However, an intensity change in the intervertebral disc at C5/C6, and a ventral epidural hematoma were observed on MRI. A CT angiogram of the neck showed the right vertebral artery was completely occluded at the C4 level of the spine. Forty-eight hours after injury, the patient lapsed into drowsy consciousness. The cranial CT scan showed a massive low-density area in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres and brain stem. Anticoagulation was initiated after a diagnosis of the right vertebral artery injury, but the patient developed bilateral cerebellar and brain stem infarction. The patient's brain herniation progressed and the patient died 52 h after injury. We considered that not only anticoagulation but also treatment for thrombosis would have been needed to prevent cranial embolism. We fully realize that early and appropriate treatment are essential to improve the treatment results, and constructing a medical system with a team of orthopedists, radiologists, and neurosurgeons is also very important. (orig.)

  2. Bilateral cerebellar and brain stem infarction resulting from vertebral artery injury following cervical trauma without radiographic damage of the spinal column: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertebral artery injury can be a complication of cervical spine injury. Although most cases are asymptomatic, the rare case progresses to severe neurological impairment and fatal outcomes. We experienced a case of bilateral cerebellar and brain stem infarction with fatal outcome resulting from vertebral artery injury associated with cervical spine trauma. A 69-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of tetraplegia after falling down the stairs and hitting his head on the floor. Marked bony damage of the cervical spine was not apparent on radiographs and CT scans, so the injury was initially considered to be a cervical cord injury without bony damage. However, an intensity change in the intervertebral disc at C5/C6, and a ventral epidural hematoma were observed on MRI. A CT angiogram of the neck showed the right vertebral artery was completely occluded at the C4 level of the spine. Forty-eight hours after injury, the patient lapsed into drowsy consciousness. The cranial CT scan showed a massive low-density area in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres and brain stem. Anticoagulation was initiated after a diagnosis of the right vertebral artery injury, but the patient developed bilateral cerebellar and brain stem infarction. The patient's brain herniation progressed and the patient died 52 h after injury. We considered that not only anticoagulation but also treatment for thrombosis would have been needed to prevent cranial embolism. We fully realize that early and appropriate treatment are essential to improve the treatment results, and constructing a medical system with a team of orthopedists, radiologists, and neurosurgeons is also very important. (orig.)

  3. Supersymmetric descendants of self-adjointly extended quantum mechanical Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hashimi, M. H.; Salman, M.; Shalaby, A.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2013-10-01

    We consider the descendants of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians in supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a half-line, on an interval, and on a punctured line or interval. While there is a 4-parameter family of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians on a punctured line, only a 3-parameter sub-family has supersymmetric descendants that are themselves self-adjoint. We also address the self-adjointness of an operator related to the supercharge, and point out that only a sub-class of its most general self-adjoint extensions is physical. Besides a general characterization of self-adjoint extensions and their supersymmetric descendants, we explicitly consider concrete examples, including a particle in a box with general boundary conditions, with and without an additional point interaction. We also discuss bulk-boundary resonances and their manifestation in the supersymmetric descendant.

  4. Supersymmetric Descendants of Self-Adjointly Extended Quantum Mechanical Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Hashimi, M H; Shalaby, A; Wiese, U -J

    2013-01-01

    We consider the descendants of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians in supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a half-line, on an interval, and on a punctured line or interval. While there is a 4-parameter family of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians on a punctured line, only a 3-parameter sub-family has supersymmetric descendants that are themselves self-adjoint. We also address the self-adjointness of an operator related to the supercharge, and point out that only a sub-class of its most general self-adjoint extensions is physical. Besides a general characterization of self-adjoint extensions and their supersymmetric descendants, we explicitly consider concrete examples, including a particle in a box with general boundary conditions, with and without an additional point interaction. We also discuss bulk-boundary resonances and their manifestation in the supersymmetric descendant.

  5. Successful outcome of descending necrotizing mediastinitis due to neck trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Kurowski, Krzysztof; Matuszek, Iwona; Nunez, Carlos Francisco Munoz

    2011-01-01

    Summary Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is an uncommon form of mediastinitis that can rapidly progress to septicemia. The optimal surgical approach still remains controversial. In this paper we would like to present a case of descending necrotizing mediastinitis that was treated successfully by means of thoracic drainage through trans-thoracic approach. In our case DNM occurred as a complication of oropharyngeal abscesses and a complication of cervical spine trauma.

  6. In vivo study on the survival of neural stem cells transplanted into the rat brain with a collagen hydrogel that incorporates laminin-derived polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaji-Hirabayashi, Tadashi; Kato, Koichi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2013-11-20

    Poor viability of cells transplanted into the brain has been the critical problem associated with stem cell-based therapy for Parkinson's disease. To overcome this problem, a collagen hydrogel incorporating an integrin-binding protein complex was prepared and used as a carrier for neural stem cells. The protein complex consisted of two polypeptides containing the G3 domain of a laminin α1 chain and the C-terminal oligopeptide of a laminin γ1 chain. These polypeptides were fused with α-helical segments which spontaneously formed a coiled-coil heterodimer and with the collagen-binding peptide that facilitated the binding of the heterodimer to collagen networks. In this study, neural stem cells stably expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were suspended in the hydrogel and transplanted into the striatum of healthy rats. The viability of transplanted cells was evaluated by histological analysis and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for EGFP mRNA present in the tissue explants. Our results showed that the collagen hydrogel incorporating the integrin-binding protein complex serves to improve the viability of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the early stage after transplantation into the striatum. PMID:23991904

  7. Irradiation of the potential cancer stem cell niches in the adult brain improves progression-free survival of patients with malignant glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glioblastoma is the most common brain tumor in adults. The mechanisms leading to glioblastoma are not well understood but animal studies support that inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in neural stem cells (NSC) is required and sufficient to induce glial cancers. This suggests that the NSC niches in the brain may harbor cancer stem cells (CSCs), Thus providing novel therapy targets. We hypothesize that higher radiation doses to these NSC niches improve patient survival by eradicating CSCs. 55 adult patients with Grade 3 or Grade 4 glial cancer treated with radiotherapy at UCLA between February of 2003 and May of 2009 were included in this retrospective study. Using radiation planning software and patient radiological records, the SVZ and SGL were reconstructed for each of these patients and dosimetry data for these structures was calculated. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis we show that patients whose bilateral subventricular zone (SVZ) received greater than the median SVZ dose (= 43 Gy) had a significant improvement in progression-free survival if compared to patients who received less than the median dose (15.0 vs 7.2 months PFS; P = 0.028). Furthermore, a mean dose >43 Gy to the bilateral SVZ yielded a hazard ratio of 0.73 (P = 0.019). Importantly, similarly analyzing total prescription dose failed to illustrate a statistically significant impact. Our study leads us to hypothesize that in glioma targeted radiotherapy of the stem cell niches in the adult brain could yield significant benefits over radiotherapy of the primary tumor mass alone and that damage caused by smaller fractions of radiation maybe less efficiently detected by the DNA repair mechanisms in CSCs

  8. Proposed strategy for the use of high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue and intrathecal topotecan without whole-brain irradiation for infantile classic medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ai; Moritake, Hiroshi; Kamimura, Sachiyo; Yamashita, Shinji; Takeshima, Hideo; Nunoi, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    We describe a 6-month-old infant with classic medulloblastoma. Gross total resection of the left cerebellar tumor was performed; however, relapse occurred during the administration of intrathecal and intravenous methotrexate-based chemotherapy. After undergoing resection, high-dose chemotherapy was administered consisting of topotecan, melphalan, and cyclophosphamide with autologous peripheral stem cell rescue followed by local irradiation and intrathecal topotecan, which resulted in a complete response for more than two years. The administration of high-dose chemotherapy followed by intrathecal topotecan as maintenance therapy is an effective strategy, without losses in the cognitive function, for avoiding the use of whole-brain irradiation for infantile classic medulloblastoma. PMID:25174961

  9. Acupuncture at the San Jiao meridian affects brain stem issue G protein content in a rat migraine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sue Wang; Wei Li; Guangwei Zhong; Zhenyan Li; Lingbo Wen

    2008-01-01

    , stimulatory G protein concentration was significantly increased, while inhibitory G protein levels were significantly decreased in the model group (P 0.05). CONCLUSION: Dysfunctional G protein signal transductions in the rat brain stem may be responsible for migraine attack. Acupuncture at the San Jiao meridian ameliorates migraines by mediating the G protein signal transduction pathway.

  10. Auditory brain-stem evoked potentials in cat after kainic acid induced neuronal loss. II. Cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaroor, M; Starr, A

    1991-01-01

    Auditory brain-stem potentials (ABRs) were studied in cats for up to 6 weeks after kainic acid had been injected unilaterally into the cochlear nucleus (CN) producing extensive neuronal destruction. The ABR components were labeled by the polarity at the vertex (P, for positive) and their order of appearance (the arabic numerals 1, 2, etc.). Component P1 can be further subdivided into 2 subcomponents, P1a and P1b. The assumed correspondence between the ABR components in cat and man is indicated by providing human Roman numeral designations in parentheses following the feline notation, e.g., P2 (III). To stimulation of the ear ipsilateral to the injection, the ABR changes consisted of a loss of components P2 (III) and P3 (IV), and an attenuation and prolongation of latency of components P4 (V) and P5 (VI). The sustained potential shift from which the components arose was not affected. Wave P1a (I) was also slightly but significantly attenuated compatible with changes of excitability of nerve VIII in the cochlea secondary to cochlear nucleus destruction. Unexpectedly, to stimulation of the ear contralateral to the injection side, waves P2 (III), P3 (IV), and P4 (V) were also attenuated and delayed in latency but to a lesser degree than to stimulation of the ear ipsilateral to the injection. Changes in binaural interaction of the ABR following cochlear nucleus lesions were similar to those produced in normal animals by introducing a temporal delay of the input to one ear. The results of the present set of studies using kainic acid to induce neuronal loss in auditory pathway when combined with prior lesion and recording experiments suggest that each of the components of the ABR requires the integrity of an anatomically diffuse system comprising a set of neurons, their axons, and the neurons on which they terminate. Disruption of any portion of the system will alter the amplitude and/or the latency of that component. PMID:1716569

  11. dp53 Restrains ectopic neural stem cell formation in the Drosophila brain in a non-apoptotic mechanism involving Archipelago and cyclin E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingshi Ouyang

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that tumor-initiating stem cells or cancer stem cells (CSCs possibly originating from normal stem cells may be the root cause of certain malignancies. How stem cell homeostasis is impaired in tumor tissues is not well understood, although certain tumor suppressors have been implicated. In this study, we use the Drosophila neural stem cells (NSCs called neuroblasts as a model to study this process. Loss-of-function of Numb, a key cell fate determinant with well-conserved mammalian counterparts, leads to the formation of ectopic neuroblasts and a tumor phenotype in the larval brain. Overexpression of the Drosophila tumor suppressor p53 (dp53 was able to suppress ectopic neuroblast formation caused by numb loss-of-function. This occurred in a non-apoptotic manner and was independent of Dacapo, the fly counterpart of the well-characterized mammalian p53 target p21 involved in cellular senescence. The observation that dp53 affected Edu incorporation into neuroblasts led us to test the hypothesis that dp53 acts through regulation of factors involved in cell cycle progression. Our results show that the inhibitory effect of dp53 on ectopic neuroblast formation was mediated largely through its regulation of Cyclin E (Cyc E. Overexpression of Cyc E was able to abrogate dp53's ability to rescue numb loss-of-function phenotypes. Increasing Cyc E levels by attenuating Archipelago (Ago, a recently identified transcriptional target of dp53 and a negative regulator of Cyc E, had similar effects. Conversely, reducing Cyc E activity by overexpressing Ago blocked ectopic neuroblast formation in numb mutant. Our results reveal an intimate connection between cell cycle progression and NSC self-renewal vs. differentiation control, and indicate that p53-mediated regulation of ectopic NSC self-renewal through the Ago/Cyc E axis becomes particularly important when NSC homeostasis is perturbed as in numb loss-of-function condition. This has

  12. Preparing neural stem/progenitor cells in PuraMatrix hydrogel for transplantation after brain injury in rats: A comparative methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aligholi, Hadi; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Azari, Hassan; Ejtemaei Mehr, Shahram; Akbari, Mohammad; Modarres Mousavi, Seyed Mostafa; Attari, Fatemeh; Alipour, Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Gorji, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Cultivation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) in PuraMatrix (PM) hydrogel is an option for stem cell transplantation. The efficacy of a novel method for placing adult rat NS/PCs in PM (injection method) was compared to encapsulation and surface plating approaches. In addition, the efficacy of injection method for transplantation of autologous NS/PCs was studied in a rat model of brain injury. NS/PCs were obtained from the subventricular zone (SVZ) and cultivated without (control) or with scaffold (three-dimensional cultures; 3D). The effect of different approaches on survival, proliferation, and differentiation of NS/PCs were investigated. In in vivo study, brain injury was induced 45 days after NS/PCs were harvested from the SVZ and phosphate buffered saline, PM, NS/PCs, or PM+NS/PCs were injected into the brain lesion. There was an increase in cell viability and proliferation after injection and surface plating of NS/PCs compared to encapsulation and neural differentiation markers were expressed seven days after culturing the cells. Using injection method, transplantation of NS/PCs cultured in PM resulted in significant reduction of lesion volume, improvement of neurological deficits, and enhancement of surviving cells. In addition, the transplanted cells could differentiate in to neurons, astrocytes, or oligodendrocytes. Our results indicate that the injection and surface plating methods enhanced cell survival and proliferation of NS/PCs and suggest the injection method as a promising approach for transplantation of NS/PCs in brain injury. PMID:27038753

  13. PINK1 Deficiency Decreases Expression Levels of mir-326, mir-330, and mir-3099 during Brain Development and Neural Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Insup; Woo, Joo Hong; Jou, Ilo; Joe, Eun-Hye

    2016-02-01

    PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) is a Parkinson's disease (PD) gene. We examined miRNAs regulated by PINK1 during brain development and neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation, and found that lvels of miRNAs related to tumors and inflammation were different between 1-day-old-wild type (WT) and PINK1-knockout (KO) mouse brains. Notably, levels of miR-326, miR-330 and miR-3099, which are related to astroglioma, increased during brain development and NSC differentiation, and were significantly reduced in the absence of PINK1. Interestingly, in the presence of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), which pushes differentiation of NSCs into astrocytes, miR-326, miR-330, and miR-3099 levels in KO NSCs were also lower than those in WT NSCs. Furthermore, mimics of all three miRNAs increased expression of the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) during differentiation of KO NSCs, but inhibitors of these miRNAs decreased GFAP expression in WT NSCs. Moreover, these miRNAs increased the translational efficacy of GFAP through the 3'-UTR of GFAP mRNA. Taken together, these results suggest that PINK1 deficiency reduce expression levels of miR-326, miR-330 and miR-3099, which may regulate GFAP expression during NSC differentiation and brain development. PMID:26924929

  14. Bone marrow cells and embryonic stem cells are a promising tool for therapy of brain and spinal cord injuries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva; Jendelová, Pavla; Glogarová, Kateřina; Urdzíková, Lucia; Kroupová, Jana; Burian, B.; Herynek, V.; Hájek, M.

    Solden, 2004. s. -. [Neurochemistry Winter Conference /6./. 27.03.2004-01.04.2004, Solden] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065 Keywords : bone marrow cells * embryonic stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  15. Anomalous right coronary artery arising from left anterior descending artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Sreenivas Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old male patient presented with acute myocardial infarction involving left anterior descending and right coronary artery territories. Coronary angiogram showed a single coronary artery with right coronary artery arising from left anterior descending artery (LAD, which coursed anterior to right ventricular outflow tract and thrombotic lesion in mid left anterior descending artery before origin of right coronary artery. The patient was treated with thrombolytic therapy and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Anomalous origin of right coronary artery as a branch of LAD is a very rare type of congenital coronary artery anomalies. It is important to recognize this anomaly as it can be associated with extensive myocardial ischemia and sudden cardiac death in young persons even without atherosclerosis.

  16. A descending dopamine pathway conserved from basal vertebrates to mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Cone, Jackson J.; Alpert, Michael H.; Goetz, Laurent; Auclair, François; Dubé, Catherine; Parent, Martin; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Alford, Simon; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion indirectly through ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project down to brainstem locomotor networks. Their loss in Parkinson’s disease is devastating. In lampreys, we recently showed that brainstem networks also receive direct descending dopaminergic inputs that potentiate locomotor output. Here, we provide evidence that this descending dopaminergic pathway is conserved to higher vertebrates, including mammals. In salamanders, dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum or brainstem locomotor networks were partly intermingled. Stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked dopamine release in brainstem locomotor networks and concurrent reticulospinal activity. In rats, some dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum also innervated the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known locomotor center, and stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked pedunculopontine dopamine release in vivo. Finally, we found dopaminergic fibers in the human pedunculopontine nucleus. The conservation of a descending dopaminergic pathway across vertebrates warrants re-evaluating dopamine’s role in locomotion. PMID:27071118

  17. Correlation of atrophic change of brain stem by MRI and the degree of symptoms from the ataxia rating scale between Machado-Joseph disease and olivopontocerebellar atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated atrophic changes of brain stem and the degree of symptoms from the ataxia rating scale in 13 cases of Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) and 10 cases of olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA). Patients with MJD and OPCA and normal controls were examined using 1.5-T MRI. Furthermore, we evaluated 3 cases of each two groups with a long-term follow-up study. We used International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) for the evaluation of ataxia. The MRI of patients with MJD disclosed remarkably reduced width of the middle cerebellar peduncles and the dilatation of 4th ventricle, which correlated with the limb ataxia in ICARS. On the other hand, the MRI of patients with OPCA revealed diminished anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the pons. The latter of which correlated inversely with the total ICARS. In long-term follow up, MJD showed slow progression of atrophic change and clinical course contrasted to OPCA. In conclusion, we suggested that atrophic changes of brain stem of MJD and OPCA were well correlated with ataxia rating scale, ICARS. (author)

  18. In vivo near-infrared imaging for the tracking of systemically delivered mesenchymal stem cells: tropism for brain tumors and biodistribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seong Muk Kim,1 Chang Hyun Jeong,2 Ji Sun Woo,2 Chung Heon Ryu,1 Jeong-Hwa Lee,3 Sin-Soo Jeun1,21Postech-Catholic Biomedical Engineering Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, KoreaAbstract: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC-based gene therapy is a promising tool for the treatment of various neurological diseases, including brain tumors. However, the tracking of in vivo stem cell migration, distribution, and survival need to be defined for their clinical application. The systemic routes of stem cell delivery must be determined because direct intracerebral injection as a cure for brain tumors is an invasive method. In this study, we show for the first time that near-infrared (NIR imaging can reveal the distribution and tumor tropism of intravenously injected MSCs in an intracranial xenograft glioma model. MSCs were labeled with NIR fluorescent nanoparticles, and the effects of the NIR dye on cell proliferation and migratory capacity were evaluated in vitro. We investigated the tumor-targeting properties and tissue distribution of labeled MSCs introduced by intravenous injection and followed by in vivo imaging analysis, histological analysis, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We observed no cytotoxicity or change in the overall growth rate and characteristics of labeled MSCs compared with control MSCs. NIR fluorescent imaging showed the organ distribution and targeted tumor tropism of systemically injected human MSCs. A significant number of MSCs accumulated specifically at the tumor site in the mouse brain. These results suggest that NIR-based cell tracking is a potentially useful imaging technique to visualize cell survival, migration, and distribution for the application of MSC

  19. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation promotes adult neurogenesis in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufang Yan; Tuo Ma; Kai Gong; Qiang Ao; Xiufang Zhang; Yandao Gong

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we transplanted adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into the hippo-campi of APP/PS1 transgenic Alzheimer’s disease model mice. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the number of newly generated (BrdU+) cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus was signiifcantly higher in Alzheimer’s disease mice after adipose-de-rived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, and there was also a significant increase in the number of BrdU+/DCX+neuroblasts in these animals. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation enhanced neurogenic activity in the subventricular zone as well. Furthermore, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation reduced oxidative stress and alleviated cognitive impairment in the mice. Based on these ifndings, we propose that adipose-derived mes-enchymal stem cell transplantation enhances endogenous neurogenesis in both the subgranular and subventricular zones in APP/PS1 transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mice, thereby facilitating functional recovery.

  20. 脑损伤修复与成体干细胞的可塑性%Plasticity of adult stem cells in the rehabilitation of brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何念海; 赵文利; 王宇明

    2005-01-01

    目的:成体干细胞体在内外可分化为神经细胞而用于脑损伤修复,探讨成体干细胞用于脑损伤康复的可行性可为脑功能恢复的临床实践提供前瞻性依据.资料来源:应用计算机检索Medline 1998-01/2004-04和PubMed1998-01/2004-04期间的相关文章,检索词"stem cell,cerebral injury,rehabilitation",并限定文章语言种类为English.同时计算机检索杂志1997-01/2004-04期间的相关文章,限定文章语言种类为中文,检索词"干细胞、脑损伤、康复".资料选择:对资料进行初审,选取包括成体干细胞分化为神经细胞及其用于脑损伤治疗的实验和l临床研究文献,查找文献全文.资料提炼:共收集到33篇关于成体干细胞可塑性分化及其用于脑损伤的研究文献.资料综合:33篇文献证明了成体干细胞可分化为神经细胞及其可能的机制,并证明了成体干细胞移植治疗脑损伤的有效性.结论:已有研究充分证明成体干细胞在体内外可分化为神经细胞,并可用于脑损伤的修复.%OBJECTIVE: Adult stem cells(ASCs) have been applied to the rehabilitation of brain injury for its capability of differentiation into neural cells both in vitro and in vivo, thereby to explore the feasibility of application of ASCs to the rehabilitation of brain injury could provide prospective basis for clinical practice in brain functional recovery.DATA SOURCES: Relative articles were computer-searched in Medline and PubMed between January 1998 and April 2004 , with the key word of"stem cell, cerebral injury, rehabilitation" and language limited to English. Meanwhile similar articles in Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation from January 1997 to April 2004 were also searched with the same key words in Chinese.STUDY SELECTION: Literatures concerning the differentiation of ASCs into neural cells, as well as experimental and clinical studies on their application in brain injuries were adopted after first trial

  1. Supersymmetric descendants of self-adjointly extended quantum mechanical Hamiltonians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hashimi, M.H., E-mail: hashimi@itp.unibe.ch [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern University, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Salman, M., E-mail: msalman@qu.edu.qa [Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Physics, Qatar University, Al Tarfa, Doha 2713 (Qatar); Shalaby, A., E-mail: amshalab@qu.edu.qa [Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Physics, Qatar University, Al Tarfa, Doha 2713 (Qatar); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University (Egypt); Wiese, U.-J., E-mail: wiese@itp.unibe.ch [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern University, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-10-15

    We consider the descendants of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians in supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a half-line, on an interval, and on a punctured line or interval. While there is a 4-parameter family of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians on a punctured line, only a 3-parameter sub-family has supersymmetric descendants that are themselves self-adjoint. We also address the self-adjointness of an operator related to the supercharge, and point out that only a sub-class of its most general self-adjoint extensions is physical. Besides a general characterization of self-adjoint extensions and their supersymmetric descendants, we explicitly consider concrete examples, including a particle in a box with general boundary conditions, with and without an additional point interaction. We also discuss bulk-boundary resonances and their manifestation in the supersymmetric descendant. -- Highlights: •Self-adjoint extension theory and contact interactions. •Application of self-adjoint extensions to supersymmetry. •Contact interactions in finite volume with Robin boundary condition.

