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  1. [Effect on tranquilizing and allaying excitement needling method on brain blood flow in the patients of insomnia of heart and spleen deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xing-ke; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Lu; Yue, Gong-lei; Li, Tie; Chen, Cheng; Cui, Hai-fu; Wang, Fu-chun

    2010-02-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of tranquilizing and allaying excitement needling method on insomnia of heart and spleen deficiency and the effect of brain blood flow. Sixty cases were randomly divided into a tranquilizing and allaying excitement needling method group (observation group) and an eight confluence points selected group (control group), 30 cases in each group. The observation group was treated by acupuncture at Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Shenmen (HT 7), and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) with tranquilizing and allaying excitement needling method. The control group was treated by acupuncture at Shenmai (BL 62) and Zhaohai (KI 6). Their therapeutic effects and changes of brain blood flow were observed. The total effective rate was 93.3% (28/30) in the observation group which was better than 83.3% (25/30) in the control group (P effect of acupuncture is related with improvement of brain blood flow. However, the tranquilizing and allaying excitement needling method has better therapeutic effect on insomnia of heart and spleen deficiency.

  2. Spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelstaedt, C.A.; McCartney, W.H.; Mauro, M.A.; Vincent, L.M.; Peterson, N.P.; Staab, E.V.

    1984-01-01

    Imaging modalities currently available for the evaluation of splenic disorders include /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (TcSC) radionuclide splenic scintigraphy, ultrasound, and computed tomography (CT). These techniques produce images of the spleen on the basis of reticuloendothelial function, echogenic properties, and x-ray attenuation, respectively. No one technique is clearly superior to another for all clinical situations or disease processes. Each modality has its strengths and limitations that relate to the properties being measured (function, echogenicity, attenuation) and the disease processes involving the spleen. This chapter offers a combined approach to splenic imaging in the evaluation of focal disease, diffuse disease, traumatic disorders, normal variations, congenital anomalies, and perisplenic disorders

  3. Observation on Therapeutic Effect of the Depression of Heart-spleen Deficiency with Wuling Capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinbin; Liu Ping

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect on the treatment of depression belong to the type of heart-spleen deficiency with Wuling capsule, 37 patients were assigned into two groups: the deficiency of both the heart and spleen group (I) and the non deficiency of both the heart and spleen group (II). The efficacy of two groups was surveyed and compared after taken Wuling capsule 2 and 4 weeks,respectively. After treatment, there was a difference (P 0.05). The satisfactory effects were showed on various kinds of depressions using wuling capsules,while deficiency of both the heart and spleen group effects were better than that of the non deficiency of both the heart and spleen group. (authors)

  4. Protease activity of legumain is inhibited by an increase of cystatin E/M in the DJ-1-knockout mouse spleen, cerebrum and heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Yamane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Legumain (EC 3.4.22.34 is an asparaginyl endopeptidase. Legumain activity has been detected in various mouse tissues including the kidney, spleen and epididymis. Legumain is overexpressed in the majority of human solid tumors and transcription of the legumain gene is regulated by the p53 tumor suppressor in HCT116 cells. The legumain activity is also increased under acid conditions in Alzheimer's disease brains. DJ-1/PARK7, a cancer- and Parkinson's disease-associated protein, works as a coactivator to various transcription factors, including the androgen receptor, p53, PSF, Nrf2, SREBP and RREB1. Recently, we found that legumain expression, activation and cleavage of annexin A2 are regulated by DJ-1 through p53. In this study, we found that the expression levels of legumain mRNA were increased in the cerebrum, kidney, spleen, heart, lung, epididymis, stomach, small intestine and pancreas from DJ-1-knockout mice, although legumain activity levels were decreased in the cerebrum, spleen and heart from DJ-1-knockout mice. Furthermore, we found that cystatin E/M expression was increased in the spleen, cerebrum and heart from DJ-1-knockout mice. These results suggest that reduction of legumain activity is caused by an increase of cystatin E/M expression in the spleen, cerebrum and heart from DJ-1-knockout mice.

  5. Methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney.

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    Cano-Europa, Edgar; Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Franco-Colin, Margarita; Gallardo-Casas, Carlos Angel; Ortiz-Butrón, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    It is known that a hypothyroidism-induced hypometabolic state protects against oxidative damage caused by toxins. However, some workers demonstrated that antithyroid drug-induced hypothyroidism can cause cellular damage. Our objective was to determine if methimazole (an antithyroid drug) or hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the liver, kidney, lung, spleen and heart. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: euthyroid, false thyroidectomy, thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism, methimazole-induced hypothyroidism (60 mg/kg), and treatment with methimazole (60 mg/kg) and a T₄ injection (20 μg/kg/d sc). At the end of the treatments (4 weeks for the pharmacological groups and 8 weeks for the surgical groups), the animals were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and they were transcardially perfused with 10% formaldehyde. The spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney were removed and were processed for embedding in paraffin wax. Coronal sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. At the end of treatment, animals with both the methimazole- and thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism had a significant reduction of serum concentration of thyroid hormones. Only methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the kidney, lung, liver, heart, kidney and spleen. In addition, animals treated with methimazole and T₄ showed cellular damage in the lung, spleen and renal medulla with lesser damage in the liver, renal cortex and heart. The thyroidectomy only altered the lung structure. The alterations were prevented by T₄ completely in the heart and partially in the kidney cortex. These results indicate that tissue damage found in hypothyroidism is caused by methimazole. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Insomnia Due to Deficiency of Both the Heart and Spleen Treated by Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Chinese Tuina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To observe therapeutic effects of the comprehensive therapy of acupuncture-moxibustion and Chinese Tuina for treatment of insomnia due to deficiency of both the heart and spleen. Methods: 92 cases were divided randomly into the treatment group (treated by acupuncture-moxibustion and Chinese Tuina) and the control group (treated by acupuncture-moxibustion). Results: The therapeutic effect of the treatment group was obviously superior to that of the control group (the χ2 test showed P<0.01). Conclusions: The comprehensive therapy of acupuncture-moxibustion and Chinese Tuina can give marked therapeutic effects for treatment of insomnia due to deficiency of both the heart and spleen.

  7. Brain and heart disease studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.; Sargent, T.W. III; Yen, C.K.; Friedland, R.F.; Moyer, B.R.

    1981-01-01

    Highlights of important studies completed during the past year using the Donner 280-crystal positron ring tomograph are summarized in this article. Using rubidium-82, images of a brain tumor and an arteriovenous malformation are described. An image demonstrating methionine uptake in a patient with schizophrenia and an image reflecting sugar metabolism in the brain of a man with Alzheimer's disease are also included. Uptake of rubidium-82 in subjects before and after exercise is being investigated. The synthesis of new radiopharmaceuticals and the development of a new synthesis for C-taurine for use in the study of metabolism in the human heart are also being studied

  8. Lipid composition of microdomains is altered in neuronopathic Gaucher disease sheep brain and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Leanne K; Rozaklis, Tina; Adams, Melissa K; Hopwood, John J; Karageorgos, Litsa

    2017-07-01

    Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in glucocerebrosidase activity that leads to accumulation of glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine. Membrane raft microdomains are discrete, highly organized microdomains with a unique lipid composition that provide the necessary environment for specific protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions to take place. In this study we purified detergent resistant membranes (DRM; membrane rafts) from the occipital cortex and spleen from sheep affected with acute neuronopathic Gaucher disease and wild-type controls. We observed significant increases in the concentrations of glucosylceramide, hexosylsphingosine, BMP and gangliosides and decreases in the percentage of cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine leading to an altered DRM composition. Altered sphingolipid/cholesterol homeostasis would dramatically disrupt DRM architecture making them less ordered and more fluid. In addition, significant changes in the length and degree of lipid saturation within the DRM microdomains in the Gaucher brain were also observed. As these DRM microdomains are involved in many cellular events, an imbalance or disruption of the cell membrane homeostasis may impair normal cell function. This disruption of membrane raft microdomains and imbalance within the environment of cellular membranes of neuronal cells may be a key factor in initiating a cascade process leading to neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute Effects of Moderate and Strenuous Running on Trace Element Distribution in the Brain, Liver, and Spleen of Trained Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kıvanç Ergen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Trace elements such as manganese (Mn, cobalt (Co and chromium (Cr play key roles in metabolic reactions and are important in many physiological enzymatic processes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the acute effects of moderate and strenuous running (treadmill exercise on the levels of Mn, Co and Cr in the brain, liver, and spleen of trained rats. Study Design: Animal experiment. Material and Methods: Twenty-one Wistar-Albino adult male rats were used in the study. Rats were grouped as control group (no mandated exercise; n=8, moderate exercise group (30 min exercise duration; n=7, and strenuous exercise group (60 min exercise duration; n=6. The levels of Mn, Co, and Cr in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, brain stem, liver, and spleen were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Cr levels in liver of rats increased in parallel to the time course of running supporting the exercise training effect on the action of insulin. Compared to the control group, the level of Co significantly decreased in the brain stem of rats in the moderate exercise group (p=0.009 and in the frontal lobe of rats in the strenuous exercise group (p=0.004. In the strenuous exercise group, an examination of the brain stem revealed that the level of Mn significantly decreased (p=0.001, and levels of Co and Cr were apparently depleted to the extent that these elements were no longer detectable. Conclusion: A notable finding is that during or after single bout strenuous exercise, levels of Co decreased in the spleen and particularly decreased in the brain stem of regularly trained rats. From this study, it can be inferred that sportsmen should aware trace element disturbances among the body parts or depletion of some trace elements after single bout of chronic strenuous running exercise.

  10. Toll-like receptors and cytokines in the brain and in spleen of dogs with visceral leishmaniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grano, Fernanda G; Dos S Silva, José Eduardo; Melo, Guilherme D; de Souza, Milena S; Lima, Valéria M F; Machado, Gisele F

    2018-04-15

    Visceral leishmaniosis (VL) is a multisystem disease that affects domestic dogs and can have several clinical manifestations, including some rare reports of neurological clinical signs, or it may remain asymptomatic, depending on the individual immune response against the Leishmania parasite. VL involves immune system sensors, such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), that are related to innate immunity and inflammation. Previously, we have reported the presence of brain inflammation in infected dogs. Here, we investigated the gene expression profile of TLRs 1-10 in the brain and the spleen of infected dogs, along with the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β and IL-6) with the aim of explaining the origin of brain inflammation. The gene expression of TLRs has varied according to the tissue evaluated. In the brain, TLR-4 was only up-regulated in a small subpopulation of infected dogs, while in the spleen, we detected an increase in TLR-5 and TLR-9 transcripts, as well as a reduction in TLRs 2-4 and TLR-10. All cytokines except IL-6 were detected in infected dogs. Moreover, we detected Leishmania DNA in all infected dogs in both tissues evaluated. In the histopathological analysis, we observed a predominance of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, mainly in leptomeninges and choroid plexuses, ranging from mild to intense. This study provides the first insight into the TLRs profile in the brain and the spleen during canine VL and provides support to confirm the involvement of sensors of the innate immune system sensors against L. infantum parasites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Radioprotection by dipyridamole in the aging mouse. Effects on lipid peroxidation in mouse liver, spleen and brain after whole-body X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Noritaka

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the radioprotective effect of dipyridamole in the aging mouse, the lipid peroxide content in aging mouse liver, spleen and brain irradiated by X-ray were measured both before and after injection of dipyridamole. The lipid peroxide content increased with aging from 2 months old to 16 months old in the mouse liver, spleen and brain. The content of lipid peroxide in the liver and spleen of the aging mouse was significantly increased in 7 days after whole-body irradiation with 8 Gy, but was unchanged in the brain. Dipyridamole, given before irradiation, significantly inhibited the increase of lipid peroxide after irradiation. These results suggest that dipyridamole may have radioprotective effects on aging mouse liver and spleen as well as on young mouse, and that inhibition of lipid peroxidation is a possible factor in the radioprotective effect of dipyridamole. (author)

  12. Spleen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spleen. Sickle cell anemia . Splenic artery aneurysm (rare). Trauma to the spleen. Risks Risks for anesthesia and surgery in general ... removal - series References Brandow AM, Camitta BM. Hyposplenism, splenic trauma, and splenectomy. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ...

  13. To what extent is blood a reasonable surrogate for brain in gene expression studies: estimation from mouse hippocampus and spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew N Davies

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Microarrays are designed to measure genome-wide differences in gene expression. In cases where a tissue is not accessible for analysis (e.g. human brain, it is of interest to determine whether a second, accessible tissue could be used as a surrogate for transcription profiling. Surrogacy has applications in the study of behavioural and neurodegenerative disorders. Comparison between hippocampus and spleen mRNA obtained from a mouse recombinant inbred panel indicates a high degree of correlation between the tissues for genes that display a high heritability of expression level. This correlation is not limited to apparent expression differences caused by sequence polymorphisms in the target sequences and includes both cis and trans genetic effects. A tissue such as blood could therefore give surrogate information on expression in brain for a subset of genes, in particular those co-expressed between the two tissues, which have heritably varying expression.

  14. Wandering spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Tai; Lee, Sun Hwa; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    Wandering spleen is a rare entity, which is defined as the presence of the spleen in other than the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. The etiology of wandering spleen is unknown. Congenital factors such as incomplete fusion or laxity of the supporting structures of the spleen and acquired factors such as splenomegaly, trauma, abdominal laxity and hormonal effects of pregnancy may play a role. The clinical presentation is variable from asymptomatic to catastrophic if torsion of the splenic pedicle occurs. We present two cases of wandering spleen with a brief review of the literature.

  15. Wandering spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Tai; Lee, Sun Hwa; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1987-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare entity, which is defined as the presence of the spleen in other than the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. The etiology of wandering spleen is unknown. Congenital factors such as incomplete fusion or laxity of the supporting structures of the spleen and acquired factors such as splenomegaly, trauma, abdominal laxity and hormonal effects of pregnancy may play a role. The clinical presentation is variable from asymptomatic to catastrophic if torsion of the splenic pedicle occurs. We present two cases of wandering spleen with a brief review of the literature

  16. Brain natriuretic peptide and right heart dysfunction after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talha, Samy; Charloux, Anne; Piquard, François; Geny, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    Heart transplantation (HT) should normalize cardiac endocrine function, but brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels remain elevated after HT, even in the absence of left ventricular hemodynamic disturbance or allograft rejection. Right ventricle (RV) abnormalities are common in HT recipients (HTx), as a result of engraftment process, tricuspid insufficiency, and/or repeated inflammation due to iterative endomyocardial biopsies. RV function follow-up is vital for patient management as RV dysfunction is a recognized cause of in-hospital death and is responsible for a worse prognosis. Interestingly, few and controversial data are available concerning the relationship between plasma BNP levels and RV functional impairment in HTx. This suggests that infra-clinical modifications, such as subtle immune system disorders or hypoxic conditions, might influence BNP expression. Nevertheless, due to other altered circulating molecular forms of BNP, a lack of specificity of BNP assays is described in heart failure patients. This phenomenon could exist in HT population and could explain elevated BNP plasmatic levels despite a normal RV function. In clinical practice, intra-individual change in BNP over time, rather than absolute BNP values, might be more helpful in detecting right cardiac dysfunction in HTx. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Exogenous iron redistribution between brain and spleen after the administration of the {sup 57}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} ferrofluid into the ventricle of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbasov, Raul, E-mail: gabbasov_rr@nrcki.ru [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Polikarpov, Dmitry [Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia); Cherepanov, Valery [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chuev, Michael; Mischenko, Ilya [Institute of Physics and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Loginiva, Nadezhda; Loseva, Elena [Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikitin, Maxim [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Panchenko, Vladislav [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-01

    Iron clearance pathways after the injection of {sup 57}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-based dextran-stabilized ferrofluid into the brain ventricles were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and histologically. The nanoparticles appeared in spleen tissues within 3 h after transcranial injection. We separated and independently estimated concentrations of iron encapsulated in nanoparticles and iron encapsulated in proteins in the all rat organs. It was found that the dextran coated initial nanoparticles of the ferrofluid disintegrated in the brain into separate superparamagnetic nanoparticles within a week after the injection.The nanoparticles completely exited from the brain in a few weeks. The exogenous iron appeared in the spleen in 3 h after the injection and remained in the spleen for more than month. The appearance of additional component in Mössbauer spectra of spleen samples revealed a fundamental difference in the mechanisms of processing of iron nanoparticles in this organ, which was also confirmed by histological examination.

  18. Dynamic changes of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in spleen and brain of canine distemper virus-infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qeska, V; Barthel, Y; Iseringhausen, M; Tipold, A; Stein, V M; Khan, M A; Baumgärtner, W; Beineke, A

    2013-12-15

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection causes immunosuppression and demyelinating leukoencephalitis in dogs. In viral diseases, an ambiguous function of regulatory T cells (Treg), with both beneficial effects by reducing immunopathology and detrimental effects by inhibiting antiviral immunity, has been described. However, the role of Treg in the pathogenesis of canine distemper remains unknown. In order to determine the effect of CDV upon immune homeostasis, the amount of Foxp3(+) Treg in spleen and brain of naturally infected dogs has been determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, splenic cytokine expression has been quantified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Splenic depletion of Foxp3(+) Treg was associated with an increased mRNA-expression of tumor necrosis factor and decreased transcription of interleukin-2 in the acute disease phase, indicative of disturbed immunological counter regulation in peripheral lymphoid organs. In the brain, a lack of Foxp3(+) Treg in predemyelinating and early demyelinating lesions and significantly increased infiltrations of Foxp3(+) Treg in chronic demyelinating lesions were observed. In conclusion, disturbed peripheral and CNS immune regulation associated with a reduction of Treg represents a potential prerequisite for excessive neuroinflammation and early lesion development in canine distemper leukoencephalitis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ruptured Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be caused by various underlying problems, such as mononucleosis and other infections, liver disease, and blood cancers. ... cause a ruptured spleen. For instance, people with mononucleosis — a viral infection that can cause an enlarged ...

  20. Wandering Spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mashat, Faisal M.; Sibiany, Abdulrehman M.; Maimani, Abdulraouf A.; Alem, Fayad K.

    2004-01-01

    Cogenital malformations of the spleen are rare. We report 3 cases of wandering spleen presented as abominal or pelvi-abdominal mass. Two patients were suffering from chronic lower abdominal pain with thrombosed splenic pedicle and the third patient had an acute abdomen. All patients underwent splenectomies. Abdominal ultrasound, computerized tomography, Doppler's ultrasound, and radioisotpes studies were used to cpnfirm the diagnosis. The clinical, diagnostic and treatment modalities are discussed. (author)

  1. CD11c-positive cells from brain, spleen, lung, and liver exhibit site-specific immune phenotypes and plastically adapt to new environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immig, Kerstin; Gericke, Martin; Menzel, Franziska; Merz, Felicitas; Krueger, Martin; Schiefenhövel, Fridtjof; Lösche, Andreas; Jäger, Kathrin; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Biber, Knut; Bechmann, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    The brain's immune privilege has been also attributed to the lack of dendritic cells (DC) within its parenchyma and the adjacent meninges, an assumption, which implies maintenance of antigens rather than their presentation in lymphoid organs. Using mice transcribing the green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the DC marker CD11c (itgax), we identified a juxtavascular population of cells expressing this DC marker and demonstrated their origin from bone marrow and local microglia. We now phenotypically compared this population with CD11c/CD45 double-positive cells from lung, liver, and spleen in healthy mice using seven-color flow cytometry. We identified unique, site-specific expression patterns of F4/80, CD80, CD86, CX3CR1, CCR2, FLT3, CD103, and MHC-II. Furthermore, we observed the two known CD45-positive populations (CD45(high) and CD45(int) ) in the brain, whereas liver, lung, and spleen exhibited a homogeneous CD45(high) population. CD11c-positive microglia lacked MHC-II expression and CD45(high) /CD11c-positive cells from the brain have a lower percentage of MHC-II-positive cells. To test whether phenotypical differences are fixed by origin or specifically develop due to environmental factors, we transplanted brain and spleen mononuclear cells on organotypic slice cultures from brain (OHSC) and spleen (OSSC). We demonstrate that adaption and ramification of MHC-II-positive splenocytes is paralleled by down-regulation of MHC-II, whereas brain-derived mononuclear cells neither ramified nor up-regulated MHC-II in OSSCs. Thus, brain-derived mononuclear cells maintain their MHC-II-negative phenotype within the environment of an immune organ. Intraparenchymal CD11c-positive cells share immunophenotypical characteristics of DCs from other organs but remain unique for their low MHC-II expression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Brain-Heart Interaction: Cardiac Complications After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhili; Venkat, Poornima; Seyfried, Don; Chopp, Michael; Yan, Tao; Chen, Jieli

    2017-08-04

    Neurocardiology is an emerging specialty that addresses the interaction between the brain and the heart, that is, the effects of cardiac injury on the brain and the effects of brain injury on the heart. This review article focuses on cardiac dysfunction in the setting of stroke such as ischemic stroke, brain hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The majority of post-stroke deaths are attributed to neurological damage, and cardiovascular complications are the second leading cause of post-stroke mortality. Accumulating clinical and experimental evidence suggests a causal relationship between brain damage and heart dysfunction. Thus, it is important to determine whether cardiac dysfunction is triggered by stroke, is an unrelated complication, or is the underlying cause of stroke. Stroke-induced cardiac damage may lead to fatality or potentially lifelong cardiac problems (such as heart failure), or to mild and recoverable damage such as neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. The role of location and lateralization of brain lesions after stroke in brain-heart interaction; clinical biomarkers and manifestations of cardiac complications; and underlying mechanisms of brain-heart interaction after stroke, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; catecholamine surge; sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation; microvesicles; microRNAs; gut microbiome, immunoresponse, and systemic inflammation, are discussed. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Isolated Amoebic Abscess of Spleen

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    Kaushik M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amoebic liver abscess is the most common extraintestinal manifestation of amoebiasis. Extrahepatic amoebic abscesses have occasionally been described in the lung, brain, and skin and presumably result from hematogenous spread. Isolated amoebic abscess of spleen has been reported scarcely in literature. We report here a case of isolated amoebic abscess of spleen.

  4. Dynamic correlations between heart and brain rhythm during Autogenic meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Keun; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Jongwha; Whang, Min-Cheol; Kang, Seung Wan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine significant physiological parameters of brain and heart under meditative state, both in each activities and their dynamic correlations. Electrophysiological changes in response to meditation were explored in 12 healthy volunteers who completed 8 weeks of a basic training course in autogenic meditation. Heart coherence, representing the degree of ordering in oscillation of heart rhythm intervals, increased significantly during meditation. Relative EEG alpha pow...

  5. Information dynamics of brain-heart physiological networks during sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, L.; Nollo, G.; Jurysta, F.; Marinazzo, D.

    2014-10-01

    This study proposes an integrated approach, framed in the emerging fields of network physiology and information dynamics, for the quantitative analysis of brain-heart interaction networks during sleep. With this approach, the time series of cardiac vagal autonomic activity and brain wave activities measured respectively as the normalized high frequency component of heart rate variability and the EEG power in the δ, θ, α, σ, and β bands, are considered as realizations of the stochastic processes describing the dynamics of the heart system and of different brain sub-systems. Entropy-based measures are exploited to quantify the predictive information carried by each (sub)system, and to dissect this information into a part actively stored in the system and a part transferred to it from the other connected systems. The application of this approach to polysomnographic recordings of ten healthy subjects led us to identify a structured network of sleep brain-brain and brain-heart interactions, with the node described by the β EEG power acting as a hub which conveys the largest amount of information flowing between the heart and brain nodes. This network was found to be sustained mostly by the transitions across different sleep stages, as the information transfer was weaker during specific stages than during the whole night, and vanished progressively when moving from light sleep to deep sleep and to REM sleep.