  2. Supersymmetric descendants of self-adjointly extended quantum mechanical Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the descendants of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians in supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a half-line, on an interval, and on a punctured line or interval. While there is a 4-parameter family of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians on a punctured line, only a 3-parameter sub-family has supersymmetric descendants that are themselves self-adjoint. We also address the self-adjointness of an operator related to the supercharge, and point out that only a sub-class of its most general self-adjoint extensions is physical. Besides a general characterization of self-adjoint extensions and their supersymmetric descendants, we explicitly consider concrete examples, including a particle in a box with general boundary conditions, with and without an additional point interaction. We also discuss bulk-boundary resonances and their manifestation in the supersymmetric descendant. -- Highlights: •Self-adjoint extension theory and contact interactions. •Application of self-adjoint extensions to supersymmetry. •Contact interactions in finite volume with Robin boundary condition

  3. Left Anterior Descending Artery-Pulmonary Artery Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Ege

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that coronary arteriovenous fistulas constitute approximately half (48% of coronary artery anomalies, they are rarely seen anomalies. In this report,we aim to present a coronary arteriovenous fistula case detected during a coronary angiography between left anterior descending artery and pulmonary artery.

  4. Interprocedural Dataflow Analysis over Weight Domains with Infinite Descending Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühnrich, Morten; Schwoon, Stefan; Srba, Jiri; Kiefer, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    descending chains. The main novelty of our work is that we deal with semirings without the boundedness restriction. Our study is motivated by several applications from interprocedural dataflow analysis. We demonstrate how the reachability problem for weighted pushdown automata can be reduced to solving...

  5. Spanish language teaching and afro-descendant identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ester Cuba Vega

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no question about the role of education in the struggle against racism and for racial equality. However, schools still underachieve in the construction of cultural and social paradigms that allow to break with racial stereotypes and their treatment. What happens in Cuba, a country where there is no institutionalized racism and which promotes equality among all its citizens? What happens in Cuban schools regarding language teaching and race issues? How do afro-descendant teachers of Spanish assume this reality? By answering these questions, the present article is aimed at providing an approximation to the teaching of Spanish as a second language in Cuba from the perspective of afro-descendant teachers. Starting from the concepts of racial and ethnic identity and afro-descendant, the article presents the results of data collected among afro-descendant university teachers of Spanish in Cuba who give their viewpoints on several topics, including the use in their lessons of lear-ning materials which deal with African descent and race issues.

  6. 脑干损伤中单胺递质变化的意义%Changes of monoamine neurotransmitter in brain-stem injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房向阳; 吕晓萍; 杨艳红

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨脑组织在创伤、出血、缺血等病理情况下单胺递质的变化及其意义。方法 选取原发脑干损伤患者,伤后6~12h内采集患者肘静脉血及腰穿取脑脊液,之后1周内每天采集1次,1周后每周采集2次,到清醒或死亡时止。以Miller′s的荧光分光法检测脑干损伤的患者血液及脑脊液中单胺递质——5-羟色胺(5-HT)、去甲肾上腺素(NE)、多巴胺(DA),分析脑干损伤程度与单胺递质浓度变化的关系。结果 急性颅脑创伤后,患者血浆和脑脊液中NE、DA含量明显升高,伤后病情逐渐好转者第3天达到高峰,然后逐渐下降至正常水平;死亡病例首次值明显升高,下降缓慢;但伤情极重者升高后迅速下降。结论 单胺递质浓度变化与脑干损伤程度呈正相关,与预后关系密切。%Objective To study monoamine neurotransmitter obviously changes in cerebral damage、ischemia and hemorrhage. Methods We reported the changes by means of flurospectrophotometry after brain-stem injury on selected patients , and then analyzed the relationship between the changes and the prognosis. Results It showed that 5-HT、 NE、 DA increased apparently after brain-stem injury , then drop to the normal level as fast as reinvigoration . The exception to this rule is for severe brain-stem injury in which neurotransmitter drops fastly soon after increasing. Conclusion It suggests that we can predict the prognosis by the changes of monoamine neurotransmitter.

  7. Bombesin receptors and transplanted stem cells in rat brain: High-resolution scan with 99mTc BN1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopinaro, F.; Paschali, E.; Di Santo, G.; Antonellis, T.; Massari, R.; Trotta, C.; Gourni, H.; Bouziotis, P.; David, V.; Soluri, A.; Varvarigou, A. D.

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this work is to detect the presence of transplanted stem cells (TSC) in rat brain with high-resolution (HR) scintigraphy and labelled bombesin (BN). BN is a morphogen for Central Nervous System (CNS) as well as for other organs: CNS-oriented TSC over-express BN Receptors (BNR). BN is also a neurotransmitter and modulates several functions of CNS. 99mTc labelled BN-like peptide scan of CNS is the ideal method to detect growing TSC once knowing normal distribution of BNRs in CNS. HR Planar and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) images of rat brain were performed with new HR detectors (Li-tech, Italy). Pertechnetate, 99mTc HMPAO and the new 99mTc BN1.1 (patented) were i.v. administered in five rats. HR SPECT of 99mTc BN1.1 detected olfactory tract, fronto-lateral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and amygdale. Results of SPECT were confirmed by bio-distribution study performed after autopsy of three of the five rats. The remaining two rats underwent cerebral lesions followed by transplant of TSC. Three months later, HR scintigraphy was repeated and showed images completely different from previous basal study, with hot spot of 99mTc BN1.1 corresponding to the site of TSC transplant. Immuno-histochemistry confirmed the presence of viable TSC. Not only 99mTc BN1.1 HR scan showed viability of transplanted TSC but also the "background brain" was the still now unknown map of BNR in mammalian brain.

  8. Bombesin receptors and transplanted stem cells in rat brain: High-resolution scan with 99mTc BN1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to detect the presence of transplanted stem cells (TSC) in rat brain with high-resolution (HR) scintigraphy and labelled bombesin (BN). BN is a morphogen for Central Nervous System (CNS) as well as for other organs: CNS-oriented TSC over-express BN Receptors (BNR). BN is also a neurotransmitter and modulates several functions of CNS. 99mTc labelled BN-like peptide scan of CNS is the ideal method to detect growing TSC once knowing normal distribution of BNRs in CNS. HR Planar and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) images of rat brain were performed with new HR detectors (Li-tech, Italy). Pertechnetate, 99mTc HMPAO and the new 99mTc BN1.1 (patented) were i.v. administered in five rats. HR SPECT of 99mTc BN1.1 detected olfactory tract, fronto-lateral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and amygdale. Results of SPECT were confirmed by bio-distribution study performed after autopsy of three of the five rats. The remaining two rats underwent cerebral lesions followed by transplant of TSC. Three months later, HR scintigraphy was repeated and showed images completely different from previous basal study, with hot spot of 99mTc BN1.1 corresponding to the site of TSC transplant. Immuno-histochemistry confirmed the presence of viable TSC. Not only 99mTc BN1.1 HR scan showed viability of transplanted TSC but also the 'background brain' was the still now unknown map of BNR in mammalian brain

  9. Bombesin receptors and transplanted stem cells in rat brain: High-resolution scan with {sup 99m}Tc BN1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scopinaro, F. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University ' La Sapienza' Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: francesco.scopinaro@uniroma1.it; Paschali, E. [NSC Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Di Santo, G. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University ' La Sapienza' Rome (Italy); Antonellis, T. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University ' La Sapienza' Rome (Italy); Massari, R. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, ISIB-CNR, Rome-Li-tech srl, Lauzacco Pavia di Udine (UD) (Italy); Trotta, C. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, ISIB-CNR, Rome-Li-tech srl, Lauzacco Pavia di Udine (UD) (Italy); Gourni, H. [NSC Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Bouziotis, P. [NSC Demokritos, Athens (Greece); David, V. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University ' La Sapienza' Rome (Italy); Soluri, A. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, ISIB-CNR, Rome-Li-tech srl, Lauzacco Pavia di Udine (UD) (Italy); Varvarigou, A.D. [NSC Demokritos, Athens (Greece)

    2006-12-20

    The aim of this work is to detect the presence of transplanted stem cells (TSC) in rat brain with high-resolution (HR) scintigraphy and labelled bombesin (BN). BN is a morphogen for Central Nervous System (CNS) as well as for other organs: CNS-oriented TSC over-express BN Receptors (BNR). BN is also a neurotransmitter and modulates several functions of CNS. {sup 99m}Tc labelled BN-like peptide scan of CNS is the ideal method to detect growing TSC once knowing normal distribution of BNRs in CNS. HR Planar and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) images of rat brain were performed with new HR detectors (Li-tech, Italy). Pertechnetate, {sup 99m}Tc HMPAO and the new {sup 99m}Tc BN1.1 (patented) were i.v. administered in five rats. HR SPECT of {sup 99m}Tc BN1.1 detected olfactory tract, fronto-lateral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and amygdale. Results of SPECT were confirmed by bio-distribution study performed after autopsy of three of the five rats. The remaining two rats underwent cerebral lesions followed by transplant of TSC. Three months later, HR scintigraphy was repeated and showed images completely different from previous basal study, with hot spot of {sup 99m}Tc BN1.1 corresponding to the site of TSC transplant. Immuno-histochemistry confirmed the presence of viable TSC. Not only {sup 99m}Tc BN1.1 HR scan showed viability of transplanted TSC but also the 'background brain' was the still now unknown map of BNR in mammalian brain.

  10. Analysis of brain-stem auditory evoked potential and visual evoked potential in patients with Parkinson disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiaorong Deng; Jianzhong Deng; Yanmin Zhao; Xiaohai Yan; Pin Chen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the development of neuroelectrophysiology, it had been identified that all kinds of evoked potentials might reflect the functional status of corresponding pathway. Evoked potentials recruited in the re search of PD, it can be known whether other functional pathway of nervous system is impaired. OBJECTIVE: To observe whether brainstem auditory and visual passageway are impaired in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and compare with non-PD patients concurrently. DESIGN: A non-randomized concurrent controlled observation. SETTINGS: Henan Provincial Tumor Hospital; Anyang District Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two cases of PD outpatients and inpatients, who registered in the Department of Neurology, Anyang District Hospital from October 1997 to February 2006, were enrolled as the PD group, including 20 males and 12 females, aged 50-72 years old. Inclusive criteria: In accordance with the diagnostic criteria of PD recommended by the dyskinesia and PD group of neurology branch of Chinese Medical Association. Patients with diseases that could cause Parkinson syndrome were excluded by CT scanning or MRI examination. Meanwhile, 30 cases with non-neurological disease were selected from the Department of Internal Medicine of our hospital as the control group, including 19 males and 11 females, aged 45-70 years old. Including criteria: Without history of neurological disease or psychiatric disease; showing normal image on CT. And PD, Parkinson syndrome and Parkinsonism-plus were excluded by professional neurologist. All the patients were informed and agreed with the examination and clinical observation. METHODS: The electrophysiological examination and clinical observation of the PD patients and controls were conducted. The Reporter type 4-channel evoked potential machine (Italy) was used to check brain-stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) and visual evoked potential (VEP). Why to be examined was explained to test taker. BAEP recording electrode was plac

  11. Study on correlation between circulating endothelial progenitor cells and brain natriuretic peptide in patients with myocardial infarction complicated heart failure after stem cell mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-lin ZHAO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is to observe the correlation between circulating endothelial progenitor cells (endothelial progenitor cells, EPCs and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure after stem cell mobilizer granulocyte colony stimulating factor (granulocyte colony stimulating factor, G-CSF.Methods: Patients were divided into the control group(37 and the observation group (38. The observation group took injection of G-CSF, 10μg/kg, for 7d. The Two groups were observed the amount of circulating EPCs , the levels of BNP, TNF- α and other indicators, and make clinical analysis. Results: Compared with control group, the amount of EPCs were significantly increased, the level of BNP, TNF- α were decreased, the difference between the observation group and control group is statistical significant (P < 0.05; the amount of  EPCs had negative correlation with BNP. Conclusion: The application of stem cell mobilization of circulating EPCs can improve the clinical curative effect of myocardial infarction patients and heart failure, cyclic EPCs and BNP detection can effectively evaluate the heart function and prognosis.

  12. Chemo-Predictive Assay for Targeting Cancer Stem-Like Cells in Patients Affected by Brain Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Mathis, Sarah E.; Anthony Alberico; Rounak Nande; Walter Neto; Logan Lawrence; Danielle R McCallister; James Denvir; Gerrit A Kimmey; Mark Mogul; Gerard Oakley; Denning, Krista L.; Thomas Dougherty; Jagan V Valluri; Pier Paolo Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Administration of ineffective anticancer therapy is associated with unnecessary toxicity and development of resistant clones. Cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) resist chemotherapy, thereby causing relapse of the disease. Thus, development of a test that identifies the most effective chemotherapy management offers great promise for individualized anticancer treatments. We have developed an ex vivo chemotherapy sensitivity assay (ChemoID), which measures the sensitivity of CSLCs as well as the bul...

  13. Break into left anterior descending coronary artery suggest myocardial bridging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Carmine; Basaglia, Manuela; Gaibazzi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    A 67 year-old woman presented with stable effort angina. A resting electrocardiogram was inconclusive. High-dose dipyridamole contrast-echocardiography shows normal left ventricular wall motion after 0.84mg/kg/6min dipyridamole. At rest a turbolent flow demonstrable by color aliasing, appeared in the territory of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) during the diastolic phase. PMID:27163904

  14. Transient Presyncope Secondary to Posterior Descending Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Moffat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 64-year-old male initially presenting with presyncope and bradycardia, without any anginal symptoms or objective evidence of myocardial ischemia. A stress test induced no physical symptoms but revealed a left bundle branch block with multiple preventricular contractions on electrocardiogram. Subsequent catheterization revealed severe obstructive disease throughout the coronary arteries. He was treated percutaneously on two separate heart catheterizations. The presyncope and bradycardia resolved after reperfusion of the posterior descending artery.

  15. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis: increased mortality due to delayed presentation

    OpenAIRE

    EROL, Mehmet Muharrem; Ural, Ahmet; Melek, Hüseyin; BAYRAM, Ahmet Sami; TEKİNBAŞ, Celal; GEBİTEKİN, Cengiz

    2011-01-01

    To describe the clinical features of descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) and to outline the diagnostic and therapeutic measures to be taken in its management. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data from 13 patients with DNM treated between 2001 and 2012 in 2 tertiary care centers, together with their demographics, diagnostic methods, therapeutic interventions, and clinical outcomes. Results: The patients consisted of 10 males and 3 females, aged from 16 to 72 yea...

  16. The Last Descendant of Tycho Brahe Lives in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, M.

    On 24 October 1601 passed away, in the 55th year of his life, the great astronomer Tycho Brahe. Now, four centuries since his death, his last descendant is living in Romania: Lydia Baroness Løvendal-Papae. An encyclopedic culture and training as hers can rarely be found today; she also is an excellent specialist in genealogy and heraldry. She has not only the merit of studying the cosmic symbols in heraldry, but especially that of establishing the genealogical tree of the famous Danish astronomer. She also holds a genealogical record: as the last descendant of the old Danish dynasty, she descends from all European dynasties, including the founders of the Romanian countries. We shall dwell here neither upon the great personality of Tycho Brahe, nor on his role in the modern astronomy. We shall not refer to the Tycho catalogue resulted from the space mission Hipparcos. We shall dwell upon the ancient aristocratic family Brahe. The oldest firm mention goes as far back as in 1364, but there are data enough on the existence of some members of this family in the 13th century. The Brahe family was related to a no less famous family, that of the Barons Løvendal. One of the ancestors of Lydia Baroness Løvendal is the renowned Ulrik Frederik Voldemar, Baron, then Count Lovendal, marshal of France (1700-1755), whose name was assigned to one of the most important boulevards of Paris.

  17. Descending pain modulation and its interaction with peripheral sensitization following sustained isometric muscle contraction in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Nie, HongLing; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sustained isometric muscle contraction (fatiguing contraction) recruits segmental and/or extrasegmental descending inhibition in healthy subjects but not in fibromyalgia (FM). We hypothesized that fatiguing contraction may shift descending pain modulation from inhibition towards...

  18. Metabolic changes in the rat brain after a photochemical lesion treated by stem cell transplantation assessed by 1H MRS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herynek, V.; Růžičková, Kateřina; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva; Hájek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2009), s. 211-220. ISSN 0968-5243 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN201110651; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/1594 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538; EC-FP6 project DiMI(XE) LSHB-CT-2005-512146; GA MZd(CZ) MZ01IKEM2005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : mesenchymal stem cell transplantation * magnetic resonance spectroscopy * rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.859, year: 2009

  19. 磁共振在脑干损伤急性期诊断及预后判断中的价值%Value of magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis and prognosis prediction of brain stem injury at acute stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶伟; 于明琨

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究脑干损伤患者在急性期(伤后7 d内)的头颅CT和MRI表现特点,以及头颅MRI表现与预后之间的关系,为脑干损伤患者提供影像学诊断依据和预后评价指标.方法 收集本院2007年11月-2008年9月临床确诊为脑干损伤的患者作为研究对象.在脑干损伤早期对其进行头颅CT和MRI检查,伤后随访6个月,根据Barthal指数和残疾分级评分(DRS)来评价患者的预后及生存质量.结果 急性期头颅MRI对脑干损伤的发现率明显高于头颅CT,而且脑干损伤部位不同的患者,其预后差异有统计学意义.结论 在脑干损伤急性期,头颅MRI检查对腩干损伤的检出率较头颅CT高,同时对脑干病灶显示得更加清楚.依据MRI表现可以对脑干损伤进行分类,并为脑干损伤患者提供影像学诊断及预后评价依据.%Objective To study in patients characteristics of head CT and MRI of patients with brain stem injury at acute stage(<7 days)and discuss the relationship of head MRI manifestations and prognosis so as to provide indicators for imaging diagnosis and prognostic evaluation.Methods The patients with brain stem injury from November 2007 to September 2008 were involved in the study.Cranial CT and MRI were performed at early stage after brain stem injury.The patients were followed up for six months to evaluate prognosis and life quality of the patients based on disable rating scale(DRS)and Barthal score.Results MRI could detect more brain stem injuries than CT.The patients with injury at different parts of brain stem showed a statistical difference in regard of prognosis.Conclusions At acute stage of brain stem injury,cranial MRI has higher detection rate and clearer display of the brain stem lesions compared with CT.MRI manifestations can not only help classification of the brain stem injury,but also cater basis for diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of patients with brain stem injury.

  20. Applications of self-assembling peptide nanofibre scaffold and mesenchymal stem cell graft in surgery-induced brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Ka-kit, Gilberto; 梁嘉傑

    2014-01-01

    Surgery-induced brain injury (SBI) refers to trauma caused by routine neurosurgical procedures that may result in post-operative complications and neurological deficits. Unlike accidental trauma, SBI is potentially subject to preemptive interventions at the time of surgery. SBI can cause bleeding, inflammation and the formation of tissue gaps. Conventional haemostatic techniques, though effective, are not necessarily conducive to healing. Inflammation and the absence of extracellular matrix i...

  1. STEM, STEM Education, STEMmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces integrative STEM (science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics) education and discusses the importance of the program. The notion of integrative STEM education includes approaches that explore teaching and learning between/among any two or more of the STEM subject areas, and/or between a STEM subject…

  2. The Impact of the Organism on Its Descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bateson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, evolutionary biologists have taken the view that an understanding of development is irrelevant to theories of evolution. However, the integration of several disciplines in recent years suggests that this position is wrong. The capacity of the organism to adapt to challenges from the environment can set up conditions that affect the subsequent evolution of its descendants. Moreover, molecular events arising from epigenetic processes can be transmitted from one generation to the next and influence genetic mutation. This in turn can facilitate evolution in the conditions in which epigenetic change was first initiated.

  3. Implications for preserving neural stem cells in whole brain radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation. A review of 2270 metastases in 488 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study delineated the incidence of metastatic involvement of neural stem cell (NSC) regions and further aimed to explore the feasibility of selectively sparing the NSC compartments during whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). A total of 2270 intracranial metastases in 488 patients were identified. Lesions were classified according to locations, including lesions in the NSC compartments (subventricular zone, SVZ, or hippocampus) and those in the rest of the brain/brainstem. The incidence of involvement of NSC regions was compared between oligometastatic patients (those with 1-4 lesions) and non-oligometastatic patients (those with 5 or more lesions) using a chi-square test. The volume of the NSC regions accounted for 2.23% of the whole brain, and the overall rate of metastatic lesions in NSC regions was 1.1% in 2270 metastases (25/2270), and 4.7% in 488 patients (23/488). Of the NSC region metastases, 7 (0.3%) involved the hippocampus and 18 (0.8%) occurred in the SVZ. Among the 7 hippocampal metastases identified in this study, 1/7 (14.3%) were found in oligometastatic patients, while 6/7 (85.7%) metastases were in non-oligometastatic patients. For metastases in the SVZ, all lesions occurred in non-oligometastatic patients with none in oligometastatic patients. Metastatic involvement of the NSC compartments was significantly lower in oligometastatic patients (0.15%, 1/670) than in non-oligometastatic patients (1.5%, 24/1600) (P<0.001). Our retrospective review of 2270 metastases in 488 patients is that the volume of the compartments of NSC regions was 2.23% relative to the whole brain, but the incidence of involvement of the NSC compartments was 1.1%, and the vast majority of NSC lesions were found in non-oligometastatic patients. We believe our data supports selective reduction of doses for these aforementioned structures, when treating oligometastatic patients with WBRT and locally advanced-stage small-cell lung cancer

  4. Stem cell biology meets systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Roeder, I.; Radtke, F.

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells and their descendents are the building blocks of life. How stem cell populations guarantee their maintenance and/or self-renewal, and how individual stem cells decide to transit from one cell stage to another to generate different cell types are long-standing and fascinating questions in the field. Here, we review the discussions that took place at a recent EMBO conference in Cambridge, UK, in which these questions were placed in the context of the latest advances in stem cell biol...

  5. Early distribution of intravenously injected mesenchymal stem cells in rats with acute brain trauma evaluated by 99mTc-HMPAO labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Stem cell tracking is essential for evaluation of its migration, transplantation and therapeutic response. The aim of this study was to evaluate early distribution of intravenously transplanted rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in rats with acute cerebral trauma by labeling with 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO). Methods: 99mTc-HMPAO-labeled BMSCs were injected intravenously to trauma rats (n=14) and sham-operated controls (n=13). Gamma camera images were acquired at 4 h after injection, and then organs were removed for gamma counting. Confocal microscope was used to confirm the migration of 99mTc-BMSCs by co-labeling with PKH26. Cytometric analysis was performed to evaluate apoptotic or necrotic change until the seventh day after labeling. Results: 99mTc-BMSCs were distributed mostly to lungs, liver and spleen at 4 h, and uptake of these organs was not significantly different between traumatic rats and controls. Meanwhile, the cerebral uptake of 99mTc-BMSCs was significantly higher in the traumatic rats than in controls (0.40% vs. 0.20%; P=.0002). Additionally, 99mTc-BMSCs' uptake of traumatic hemisphere was significantly higher than that of contralateral ones (0.27% vs. 0.13%; P=.0001) in traumatic rats. Regardless of radiolabeling, BMSCs migrated to traumatic regions, but not to nontraumatic hemispheres. However, gamma camera failed to demonstrate 99mTc-BMSCs in traumatic hemispheres. No significant apoptotic or necrotic change was observed until 7 days after radiolabeling. Conclusions: Early distribution of BMSCs in traumatic brain disease could be monitored by 99mTc-labeling, which does not induce cellular death. However, our data showed that the amount of migrated 99mTc-BMSCs was not enough to be demonstrated by clinical gamma camera.

  6. Dopamine from the brain promotes spinal motor neuron generation during development and adult regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Michell M; Norris, Anneliese; Ohnmacht, Jochen; Patani, Rickie; Zhong, Zhen; Dias, Tatyana B; Kuscha, Veronika; Scott, Angela L; Chen, Yu-Chia; Rozov, Stanislav; Frazer, Sarah L; Wyatt, Cameron; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Patton, E Elizabeth; Panula, Pertti; Chandran, Siddharthan; Becker, Thomas; Becker, Catherina G

    2013-06-10

    Coordinated development of brain stem and spinal target neurons is pivotal for the emergence of a precisely functioning locomotor system. Signals that match the development of these far-apart regions of the central nervous system may be redeployed during spinal cord regeneration. Here we show that descending dopaminergic projections from the brain promote motor neuron generation at the expense of V2 interneurons in the developing zebrafish spinal cord by activating the D4a receptor, which acts on the hedgehog pathway. Inhibiting this essential signal during early neurogenesis leads to a long-lasting reduction of motor neuron numbers and impaired motor responses of free-swimming larvae. Importantly, during successful spinal cord regeneration in adult zebrafish, endogenous dopamine promotes generation of spinal motor neurons, and dopamine agonists augment this process. Hence, we describe a supraspinal control mechanism for the development and regeneration of specific spinal cell types that uses dopamine as a signal. PMID:23707737

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging tracing of transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in a rat model of cardiac arrest-induced global brain ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Fu; Xiangshao Fang; Tong Wang; Jiwen Wang; Jun Jiang; Zhigang Luo; Xiaohui Duan; Jun Shen; Zitong Huang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect survival and migration of super paramagnetic iron oxide-labeled stem cells in models of focal cerebral infarction. OBJECTIVE: To observe distribution of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a rat model of global brain ischemia following cardiac arrest and resuscitation, and to investigate the feasibility of tracing iron oxide-labeled BMSCs using non-invasive MRI. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The randomized, controlled, molecular imaging study was performed at the Linbaixin Medical Research Center, Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, and the Institute of Cardiopulmonary Cerebral Resuscitation, Sun Yat-sen University, China from October 2006 to February 2009.MATERIALS: A total of 40 clean, Sprague Dawley rats, aged 6 weeks and of either gender, were supplied by the Experimental Animal Center, Sun Yat-sen University, China, for isolation of BMSCs. Feridex (iron oxide), Gyroscan Inetra 1.5T MRI system, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation device were used in this study. METHODS: A total of 30 healthy, male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 6 months, were used to induce ventricular fibrillation using alternating current. After 8 minutes, the rats underwent 6-minute chest compression and mechanical ventilation, followed by electric defibrillation, to establish rat models of global brain ischemia due to cardiac arrest and resuscitation. A total of 24 successful models were randomly assigned to Feridex-labeled and non-labeled groups (n=12 for each group). At 2 hours after resuscitation, 5 x 10 6 Feddex-labeled BMSCs, with protamine sulfate as a carrier, and 5 × 10 6 non-labeled BMSCs were respectively transplanted into both groups of rats through the right carotid artery (cells were harvested in 1 mL phosphate buffered saline). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Feridex-labeled BMSCs were observed by Prussian blue staining and electron microscopy. Signal intensity, celluar viability

  8. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  9. A preclinical murine model for the early detection of radiation-induced brain injury using magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral tests for learning and memory: with applications for the evaluation of possible stem cell imaging agents and therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngen, Ethel J; Wang, Lee; Gandhi, Nishant; Kato, Yoshinori; Armour, Michael; Zhu, Wenlian; Wong, John; Gabrielson, Kathleen L; Artemov, Dmitri

    2016-06-01

    Stem cell therapies are being developed for radiotherapy-induced brain injuries (RIBI). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers advantages for imaging transplanted stem cells. However, most MRI cell-tracking techniques employ superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs), which are difficult to distinguish from hemorrhage. In current preclinical RIBI models, hemorrhage occurs concurrently with other injury markers. This makes the evaluation of the recruitment of transplanted SPIO-labeled stem cells to injury sites difficult. Here, we developed a RIBI model, with early injury markers reflective of hippocampal dysfunction, which can be detected noninvasively with MRI and behavioral tests. Lesions were generated by sub-hemispheric irradiation of mouse hippocampi with single X-ray beams of 80 Gy. Lesion formation was monitored with anatomical and contrast-enhanced MRI and changes in memory and learning were assessed with fear-conditioning tests. Early injury markers were detected 2 weeks after irradiation. These included an increase in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, demonstrated by a 92 ± 20 % contrast enhancement of the irradiated versus the non-irradiated brain hemispheres, within 15 min of the administration of an MRI contrast agent. A change in short-term memory was also detected, as demonstrated by a 40.88 ± 5.03 % decrease in the freezing time measured during the short-term memory context test at this time point, compared to that before irradiation. SPIO-labeled stem cells transplanted contralateral to the lesion migrated toward the lesion at this time point. No hemorrhage was detected up to 10 weeks after irradiation. This model can be used to evaluate SPIO-based stem cell-tracking agents, short-term. PMID:27021492

  10. Differentiation of human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC) into neural progenitors as a tool to study both the pathways during early brain development and the neuroteratogenic effecys of ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Kostic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Differentiation of human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC) into neural progenitors as a tool to study both the pathways during early brain development and the neuroteratogenic effects of ethanol Thesis: Jelena Kostic The main objective of this work is to use human neuroprogenitors (hNPs) cells from hESC as a tool to study the cellular and molecular events involved in early human neural development under physiological conditions and to study the teratogenic effects of ethanol during the init...

  11. Use antibodies to DNA for detection of X-ray impairments of DNA in nuclei of brain stem cells of irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using antibodies to DNA, impairments of DNA in nuclei of brain stem cells were studied in white male-rats at early stages after X-ray irradiation. Irradiation doses were 25.8, 103.2, 154.8, 206.4 and 258 m Coul/kg. Only at 258 m Coul/kg dose the complete repair of immunofluorescent cells percentage up to the level of intact animals was observed 1h after irradiation. The complete repair at 103.2 m Coul/kg dose occured 3h after the irradiation. The lethal doses (206.4 - 258 m Coul/kg) caused such DNA impairments which were not reduced even 3h after the irradiation of the animals. Thus, it is shown that the immunological method can be useful for studying DNA structural impairments in the range of 25.8-258 m Coul/kg doses. The method permits to test DNA radiation damages without its extraction from the cell

  12. Use antibodies to DNA for detection of X-ray impairments of DNA in nuclei of brain stem cells of irradiated animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitryaeva, N.A.; Moskalenko, I.P.

    1981-01-01

    Using antibodies to DNA, impairments of DNA in nuclei of brain stem cells were studied in white male-rats at early stages after X-ray irradiation. Irradiation doses were 25.8, 103.2, 154.8, 206.4 and 258 m Coul/kg. Only at 258 m Coul/kg dose the complete repair of immunofluorescent cells percentage up to the level of intact animals was observed 1h after irradiation. The complete repair at 103.2 m Coul/kg dose occured 3h after the irradiation. The lethal doses (206.4 - 258 m Coul/kg) caused such DNA impairments which were not reduced even 3h after the irradiation of the animals. Thus, it is shown that the immunological method can be useful for studying DNA structural impairments in the range of 25.8-258 m Coul/kg doses. The method permits to test DNA radiation damages without its extraction from the cell.

  13. Sparing of the hippocampus, limbic circuit and neural stem cell compartment during partial brain radiotherapy for glioma: a dosimetric feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of sparing contralateral or bilateral neural stem cell (NSC) compartment, hippocampus and limbic circuit during partial brain radiotherapy (PBRT). Treatment plans were generated for five hemispheric high-grade gliomas, five hemispheric low-grade gliomas and two brainstem gliomas (12 patients). For each, standard intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were generated, as well as IMRT plans which spared contralateral (hemispheric cases) or bilateral (brainstem cases) limbic circuit, hippocampus, and NSC. Biologically equivalent dose for late effects (BEDlate effects) was generated for limbic circuit, hippocampus and NSC. Per cent relative reduction in mean physical dose and BED was calculated for each plan (standard vs. sparing). We were able to reduce physical dose and BEDlate effects to these critical structures by 23.5–56.8% and 23.6–66%, respectively. It is possible to spare contralateral limbic circuit, NSC and hippocampus during PBRT for both high- and low-grade gliomas using IMRT, and to spare the hippocampus bilaterally during PBRT for brainstem low-grade gliomas. This approach may reduce late cognitive sequelae of cranial radiotherapy.

  14. STEM, STEM Education, STEMmania

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    A series of circumstances has once more created an opportunity for technology educators to develop and implement new integrative approaches to STEM education championed by STEM education reform doctrine over the past two decades.

  15. Chemo-predictive assay for targeting cancer stem-like cells in patients affected by brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Mathis

    Full Text Available Administration of ineffective anticancer therapy is associated with unnecessary toxicity and development of resistant clones. Cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs resist chemotherapy, thereby causing relapse of the disease. Thus, development of a test that identifies the most effective chemotherapy management offers great promise for individualized anticancer treatments. We have developed an ex vivo chemotherapy sensitivity assay (ChemoID, which measures the sensitivity of CSLCs as well as the bulk of tumor cells to a variety of chemotherapy agents. Two patients, a 21-year old male (patient 1 and a 5-month female (patient 2, affected by anaplastic WHO grade-III ependymoma were screened using the ChemoID assay. Patient 1 was found sensitive to the combination of irinotecan and bevacizumab, which resulted in a prolonged disease progression free period of 18 months. Following recurrence, the combination of various chemotherapy drugs was tested again with the ChemoID assay. We found that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC greatly increased the chemosensitivity of the ependymoma cells to the combination of irinotecan and bevacizumab. After patient 1 was treated for two months with irinotecan, bevacizumab and supplements of cruciferous vegetable extracts containing BITC, we observed over 50% tumoral regression in comparison with pre-ChemoID scan as evidenced by MRI. Patient 2 was found resistant to all treatments tested and following 6 cycles of vincristine, carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and cisplatin in various combinations, the tumor of this patient rapidly progressed and proton beam therapy was recommended. As expected animal studies conducted with patient derived xenografts treated with ChemoID screened drugs recapitulated the clinical observation. This assay demonstrates that patients with the same histological stage and grade of cancer may vary considerably in their clinical response, suggesting that ChemoID testing which measures the sensitivity

  16. Chemo-predictive assay for targeting cancer stem-like cells in patients affected by brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Sarah E; Alberico, Anthony; Nande, Rounak; Neto, Walter; Lawrence, Logan; McCallister, Danielle R; Denvir, James; Kimmey, Gerrit A; Mogul, Mark; Oakley, Gerard; Denning, Krista L; Dougherty, Thomas; Valluri, Jagan V; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Administration of ineffective anticancer therapy is associated with unnecessary toxicity and development of resistant clones. Cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) resist chemotherapy, thereby causing relapse of the disease. Thus, development of a test that identifies the most effective chemotherapy management offers great promise for individualized anticancer treatments. We have developed an ex vivo chemotherapy sensitivity assay (ChemoID), which measures the sensitivity of CSLCs as well as the bulk of tumor cells to a variety of chemotherapy agents. Two patients, a 21-year old male (patient 1) and a 5-month female (patient 2), affected by anaplastic WHO grade-III ependymoma were screened using the ChemoID assay. Patient 1 was found sensitive to the combination of irinotecan and bevacizumab, which resulted in a prolonged disease progression free period of 18 months. Following recurrence, the combination of various chemotherapy drugs was tested again with the ChemoID assay. We found that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) greatly increased the chemosensitivity of the ependymoma cells to the combination of irinotecan and bevacizumab. After patient 1 was treated for two months with irinotecan, bevacizumab and supplements of cruciferous vegetable extracts containing BITC, we observed over 50% tumoral regression in comparison with pre-ChemoID scan as evidenced by MRI. Patient 2 was found resistant to all treatments tested and following 6 cycles of vincristine, carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and cisplatin in various combinations, the tumor of this patient rapidly progressed and proton beam therapy was recommended. As expected animal studies conducted with patient derived xenografts treated with ChemoID screened drugs recapitulated the clinical observation. This assay demonstrates that patients with the same histological stage and grade of cancer may vary considerably in their clinical response, suggesting that ChemoID testing which measures the sensitivity of CSLCs as

  17. L'uranium et ses descendants dans la chaine alimentaire

    OpenAIRE

    Jeambrun, Marion

    2012-01-01

    L'uranium, le thorium et leurs descendants se trouvent a l'état de traces dans toutes les roches sur Terre. Sous l'action de l'érosion, des mécanismes de formation des sols et des transferts sol-plante, ces radionucléides sont disséminés dans toutes les composantes de l'environnement et via les chaînes alimentaires, ils sont transmis aux animaux et à l'homme. L'objectif de cette étude consiste à améliorer les connaissances sur les niveaux et la variabilité des activités de ces radionucléides ...

  18. Multiple messengers in descending serotonin neurons: localization and functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hökfelt, T; Arvidsson, U; Cullheim, S; Millhorn, D; Nicholas, A P; Pieribone, V; Seroogy, K; Ulfhake, B

    2000-02-01

    In the present review article we summarize mainly histochemical work dealing with descending bulbospinal serotonin neurons which also express a number of neuropeptides, in particular substance P and thyrotropin releasing hormone. Such neurons have been observed both in rat, cat and monkey, and may preferentially innervate the ventral horns of the spinal cord, whereas the serotonin projections to the dorsal horn seem to lack these coexisting peptides. More recent studies indicate that a small population of medullary raphe serotonin neurons, especially at rostral levels, also synthesize the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). Many serotonin neurons contain the glutamate synthesizing enzyme glutaminase and can be labelled with antibodies raised against glutamate, suggesting that one and the same neuron may release several signalling substances, causing a wide spectrum of post- (and pre-) synaptic actions. PMID:10708921

  19. Intracerebroventricular transplanted bone marrow stem cells survive and migrate into the brain of rats with Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Gu; Zhongxia Zhang; Dongsheng Cui; Yanyong Wang; Lin Ma; Yuan Geng; Mingwei Wang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 6-hydroxydopamine was stereotaxically injected into the right substantia nigra compact and ventral tegmental area of rats to establish Parkinson’s disease models. The rats then received a transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells that were previously isolated, cultured and labeled with 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine in vitro. Transplantation of the bone marrow stromal cells significantly decreased apomorphine-induced rotation time and the escape latency in the Morris water maze test as compared with rats with untreated Parkinson’s disease. Immunohistochemical staining showed that, 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine-immunoreactive cells were present in the lateral ventricular wall and the choroid plexus 1 day after transplantation. These immunoreactive cells migrated to the surrounding areas of the lateral cerebral ventricle along the corpus callosum. The results indicated that bone marrow stromal cells could migrate to tissues surround the cerebral ventricle via the cerebrospinal fluid circulation and fuse with cells in the brain, thus altering the phenotype of cells or forming neuron-like cells or astrocytes capable of expressing neuron-specific proteins. Taken together, the present findings indicate that bone marrow stromal cells transplanted intracerebroventricularly could survive, migrate and significantly improve the rotational behavior and cognitive function of rats with experimentally induced Parkinson’s disease.

  20. High Field MRI Study on the Development of Fetal Brain Stem of 14-40 Weeks Gestational Age%14~40周胎儿脑干发育的高场强MRI研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英; 张忠和; 刘树伟; 田路; 樊慧丽; 刘群星; 来洪建

    2011-01-01

    目的:应用高场强MRI探讨胎儿脑干发育规律.方法:选取85例14~40孕周胎儿标本,均行3.0 T MR扫描,其中20例加行7.0 T MR扫描,并在扫描图像上应用eFilm软件测量脑干下述各径线的数值.① 脑干前后径,采用4条径线表示.A线,大脑脚前缘中点与中脑水管中点间距离;B线,脑桥前缘中点与第四脑室底最短距离;C线,脑桥与延髓移行部的最短距离;D线,延髓与脊髓移行部的最短距离.② 脑干长径,采用3条径线表示.E线,大脑脚长轴距离;F线,脑桥长轴距离;G线,延髓长轴距离.结果:各径线测量值随胎龄增长呈线性增加,依据线的斜率可知脑干内部各结构以不同速度增长.F线增长最快,D线增长最慢.A线和E线几乎保持相同的增长速度,B线和F线也几乎保持同样的增长速度.结论:高场强MRI可以清晰显示胎儿脑干解剖结构,为临床评价正常胎儿脑干发育提供了形态学基础.%Objective: To investigate the developmental rules of fetal brain stem with high field MRI.Methods :85 fetal specimens of 14 - 40 weeks gestational age were scanned by 3. 0 T MRI, and 20 fetal specimens of 14 - 22 weeks gestational age was also scanned by 7. 0 T MRI. The diameters of the brain stem were obtained with eFilm software on the above MRIs. The measurements were as follows : ① The anteroposterior diameters of the brain stem, which included 4 lines : line A : the distance between the midpoint of anterior border of the cerebral peduncle and midpoint of the midbrain aqueduct; line B : the shortest distance between the mid point of anterior border of the pons and basement of the fourth ventricle; line C: the shortest distance of the transitional part between the pons and medulla; line D : the shortest distance of the transitional part between the medulla and spinal cord. ② The long diameters of the brain stem, which included 3 lines: line E: length of long diameter of the cerehral peduncle; line F: length of

  1. The short-term curative effects of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation on patients with primary brain stem injury%自体骨髓间充质干细胞移植治疗原发性脑干损伤的近期效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖以磊; 李忠民; 朱建新; 耿凤阳; 郭传军; 庞月玖; 陈秋兰; 张志逖; 种宗雷

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察自体骨髓间充质干细胞移植治疗原发性脑干损伤的近期有效性和安全性.方法 2007年7月至2010年7月我院收治原发性脑干损伤患者54例.移植组30例患者通过蛛网膜下腔注射方式行自体骨髓间充质干细胞移植,选择同时期入院但未行干细胞移植患者24例作为对照组.两组患者移植后1个月进行NIHSS评分,移植后6个月进行疗效比较.同期检测血常规、凝血机制、生化全项、肿瘤标记物.结果 移植后1个月,移植组患者NIHSS评分与对照组比较差异有统计学意义[分别为(10.86 ±7.48)、(18.26±8.74)分,t=2.681,P<0.05];移植后6个月进行疗效比较差异有统计学意义(Z=2.306,P <0.05).随访各项血液检查结果未出现明显异常.结论 自体骨髓间充质干细胞移植治疗原发性脑干损伤安全且近期疗效确定,远期疗效尚待进一步观察.%Objective To explore the short-term curative effect and safety of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation in patients with primary brain stem injury.Methods Fifty-four cases with primary brain stem injury were hospitalized during Jul.2007 to Jul.2010 at Liaocheng Brain Hospital,Shandong Province.All cases were randomized into transplantation group( n =30)or control group( n =24 ).The transplantation group was treated with autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation by subarachnoid space injection (n =30).The control group were selected from primary brain stem injury patients without stem cell transplantation who were hospitalized at the same period with patients from the transplantation group.Respectively,National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was employed to evaluate the condition of patients in the two groups one month after treatment,and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score was used to evaluate curative effects of the two groups at sixth months after treatment.Meanwhile,some other parameters were observed

  2. In vivo tracing of superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplanted for traumatic brain injury by susceptibility weighted imaging in a rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jing-liang; YANG Yun-jun; LI Hua-li; WANG Juan; WANG Mei-hao; ZHANG Yong

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To label rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) in vitro, and to monitor the survival and location of these labeled BMSCs in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) by susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI)sequence.Methods:BMSCs were cultured in vitro and then labeled with SPIO. Totally 24 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into 4 groups: Groups A-D (n=6 for each group). Moderate TBI models of all the rats were developed in the left hemisphere following Feeney's method. Group A was the experimental group and stereotaxic transplantation of BMSCs labeled with SPIO into the region nearby the contusion was conducted in this group 24 hours after TBI modeling. The other three groups were control groups with transplantation of SPIO, unlabeled BMSCs and injection of nutrient solution respectively conducted in Groups B, C and D at the same time. Monitoring of these SPIO-labeled BMSCs by SWI was performed one day,one week and three weeks after implantation.Results: Numerous BMSCs were successfully labeled with SPIO. They were positive for Prussian blue staining and intracytoplasm positive blue stained particles were found under a microscope (×200). Scattered little iron particles were observed in the vesicles by electron microscopy (×5000). MRI of the transplantation sites of the left hemisphere demonstrated a low signal intensity on magnitude images,phase images and SWI images for all the test rats in Group A, and the lesion in the left parietal cortex demonstrated a semicircular low intensity on SWI images, which clearly showed the distribution and migration of BMSCs in the first and third weeks. For Group B, a low signal intensity by MRI was only observed on the first day but undetected during the following examination. No signals were observed in Groups C and D at any time points.Conclusion:SWI sequence in vivo can consecutively and noninvasively trace and demonstrate the

  3. Combined Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Transplantation Promotes Neural Repair Associated With CNTF Expression in Traumatic Brain-Injured Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xue-Mei; Liu, Su-Juan; Dan, Qi-Qin; Wang, Yan-Ping; Lin, Na; Lv, Long-Yun; Zou, Yu; Liu, Su; Zhou, Xue; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) and olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) cografting on neural function and underlying molecular mechanisms in acute stage of traumatic brain injury (TBI) rats. Eighty Sprague-Dawley (SD) female rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 16 per category): sham operated group (Sham), weight-drop-induced TBI group (TBI), BMSC transplantation group (BMSC), OEC transplantation group (OEC), and cotransplantation group (CO). Eight rats were randomly selected from each group for behavioral and morphological assessment. Another category (n = 8 rats) was employed in the genetic expression detection. BMSCs were isolated from GFP mice and identified by CD44 antibody. OECs were isolated from the SD rats, identified by P75 antibody and labeled by Hoechst 33342. They were then transplanted into the surrounding tissue of the epicenter of TBI rats. The result of neurological severity scores revealed that BMSC or OEC transplantation alone and BMSC and OEC cografting significantly ameliorated the neurological deficits of TBI rats. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis showed that graft-recipient animals possessed dramatically more neurons and regenerated axons and smaller amounts of astrocytes than controls 14 days posttransplantation (p < 0.05). However, the expressional level of ciliary neurotrophic factor significantly decreased in the cografting group as determined by RT-PCR (p < 0.05), and the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway was significantly activated at 7 days after cell transplantation (p < 0.05). This study is the first to report the role of cotransplantation of BMSCs and OECs in the therapy of TBI and explore its potential molecular mechanisms, therefore providing the important morphological and molecular biological evidence for the clinical application of BMSC and/or OEC transplantation in TBI. PMID:24612678

  4. Lead induces similar gene expression changes in brains of gestationally exposed adult mice and in neurons differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Sánchez-Martín

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental toxicants during embryonic life causes changes in the expression of developmental genes that may last for a lifetime and adversely affect the exposed individual. Developmental exposure to lead (Pb, an ubiquitous environmental contaminant, causes deficits in cognitive functions and IQ, behavioral effects, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Long-term effects observed after early life exposure to Pb include reduction of gray matter, alteration of myelin structure, and increment of criminal behavior in adults. Despite growing research interest, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the effects of lead in the central nervous system are still largely unknown. To study the molecular changes due to Pb exposure during neurodevelopment, we exposed mice to Pb in utero and examined the expression of neural markers, neurotrophins, transcription factors and glutamate-related genes in hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus at postnatal day 60. We found that hippocampus was the area where gene expression changes due to Pb exposure were more pronounced. To recapitulate gestational Pb exposure in vitro, we differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC into neurons and treated ESC-derived neurons with Pb for the length of the differentiation process. These neurons expressed the characteristic neuronal markers Tubb3, Syp, Gap43, Hud, Ngn1, Vglut1 (a marker of glutamatergic neurons, and all the glutamate receptor subunits, but not the glial marker Gafp. Importantly, several of the changes observed in Pb-exposed mouse brains in vivo were also observed in Pb-treated ESC-derived neurons, including those affecting expression of Ngn1, Bdnf exon IV, Grin1, Grin2D, Grik5, Gria4, and Grm6. We conclude that our ESC-derived model of toxicant exposure during neural differentiation promises to be a useful model to analyze mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by Pb and other environmental agents.