  6. Dynamic correlations between heart and brain rhythm during Autogenic meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Keun; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Jongwha; Whang, Min-Cheol; Kang, Seung Wan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine significant physiological parameters of brain and heart under meditative state, both in each activities and their dynamic correlations. Electrophysiological changes in response to meditation were explored in 12 healthy volunteers who completed 8 weeks of a basic training course in autogenic meditation. Heart coherence, representing the degree of ordering in oscillation of heart rhythm intervals, increased significantly during meditation. Relative EEG alpha power and alpha lagged coherence also increased. A significant slowing of parietal peak alpha frequency was observed. Parietal peak alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but no such relationship was observed during baseline. Average alpha lagged coherence also increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but weak opposite relationship was observed at baseline. Relative alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during both meditation and baseline periods. Heart coherence can be a cardiac marker for the meditative state and also may be a general marker for the meditative state since heart coherence is strongly correlated with EEG alpha activities. It is expected that increasing heart coherence and the accompanying EEG alpha activations, heart brain synchronicity, would help recover physiological synchrony following a period of homeostatic depletion. PMID:23914165

  7. Dynamic correlations between heart and brain rhythm during Autogenic meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daekeun eKim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to determine significant physiological parameters of brain and heart under meditative state, both in each activities and their dynamic correlations. Electrophysiological changes in response to meditation were explored in 12 healthy volunteers who completed 8 weeks of a basic training course in autogenic meditation. Heart coherence, representing the degree of ordering in oscillation of heart rhythm intervals, increased significantly during meditation. Relative EEG alpha power and alpha lagged coherence also increased. A significant slowing of parietal peak alpha frequency was observed. Parietal peak alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but no such relationship was observed during baseline. Average alpha lagged coherence also increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but, again, no significant relationship was observed at baseline. Relative alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during both meditation and baseline periods. Heart coherence can be a cardiac marker for the meditative state and also may be a general marker for the meditative state since heart coherence is strongly correlated with EEG alpha activities. It is expected that increasing heart coherence and the accompanying EEG alpha activations, heart brain synchronicity, would help recover physiological synchrony following a period of homeostatic depletion.

  8. Dynamic correlations between heart and brain rhythm during Autogenic meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Keun; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Jongwha; Whang, Min-Cheol; Kang, Seung Wan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine significant physiological parameters of brain and heart under meditative state, both in each activities and their dynamic correlations. Electrophysiological changes in response to meditation were explored in 12 healthy volunteers who completed 8 weeks of a basic training course in autogenic meditation. Heart coherence, representing the degree of ordering in oscillation of heart rhythm intervals, increased significantly during meditation. Relative EEG alpha power and alpha lagged coherence also increased. A significant slowing of parietal peak alpha frequency was observed. Parietal peak alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but no such relationship was observed during baseline. Average alpha lagged coherence also increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but weak opposite relationship was observed at baseline. Relative alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during both meditation and baseline periods. Heart coherence can be a cardiac marker for the meditative state and also may be a general marker for the meditative state since heart coherence is strongly correlated with EEG alpha activities. It is expected that increasing heart coherence and the accompanying EEG alpha activations, heart brain synchronicity, would help recover physiological synchrony following a period of homeostatic depletion.

  9. Migraine, the heart and the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, H.

    2018-01-01

    The association between migraine and silent ischemic brain lesions was investigated. Also the occurence of right-to-left shunts in different migraine groups and controls. The functional consequences of silent ischemic brain lesions were investigated.

  10. Brain Metabolites in Autonomic Regulatory Insular Sites in Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Mary A.; Yadav, Santosh K.; Macey, Paul M.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Autonomic, pain, and neuropsychologic comorbidities appear in heart failure (HF), likely resulting from brain changes, indicated as loss of structural integrity and functional deficits. Among affected brain sites, the anterior insulae are prominent in serving major regulatory roles in many of the disrupted functions commonly seen in HF. Metabolite levels, including N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), and myo-inositol (MI), could ind...

  11. Heart rate variability: a tool to explore the sleeping brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Chouchou, Florian; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is divided into two main sleep stages: (1) non-rapid eye movement sleep (non-REMS), characterized among others by reduced global brain activity; and (2) rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), characterized by global brain activity similar to that of wakefulness. Results of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, which is widely used to explore autonomic modulation, have revealed higher parasympathetic tone during normal non-REMS and a shift toward sympathetic predominance during normal REMS. M...

  12. Disruption of Brain-Heart Coupling in Sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, Marjolein M.; Gilmore, Emily J.; Van Putten, Michel J.A.M.; Zaveri, Hitten P.; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Gaspard, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate heart rate and EEG variability and their coupling in patients with sepsis and determine their relationship to sepsis severity and severity of sepsis-Associated brain dysfunction. Methods: Fifty-Two patients with sepsis were prospectively identified, categorized as comatose (N

  13. Ott1 (Rbm15) is essential for placental vascular branching morphogenesis and embryonic development of the heart and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, Glen D; Chu, Gerald C; Jesneck, Jonathan L; Cullen, Dana E; Bronson, Roderick T; Bernard, Olivier A; Gilliland, D Gary

    2009-01-01

    The infant leukemia-associated gene Ott1 (Rbm15) has broad regulatory effects within murine hematopoiesis. However, germ line Ott1 deletion results in fetal demise prior to embryonic day 10.5, indicating additional developmental requirements for Ott1. The spen gene family, to which Ott1 belongs, has a transcriptional activation/repression domain and RNA recognition motifs and has a significant role in the development of the head and thorax in Drosophila melanogaster. Early Ott1-deficient embryos show growth retardation and incomplete closure of the notochord. Further analysis demonstrated placental defects in the spongiotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast layers, resulting in an arrest of vascular branching morphogenesis. The rescue of the placental defect using a conditional allele with a trophoblast-sparing cre transgene allowed embryos to form a normal placenta and survive gestation. This outcome showed that the process of vascular branching morphogenesis in Ott1-deficient animals was regulated by the trophoblast compartment rather than the fetal vasculature. Mice surviving to term manifested hyposplenia and abnormal cardiac development. Analysis of global gene expression of Ott1-deficient embryonic hearts showed an enrichment of hypoxia-related genes and a significant alteration of several candidate genes critical for cardiac development. Thus, Ott1-dependent pathways, in addition to being implicated in leukemogenesis, may also be important for the pathogenesis of placental insufficiency and cardiac malformations.

  14. Progression of thanatophagy in cadaver brain and heart tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz T. Javan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process for maintaining cellular homeostasis during both normal and stress conditions. Metabolic reprogramming in tissues of dead bodies is inevitable due to chronic ischemia and nutrient deprivation, which are well-known features that stimulate autophagy. Currently, it is not fully elucidated whether postmortem autophagy, also known as thanatophagy, occurs in dead bodies is a function of the time of death. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that thanatophagy would increase in proportion to time elapsed since death for tissues collected from cadavers. Brain and heart tissue from corpses at different time intervals after death were analyzed by Western blot. Densitometry analysis demonstrated that thanatophagy occurred in a manner that was dependent on the time of death. The autophagy-associated proteins, LC3 II, p62, Beclin-1 and Atg7, increased in a time-dependent manner in heart tissues. A potent inducer of autophagy, BNIP3, decreased in the heart tissues as time of death increased, whereas the protein levels increased in brain tissues. However, there was no expression of BNIP3 at extended postmortem intervals in both brain and heart samples. Collectively, the present study demonstrates for the first time that thanatophagy occurs in brain and heart tissues of cadavers in a time-dependent manner. Further, our data suggest that cerebral thanatophagy may occur in a Beclin-1- independent manner. This unprecedented study provides potential insight into thanatophagy as a novel method for the estimation of the time of death in criminal investigationsAbstract: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process for maintaining cellular homeostasis during both normal and stress conditions. Metabolic reprogramming in tissues of dead bodies is inevitable due to chronic ischemia and nutrient deprivation, which are well-known features that stimulate autophagy. Currently, it is not fully

  15. The brain and heart: dancing in unison?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Rajiv T

    2009-02-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its main complication myocardial infarction are the leading causes of death globally. Environmental factors don't explain the large amount of variance seen in the development of the disease. Given the strong heritability of CAD, some of the unexplained variance may be due to genetic factors. In this issue of the Journal, Jiang and colleagues report a strong association between brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and CAD. There is increasing evidence that BDNF is not only involved in neuronal development but also energy expenditure. The results of this study are likely to give further impetus to researching the complex mechanisms and crosstalk that contribute to the pathogenesis of various polygenic disorders.

  16. Heart rate variability: a tool to explore the sleeping brain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eChouchou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is divided into two main sleep stages: 1 non-rapid eye movement sleep (non-REMS, characterized among others by reduced global brain activity; and 2 rapid eye movement sleep (REMS, characterized by global brain activity similar to that of wakefulness. Results of heart rate variability (HRV analysis, which is widely used to explore autonomic modulation, have revealed higher parasympathetic tone during normal non-REMS and a shift toward sympathetic predominance during normal REMS. Moreover, HRV analysis combined with brain imaging has identified close connectivity between autonomic cardiac modulation and activity in brain areas such as the amygdala and insular cortex during REMS, but no connectivity between brain and cardiac activity during non-REMS. There is also some evidence for an association between HRV and dream intensity and emotionality. Following some technical considerations, this review addresses how brain activity during sleep contributes to changes in autonomic cardiac activity, organized into three parts: 1 the knowledge on autonomic cardiac control, 2 differences in brain and autonomic activity between non-REMS and REMS, and 3 the potential of HRV analysis to explore the sleeping brain, and the implications for psychiatric disorders.

  17. Technetium SPECT agents for imaging heart and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    One major goal of radiopharmaceutical research has been the development of technetium-based perfusion tracers for SPECT imaging of the heart and brain. The recent clinical introduction of the technetium complexes HM-PAO, ECD and DMG-2MP for brain imaging, and of CDO-MEB and MIBI for heart imaging promises to revolutionize the field of nuclear medicine. All of these agents appear to localize in the target tissue in proportion to blood flow, but their mechanisms of localization and/or retention may differ quite widely. In this talk, a survey of the new technetium SPECT agents will be presented. The inorganic and biological chemistry of these complexes, mechanisms of uptake and retention, QSAR studies, and potential clinical applications are discussed

  18. The Short-term Therapeutic Effect of the Three-part Massotherapy for Insomnia Due to Deficiency of Both the Heart and the Spleen- A Report of 100 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short-term therapeutic effect of the three-part massotherapy on insomnia due to deficiency of both the heart and spleen. Methods: Two hundred cases were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group, each consisting of 100 cases. Patients in the treatment group were treated with the three-part massotherapy, while those in the control group with oral administration of Guipi Wan (归脾丸Pill for Invigorating the Spleen and Nourishing the Heart). The total clinical therapeutic effects, the total scores of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) of the treatment group were compared with those of the control group. Results: After the treatment, the total therapeutic effects, PSQI, SAS, and SDS of the two groups all showed significant improvement (P<0.01), and the scores of the treatment group were superior to those of the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: The three-part massotherapy has definite therapeutic effects on insomnia due to deficiency of both the heart and the spleen, which is safe and easy to operate, and worthy of popularization.

  19. TH-EF-207A-06: High-Resolution Optical-CT/ECT Imaging of Unstained Mice Femur, Brain, Spleen, and Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, S; Dewhirst, M; Oldham, M; Boss, M; Birer, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Optical transmission and emission computed tomography (optical-CT/ECT) provides high-resolution 3D attenuation and emission maps in unsectioned large (∼1cm 3 ) ex vivo tissue samples at a resolution of 12.9µm 3 per voxel. Here we apply optical-CT/ECT to investigate high-resolution structure and auto-fluorescence in a range of optically cleared mice organs, including, for the first time, mouse bone (femur), opening the potential for study of bone metastasis and bone-mediated immune response. Methods: Three BALBc mice containing 4T1 flank tumors were sacrificed to obtain spleen, brain, tumor, and femur. Tissues were washed in 4% PFA, fixed in EtOH solution (for 5, 10, 10, and 2 days respectively), and then optically cleared for 3 days in BABBs. The femur was also placed in 0.25M aqueous EDTA for 15–30 days to remove calcium. Optical-CT/ECT attenuation and emission maps at 633nm (the latter using 530nm excitation light) were obtained for all samples. Bi-telecentric optical-CT was compared side-by-side with conventional optical projection tomography (OPT) imaging to evaluate imaging capability of these two rival techniques. Results: Auto-fluorescence mapping of femurs reveals vasculatures and fluorescence heterogeneity. High signals (A.U.=10) are reported in the medullary cavity but not in the cortical bone (A.U.=1). The brain strongly and uniform auto-fluoresces (A.U.=5). Thick, optically dense organs such as the spleen and the tumor (0.12, 0.46OD/mm) are reconstructed at depth without significant loss of resolution, which we attribute to the bi-telecentric optics of optical-CT. The attenuation map of tumor reveals vasculature, attenuation heterogeneity, and possibly necrotic tissue. Conclusion: We demonstrate the feasibility of optical-CT/ECT imaging of un-sectioned mice bones (femurs) and spleen with high resolution. This result, and the characterization of unstained organs, are important steps enabling future studies involving optical-CT/ECT applied

  20. Studi Histopatologi Limpa Anjing Penderita Distemper Dikaitkan Dengan Sebaran Sel-Sel Radang Pada Otak Dan Paru (HISTOPHATOLOGICAL STUDY OF SPLEEN ON DOGS INFECTED WITH DISTEMPER ASSOCIATED TO INFLAMATION IN THE BRAIN AND LUNGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Furkam Fadilah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aim was to determine the distribution of inflammatory cells in canine distemper in terms of the level of inflammation in the spleen, brain and lungs. The sample used 20 infected dogs wihich from the spleens, brains, and lungs of the dogs were collected. These organs were processed for histophatological observation using harris hematoxilyn-eosyn stain. The inflammation of the organs examined by using binocular microscope with 200X magnification. the results showed that inflammation was observed in the spleens: 9 samples (45% showed the presence of lymphoidcells that experienced a mild inflammation 7 (35% moderate inflammation, and 4 (20% severe inflammation in brain, 3 samples (15% did not show observe inflammation, 12 (60% mild, 5(25% moderate inflammation, and not observed any severe inflammation in brain, pulmonary: 6(30% mild inflammation, 11 (55% moderate inflammation, and 3 (15% severe inflammation. It can be concluded that the inflammation was observed microscopically in the spleen, brain and lungin the dog that infected with canine distemper virus

  1. Which radiopharmaceuticals for to-morrow. Heart and brain investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziere, B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of the various radiopharmaceuticals which have been or are presently designed for functional imaging of brain or heart using positron (PET) or single photon emission tomography. Currently used radiopharmaceuticals have been classified into two broad categories: 'passive' radiotracers intended to visualize the perfusion of the organ and 'active' or 'specific' radiotracers used to investigate metabolism or neurotransmission processes. Moreover, the potential interest of radioactive peptides or oligonucleotides which would be biologically stable in vivo and which could target proteins involved in inter or intra-cellular communications will be reviewed. (authors). 47 refs

  2. Complex Dynamics in Physiological Systems: From Heart to Brain

    CERN Document Server

    Dana, Syamal K; Kurths, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics has become an important field of research in recent years in many areas of the natural sciences. In particular, it has potential applications in biology and medicine; nonlinear data analysis has helped to detect the progress of cardiac disease, physiological disorders, for example episodes of epilepsy, and others. This book focuses on the current trends of research concerning the prediction of sudden cardiac death and the onset of epileptic seizures, using the nonlinear analysis based on ECG and EEG data. Topics covered include the analysis of cardiac models and neural models. The book is a collection of recent research papers by leading physicists, mathematicians, cardiologists and neurobiologists who are actively involved in using the concepts of nonlinear dynamics to explore the functional behaviours of heart and brain under normal and pathological conditions. This collection is intended for students in physics, mathematics and medical sciences, and researchers in interdisciplinary areas...

  3. The retrorenal spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, K.D.; Chantelois, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    An uncommon but potentially disastrous situation for invasive percutaneous renal procedures is the placement of the spleen behind the upper left renal pole. The authors termed this unique anatomic variant ''retrorenal spleen.'' Recently the authors reviewed the CT studies of 85 patients 16-85 years of age scanned in both the supine and prone positions. The relationship of the left kidney and spleen was evaluated. The overall frequency of retrorenal spleen was 12.7% for the supine and 17.9% for the prone studies. Careful correlation was made between the supine and prone studies with respect to the changing anatomic relationship of the kidney and spleen. In addition, the position of the suprarenal spleen was also evaluated in an effort to determine the safety of the subcostal approach

  4. Adrenergic Blockade Bi-directionally and Asymmetrically Alters Functional Brain-Heart Communication and Prolongs Electrical Activities of the Brain and Heart during Asphyxic Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fangyun; Liu, Tiecheng; Xu, Gang; Li, Duan; Ghazi, Talha; Shick, Trevor; Sajjad, Azeem; Wang, Michael M.; Farrehi, Peter; Borjigin, Jimo

    2018-01-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in the United States. The neurophysiological mechanism underlying sudden death is not well understood. Previously we have shown that the brain is highly stimulated in dying animals and that asphyxia-induced death could be delayed by blocking the intact brain-heart neuronal connection. These studies suggest that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in mediating sudden cardiac arrest. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of phentolamine and atenolol, individually or combined, in prolonging functionality of the vital organs in CO2-mediated asphyxic cardiac arrest model. Rats received either saline, phentolamine, atenolol, or phentolamine plus atenolol, 30 min before the onset of asphyxia. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were simultaneously collected from each rat during the entire process and investigated for cardiac and brain functions using a battery of analytic tools. We found that adrenergic blockade significantly suppressed the initial decline of cardiac output, prolonged electrical activities of both brain and heart, asymmetrically altered functional connectivity within the brain, and altered, bi-directionally and asymmetrically, functional, and effective connectivity between the brain and heart. The protective effects of adrenergic blockers paralleled the suppression of brain and heart connectivity, especially in the right hemisphere associated with central regulation of sympathetic function. Collectively, our results demonstrate that blockade of brain-heart connection via alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockers significantly prolonged the detectable activities of both the heart and the brain in asphyxic rat. The beneficial effects of combined alpha and beta blockers may help extend the survival of cardiac arrest patients. PMID:29487541

  5. Adrenergic Blockade Bi-directionally and Asymmetrically Alters Functional Brain-Heart Communication and Prolongs Electrical Activities of the Brain and Heart during Asphyxic Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyun Tian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in the United States. The neurophysiological mechanism underlying sudden death is not well understood. Previously we have shown that the brain is highly stimulated in dying animals and that asphyxia-induced death could be delayed by blocking the intact brain-heart neuronal connection. These studies suggest that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in mediating sudden cardiac arrest. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of phentolamine and atenolol, individually or combined, in prolonging functionality of the vital organs in CO2-mediated asphyxic cardiac arrest model. Rats received either saline, phentolamine, atenolol, or phentolamine plus atenolol, 30 min before the onset of asphyxia. Electrocardiogram (ECG and electroencephalogram (EEG signals were simultaneously collected from each rat during the entire process and investigated for cardiac and brain functions using a battery of analytic tools. We found that adrenergic blockade significantly suppressed the initial decline of cardiac output, prolonged electrical activities of both brain and heart, asymmetrically altered functional connectivity within the brain, and altered, bi-directionally and asymmetrically, functional, and effective connectivity between the brain and heart. The protective effects of adrenergic blockers paralleled the suppression of brain and heart connectivity, especially in the right hemisphere associated with central regulation of sympathetic function. Collectively, our results demonstrate that blockade of brain-heart connection via alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockers significantly prolonged the detectable activities of both the heart and the brain in asphyxic rat. The beneficial effects of combined alpha and beta blockers may help extend the survival of cardiac arrest patients.

  6. Heart and brain interaction in patients with heart failure: overview and proposal for a taxonomy. A position paper from the Study Group on Heart and Brain Interaction of the Heart Failure Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehner, Wolfram; Ural, Dilek; Haeusler, Karl Georg; Čelutkienė, Jelena; Bestetti, Reinaldo; Cavusoglu, Yuksel; Peña-Duque, Marco A; Glavas, Duska; Iacoviello, Massimo; Laufs, Ulrich; Alvear, Ricardo Marmol; Mbakwem, Amam; Piepoli, Massimo F; Rosen, Stuart D; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Vitale, Cristiana; Yilmaz, M Birhan; Anker, Stefan D; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Seferovic, Petar; Coats, Andrew J S; Ruschitzka, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome with multiple interactions between the failing myocardium and cerebral (dys-)functions. Bi-directional feedback interactions between the heart and the brain are inherent in the pathophysiology of HF: (i) the impaired cardiac function affects cerebral structure and functional capacity, and (ii) neuronal signals impact on the cardiovascular continuum. These interactions contribute to the symptomatic presentation of HF patients and affect many co-morbidities of HF. Moreover, neuro-cardiac feedback signals significantly promote aggravation and further progression of HF and are causal in the poor prognosis of HF. The diversity and complexity of heart and brain interactions make it difficult to develop a comprehensive overview. In this paper a systematic approach is proposed to develop a comprehensive atlas of related conditions, signals and disease mechanisms of the interactions between the heart and the brain in HF. The proposed taxonomy is based on pathophysiological principles. Impaired perfusion of the brain may represent one major category, with acute (cardio-embolic) or chronic (haemodynamic failure) low perfusion being sub-categories with mostly different consequences (i.e. ischaemic stroke or cognitive impairment, respectively). Further categories include impairment of higher cortical function (mood, cognition), of brain stem function (sympathetic over-activation, neuro-cardiac reflexes). Treatment-related interactions could be categorized as medical, interventional and device-related interactions. Also interactions due to specific diseases are categorized. A methodical approach to categorize the interdependency of heart and brain may help to integrate individual research areas into an overall picture. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  7. MORPHOMETRY OF SPLEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Spleen is organ of lymphatic system located on left side of abdominal cavity under diaphragm. It is a secondary lymphatic organ that plays an important role in cell mediated immunity. Foetal spleen is erythropoietic in nature. MATERIAL & METHODS Present study was done in 50 adult spleens and 50 foetal spleens. RESULTS Morphometric features like length, breadth, thickness & weight are measured. Length varied from 6.3 to 12.5 cm, breadth varied from 2.6 to 8.6 cm, thickness ranged from 2 cm to 4.6 cm, weight ranged from 65 g to 225 g. Average total length of spleen is 2.52 cm x 1.76 x 2 cm, weight 6.5 g. Shapes of spleens observed wedge shape spleen–48%, tetrahedral spleen–24%, triangular spleen-28%. Splenic notches on superior border & inferior border are observed. Incident of accessory spleen in 1% of cases. CONCLUSIONS Present knowledge of study may be helpful for surgeons in surgical procedures like splenectomy, resection of tumours and extirpation of cysts

  8. Computerized spleen volumetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, T.; Mohring, R.; Schertel, L.

    1981-01-01

    We examined in experimental studies and clinical investigations on 34 patients in how far volumetry of the spleen can be carried out with a commonly available program, a whole-body computerized tomograph (SOMATOM) and an analytic equipment (EVALUSKOP). In this connection the authors tried to find also other ways of spleen volumetry by means of this unit combination. Our final result was that the given program for the usage of labelled areas presents itself as the best-suited technique for spleen volumetry which is also applicable in practice. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Myoglobin Expression in Chelonia mydas Brain, Heart and Liver Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RINI PUSPITANINGRUM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the underpinning physiology and biochemistry of animals is essential to properly understand the impact of anthropogenic changes and natural catastrophes upon the conservation of endangered species. An observation on the tissue location of the key respiratory protein, myoglobin, now opens up new opportunities for understanding how hypoxia tolerance impacts on diving lifestyle in turtles. The respiratory protein, myoglobin has functions other than oxygen binding which are involved in hypoxia tolerance, including metabolism of reactive oxygen species and of the vascular function by metabolism of nitric oxide. Our work aims to determine whether myoglobin expression in the green turtle exists in multiple non muscle tissues and to confirm the hypothesis that reptiles also have a distributed myoglobin expression which is linked to the hypoxiatolerant trait. This initial work in turtle hatch Chelonia mydas confirms the presence of myoglobin transcriptin brain, heart and liver tissues. Furthermore, it will serve as a tool for completing the sequence and generating an in situ hybridization probe for verifying of cell location in expressing tissues.