  5. Hypotrochoids in conformal restriction systems and Virasoro descendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conformal restriction system is a commutative, associative, unital algebra equipped with a representation of the groupoid of univalent conformal maps on connected open sets of the Riemann sphere, along with a family of linear functionals on subalgebras, satisfying a set of properties including conformal invariance and a type of restriction. This embodies some expected properties of expectation values in conformal loop ensembles CLEκ (at least for 8/3 iθ and w. We find that it has an expansion in positive powers of u and u-bar , and that the coefficients of pure u ( u-bar ) powers are holomorphic in w ( w-bar ). We identify these coefficients (the ‘hypotrochoid fields’) with certain Virasoro descendants of the identity field in conformal field theory, thereby showing that they form part of a vertex operator algebraic structure. This largely generalizes works by the author (in CLE), and the author with his collaborators Riva and Cardy (in SLE8/3 and other restriction measures), where the case of the ellipse, at the order u2, led to the stress–energy tensor of CFT. The derivation uses in an essential way the Virasoro vertex operator algebra structure of conformal derivatives established recently by the author. The results suggest in particular the exact evaluation of CLE expectations of products of hypotrochoid fields as well as nontrivial relations amongst them through the vertex operator algebra, and further shed light onto the relationship between CLE and CFT. (paper)

  6. Partnership dynamics among migrants and their descendants in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Rahnu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive scholarly literature documents the decline in marriage and increase in non-marital cohabitation and divorce across regions and countries of Europe, but we know less about the extent to which these new family behaviours that have emerged in host societies are adopted by migrants. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine partnership transitions among the migrants and their descendants in Estonia, who mainly originate from the European part of Russia. By investigating an East European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of migrant populations in different socio-economic and cultural settings. Methods: The study is based on the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (2004/2005 and the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (1994/1997, and employs proportional hazards models. Results: The results show that new family formation patterns, associated with the Second Demographic Transition, are less prevalent among migrants. The difference between migrants and native Estonians is most pronounced in the mode of partnership formation and outcomes of cohabiting unions, whereas the results pertaining to union dissolution reveal a less systematic difference between population groups. Reflecting the relatively slow integration, the second-generation migrants exhibit partnership behaviour that differs from that of the native population. The observed differences between migrants and the native population appear largely similar for both men and women. Conclusions: The results lend support to socialisation, cultural maintenance, and adaptation hypotheses, and underscore the importance of contextual factors. The analysis reveals disruption effects of migration on partnership processes.

  7. Phenotypic Plasticity and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transitions in Cancer - and Normal Stem Cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Scheel, Christina; Weinberg, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are similar to normal stem cells in their ability to self-renew and to generate large populations of more differentiated descendants. In contrast to the hierarchical organization that is presumed to be the prevalent mode of normal tissue homeostasis, phenotypic plasticity allows cancer cells to dynamically enter into and exit from stem-cell states. The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) has been closely associated with the acquisition of both invasive and stem-ce...

  8. Neuronal fiber tracts connecting the brain and ventral nerve cord of the early Drosophila larva

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Albert; Larsen, Camilla; Hartenstein, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Using a combination of dye injections, clonal labeling, and molecular markers we have reconstructed the axonal connections between brain and ventral nerve cord of the first instar Drosophila larva. Out of the approximately 1400 neurons that form the early larval brain hemisphere, less than 50 cells have axons descending into the ventral nerve cord. Descending neurons fall into four topologically defined clusters located in the antero-medial, antero-lateral, dorsal, and baso-posterior brain, r...

  9. Selection of reference genes for normalisation of real-time RT-PCR in brain-stem death injury in Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser John F

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart and lung transplantation is frequently the only therapeutic option for patients with end stage cardio respiratory disease. Organ donation post brain stem death (BSD is a pre-requisite, yet BSD itself causes such severe damage that many organs offered for donation are unusable, with lung being the organ most affected by BSD. In Australia and New Zealand, less than 50% of lungs offered for donation post BSD are suitable for transplantation, as compared with over 90% of kidneys, resulting in patients dying for lack of suitable lungs. Our group has developed a novel 24 h sheep BSD model to mimic the physiological milieu of the typical human organ donor. Characterisation of the gene expression changes associated with BSD is critical and will assist in determining the aetiology of lung damage post BSD. Real-time PCR is a highly sensitive method involving multiple steps from extraction to processing RNA so the choice of housekeeping genes is important in obtaining reliable results. Little information however, is available on the expression stability of reference genes in the sheep pulmonary artery and lung. We aimed to establish a set of stably expressed reference genes for use as a standard for analysis of gene expression changes in BSD. Results We evaluated the expression stability of 6 candidate normalisation genes (ACTB, GAPDH, HGPRT, PGK1, PPIA and RPLP0 using real time quantitative PCR. There was a wide range of Ct-values within each tissue for pulmonary artery (15–24 and lung (16–25 but the expression pattern for each gene was similar across the two tissues. After geNorm analysis, ACTB and PPIA were shown to be the most stably expressed in the pulmonary artery and ACTB and PGK1 in the lung tissue of BSD sheep. Conclusion Accurate normalisation is critical in obtaining reliable and reproducible results in gene expression studies. This study demonstrates tissue associated variability in the selection of these

  10. Socially responsible genetic research with descendants of the First Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Holst Pellekaan Sheila M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal Australians, one of the world’s indigenous peoples now outnumbered through colonization, are the most under-represented in genetic research because they feel that the benefits do not outweigh the social cost of involvement. Descendants of the First Australians have survived a period of European occupation during which time they were dispossessed of land, language and cultural identity resulting in inequities in health, education, and employment opportunities. Compared to Maori and Native American peoples, the ability to form organizations that help to control their affairs is very recent. The desire to control is understandably strong yet the ‘gate-keeping’ role of some organizations risks shifting the control away from smaller communities and has become increasingly politicized. In the past, research practices by Western scientists were poorly presented and have resulted in resistance to proposals that are perceived to have no beneficial outcomes for participants. In this age of advanced technological expertise in genetics, benefits to all humanity are clear to those carrying out research projects, yet not always to those being asked to participate, presenting extra challenges. Excellent guidelines for ethical conduct in research are available to assist researchers, prospective participants, and ethics committees or review boards that approve and monitor procedures. The essence of these guidelines are that research should be carried out with a spirit of integrity, respect, reciprocity, parity, recognition of survival and protection of social and cultural values, a need for control and shared responsibility. Specific Aboriginal organizations, with which researchers need to work to negotiate partnerships, vary within and between Australian states and will always expect Aboriginal personnel to be involved. People experienced in the consultation process are necessary as part of a team. By working patiently through lengthy

  11. Human insulin-like growth factor 1-transfected umbilical cord blood neural stem cell transplantation improves hypoxic-ischemic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengna Zhu; Yanjie Jia; Jun Wang; Boai Zhang; Guohui Niu; Yazhen Fan

    2011-01-01

    Human insulin-like growth factor 1-transfected umbilical cord blood neural stem cells were transplanted into a hypoxic-ischemic neonatal rat model via the tail vein.BrdU-positive cells at day 7post-transplantation,as well as nestin-and neuron specific enolase-positive cells at day 14 wereincreased compared with those of the single neural stem cell transplantation group.In addition,theproportion of neuronal differentiation was enhanced.The genetically modified cell-transplanted ratsexhibited enhanced performance in correctly crossing a Y-maze and climbing an angled slope compared with those of the single neural stem cell transplantation group.These results showed that human insulin-like growth factor 1-transfected neural stem cell transplantation promotes therecovery of the learning,memory and motor functions in hypoxic-ischemic rats.

  12. Cartographies of the Political Camp of Afro-Descendents in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Agustín Lao-Montes

    2009-01-01

    This article lays out, in general terms, what it calls the political camp of Afro-descendents in Latin America. After establishing a series of theoretical and methodological criteria for the historical analysis of black movements in modernity and the Afro-American movements in particular, the article focuses on the emergence of afro-descendant movements in Latin America during the last part of the 1980s. One of the principal arguments is that in the 1990s a political camp of afro-descendents ...

  13. Neurogenesis and brain injury: managing a renewable resource for repair

    OpenAIRE

    Hallbergson, Anna F.; Gnatenco, Carmen; Peterson, Daniel A.

    2003-01-01

    The brain shows limited ability to repair itself, but neurogenesis in certain areas of the adult brain suggests that neural stem cells may be used for structural brain repair. It will be necessary to understand how neurogenesis in the adult brain is regulated to develop strategies that harness neural stem cells for therapeutic use.

  14. 'The tropics make it difficult to mope': The imaginative geography of Alexander Payne's The Descendants (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Palencia, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the cinematic landscape of The Descendants (Payne, 2011) by engaging with Edward Said's concept of "imaginative geographies" (Orientalism, 1978), a theoretical approach that addresses the interaction between the material and the symbolic in spatial representation. I also draw from Henri Lefebvre (The Production of Space, 1974) to explain how Alexander Payne renders space and subjectivity as mutually constitutive. The Descendants' powerful analogies between family ties and ...

  15. Convection forced by a descending dry layer and low-level moist convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Andrew; Vaughan, Geraint; Norton, Emily G.; Ricketts, Hugo M. A.; Morcrette , Cyril J.; Hewison, Tim J.; Browning, Keith A; Alan M. Blyth

    2009-01-01

    A narrow line of convective showers was observed over southern England on 18 July 2005 during the Convective Storm Initiation Project (CSIP). The showers formed behind a cold front (CF), beneath two apparently descending dry layers (i.e. sloping so that they descended relative to the instruments observing them). The lowermost dry layer was associated with a tropopause fold from a depression, which formed 2 d earlier from a breaking Rossby wave, located northwest of the UK. The uppermost dry l...

  16. Stem Cells May Offer New Hope to Stroke Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159163.html Stem Cells May Offer New Hope to Stroke Survivors Experimental ... HealthDay News) -- Preliminary research suggests that injecting adult stems cells directly into the brain may give stroke patients ...

  17. Stem Cells May Offer New Hope to Stroke Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159163.html Stem Cells May Offer New Hope to Stroke Survivors Experimental ... HealthDay News) -- Preliminary research suggests that injecting adult stems cells directly into the brain may give stroke patients ...

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factors increase the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells in mouse models of cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dawei Zang; Juan Liu; Xianhua Zuo; Surindar Cheema

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been confirmed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can promote the proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) and protect neuron-like cells in vitro. However, its effect on endogenous NSCs in vivo is still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether BDNF can induce the endogenous NSCs to proliferate and differentiate into the neurons in the mice model of cerebral infarction.DESIGN: A synchronal controlled observation.SETTINGS: Department of Neurology, Microbiology Division of the Department of Laboratory, Tianjin First Central Hospital; Howard Florey Institute, Medical College, the University of Melbourne.MATERIALS: Twenty-four pure breed C57BL/6J mice at the age of 10 weeks old (12 males and 12 females)were divided into saline control group and BDNF-treated group, 6 males and 6 females in each group.METHODS: The experiments were performed at the University of Melbourne from July 2004 to February 2005. ① The left middle cerebral artery (MCA) was ligated in both groups to establish models of cerebral infarction and the Matsushita measuring method was used to monitor the blood flow of the lesioned region supplied by MCA. 75% reduction of blood flow should be reached in the lesioned region. ② At 24 hours after infarction, mice in the BDNF-treated group were administrated with BDNF, which was slowly delivered using an ALZET osmium pump design. BDNF was dissolved in saline at the dosage of 500 mg/kg and injected into the pump, which could release the solution consistently in the following 28 days. The mice in the saline control group accepted the same volume of saline at 24 hours after infarction. ③ The Rotarod function test began at 1 week preoperatively, the time stayed on Rotarod was recorded. The mice were tested once a day till the end of the experiment. At 4 weeks post cerebral infarction, double labeling of Nestin and GFAP, BⅢ tubulin and CNPase immunostaining was performed to observe the differentiation directions of the re

  19. Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Madhukar Thakur

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this presentation is to create awareness of stem cell applications in the ISORBE community and to foster a strategy of how the ISORBE community can disseminate information and promote the use of radiolabeled stem cells in biomedical applications. Methods: The continued excitement in Stem Cells, in many branches of basic and applied biomedical science, stems from the remarkable ability of stem cells to divide and develop into different types of cells in ...

  20. Road for understanding cancer stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Erzik, Can

    2007-01-01

    offer an opportunity to use these cells as future therapeutic targets. Therefore, model systems in this field have become very important and useful. This review will focus on the state of knowledge on cancer stem cell research, including cell line models for cancer stem cells. The latter will, as models......There is increasing evidence suggesting that stem cells are susceptive to carcinogenesis and, consequently, can be the origin of many cancers. Recently, the neoplastic potential of stem cells has been supported by many groups showing the existence of subpopulations with stem cell characteristics...... in tumor biopsies such as brain and breast. Evidence supporting the cancer stem cell hypothesis has gained impact due to progress in stem cell biology and development of new models to validate the self-renewal potential of stem cells. Recent evidence on the possible identification of cancer stem cells may...

  1. Symmetrical Curvilinear Cytotoxic Edema Along the Surface of the Brain Stem: A Probable New Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding of Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Khil, Eun Kyung; Lee, A. Leum; Chang, Kee-Hyun; Yun, Tae Jin; Hong, Hyun Sook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lung cancer is one of the most common neoplasms to appear leptomeningeal metastasis (LM). Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is better diagnostic choice for LM and usually shows focal nodular or diffuse linear enhancement on the leptomeninges along the sulci and tentorium in the brain. We experienced atypical 2 cases of lung cancer in patients who showed unusual brain MRI finding of symmetrical curvilinear or band-like, nonenhancing cytotoxic edema along the surface o...

  2. The Use of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursors in the Treatment of Brain and Spinal Cord Injury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jendelová, Pavla; Kozubenko, Nataliya; Amemori, Takashi; Turnovcová, Karolína; Seminatore, CH.; Jirák, D.; Onteniente, B.; Syková, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2011), s. 564-564. ISSN 0963-6897. [International Neural Transplantatioin and Repair Meeting/18th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Neural-Therapy- and -Repair /11./. 04.05.2011-08.05.2011, Clearwater] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : spinal cord * stem cell Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  3. My brain told me to do it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jennifer H; Butler, Samantha J; Novitch, Bennett G

    2013-06-10

    Voluntary motor control requires circuits in the brain to develop synchronously with spinal motor circuitry. In this issue of Developmental Cell,Reimer et al. (2013) demonstrate that this process is coordinated in zebrafish: dopamine released from descending projections modulates formation of motor neurons by attenuating the response of progenitors to Shh signaling. PMID:23763945

  4. A Framework for Understanding the Relationship between Descending Pain Modulation, Motor Corticospinal, and Neuroplasticity Regulation Systems in Chronic Myofascial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Leonardo M; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Rozisky, Joanna R; Brietzke, Aline P; Torres, Iraci L S; Deitos, Alicia; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a leading cause of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, its neurobiological mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Given the complex interaction between the networks involved in pain process, our approach, to providing insights into the neural mechanisms of pain, was to investigate the relationship between neurophysiological, neurochemical and clinical outcomes such as corticospinal excitability. Recent evidence has demonstrated that three neural systems are affected in chronic pain: (i) motor corticospinal system; (ii) internal descending pain modulation system; and (iii) the system regulating neuroplasticity. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to examine the relationship between these three central systems in patients with chronic MPS of whom do/do not respond to the Conditioned Pain Modulation Task (CPM-task). The CPM-task was to immerse her non-dominant hand in cold water (0-1°C) to produce a heterotopic nociceptive stimulus. Corticospinal excitability was the primary outcome; specifically, the motor evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Secondary outcomes were the cortical excitability parameters [current silent period (CSP) and short intracortical inhibition (SICI)], serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), heat pain threshold (HPT), and the disability related to pain (DRP). We included 33 women, (18-65 years old). The MANCOVA model using Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test revealed that non-responders (n = 10) compared to responders (n = 23) presented increased intracortical facilitation (ICF; mean ± SD) 1.43 (0.3) vs. 1.11 (0.12), greater motor-evoked potential amplitude (μV) 1.93 (0.54) vs. 1.40 (0.27), as well a higher serum BDNF (pg/Ml) 32.56 (9.95) vs. 25.59 (10.24), (P < 0.05 for all). Also, non-responders presented a higher level of DRP and decreased HPT (P < 0.05 for all). These findings suggest that the loss of net

  5. Reprogramming Cells for Brain Repair

    OpenAIRE

    McKinnon, Randall D.; Alyx T. Guarino

    2013-01-01

    At present there are no clinical therapies that can repair traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury or degenerative brain disease. While redundancy and rewiring of surviving circuits can recover some lost function, the brain and spinal column lack sufficient endogenous stem cells to replace lost neurons or their supporting glia. In contrast, pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that exogenous transplants can have remarkable efficacy for brain repair in animal models. Mesenchymal stromal c...

  6. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... stem cells blog from the International Society for Stem Cell Research. Learn About Stem Cells From Lab to You ...

  7. Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza;

    2015-01-01

    , the HGPS mutation results in organ-specific defects. For example, bone and skin are strongly affected by HGPS, while the brain appears to be unaffected. There are no definite explanations as to the variable sensitivity to progeria disease among different organs. In addition, low levels of progerin...... have also been found in several tissues from normal individuals, but it is not clear if low levels of progerin contribute to the aging of the brain. In an attempt to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have developed an inducible transgenic mouse model with expression of the most common HGPS...... mutation in brain, skin, bone and heart to investigate how the mutation affects these organs. Ultrastructural analysis of neuronal nuclei after 70 weeks of expression of the LMNA c.1824C>T mutation showed severe distortion with multiple lobulations and irregular extensions. Despite severe distortions in...

  8. A functional study of EGFR and Notch signaling in brain cancer stem-like cells from glioblastoma multiforme (Ph.d.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Karina

    2013-01-01

    treatment. The overall aim of the present PhD project has been to study the functional role of EGFR and Notch activity in bCSCs stem cell-like features and tumorigenic potential with the purpose of deepen our knowledge about the significance of these pathways in the bCSC population in GBM. By establishing...... expression of the mutant receptor EGFRvIII, an expression that was maintained from patient material to the xenograft tumors and cell cultures. In a culture expressing EGFR and EGFRvIII we found that EGFR inhibition induced differentiation, while forced differentiation led to down-regulation of EGFR and EGFRv......III. In addition, we showed that EGFR/EGFRvIII down regulation either as a result of induced differentiation or EGFR inhibition led to decreased in vitro tumorigenic and stem cell-like potential. In cultures expressing high levels of the Notch-1 receptor we found that Notch inhibition decreased the in...

  9. Neural stem cell derived tumourigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Froldi; Milán Szuperák; Cheng, Louise Y.

    2015-01-01

    In the developing Drosophila CNS, two pools of neural stem cells, the symmetrically dividing progenitors in the neuroepithelium (NE) and the asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts (NBs) generate the majority of the neurons that make up the adult central nervous system (CNS). The generation of a correct sized brain depends on maintaining the fine balance between neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, which are regulated by cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic cues. In this review, we wil...

  10. Stem system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shajmardanova L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the stem cells from the point of view of systemic anatomy, where they are united into an entire stem system. This integration shows various advantages for better understanding the stem cells role in the body. Authors, considering functions and action mechanism of stem cells, phylogeny, ontogeny, regulation of functions, explain the base for stem cells system existance. The definition and terminology, age peculiarities, relationship with other systems of organs and differences are offered. The theoretical proof of primary-integrative role of stem system is provided for all other systems in body. Of particular importance is the role of stem system as a link between neural and endocrine systems. The work helps to sistematize data on investigations of stem cells, their entire-system perception, that will ease the goals determining for further research and their clinical use.

  11. Union formation and dissolution among immigrants and their descendants in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hannemann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a growing literature on the dynamics of immigrant fertility and mixed marriages, but partnership transitions among immigrants and ethnic minorities are little studied. Objective: This study investigates union formation and dissolution among immigrants and their descendants in the UK. Methods: We use data from the Understanding Society study and apply the techniques of event history analysis. We contrast partnership trajectories of various immigrant groups and compare these with those of the 'native' British population. Results: The analysis shows significant differences in partnership formation and dissolution among immigrants and ethnic minorities. Women of Caribbean origin have the highest cohabitation and the lowest marriage rates, whereas cohabitation remains rare among immigrants from South Asia and their descendants, as most of them marry directly. Immigrants from the Caribbean region and their descendants also show higher divorce rates than 'native' British women, whereas women of South Asian origin have a low divorce risk.

  12. Is there Equity in Use of Healthcare Services among immigrants, their descendents, and ethnic Danes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; Hempler, Nana Folmann; Waldorff, Frans Boch;

    2012-01-01

    proxies of integration. Results: In adjusted analyses, immigrants and their descendents had increased use of ER (multiplicative effect=1.19–5.02 dependent on immigrant and descendent group) and less frequent contact to dentist (multiplicative effect=0.04–0.80 dependent on the group). For hospitalization......Background: Legislation in Denmark explicitly states the right to equal access to healthcare. Nevertheless, inequities may exist; accordingly evidence is needed. Our objective was to investigate whether differences in healthcare utilization in immigrants, their descendents, and ethnic Danes could...... be explained by health status, socioeconomic factors, and integration. Methods: We conducted a nationwide survey in 2007 with 4,952 individuals aged 18–66 comprising ethnic Danes; immigrants from the former Yugoslavia, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Pakistan, Somalia, Turkey; and Turkish and Pakistani...

  13. [A case report of emergency surgical repair of traumatic transection of thoracic descending aorta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, K; Sudo, K; Kodama, J; Unno, T; Hayashi, N; Tadokoro, M; Kokubo, J; Ikeda, K; Mizuno, A; Tanaka, H

    1991-10-01

    The injury to the thoracic aorta caused by blunt chest trauma is often fatal. This case is 22-year-old male suffering from transection of the thoracic descending aorta caused by traffic accident. He was transported to our emergency room by an ambulance 15 minutes after the accident. Hundred fifty minutes after arrival to the hospital, we were rush to bring him to the operation theater suspecting serious injury of the thoracic organs in association with left hemothorax. The left standard thoracotomy disclosed the injury of the thoracic descending aorta. Simple cross clamp was applied to the thoracic descending aorta distal to the left subclavian artery for 20 minutes. Completely transected aorta was reapproximated using monofilament 3-0 polypropylene sutures with running manner. He tolerated the procedure well without any complication. His postoperative course was uneventful. He was followed up at the orthopedic department for associated hip fracture thereafter. PMID:1942696

  14. An improved probabilistic approach for linking progenitor and descendant galaxy populations using comoving number density

    CERN Document Server

    Wellons, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy populations at different cosmic epochs are often linked together by comoving cumulative number density in observational studies. Many theoretical works, however, have shown that the number densities of tracked galaxy populations evolve in bulk and spread out over time. We present a number density method for linking progenitor and descendant galaxy populations which takes both of these effects into account. We define probability distribution functions that capture the evolution and dispersion of galaxy populations in comoving number density space, and use these functions to assign galaxies at one redshift $z_f$ probabilities of being progenitors or descendants of a galaxy population at another redshift $z_0$. These probabilities are then used as weights for calculating distributions of physical properties such as stellar mass, star formation rate, or velocity dispersion within the progenitor/descendant population. We demonstrate that this probabilistic method provides more accurate predictions for the e...

  15. Integral dose delivered to normal brain with conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and helical tomotherapy IMRT during partial brain radiotherapy for high-grade gliomas with and without selective sparing of the hippocampus, limbic circuit and neural stem cell compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compared integral dose with uninvolved brain (IDbrain) during partial brain radiotherapy (PBRT) for high-grade glioma patients using helical tomotherapy (HT) and seven field traditional inverse-planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with and without selective sparing (SPA) of contralateral hippocampus, neural stem cell compartment (NSC) and limbic circuit. We prepared four PBRT treatment plans for four patients with high-grade gliomas (60Gy in 30 fractions delivered to planning treatment volume (PTV60Gy)). For all plans, a structure denoted 'uninvolved brain' was created, which included all brain tissue not part of PTV or standard (STD) organs at risk (OAR). No dosimetric constraints were included for uninvolved brain. Selective SPA plans were prepared with IMRT and HT; contralateral hippocampus, NSC and limbic circuit were contoured; and dosimetric constraints were entered for these structures without compromising dose to PTV or STD OAR. We compared V100 and D95 for PTV46Gy and PTV60Gy, and IDbrain for all plans. There were no significant differences in V100 and D95 for PTV46Gy and PTV60Gy. IDbrain was lower in traditional IMRT versus HT plans for STD and SPA plans (mean IDbrain 23.64Gy vs. 28Gy and 18.7Gy vs. 24.5Gy, respectively) and in SPA versus STD plans both with IMRT and HT (18.7Gy vs. 23.64Gy and 24.5Gy vs. 28Gy, respectively). n the setting of PBRT for high-grade gliomas, IMRT reduces IDbrain compared with HT with or without selective SPA of contralateral hippocampus, limbic circuit and NSC, and the use of selective SPA reduces IDbrain compared with STD PBRT delivered with either traditional IMRT or HT.

  16. Seawifs Technical Report Series. Volume 2: Analysis of Orbit Selection for Seawifs: Ascending Versus Descending Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Gregg, Watson W.

    1992-01-01

    Due to range safety considerations, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color instrument may be required to be launched into a near-noon descending node, as opposed to the ascending node used by the predecessor sensor, the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). The relative importance of ascending versus descending near-noon orbits was assessed here to determine if descending node will meet the scientific requirements of SeaWiFS. Analyses focused on ground coverage, local times of coverage, solar and viewing geometries (zenith and azimuth angles), and sun glint. Differences were found in the areas covered by individual orbits, but were not important when taken over a 16 day repeat time. Local time of coverage was also different: for ascending node orbits the Northern Hemisphere was observed in the morning and the Southern Hemisphere in the afternoon, while for descending node orbits the Northern Hemisphere was observed in the afternoon and the Southern in the morning. There were substantial differences in solar azimuth and spacecraft azimuth angles both at equinox and at the Northern Hemisphere summer solstice. Negligible differences in solar and spacecraft zenith angles, relative azimuth angles, and sun glint were obtained at the equinox. However, large differences were found in solar zenith angles, relative azimuths, and sun glint for the solstice. These differences appeared to compensate across the scan, however, an increase in sun glint in descending node over that in ascending node on the western part of the scan was compensated by a decrease on the eastern part of the scan. Thus, no advantage or disadvantage could be conferred upon either ascending node or descending node for noon orbits. Analyses were also performed for ascending and descending node orbits that deviated from a noon equator crossing time. For ascending node, afternoon orbits produced the lowest mean solar zenith angles in the Northern Hemisphere, and morning orbits produced

  17. What are Stem Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadshah Farhat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are undifferentiated self regenerating multi potential cells. There are three types of stem cells categories by the ability to form after cells and correlated with the body’s development process. Totipotent: these stem cells can form an entire organism such as fertilized egg. Ploripotent: ploripotent cells are those that can form any cell in the body but cannot form an entire organism such as developing embryo’s totipotent cells become ploripotent  Multipotent: Multi potent stem cells are those that can only form specific cells in the body such as blood cells based. Based on the sources of stem cells we have three types of these cells: Autologous: Sources of the patient own cells are (Autologous either the cells from patient own body or his or her cord blood. For this type of transplant the physician now usually collects the periphery rather than morrow because the procedure is easier on like a bane morrow harvest it take place outside of an operating room, and the patient does not to be under general unsetting . Allogenic: Sources of stem cells from another donore are primarily relatives (familial allogenic or completely unrelated donors. Xenogenic: In these stem cells from different species are transplanted e .g striatal porcine fetal mesan cephalic (FVM xenotransplants for Parkinson’s disease. On sites of isolation such as embryo, umbilical cord and other body tissues stem cells are named embnyonic, cord blood, and adult stem cells. The scope of results and clinical application of stem cells are such as: Neurodegenerative conditions (MS,ALS, Parkinson’s, Stroke, Ocular disorders- Glaucoma, retinitis Pigmentosa (RP, Auto Immune Conditions (Lupus, MS,R. arthritis, Diabetes, etc, Viral Conditions (Hepatitis C and AIDS, Heart Disease, Adrenal Disorders, Injury(Nerve, Brain, etc, Anti aging (hair, skin, weight control, overall well being/preventive, Emotional disorders, Organ / Tissue Cancers, Blood cancers, Blood diseases

  18. Adult stem cells and tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körbling, M; Estrov, Z; Champlin, R

    2003-08-01

    Recently, adult stem cells originating from bone marrow or peripheral blood have been suggested to contribute to repair and genesis of cells specific for liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle, gut, and brain tissue. The mechanism involved has been termed transdifferentiation, although other explanations including cell fusion have been postulated. Using adult stem cells to generate or repair solid organ tissue obviates the immunologic, ethical, and teratogenic issues that accompany embryonic stem cells. PMID:12931235

  19. Advances in stem cell research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In 1998, biologists Thomson and Gearhart successfully derived stem cells from human embryos. One year later, several researchers discovered that adult stem cells still retain the ability to be differentiated into unrelated types of cells. Advances in stem cell research open a promising direction for applied medical science. Moreover, it may also force scientists to reconsider the fundamental theory about how cells grow up. Stem cell research was considered by Science as the top of the ten breakthroughs of science of the year[1]. This paper gives a survey of recent advances in stem cell research. 1 Overview In the 1980s, embryonic stem cell and/or embryonic germ cell line (ES cell line, EG cell line) of multifarious mammalian animals, especially those of non-human pri-mates, had been established. In 1998, Thomson and Shamblott obtained ES, EG cell lines from human blasto-cysts and gonad ridges of early human embryos, respec-tively. Their research brought up an ethical debate about whether human embryos can be used as experimental materials. It was not appeased until 1999 when research-ers discovered that stem cells from adults still retain the ability to become different kinds of tissue cells. For in-stance, brain cells can become blood cells[2], and cells from bone marrow can become cells in liver. Scientists believe, for a long time, that cells can only be developed from early pluripotent embryo cells; the differentiation potential of stem cells from mature tissues is restricted to only one of the cell types of the tissue where stem cells are obtained. Recent stem cell researches, however, sub-verted the traditional view of stem cells. These discoveries made scientists speed ahead with the work on adult stem cells, hoping to discover whether their promise will rival that of ES cells.

  20. The effects of laser radiation on the descendants of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of low energy laser radiation on the descendants of irradiated rats were investigated by comparing natimortality and the frequency of congenital malformations in three experimental and a control group. Natimortality was not significantly different among the groups. However, cardiomegaly, anophtalmia, dilated abdominal viscera, and premature closures of cranial sutures were recorded only in the experimental groups. (author)

  1. Atherosclerosis of the descending aorta predicts cardiovascular events: a transesophageal echocardiography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havasi Kálmán

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Previous studies have shown that atherosclerosis of the descending aorta detected by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE is a good marker of coexisting coronary artery disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the presence of atherosclerosis on the descending aorta during TEE has any prognostic impact in predicting cardiovascular events. Material and Methods The study group consisted of 238 consecutive in-hospital patients referred for TEE testing (135 males, 103 females, mean age 58 +/- 11 years with a follow up of 24 months. The atherosclerotic lesions of the descending aorta were scored from 0 (no atherosclerosis to 3 (plaque >5 mm and/or "complex" plaque with ulcerated or mobile parts. Results Atherosclerosis was observed in 102 patients, (grade 3 in 16, and grade 2 in 86 patients whereas 136 patients only had an intimal thickening or normal intimal surface. There were 57 cardiovascular events in the follow-up period. The number of events was higher in the 102 patients with (n = 34 than in the 136 patients without atherosclerosis (n = 23, p =2 (HR 2.4, CI 1.0–5.5 predicted hard cardiovascular events. Conclusion Atherosclerosis of the descending aorta observed during transesophageal echocardiography is a useful predictor of cardiovascular events.

  2. Population analysis of xenobiotic metabolizing genes in South Brazilian Euro and Afro-descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Euzébio Maciel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual variability in xenobiotic metabolism has been associated with susceptibility to developing complex diseases. Genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism have been evaluated in association studies; the difficulty of obtaining accurate gene frequencies in mixed populations makes interpretation of the results difficult. We sought to estimate population parameters for the cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase gene families, thus contributing to studies using these genes as markers. We describe the frequencies of six genes (CYP1A1, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 and estimate population parameters in 115 Euro-descendants and 196 Afro-descendants from Curitiba, South of Brazil. PCR-based methods were used for genotyping, and statistical analysis were performed by AMOVA with ARLEQUIN software. The mutant allele frequencies in the Afro-descendants and Euro-descendants, respectively, were: CYP1A1*2A = 30.1% and 15.2%; CYP2D6*4 = 14.5% and 21.5%; CYP2E1*5B = 7.9% and 5%; GSTP1*B = 37.8% and 28.3%. The null genotype frequencies were: GSTM1*0 = 36.8% and 46.1%; GSTT1*0 = 24.2% and 17.4%.

  3. Cartographies of the Political Camp of Afro-Descendents in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Lao-Montes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article lays out, in general terms, what it calls the political camp of Afro-descendents in Latin America. After establishing a series of theoretical and methodological criteria for the historical analysis of black movements in modernity and the Afro-American movements in particular, the article focuses on the emergence of afro-descendant movements in Latin America during the last part of the 1980s. One of the principal arguments is that in the 1990s a political camp of afro-descendents starts to emerge in the region of Latin America based on a series of developments, including the emergence of new social movements that included ethno-racial movements of Afros and indigenous people, events of regional importance like the contra-celebration of 1492 in 1992, the World Conference against Racism 2001 in Durban, South Africa, and the effects of the neoliberal pattern of globalization. The political camp of Afro-descendents is composed not only of social movements, but also of state actors and transnational actors (such as the World Bank and the Ford Foundation. The article concludes with an analysis of the challenges and perspectives of Afro-American politics in general and of Afro-Latin movements in particular considering the current crisis of the modern/colonial world-system.

  4. Descending motor pathways and the spinal motor system. Limbic and non-limbic components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, G.

    1991-01-01

    For a thorough understanding of the descending pathways of the motor system originating in the forebrain, knowledge about the anatomy and function of the structures in the more caudally located parts of the central nervous system is indispensable. In this paper an overview will be presented of these

  5. Descending motor pathways and the spinal motor system. Limbic and non-limbic components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Holstege (Gert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractFor a thorough understanding of the descending pathways of the motor system originating in the forebrain, knowledge about the anatomy and function of the structures in the more caudally located parts of the central nervous system is indispensable. In this paper an overview will be presen

  6. Neuronal fiber tracts connecting the brain and ventral nerve cord of the early Drosophila larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Albert; Larsen, Camilla; Hartenstein, Volker

    2009-08-01

    By using a combination of dye injections, clonal labeling, and molecular markers, we have reconstructed the axonal connections between brain and ventral nerve cord of the first-instar Drosophila larva. Out of the approximately 1,400 neurons that form the early larval brain hemisphere, less than 50 cells have axons descending into the ventral nerve cord. Descending neurons fall into four topologically defined clusters located in the anteromedial, anterolateral, dorsal, and basoposterior brain, respectively. The anterolateral cluster represents a lineage derived from a single neuroblast. Terminations of descending neurons are almost exclusively found in the anterior part of the ventral nerve cord, represented by the gnathal and thoracic neuromeres. This region also contains small numbers of neurons with axons ascending into the brain. Terminals of the ascending axons are found in the same basal brain regions that also contain descending neurons. We have mapped ascending and descending axons to the previously described scaffold of longitudinal fiber tracts that interconnect different neuromeres of the ventral nerve cord and the brain. This work provides a structural framework for functional and genetic studies addressing the control of Drosophila larval behavior by brain circuits. PMID:19459219

  7. Postnatal Development of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Tyrosine Protein Kinase B (TrkB) Receptor Immunoreactivity in Multiple Brain Stem Respiratory-Related Nuclei of the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, QIULI; Wong-Riley, Margaret T.T.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we found a transient imbalance between suppressed excitation and enhanced inhibition in the respiratory network of the rat around postnatal days (P) 12–13, a critical period when the hypoxic ventilatory response is at its weakest. The mechanism underlying the imbalance is poorly understood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its tyrosine protein kinase B (TrkB) receptors are known to potentiate glutamatergic and attenuate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmis...

  8. Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Thakur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this presentation is to create awareness of stem cell applications in the ISORBE community and to foster a strategy of how the ISORBE community can disseminate information and promote the use of radiolabeled stem cells in biomedical applications. Methods: The continued excitement in Stem Cells, in many branches of basic and applied biomedical science, stems from the remarkable ability of stem cells to divide and develop into different types of cells in the body. Often called as Magic Seeds, stem cells are produced in bone marrow and circulate in blood, albeit at a relatively low concentration. These virtues together with the ability of stem cells to grow in tissue culture have paved the way for their applications to generate new and healthy tissues and to replace diseased or injured human organs. Although possibilities of stem cell applications are many, much remains yet to be understood of these remarkable magic seeds. Conclusion: This presentation shall briefly cover the origin of stem cells, the pros and cons of their growth and division, their potential application, and shall outline some examples of the contributions of radiolabeled stem cells, in this rapidly growing branch of biomedical science

  9. Stem cell strategies for Alzheimer's disease therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, K; Alvarez, A; Marutle, A; Kwak, Y D; Choumkina, E

    2006-06-01

    We have found much evidence that the brain is capable of regenerating neurons after maturation. In our previous study, human neural stem cells (HNSCs) transplanted into aged rat brains differentiated into neural cells and significantly improved the cognitive functions of the animals, indicating that HNSCs may be a promising candidate for cell-replacement therapies for neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, ethical and practical issues associated with HNSCs compel us to explore alternative strategies. Here, we report novel technologies to differentiate adult human mesenchymal stem cells, a subset of stromal cells in the bone marrow, into neural cells by modifying DNA methylation or over expression of nanog, a homeobox gene expressed in embryonic stem cells. We also report peripheral administrations of a pyrimidine derivative that increases endogenous stem cell proliferation improves cognitive function of the aged animal. Although these results may promise a bright future for clinical applications used towards stem cell strategies in AD therapy, we must acknowledge the complexity of AD. We found that glial differentiation takes place in stem cells transplanted into amyloid-( precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. We also found that over expression of APP gene or recombinant APP treatment causes glial differentiation of stem cells. Although further detailed mechanistic studies may be required, RNA interference of APP or reduction of APP levels in the brain can significantly reduced glial differentiation of stem cells and may be useful in promoting neurogenesis after stem cell transplantation. PMID:16953146

  10. Two Domains of Vimentin Are Expressed on the Surface of Lymph Node, Bone and Brain Metastatic Prostate Cancer Lines along with the Putative Stem Cell Marker Proteins CD44 and CD133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimentin was originally identified as an intermediate filament protein present only as an intracellular component in many cell types. However, this protein has now been detected on the surface of a number of different cancer cell types in a punctate distribution pattern. Increased vimentin expression has been indicated as an important step in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required for the metastasis of prostate cancer. Here, using two vimentin-specific monoclonal antibodies (SC5 and V9 directed against the coil one rod domain and the C-terminus of the vimentin protein, respectively), we examined whether either of these domains would be displayed on the surface of three commonly studied prostate cancer cell lines isolated from different sites of metastases. Confocal analysis of LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines (derived from lymph node, bone or brain prostate metastases, respectively) demonstrated that both domains of vimentin are present on the surface of these metastatic cancer cell types. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that vimentin expression was readily detected along with CD44 expression but only a small subpopulation of prostate cancer cells expressed vimentin and the putative stem cell marker CD133 along with CD44. Finally, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) nanoparticles that target vimentin could bind and internalize into tested prostate cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that at least two domains of vimentin are present on the surface of metastatic prostate cancer cells and suggest that vimentin could provide a useful target for nanoparticle- or antibody- cancer therapeutic agents directed against highly invasive cancer and/or stem cells

  11. Participación del óxido nítrico, proteína Fos y el tallo cerebral en la retención de glucosa encefálica durante la hipoxia Involvement of the nitric oxide, Fos protein and brain stem in the retention of brain glucose during hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Lemus Vidal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se ha descrito que el núcleo del tracto solitario (NTS, estructura del tallo cerebral y vía de relevo de las aferencias del los quimiorreceptores del senocuerpo carotídeo (RSCC, participa en el aumento en la retención de glucosa por el cerebro (RGC ante una hipoxia. Es probable que en esta respuesta participe el óxido nítrico (NO y la proteína Fos. En este trabajo se analiza el papel del NO en el NTS sobre la modificación de la RGC y la expresión de la proteína inmunorreactiva Fos (Fos-ir en ratas in vivo. La inyección de un donador del NO como es el nitroprusiato de sodio (NPS en el NTS, 4 min antes de la estimulación de los RSCC, disminuyó la RGC, pero incrementó la expresión de Fos-ir en un mayor número de neuronas en el NTS con respecto a las ratas control, que sólo recibieron líquido cefalorraquídeo artificial (LCRa antes de la estimulación RSCC. En contraste, un inhibidor selectivo del NO como el N?-nitro-L-arginina metil éster (L-NAME en el NTS 4 min antes de la estimulación RSCC con NaCN, aumentó la RGC, pero disminuyó el número de neuronas Fos-ir comparados con el control o con NPS. La detección inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de Fos-ir en las células del tallo cerebral indica que la estimulación RSCC activa vías dependientes de NO en el NTS, para regular la RGC. El estudio de esta población de células en el NTS, será importante para definir su caracterización.It has been said that the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS, one structure of the brain stem and path of apherences of chemoreceptors of carotid sinus-body, is involved in the increased glucose retention by the brain in case of hypoxia. It is likely that nitric oxide and Fos protein also take part in this response. This paper analyzes the role of nitric oxide in the NTS on the change of glucose retention by the brain and the expression of inmunoreactive protein Fos (ir-Fos in rats in vivo. The injection of a NO donor such as sodium nitroprusiate

  12. Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left anterior descending coronary artery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, C; De Felice, F; Mazza, A; Borello, G

    1999-08-01

    We report on a 59-year-old man with effort angina of recent onset and a very uncommon right coronary artery originating from the middle portion of the left anterior descending; a tight stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery was also detected which involved the origin of the aberrant vessel. PMID:10488454

  13. 经鼻内途径移植骨髓间充质干细胞治疗脑损伤:还有多少问题待验证?%Intranasal delivery of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for brain injuries:how many questions to be verified?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎雪晶; 王欣玲; 杨咪咪; 侯伟健

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can promote repair of brain injuries in animals. OBJECTIVE:To summarize the research progress in intranasal delivery of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to the brain. METHODS:A computer-based online retrieval of PubMed and Wanfang databases was performed to search papers published during January 1999 to January 2014 with the key words of“bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, brain injury, transplantation”in English and Chinese. Thirty-eight papers were included in the final analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Nowadays, many studies have been certified that the transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can significantly ameliorate the function of cranial nerve in animal models of brain injury. Many researchers have searched for the transplantation methods and approaches and have made progresses in many aspects. In this article, we compare the different transplantation ways of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to the brain. We focus on the intranasal transplantation route in the fol owing aspects:processing of the nasal mucosa;delivery route to the brain;labeling and intracranial observation of stem cells;animal experiments. We conclude that the intranasal delivery of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to the brain has a wide clinical application as a noninvasive transplantation.%背景:动物实验发现骨髓间充质干细胞移植后可促进脑损伤的修复。目的:综述经鼻内途径移植骨髓间充质干细胞到颅内的现状。方法:应用计算机检索1999年1月至2014年1月PubMed相关文章,检索词为“bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel ,brain injury,transplantation”,并限定文章语言种类为English。同时计算机检索1999年1月至2014年1月万方数据库相关文章,检索词为“骨髓间充质干细胞、脑损伤、移植”,并限定文章语言种类为中文,最终纳入符合标准的文献38篇。结果与结论:近年

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  17. M-CSF deficiency leads to reduced metallothioneins I and II expression and increased tissue damage in the brain stem after 6-aminonicotinamide treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Poulsen, Christian; Carrasco, Javier;

    2002-01-01

    6-Aminonicotinamide (6-AN) is a niacin antagonist, which leads to degeneration of gray-matter astrocytes followed by a vigorous inflammatory response. Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is important during inflammation, and in order to further clarify the roles for M-CSF...... in neurodegeneration and brain cell death, we have examined the effect of 6-AN on osteopetrotic mice with genetic M-CSF deficiency (op/op mice). The 6-AN-induced degeneration of gray-matter areas was comparable in control and op/op mice, but the numbers of reactive astrocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes...... for caspases and cytochrome c) were significantly increased in 6-AN-injected op/op mice relative to controls. From a number of antioxidant factors assayed, only metallothioneins I and II (MT-I+II) were decreased in op/op mice in comparison to controls. Thus, the present results indicate that M-CSF...

  18. Discrete torsion in non-geometric orbifolds and their open-string descendants

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, M; Pradisi, G; Bianchi, Massimo; Morales, Jose' F.; Pradisi, Gianfranco

    2000-01-01

    We discuss some Z_N^L X Z_N^R orbifold compactifications of the type IIB superstring to D= 4,6 dimensions and their type I descendants. Although the Z_N^L X Z_N^R generators act asymmetrically on the chiral string modes, they result into left-right symmetric models that admit sensible unorientable reductions. We carefully work out the phases that appear in the modular transformations of the chiral amplitudes and identify the possibility of introducing discrete torsion. We propose a simplifying ansatz for the construction of the open-string descendants in which the transverse-channel Klein-bottle, annulus and Moebius-strip amplitudes are numerically identical in the proper parametrization of the world-sheet. A simple variant of the ansatz for the Z_2^L X Z_2^R orbifold gives rise to models with supersymmetry breaking in the open-string sector.

  19. Descendants of magnetic and non-magnetic A-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurière, M.; Lignières, F.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Charbonnel, C.; Petit, P.; Tsvetkova, S.; Wade, G.

    2014-11-01

    We have studied the magnetic fields of about 50 active or non-active single G-K-type red giants by means of spectropolarimetry with Narval and ESPaDOnS. Thirty giants show significant Zeeman signals. A close examination of the 17 giants with known rotational periods shows that the measured magnetic field strength is correlated with the rotation, and in particular with the Rossby number. Four giants for which the magnetic field has been found to be outstandingly strong with respect to the rotational period or the evolutionary state are identified as probable Ap star descendants. We give details of their magnetic properties, and propose criteria to identify Ap star descendants.

  20. Descendants of Magnetic and non-Magnetic A-type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Auriere, M; Konstantinova-Antova, R; Charbonnel, C; Petit, P; Tsvetkova, S; Wade, G A

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic field of about 50 active and non-active single G-K-type red giants by means of spectropolarimetry with Narval and ESPaDOnS. 30 giants have been significantly Zeeman-detected. A close study of the 17 giants with known rotational periods shows that the measured magnetic field strength is correlated to the rotation, in particular to the Rossby number. 4 giants for which the magnetic field is measured to be outstandingly strong with respect to the rotational period or the evolutionary state are identified as probable Ap-star descendants. We detail their magnetic properties and propose criteria to identify Ap-star descendants.

  1. Is there equity in use of healthcare services among immigrants, their descendents, and ethnic Danes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe S; Hempler, Nana F; Waldorff, Frans B;

    2012-01-01

    descendents. Data were linked to registries on healthcare utilisation. Using Poisson regression models, contacts to hospital, emergency room (ER), general practitioner (GP), specialist in private practice, and dentist were estimated. Analyses were adjusted for health symptoms, sociodemographic factors, and......BACKGROUND: Legislation in Denmark explicitly states the right to equal access to healthcare. Nevertheless, inequities may exist; accordingly evidence is needed. Our objective was to investigate whether differences in healthcare utilisation in immigrants, their descendents, and ethnic Danes could...... be explained by health status, socioeconomic factors, and integration. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide survey in 2007 with 4952 individuals aged 18-66 comprising ethnic Danes; immigrants from the former Yugoslavia, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Pakistan, Somalia, Turkey; and Turkish and Pakistani...