  10. Myoglobin Expression in Chelonia mydas Brain, Heart and Liver Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RINI PUSPITANINGRUM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the underpinning physiology and biochemistry of animals is essential to properly understand the impact of anthropogenic changes and natural catastrophes upon the conservation of endangered species. An observation on the tissue location of the key respiratory protein, myoglobin, now opens up new opportunities for understanding how hypoxia tolerance impacts on diving lifestyle in turtles. The respiratory protein, myoglobin has functions other than oxygen binding which are involved in hypoxia tolerance, including metabolism of reactive oxygen species and of the vascular function by metabolism of nitric oxide. Our work aims to determine whether myoglobin expression in the green turtle exists in multiple non muscle tissues and to confirm the hypothesis that reptiles also have a distributed myoglobin expression which is linked to the hypoxia-tolerant trait. This initial work in turtle hatch Chelonia mydas confirms the presence of myoglobin transcriptin brain, heart and liver tissues. Furthermore, it will serve as a tool for completing the sequence and generating an in situ hybridization probe for verifying of cell location in expressing tissues.

  11. Brain volumes predict neurodevelopment in adolescents after surgery for congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rhein, Michael; Buchmann, Andreas; Hagmann, Cornelia; Huber, Reto; Klaver, Peter; Knirsch, Walter; Latal, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Patients with complex congenital heart disease are at risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. Evidence suggests that brain maturation can be delayed and pre- and postoperative brain injury may occur, and there is limited information on the long-term effect of congenital heart disease on brain development and function in adolescent patients. At a mean age of 13.8 years, 39 adolescent survivors of childhood cardiopulmonary bypass surgery with no structural brain lesions evident through conventional cerebral magnetic resonance imaging and 32 healthy control subjects underwent extensive neurodevelopmental assessment and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebral scans were analysed quantitatively using surface-based and voxel-based morphometry. Compared with control subjects, patients had lower total brain (P = 0.003), white matter (P = 0.004) and cortical grey matter (P = 0.005) volumes, whereas cerebrospinal fluid volumes were not different. Regional brain volume reduction ranged from 5.3% (cortical grey matter) to 11% (corpus callosum). Adolescents with cyanotic heart disease showed more brain volume loss than those with acyanotic heart disease, particularly in the white matter, thalami, hippocampi and corpus callosum (all P-values Brain volume reduction correlated significantly with cognitive, motor and executive functions (grey matter: P < 0.05, white matter: P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that there are long-lasting cerebral changes in adolescent survivors of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery for congenital heart disease and that these changes are associated with functional outcome.

  12. Overview of the Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Neisseria meningitidis , and Haemophilus influenzae . Because of this risk, people receive vaccinations to help protect them from infection with these organisms. People should also be sure they receive the influenza vaccine every year, as is now ... the Spleen ...

  13. Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affairs and Humanitarian Efforts Login Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy) Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Find a ... are suspected. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Splenectomy? Individual results may vary depending on your overall ...

  14. The Brain in Congenital Heart Disease across the Lifespan: The Cumulative Burden of Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Ariane; Miller, Steven P.; Marino, Bradley Scott; Jefferson, Angela L.; Newburger, Jane W.

    2017-01-01

    The number of patients surviving with congenital heart disease (CHD) has soared over the last three decades. Adults constitute the fastest growing segment of the CHD population, now outnumbering children. Research to date on the heart-brain intersection in this population has largely been focused on neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. Mutations in genes that are highly expressed in heart and brain may cause cerebral dysgenesis. Together with altered cerebral perfusion in utero, these factors are associated with abnormalities of brain structure and brain immaturity in a significant portion of neonates with critical CHD even before they undergo cardiac surgery. In infancy and childhood, the brain may be affected by risk factors related to heart disease itself or to its interventional treatments. As children with CHD become adults, they increasingly develop heart failure, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, diabetes and coronary disease. These acquired cardiovascular comorbidities can be expected to have effects similar to those in the general population on cerebral blood flow, brain volumes, and dementia. In both children and adults, cardiovascular disease may have adverse effects on achievement, executive function, memory, language, social interactions, and quality of life. In summary, against the backdrop of shifting demographics, risk factors for brain injury in the CHD population are cumulative and synergistic. As neurodevelopmental sequelae in children with CHD evolve to cognitive decline or dementia during adulthood, a growing population of CHD can be expected to require support services. We highlight evidence gaps and future research directions. PMID:27185022

  15. Reorganization of the Brain and Heart Rhythm During Autogenic Meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Dae-Keun eKim; Dae-Keun eKim; Jyoo-Hi eRhee; Seung Wan eKang; Seung Wan eKang

    2014-01-01

    The underlying changes in heart coherence that are associated with reported EEG changes in response to meditation have been explored. We measured EEG and heart rate variability (HRV) before and during autogenic meditation. Fourteen subjects participated in the study. Heart coherence scores were significantly increased during meditation compared to the baseline. We found near significant decrease in high beta absolute power, increase in alpha relative power and significant increases in lower(a...

  16. Reorganization of the brain and heart rhythm during autogenic meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Keun; Rhee, Jyoo-Hi; Kang, Seung Wan

    2014-01-01

    The underlying changes in heart coherence that are associated with reported EEG changes in response to meditation have been explored. We measured EEG and heart rate variability (HRV) before and during autogenic meditation. Fourteen subjects participated in the study. Heart coherence scores were significantly increased during meditation compared to the baseline. We found near significant decrease in high beta absolute power, increase in alpha relative power and significant increases in lower (...

  17. Liver and spleen scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Since the introduction of liver and spleen scintigraphy in the early 1950s, it has undergone considerable changes, the most notable being technetium 99m sulfur colloid, the gamma camera, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). What is the role f liver-spleen scintigraphy in this high-technology society? This chapter attempts to address this question by looking at the radiopharmaceuticals, the technique, and most importantly, the application of scintigraphy to the diagnosis of focal and diffuse hepatic and splenic disease

  18. Reorganization of the brain and heart rhythm during autogenic meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Keun; Rhee, Jyoo-Hi; Kang, Seung Wan

    2014-01-13

    The underlying changes in heart coherence that are associated with reported EEG changes in response to meditation have been explored. We measured EEG and heart rate variability (HRV) before and during autogenic meditation. Fourteen subjects participated in the study. Heart coherence scores were significantly increased during meditation compared to the baseline. We found near significant decrease in high beta absolute power, increase in alpha relative power and significant increases in lower (alpha) and higher (above beta) band coherence during 3~min epochs of heart coherent meditation compared to 3~min epochs of heart non-coherence at baseline. The coherence and relative power increase in alpha band and absolute power decrease in high beta band could reflect relaxation state during the heart coherent meditation. The coherence increase in the higher (above beta) band could reflect cortico-cortical local integration and thereby affect cognitive reorganization, simultaneously with relaxation. Further research is still needed for a confirmation of heart coherence as a simple window for the meditative state.

  19. Reorganization of the Brain and Heart Rhythm During Autogenic Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Keun eKim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The underlying changes in heart coherence that are associated with reported EEG changes in response to meditation have been explored. We measured EEG and heart rate variability (HRV before and during autogenic meditation. Fourteen subjects participated in the study. Heart coherence scores were significantly increased during meditation compared to the baseline. We found near significant decrease in high beta absolute power, increase in alpha relative power and significant increases in lower(alpha and higher(above beta band coherence during 3 minute epochs of heart coherent meditation compared to 3 minute epochs of heart noncoherence at baseline. The coherence and relative power increase in alpha band and absolute power decrease in high beta band could reflect relaxation state during the heart coherent meditation. The coherence increase in the higher(above beta band could reflect cortico-cortical local integration and thereby affect cognitive reorganization, simultaneously with relaxation. Further research is still needed for a confirmation of heart coherence as a simple window for the meditative state.

  20. Radiology of the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, F.; Leander, P.; Ekberg, O.

    2001-01-01

    The spleen is generally not considered a challenge to the radiologist. Most often it poses a problem by anomalies or an irregular but normal contrast enhancement; however, a variety of inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic diseases may involve the spleen. CT and ultrasonography are screening modalities for the spleen. For problem solving, MR imaging can be helpful, especially due to its free choice of the imaging plane and because of the high resolution in contrast MR imaging. Splenic angiography as a diagnostic tool has generally been replaced by CT, ultrasound, or MR and is now used as an interventional method, e.g., in non-surgical management of patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia or in patients with splenic trauma. This article reviews the radiology of the spleen, including anatomy, embryology, splenomegaly, splenic injury, infarction, cysts, tumors, abscesses, sarcoidosis, and AIDS. Knowledge about the use of different imaging modalities and underlying gross and microscopic pathologic features leads to a better understanding of the radiologic findings. (orig.)

  1. Triiodothyronine and brain natriuretic peptide: similar long-term prognostic values for chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozdag, Guliz; Ertas, Gokhan; Kilic, Teoman; Acar, Eser; Sahin, Tayfun; Ural, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    Although low levels of free triiodothyronine and high levels of brain natriuretic peptide have been shown as independent predictors of death in chronic heart failure patients, few studies have compared their prognostic values. The aim of this prospective study was to measure free triiodothyronine and brain natriuretic peptide levels and to compare their prognostic values among such patients.A total of 334 patients (mean age, 62 ± 13 yr; 218 men) with ischemic and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy were included in the study. The primary endpoint was a major cardiac event.During the follow-up period, 92 patients (28%) experienced a major cardiac event. Mean free triiodothyronine levels were lower and median brain natriuretic peptide levels were higher in patients with major cardiac events than in those without. A significant negative correlation was found between free triiodothyronine and brain natriuretic peptide levels. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the predictive cutoff values were triiodothyronine and > 686 pg/mL for brain natriuretic peptide. Cumulative survival was significantly lower among patients with free triiodothyronine 686 pg/mL. In multivariate analysis, the significant independent predictors of major cardiac events were age, free triiodothyronine, and brain natriuretic peptide.In the present study, free triiodothyronine and brain natriuretic peptide had similar prognostic values for predicting long-term prognosis in chronic heart failure patients. These results also suggested that combining these biomarkers may provide an important risk indicator for patients with heart failure.

  2. Rolipram depresses [{sup 3}H]2-deoxyglucose uptake in mouse brain and heart in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Megumi; Hosoi, Rie; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Inoue, Osamu [Department of Medical Physics, School of Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka University, 1-7 Yamadaoka, Suita-shi, Osaka (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Department of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The effects of systemic administration of rolipram, a selective phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, on [{sup 3}H]2-deoxyglucose (DG) uptake in brain and peripheral tissues were examined. Rolipram significantly and dose-dependently decreased [{sup 3}H]DG uptake in brain, heart and skeletal muscle. In contrast, the radioactivity concentrations in the plasma of rolipram-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice at all times after injection of the tracer. In the kinetic study, the initial uptake of [{sup 3}H]DG in brain was decreased by rolipram, whereas no significant differences were observed in the uptake in heart and skeletal muscle. However, radioactivity concentrations in the brain, heart and skeletal muscle 30 min after the injection of [{sup 3}H]DG were significantly lowered by rolipram to about 60%, 10% and 10% of control values, respectively. The uptake of [{sup 13}N]ammonia in brain and heart of rolipram-treated mice was slightly decreased, which indicated that rolipram diminished both cerebral and cardiac blood flow. These results indicate that the phosphorylation process via hexokinase rather than the transport of [{sup 3}H]DG might be depressed by rolipram. Together with the previous observations that inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) markedly enhanced [{sup 14}C]DG uptake in rat brain, these results indicate an important role of the cAMP/PKA systems in the regulation of glucose metabolism in the living brain as well as in peripheral tissues such as the heart and skeletal muscle. (orig.)

  3. Hemangiopericytoma of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pizzardi, Giulia; Calio, Francesco; Pacilè, Maria A; Carboni, Fabio; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Hemangiopericytoma of the spleen is a very rare tumor, with 14 isolated reports. It was our aim to review our experience and compare it with all the reported cases in an attempt to standardize surgical treatment, adjuvant treatment and follow-up protocol of this infrequent condition. A consecutive case series study, with a mean follow-up of 44 months. Five patients (mean age, 49 years) underwent simple splenectomy for hemangiopericytoma limited to the spleen followed by adriamycin-based chemotherapy in one patient. All the patients are alive and free from disease. For tumors confined to the spleen, simple splenectomy can be considered curative, without any need for further adjuvant treatment. On review of the medical literature, cure can still be achieved with complete resection of recurrences, when feasible, with adjuvant chemotherapy being also indicated. The slow-growing pattern of the tumor suggests a 10-year follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Paediatric Wandering Spleens in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by a double layer of peritoneum. The wandering spleen is the rare description of an abnormally positioned spleen, which is thought to occur due to laxity, abnormality or absence of the aforementioned ligaments. The wandering spleen is noted to have a longer than normal pedicle, and because of its intraperitoneal location, ...

  5. Effects of Various Kynurenine Metabolites on Respiratory Parameters of Rat Brain, Liver and Heart Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Baran*

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that the endogenous glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid dose-dependently and significantly affected rat heart mitochondria. Now we have investigated the effects of L-tryptophan, L-kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine and kynurenic, anthranilic, 3-hydroxyanthranilic, xanthurenic and quinolinic acids on respiratory parameters (ie, state 2, state 3, respiratory control index (RC and ADP/oxygen ratio in brain, liver and heart mitochondria of adult rats. Mitochondria were incubated with glutamate/malate (5 mM or succinate (10 mM and in the presence of L-tryptophan metabolites (1 mM or in the absence, as control. Kynurenic and anthranilic acids significantly reduced RC values of heart mitochondria in the presence of glutamate/malate. Xanthurenic acid significantly reduced RC values of brain mitochondria in the presence of glutamate/malate. Furthermore, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid decreased RC values of brain, liver and heart mitochondria using glutamate/malate. In the presence of succinate, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid affected RC values of brain mitochondria, whereas in liver and heart mitochondria only 3-hydroxykynurenine lowered RC values significantly. Furthermore, lowered ADP/oxygen ratios were observed in brain mitochondria in the presence of succinate with 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and to a lesser extent with glutamate/malate. In addition, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid significantly lowered the ADP/oxygen ratio in heart mitochondria exposed to glutamate/malate, while in the liver mitochondria only a mild reduction was found. Tests of the influence of L-tryptophan and its metabolites on complex I in liver mitochondria showed that only 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and L-kynurenine led to a significant acceleration of NADH-driven complex I activities. The data indicate that L-tryptophan metabolites had different effects on brain, liver

  6. Brain, lung, and heart oxidative stress assessment of an over-the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the brain, lung, and heart oxidative stress in rats exposed to aerosol of an over-thecounter pyrethroid insecticide product in Nigeria. The experimental animals were randomly divided into four groups: group I (control) was not exposed to the insecticide aerosol, while groups II, III, and IV were exposed to 6.0 mL ...

  7. Are brain and heart tissue prone to the development of thiamine deficiency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Astrid; Larkin, James R.; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Thornalley, Paul J.; Navis, Gerjan; van Goor, Harry; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    Thiamine deficiency is a continuing problem leading to beriberi and Wernicke's encephalopathy. The symptoms of thiamine deficiency develop in the heart, brain and neuronal tissue. Yet, it is unclear how rapid thiamine deficiency develops and which organs are prone to development of thiamine

  8. Selective Heart, Brain and Body Perfusion in Open Aortic Arch Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Sven; Kari, Fabian; Rylski, Bartosz; Siepe, Matthias; Benk, Christoph; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2016-09-01

    Open aortic arch replacement is a complex and challenging procedure, especially in post dissection aneurysms and in redo procedures after previous surgery of the ascending aorta or aortic root. We report our experience with the simultaneous selective perfusion of heart, brain, and remaining body to ensure optimal perfusion and to minimize perfusion-related risks during these procedures. We used a specially configured heart-lung machine with a centrifugal pump as arterial pump and an additional roller pump for the selective cerebral perfusion. Initial arterial cannulation is achieved via femoral artery or right axillary artery. After lower body circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion for the distal arch anastomosis, we started selective lower body perfusion simultaneously to the selective antegrade cerebral perfusion and heart perfusion. Eighteen patients were successfully treated with this perfusion strategy from October 2012 to November 2015. No complications related to the heart-lung machine and the cannulation occurred during the procedures. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 239 ± 33 minutes, the simultaneous selective perfusion of brain, heart, and remaining body lasted 55 ± 23 minutes. One patient suffered temporary neurological deficit that resolved completely during intensive care unit stay. No patient experienced a permanent neurological deficit or end-organ dysfunction. These high-risk procedures require a concept with a special setup of the heart-lung machine. Our perfusion strategy for aortic arch replacement ensures a selective perfusion of heart, brain, and lower body during this complex procedure and we observed excellent outcomes in this small series. This perfusion strategy is also applicable for redo procedures.

  9. Evaluation of anesthesia effects on [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in mouse brain and heart using small animal PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Hiroshi E-mail: htoyama@fujita-hu.ac.jp; Ichise, Masanori; Liow, Jeih-San; Vines, Douglass C.; Seneca, Nicholas M.; Modell, Kendra J.; Seidel, Jurgen; Green, Michael V.; Innis, Robert B

    2004-02-01

    This study evaluates effects of anesthesia on {sup 18}F-FDG (FDG) uptake in mouse brain and heart to establish the basic conditions of small animal PET imaging. Prior to FDG injection, 12 mice were anesthetized with isoflurane gas; 11 mice were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of a ketamine/xylazine mixture; and 11 mice were awake. In isoflurane and ketamine/xylazine conditions, FDG brain uptake (%ID/g) was significantly lower than in controls. Conversely, in the isoflurane condition, %ID/g in heart was significantly higher than in controls, whereas heart uptake in ketamine/xylazine mice was significantly lower. Results suggest that anesthesia impedes FDG uptake in mouse brain and affects FDG uptake in heart; however, the effects in the brain and heart differ depending on the type of anesthesia used.

  10. Evaluation of anesthesia effects on [18F]FDG uptake in mouse brain and heart using small animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Hiroshi; Ichise, Masanori; Liow, Jeih-San; Vines, Douglass C.; Seneca, Nicholas M.; Modell, Kendra J.; Seidel, Jurgen; Green, Michael V.; Innis, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluates effects of anesthesia on 18 F-FDG (FDG) uptake in mouse brain and heart to establish the basic conditions of small animal PET imaging. Prior to FDG injection, 12 mice were anesthetized with isoflurane gas; 11 mice were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of a ketamine/xylazine mixture; and 11 mice were awake. In isoflurane and ketamine/xylazine conditions, FDG brain uptake (%ID/g) was significantly lower than in controls. Conversely, in the isoflurane condition, %ID/g in heart was significantly higher than in controls, whereas heart uptake in ketamine/xylazine mice was significantly lower. Results suggest that anesthesia impedes FDG uptake in mouse brain and affects FDG uptake in heart; however, the effects in the brain and heart differ depending on the type of anesthesia used

  11. Brain-heart linear and nonlinear dynamics during visual emotional elicitation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, G; Greco, A; Gentili, C; Lanata, A; Toschi, N; Barbieri, R; Sebastiani, L; Menicucci, D; Gemignani, A; Scilingo, E P

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates brain-heart dynamics during visual emotional elicitation in healthy subjects through linear and nonlinear coupling measures of EEG spectrogram and instantaneous heart rate estimates. To this extent, affective pictures including different combinations of arousal and valence levels, gathered from the International Affective Picture System, were administered to twenty-two healthy subjects. Time-varying maps of cortical activation were obtained through EEG spectral analysis, whereas the associated instantaneous heartbeat dynamics was estimated using inhomogeneous point-process linear models. Brain-Heart linear and nonlinear coupling was estimated through the Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC), considering EEG time-varying spectra and point-process estimates defined in the time and frequency domains. As a proof of concept, we here show preliminary results considering EEG oscillations in the θ band (4-8 Hz). This band, indeed, is known in the literature to be involved in emotional processes. MIC highlighted significant arousal-dependent changes, mediated by the prefrontal cortex interplay especially occurring at intermediate arousing levels. Furthermore, lower and higher arousing elicitations were associated to not significant brain-heart coupling changes in response to pleasant/unpleasant elicitations.

  12. Enlarged Spleen (Splenomegaly)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contributing factors include: Viral infections, such as mononucleosis Bacterial infections, such as syphilis or an infection of your heart's inner lining (endocarditis) Parasitic infections, such as malaria Cirrhosis and other ...

  13. Evaluation of proinflammatory cytokines and brain natriuretic peptide in patients with rheumatic heart diseases and coronary heart disease complicated by chronic heart insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Shoslak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study proinflammatory cytokines and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in patients with rheumatic heart diseases (RHD and coronary heart disease (CHD complicated by chronic heart insufficiency (CHI. Material and methods. 54 pts with CHI (among them 16 with RHD and 38 with CHD with signs of CHI ofll-IV functional class according to NYHA that correspond to 11A-III stage according to N.D. Strazesko-V.H. \\frsilenko classification and 30 healthy persons of control group were examined. Besides clinical evaluation common laboratory and instrumental methods were used. Thorough echocardiography analysis, quantitative evaluation of serum TNF a, IL6 and BNP by immuno-enzyme assay was performed. Results. Direct correlation between cytokines and BNP levels and pts with CHI clinical state severity was revealed. These indiccs significantly differed in coronary and non-coronary (RHD CHI. TNF a concentration was minimal in mitral stenosis. Maximal concentrations of IL6 and TNF a were revealed in tricuspid regurgitation. TNF a concentration elevated with increase of heart linear dimensions. BNP showed similar but less prominent tendencies. Conclusion. Significant difference of studied indices in coronary and non-coronary (RHD CHI was shown. Despite of similarity of CHI clinical features levels of inflammation biological indices in RHD was significantly lower than in CHD that requires further discussion.