  2. 222Rn descendents radioactivity in the low atmosphere and its significance for pollution dust dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Original data about the diurnal evolution of natural radioactivity, caused mainly by 222Rn descendants in low atmosphere, and about the solid dust air pollution (measured by the blackening of the aspiration filters with PB-4 are presented. Besides the alpha radioactivity diurnal evolution of Rn descendants collected on aspiration filters, the diurnal evolution of the main meteorological parameters such as: air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure wind speed and direction, cloud amount has been simultaneously studied. The visual estimation of smoke screens, fog and precipitation ensured a complete study of all the meteorological influences and of pollutant sources on atmospheric radioactivity. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis by means of linear correlation coefficients and harmonic analysis highlighted the importance of Rn as a tracer in the air-mass dynamics study. (author)

  3. Form factors of descendant operators: resonance identities in the sinh-Gordon model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkevich, Michael; Pugai, Yaroslav

    2014-12-01

    We study the space of local operators in the sinh-Gordon model in the framework of the bootstrap form factor approach. Our final goal is to identify the operators obtained by solving bootstrap equations with those defined in terms of the Lagrangian field. Here we try to identify operators at some very particular points, where the phenomenon of operator resonance takes place. The operator resonance phenomenon being perturbative, nevertheless, results in exact identities between some local operators. By applying an algebraic approach developed earlier for form factors we derive an infinite set of identities between particular descendant and exponential operators in the sinh-Gordon theory, which generalize the quantum equation of motion. We identify the corresponding descendant operators by comparing them with the result of perturbation theory.

  4. Form factors of descendant operators: Resonance identities in the sinh-Gordon model

    CERN Document Server

    Lashkevich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We study the space of local operators in the sinh-Gordon model in the framework of the bootstrap form factor approach. Our final goal is to identify the operators obtained by solving bootstrap equations with those defined in terms of the Lagrangian field. Here we try to identify operators at some very particular points, where the phenomenon of operator resonance takes place. The operator resonance phenomenon being perturbative, nevertheless, results in exact identities between some local operators. By applying an algebraic approach developed earlier for form factors we derive an infinite set of identities between particular descendant and exponential operators in the sinh-Gordon theory, which generalize the quantum equation of motion. We identify the corresponding descendant operators by comparing them with the result of perturbation theory.

  5. Proliferative activity, DNA synthesis and reproductive death of near and distant descendants of irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments on HeLa cells a study was made of a change in the rate of DNA synthesis, proliferative activity and reproductive death of exposed cells and their descendants throughout a number of generations. The rate of DNA synthesis decreased in 4 postirradiation generations, and a maximum inhibition (by 50%) was registered 48 h following irradiation. The proliferative activity of the irradiated cell descendants markedly decreased throughout 18-20 generations resulting in an increased death rate and a loss of cells from a generation. It is suggested that even the distant desendants (18-20 generations) of expose cells exhibited some lesions which may, in time, become fatal events leading to cell death

  6. Dual left anterior descending artery with anomalous origin of long LAD from pulmonary artery - rare coronary anomaly detected on computed tomography coronary angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Aditi; Narula, Harneet

    2016-01-01

    Dual left anterior descending artery is a rare coronary artery anomaly showing two left anterior descending arteries. Short anterior descending artery usually arises from the left coronary artery, while long anterior descending artery has anomalous origin and course. Dual left anterior descending artery with origin of long anterior descending artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a very rare coronary artery anomaly which has not been reported previously in the literature. We present the computed tomography coronary angiographic findings of this rare case in a young female patient who presented with atypical chest pain.

  7. 异体神经干细胞脑移植后免疫排斥反应的研究%Immunological rejection in brain of cloning goats received neural stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭钢; 陈建泉; 朱剑虹

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨中枢神经系统异体神经干细胞移植后免疫排斥反应的问题. 方法 选取同一批次的成年克隆山羊8只,采用随机数字表法分成2组:神经干细胞移植组和对照组.采用开颅手术的方式分别将异体神经干细胞及相同剂量的生理盐水移植到山羊脑皮层下,抽血测定移植后2组动物不同时间点(移植前1周、移植当时、移植后1周、3周及3个月)血中IL-2及IL-10的水平,以了解移植后动物全身免疫排斥反应的情况;并通过免疫组化的方法 检测移植局部病理切片CD3+细胞浸润的情况,了解移植局部免疫排斥反应的情况. 结果神经干细胞移植组在移植后1周、3周及3个月时血中IL-2水平较对照组明显升高,IL-10水平较对照组明显下降,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).移植局部在急性期(细胞移植后1周)和慢性期(细胞移植后3个月)两个时间点均有大量CD3+细胞浸润,与对照组相比差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 中枢神经系统异体神经干细胞移植后可发生急、慢性全身和局部免疫排斥反应.%Objective To investigate the immunological rejection in the brain of cloning goats received neural stem cell transplantation. Methods Eight cloning goats of CL series were chosen at random and divided into 2 groups. Neural stem cells and saline at the same dosages were transplanted into the fixed site by surgical intervention in the brain cortex of each group, respectively. The levels of IL-2 and IL-10 in the blood of each group were detected at different times (1 w before, and 0, 1 and 3 w,and 3 months after the cell transplantation) to reflect the systemic immune rejection of the goats after the transplatation. The CD3+ cells in the cell transplantation areas in each group were also detected by the method of immunohistochemistry to reflect the local immune rejection after the transplatation. Results The level of IL-2 was obviously higher and the level of

  8. Germinoma localizado nos núcleos da base e tálamo com invasão do tronco cerebral: relato de caso Germinoma involving the basal ganglia and thalamus with brain stem invasion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO GOMES NOGUEIRA

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos o caso de um paciente com diagnóstico de germinoma nos núcleos da base e tálamo, com invasão do tronco cerebral, ressaltando as características observadas nos exames de tomografia computadorizada e de ressonância magnética, os possíveis diagnósticos diferenciais, e a necessidade da comprovação anátomo-patológica, por tratar-se de localização pouco frequente de um tumor com possibilidade de evolução favorável após tratamento com quimio e radioterapia.We report an unusual case of germinoma arising from the basal ganglia and thalamus with brain stem invasion, with emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance findings. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination. Early detection of this tumor is important due to its potential response to treatment.

  9. Studies on improvement of diagnosis of neurosurgical lesions by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3; Quantitative evaluation of atrophy of the brain stem and cerebellum on the sagittal view of MRI: normal change due to aging and usefulness of MRI in the diagnosis of cerebellar atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kotoyuki (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-05-01

    Fourteen patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and 97 healthy volunteers were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using inversion recovery technique. According to clinical symptoms and disease course, SCD was divided into late cortical cerebellar atrophy (LCCA) and olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA). To evaluate atrophic changes in the cerebellum and brain stem with aging, healthy volunteers were divided into four age groups. Parameters measured were: the cerebellar vermis, hemisphere, peduncle, pons and medulla, and the fourth ventricle. In the control group, atrophied vermis and peduncle of the cerebellum, and dilated fourth ventricle were observed with aging. A statistically significant atrophy in all of the parameters for the brain stem and cerebellum was observed in the group of SCD, as compared with the control group. The atrophy was restricted to the cerebellum for LCCA; and was observed in both the cerebellum and brain stem for OPCA. The size of the cerebellar hemisphere (H), as calculated as the product of the major and minor axes, was useful in the quantitative evaluation of atrophy of the cerebellar hemisphere. The ratio of H value to the anterior-posterior diameter of the pons was useful in the differentiation between LCCA and OPCA. (N.K.).

  10. Development of multiphasic tagging method and its application for visualization and quantification of descending aortic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional single phasic tagging (SPT) method is neither available for the evaluation of high speed blood flow nor for long time investigation such as whole cardiac cycle, because the tag becomes unclear due to proton spin relaxation and diffusion in those situation. To overcome those difficulties, we developed the multiphasic tagging (MPT) method, and estimated the utility of this method in flow phantom and in clinical patients. Cine MR imaging was performed with a 0.5 T MRT-50A (TOSHIBA). The MPT pulse sequence was composed of continuous many (9-16) frame units for each R-R interval, and this each frame unit consisted of an initial presaturation 180deg RF pulse followed by one unit of conventional field echo pulse sequence (TR=50ms, TE=22ms, FA=30deg). The flow phantom was composed of polyvinyl chloride tube, electric motor and pulse generator. The SPT and MPT cine MR imagings were performed with the flow phantom. The fresh tags by MTP kept a sharpness for one (cardiac) cycle, but the tag by SPT became unclear. The velocity calculated by measuring the distance of tag from baseline on MPT cine MR images was significantly correlated with that measured by a cylinder. The MPT cine MR imaging of descending aorta was performed in five healthy volunteers and 12 pts with various heart diseases. The tag on blood intra descending aorta by the MPT was also sharply imaged for one cardiac cycle in human. Severe backward shift of tag was observed in early diastolic phase in a patient with severe aortic regurgitation. The descending aortic flow volume by MPT significantly (p<0.01) correlated (r=0.86) with LV stroke volume, except for two patients with severe mitral regurgitation. The MPT is useful for visualization and quantification of the descending aortic flow. (author)

  11. Descending facilitatory pathways from the RVM initiate and maintain bilateral hyperalgesia after muscle insult

    OpenAIRE

    Tillu, DV; Gebhart, GF; Sluka, KA

    2007-01-01

    The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is involved in facilitation of spinal nociceptive processing and generation of hyperalgesia in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. We hypothesized that the bilateral hyperalgesia that develops after repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline is initiated and maintained by activation of descending facilitatory pathways from the RVM. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intracerebral guide cannulae into the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) ...

  12. Ancestor–descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Ancestor–descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea margi...

  13. Endovascular Repair of Localized Pathological Lesions of the Descending Thoracic Aorta: Midterm Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The endoluminal stent-graft represents an attractive and a less invasive technique for treatment of various diseases of the descending thoracic aorta. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Talent endovascular stent-graft for the treatment of various localized diseases of the descending thoracic aorta. Over a 3-year period, Talent thoracic endografts were placed in 40 patients with a high surgical risk, presenting a localized lesion of the descending thoracic aorta: degenerative aneurysm (n = 13), acute traumatic rupture (n = 11), acute Stanford type B aortic dissection (n = 6), false aneurysm (n = 7), and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (n = 3). Fifteen patients (37.5%) were treated as emergencies. The feasibility of endovascular treatment and sizing of the aorta and stent-grafts were determined preoperatively by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and intraoperative angiography. Immediate and mid-term technical and clinical success was assessed by clinical and MRA follow-up. Endovascular treatment was completed successfully in all 40 patients, with no conversion to open repair or intraoperative mortality. The mean operative time was 37.5 ± 7 min. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 10% (n = 4), all in emergency cases, for causes not related to the endograft. The primary technical success was 92.5%. The mean follow-up period was 15 ± 5 months. The survival rate was 95% (n = 35). Diminution of the aneurismal size was observed in 47.5% (n = 19). We conclude that endovascular treatment of the various localized diseases of the descending thoracic aorta is a promising, feasible, alternative technique to open surgery in well-selected patients

  14. Comprehensive catecholaminergic projectome analysis reveals single-neuron integration of zebrafish ascending and descending dopaminergic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tay, Tuan Leng; Ronneberger, Olaf; Ryu, Soojin; Nitschke, Roland; Driever, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Essential components of animal behaviour are modulated by dopaminergic (DA) and noradrenergic circuitry. In this study, we reveal at cellular resolution the complete set of projections ('projectome') of every single type of DA and noradrenergio neurons in the central nervous system of zebrafish larvae. The most extensive DA projections are established by posterior tubercular otp-dependent neurons, with individual somata integrating the ascending DA system, the descending diencephalospinal, as...

  15. Identitarian Politics in the "Quilombo" Frechal: Live Histories in a Brazilian Community of Slave Descendants

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Malighetti

    2010-01-01

    Based on an extended fieldwork, the paper discusses the construction of identity in a Brazilian quilombo - a term originally used by the Portuguese authorities to juridically define the flights of the Brazilian slaves. Appealing to a Constitutional Article granting the property of the land to the descendant of the fugitive slaves, the people of Frechal (Maranhão) obtained - after complex events overshadowed by tension and violence - the expropriation of the land bought by an entreprene...

  16. Sibling configuration predicts individual and descendant socioeconomic success in a modern post-industrial society.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, David W.; Arijeta Makoli; Anna Goodman

    2013-01-01

    Growing up with many siblings, at least in the context of modern post-industrial low fertility, low mortality societies, is predictive of relatively poor performance on school tests in childhood, lower levels of educational attainment, and lower income throughout adulthood. Recent studies further indicate these relationships hold across generations, so that the descendants of those who grow up with many siblings are also at an apparent socioeconomic disadvantage. In this paper we add to this ...

  17. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Basics: Introduction Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current Research Policy Glossary Site Map Stem Cell Basics Introduction: What are stem cells, and why ...

  18. Learn About Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... ISSCR Get Involved Media © 2015 International Society for Stem Cell Research Terms of Use Disclaimer Privacy Policy

  19. Mitochondrial DNA mapping of social-biological interactions in Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Maia Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the Brazilian Amazonian population has historically involved three main ethnic groups, Amerindian, African and European. This has resulted in genetic investigations having been carried out using classical polymorphisms and molecular markers. To better understand the genetic variability and the micro-evolutionary processes acting in human groups in the Brazilian Amazon region we used mitochondrial DNA to investigate 159 maternally unrelated individuals from five Amazonian African-descendant communities. The mitochondrial lineage distribution indicated a contribution of 50.2% from Africans (L0, L1, L2, and L3, 46.6% from Amerindians (haplogroups A, B, C and D and a small European contribution of 1.3%. These results indicated high genetic diversity in the Amerindian and African lineage groups, suggesting that the Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations reflect a possible population amalgamation of Amerindian women from different Amazonian indigenous tribes and African women from different geographic regions of Africa who had been brought to Brazil as slaves. The present study partially mapped the historical biological and social interactions that had occurred during the formation and expansion of Amazonian African-descendant communities.

  20. The descendents of Lyman Break Galaxies in galaxy clusters spatial distribution and orbital properties

    CERN Document Server

    Governato, F; Moore, B; Quinn, T; Stadel, J; Lake, G; Brera-Merate, O A

    2000-01-01

    We combine semi-analytical methods with a ultra-high resolution simulation of a galaxy cluster (of mass 2.3 10^14h-1Msolar, and 4 10^6 particles within its virial radius) formed in a standard CDM universe to study the spatial distribution and orbital properties of the present-day descendents of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs). At the present time only five (out of 12) of halos containing LBGs survive as separate entities inside the cluster virial radius. Their circular velocities are in the range 200 - 550 km/sec. Seven halos merged together to form the central object at the very center of the cluster. Using semi-analytical modeling of galaxy evolution we show that descendents of halos containing LBGs now host giant elliptical galaxies. Galaxy orbits are radial, with a pericenter to apocenter ratio of about 1:5. The orbital eccentricities of LBGs descendents are statistically indistinguishable from those of the average galaxy population inside the cluster, suggesting that the orbits of these galaxies are not sign...

  1. Factors influencing the mechanical behaviour of healthy human descending thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent times, significant effort has been made to understand the mechanical behaviour of the arterial wall and how it is affected by the different vascular pathologies. However, to be able to interpret the results correctly, it is essential that the influence of other factors, such as aging or anisotropy, be understood. Knowledge of mechanical behaviour of the aorta has been customarily constrained by lack of data on fresh aortic tissue, especially from healthy young individuals. In addition, information regarding the point of rupture is also very limited. In this study, the mechanical behaviour of the descending thoracic aorta of 28 organ donors with no apparent disease, whose ages vary from 17 to 60 years, is evaluated. Tensile tests up to rupture are carried out to evaluate the influence of age and wall anisotropy. Results reveal that the tensile strength and stretch at failure of healthy descending aortas show a significant reduction with age, falling abruptly beyond the age of 30. This fact places age as a key factor when mechanical properties of descending aorta are considered

  2. Endoluminal stent-graft management for type B aortic dissection and descending thoracic aortic aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and short-term early results of endoluminal stent-graft placement in the Stanford B type aortic dissection and the descending thoracic aortic aneurysms. Methods: From March 2003 to September 2005, a total of 31 patients underwent placement of endovascular stent-grafts ,including the descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (n=2) and Standford B type aortic dissection (n=29). All patients had hypertension, with urgent onset of progressive thoracic pain in 27. Two kinds of stent-graft were used in this series: the Talent (Medtronic) in 15 and Aegis (Microportmedicine, Shanghai) in 16 patients. Follow-up was carried out with clinical observations and CTA. Results: Stent-graft implantation for the proximal entry closure was successfully performed in all patients. The DSA of immediately post deployment of the stent-graft showed complete occlusion the proximal entry tear in 23/29 patients with dissection, and complete isolation of the aneurysm in two patients with aortic aneurysm. Endoleak was revealed in 6 patients with dissection. No major complications related to the procedure were encountered. Conclusions: The interventional placement of stent-graft for Type B aortic dissection and descending thoracic aortic aneurysm is safe with satisfactory short-term outcomes. Nonetheless, longer follow-up is highly desirable to assess its real advantages. (authors)

  3. Cdx2 is essential for embryonic axial growth and identity of the adult intestinal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simmini, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    During mouse development, progenitor cells, allocated along the primitive streak and in the tailbud, lay down descendants that contribute to the generation of all primordia of the trunk and tail tissues of the embryo. Evidence suggested that a pool of these progenitor cells, with stem cell-like pote

  4. Neural stem/progenitor cells differentiate into oligodendrocytes, reduce inflammation, and ameliorate learning deficits after transplantation in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoudaki, Paraskevi N; Papastefanaki, Florentia; Stamatakis, Antonios; Kouroupi, Georgia; Xingi, Evangelia; Stylianopoulou, Fotini; Matsas, Rebecca

    2016-05-01

    The central nervous system has limited capacity for regeneration after traumatic injury. Transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) has been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach while insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has neuroprotective properties following various experimental insults to the nervous system. We have previously shown that NPCs transduced with a lentiviral vector for IGF-I overexpression have an enhanced ability to give rise to neurons in vitro but also in vivo, upon transplantation in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Here we studied the regenerative potential of NPCs, IGF-I-transduced or not, in a mouse model of hippocampal mechanical injury. NPC transplantation, with or without IGF-I transduction, rescued the injury-induced spatial learning deficits as revealed in the Morris Water Maze. Moreover, it had beneficial effects on the host tissue by reducing astroglial activation and microglial/macrophage accumulation while enhancing generation of endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cells. One or two months after transplantation the grafted NPCs had migrated towards the lesion site and in the neighboring myelin-rich regions. Transplanted cells differentiated toward the oligodendroglial, but not the neuronal or astrocytic lineages, expressing the early and late oligodendrocyte markers NG2, Olig2, and CNPase. The newly generated oligodendrocytes reached maturity and formed myelin internodes. Our current and previous observations illustrate the high plasticity of transplanted NPCs which can acquire injury-dependent phenotypes within the host CNS, supporting the fact that reciprocal interactions between transplanted cells and the host tissue are an important factor to be considered when designing prospective cell-based therapies for CNS degenerative conditions. GLIA 2016;64:763-779. PMID:26712314

  5. Comparison of common carotid artery intima-media thickness between Brazilian Euro-descendants and Afro-descendants with atherosclerosis risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Benaduce Casella

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT between the two major Brazilian ethnic groups (those of African descent and those of European descent among individuals with one or more risk factors for atherosclerotic disease. METHOD: Two hundred and six patients with one or more risk factors for atherosclerotic disease were evaluated in a cross-sectional study in which their clinical, ethnic and Demographic characteristics were collected. All patients underwent duplex ultrasound examination of their carotid vessels to obtain IMT measurements. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-three patients (74.3% had a carotid IMT greater than 1.0 mm at one or more point of measurement in at least one common carotid artery. There was a significant correlation between older age and mean carotid wall thickness (R=0.479 / P<0.01. Multivariate analysis identified male sex, arterial hypertension and older age as variables associated with increased IMT (P<0.05 for all variables. When IMT was compared between the two ethnic groups in this study, no significant differences were noted. Euro-descendants and Afro-descendants had similar IMT values, even when the groups were stratified by degree of IMT (normal vs. increased and presence of stroke and/or transient ischemic attack (yes vs. no. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors associated with increased common carotid artery IMT in Brazilian individuals are similar to those in previously described populations. No differences were observed between the two main Brazilian ethnic groups. Longitudinal studies are required for a better evaluation of the incidence, etiologic factors and evolution of carotid intimomedial thickening in this population.

  6. 28. Embryonic and adult stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningson, Carl T; Stanislaus, Marisha A; Gewirtz, Alan M

    2003-02-01

    Stem cells are characterized by the ability to remain undifferentiated and to self-renew. Embryonic stem cells derived from blastocysts are pluripotent (able to differentiate into many cell types). Adult stem cells, which were traditionally thought to be monopotent multipotent, or tissue restricted, have recently also been shown to have pluripotent properties. Adult bone marrow stem cells have been shown to be capable of differentiating into skeletal muscle, brain microglia and astroglia, and hepatocytes. Stem cell lines derived from both embryonic stem and embryonic germ cells (from the embryonic gonadal ridge) are pluripotent and capable of self-renewal for long periods. Therefore embryonic stem and germ cells have been widely investigated for their potential to cure diseases by repairing or replacing damaged cells and tissues. Studies in animal models have shown that transplantation of fetal, embryonic stem, or embryonic germ cells may be able to treat some chronic diseases. In this review, we highlight recent developments in the use of stem cells as therapeutic agents for three such diseases: Diabetes, Parkinson disease, and congestive heart failure. We also discuss the potential use of stem cells as gene therapy delivery cells and the scientific and ethical issues that arise with the use of human stem cells. PMID:12592319

  7. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  8. Optimal Trajectories of Brain State Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Shi; Betzel, Richard F.; Cieslak, Matthew; Delio, Philip R; Grafton, Scott T; Pasqualetti, Fabio; Danielle S Bassett

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of neural dynamics stems in part from the complexity of the underlying anatomy. Yet how the organization of white matter architecture constrains how the brain transitions from one cognitive state to another remains unknown. Here we address this question from a computational perspective by defining a brain state as a pattern of activity across brain regions. Drawing on recent advances in network control theory, we model the underlying mechanisms of brain state transitions as eli...

  9. Morphogenesis and morphology of the brain stem nuclei of Cetacea. II. The nuclei of the accessory, vagal and glossopharyngeal nerves in baleen whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J; Osen, K K

    1984-01-01

    The development and final structure of the IXth, Xth and XIth cranial nerve nuclei are studied in ironhematoxylin -, thionin - and protargol -stained serial sections of about 50 baleen whale fetuses (blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus, and fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus ) and one adult fin whale. The nucleus ambiguus is composed of three subdivisions, oral, intermediate and caudal, the last mentioned being contiguous caudally with the dorsal motor Xth nucleus. The oral division develops as three parallel cell columns which merge into a well circumscribed solitary structure with a rostrally expanded "head". It is composed of medium-sized multipolar neurons in a myelin-poor neuropil. In the fin whale a minor group of larger cells is found medial to the "head". In both species a peculiar small-celled nucleus rich in capillaries is found ventral to the "head". The intermediate division initially contains a lateral cell column and a medial region of scattered cells. The lateral column persists throughout life, while the medial field develops into three columns only one of which remains distinct in mature individuals. The cells are larger than in the oral division with the largest cells in the medial column. The two columns are surrounded by a field of scattered neurons which continues without a sharp border into the caudal division which is composed of scattered cells throughout. In its rostral half the cells are of the same multipolar type as in the intermediate division while caudally they appear flattened in the horizontal plane. The dorsal motor Xth nucleus develops as three longitudinal columns. In the fetal brain these are cytologically distinct due to different proportions of small, medium-sized and larger multipolar neurons. The spindle-shaped ventromedial column extends the entire length of the nucleus. It is composed mostly of small to medium-sized cells which caudal to the obex are elongated parallel with the neuroaxis . The dorsolateral and ventrolateral

  10. Dissection of a stem cell hierarchy in the human breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubner Fridriksdottir, Agla Jael

    The human breast is a unique organ in that it undergoes most of its development after birth under the control of systemic hormones. Throughout the reproductive life of women, the breast gland undergoes changes in morphogenesis as evidenced by continuous cell proliferation, differentiation and......, cellular pathways that contribute to adult human breast gland architecture and cell lineages have not been described. Here, I identify a candidate stem cell niche in ducts, and zones containing progenitor cells in lobules (Villadsen and Fridriksdottir et al. 2007). Putative stem cells residing in ducts are...... where senescence is bypassed. These findings identify an adult human breast ductal stem cell activity and the earliest descendants thereof. Further characterization of the ductal stem cell niche, especially in terms of possible interaction with surrounding stromal cells (Sigurdsson and Fridriksdottir et...