  14. NMR of 19F emulsions: methodological developments and application to evaluation of oxi-metry and dynamic biodistribution in the liver and spleen and to detection of tumor angiogenesis in the rodent brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudeau, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at developing a method for detection of brain tumors at 7 tesla thanks to 19 F MRI contrast agents. We particularly assessed the potential of this method to highlight tumor angiogenesis with RGD-functionalized contrast agents targeting αvβ3integrin, a bio-marker over-expressed at the surface of new capillary blood vessels. Owing to low local concentrations in contrast agent, the first step consisted in optimizing a multi spin echo sequence dedicated to a well-known biocompatible per-fluorocarbon, perfluoro-octylbromide (PFOB). We show that careful adjustment of sequence parameters allows cancellation of J-modulation and T2 enhancement, and yields an excellent sensitivity in vitro. Our sequence was then tested for oxygenation measurements in the mouse liver and spleen after injection of a PFOB emulsion. The results demonstrate very good accuracy of the measurements after one single infusion of emulsion. We also perform a dynamic biodistribution study in order to monitor emulsion nano-particle uptake in the liver and spleen. Moreover, we show that stealth of emulsions grafted with different quantities of polyethylene glycol (PEG) can be assessed by fitting experimental data with a pharmacokinetic empirical model. Our sequence was finally used to visualize αvβ3-targeted nano-particles in a U87 glioblastoma mouse model. Concentrations found in tumors after injection of an RGD-functionalized emulsion and a control emulsion are compared. Concentrations are found to be significantly higher with the RGD emulsion than with the control emulsion, suggesting specific binding of functionalized nano-particles with αvβ3 integrin. The last part is dedicated to a new diffusion-weighted 19 F NMR spectroscopy sequence. This method aims at suppressing vascular signal coming from circulating PFOB nano-particles in order to evaluate signal coming from bound nano-particles only. (author) [fr

  15. Expression of manganese superoxide dismutase in rat blood, heart and brain during induced systemic hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septelia I. Wanandi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoxia results in an increased generation of ROS. Until now, little is known about the role of MnSOD - a major endogenous antioxidant enzyme - on the cell adaptation response against hypoxia. The aim of this study was to  determine the MnSOD mRNA expression and levels of specific activity in blood, heart and brain of rats during induced systemic hypoxia.Methods: Twenty-five male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to systemic hypoxia in an hypoxic chamber (at 8-10% O2 for 0, 1, 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. The mRNA relative expression of MnSOD was analyzed using Real Time RT-PCR. MnSOD specific activity was determined using xanthine oxidase inhibition assay.Results: The MnSOD mRNA relative expression in rat blood and heart was decreased during early induced systemic hypoxia (day 1 and increased as hypoxia continued, whereas the mRNA expression in brain was increased since day 1 and reached its maximum level at day 7. The result of MnSOD specific activity during early systemic hypoxia was similar to the mRNA expression. Under very late hypoxic condition (day 21, MnSOD specific activity in blood, heart and brain was significantly decreased. We demonstrate a positive correlation between MnSOD mRNA expression and specific activity in these 3 tissues during day 0-14 of induced systemic hypoxia. Furthermore, mRNA expression and specific activity levels in heart strongly correlate with those in blood.Conclusion: The MnSOD expression at early and late phases of induced systemic hypoxia is distinctly regulated. The MnSOD expression in brain differs from that in blood and heart revealing that brain tissue can  possibly survive better from induced systemic hypoxia than heart and blood. The determination of MnSOD expression in blood can be used to describe its expression in heart under systemic hypoxic condition. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:27-33Keywords: MnSOD, mRNA expression, ROS, specific activity, systemic hypoxia

  16. Pattern of brain injury and depressed heart rate variability in newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Marina; Govindan, Rathinaswamy; Al-Shargabi, Tareq; Vezina, Gilbert; Andescavage, Nickie; Wang, Yunfei; du Plessis, Adre; Massaro, An N

    2017-09-01

    BackgroundDecreased heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of autonomic dysfunction and brain injury in newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). This study aimed to characterize the relationship between HRV and brain injury pattern using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in newborns with HIE undergoing therapeutic hypothermia.MethodsHRV metrics were quantified in the time domain (α S , α L , and root mean square at short (RMS S ) and long (RMS L ) timescales) and frequency domain (relative low-(LF) and high-frequency (HF) power) over 24-27 h of life. The brain injury pattern shown by MRI was classified as no injury, pure cortical/white matter injury, mixed watershed/mild basal ganglia injury, predominant basal ganglia or global injury, and death. HRV metrics were compared across brain injury pattern groups using a random-effects mixed model.ResultsData from 74 infants were analyzed. Brain injury pattern was significantly associated with the degree of HRV suppression. Specifically, negative associations were observed between the pattern of brain injury and RMS S (estimate -0.224, SE 0.082, P=0.006), RMS L (estimate -0.189, SE 0.082, P=0.021), and LF power (estimate -0.044, SE 0.016, P=0.006).ConclusionDegree of HRV depression is related to the pattern of brain injury. HRV monitoring may provide insights into the pattern of brain injury at the bedside.

  17. Brain-Heart Pathways to Blood Pressure-Related Hypoalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Cristina; Fagioli, Sabrina; Mattei, Eugenio; Censi, Federica; Edwards, Louisa; Macaluso, Emiliano; Bozzali, Marco; Critchley, Hugo; Calcagnini, Giovanni

    2018-03-28

    High blood pressure (BP) is associated with reduced pain sensitivity, known as BP-related hypoalgesia. The underlying neural mechanisms remain uncertain, yet arterial baroreceptor signaling, occurring at cardiac systole, is implicated. We examined normotensives using functional neuroimaging (fMRI) and pain stimulation during distinct phases of the cardiac cycle to test the hypothesized neural mediation of baroreceptor-induced attenuation of pain. Eighteen participants (10 women; 32.7 ± 6.5 years) underwent BP monitoring over one week at home, and individual pain thresholds were determined in the lab. Subsequently, participants were administered unpredictable painful and non-painful electrocutaneous shocks (stimulus type), timed to occur either at systole or diastole (cardiac phase) in an event-related design. After each trial, participants evaluated their subjective experience. Subjective pain was lower for painful stimuli administered at systole compared to diastole, F1, 2283 = 4.82; p = 0.03. Individuals with higher baseline BP demonstrated overall lower pain perception, F1, 2164 = 10.47; p < 0.0001. Within the brain, painful stimulation activated somatosensory areas, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, posterior insula, amygdala, and the thalamus. Stimuli delivered during systole (concurrent with baroreceptor discharge) activated areas associated with heightened parasympathetic drive. No stimulus type x cardiac phase interaction emerged except for a small cluster located in the right parietal cortex. We confirm the negative associations between BP and pain, highlighting the antinociceptive impact of baroreceptor discharge. Neural substrates associated with baroreceptor/BP-related hypoalgesia include superior parietal lobule, precentral and lingual gyrus, regions typically involved in the cognitive aspects of pain experience.

  18. Study of heart-brain interactions through EEG, ECG, and emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2017-04-01

    Neurocardiology is the exploration of neurophysiological, neurological and neuroanatomical facets of neuroscience's influence in cardiology. The paraphernalia of emotions on the heart and brain are premeditated because of the interaction between the central and peripheral nervous system. This is an investigative attempt to study emotion based neurocardiology and the factors that influence this phenomenon. The factors include: interaction between sleep EEG (electroencephalogram) and ECG (electrocardiogram), relationship between emotion and music, psychophysiological coherence between the heart and brain, emotion recognition techniques, and biofeedback mechanisms. Emotions contribute vitally to the mundane life and are quintessential to a numerous biological and everyday-functional modality of a human being. Emotions are best represented through EEG signals, and to a certain extent, can be observed through ECG and body temperature. Confluence of medical and engineering science has enabled the monitoring and discrimination of emotions influenced by happiness, anxiety, distress, excitement and several other factors that influence the thinking patterns and the electrical activity of the brain. Similarly, HRV (Heart Rate Variability) widely investigated for its provision and discerning characteristics towards EEG and the perception in neurocardiology.

  19. Burr hole aspiration of brain abscess in children with cyanotic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.; Ahmed, S; Hussain, M.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of burr hole aspiration of brain abscess in children with cyanotic heart disease in terms of number of aspirations and residual abscess. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery at The Children's Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Multan, from July 2010 to June 2014. Methodology: Pediatric patients of cyanotic heart disease with brain abscess were admitted. After taking history, clinical examination and necessary investigation, spiration of abscess through a burr hole was performed. Data was collected through pre-designed proforma. Analysis of results was performed and comparison was made through statistical package for social sciences (SPSS-20). Results: Total number of patients were 50 with 31 (62%) male and 19 (38%) female children. Patients' age ranged from 5-10 years with mean age of 7.44 +-1.11 years. Single abscess in supra tentorial was commonly found in 44 (88%) patients. Multiple abscesses were present in 4 (8%) patients. Cerebellum was involved in 2 (4%) patients. Abscess was completely aspirated in single attempt in 37 (74%) patients, two attempts in 9 (18%) patients, and three attempts in 4 (8%) patients. No bacterial growth on culture was reported in 32 (64%) patients. Culture was positive in 18 (36%) patients. Postoperative hematoma developed in 2 (4%) patients. No mortality was reported in early postoperative period. Conclusion: Aspiration of brain abscess in children with cyanotic heart disease through a burr hole is safe and successful. (author)

  20. The Spleen: A forgotten organ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrillon German; Montoya Maria del Pilar; Echeverri Santiago

    2010-01-01

    The spleen has traditionally been regarded as an orphan organ. Its embryological development is described together with the digestive system, although it is not part of the gastrointestinal tract. Its main function is during the early fetal development when it produces both red and white blood cells, losing this function during the late fetal life. Nevertheless, the spleen continues to work as a filter for blood cells and also has important immune functions. As it is not necessary for the preservation of vital life functions, the spleen receives limited attention by both radiologists and clinicians. It is, however, an organ with multiple pathological conditions that have representation in the different diagnostic imaging modalities; radiologists, therefore, must be aware of these conditions and their radiological characteristics. This article provides a diagnostic approach to the most common diseases affecting the spleen using tomography and magnetic resonance.

  1. Vascular Cognitive Impairment Linked to Brain Endothelium Inflammation in Early Stages of Heart Failure in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, Mateusz G; Sternak, Magdalena; Mohaissen, Tasnim; Kaczor, Dawid; Wierońska, Joanna M; Malinowska, Monika; Czaban, Iwona; Byk, Katarzyna; Lyngsø, Kristina S; Przyborowski, Kamil; Hansen, Pernille B L; Wilczyński, Grzegorz; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2018-03-26

    Although advanced heart failure (HF) is a clinically documented risk factor for vascular cognitive impairment, the occurrence and pathomechanisms of vascular cognitive impairment in early stages of HF are equivocal. Here, we characterize vascular cognitive impairment in the early stages of HF development and assess whether cerebral hypoperfusion or prothrombotic conditions are involved. Tgαq*44 mice with slowly developing isolated HF triggered by cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of G-αq*44 protein were studied before the end-stage HF, at the ages of 3, 6, and 10 months: before left ventricle dysfunction; at the stage of early left ventricle diastolic dysfunction (with preserved ejection fraction); and left ventricle diastolic/systolic dysfunction, respectively. In 6- to 10-month-old but not in 3-month-old Tgαq*44 mice, behavioral and cognitive impairment was identified with compromised blood-brain barrier permeability, most significantly in brain cortex, that was associated with myelin sheet loss and changes in astrocytes and microglia. Brain endothelial cells displayed increased E-selectin immunoreactivity, which was accompanied by increased amyloid-β 1-42 accumulation in piriform cortex and increased cortical oxidative stress (8-OHdG immunoreactivity). Resting cerebral blood flow measured by magnetic resonance imaging in vivo was preserved, but ex vivo NO-dependent cortical arteriole flow regulation was impaired. Platelet hyperreactivity was present in 3- to 10-month-old Tgαq*44 mice, but it was not associated with increased platelet-dependent thrombogenicity. We report for the first time that vascular cognitive impairment is already present in the early stage of HF development, even before left ventricle systolic dysfunction. The underlying pathomechanism, independent of brain hypoperfusion, involves preceding platelet hyperreactivity and brain endothelium inflammatory activation. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  2. Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities and Congenital Heart Disease: Insights into Altered Brain Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Paul D.; Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Jonas, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    In the past two decades it has become evident that individuals born with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at risk of developing life-long neurological deficits. Multifactorial risk factors contributing to neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with CHD have been identified; however the underlying etiologies remain largely unknown and efforts to address this issue have only recently begun. There has been a dramatic shift in focus from newly acquired brain injuries associated with corrective and palliative heart surgery to antenatal and preoperative factors governing altered brain maturation in CHD. In this review, we describe key time windows of development during which the immature brain is vulnerable to injury. Special emphasis is placed on the dynamic nature of cellular events and how CHD may adversely impact the cellular units and networks necessary for proper cognitive and motor function. In addition, we describe current gaps in knowledge and offer perspectives about what can be done to improve our understanding of neurological deficits in CHD. Ultimately, a multidisciplinary approach will be essential in order to prevent or improve adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in individuals surviving CHD. PMID:28302742

  3. [Mechanism of "treating heart and brain with same methods" based on data science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Tang, Shi-huan; Lu, Peng; Yang, Hong-jun

    2015-11-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory of "treating heart and brain diseases with same methods (Nao Xin Tong Zhi: NXTZ)" has great significance to the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It has been proven effective by a great deal of clinical researches. However, the underlying mechanism for this theory is still unclear. To provide insights into the potential mechanism of "NXTZ", this study attempts to deeply investigate the mechanism from two representative cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebral apoplexy. First, various data resources were integrated to obtain different types of biomedical entities including drugs, targets, pathways and diseases. Then, three different approaches including text mining, biological network and enrichment analysis were utilized to recognize the potential common features between CHD and cerebral apoplexy, and the corresponding functions of drugs which could treat both diseases, thus unveiling the mechanism of NXTZ.

  4. Histone deacetylases exert class specific roles in conditioning the brain and heart against acute ischemic injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Erik Aune

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury comprises a significant portion of morbidity and mortality from heart and brain diseases worldwide. This enduring clinical problem has inspired myriad reports in the scientific literature of experimental interventions seeking to elucidate the pathology of IR injury. Elective cardiac surgery presents perhaps the most viable scenario for protecting the heart and brain from IR injury, due to the opportunity to condition the organs prior to insult. The physiological parameters for the preconditioning of vital organs prior to insult through mechanical and pharmacologic maneuvers have been heavily examined. These investigations have revealed new insights into how preconditioning alters cellular responses to IR injury. However, the promise of preconditioning remains unfulfilled at the clinical level, and research seeking to implicate cell signals essential to this protection continues. Recent discoveries in molecular biology have revealed that gene expression can be controlled through posttranslational modifications, without altering the chemical structure of the genetic code. In this scenario, gene expression is repressed by enzymes that cause chromatin compaction through catalytic removal of acetyl moieties from lysine residues on histones. These enzymes, called histone deacetylases (HDACs, can be inhibited pharmacologically, leading to the de-repression of protective genes. The discovery that HDACs can also alter the function of non-histone proteins through posttranslational deacetylation has expanded the potential impact of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of human disease. HDAC inhibitors have been applied in a very small number of experimental models of IR. However, the scientific literature contains an increasing number of reports demonstrating that HDACs converge on preconditioning signals in the cell. This review will describe the influence of HDACs on major preconditioning signaling pathways in the heart and

  5. Respiratory induced heart rate variability during slow mechanical ventilation Marker to exclude brain death patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Vondra, Vlastimil; Kružliak, P.; Šrámek, V.; Cundrle, I.; Leinveber, P.; Adamek, M.; Zvoníček, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 129, 7-8 (2017), s. 251-258 ISSN 0043-5325 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0933; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MZd NS10105 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : critical illness * sedation * brain death * respiratory rate variability * heart rate variability * mechanical ventilation Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment OBOR OECD: Medical engineering Impact factor: 0.974, year: 2016

  6. Spleen: development and functional evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sty, J.R.; Conway, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Despite the fact that the spleen has multiple functions, only one has been widely used for evaluation of the organ by imaging techniques (phagocytosis of /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid). The usual splenic uptake of this radiocolloid can by used to determine the size, location, and integrity of the organ. A major use of splenic radiocolloid imaging has been in the study of congenital defects. Thus, eventration of the diaphragm, accessory spleens, splenogonadal fusion, the asplenia and polysplenia syndromes, and the wandering spleen are amenable to study by means of intravenously administered radiocolloid. Interference with the splenic uptake of radiocolloid can be either focal or generalized (as in functional asplenia). Imaging of the spleen has a major role in evaluating suspected trauma of the organ and in following its clinical course. The return of splenic function after splenectomy (splenosis or accessory spleens) can be documented by radionuclide imaging, and likely by hematologic techniques when the volume of tissue is sufficiently large. The detection of intrasplenic lesions is important in tumor staging and as an alerting sign to an ongoing process. 96 references

  7. Potential clinical relevance of the 'little brain' on the mammalian heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A

    2008-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the heart possesses a nervous system intrinsic to it that represents the final relay station for the co-ordination of regional cardiac indices. This 'little brain' on the heart is comprised of spatially distributed sensory (afferent), interconnecting (local circuit) and motor (adrenergic and cholinergic efferent) neurones that communicate with others in intrathoracic extracardiac ganglia, all under the tonic influence of central neuronal command and circulating catecholamines. Neurones residing from the level of the heart to the insular cortex form temporally dependent reflexes that control overlapping, spatially determined cardiac indices. The emergent properties that most of its components display depend primarily on sensory transduction of the cardiovascular milieu. It is further hypothesized that the stochastic nature of such neuronal interactions represents a stabilizing feature that matches cardiac output to normal corporal blood flow demands. Thus, with regard to cardiac disease states, one must consider not only cardiac myocyte dysfunction but also the fact that components within this neuroaxis may interact abnormally to alter myocyte function. This review emphasizes the stochastic behaviour displayed by most peripheral cardiac neurones, which appears to be a consequence of their predominant cardiac chemosensory inputs, as well as their complex functional interconnectivity. Despite our limited understanding of the whole, current data indicate that the emergent properties displayed by most neurones comprising the cardiac neuroaxis will have to be taken into consideration when contemplating the targeting of its individual components if predictable, long-term therapeutic benefits are to accrue.

  8. Protective effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide in perioperative period during open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbin; Li, Yong; Bao, Weiguo; Qiu, Shi

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects and safety aspects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) on cardiac functions of patients undergoing open-heart surgery during perioperative period. In total, 150 patients undergoing open heart surgery in the Second Hospital of Shandong Universty from August 2015 to July 2016 were randomly divided into control group and observation group each with 75 cases. Patients in control group were treated by routine rehabilitation while patients in the observation group were treated by both the routine rehabilitation and rhBNP. All the observations were made before operation, after operation and 7 days after operation. The changes of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) of patients, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac function [Cardiac output (CO), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PAWP) and central venous pressure (CVP)] of patients were measured. Further, respirator support time, ICU stay time, incidence of complications and vital signs (BP, HR, SaO2) of patients in the two groups were also compared. NT-proBNP levels of all patients improved after operation but it decreased in both groups after 7 days of operation. The decrease of NT-proBNP levels in observation group was significantly higher than that of control group. Whereas, LVEF, CO, PAWP and CVP of patients in both the groups increased after operation but effects were significantly higher in the observation group after 7 days of medication. Respirator support time and ICU stay time of patients in observation group were significantly shorter than those in control group, and the incidence of postoperative complications of patients in the observation group were significantly lower than the control group. Moreover, BP, HR and SaO2 of patients in observation group were significantly elevated in comparison to control group (Popen heart surgery, and is safe as well as reliable.

  9. Hydatid disease of the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinner, W.N. von; Stridbeck, H.

    1992-01-01

    Seven patients with hydatid disease of the spleen were examined by radiography, ultrasound, CT, and in one case MR imaging. The observations were confirmed by patho-anatomic findings except in 2 patients where high indirect hemagglutination tests confirmed the diagnosis. (orig./MG)

  10. Torsion of a wandering spleen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No improvement was noted on detorsion of the vascular pedicle, and a splenectomy was performed. The spleen measured 120×90×55 mm and weighed 250 g. Histological examination of the organ identified significant haemorrhagic congestion associated with diffuse haemorrhagic necrosis, with no neoplasm or infiltrate.

  11. Hemopressins and other hemoglobin-derived peptides in mouse brain: Comparison between brain, blood, and heart peptidome and regulation in Cpefat/fat mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Julia S.; Sironi, Juan; Castro, Leandro M.; Ferro, Emer S.; Fricker, Lloyd D.

    2010-01-01

    Many hemoglobin-derived peptides are present in mouse brain, and several of these have bioactive properties including the hemopressins, a related series of peptides that bind to cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Although hemoglobin is a major component of red blood cells, it is also present in neurons and glia. To examine whether the hemoglobin-derived peptides in brain are similar to those present in blood and heart, we used a peptidomics approach involving mass spectrometry. Many hemoglobin-derived peptides are found only in brain and not in blood, whereas all hemoglobin-derived peptides found in heart were also seen in blood. Thus, it is likely that the majority of the hemoglobin-derived peptides detected in brain are produced from brain hemoglobin and not erythrocytes. We also examined if the hemopressins and other major hemoglobin-derived peptides were regulated in the Cpefat/fat mouse; previously these mice were reported to have elevated levels of several hemoglobin-derived peptides. Many, but not all of the hemoglobin-derived peptides were elevated in several brain regions of the Cpefat/fat mouse. Taken together, these findings suggest that the post-translational processing of alpha and beta hemoglobin into the hemopressins, as well as other peptides, is upregulated in some but not all Cpefat/fat mouse brain regions. PMID:20202081

  12. What the Heart Says to the Brain (and vice versa and Why We Should Listen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian F. Thayer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we describe a model of neurovisceral integration in which a set of neural structures involved in cognitive, affective, and autonomic regulation are related to heart rate variability (HRV and cognitive performance. We will provide pharmacological and neuroimaging data in support of the neural structures linking the central nervous system to HRV. Next, we will review a number of studies from our group showing that individual differences in HRV are related to performance on tasks associated with executive function and prefrontal cortical activity as well as with emotional regulation. In the first study, individual differences in resting HRV we related to performance on executive and nonexecutive function tasks. The results showed that greater HRV was associated with better performance on executive function tasks. In another experiment, HRV was manipulated by physical detraining. Again, those that maintained their HRV at the post-test showed better performance on executive function tasks. In an experiment investigating emotional regulation we showed that resting levels of HRV were related to emotion modulated startle responses such that those with higher HRV produced context appropriate responses compared to those with low HRV. We propose that these findings have important implications for the understanding of the two-way communication between the heart and the brain.

  13. Defining Optimal Brain Health in Adults: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Philip B; Furie, Karen L; Iadecola, Costantino; Smith, Eric E; Waddy, Salina P; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Bae, Hee-Joon; Bauman, Mary Ann; Dichgans, Martin; Duncan, Pamela W; Girgus, Meighan; Howard, Virginia J; Lazar, Ronald M; Seshadri, Sudha; Testai, Fernando D; van Gaal, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine; Wasiak, Hank; Zerna, Charlotte

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive function is an important component of aging and predicts quality of life, functional independence, and risk of institutionalization. Advances in our understanding of the role of cardiovascular risks have shown them to be closely associated with cognitive impairment and dementia. Because many cardiovascular risks are modifiable, it may be possible to maintain brain health and to prevent dementia in later life. The purpose of this American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association presidential advisory is to provide an initial definition of optimal brain health in adults and guidance on how to maintain brain health. We identify metrics to define optimal brain health in adults based on inclusion of factors that could be measured, monitored, and modified. From these practical considerations, we identified 7 metrics to define optimal brain health in adults that originated from AHA's Life's Simple 7: 4 ideal health behaviors (nonsmoking, physical activity at goal levels, healthy diet consistent with current guideline levels, and body mass index brain health but recognize that the truly ideal circumstance may be uncommon because there is a continuum of brain health as demonstrated by AHA's Life's Simple 7. Therefore, there is opportunity to improve brain health through primordial prevention and other interventions. Furthermore, although cardiovascular risks align well with brain health, we acknowledge that other factors differing from those related to cardiovascular health may drive cognitive health. Defining optimal brain health in adults and its maintenance is consistent with the AHA's Strategic Impact Goal to improve cardiovascular health of all Americans by 20% and to reduce deaths resulting from cardiovascular disease and stroke by 20% by the year 2020. This work in defining optimal brain health in adults serves to provide the AHA/American Stroke Association with a foundation for a new strategic direction going forward in cardiovascular health

  14. Torsion of wandering spleen and distal pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheflin, J.R.; Lee, C.M.; Kretchmar, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Wandering spleen is the term applied to the condition in which a long pedicle allows the spleen to lie in an abnormal location. Torsion of a wandering spleen is an unusual cause of an acute abdomen and is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. Associated torsion of the distal pancreas is even more uncommon. The authors describe a patient with torsion of a wandering spleen and distal pancreas, who was correctly diagnosed, and define the merits of the imaging methods used. The initial examination should be 99 /sup m/Tc-sulfur colloid liner-spleen scanning

  15. [Importance of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with ischemic events of the heart or brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Fernández-Moreno, M C; Aguilera-Saborido, A; Solanella-Soler, J

    2016-01-01

    Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (H-LVH) is a potentially modifiable vascular risk factor (VRF) often overlooked in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of H-LVH in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) or ischemic stroke (IS). We retrospectively assessed all the echocardiography studies of patients admitted with the diagnosis CHD or IS over a 4-year period. We studied 533 patients, 330 with CHD and 203 with IS. Mean age was 69 (±11) years, 61.5% males. Hypertension was the most common RF: 362 patients (67.9%) (CHD vs. IS: 70 vs. 64.5%; P=NS). H-LVH was seen in 234 patients (43.9%) (CHD vs. IS: 44.8 vs. 42.3%; P=NS). Patients with H-LVH were older and received a greater number of antihypertensive drugs at discharge. Half of patients with hypertension presented H-LVH (184 patients; 50.8%), with similar frequency in both groups (CHD vs. IS: 50.6 vs. 51.1%; P=NS). Neither patients' characteristics nor VRF with the exception of hypertension (P=.0001) were associated with H-LVH. H-LVH is a major VRF in patients with ischemic events in the heart and brain. Nearly half the patients present H-LVH, with a similar frequency in both groups. It is important to identify H-LVH in these patients to optimize treatment and improve long-term prognosis. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain derived neurotrophic factor contributes to the cardiogenic potential of adult resident progenitor cells in failing murine heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmita Samal

    Full Text Available Resident cardiac progenitor cells show homing properties when injected into the injured but not to the healthy myocardium. The molecular background behind this difference in behavior needs to be studied to elucidate how adult progenitor cells can restore cardiac function of the damaged myocardium. Since the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF moderates cardioprotection in injured hearts, we focused on delineating its regulatory role in the damaged myocardium.Comparative gene expression profiling of freshly isolated undifferentiated Sca-1 progenitor cells derived either from heart failure transgenic αMHC-CyclinT1/Gαq overexpressing mice or wildtype littermates revealed transcriptional variations. Bdnf expression was up regulated 5-fold during heart failure which was verified by qRT-PCR and confirmed at protein level. The migratory capacity of Sca-1 cells from transgenic hearts was improved by 15% in the presence of 25 ng/ml BDNF. Furthermore, BDNF-mediated effects on Sca-1 cells were studied via pulsed Stable Isotope Labeling of Amino acids in Cell Culture (pSILAC proteomics approach. After BDNF treatment significant differences between newly synthesized proteins in Sca-1 cells from control and transgenic hearts were observed for CDK1, SRRT, HDGF, and MAP2K3 which are known to regulate cell cycle, survival and differentiation. Moreover BDNF repressed the proliferation of Sca-1 cells from transgenic hearts.Comparative profiling of resident Sca-1 cells revealed elevated BDNF levels in the failing heart. Exogenous BDNF (i stimulated migration, which might improve the homing ability of Sca-1 cells derived from the failing heart and (ii repressed the cell cycle progression suggesting its potency to ameliorate heart failure.

  17. [Ultrasound of spleen and retroperitoneum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura-Grau, A; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound provides data of extremely great value when studying spleen pathology, being diagnostic in splenomegaly and splenic trauma, as well as offering a good approach to the diagnosis of both benign and malignant focal pathology, particularly lymphoma. However, for the evaluation of adrenal and retroperitoneal diseases, other techniques such as CT or MRI are more suitable, even though ultrasound is still an excellent screening and monitoring method, as well as being useful in non-invasive therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Global and regional brain mean diffusivity changes in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Mary A; Palomares, Jose A; Macey, Paul M; Fonarow, Gregg C; Harper, Ronald M; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients show gray and white matter changes in multiple brain sites, including autonomic and motor coordination areas. It is unclear whether the changes represent acute or chronic tissue pathology, a distinction necessary for understanding pathological processes that can be resolved with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based mean diffusivity (MD) procedures. We collected four DTI series from 16 HF (age 55.1 ± 7.8 years, 12 male) and 26 control (49.7 ± 10.8 years, 17 male) subjects with a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. MD maps were realigned, averaged, normalized, and smoothed. Global and regional MD values from autonomic and motor coordination sites were calculated by using normalized MD maps and brain masks; group MD values and whole-brain smoothed MD maps were compared by analysis of covariance (covariates; age and gender). Global brain MD (HF vs. controls, units × 10(-6) mm(2) /sec, 1103.8 ± 76.6 vs. 1035.9 ± 69.4, P = 0.038) and regional autonomic and motor control site values (left insula, 1,085.4 ± 95.7 vs. 975.7 ± 65.4, P = 0.001; right insula, 1,050.2 ± 100.6 vs. 965.7 ± 58.4, P = 0.004; left hypothalamus, 1,419.6 ± 165.2 vs. 1,234.9 ± 136.3, P = 0.002; right hypothalamus, 1,446.5 ± 178.8 vs. 1,273.3 ± 136.9, P = 0.004; left cerebellar cortex, 889.1 ± 81.9 vs. 796.6 ± 46.8, P right cerebellar cortex, 797.8 ± 50.8 vs. 750.3 ± 27.5, P = 0.001; cerebellar deep nuclei, 1,236.1 ± 193.8 vs. 1,071.7 ± 107.1, P = 0.002) were significantly higher in HF vs. control subjects, indicating chronic tissue changes. Whole-brain comparisons showed increased MD values in HF subjects, including limbic, basal-ganglia, thalamic, solitary tract nucleus, frontal, and cerebellar regions. Brain injury occurs in autonomic and motor control areas, which may contribute to deficient function in HF patients. The chronic tissue changes likely

  19. Effects of gratitude meditation on neural network functional connectivity and brain-heart coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyeong, Sunghyon; Kim, Joohan; Kim, Dae Jin; Kim, Hesun Erin; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2017-07-11

    A sense of gratitude is a powerful and positive experience that can promote a happier life, whereas resentment is associated with life dissatisfaction. To explore the effects of gratitude and resentment on mental well-being, we acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging and heart rate (HR) data before, during, and after the gratitude and resentment interventions. Functional connectivity (FC) analysis was conducted to identify the modulatory effects of gratitude on the default mode, emotion, and reward-motivation networks. The average HR was significantly lower during the gratitude intervention than during the resentment intervention. Temporostriatal FC showed a positive correlation with HR during the gratitude intervention, but not during the resentment intervention. Temporostriatal resting-state FC was significantly decreased after the gratitude intervention compared to the resentment intervention. After the gratitude intervention, resting-state FC of the amygdala with the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex were positively correlated with anxiety scale and depression scale, respectively. Taken together, our findings shed light on the effect of gratitude meditation on an individual's mental well-being, and indicate that it may be a means of improving both emotion regulation and self-motivation by modulating resting-state FC in emotion and motivation-related brain regions.

  20. Heart-rate sensitive optical coherence angiography for measuring vascular changes due to posttraumatic brain injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremoleda, Jordi L.; Alvarez, Karl; Aden, Abdirahman; Donnan, Robert; Michael-Titus, Adina T.; Tomlins, Peter H.

    2017-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in direct vascular disruption, triggering edema, and reduction in cerebral blood flow. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of brain microcirculation following TBI is important for the development of effective therapies. Optical coherence angiography (OCA) is a promising tool for evaluating TBI in rodent models. We develop an approach to OCA that uses the heart-rate frequency to discriminate between static tissue and vasculature. This method operates on intensity data and is therefore not phase sensitive. Furthermore, it does not require spatial overlap of voxels and thus can be applied to pre-existing datasets for which oversampling may not have been explicitly considered. Heart-rate sensitive OCA was developed for dynamic assessment of mouse microvasculature post-TBI. Results show changes occurring at 5-min intervals within the first 50 min of injury.

  1. The dynamic changes of brain natriuretic peptide level in patients with hyperthyroid heart disease after 131I therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yingrui; Zha Jinshun; Zhou Jingxiong; Lin Xiahong; Xu Chaoxiang; Wang Yaoguo; Du Xinqing

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the application value of urine brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level in 131 I treatment of hyperthyroid heart disease. Methods: One hundred and eleven hyperthyroidism patients who received 131 I therapy were divided into two groups, hyperthyroidism group (51 cases) and hyperthyroid heart disease group (60 cases), and 30 healthy subjects as control. Sixty patients in the hyperthyroid heart disease group all received ultrasonic cardiogram. The hyperthyroid heart disease group was divided into two subgroups according to New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification (hyperthyroid heart disease A subgroup and hyperthyroid heart disease B subgroup). The urine and serum BNP level and serum free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ), free thyroxine (FT 4 ) level were measured through chemiluminescence before and after therapy. Results: The urine and serum BNP level before 131 I therapy of the hyperthyroid heart disease group were significantly higher than those of hyperthyroidism group (serum: t=8.98 and 9.52, both P<0.01; urine: t=10.83 and 12.73, both P<0.01) and the control group (serum: t=8.97 and 9.52, both P<0.01; urine: t=9.21 and 5.64, both P<0.01). The urine and serum BNP level before and 6, 12 months after 131 I therapy of the hyperthyroid heart disease A subgroup were significantly higher than those of hyperthyroid heart disease B subgroup (serum: t=5.98, 5.87 and 6.35, all P<0.01; serum: t=4.33, 4.09 and 5.02, all P<0.01). The urine level of BNP was gradually increased with the severity of cardiac insufficiency and it was positively correlated with the serum level of BNP (r=0.829, P<0.01), the NYHA functional classification (r=0.751, P<0.01) and the serum level of FT 3 and FT 4 (FT 3 : r=0.635, P<0.01; FT 4 : r=0.672, P<0.01). Conclusions: The urine BNP level of hyperthyroid heart disease patient increased with the severity of cardiac insufficiency. The urine BNP level could accurately reflect cardiac function of hyperthyroid heart

  2. Influence of low frequency magnetic field used in magnetotherapy on interleukin 6 (IL-6 contents in rat heart and brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ciejka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The human population is exposed ever more frequently to magnetic fields (MF. This is due to both technological progress and development of the economy as well as to advances made in medical science. That is why the thorough understanding and systematized knowledge about mechanisms by which MF exerts its effects on living organisms play such an important role. In this context the health of MF-exposed people is the subject of particular concern. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELFMF used in magnetotherapy on the concentration of interleukin 6 (IL-6 in rat heart and brain. Material and Methods: The male rats were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups: group I – control, without contact with magnetic field; group II − exposed to bipolar, rectangular magnetic field 40 Hz, induction “peak-to-peak” 7 mT 30 min/day for 2 weeks; and group III − exposed to bipolar, rectangular magnetic field 40 Hz, 7 mT 60 min/day for 2 weeks. Concentration of IL-6 in the heart and brain of animals was measured after MF exposure. Results: Exposure to ELFMF: 40 Hz, induction “peak-to-peak” 7 mT 30 min/day for 2 weeks caused a significant IL-6 increase in rat hearts compared to the control group (p < 0.05 and a non-significant IL-6 decrease in rat brain. The magnetic field applied for 60 min resulted in non-significant IL-6 increase in rat hearts compared to the control group and significant IL-6 decrease in rat brain (p < 0.05. Conclusions: The influence of magnetic field on inflammation in the body varies depending on the MF parameters and the affected tissues or cells. Med Pr 2017;68(4:517–523

  3. [Influence of low frequency magnetic field used in magnetotherapy on interleukin 6 (IL-6) contents in rat heart and brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciejka, Elżbieta; Skibska, Beata; Gorąca, Anna

    2017-06-27

    The human population is exposed ever more frequently to magnetic fields (MF). This is due to both technological progress and development of the economy as well as to advances made in medical science. That is why the thorough understanding and systematized knowledge about mechanisms by which MF exerts its effects on living organisms play such an important role. In this context the health of MF-exposed people is the subject of particular concern. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELFMF) used in magnetotherapy on the concentration of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in rat heart and brain. The male rats were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups: group I - control, without contact with magnetic field; group II - exposed to bipolar, rectangular magnetic field 40 Hz, induction "peak-to-peak" 7 mT 30 min/day for 2 weeks; and group III - exposed to bipolar, rectangular magnetic field 40 Hz, 7 mT 60 min/day for 2 weeks. Concentration of IL-6 in the heart and brain of animals was measured after MF exposure. Exposure to ELFMF: 40 Hz, induction "peak-to-peak" 7 mT 30 min/day for 2 weeks caused a significant IL-6 increase in rat hearts compared to the control group (p < 0.05) and a non-significant IL-6 decrease in rat brain. The magnetic field applied for 60 min resulted in non-significant IL-6 increase in rat hearts compared to the control group and significant IL-6 decrease in rat brain (p < 0.05). The influence of magnetic field on inflammation in the body varies depending on the MF parameters and the affected tissues or cells. Med Pr 2017;68(4):517-523. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Distribution of trans-resveratrol and its metabolites after acute or sustained administration in mouse heart, brain, and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menet, Marie-Claude; Baron, Stephanie; Taghi, Meryam; Diestra, Remi; Dargère, Delphine; Laprévote, Olivier; Nivet-Antoine, Valérie; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Bédarida, Tatiana; Cottart, Charles-Henry

    2017-08-01

    Trans-resveratrol is widely studied for its potentially beneficial effects on numerous disorders. It is rapidly metabolized and its metabolites can exhibit biological activity. The present study aimed to investigate whether acute or sustained trans-resveratrol administration impacted on the distribution of trans-resveratrol and its metabolites in brain, heart, and liver. We used ultra-HPLC quadrupole-TOF (UHPLC-Q-TOF) in a full-scan mode to identify and assess large numbers of resveratrol metabolites. For acute intake, mice were overfed with a single dose of trans-resveratrol (150 mg/kg) and organs were collected after 30 and 60 min. For sustained intake, trans-resveratrol was given in the chow (0.04% w/w corresponding to 40 mg/kg/day), and plasma and the organs were collected after 3 months of this resveratrol diet. We found that trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide and resveratrol-3-sulfate were the main metabolites found after acute intake, and free trans-resveratrol (in the brain and heart) and dihydroresveratrol derivatives were found after sustained administration CONCLUSIONS: Our results show notable differences between acute and sustained administration of trans-resveratrol and distribution of trans-resveratrol and its metabolites in mouse heart, brain, and liver. The results suggest a strategy for development of galenic forms of resveratrol. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. (3H)leukotriene B4 binding to the guinea pig spleen membranes: a rich tissue source for a high affinity leukotriene B4 receptor site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, J.B.; Kohi, F.; Townley, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    To select a tissue rich for the high affinity leukotriene (LT)B 4 receptor site, they compared binding of 1 nM ( 3 H)LTB 4 (180 Ci/mmol) to the crude membrane preparations of guinea pig spleen, thymus, lung, uterus, bladder, brain, adrenal gland, small intestine, liver, kidney and heart. They found that the membrane preparations from spleen contained the highest binding activity per mg protein. They characterized the LTB 4 binding to the spleen preparation in detail. LTB 4 binding was rapid, reversible, stereoselective and saturable. The data from equilibrium experiments showed a linear Scatchard plot with a K/sub d/ of 1.6 nM and a binding site density of 259 fmol/mg prot. The rank order of agents competing for spleen ( 3 H)LTB 4 binding at 25 0 C was: LTB 4 (K/sub i/ = 2.8 nM) > 20-OH-LTB 4 (23 nM) > LTA 4 (48 nM) > LTA 4 methyl ester (0.13 μM) > 20-COOH-LTB 4 (> 6.6 μM) ≥ arachidonic acid (0.15 mM) similarly ordered FPL-55,712 (0.11 mM). At 4 0 C, LTB 4 (2.3 nM) competed at least 10x more effectively than 20-OH-LTB 4 (29 nM) and 20-COOH-LTB 4 (> 6.6 μM). HPLC analysis indicated that incubation of 84 ng LTB 4 with the spleen membrane at 25 0 C did not result in the formation of 20-OH-LTB 4 ( 3 H)LTB 4 receptor binding sites

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF SPLEEN: A CADAVERIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Chidambaram

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Spleen is a large lymphoid organ situated in the left hypochondrial region having an important role in immunological and hematological functions of the human body. The aim of this study was to find the morphological variations of the spleen with respect to it’s a Shape, b Number of notches on its borders and c Presence of anomalous fissure on its surface. The Study was done on 60 formalin fixed cadaveric spleen from the Department of Anatomy, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. Out of 60 spleens we examined, the various shapes of the spleen were noted suc h as wedge shape (73.33%, triangular (13.33%, tetrahedral (6.67% and oval shape(6.67%.The number of spleen showing notches on its superior border was 38(63.33% and in inferior border it was 6(10%. Absence of splenic notch was observed in 10(16.67% s pleens and the remaining 6 spleens (10% shows notches on its both the borders. The anomalous splenic fissure was found in 4(6.67% spleens on its diaphragmatic surface. The knowledge of variations in the morphology of spleen are essential for physician, s urgeon, radiologist and forensic surgeon to differentiate it from the splenic pathology and splenic injury. In addition to this, it is also important for anatomist during routine classroom dissection and discussion.

  7. Analysis of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels in patients with chronic heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiao; Zhang Xingping; Zhou Kejian

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the changes and its clinical significance of serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels in patients with chronic heart failure(CHF), 128 patients with decompensated CHF and 20 patients without structural heart disease were selected as CHF and control group. All subjects were evaluated heart function by New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. The serum NT-proBNP levels were assayed by electrochemiluminescence double antibody sandwich immunoassay. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was detected by color Doppler ultrasound. The results showed that the NT-proBNP levels in CHF group were significantly higher than that of in the control group (P<0.05). Further, the NT-proBNP levels showed an increased tendency accompanied by the severity of heart failure (P<0.05) and lowering of LVEF (r=-0.595, P<0.05). The serum NT-proBNP levels can reflect the state of cardiac function in patients with decompensated DHF, and useful in the diagnosis and severity assessment of CHF. (authors)

  8. Neurotransmission to parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons in the brain stem is altered with left ventricular hypertrophy-induced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Edmund; Wang, Xin; Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Sun, Ke; Garrott, Kara; Kuzmiak-Glancy, Sarah; Kay, Matthew W; Mendelowitz, David

    2015-10-01

    Hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF) are widespread and debilitating cardiovascular diseases that affect nearly 23 million people worldwide. A distinctive hallmark of these cardiovascular diseases is autonomic imbalance, with increased sympathetic activity and decreased parasympathetic vagal tone. Recent device-based approaches, such as implantable vagal stimulators that stimulate a multitude of visceral sensory and motor fibers in the vagus nerve, are being evaluated as new therapeutic approaches for these and other diseases. However, little is known about how parasympathetic activity to the heart is altered with these diseases, and this lack of knowledge is an obstacle in the goal of devising selective interventions that can target and selectively restore parasympathetic activity to the heart. To identify the changes that occur within the brain stem to diminish the parasympathetic cardiac activity, left ventricular hypertrophy was elicited in rats by aortic pressure overload using a transaortic constriction approach. Cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the brain stem that generate parasympathetic activity to the heart were identified with a retrograde tracer and studied using patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in vitro. Animals with left cardiac hypertrophy had diminished excitation of CVNs, which was mediated both by an augmented frequency of spontaneous inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission (with no alteration of inhibitory glycinergic activity) as well as a diminished amplitude and frequency of excitatory neurotransmission to CVNs. Opportunities to alter these network pathways and neurotransmitter receptors provide future targets of intervention in the goal to restore parasympathetic activity and autonomic balance to the heart in cardiac hypertrophy and other cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Differential Effects of E2 on MAPK Activity in the Brain and Heart of Aged Female Rats.

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    Elena Pinceti

    Full Text Available Aging and the coincident loss of circulating estrogens at menopause lead to increased risks for neurological and cardiovascular pathologies. Clinical studies show that estrogen therapy (ET can be beneficial in mitigating these negative effects, in both the brain and heart, when it is initiated shortly after the perimenopausal transition. However, this same therapy is detrimental when initiated >10 years postmenopause. Importantly, the molecular mechanisms underlying this age-related switch in ET efficacy are unknown. Estrogen receptors (ERs mediate the neuroprotective and cardioprotective functions of estrogens by modulating gene transcription or, non-genomically, by activating second messenger signaling pathways, such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK. These kinases are critical regulators of cell signaling pathways and have widespread downstream effects. Our hypothesis is that age and estrogen deprivation following menopause alters the expression and activation of the MAPK family members p38 and ERK in the brain and heart. To test this hypothesis, we used a surgically induced model of menopause in 18 month old rats through bilateral ovariectomy (OVX followed by an acute dose of 17β-estradiol (E2 administered at varying time points post-OVX (1 week, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, or 12 weeks. Age and E2 treatment differentially regulated kinase activity in both the brain and heart, and the effects were also brain region specific. MAPK signaling plays an integral role in aging, and the aberrant regulation of those signaling pathways might be involved in age-related disorders. Clinical studies show benefits of ET during early menopause but detrimental effects later, which might be reflective of changes in kinase expression and activation status.

  10. Evolving changes in fetal heart rate variability and brain injury after hypoxia-ischaemia in preterm fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kyohei; Lear, Christopher A; Beacom, Michael J; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Gunn, Alistair J; Bennet, Laura

    2018-01-08

    Fetal heart rate variability is a critical index of fetal wellbeing. Suppression of heart rate variability may provide prognostic information on the risk of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury after birth. In the present study, we report the evolution of fetal heart rate variability after both mild and severe hypoxia-ischaemia. Both mild and severe hypoxia-ischaemia were associated with an initial, brief suppression of multiple measures of heart rate variability. This was followed by normal or increased levels of heart rate variability during the latent phase of injury. Severe hypoxia-ischaemia was subsequently associated with the prolonged suppression of measures of heart rate variability during the secondary phase of injury, which is the period of time when brain injury is no longer treatable. These findings suggest that a biphasic pattern of heart rate variability may be an early marker of brain injury when treatment or intervention is probably most effective. Hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) is a major contributor to preterm brain injury, although there are currently no reliable biomarkers for identifying infants who are at risk. We tested the hypothesis that fetal heart rate (FHR) and FHR variability (FHRV) would identify evolving brain injury after HI. Fetal sheep at 0.7 of gestation were subjected to either 15 (n = 10) or 25 min (n = 17) of complete umbilical cord occlusion or sham occlusion (n = 12). FHR and four measures of FHRV [short-term variation, long-term variation, standard deviation of normal to normal R-R intervals (SDNN), root mean square of successive differences) were assessed until 72 h after HI. All measures of FHRV were suppressed for the first 3-4 h in the 15 min group and 1-2 h in the 25 min group. Measures of FHRV recovered to control levels by 4 h in the 15 min group, whereas the 25 min group showed tachycardia and an increase in short-term variation and SDNN from 4 to 6 h after occlusion. The measures of FHRV then progressively

  11. Iron oxides in human spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopáni, Martin; Miglierini, Marcel; Lančok, Adriana; Dekan, Július; Čaplovicová, Mária; Jakubovský, Ján; Boča, Roman; Mrazova, Hedviga

    2015-10-01

    Iron is an essential element for fundamental cell functions and a catalyst for chemical reactions. Three samples extracted from the human spleen were investigated by scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mössbauer spectrometry (MS), and SQUID magnetometry. The sample with diagnosis of hemosiderosis (H) differs from that referring to hereditary spherocytosis and the reference sample. SEM reveals iron-rich micrometer-sized aggregate of various structures-tiny fibrils in hereditary spherocytosis sample and no fibrils in hemochromatosis. Hematite and magnetite particles from 2 to 6 μm in TEM with diffraction in all samples were shown. The SQUID magnetometry shows different amount of diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic structures in the tissues. The MS results indicate contribution of ferromagnetically split sextets for all investigated samples. Their occurrence indicates that at least part of the sample is magnetically ordered below the critical temperature. The iron accumulation process is different in hereditary spherocytosis and hemosiderosis. This fact may be the reason of different iron crystallization.