  11. Transcatheter Embolization of a Coronary Fistula Originating from the Left Anterior Descending Artery by Using N-Butyl 2-Cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, we describe a successful percutaneous transcatheter n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate embolization of a coronary fistula originating from the left anterior descending artery in an adolescent with unexpected recurrent attacks of myocardial ischemia

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism ...

  13. Osmotherapy in brain edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grände, Per-Olof; Romner, Bertil

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that it has been used since the 1960s in diseases associated with brain edema and has been investigated in >150 publications on head injury, very little has been published on the outcome of osmotherapy. We can only speculate whether osmotherapy improves outcome, has no effect......, osmotherapy can be negative for outcome, which may explain why we lack scientific support for its use. These drawbacks, and the fact that the most recent Cochrane meta-analyses of osmotherapy in brain edema and stroke could not find any beneficial effects on outcome, make routine use of osmotherapy in brain...... edema doubtful. Nevertheless, the use of osmotherapy as a temporary measure may be justified to acutely prevent brain stem compression until other measures, such as evacuation of space-occupying lesions or decompressive craniotomy, can be performed. This article is the Con part in a Pro-Con debate...

  14. The diagnosis of brain death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goila Ajay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicians, health care workers, members of the clergy, and laypeople throughout the world have accepted fully that a person is dead when his or her brain is dead. Although the widespread use of mechanical ventilators and other advanced critical care services have transformed the course of terminal neurologic disorders. Vital functions can now be maintained artificially for a long period of time after the brain has ceased to function. There is a need to diagnose brain death with utmost accuracy and urgency because of an increased awareness amongst the masses for an early diagnosis of brain death and the requirements of organ retrieval for transplantation. Physicians need not be, or consult with, a neurologist or neurosurgeon in order to determine brain death. The purpose of this review article is to provide health care providers in India with requirements for determining brain death, increase knowledge amongst health care practitioners about the clinical evaluation of brain death, and reduce the potential for variations in brain death determination policies and practices amongst facilities and practitioners. Process for brain death certification has been discussed under the following: 1. Identification of history or physical examination findings that provide a clear etiology of brain dysfunction. 2. Exclusion of any condition that might confound the subsequent examination of cortical or brain stem function. 3. Performance of a complete neurological examination including the standard apnea test and 10 minute apnea test. 4. Assessment of brainstem reflexes. 5. Clinical observations compatible with the diagnosis of brain death. 6. Responsibilities of physicians. 7. Notify next of kin. 8. Interval observation period. 9. Repeat clinical assessment of brain stem reflexes. 10. Confirmatory testing as indicated. 11. Certification and brain death documentation.

  15. Characteristics of Ascending, Descending, Floating and Sinking Theor y based on the Concept of Translational Medicine and its Clinical Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaohui; Zhai Huaqiang; Wang Wei; Wang Xiaoxia; Zhang Xiaojuan; Zhang Tian

    2013-01-01

    Ascending, descending, lfoating and sinking theory is the summarization for the effects of drugs on the body. Translational medicine establishes a bi-directional conversion channels between clinics and laboratories. This article mainly introduces the relationship between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) ascending, descending, lfoating and sinking theory and the concept of translational medicine, and how to study this theory based on the concept of translational medicine.

  16. Mediastinite descendente necrosante pós-angina de Ludwig Necrotizing descending mediastinitis afetr Ludwig angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARICÉLIA BROMMELSTROET

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A angina de Ludwig é uma infecção do espaço submandibular originada, em geral, da infecção do 2º ou 3º molar inferior. Como conseqüência, pode causar mediastinite descendente necrosante, que representa uma forma grave e rara de infecção mediastinal, a qual exige diagnóstico precoce e tratamento cirúrgico para reduzir a alta mortalidade associada a esta doença. Dois casos de mediastinite descendente necrosante pós-angina de Ludwig foram tratados com excelentes resultados em nosso hospital. A drenagem mediastinal transcervical está justificada em pacientes com doença limitada ao mediastino superior. Porém, sepse com comprometimento extenso do mediastino requer drenagem através de toracotomia sem demora.Ludwig's angina is an infection of the submandibular space generally caused by an infection of the 2nd or 3rd lower molar. As a consequence, descending necrotizing mediastinitis, a rare and severe form of mediastinal infection, may occur. The descending necrotizing mediastinitis represents a rare form of mediastinal infection. It presents a high mortality and to decrease that rate it is necessary prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment. Two cases of descending necrotizing mediastinitis due to Ludwig's angina were treated with excellent results in our hospital. The transcervical mediastinal drainage is justified in patients with disease limited to the upper mediastinum. Even so, when there is extensive involvement of the whole mediastinum it is suitable the accomplishment of a wide thoracotomy.

  17. Role of the RVM in Descending Pain Regulation Originating from the Cerebrospinal Fluid-Contacting Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Songsong; Zhou, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Chao; Li, Ying; Sun, Lihong; Zhang, Licai

    2016-07-01

    Evidence has suggested that cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (CSF-contacting nucleus) is correlated with the development and recurrence of pain. A recent research showed that the CSF-contacting nucleus acts as a component of the descending 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system and plays a role in descending pain inhibition. However, limited studies are conducted to investigate the relationship between the CSF-contacting nucleus and pain. In present study, we explored the effect of CSF-contacting nucleus on nociceptive behaviors in both normal and neuropathic rats via targeted ablation of the CSF-contacting nucleus in the brainstem, using cholera toxin subunit B-saporin (CB-SAP), a cytotoxin coupled to cholera toxin subunit B. The CB-SAP-treated rats showed aggravated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Also, results from immunohistochemical experiments showed that rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) received fiber projection from the CSF-contacting nucleus, which disappeared after ablation of the CSF-contacting nucleus, and the CB-SAP treated rats showed downregulation of c-Fos expression in the RVM as compared with the rats receiving i.c.v. injection of phosphate buffer saline (PBS). A significant downregulation of 5-HT-labeled neurons and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) as the marker of 5-HT cells in the RVM, and 5-HT expression in spinal dorsal horn in both normal and chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats after i.c.v. injection of CB-SAP was observed. These results suggested that RVM may be involved in descending pain modulation originating from the CSF-contacting nucleus. PMID:26961890

  18. Sibling configuration predicts individual and descendant socioeconomic success in a modern post-industrial society.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Lawson

    Full Text Available Growing up with many siblings, at least in the context of modern post-industrial low fertility, low mortality societies, is predictive of relatively poor performance on school tests in childhood, lower levels of educational attainment, and lower income throughout adulthood. Recent studies further indicate these relationships hold across generations, so that the descendants of those who grow up with many siblings are also at an apparent socioeconomic disadvantage. In this paper we add to this literature by considering whether such relationships interact with the sex and relative age of siblings. To do this we utilise a unique Swedish multigenerational birth cohort study that provides sibling configuration data on over 10,000 individuals born in 1915-1929, plus all their direct genetic descendants to the present day. Adjusting for parental and birth characteristics, we find that the 'socioeconomic cost' of growing up in a large family is independent of both the sex of siblings and the sex of the individual. However, growing up with several older as opposed to several younger siblings is predictive of relatively poor performance on school tests and a lower likelihood of progression to tertiary education. This later-born disadvantage also holds across generations, with the children of those with many older siblings achieving lower levels of educational attainment. Despite these differences, we find that while individual and descendant income is negatively related to the number of siblings, it is not influenced by the relative age of siblings. Thus, our findings imply that the educational disadvantage of later-born children, demonstrated here and in numerous other studies, does not necessarily translate into reduced earnings in adulthood. We discuss potential explanations for this pattern of results, and consider some important directions for future research into sibling configuration and wellbeing in modern societies.

  19. The Role of Cannabinoid Receptors in the Descending Modulation of Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rossi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The endogenous antinociceptive descending pathway represents a circuitry of the supraspinal central nervous system whose task is to counteract pain. It includes the periaqueductal grey (PAG-rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM-dorsal horn (DH axis, which is the best characterized pain modulation system through which pain is endogenously inhibited. Thus, an alternative rational strategy for silencing pain is the activation of this anatomical substrate. Evidence of the involvement of cannabinoid receptors (CB in the supraspinal modulation of pain can be found in several studies in which intra-cerebral microinjections of cannabinoid ligands or positive modulators have proved to be analgesic in different pain models, whereas cannabinoid receptor antagonists or antisense nucleotides towards CB1 receptors have facilitated pain. Like opioids, cannabinoids produce centrally-mediated analgesia by activating a descending pathway which includes PAG and its projection to downstream RVM neurons, which in turn send inhibitory projections to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Indeed, several studies underline a supraspinal regulation of cannabinoids on g-aminobutyric acid (GABA and glutamate release which inhibit and enhance the antinociceptive descending pathway, respectively. Cannabinoid receptor activation expressed on presynaptic GABAergic terminals reduces the probability of neurotransmitter release thus dis-inhibiting the PAG-RVM-dorsal horn antinociceptive pathway. Cannabinoids seem to increase glutamate release (maybe as consequence of GABA decrease and to require glutamate receptor activation to induce antinociception. The consequent outcome is behavioral analgesia, which is reproduced in several pain conditions, from acute to chronic pain models such as inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Taken together these findings would suggest that supraspinal cannabinoid receptors have broad applications, from pain control to closely related central nervous system

  20. Ancestor-descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Ancestor-descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea marginata in morphologically based analyses, thus suggesting a possible ADR-the first so far identified within baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti). The †Miocaperea-Caperea lineage may show long-term morphological stasis and, in turn, punctuated equilibrium. PMID:25589485

  1. Spontaneous-idiopathic left anterior descending artery dissection: is watchful waiting better than immediate stenting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivi, A; Bazzucchi, M; De Paolis, M; Placanica, A; Bock, C; Milici, C; Boschetti, E; Dominici, M

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare, complex disease, nowadays poorly understood yet. The lack of firm recommendations about this issue is a great limitation which makes any therapeutic decision controversial. The case described is that of a young, otherwise healthy woman, who presented with an ostial dissection of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Due to patient's stable clinical and hemodynamic parameters, we used a cautious approach based on watchful waiting and medical therapy, postponing stenting in order to achieve a partial vessel reopening with a more comfortable access to PCI. PMID:24106639

  2. Spontaneous-Idiopathic Left Anterior Descending Artery Dissection: Is Watchful Waiting Better Than Immediate Stenting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivi, A.; Bazzucchi, M.; De Paolis, M.; Placanica, A.; Bock, C.; Milici, C.; Boschetti, E.; Dominici, M.

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare, complex disease, nowadays poorly understood yet. The lack of firm recommendations about this issue is a great limitation which makes any therapeutic decision controversial. The case described is that of a young, otherwise healthy woman, who presented with an ostial dissection of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Due to patient's stable clinical and hemodynamic parameters, we used a cautious approach based on watchful waiting and medical therapy, postponing stenting in order to achieve a partial vessel reopening with a more comfortable access to PCI. PMID:24106639

  3. Saturn's Equatorial Oscillation: Evidence of Descending Thermal Structure from Cassini Radio Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinder, P. J.; Flasar, F. M.; Marouf, E. A.; French, R. G.; McGhee, C. A.; Kliore, A. J.; Rappaport, N. J.; Barbinis, E.; Fleischman, D.; Anabtawi, A.

    2011-01-01

    A series of near-equatorial radio occultations of Cassini by Saturn occurred in 2005 and again in 2009-2010. Comparison of the temperature-pressure profiles obtained from the two sets of occultations shows evidence of a descending pattern in the stratosphere that is similar to those associated with equatorial oscillations in Earth's middle atmosphere. This is the first time that this descent has been observed in another planetary atmosphere. If absorption of upwardly propagating waves drives the descent, the implied absorbed flux is 0.05 square meters per square second at least as large if not greater than on Earth.

  4. Descending serotonergic facilitation and the antinociceptive effects of pregabalin in a rat model of osteoarthritic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolphin Annette C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Descending facilitation, from the brainstem, promotes spinal neuronal hyperexcitability and behavioural hypersensitivity in many chronic pain states. We have previously demonstrated enhanced descending facilitation onto dorsal horn neurones in a neuropathic pain model, and shown this to enable the analgesic effectiveness of gabapentin. Here we have tested if this hypothesis applies to other pain states by using a combination of approaches in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA to ascertain if 1 a role for descending 5HT mediated facilitation exists, and 2 if pregabalin (a newer analogue of gabapentin is an effective antinociceptive agent in this model. Further, quantitative-PCR experiments were undertaken to analyse the α2δ-1 and 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels in L3–6 DRG in order to assess whether changes in these molecular substrates have a bearing on the pharmacological effects of ondansetron and pregabalin in OA. Results Osteoarthritis was induced via intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA into the knee joint. Control animals were injected with 0.9% saline. Two weeks later in vivo electrophysiology was performed, comparing the effects of spinal ondansetron (10–100 μg/50 μl or systemic pregabalin (0.3 – 10 mg/kg on evoked responses of dorsal horn neurones to electrical, mechanical and thermal stimuli in MIA or control rats. In MIA rats, ondansetron significantly inhibited the evoked responses to both innocuous and noxious natural evoked neuronal responses, whereas only inhibition of noxious evoked responses was seen in controls. Pregabalin significantly inhibited neuronal responses in the MIA rats only; this effect was blocked by a pre-administration of spinal ondansetron. Analysis of α2δ-1 and 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels in L3–6 DRG revealed a significant increase in α2δ-1 levels in ipsilateral L3&4 DRG in MIA rats. 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels were unchanged. Conclusion These data suggest

  5. Hippocampal stem cells: so they are multipotent!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Verdon Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Although neurogenesis continues throughout life in the mammalian brain, the issue of whether the stem cells that drive the process in vivo are self-renewing and multipotent remains unclear. In a recent landmark paper by Bonaguidi et al. (2011) published in Cell, the authors provide clonal evidence that neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus are indeed multipotent and undergo symmetric cell divisions.%Although neurogenesis continues throughout life in the mammalian brain,the issue of whether the stem cells that drive the process in vivo are self-renewing and multipotent remains unclear.In a recent landmark paper by Bonaguidi et al.(2011) pubiished in Cell,the authors provide cional evidence that neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus are indeed multipotent and undergo symmetric cell divisions.

  6. Invitro differentiation of embryonic neural stem cells from rabbit retina and brain%体外培养及诱导胚兔视网膜及脑神经干细胞分化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婵; 董方田; 陈连凤; 许卓再

    2009-01-01

    Objective To isolate neural stem cells (NSCs) from rabbit retina and brain,and induce differentiation of those NSCs using different culture media.Methods Single-cell suspensions of retina and cerebral cortex were prepared from rabbit embryo,cultured in 5 types of different media to isolate the NSCs by continual passages.After 3 passages,NSCs were induced to differentiation in 2 types of different media for 8 to 10 days.NSCs and induced-retinal ceils were examined by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry for the expression pattern of some specific antigens.Results Immunofluorescence showed that NSCs from retina and brain,cultured in serum-free media,both expressed Nestin partially.Flow cytometry showed that Nestin positive cells were significantly decreased while the Rhodopsin and Thy1.1 positive cells were increased after induction.Compared with the combined induction of all-trans retinoid acid (ATRA) and serum,5 % FBS (fetal bovine serum) led to higher expression of Rhodopsin (P<0.01),but lower expression of Thy1.1 (P=0.01).Conclusion Serum-free media with N2,EGF,bFGF,LIF is the best for NSCs purification.Both induciton media can induce NSCs to differentiate.Retina NSCs have higher potentials to differentiate into retinal neuro-epithelial cells than brain NSCs.%目的 比较体外不同培养条件对视网膜及脑神经干细胞(NSCs)视紫红质的纯化能力及不同诱导条件对NSCs的诱导分化能力.方法 取胚兔视网膜及大脑皮质制备单细胞悬液,分别在5种不同培养基中进行体外培养并纯化.选取无血清条件下传3代的NSCs,分别在2种培养基中诱导8~10 d.采用免疫荧光法及流式细胞仪检测所获得细胞的神经干细胞和视网膜神经上皮细胞抗原的表达.结果 免疫荧光法显示无血清培养条件下2种组织来源的NSCs均部分表达巢蛋白.流式细胞术显示2种诱导方式均部分细胞表达巢蛋白,较诱导前明显降低,而视紫红质及Thy1.1的表达

  7. Activation of the opioidergic descending pain control system underlies placebo analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eippert, Falk; Bingel, Ulrike; Schoell, Eszter D; Yacubian, Juliana; Klinger, Regine; Lorenz, Jürgen; Büchel, Christian

    2009-08-27

    Placebo analgesia involves the endogenous opioid system, as administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone decreases placebo analgesia. To investigate the opioidergic mechanisms that underlie placebo analgesia, we combined naloxone administration with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Naloxone reduced both behavioral and neural placebo effects as well as placebo-induced responses in pain-modulatory cortical structures, such as the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC). In a brainstem-specific analysis, we observed a similar naloxone modulation of placebo-induced responses in key structures of the descending pain control system, including the hypothalamus, the periaqueductal gray (PAG), and the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). Most importantly, naloxone abolished placebo-induced coupling between rACC and PAG, which predicted both neural and behavioral placebo effects as well as activation of the RVM. These findings show that opioidergic signaling in pain-modulating areas and the projections to downstream effectors of the descending pain control system are crucially important for placebo analgesia. PMID:19709634

  8. Math modeling for helicopter simulation of low speed, low altitude and steeply descending flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, P. F.; Robinson, C.; Shaw, J.; White, F.

    1982-01-01

    A math model was formulated to represent some of the aerodynamic effects of low speed, low altitude, and steeply descending flight. The formulation is intended to be consistent with the single rotor real time simulation model at NASA Ames Research Center. The effect of low speed, low altitude flight on main rotor downwash was obtained by assuming a uniform plus first harmonic inflow model and then by using wind tunnel data in the form of hub loads to solve for the inflow coefficients. The result was a set of tables for steady and first harmonic inflow coefficients as functions of ground proximity, angle of attack, and airspeed. The aerodynamics associated with steep descending flight in the vortex ring state were modeled by replacing the steady induced downwash derived from momentum theory with an experimentally derived value and by including a thrust fluctuations effect due to vortex shedding. Tables of the induced downwash and the magnitude of the thrust fluctuations were created as functions of angle of attack and airspeed.

  9. Cortical network from human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nat, Roxana

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The connection of embryonic stem cell technology and developmental biology provides valuable tools to decipher the mechanisms underlying human brain development and diseases, especially among neuronal populations, that are not readily available in primary cultures. It is obviously the case of neurons forming the human cerebral cortex. In the images that are presented, the neurons were generated in vitro from human embryonic stem cells via forebrain-like progenitors. Maintained in cul...

  10. Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2004-01-01

    In his influential essay on markets, An essay on framing and overflowing (1998), Michel Callon writes that `the growing complexity of industrialized societies [is] due in large part to the movements of the technosciences, which are causing connections and interdependencies to proliferate'. This p...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products.......'. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...

  11. Diamond for stem cell biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The recent rise in life expectancy has led an increase in the number of cases of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and macular degeneration. Traditional therapeutic approaches are ineffective as regeneration is limited in the Central Nervous System (CNS). Neural prosthetics and stem cell therapy present exciting solutions for enabling the function of the brain to be restored. Implanted materials for neuronal prosthetics must have outstanding electrical properties whilst b...

  12. Stem cell signatures in glioma

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xiaobing

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common tumors of the central nervous system in adults. Glioblastoma, the most aggressive form, has a median survival of 15 months regardless of the standard treatment with surgery and temozolomide-based radiochemotherapy. Therefore, it is imperative to improve treatment options for patients with glioblastoma. It has been suggested that the putative tumor stem cells in brain tumors are responsible for glioma initiation, development and resistance to ...

  13. Neural Stem Cells and Glioblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rispoli, Rossella; Conti, Carlo; Celli, Paolo; Caroli, Emanuela; Carletti, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme represents one of the most common brain cancers with a rather heterogeneous cellular composition, as indicated by the term “multiforme". Recent reports have described the isolation and identification of cancer neural stem cells from human adult glioblastoma multiforme, which possess the capacity to establish, sustain, and expand these tumours, even under the challenging settings posed by serial transplantation experiments. Our study focused on the distribution of neura...

  14. UTRASTRUCTURAL ALTERATIONS OF HIPPOCAMPUS AND BRAIN STEM AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH INJURY SEVERITY AFTER BLAST INJURY IN RATS%冲击伤后大鼠海马及脑干组织超微结构改变及其与肺冲击伤伤情的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    比较观察了胸部局部或全身冲击伤后大鼠海马和脑干组织超微结构改变及其与肺冲击伤伤情的关系。采用BST-Ⅰ和BST-Ⅲ型生物激波管分别致全身和胸部局部冲击伤。尸检显示,全身或胸部局部暴露冲击波仅导致明显的肺冲击伤,脑组织无明显的器质性损害。电镜结果显示,胸部局部或全身冲击伤后,海马和脑干神经细胞出现明显的结构改变,肺冲击伤伤情愈重,海马和脑干组织的超微结构改变也愈明显。提示全身或胸部局部冲击伤虽未引起脑组织肉眼上的明显损伤,但可造成海马和脑干组织超微结构的明显改变,并与肺冲击伤有一定的内在联系。%This experiment was to examine ultrastructural alterations in hippocampal and brain stem tissues and their relationship with injury severity after whole body or local chest exposure to blast wave in rats.BST-Ⅰ and BST-Ⅲ bio-shock tubes were used to induce whole body or local chest blast injury.Gross examination revealed that only obvious pulmonary blast injury occurred after whole body or local chest exposure to blast wave,the brain tissue had no marked structural damage.Results from electron microscopy indicated that there were obvious ultrastructural alterations in the hippocampus and brain stem.The more severe the injury severity of pulmonary blast injury was,the more obvious alterations of brain ultrastructures occurred.It suggests that whole body or local pulmonary blast injury,although causing no marked gross alterations in the brain tissue,can inflict obvious ultrastructural damage in the hippocampus and brain stem,and this may be related with pulmonary blast injury.

  15. Why STEM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA) defines STEM as a new transdisciplinary subject in schools that integrates the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into a single course of study. There are three major problems with this definition: There is no consensus in support of the ITEEA…

  16. Adult neural stem cells-Functional potential and therapeutic applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lin; ZHU Jianhong

    2004-01-01

    The adult brain has been thought traditionally as a structure with a very limited regenerative capacity. It is now evident that neurogenesis in adult mammalian brain is a prevailing phenomenon. Neural stem cells with the ability to self-renew, differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes reside in some regions of the adult brain. Adult neurogenesis can be stimulated by many physiological factors including pregnancy. More strikingly, newborn neurons in hippocampus integrally function with local neurons, thus neural stem cells might play important roles in memory and learning function. It seems that neural stem cells could transdifferentiate into other tissues, such as blood cells and muscles. Although there are some impediments in this field, some attempts have been made to employ adult neural stem cells in the cell replacement therapy for traumatic and ischemic brain injuries.