  12. Sex-specific differences in mitochondria biogenesis, morphology, respiratory function, and ROS homeostasis in young mouse heart and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Abdel Rahman M; Abdel-Rahman, Engy A; Mahmoud, Ali M; Ali, Mohamed H; Noureldin, Maha; Saber, Saber H; Mohsen, Mahmoud; Ali, Sameh S

    2017-03-01

    Sex-specific differences in mitochondrial function and free radical homeostasis are reported in the context of aging but not well-established in pathogeneses occurring early in life. Here, we examine if sex disparity in mitochondria function, morphology, and redox status starts early and hence can be implicated in sexual dimorphism in cardiac as well as neurological disorders prevalent at young age. Although mitochondrial activity in the heart did not significantly vary between sexes, female brain exhibited enhanced respiration and higher reserve capacity. This was associated with lower H 2 O 2 production in female cardiac and brain tissues. Using transmission electron microscopy, we found that the number of female cardiac mitochondria is moderately greater (117 ± 3%, P  = 0.049, N  = 4) than male's, which increased significantly for cortical mitochondria (134 ± 4%, P  = 0.001, N  = 4). However, male's cardiac mitochondria exhibited fragmented, circular, and smaller mitochondria relative to female's mitochondria, while no morphologic sex-dependent differences were observed in cortical mitochondria. No sex differences were detected in Nox2 and Nox4 proteins or O 2 -consuming/H 2 O 2 -producing activities in brain homogenate or synaptosomes. However, a strong trend of increased EPR-detected NOX superoxide in male synaptosomes hinted at higher superoxide dismutase activity in female brains, which was confirmed by two independent protocols. We also provide direct evidence that respiring mitochondria generally produce an order-of-magnitude lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) proportions than currently estimated. Our results indicate that sex differences in mitochondrial biogenesis, bioenergetics, and morphology may start at young age and that sex-dependent SOD capacity may be responsible for differences in ROS homeostasis in heart and brain. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological

  13. Heart rate variability and QT dispersion study in brain death patients and comatose patients with normal brainstem function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakilian, A.R.; Iranmanesh, F.; Nadimi, A.E.; Kahnali, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    To compare heart rate variability (HRV) and QT dispersion in comatose patients with normal brainstem function and with brain death. Fourteen brain death patients with clinical signs of imminent brain death and 15 comatose patients were examined by neurologist in intensive care unit. HRV, RR interval and QT dispersion on ECG were assessed for 24 hours in both groups. Independent t-test and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis to determine significance which was set at p < 0.05. According to Holter findings, mean of standard deviation of RR-interval in the comatose and brain death groups was 48.33 and 35 respectively (p = 0.045). Mean of covariance coefficient of RR-interval was 0.065 in the comatose group and 0.043 in the brain deaths (p = 0.006). QT dispersion was not significant difference in two groups. HRV and RR-interval analysis appeared as an early finding for the diagnosis of brainstem death in comparison to comatose patients with normal brainstem function. QT dispersion had not significant in this regard. (author)

  14. Joint eigenvector estimation from mutually anisotropic tensors improves susceptibility tensor imaging of the brain, kidney, and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibb, Russell; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-06-01

    To develop a susceptibility-based MRI technique for probing microstructure and fiber architecture of magnetically anisotropic tissues-such as central nervous system white matter, renal tubules, and myocardial fibers-in three dimensions using susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) tools. STI can probe tissue microstructure, but is limited by reconstruction artifacts because of absent phase information outside the tissue and noise. STI accuracy may be improved by estimating a joint eigenvector from mutually anisotropic susceptibility and relaxation tensors. Gradient-recalled echo image data were simulated using a numerical phantom and acquired from the ex vivo mouse brain, kidney, and heart. Susceptibility tensor data were reconstructed using STI, regularized STI, and the proposed algorithm of mutually anisotropic and joint eigenvector STI (MAJESTI). Fiber map and tractography results from each technique were compared with diffusion tensor data. MAJESTI reduced the estimated susceptibility tensor orientation error by 30% in the phantom, 36% in brain white matter, 40% in the inner medulla of the kidney, and 45% in myocardium. This improved the continuity and consistency of susceptibility-based fiber tractography in each tissue. MAJESTI estimation of the susceptibility tensors yields lower orientation errors for susceptibility-based fiber mapping and tractography in the intact brain, kidney, and heart. Magn Reson Med 77:2331-2346, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Brain-heart interactions: challenges and opportunities with functional magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Catie; Raven, Erika P; Duyn, Jeff H

    2016-05-13

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at ultra-high field (UHF) strengths (7 T and above) offers unique opportunities for studying the human brain with increased spatial resolution, contrast and sensitivity. However, its reliability can be compromised by factors such as head motion, image distortion and non-neural fluctuations of the functional MRI signal. The objective of this review is to provide a critical discussion of the advantages and trade-offs associated with UHF imaging, focusing on the application to studying brain-heart interactions. We describe how UHF MRI may provide contrast and resolution benefits for measuring neural activity of regions involved in the control and mediation of autonomic processes, and in delineating such regions based on anatomical MRI contrast. Limitations arising from confounding signals are discussed, including challenges with distinguishing non-neural physiological effects from the neural signals of interest that reflect cardiorespiratory function. We also consider how recently developed data analysis techniques may be applied to high-field imaging data to uncover novel information about brain-heart interactions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Comparison of Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels to Simultaneously Obtained Right Heart Hemodynamics in Stable Outpatients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Scott A; Imam, J Saadi; Moss, John E; Hodge, David O; Burger, Charles D

    2018-05-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease that requires validated biomarkers of disease severity. While PAH is defined hemodynamically by right heart catheterization (RHC), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is recommended by guidelines to assess disease status. Retrospectively collected data in 138 group 1 PAH patients were examined for the correlation of BNP levels to simultaneously obtained right heart catheterization (RHC). Patients were mostly Caucasian women, with functional class III symptoms, mean BNP of 406 ± 443 pg/mL, and an average right atrial pressure (RAP) of 9.9 ± 5.7 mm Hg and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of 47.3 ± 14.7 mm Hg. Significant correlation was demonstrated between BNP and RAP ( p = 0.021) and mPAP ( p = 0.003). Additional correlation was seen with right heart size on echocardiography: right atrial (RAE; p = 0.04) and right ventricular enlargement ( p = 0.03). An increased BNP level was an independent predictor of mortality ( p right heart hemodynamics. The current results reinforce the use of BNP level as a continuous variable to assess disease severity in group 1 PAH.

  17. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentrations in patients with valvular heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ralph A; Lee, Mildred; Gabriel, Ruvin; Van Pelt, Niels; Newby, David E; Kerr, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations predict prognosis in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD), but it is unclear whether this directly relates to disease severity. We assessed the relationship between BNP and echocardiographic measures of disease severity in patients with VHD. Methods Plasma BNP concentrations were measured in patients with normal left ventricular (LV) systolic function and isolated VHD (mitral regurgitation (MR), n=33; aortic regurgitation (AR), n=39; aortic stenosis (AS), n=34; mitral stenosis (MS), n=30), and age-matched and sex-matched controls (n=39) immediately prior to exercise stress echocardiography. Results Compared with controls, patients with VHD had elevated plasma BNP concentrations (MR median 35 (IQR 23–52), AR 34 (22–45), AS 31 (22–60), MS 58 (34–90); controls 24 (16–33) pg/mL; p<0.01 for all). LV end diastolic volume index varied by valve lesion; (MR (mean 77±14), AR (91±28), AS (50±17), MS (43±11), controls (52±13) mL/m2; p<0.0001). There were no associations between LV volume and BNP. Left atrial (LA) area index varied (MR (18±4 cm2/m2), AR (12±2), AS (11±3), MS (19±6), controls (11±2); p<0.0001), but correlated with plasma BNP concentrations: MR (r=0.42, p=0.02), MS (r=0.86, p<0.0001), AR (r=0.53, p=0.001), AS (r=0.52, p=0.002). Higher plasma BNP concentrations were associated with increased pulmonary artery pressure and reduced exercise capacity. Despite adverse cardiac remodelling, 81 (60%) patients had a BNP concentration within the normal range. Conclusions Despite LV remodelling, plasma BNP concentrations are often normal in patients with VHD. Conversely, mild elevations of BNP occur with LA dilatation in the presence of normal LV. Plasma BNP concentrations should be interpreted with caution when assessing patients with VHD. PMID:27175283

  18. A new procedure for imaging liver and spleen with water soluble contrast media in liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherbin, E.A.; Davidenkova, E.F.; Khanson, K.P.; Gubareva, A.V.; Zhdanova, N.V.; Aliyakparov, M.T.; Loshakova, L.V.; Fomina, Eh.V.; Rozenberg, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    The problems of long-term, reversible, and safe contrast investigation of liver and spleen and reduction of the irritating action of water-soluble contrast media on the wall of blood vessels are unresolved. The production and experimental application of contrast media encapsulated in liposomes are described. It is possible to produce a liposome preparation with 10-20 % Verografin content. After intravenous injection it leads to a quick (after 16-30 min), persisting (10-12 h) and reversible (24-30 h) contrast imaging of liver and spleen in rodents. The contrast medium has no pathological effects on heart, blood and circulatory system and on the morphology of liver, spleen, heart, lungs, kidneys and urinary bladder. The perspectives of clinical application of such contrast media are discussed. (author)

  19. Spleen vagal denervation inhibits the production of antibodies to circulating antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud M Buijs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently the vagal output of the central nervous system has been shown to suppress the innate immune defense to pathogens. Here we investigated by anatomical and physiological techniques the communication of the brain with the spleen and provided evidence that the brain has the capacity to stimulate the production of antigen specific antibodies by its parasympathetic autonomic output. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This conclusion was reached by successively demonstrating that: 1. The spleen receives not only sympathetic input but also parasympathetic input. 2. Intravenous trinitrophenyl-ovalbumin (TNP-OVA does not activate the brain and does not induce an immune response. 3. Intravenous TNP-OVA with an inducer of inflammation; lipopolysaccharide (LPS, activates the brain and induces TNP-specific IgM. 4. LPS activated neurons are in the same areas of the brain as those that provide parasympathetic autonomic information to the spleen, suggesting a feed back circuit between brain and immune system. Consequently we investigated the interaction of the brain with the spleen and observed that specific parasympathetic denervation but not sympathetic denervation of the spleen eliminates the LPS-induced antibody response to TNP-OVA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings not only show that the brain can stimulate antibody production by its autonomic output, it also suggests that the power of LPS as adjuvant to stimulate antibody production may also depend on its capacity to activate the brain. The role of the autonomic nervous system in the stimulation of the adaptive immune response may explain why mood and sleep have an influence on antibody production.

  20. Spleen-lung interface as diagnostic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, S.A.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1975-01-01

    Left anterior, lateral, and posterior views on 50 consecutive /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid lung scans were examined. Normal patients had continuity of activity between the left lung and the spleen on all three views. Patients with subphrenic abscess or large left pleural effusions showed no continuity between lung and spleen activity on any view, while other abnormalities, most commonly cardiomegaly, accounted for lack of lung-spleen continuity on the anterior view only. It is suggested that in all combined /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid lung studies, the left side be examined as well as the right for abnormalities adjacent to the left diaphragm. (auth)

  1. Association between resting heart rate and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in a community-based population study in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ruihua Cao, Yongyi Bai, Ruyi Xu, Ping Ye Department of Geriatric Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP is associated with an increased risk of cardiac insufficiency, which possibly leads to heart failure. However, the relationship between resting heart rate and NT-proBNP is unclear.Objective: This study focuses on this relativity between resting heart rate and plasma NT-proBNP levels in a surveyed community-based population.Methods: We evaluated the relativity between resting heart rate and plasma levels of NT-proBNP in 1,567 participants (mean age 61.0 years, range 21–96 years from a community-based population in Beijing, People’s Republic of China.Results: In patients with high resting heart rate (≥75 beats/min, NT-proBNP was higher than in those having low resting heart rate (<75 beats/min. In multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, plasma NT-proBNP was associated with resting heart rate (partial correlation coefficient, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.18–1.51; P=0.011. A subsequent subgroup analysis revealed that the association between resting heart rate and plasma NT-proBNP was strengthened in subjects over 60 years old (partial correlation coefficient 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.49–2.36; P=0.031; while the relativity between resting heart rate and plasma NT-proBNP was not emerged in the younger subgroup (<60 years old.Conclusions: Resting heart rate was associated with plasma NT-proBNP in the elderly, which indicated a relationship between resting heart rate and cardiac function damage. Keywords: resting heart rate, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, epidemiology, cardiac function, relationship

  2. An analysis of the effects of Mn2+ on oxidative phosphorylation in liver, brain, and heart mitochondria using state 3 oxidation rate assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, Thomas E.; Gerstner, Brent; Lester, Tobias; Wojtovich, Andrew P.; Malecki, Jon; Swarts, Steven G.; Brookes, Paul S.; Gavin, Claire E.; Gunter, Karlene K.

    2010-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) toxicity is partially mediated by reduced ATP production. We have used oxidation rate assays-a measure of ATP production-under rapid phosphorylation conditions to explore sites of Mn 2+ inhibition of ATP production in isolated liver, brain, and heart mitochondria. This approach has several advantages. First, the target tissue for Mn toxicity in the basal ganglia is energetically active and should be studied under rapid phosphorylation conditions. Second, Mn may inhibit metabolic steps which do not affect ATP production rate. This approach allows identification of inhibitions that decrease this rate. Third, mitochondria from different tissues contain different amounts of the components of the metabolic pathways potentially resulting in different patterns of ATP inhibition. Our results indicate that Mn 2+ inhibits ATP production with very different patterns in liver, brain, and heart mitochondria. The primary Mn 2+ inhibition site in liver and heart mitochondria, but not in brain mitochondria, is the F 1 F 0 ATP synthase. In mitochondria fueled by either succinate or glutamate + malate, ATP production is much more strongly inhibited in brain than in liver or heart mitochondria; moreover, Mn 2+ inhibits two independent sites in brain mitochondria. The primary site of Mn-induced inhibition of ATP production in brain mitochondria when succinate is substrate is either fumarase or complex II, while the likely site of the primary inhibition when glutamate plus malate are the substrates is either the glutamate/aspartate exchanger or aspartate aminotransferase.

  3. Changing spleen size after blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, L.R.; Aprahamian, C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors studied the incidence and significance of splenic enlargement on serial CT after abdominal trauma. Spleen size and density in 44 trauma patients were studied with serial, contrast-enhanced Ct. In 58% of the patients, ≥ 10% enlargement of the spleen was seen on follow-up scans. Ten patients had >50% enlargement. In several, the initial density of the spleen was less than that of the liver. Spleen density returned to normal on subsequent scans. Correlations between splenic changes and clinical parameters (such as blood replacement, hypotension, and various trauma indexes) were weak. The author's study indicated that serial splenic enlargement was a physiologic return to normal after major trauma, not a pathologic condition requiring splenectomy

  4. Study effects sublethal concentration of diazinon on testis, brain and heart of Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamensky, 1901 male brood stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammad Nejad Shamoushaki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of toxic pesticides, Diazinon (60% emulsion on the some tissues of (Rutilus frisii kutum, Kamensky, 1901 male brood stocks were studied. The test were studied under static water quality conditions at 15 °C ± 2 ºC in winter and spring 2009. The effective physical and chemical parameters of water were pH= 7-8.2, dh= 300 mg/L (caco3, DO= 7 ppm and T= 15 °C±2 ºC. LC50 96h pesticide Diazinon on the first 0.4 mg/L was determined and then fish were exposed by the toxin with 3 concentrations, MAC value, LC1, LC5, and a control with three replicates for 45 days. Pathology results showed toxin diazinon no effect on average weight and fish body length, the average weight of heart and brain but caueses decrease of gonad weigth and gonad index and also, cause complications of atrophy, fibrosis and necrosis in testis , vascular congestion, increased distance between the myocardium and fibrous string in heart and neuronal loss, vascular congestion and edema in the brain of kutum male brood stocks.

  5. Nicotine affects hydrogen sulfide concentrations in mouse kidney and heart but not in brain and liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiliński, Jerzy; Wiliński, Bogdan; Somogyi, Eugeniusz; Piotrowska, Joanna; Kameczura, Tomasz; Zygmunt, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine, a potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid with stimulant effects, is contributing to addictive properties of tobacco smoking and is though used in the smoking cessation therapy. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in physiology and pathophysiology of various systems in mammals. The interactions between nicotine and H2S are not fully recognized. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of nicotine on the H2S tissue concentrations in different mouse organs. Adult CBA male mice were administered intraperitoneally 1.5 mg/kg b.w. per day of nicotine (group D1, n = 10) or 3 mg/ kg b.w. per day of nicotine (group D2, n = 10). The control group (n = 10) received physiological saline. The measurements of the free and acid-labile H2S tissue concentrations were performed with the Siegel spectrophotometric modi ed method. ere was a significant increase in H2S concentrations in both nicotine doses groups in the kidney (D1 by 54.2%, D2 by 40.0%). In the heart the higher nicotine dose caused a marked decrease in H2S tissue level (by 65.4%), while the lower dose did not affect H2S content. Nicotine administration had no effect on H2S concentrations in the brain and liver. In conclusion, nicotine affects H2S tissue concentrations in kidney and heart but not in the liver and brain tissues.

  6. Study on plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide, angiotensin and aldosterone in patients with congestive heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yu; Hong Liquan; Chen Zhaojun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), angiotensin (AT-II), and aldosterone (ALD) levels in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Methods: Plasma levels of BNP (with CLIA) and Angiotensin II (AT-II), aldosterone (ALD) (with RIA) were measured in 98 patients with CHF, 76 cardiac patients without heart faclure, and 86 controls. Results: The plasma levels of BNP, AT-II and ALD in patients (with RIA) CHF were significantly higher than those in the controls. The levels of BNP, AT-II and ALD, CHF patients after therapy were markedly dropped and were significantly lower than those patients before therapy (P<0.01). BNP levels were positively correlated with AT-II and ALD in levels CHF (P<0.05). Conclusion: The over activity of RAA systems may be one of the mechanisms of heart failure. Dynamic observation of changes of BNP, AT-II and ALD may be very useful in assessment of severity and prognosis of patients with CHF. (authors)

  7. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump during zebrafish gastrulation affects left-right asymmetry of the heart and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiling, Jill A; Balantac, Zaneta L; Crawford, Andrew R; Ren, Yuexin; Toure, Jamal; Zchut, Sigalit; Kochilas, Lazaros; Creton, Robbert

    2008-01-01

    Vertebrate embryos generate striking Ca(2+) patterns, which are unique regulators of dynamic developmental events. In the present study, we used zebrafish embryos as a model system to examine the developmental roles of Ca(2+) during gastrulation. We found that gastrula stage embryos maintain a distinct pattern of cytosolic Ca(2+) along the dorsal-ventral axis, with higher Ca(2+) concentrations in the ventral margin and lower Ca(2+) concentrations in the dorsal margin and dorsal forerunner cells. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump with 0.5 microM thapsigargin elevates cytosolic Ca(2+) in all embryonic regions and induces a randomization of laterality in the heart and brain. Affected hearts, visualized in living embryos by a subtractive imaging technique, displayed either a reversal or loss of left-right asymmetry. Brain defects include a left-right reversal of pitx2 expression in the dorsal diencephalon and a left-right reversal of the prominent habenular nucleus in the brain. Embryos are sensitive to inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump during early and mid gastrulation and lose their sensitivity during late gastrulation and early segmentation. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump during gastrulation inhibits expression of no tail (ntl) and left-right dynein related (lrdr) in the dorsal forerunner cells and affects development of Kupffer's vesicle, a ciliated organ that generates a counter-clockwise flow of fluid. Previous studies have shown that Ca(2+) plays a role in Kupffer's vesicle function, influencing ciliary motility and translating the vesicle's counter-clockwise flow into asymmetric patterns of gene expression. The present results suggest that Ca(2+) plays an additional role in the formation of Kupffer's vesicle.

  8. Quantitative 1H MR spectroscopy of the brain in patients with congestive heart failure before and after cardiac transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Soo Mee; Lee, Ho Kyu; Choi, Choong Gon; Lim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Jung Hee

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cardiac transplantation on the brain in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), using quantitative 1 H MR spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Ten patients with CHF underwent MRI and quantitative 1 H-MRS before and 1-2 and 4-9 months after cardiac transplantation. MR spectra were obtained from parietal white matter (PWM) and occipital gray matter (OGM) using PROBE (PROton Brain Exam). Changes in MR signal intensity were evaluated, and the cerebral metabolic concentrations in PWM and OGM were compared. For comparative purposes, 20 normal volunteers were included. No abnormal MR signal intensity was seen in the brain before or after cardiac transplantation. Changes in cerebral metabolic concentrations were observed on 1 H-MRS; concentrations of creatine (Cr) in PWM, and of N-acetylacepartate (NAA), Cr and myo-Inositol(mI) in OGM were significantly lower before transplantation. After successful transplantation, Cr levels returned to their normal range in PWM and OGM, while a slightly increase choline (Cho) level was observed in PWM. Cerebral hypoperfusion in CHF can be evaluated using 1 H-MRS. MRS may play a substantial role in monitoring the effect of cardiac transplantation

  9. Quantitative {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy of the brain in patients with congestive heart failure before and after cardiac transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Soo Mee; Lee, Ho Kyu; Choi, Choong Gon; Lim, Tae Hwan [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Hee [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of cardiac transplantation on the brain in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), using quantitative {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS). Ten patients with CHF underwent MRI and quantitative {sup 1}H-MRS before and 1-2 and 4-9 months after cardiac transplantation. MR spectra were obtained from parietal white matter (PWM) and occipital gray matter (OGM) using PROBE (PROton Brain Exam). Changes in MR signal intensity were evaluated, and the cerebral metabolic concentrations in PWM and OGM were compared. For comparative purposes, 20 normal volunteers were included. No abnormal MR signal intensity was seen in the brain before or after cardiac transplantation. Changes in cerebral metabolic concentrations were observed on {sup 1}H-MRS; concentrations of creatine (Cr) in PWM, and of N-acetylacepartate (NAA), Cr and myo-Inositol(mI) in OGM were significantly lower before transplantation. After successful transplantation, Cr levels returned to their normal range in PWM and OGM, while a slightly increase choline (Cho) level was observed in PWM. Cerebral hypoperfusion in CHF can be evaluated using {sup 1}H-MRS. MRS may play a substantial role in monitoring the effect of cardiac transplantation.

  10. Recruitment of macrophages from the spleen contributes to myocardial fibrosis and hypertension induced by angiotensin II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning-Ping Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine whether macrophages migrated from the spleen are associated with angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibrosis and hypertension. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to angiotensin II infusion in vehicle (500 ng/kg/min for up to four weeks. In splenectomy, the spleen was removed before angiotensin II infusion. In the angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockade, telmisartan was administered by gastric gavage (10 mg/kg/day during angiotensin II infusion. The heart and aorta were isolated for Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results: Angiotensin II infusion caused a significant reduction in the number of monocytes in the spleen through the AT1 receptor-activated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Comparison of angiotensin II infusion, splenectomy and telmisartan comparatively reduced the recruitment of macrophages into the heart. Associated with this change, transforming growth factor β1 expression and myofibroblast proliferation were inhibited, and Smad2/3 and collagen I/III were downregulated. Furthermore, interstitial/perivascular fibrosis was attenuated. These modifications occurred in coincidence with reduced blood pressure. At week 4, invasion of macrophages and myofibroblasts in the thoracic aorta was attenuated and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase was upregulated, along with a reduction in aortic fibrosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that macrophages when recruited into the heart and aorta from the spleen potentially contribute to angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibrosis and hypertension.

  11. Solid solitary hamartoma of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Nikica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hamartoma of the spleen is a rare, sometimes asymptomatic similar to hemangioma benign tumor of the spleen, which, owing to the new diagnostic imaging methods, is discovered with increasing frequency. It appears as solitary or multiple tumorous lesions. Case Outline. We present a 48-year-old woman in whom, during the investigation for Helicobacter pylori gastric infection and rectal bleeding, with ultrasonography, a mass 6.5×6.5 cm in diameter was discovered by chance within the spleen. Splenectomy was performed due to suspected lymphoma of the spleen. On histology, tumor showed to be of mixed cellular structure, with areas without white pulp, at places with marked dilatation of sinusoids and capillaries to the formation of „blood lakes“ between which broad hypercellular Billroth’s zones were present. Extramedullary hematopoiesis was found focally. The cells that covered vascular spaces were CD34+ and CD31+ and CD8- and CD21-. Conclusion. Hamartoma has to be taken into consideration always when well circumscribed hypervascular tumor within the spleen is found, particularly in children. Although the diagnosis of hamartoma may be suspected preoperatively, the exact diagnosis is established based on histological and immunohystochemistry examinations. Treatment is most often splenectomy and rarely a partial splenectomy is possible, which is recommended particularly in children.

  12. Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Morgan; Inaba, Kenji; Cheng, Vincent; Bardes, James M; Lam, Lydia; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Matsushima, Kazuhide; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal pancreas are infrequent. Universally accepted recommendations about the need for routine splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy do not exist. The aims of this study were to compare outcomes after distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy, and to define the appropriate patient population for splenic preservation. All patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy (January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2014) were identified from the National Trauma Data Bank. Patients with concomitant splenic injury and those who underwent partial splenectomy were excluded. Demographics, clinical data, procedures, and outcomes were collected. Study groups were defined by surgical procedure: distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. Baseline characteristics between groups were compared with univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed with logistic and linear regression to examine differences in outcomes. Over the 8-year study period, 2,223 patients underwent distal pancreatectomy. After excluding 1,381 patients with concomitant splenic injury (62%) and 8 (pancreatectomy and splenectomy, those who underwent spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy were younger (p pancreatectomy (p = 0.017). Complications, mortality, and intensive care unit LOS were not significantly different. In young patients after blunt trauma who are not severely injured, a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered to allow for conservation of splenic function and a shorter hospital LOS. In all other patients, the surgeon should not hesitate to remove the spleen with the distal pancreas. Therapy, level IV.

  13. Novel contrast agent for liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, S.E.; Blau, M.; Adams, D.F.; Janoff, A.; Minchey, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper determines whether the biodistribution and imaging characteristics of a liposome-encapsulated contrast agent, iotrolan-carrying interdigitation fusion (IF) vesicles, were acceptable for a liver-spleen CT contrast agent. IF vesicles with iotrolan in their aqueous phase were prepared by fusing small unilamellar liposomes into larger vesicles. The iodine-to-lipid ratio was 4.7. Biodistribution was measured with I-125 iotrolan-labeled IF vesicles in rats. CT imaging (Somatom Plus, Siemens Medical Systems) was performed in dogs. At the lowest dose (10 mg of iodine and 2.1 mg of lipid per kilogram) 72% of the ID was in the liver, 5% in spleen, and 1% in lungs at 1 hour. At the highest dose, (1,000 mg of iodine and 212 mg of lipid per kilogram), liver values were 68% ID, while spleen rose to 18%, lung 5%. Liver and spleen values stayed at peak for 24 hours then fell; the half-life was 6 days. In dogs, liver and spleen enhancement at 1 hour averaged 652 and 256 HU above baseline per gram of iodine per kilogram, respectively

  14. Pediatric respiratory and systemic effects of chronic air pollution exposure: nose, lung, heart, and brain pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Henriquez-Roldán, Carlos; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderón, Rafael; Reed, William

    2007-01-01

    Exposures to particulate matter and gaseous air pollutants have been associated with respiratory tract inflammation, disruption of the nasal respiratory and olfactory barriers, systemic inflammation, production of mediators of inflammation capable of reaching the brain and systemic circulation of particulate matter. Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to significant amounts of ozone, particulate matter and associated lipopolysaccharides. MC dogs exhibit brain inflammation and an acceleration of Alzheimer's-like pathology, suggesting that the brain is adversely affected by air pollutants. MC children, adolescents and adults have a significant upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in olfactory bulb and frontal cortex, as well as neuronal and astrocytic accumulation of the 42 amino acid form of beta -amyloid peptide (Abeta 42), including diffuse amyloid plaques in frontal cortex. The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by brain inflammation and the accumulation of Abeta 42, which precede the appearance of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the pathological hallmarks of AD. Our findings of nasal barrier disruption, systemic inflammation, and the upregulation of COX2 and IL-1beta expression and Abeta 42 accumulation in brain suggests that sustained exposures to significant concentrations of air pollutants such as particulate matter could be a risk factor for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Framingham coronary heart disease risk score can be predicted from structural brain images in elderly subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maryam Rondina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature has presented evidence that cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF play an important role on cognitive performance in elderly individuals, both those who are asymptomatic and those who suffer from symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders. Findings from studies applying neuroimaging methods have increasingly reinforced such notion. Studies addressing the impact of CVRF on brain anatomy changes have gained increasing importance, as recent papers have reported gray matter loss predominantly in regions traditionally affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia in the presence of a high degree of cardiovascular risk. In the present paper, we explore the association between CVRF and brain changes using pattern recognition techniques applied to structural MRI and the Framingham score (a composite measure of cardiovascular risk largely used in epidemiological studies in a sample of healthy elderly individuals. We aim to answer the following questions: Is it possible to decode (i.e., to learn information regarding cardiovascular risk from structural brain images enabling individual predictions? Among clinical measures comprising the Framingham score, are there particular risk factors that stand as more predictable from patterns of brain changes? Our main findings are threefold: i we verified that structural changes in spatially distributed patterns in the brain enable statistically significant prediction of Framingham scores. This result is still significant when controlling for the presence of the APOE 4 allele (an important genetic risk factor for both AD and cardiovascular disease. ii When considering each risk factor singly, we found different levels of correlation between real and predicted factors; however, single factors were not significantly predictable from brain images when considering APOE4 allele presence as covariate. iii We found important gender differences, and the possible causes of that finding are discussed.

  16. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. 125 I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal

  17. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-06-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. /sup 125/I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal.

  18. Blunt trauma to the spleen: ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doody, O. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Lyburn, D. [Department of Radiology, Cheltenham General Hospital (United Kingdom); Geoghegan, T. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Govender, P. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Monk, P.M. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital (Canada); Torreggiani, W.C. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)]. E-mail: william.torreggiani@amnch.ie

    2005-09-01

    The spleen is the most frequently injured organ in adults who sustain blunt abdominal trauma. Splenic trauma accounts for approximately 25% to 30% of all intra-abdominal injuries. The management of splenic injury has undergone rapid change over the last decade, with increasing emphasis on splenic salvage and non-operative management. Identifying the presence and degree of splenic injury is critical in triaging the management of patients. Imaging is integral in the identification of splenic injuries, both at the time of injury and during follow-up. Although CT remains the gold standard in blunt abdominal trauma, US continues to play an important role in assessing the traumatized spleen. This pictorial review illustrates the various ultrasonographic appearances of the traumatized spleen. Correlation with other imaging is presented and complications that occur during follow-up are described.

  19. Laparoscopic Splenectomy in Patients With Spleen Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolov, Aleksander S; Tlibekova, Margarita A; Yartsev, Peter A; Guliaev, Andrey A; Rogal, Mikhail M; Samsonov, Vladimir T; Levitsky, Vladislav D; Chernysh, Oleg A

    2015-12-01

    Spleen injury appears in 10% to 30% of abdominal trauma patients. Mortality among the patients in the last 20 years remains high (6% to 7%) and shows no tendency to decline. Nowadays nonoperative management is widely accepted management of patients with low-grade spleen injury, whereas management of patients with high-grade spleen injury (III and higher) is not so obvious. There are 3 methods exist in treatment of such patients: conservative (with or without angioembolization), spleen-preserving operations, and splenectomy. Today laparoscopic splenectomy is not a widely used operation and only few studies reported about successful use of laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with spleen injury.The aim of the study was to determine indications and contraindications for laparoscopic splenectomy in abdominal trauma patients and to analyze results of the operations. The study involved 42 patients with spleen injury grade III who were admitted in our institute in the years of 2010 to 2014. The patients were divided in 2 groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was performed in 23 patients (group I) and "traditional" splenectomy was carried out in 19 patients (group II). There was no difference in the demographic data and trauma severity between the 2 groups. Noninvasive investigations, such as laboratory investigations, serial abdominal ultrasound examinations, x-ray in multiple views, and computed tomography had been performed before the decision about necessity of an operation was made. Patients after laparoscopic operations had better recovering conditions compared with patients with the same injury after "traditional" splenectomy. Neither surgery-related complications nor mortalities were registered in both groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was more time-consuming operation than "traditional" splenectomy. We suggest that as experience of laparoscopic splenectomy is gained the operation time will be reduced. Laparoscopic splenectomy is a safe feasible operation in patients

  20. Magnetic microparticle-based SELEX process for the identification of highly specific aptamers of heart marker--brain natriuretic peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ying; Cao, Jinxuan; Wu, Jingjing; Xue, Feng; Teng, Jun; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yinji; Lu, Chunxia

    2015-01-01

    The brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is known to be an effective indicator of heart failure. It has been widely adopted as a parameter for the evaluation of heart function of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs). Current immune-recognition based methods for the detection of BNP are limited, to a certain extent, by the poor stability of the antibody and by high costs. The availability of an aptamer specific for BNP would greatly assist in the rapid and early diagnosis of CVDs. In order to screen for such an aptamer by the SELEX method, we have used magnetic microparticles (m-MPs) as the separation substrate for immobilization of target BNP. The use of m-MPs for rapid separation of combined aptamers enables bound oligonucleotides to be separated directly, quickly, and with high efficiency. After 14 rounds of selection, a panel of six aptamers against BNP was identified. Their dissociation constants range from 12.5 to 139 nM. The classical technique for conjugation of a target to m-MPs is known to be applicable to various fields, and we conclude that this m-MP-based SELEX process provides a general strategy for screening of specific aptamers against various analytes. (author)

  1. Usefulness of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide as a biomarker of the presence of carcinoid heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sanjeev; Toumpanakis, Christos; Caplin, Martyn Evan; Davar, Joseph

    2008-10-01

    We sought to investigate whether N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) can be used as a biomarker for the detection of carcinoid heart disease (CHD); 200 patients with carcinoid syndrome were screened for CHD using transthoracic echocardiography. A carcinoid score was formulated to quantify severity of CHD. NT-pro-BNP was measured in all patients before echocardiography. Patients were categorised into New York Heart Association class. CHD was present in 39 patients (19.5%). NT-pro-BNP was significantly higher in those with CHD (median 1,149 pg/ml) than in those without CHD (median 101 pg/ml, p pro-BNP at a cut-off level of 260 pg/ml for detection of CHD were 0.92 and 0.91, respectively. NT-pro-BNP positively correlated both with carcinoid score (r = 0.81, p pro-BNP seems to be an excellent biomarker of CHD. A high negative predictive value may allow it to provide a screening test for CHD.

  2. The heart-break of social rejection versus the brain wave of social acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van der Veen (Frederik); M.W. Molen, van der (Maurits); P.P. Sahibdin (Priya); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe effect of social rejection on cardiac and brain responses was examined in a study in which participants had to decide on the basis of pictures of virtual peers whether these peers would like them or not. Physiological and behavioral responses to expected and unexpected acceptance and

  3. The Responses of Tissues from the Brain, Heart, Kidney, and Liver to Resuscitation following Prolonged Cardiac Arrest by Examining Mitochondrial Respiration in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhwan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest induces whole-body ischemia, which causes damage to multiple organs. Understanding how each organ responds to ischemia/reperfusion is important to develop better resuscitation strategies. Because direct measurement of organ function is not practicable in most animal models, we attempt to use mitochondrial respiration to test efficacy of resuscitation on the brain, heart, kidney, and liver following prolonged cardiac arrest. Male Sprague-Dawley rats are subjected to asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest for 30 min or 45 min, or 30 min cardiac arrest followed by 60 min cardiopulmonary bypass resuscitation. Mitochondria are isolated from brain, heart, kidney, and liver tissues and examined for respiration activity. Following cardiac arrest, a time-dependent decrease in state-3 respiration is observed in mitochondria from all four tissues. Following 60 min resuscitation, the respiration activity of brain mitochondria varies greatly in different animals. The activity after resuscitation remains the same in heart mitochondria and significantly increases in kidney and liver mitochondria. The result shows that inhibition of state-3 respiration is a good marker to evaluate the efficacy of resuscitation for each organ. The resulting state-3 respiration of brain and heart mitochondria following resuscitation reenforces the need for developing better strategies to resuscitate these critical organs following prolonged cardiac arrest.

  4. The Responses of Tissues from the Brain, Heart, Kidney, and Liver to Resuscitation following Prolonged Cardiac Arrest by Examining Mitochondrial Respiration in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhwan; Villarroel, José Paul Perales; Zhang, Wei; Yin, Tai; Shinozaki, Koichiro; Hong, Angela; Lampe, Joshua W; Becker, Lance B

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac arrest induces whole-body ischemia, which causes damage to multiple organs. Understanding how each organ responds to ischemia/reperfusion is important to develop better resuscitation strategies. Because direct measurement of organ function is not practicable in most animal models, we attempt to use mitochondrial respiration to test efficacy of resuscitation on the brain, heart, kidney, and liver following prolonged cardiac arrest. Male Sprague-Dawley rats are subjected to asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest for 30 min or 45 min, or 30 min cardiac arrest followed by 60 min cardiopulmonary bypass resuscitation. Mitochondria are isolated from brain, heart, kidney, and liver tissues and examined for respiration activity. Following cardiac arrest, a time-dependent decrease in state-3 respiration is observed in mitochondria from all four tissues. Following 60 min resuscitation, the respiration activity of brain mitochondria varies greatly in different animals. The activity after resuscitation remains the same in heart mitochondria and significantly increases in kidney and liver mitochondria. The result shows that inhibition of state-3 respiration is a good marker to evaluate the efficacy of resuscitation for each organ. The resulting state-3 respiration of brain and heart mitochondria following resuscitation reenforces the need for developing better strategies to resuscitate these critical organs following prolonged cardiac arrest.

  5. Effects of on-board storage and electrical stunning of wild cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) on brain and heart activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Digre, H.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Aursand, I.G.; Grimso, L.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Cod and haddock captured with commercial trawling gear were taken immediately after landing on deck to on-board storage in dry bins for measuring brain and heart activity, and behaviour. Other groups were first stored in holding tanks and then electrically stunned with a prototype "dry stunner". For

  6. The heart-break of social rejection versus the brain wave of social acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Maurits W.; Sahibdin, Priya P.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of social rejection on cardiac and brain responses was examined in a study in which participants had to decide on the basis of pictures of virtual peers whether these peers would like them or not. Physiological and behavioral responses to expected and unexpected acceptance and rejection were compared. It was found that participants expected that about 50% of the virtual judges gave them a positive judgment. Cardiac deceleration was strongest for unexpected social rejection. In contrast, the brain response was strongest to expected acceptance and was characterized by a positive deflection peaking around 325 ms following stimulus onset and the observed difference was maximal at fronto-central positions. The cardiac and electro-cortical responses were not related. It is hypothesized that these differential response patterns might be related to earlier described differential involvement of the dorsal and ventral portion of the anterior cingulate cortex. PMID:23887821

  7. Visual assessment of brain magnetic resonance imaging detects injury to cognitive regulatory sites in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Alan; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M; Fonarow, Gregg C; Harper, Ronald M; Woo, Mary A

    2013-02-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients exhibit depression and executive function impairments that contribute to HF mortality. Using specialized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis procedures, brain changes appear in areas regulating these functions (mammillary bodies, hippocampi, and frontal cortex). However, specialized MRI procedures are not part of standard clinical assessment for HF (which is usually a visual evaluation), and it is unclear whether visual MRI examination can detect changes in these structures. Using brain MRI, we visually examined the mammillary bodies and frontal cortex for global and hippocampi for global and regional tissue changes in 17 HF and 50 control subjects. Significantly global changes emerged in the right mammillary body (HF 1.18 ± 1.13 vs control 0.52 ± 0.74; P = .024), right hippocampus (HF 1.53 ± 0.94 vs control 0.80 ± 0.86; P = .005), and left frontal cortex (HF 1.76 ± 1.03 vs control 1.24 ± 0.77; P = .034). Comparison of the visual method with specialized MRI techniques corroborates right hippocampal and left frontal cortical, but not mammillary body, tissue changes. Visual examination of brain MRI can detect damage in HF in areas regulating depression and executive function, including the right hippocampus and left frontal cortex. Visual MRI assessment in HF may facilitate evaluation of injury to these structures and the assessment of the impact of potential treatments for this damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Heart rate calculation from ensemble brain wave using wavelet and Teager-Kaiser energy operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Jayaraman; Adithya, V

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal artifacts are caused by various factors, such as, Electro-oculogram (EOG), Electromyogram (EMG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), movement artifact and line interference. The relatively high electrical energy cardiac activity causes EEG artifacts. In EEG signal processing the general approach is to remove the ECG signal. In this paper, we introduce an automated method to extract the ECG signal from EEG using wavelet and Teager-Kaiser energy operator for R-peak enhancement and detection. From the detected R-peaks the heart rate (HR) is calculated for clinical diagnosis. To check the efficiency of our method, we compare the HR calculated from ECG signal recorded in synchronous with EEG. The proposed method yields a mean error of 1.4% for the heart rate and 1.7% for mean R-R interval. The result illustrates that, proposed method can be used for ECG extraction from single channel EEG and used in clinical diagnosis like estimation for stress analysis, fatigue, and sleep stages classification studies as a multi-model system. In addition, this method eliminates the dependence of additional synchronous ECG in extraction of ECG from EEG signal process.

  9. Distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajin Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypersplenism is a common complication of portal hypertension. Cytopenia in hypersplenism is predominantly caused by splenomegaly. Distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection is an original surgical technique that regulates cytopenia by reduction of the enlarged spleen. Objective. The aim of our study was to present the advantages of distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection comparing morbidity and mortality in a group of patients treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection with a group of patients treated only by a distal splenorenal shunt. Method. From 1995 to 2003, 41 patients with portal hypertension were surgically treated due to hypersplenism and oesophageal varices. The first group consisted of 20 patients (11 male, mean age 42.3 years who were treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection. The second group consisted of 21 patients (13 male, mean age 49.4 years that were treated by distal splenorenal shunt only. All patients underwent endoscopy and assessment of oesophageal varices. The size of the spleen was evaluated by ultrasound, CT or by scintigraphy. Angiography was performed in all patients. The platelet and white blood cell count and haemoglobin level were registered. Postoperatively, we noted blood transfusion, complications and total hospital stay. Follow-up period was 12 months, with first checkup after one month. Results In the first group, only one patient had splenomegaly postoperatively (5%, while in the second group there were 13 patients with splenomegaly (68%. Before surgery, the mean platelet count in the first group was 51.6±18.3x109/l, to 118.6±25.4x109/l postoperatively. The mean platelet count in the second group was 67.6±22.8x109/l, to 87.8±32.1x109/l postoperatively. Concerning postoperative splenomegaly, statistically significant difference was noted between the first and the second group (p<0.05. Comparing the

  10. Prion infectivity in the spleen of a PRNP heterozygous individual with subclinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Matthew T; Diack, Abigail B; Ritchie, Diane L; Ironside, James W; Will, Robert G; Manson, Jean C

    2013-04-01

    Blood transfusion has been identified as a source of human-to-human transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Three cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been identified following red cell transfusions from donors who subsequently developed variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and an asymptomatic red cell transfusion recipient, who did not die of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, has been identified with prion protein deposition in the spleen and a lymph node, but not the brain. This individual was heterozygous (MV) at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), whereas all previous definite and probable cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been methionine homozygotes (MM). A critical question for public health is whether the prion protein deposition reported in peripheral tissues from this MV individual correlates with infectivity. Additionally it is important to establish whether the PRNP codon 129 genotype has influenced the transmission characteristics of the infectious agent. Brain and spleen from the MV blood recipient were inoculated into murine strains that have consistently demonstrated transmission of the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent. Mice were assessed for clinical and pathological signs of disease and transmission data were compared with other transmission studies in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, including those on the spleen and brain of the donor to the index case. Transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was observed from the MV blood recipient spleen, but not from the brain, whereas there was transmission from both spleen and brain tissues from the red blood cell donor. Longer incubation times were observed for the blood donor spleen inoculum compared with the blood donor brain inoculum, suggesting lower titres of infectivity in the spleen. The distribution of vacuolar pathology and abnormal prion protein in infected mice were similar following inoculation with both donor and recipient spleen

  11. Prion infectivity in the spleen of a PRNP heterozygous individual with subclinical variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Matthew T.; Diack, Abigail B.; Ritchie, Diane L.; Ironside, James W.; Will, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Blood transfusion has been identified as a source of human-to-human transmission of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Three cases of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been identified following red cell transfusions from donors who subsequently developed variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and an asymptomatic red cell transfusion recipient, who did not die of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, has been identified with prion protein deposition in the spleen and a lymph node, but not the brain. This individual was heterozygous (MV) at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), whereas all previous definite and probable cases of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been methionine homozygotes (MM). A critical question for public health is whether the prion protein deposition reported in peripheral tissues from this MV individual correlates with infectivity. Additionally it is important to establish whether the PRNP codon 129 genotype has influenced the transmission characteristics of the infectious agent. Brain and spleen from the MV blood recipient were inoculated into murine strains that have consistently demonstrated transmission of the variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease agent. Mice were assessed for clinical and pathological signs of disease and transmission data were compared with other transmission studies in variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, including those on the spleen and brain of the donor to the index case. Transmission of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease was observed from the MV blood recipient spleen, but not from the brain, whereas there was transmission from both spleen and brain tissues from the red blood cell donor. Longer incubation times were observed for the blood donor spleen inoculum compared with the blood donor brain inoculum, suggesting lower titres of infectivity in the spleen. The distribution of vacuolar pathology and abnormal prion protein in infected mice were similar following inoculation with both donor and

  12. The heart-break of social rejection versus the brain wave of social acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Frederik M; van der Molen, Maurits W; Sahibdin, Priya P; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2014-09-01

    The effect of social rejection on cardiac and brain responses was examined in a study in which participants had to decide on the basis of pictures of virtual peers whether these peers would like them or not. Physiological and behavioral responses to expected and unexpected acceptance and rejection were compared. It was found that participants expected that about 50% of the virtual judges gave them a positive judgment. Cardiac deceleration was strongest for unexpected social rejection. In contrast, the brain response was strongest to expected acceptance and was characterized by a positive deflection peaking around 325 ms following stimulus onset and the observed difference was maximal at fronto-central positions. The cardiac and electro-cortical responses were not related. It is hypothesized that these differential response patterns might be related to earlier described differential involvement of the dorsal and ventral portion of the anterior cingulate cortex. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Imaging of the spleen: a proposed algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkhoda, A.; McCartney, W.H.; Staab, E.V.; Mittelstaedt, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid scan is an effective initial method for evaluating splenic size, position, and focal or diffusely altered radionuclide uptake. Sonography is a useful next step in determining whether focal lesions are solid or cystic and the relation of the spleen to adjacent organs. In our opinion, computed tomography (CT) may be reserved for the few instances in which diagnostic questions remain unanswered after radionuclide scanning and sonography. Angiography is used primarily in splenic trauma. We evaluated 900 patients suspected of having liver-spleen abnormality. This experience, which led to a logically sequenced noninvasive imaging approach for evaluating suspected splenic pathology, is summarized and illustrated by several cases

  14. Imaging of the spleen: a proposed algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirkhoda, A.; McCartney, W.H.; Staab, E.V.; Mittelstaedt, C.A.