  17. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are metastatic, ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  19. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  20. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ravi kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalograph y (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain

  1. Zika virus impairs growth in human neurospheres and brain organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Patricia P; Loiola, Erick Correia; Madeiro da Costa, Rodrigo; Higa, Luiza M; Trindade, Pablo; Delvecchio, Rodrigo; Nascimento, Juliana Minardi; Brindeiro, Rodrigo; Tanuri, Amilcar; Rehen, Stevens K

    2016-05-13

    Since the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV), reports of microcephaly have increased considerably in Brazil; however, causality between the viral epidemic and malformations in fetal brains needs further confirmation. We examined the effects of ZIKV infection in human neural stem cells growing as neurospheres and brain organoids. Using immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, we showed that ZIKV targets human brain cells, reducing their viability and growth as neurospheres and brain organoids. These results suggest that ZIKV abrogates neurogenesis during human brain development. PMID:27064148

  2. In-vitro investigation of cerebral-perfusion effects of a rotary blood pump installed in the descending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaienia, Mohammad Amin; Paul, Gordon; Avital, Eldad; Rahideh, Akbar; Rothman, Martin Terry; Korakianitis, Theodosios

    2016-06-14

    This study describes use of a cardiovascular simulator to replicate the hemodynamic responses of the cerebrovascular system with a mechanical circulatory support device operating in the descending aorta. To do so, a cerebral autoregulation unit was developed which replicates the dilation and constriction of the native cerebrovascular resistance system and thereby regulates the cerebral flow rate within defined limits. The efficacy of the replicated autoregulation mechanism was investigated by introducing a number of step alterations in mean aortic pressure and monitoring the cerebral flow. The steady responses of the cerebral flow to changes in mean aortic pressure were in good agreement with clinical data. Next, a rotary pump, modeling a mechanical circulatory support device, was installed in the descending aorta and the hemodynamic responses of the cerebral system were investigated over a wide range of pump operating conditions. Insertion of a mechanical circulatory support device in the descending aorta presented an improved cardiac output as a result of afterload reduction. It was observed that the primary drop in cerebral flow, caused by the pump in the descending aorta, was compensated over the course of five seconds due to a gradual decrease in cerebrovascular resistance. The experimental results suggest that the implantation of a mechanical circulatory support device in the descending aorta, a less invasive procedure than typical mechanical circulatory support implantation, will not have an adverse effect on the cognitive function, provided that the cerebral autoregulation is largely unimpaired. PMID:27155746

  3. Common astrocytic programs during brain development, injury and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Silver, Daniel J.; Steindler, Dennis A.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to radial glial cells of neurohistogenesis, immature astrocytes with stem-cell-like properties cordon off emerging functional patterns in the developing brain. Astrocytes also can be stem cells during adult neurogenesis, and a proposed potency of injury-associated reactive astrocytes has recently been substantiated. Astrocytic cells might additionally be involved in cancer stem cell-associated gliomagenesis. Thus, there are distinguishing roles for stem-cell-like astrocytes during...

  4. CSOS models descending from chiral Potts models: degeneracy of the eigenspace and loop algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au-Yang, Helen; Perk, Jacques H. H.

    2016-04-01

    Monodromy matrices of the {{\\boldsymbol{τ }}}2\\phantom{^{\\prime }} model are known to satisfy a Yang-Baxter equation with a six-vertex R-matrix as the intertwiner. The commutation relations of the elements of the monodromy matrices are completely determined by this R-matrix. We show the reason why in the superintegrable case the eigenspace is degenerate, but not in the general case. We then show that the eigenspaces of special CSOS models descending from the chiral Potts model are also degenerate. The existence of an L({{sl}}2) quantum loop algebra (or subalgebra) in these models is established by showing that the Serre relations hold for the generators. The highest weight polynomial (or the Drinfeld polynomial) of the representation is obtained by using the method of Baxter for the superintegrable case. As a byproduct, the eigenvalues of all such CSOS models are given explicitly.

  5. Insect motor control: methodological advances, descending control and inter-leg coordination on the move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgmann, Anke; Büschges, Ansgar

    2015-08-01

    Modern approaches, including high performance video, neurophysiology, and neurogenetics, allow to analyze invertebrate behavior on all levels of generation and performance in an unprecedented way. They allow observation and classification of behavior in controlled conditions, dissection of behavioral sequencing, identification of levels of processing and locations of associated sub-networks and, finally, identification of neuronal components and topologies contributing to specific aspects of behaviors. Recently conceptual and methodological progress has contributed to unraveling the neural structures underlying descending control of insect behavior as well as the mechanisms in charge of generating coordinated locomotor movements of the invertebrate extremities during walking. This brief review summarizes some of the most exciting new findings in these areas of research from the past years. PMID:25579064

  6. Management of an aorto-esophageal fistula, complicating a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm endovascularly repaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georvasili, Vaia K; Bali, Christina; Peroulis, Michalis; Kouvelos, George; Avgos, Stavros; Godevenos, Dimitris; Liakakos, Theodoros; Matsagkas, Miltiadis

    2016-04-01

    Aorto-esophageal fistula (AEF) is a rare but devastating complication of thoracic aorta endovascular repair (TEVAR). We report a case of a 64-year-old male who presented with chest pain and high CRP levels 10 months after TEVAR for a 9 cm diameter descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. The diagnosis of an AEF was confirmed and the patient was treated conservatively with broad spectrum antibiotics and total parental alimentation. After control of sepsis was achieved, esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction was performed and an omental pedicle was used to cover the aortic wall. No intervention to the aorta was made at that time due to the potentially infected mediastinum. The patient's recovery was uneventful and 2 years postoperatively he is in good condition and lives a normal life. Esophagectomy seems to be a mandatory stage of treatment in the setting of AEF. In cases where signs of graft infection are persistent, aortic surgery might be also necessary. PMID:24838140

  7. The lateral reticular nucleus; integration of descending and ascending systems regulating voluntary forelimb movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bror Alstermark

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar control of movements is dependent on mossy fibre input conveying information about sensory and premotor activity in the spinal cord. While much is known about spino-cerebellar systems, which provide the cerebellum with detailed sensory information, much less is known about systems conveying motor information. Individual motoneurones do not have projections to spino-cerebellar neurons. Instead, the fastest route is from last order spinal interneurons. In order to identify the networks that convey ascending premotor information from last order interneurons, we have focused on the lateral reticular nucleus (LRN, which provides the major mossy fibre input to cerebellum from spinal interneuronal systems. Three spinal ascending systems to the LRN have been investigated: the C3-C4 propriospinal neurones (PNs, the ipsilateral forelimb tract and the bilateral ventral flexor reflex tract. Voluntary forelimb movements involve reaching and grasping together with necessary postural adjustments and each of these three interneuronal systems likely contribute to specific aspects of forelimb motor control. It has been demonstrated that the command for reaching can be mediated via C3-C4 PNs, while the command for grasping is conveyed via segmental interneurons in the forelimb segments. Our results reveal convergence of ascending projections from all three interneuronal systems in the LRN, producing distinct combinations of excitation and inhibition. We have also identified a separate descending control of LRN neurons exerted via a subgroup of cortico-reticular neurones. The LRN projections to the deep cerebellar nuclei exert a direct excitatory effect on descending motor pathways via the reticulospinal, vestibulospinal, and other supraspinal tracts, and might play a key role in cerebellar motor control. Our results support the hypothesis that the LRN provides the cerebellum with highly integrated information, enabling cerebellar control of complex

  8. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography for descending aortic atheroma: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudi, Nadjib; Ihaddaden, Malek; Lang, Sylvie; Laveau, Florent; Ederhy, Stephane; Michel, Pierre-Louis; Alamowitch, Sonia; Cohen, Ariel

    2014-12-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is an efficient method for characterization of aortic atherosclerotic plaques (AAP). The aim of our study was to evaluate the feasibility and the additional contribution of three-dimensional (3D) TEE in the evaluation of AAPs in descending thoracic aorta. We studied 82 patients referred for TEE regardless of the indication. All patients underwent two-dimensional (2D) conventional acquisitions. A 3D TEE study was performed for all AAPs localized in the descending thoracic aorta. Thickness, degree of calcification, the presence of ulceration or mobile debris were compared for 2D and 3D modes. From 3D data, three types of AAPs were defined according to their morphological characteristics (surface and contours). Among 192 AAPs found on 2D acquisition, 189 (98.4 %) were also identified by 3D TEE. For AAP characterization, agreement was good between 2D TEE and 2D extracted from 3D with the multiplanar reconstruction mode: 83.6 % (k = 0.69) for thickness and 82.5 % (k = 0.72) for degree of calcification. All AAPs ulcerations (n = 13) and mobile debris (n = 3) seen in 2D were identified in 3D. 2D characteristics of the 3D AAPs' morphological types were different: type I plaques were thin and rarely calcified; type III plaques were thicker and often calcified; and type II presented intermediate characteristics. There was overlap among groups and the 3D morphology could not be predicted from 2D data. 3D TEE is a feasible method for the analysis of AAPs. In addition to conventional characterization, 3D TEE provides a new morphological approach to AAPs. PMID:25056253

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the ... distant nerve cells (via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... others live with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... helps Sarah to better cope with her feelings. Brain Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists ... the treatment for a person's specific conditions. Such brain research help increase the understanding of how the brain ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  15. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ... grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... understanding of the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  20. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  1. General Information about Childhood Brain Stem Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  2. Brain mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Blaž Koritnik

    2004-01-01

    Cartography of the brain ("brain mapping") aims to represent the complexities of the working brain in an understandable and usable way. There are four crucial steps in brain mapping: (1) acquiring data about brain structure and function, (2) transformation of data into a common reference, (3) visualization and interpretation of results, and (4) databasing and archiving. Electrophysiological and functional imaging methods provide information about function of the human brain. A prere...

  3. Effects of a low-center-of-gravity backpack on the trunk stability of mountaineers while ascending and descending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study developed a backpack with a low center of gravity (LCG) and investigated the effects of the LCG backpack on the trunk stability of mountaineers while ascending and descending. [Subjects and Methods] Ten males aged 20-32 years were recruited. The subjects ascended and descended a road with an inclination of 30 degrees wearing the standard or LCG backpack, and trunk acceleration was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. [Results] The anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) trunk acceleration while ascending and descending with the LCG backpack were significantly lower than those with the standard backpack. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the LCG backpack could prevent falling injuries during mountaineering and mountain-related activities. PMID:26644687

  4. Pluripotent stem cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Junying; Thomson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The derivation of human embryonic stem cells 10 years ago ignited an explosion of public interest in stem cells, yet this achievement depended on prior decades of research on mouse embryonic carcinoma cells and embryonic stem cells. In turn, the recent derivation of mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells depended on the prior studies on mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Both human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells can self-renew indefinitely in vitro while ma...

  5. CD133 is not present on neurogenic astrocytes in the adult subventricular zone, but on embryonic neural stem cells, ependymal cells, and glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfenninger, Cosima V; Roschupkina, Teona; Hertwig, Falk; Kottwitz, Denise; Englund, Elisabet; Bengzon, Johan; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik; Nuber, Ulrike A

    2007-06-15

    Human brain tumor stem cells have been enriched using antibodies against the surface protein CD133. An antibody recognizing CD133 also served to isolate normal neural stem cells from fetal human brain, suggesting a possible lineage relationship between normal neural and brain tumor stem cells. Whether CD133-positive brain tumor stem cells can be derived from CD133-positive neural stem or progenitor cells still requires direct experimental evidence, and an important step toward such investigations is the identification and characterization of normal CD133-presenting cells in neurogenic regions of the embryonic and adult brain. Here, we present evidence that CD133 is a marker for embryonic neural stem cells, an intermediate radial glial/ependymal cell type in the early postnatal stage, and for ependymal cells in the adult brain, but not for neurogenic astrocytes in the adult subventricular zone. Our findings suggest two principal possibilities for the origin of brain tumor stem cells: a derivation from CD133-expressing cells, which are normally not present in the adult brain (embryonic neural stem cells and an early postnatal intermediate radial glial/ependymal cell type), or from CD133-positive ependymal cells in the adult brain, which are, however, generally regarded as postmitotic. Alternatively, brain tumor stem cells could be derived from proliferative but CD133-negative neurogenic astrocytes in the adult brain. In the latter case, brain tumor development would involve the production of CD133. PMID:17575139

  6. R\\'enyi entanglement entropies of descendant states in critical systems with boundaries: conformal field theory and spin chains

    CERN Document Server

    Taddia, Luca; Pálmai, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the R\\'enyi entanglement entropies of descendant states in critical one-dimensional systems with boundaries, that map to boundary conformal field theories (CFT) in the scaling limit. We unify the previous CFT approaches to describe primary and descendant states in systems with both open and closed boundaries. We apply the technique to critical systems belonging to different universality classes with non-trivial boundary conditions that preserve conformal invariance, and compare the results to numerical data obtained on finite spin chains.

  7. Tuberculous Pseudoaneurysm of the Descending Thoracic Aorta from Tuberculous Aortitis: CT Findings and Treatment with an Endovascular Stent Graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculous pseudoaneurysms of the aorta are rare entities that have been reported as fatal complications requiring early diagnosis and treatment. Here, we describe a case of a tuberculous pseudoaneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta in a patient with miliary tuberculosis. The computed tomography findings of a tuberculous pseudoaneurysm and outcomes of treatment with endovascular stent graft are described. Tuberculous pseudoaneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta were treated with endovascular stent graft. However, perigraft recurrence of tuberculosis after cessation of antituberculous drugs led to surgical treatment.

  8. Effects of a low-center-of-gravity backpack on the trunk stability of mountaineers while ascending and descending

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study developed a backpack with a low center of gravity (LCG) and investigated the effects of the LCG backpack on the trunk stability of mountaineers while ascending and descending. [Subjects and Methods] Ten males aged 20–32 years were recruited. The subjects ascended and descended a road with an inclination of 30 degrees wearing the standard or LCG backpack, and trunk acceleration was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. [Results] The anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-l...

  9. Neurogenesis in the aging brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Galvan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Veronica Galvan, Kunlin JinBuck Institute for Age Research, 8001 Redwood Blvd. Novato, CA, USAAbstract: Neurogenesis, or the birth of new neural cells, was thought to occur only in the developing nervous system and a fixed neuronal population in the adult brain was believed to be necessary to maintain the functional stability of adult brain circuitry. However, recent studies have demonstrated that neurogenesis does indeed continue into and throughout adult life in discrete regions of the central nervous systems (CNS of all mammals, including humans. Although neurogenesis may contribute to the ability of the adult brain to function normally and be induced in response to cerebral diseases for self-repair, this nevertheless declines with advancing age. Understanding the basic biology of neural stem cells and the molecular and cellular regulation mechanisms of neurogenesis in young and aged brain will allow us to modulate cell replacement processes in the adult brain for the maintenance of healthy brain tissues and for repair of disease states in the elderly.Keywords: neurogenesis, aging, brain, neural stem cells, subgranular zone, subventricular zone

  10. Glioma treatment strategies using mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the growth characteristics of malignant gliomas that are highly invasive and deeply infiltrate the surrounding brain area; the surgical resection of these gliomas with preservation of neural functions is almost always noncurative. The residual tumor cells are usually resistant to standard adjuvant radio-chemotherapy, and therefore, the tumors inevitably recur after a certain period and finally cause the death of the patients. Neural and mesenchymal stem cells have been extensively studied for the development of new strategies for treating malignant gliomas because of these cells possess the intrinsic property of homing toward tumor cells. By using neural and mesenchymal stem cells as vehicles for drug carriers, it is possible to deliver anticancer drugs to the tumor cells that infiltrate functioning normal brain tissue and are difficult to remove. Several cytokines and suicide genes have been tested, and promising results have been reported in animal brain tumor models. However, further studies involving safety issues such as secondary cancer formation are required before human trials of stem cell therapies. In the present paper, the author has reviewed the recent concepts involved in the treatment of malignant gliomas with stem cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells that are much easier to obtain from the patients themselves. (author)

  11. Induction of Neurorestoration From Endogenous Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji Hea; Seo, Jung-Hwa; Lee, Ji Yong; Lee, Min-Young; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) persist in the subventricular zone lining the ventricles of the adult brain. The resident stem/progenitor cells can be stimulated in vivo by neurotrophic factors, hematopoietic growth factors, magnetic stimulation, and/or physical exercise. In both animals and humans, the differentiation and survival of neurons arising from the subventricular zone may also be regulated by the trophic factors. Since stem/progenitor cells present in the adult brain and the production of new neurons occurs at specific sites, there is a possibility for the treatment of incurable neurological diseases. It might be feasible to induce neurogenesis, which would be particularly efficacious in the treatment of striatal neurodegenerative conditions such as Huntington's disease, as well as cerebrovascular diseases such as ischemic stroke and cerebral palsy, conditions that are widely seen in the clinics. Understanding of the molecular control of endogenous NSC activation and progenitor cell mobilization will likely provide many new opportunities as therapeutic strategies. In this review, we focus on endogenous stem/progenitor cell activation that occurs in response to exogenous factors including neurotrophic factors, hematopoietic growth factors, magnetic stimulation, and an enriched environment. Taken together, these findings suggest the possibility that functional brain repair through induced neurorestoration from endogenous stem cells may soon be a clinical reality. PMID:26787093

  12. The biology of hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilvassy, Stephen J

    2003-01-01

    Rarely has so much interest from the lay public, government, biotechnology industry, and special interest groups been focused on the biology and clinical applications of a single type of human cell as is today on stem cells, the founder cells that sustain many, if not all, tissues and organs in the body. Granting organizations have increasingly targeted stem cells as high priority for funding, and it appears clear that the evolving field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine will require as its underpinning a thorough understanding of the molecular regulation of stem cell proliferation, differentiation, self-renewal, and aging. Despite evidence suggesting that embryonic stem (ES) cells might represent a more potent regenerative reservoir than stem cells collected from adult tissues, ethical considerations have redirected attention upon primitive cells residing in the bone marrow, blood, brain, liver, muscle, and skin, from where they can be harvested with relative sociological impunity. Among these, it is arguably the stem and progenitor cells of the mammalian hematopoietic system that we know most about today, and their intense study in rodents and humans over the past 50 years has culminated in the identification of phenotypic and molecular genetic markers of lineage commitment and the development of functional assays that facilitate their quantitation and prospective isolation. This review focuses exclusively on the biology of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their immediate progeny. Nevertheless, many of the concepts established from their study can be considered fundamental tenets of an evolving stem cell paradigm applicable to many regenerating cellular systems. PMID:14734085

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. ... rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  17. Brain mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Koritnik

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Cartography of the brain ("brain mapping" aims to represent the complexities of the working brain in an understandable and usable way. There are four crucial steps in brain mapping: (1 acquiring data about brain structure and function, (2 transformation of data into a common reference, (3 visualization and interpretation of results, and (4 databasing and archiving. Electrophysiological and functional imaging methods provide information about function of the human brain. A prerequisite for multisubject, multidimensional and multimodal mapping is transformation of individual images to match a standard brain template. To produce brain maps, color, contours, and other visual cues are used to differentiate metabolic rates, electrical field potentials, receptor densities, and other attributes of structure or function. Databases are used to organize and archive data records. By relating the maps to cognitive functions and psychological models, brain mapping offers a prerequisite for the understanding of organizational principles of the human brain.

  18. Norovirus diversity in diarrheic children from an African-descendant settlement in Belem, Northern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glicélia Cruz Aragão

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV, sapovirus (SaV and human astrovirus (HAstV are viral pathogens that are associated with outbreaks and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis. However, little is known about the occurrence of these pathogens in relatively isolated communities, such as the remnants of African-descendant villages ("Quilombola". The objective of this study was the frequency determination of these viruses in children under 10 years, with and without gastroenteritis, from a "Quilombola" Community, Northern Brazil. A total of 159 stool samples were obtained from April/2008 to July/2010 and tested by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR to detect NoV, SaV and HAstV, and further molecular characterization was performed. These viruses were detected only in the diarrheic group. NoV was the most frequent viral agent detected (19.7%-16/81, followed by SaV (2.5%-2/81 and HAstV (1.2%-1/81. Of the 16 NoV-positive samples, 14 were sequenced with primers targeting the B region of the polymerase (ORF1 and the D region of the capsid (ORF2. The results showed a broad genetic diversity of NoV, with 12 strains being classified as GII-4 (5-41.7%, GII-6 (3-25%, GII-7 (2-16.7%, GII-17 (1-8.3% and GI-2 (1-8.3%, as based on the polymerase region; 12 samples were classified, based on the capsid region, as GII-4 (6-50%, being 3-2006b variant and 3-2010 variant, GII-6 (3-25%, GII-17 (2-16.7% and GII-20 (1-8.3%. One NoV-strain showed dual genotype specificity, based on the polymerase and capsid region (GII-7/GII-20. This study provides, for the first time, epidemiological and molecular information on the circulation of NoV, SaV and HAstV in African-descendant communities in Northern Brazil and identifies NoV genotypes that were different from those detected previously in studies conducted in the urban area of Belém. It remains to be determined why a broader NoV diversity was observed in such a semi-isolated community.

  19. Feasibility of Quantifying Arterial Cerebral Blood Volume Using Multiphase Alternate Ascending/Descending Directional Navigation (ALADDIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Sung-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Arterial cerebral blood volume (aCBV) is associated with many physiologic and pathologic conditions. Recently, multiphase balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) readout was introduced to measure labeled blood signals in the arterial compartment, based on the fact that signal difference between labeled and unlabeled blood decreases with the number of RF pulses that is affected by blood velocity. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of a new 2D inter-slice bSSFP-based arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique termed, alternate ascending/descending directional navigation (ALADDIN), to quantify aCBV using multiphase acquisition in six healthy subjects. A new kinetic model considering bSSFP RF perturbations was proposed to describe the multiphase data and thus to quantify aCBV. Since the inter-slice time delay (TD) and gap affected the distribution of labeled blood spins in the arterial and tissue compartments, we performed the experiments with two TDs (0 and 500 ms) and two gaps (300% and 450% of slice thickness) to evaluate their roles in quantifying aCBV. Comparison studies using our technique and an existing method termed arterial volume using arterial spin tagging (AVAST) were also separately performed in five subjects. At 300% gap or 500-ms TD, significant tissue perfusion signals were demonstrated, while tissue perfusion signals were minimized and arterial signals were maximized at 450% gap and 0-ms TD. ALADDIN has an advantage of visualizing bi-directional flow effects (ascending/descending) in a single experiment. Labeling efficiency (α) of inter-slice blood flow effects could be measured in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) (20.8±3.7%.) and was used for aCBV quantification. As a result of fitting to the proposed model, aCBV values in gray matter (1.4-2.3 mL/100 mL) were in good agreement with those from literature. Our technique showed high correlation with AVAST, especially when arterial signals were accentuated (i.e., when TD = 0 ms) (r = 0

  20. Feasibility of Quantifying Arterial Cerebral Blood Volume Using Multiphase Alternate Ascending/Descending Directional Navigation (ALADDIN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Sung-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Arterial cerebral blood volume (aCBV) is associated with many physiologic and pathologic conditions. Recently, multiphase balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) readout was introduced to measure labeled blood signals in the arterial compartment, based on the fact that signal difference between labeled and unlabeled blood decreases with the number of RF pulses that is affected by blood velocity. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of a new 2D inter-slice bSSFP-based arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique termed, alternate ascending/descending directional navigation (ALADDIN), to quantify aCBV using multiphase acquisition in six healthy subjects. A new kinetic model considering bSSFP RF perturbations was proposed to describe the multiphase data and thus to quantify aCBV. Since the inter-slice time delay (TD) and gap affected the distribution of labeled blood spins in the arterial and tissue compartments, we performed the experiments with two TDs (0 and 500 ms) and two gaps (300% and 450% of slice thickness) to evaluate their roles in quantifying aCBV. Comparison studies using our technique and an existing method termed arterial volume using arterial spin tagging (AVAST) were also separately performed in five subjects. At 300% gap or 500-ms TD, significant tissue perfusion signals were demonstrated, while tissue perfusion signals were minimized and arterial signals were maximized at 450% gap and 0-ms TD. ALADDIN has an advantage of visualizing bi-directional flow effects (ascending/descending) in a single experiment. Labeling efficiency (α) of inter-slice blood flow effects could be measured in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) (20.8±3.7%.) and was used for aCBV quantification. As a result of fitting to the proposed model, aCBV values in gray matter (1.4–2.3 mL/100 mL) were in good agreement with those from literature. Our technique showed high correlation with AVAST, especially when arterial signals were accentuated (i.e., when TD = 0 ms) (r = 0