    1980-07-01

    The /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid scan is an effective initial method for evaluating splenic size, position, and focal or diffusely altered radionuclide uptake. Sonography is a useful next step in determining whether focal lesions are solid or cystic and the relation of the spleen to adjacent organs. In our opinion, computed tomography (CT) may be reserved for the few instances in which diagnostic questions remain unanswered after radionuclide scanning and sonography. Angiography is used primarily in splenic trauma. We evaluated 900 patients suspected of having liver-spleen abnormality. This experience, which led to a logically sequenced noninvasive imaging approach for evaluating suspected splenic pathology, is summarized and illustrated by several cases.

  15. Laparoscopic splenectomy for a simultaneous wandering spleen along with an ectopic accessory spleen. Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Rizzuto

    Full Text Available Background: Wandering spleen and accessory spleen are uncommon entity occurring during embryonic development. Wandering spleen results in an excessive mobility and migration of the spleen from its normal position in the left hypochondrium while accessory spleen is characterized by ectopic splenic masses or tissue disjointed from the main body of spleen.Due to the nonspecific and multiple symptoms the clinical diagnosis of both conditions is uncertain even with imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI. The coexistence of both diseases (wandering spleen ad accessory spleen is uncommon. Case report: A 17–year old European female with a history of minor beta thalassemia and recurrent attacks of abdominal pain. Pre- operative management consisted of routine laboratory tests, ultrasound, CT scan. An ectopic spleen along with an accessory spleen were diagnosed. After a multidisciplinary board a laparoscopic splenectomy was performed. Post-operative recovery was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the 6th post-operative day with the indication to continue the therapy with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH for 30 days Conclusions: This case represents a simultaneous condition of wandering splenomegaly along with an ectopic wandering spleen. The coexistence of these two rare conditions is peculiar such as the age of the patient, as literature reports such diseases to affect children or more commonly people in the range of 20–40 years of age. Laparoscopic treatment for this particular condition is also unusual. Keywords: Ectopic spleen, Wandering spleen, Laparoscopic splenectomy

  16. Value of transoperative scintigraphy in the detection of accessory spleens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezeur, A.; Goujard, F.; Labriolle-Vaylet, C.L. de; Wioland, M.; Douay, L.; Desmarquet, J.

    1990-01-01

    A case of accessory spleen, 1 cm in diameter, responsible for recurrence of an idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura after splenectomy is reported. This case is original in that the accessory spleen could only be detected by transoperative scintigraphy. Transoperative scintigraphy is a simple method to be used when one or several unrecognized accessory spleens are responsible for recurrence of a blood disease after excision of the principal spleen [fr

  17. A wandering spleen presenting as a hypogastric mass: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the spleen. A 26-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and abdominal pain. Abdominal examination revealed a large ovoid hypogastric mass. A CT scan showed a wandering spleen in the hypogastric region. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an ischemic spleen. A total splenectomy was performed.

  18. Predictability decomposition detects the impairment of brain-heart dynamical networks during sleep disorders and their recovery with treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Luca; Marinazzo, Daniele; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Jurysta, Fabrice; Porta, Alberto; Giandomenico, Nollo

    2016-05-01

    This work introduces a framework to study the network formed by the autonomic component of heart rate variability (cardiac process η) and the amplitude of the different electroencephalographic waves (brain processes δ, θ, α, σ, β) during sleep. The framework exploits multivariate linear models to decompose the predictability of any given target process into measures of self-, causal and interaction predictability reflecting respectively the information retained in the process and related to its physiological complexity, the information transferred from the other source processes, and the information modified during the transfer according to redundant or synergistic interaction between the sources. The framework is here applied to the η, δ, θ, α, σ, β time series measured from the sleep recordings of eight severe sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS) patients studied before and after long-term treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, and 14 healthy controls. Results show that the full and self-predictability of η, δ and θ decreased significantly in SAHS compared with controls, and were restored with CPAP for δ and θ but not for η. The causal predictability of η and δ occurred through significantly redundant source interaction during healthy sleep, which was lost in SAHS and recovered after CPAP. These results indicate that predictability analysis is a viable tool to assess the modifications of complexity and causality of the cerebral and cardiac processes induced by sleep disorders, and to monitor the restoration of the neuroautonomic control of these processes during long-term treatment.

  19. Study on clinical value of determination of plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels in patients with chronic congestive heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jianxiong; Li Zhuocheng; Tu Hong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of determination of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with chronic congestive heart failure(CHF). Methods: The levels of plasma BNP were measured with fluorescence immunoassay in 341 patients with chronic CHF and 55 controls. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD) and left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) were determined with color doppler ultrasonography in CHF patients. Results: Plasma levels of BNP were significantly increased in patients with CHF as compared with those in controls (P<0.01). There were also significant differences in plasma levels of CHF patients of different clinical stages (P<0.01). There was obvious correlation between plasma levels of BNP and the values of LVEF, LVESD and LVEDD (r was-0.62, +0.54 and +0.60 respectively, P<0.01). Conclusion: Plasma level of BNP is a sensitive indicator for assessment of ventricle function in CHF patients. (authors)

  20. Attenuation of Streptozotocin-Induced Lipid Profile Anomalies in the Heart, Brain, and mRNA Expression of HMG-CoA Reductase by Diosgenin in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shuang; Xu, Rihao; Li, Dan; Zhu, Zhicheng; Wang, Tiance; Liu, Kexiang

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with significant morbidity and mortality that contributes to pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Diosgenin, a naturally occurring aglycone, is present abundantly in fenugreek. The steroidal saponin is being used as a traditional medicine for diabetes. The present study has investigated the effects of diosgenin on lipid profile in the heart and brain, mRNA expression, and hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In our study, diosgenin was administered (40 mg/kg b.w.) orally for 45 days to control animals and experimentally induced diabetic rats. The effects of diosgenin on glucose, plasma insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids (PLs) in the heart and brain were studied. The levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, PLs, and HMGR activity were increased significantly (P rats. Administration of diosgenin to diabetic rats significantly reduced blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, PLs levels, and also HMGR activity. In addition, the plasma insulin level was increased in diosgenin-treated diabetic rats. The above findings were correlated with histological observations of the heart and brain. The results showed that administration of diosgenin remarkably increased plasma insulin level with absolute reduction of blood glucose, lipid profile, and HMGR level when compared to diabetic control rats. The results have suggested that diosgenin prevents hypercholesterolemia and hepatosteatosis by modulation of enzymatic expression that is associated with cholesterol metabolism.

  1. Rate equation for creatine kinase predicts the in vivo reaction velocity: 31P NMR surface coil studies in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle of the living rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittl, J.A.; DeLayre, J.; Ingwall, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Brain, heart, and skeletal muscle contain four different creatine kinase isozymes and various concentrations of substrates for the creatine kinase reaction. To identify if the velocity of the creatine kinase reaction under cellular conditions is regulated by enzyme activity and substrate concentrations as predicted by the rate equation, the authors used 31 P NMR and spectrophotometric techniques to measure reaction velocity, enzyme content, isozyme distribution, and concentrations of substrates in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle of living rat under basal or resting conditions. The total tissue activity of creatine kinase in the direction of MgATP synthesis provided an estimate for V/sub max/ and exceeded the NMR-determined in vivo reaction velocities by an order of magnitude. The isozyme composition varied among the three tissues: >99% BB for brain; 14% MB, 61% MM, and 25% mitochondrial for heart; and 98% MM and 2% mitochondrial for skeletal muscle. The NMR-determined reaction velocities agreed with predicted values from the creatine kinase rate equation. The concentrations of free creatine and cytosolic MgADP, being less than or equal to the dissociation constants for each isozyme, were dominant terms in the creatine kinase rate equation for predicting the in vivo reaction velocity. Thus, they observed that the velocity of the creatine kinase reaction is regulated by total tissue enzyme activity and by the concentrations of creatine and MgADP in a manner that is independent of isozyme distribution

  2. Serum ferritin in patients with cancer: determination with antibodies to HeLa cell and spleen ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.M.; Worwood, M.; Jacobs, A.

    1980-01-01

    Some malignant tissues and cell lines contain acidic isoferritins and it has been suggested that the assay of such isoferritins in serum may be of value in the diagnosis of malignancy. This paper describes a radioimmunoassay for acidic ferritin purified from HeLa cells. Examination of purified heart, kidney, liver and spleen ferritin showed that the assay was highly specific for acidic isoferritins. Ferritin concentrations have been measured with antibodies to HeLa cell and spleen ferritin in extracts of normal and tumour tissue. Although the tumours contained more HeLa type ferritin than the corresponding normal tissue the HeLa/spleen type ferritin ratio was low. HeLa-type ferritin concentrations have been compared with values obtained with anti-spleen ferritin in over 1000 sera from normal subjects and patients with cancer and leukaemia. HeLa-type ferritin was not detected (<2 μg/l) in most normal sera. Concentrations of up to 53 μg/l were found in sera from patients with malignant disease but the HeLa/spleen type ferritin ratio was always very low. There appears to be little application for antibodies to HeLa cell or heart ferritin in the diagnosis or monitoring of cancer. (Auth.)

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of alanine and aspartate transaminases in subcellular fractions of the brain and heart in white rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plenin, A E

    1973-01-01

    In experiments on rats, the activity of alanine (I) and aspartate transaminases (II) was studied in homogenates and subcellular fractions of the brain and myocardium under normal conditions and for 30 days after ..gamma.. irradiation at 40 rads. The activity of II in brain homogenates increased 1 hour after irradiation but decreased by 20 percent on day 3; it decreased again on days 7 and 15. The activity of brain I increased after 1 hour and 3 days but then returned to normal. The activity of I in heart homogenates increased in all the periods after irradiation. The subcellular fractions exhibited phase changes in the activity of the enzymes. These changes were different in nature from those observed after X and ..gamma.. irradiation at the same dose.

  4. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work.

  5. Adding left atrial appendage closure to open heart surgery provides protection from ischemic brain injury six years after surgery independently of atrial fibrillation history: the LAACS randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park-Hansen, Jesper; Holme, Susanne J V; Irmukhamedov, Akhmadjon; Carranza, Christian L; Greve, Anders M; Al-Farra, Gina; Riis, Robert G C; Nilsson, Brian; Clausen, Johan S R; Nørskov, Anne S; Kruuse, Christina R; Rostrup, Egill; Dominguez, Helena

    2018-05-23

    Open heart surgery is associated with high occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF), subsequently increasing the risk of post-operative ischemic stroke. Concomitant with open heart surgery, a cardiac ablation procedure is commonly performed in patients with known AF, often followed by left atrial appendage closure with surgery (LAACS). However, the protective effect of LAACS on the risk of cerebral ischemia following cardiac surgery remains controversial. We have studied whether LAACS in addition to open heart surgery protects against post-operative ischemic brain injury regardless of a previous AF diagnosis. One hundred eighty-seven patients scheduled for open heart surgery were enrolled in a prospective, open-label clinical trial and randomized to concomitant LAACS vs. standard care. Randomization was stratified by usage of oral anticoagulation (OAC) planned to last at least 3 months after surgery. The primary endpoint was a composite of post-operative symptomatic ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack or imaging findings of silent cerebral ischemic (SCI) lesions. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, 14 (16%) primary events occurred among patients receiving standard surgery vs. 5 (5%) in the group randomized to additional LAACS (hazard ratio 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.8, p = 0.02). In per protocol analysis (n = 141), 14 (18%) primary events occurred in the control group vs. 4 (6%) in the LAACS group (hazard ratio 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-1.0, p = 0.05). In a real-world setting, LAACS in addition to elective open-heart surgery was associated with lower risk of post-operative ischemic brain injury. The protective effect was not conditional on AF/OAC status at baseline. LAACS study, clinicaltrials.gov NCT02378116 , March 4th 2015, retrospectively registered.

  6. Relationship between number of spleen colonies and 125IdUrd incorporation into spleen and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Bullis, J.E.; Cronkite, E.P.; Hubner, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Graded numbers of bone marrow (BM) cells were injected into fatally irradiated mice. Eight days later the mice were given 3.0 μCi (1 Ci = 3.7 x 10 10 Bq) of 125 IdUrd to label proliferating cells in the spleen and BM. On day 9 the mice were killed and the spleens and femurs were removed for splenic colony assay and measurement of radioactivity in the spleen and femurs. The number of splenic colonies shows a linear relationship with dose of marrow cells injected from 10 4 to 10 5 cells. The slope of the curve of spleen colonies versus number of cells injected is 5 and below 10 4 there is a striking departure from the simple linearity. Below 2 x 10 3 cells injected, the logarithm of the observed colony yield is linear with logarithm of the number of cells injected. Poisson calculation of the average number of pluripotent stem cells that should be present with numbers of marrow cells injected below 2 x 10 3 followed closely the actual observations. The data show that there is no detectible proliferation in the BM until the dose of marrow cells exceeds 3.5 x 10 4 cells. Induction of cells into cycle increases the seeding into the BM, and thymidine cytocide drastically reduces seeding in the BM, leading us to conclude that the BM is repopulated almost exclusively by stem cells in DNA synthesis

  7. Impact of chronic hypoxemia on blood flow to the brain, heart, and adrenal gland in the late-gestation IUGR sheep fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Rajan; McMillen, I Caroline; Dunn, Stacey L; Zhang, Song; Morrison, Janna L

    2015-02-01

    In the fetus, there is a redistribution of cardiac output in response to acute hypoxemia, to maintain perfusion of key organs, including the brain, heart, and adrenal glands. There may be a similar redistribution of cardiac output in the chronically hypoxemic, intrauterine growth-restricted fetus. Surgical removal of uterine caruncles in nonpregnant ewe results in the restriction of placental growth (PR) and intrauterine growth. Vascular catheters were implanted in seven control and six PR fetal sheep, and blood flow to organs was determined using microspheres. Placental and fetal weight was significantly reduced in the PR group. Despite an increase in the relative brain weight in the PR group, there was no difference in blood flow to the brain between the groups, although PR fetuses had higher blood flow to the temporal lobe. Adrenal blood flow was significantly higher in PR fetuses, and there was a direct relationship between mean gestational PaO2 and blood flow to the adrenal gland. There was no change in blood flow, but a decrease in oxygen and glucose delivery to the heart in the PR fetuses. In another group, there was a decrease in femoral artery blood flow in the PR compared with the Control group, and this may support blood flow changes to the adrenal and temporal lobe. In contrast to the response to acute hypoxemia, these data show that there is a redistribution of blood flow to the adrenals and temporal lobe, but not the heart or whole brain, in chronically hypoxemic PR fetuses in late gestation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. New mechanisms of the TCM spleen-based treatment of immune thrombocytopenia purpura from the perspective of blood neurotransmitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The JYS prescription may regulate the expression levels of blood neurotransmitters via the brain-gut axis in patients with “spleen deficiency” ITP and thus activate hemostatic mechanisms to promote hemostasis. β-EP and VIP are key neurotransmitters of the JYS-induced functional regulation.

  9. [Delayed rupture of the spleen in a multiply injured patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lică, I; Venter, M D; Mehic, R; Marian, R; Ionescu, G

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a case of delayed rupture of the spleen in a polytraumatised patient. This entity was defined as a late occurrence of signs and symptoms attributed to splenic injury not detected by diagnostic computed tomographic scanning during the initial examination. The mechanisms in which the delayed rupture of the spleen occurs are discussed and the conclusion is that the delayed rupture of the spleen represent a real clinical entity.

  10. Diagnostic value of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide for pleural effusion due to heart failure: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q; Ye, Z J; Su, Y; Zhang, J C; Shi, H Z

    2010-08-01

    N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a biomarker useful in diagnosis of pleural effusion due to heart failure. Thus far, its overall diagnostic accuracy has not been systematically reviewed. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to establish the overall diagnostic accuracy of the measurement of pleural NT-proBNP for identifying pleural effusion due to heart failure. After a systematic review of English-language studies, sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of accuracy of NT-proBNP concentrations in pleural fluid in the diagnosis of pleural effusion resulting from heart failure were pooled using fixed-effects models. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves were used to summarise overall test performance. Eight publications met the inclusion criteria. The summary estimates for pleural NT-proBNP in the diagnosis of pleural effusion attributable to heart failure were: sensitivity 0.95 (95% CI 0.92 to 0.97), specificity 0.94 (0.92 to 0.96), positive likelihood ratio 14.12 (10.23 to 19.51), negative likelihood ratio 0.06 (0.04 to 0.09) and diagnostic OR 213.87 (122.50 to 373.40). NT-proBNP levels in pleural fluid showed a high diagnostic accuracy and may help accurately differentiate cardiac from non-cardiac conditions in patients presenting with pleural effusion.

  11. Wandering spleen: a medical enigma, its natural history and rationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magowska, Anita

    2013-03-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant but is found lower in the abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. Many patients with wandering spleen are asymptomatic, hence the condition can be discovered only by abdominal examination or at a hospital emergency department if a patient is admitted to hospital because of severe abdominal pain, vomiting or obstipation. This article aims to provide a historical overview of wandering spleen diagnostics and surgical treatment supplemented with an analyses of articles on wandering spleen included in the PubMed database. One of the first clinical descriptions of a wandering spleen was written by Józef Dietl in 1854. The next years of vital importance are 1877 when A. Martin conducted the first splenectomy and in 1895 when Ludwik Rydygier carried out the first splenopexy to immobilize a wandering spleen. Since that time various techniques of splenectomy and splenopexy have been developed. Introducing medical technologies was a watershed in the development and treatment of wandering spleen, which is confirmed by the PubMed database. Despite the increased number of publications medical literature shows that a wandering spleen still remains a misdiagnosed condition, especially among children.

  12. An Unusual Reason for Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage: Wandering Spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseoğlu, Hüseyin; Atalay, Roni; Büyükaşık, Naciye Şemnur; Canyiğit, Murat; Özer, Mehmet; Solakoğlu, Tevfik; Akın, Fatma Ebru; Bolat, Aylin Demirezer; Yürekli, Öykü Tayfur; Ersoy, Osman

    2015-12-01

    Wandering spleen is the displacement of the spleen due to the loss or weakening of the ligaments of the spleen and is seen very rarely with an incidence of less than 0.5 %. It can cause portal hypertension, but gastric variceal hemorrhage is a quite rare condition within the spectrum of this uncommon disease. We report a 22-year-old woman with wandering spleen presenting with life-threatening gastric variceal hemorrhage. Her diagnosis was made by computerized tomography. Endoscopic therapy was not adequate to stop the bleeding, and urgent splenectomy was performed. After surgery she has been well with no symptoms until now.

  13. Effects of body mass index and age on N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide are associated with glomerular filtration rate in chronic heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Kistorp, Caroline N

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a state characterized by glomerular hyperfiltration and age-related decreases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Body mass index (BMI), age, and GFR are associated with plasma concentrations of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in chronic heart failure...... (CHF) patients. We hypothesized that the effects of BMI and age on plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP are associated with GFR. METHODS: We obtained clinical data and laboratory test results from 345 CHF patients at the baseline visit in our heart failure clinic and examined the hypothesis using...... estimates for BMI (P = 0.3807) and age (P = 0.7238) changed markedly and became insignificant. In another model, after adjustment for GFR estimated by the 4-component Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula (eGFR(MDRD)), the parameter estimates for age (P = 0.0674) changed markedly and became...

  14. The relationship between emotion regulation capacity, heart rate variability, and quality of life in individuals with alcohol-related brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz JP

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Paul Steinmetz,1,2 Claus Vögele,3,4 Christiane Theisen-Flies,5 Carine Federspiel,1,2 Stefan Sütterlin6,7 1Department of Research and Development, ZithaSenior, 2Centre for Memory and Mobility, ZithaSenior, 3Institute for Health and Behaviour, Integrative Research Unit on Social and Individual Development (INSIDE, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg; 4Research Group Health Psychology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 5Home St Joseph, ZithaSenior, Luxembourg; 6Department of Psychology, Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, 7Division of Surgery and Clinical Neuroscience, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Oslo University Hospital – Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway Abstract: The reliable measurement of quality of life (QoL presents a challenge in individuals with alcohol-related brain damage. This study investigated vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV as a physiological predictor of QoL. Self- and proxy ratings of QoL and dysexecutive symptoms were collected once, while vmHRV was repeatedly assessed over a 3-week period at weekly intervals in a sample of nine alcohol-related brain damaged patients. We provide robustness checks, bootstrapped correlations with confidence intervals, and standard errors for mean scores. We observed low to very low heart rate variability scores in our patients in comparison to norm values found in healthy populations. Proxy ratings of the QoL scale “subjective physical and mental performance” and everyday executive dysfunctions were strongly related to vmHRV. Better proxy-rated QoL and fewer dysexecutive symptoms were observed in those patients with higher vmHRV. Overall, patients showed low parasympathetic activation favoring the occurrence of dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies. Keywords: heart rate variability, emotion regulation, alcohol-related brain damage, quality of life

  15. Conscious and unconscious sensory inflows allow effective control of the functions of the human brain and heart at the initial ageing stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Anatolij T; Malyarenko, Tatyana N; Malyarenko, Yurij E; Terentjev, Vladimir P; Dyuzhikov, Alexandr A

    2006-11-01

    The authors of the present article based their assumption on the concept that the sensory systems are the "windows to the brain" through which various functions of the human organism can be controlled. Comprehension of the fundamental mechanisms of the optimization of the sensory systems, brain, and cardiac functions has increased based on the prolonged sensory flows using conscious and unconscious aromatherapy and multimodal sensory activation. Sensory flow evoked stable systemic responses, including adaptive alteration of psycho-emotional state, attention, memory, sensorimotor reactions, intersensory interaction, visual information processing, statokinetic stability, and autonomic heart rhythm control. The efficacy and expediency of the use of sensory flow for non-medicinal correction of vital functions of the human organism at the initial stages of ageing was revealed.

  16. Brain-targeted solid lipid nanoparticles containing riluzole: preparation, characterization and biodistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondì, Maria Luisa; Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Giammona, Gaetano; Drago, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    Developments within nanomedicine have revealed a great potential for drug delivery to the brain. In this study nanoparticulate systems as drug carriers for riluzole, with sufficiently high loading capacity and small particle size, were prepared to a reach therapeutic drug level in the brain. Solid lipid nanoparticles containing riluzole have great potential as drug-delivery systems for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and were produced by using the warm oil-in-water microemulsion technique. The resulting systems obtained were approximately 88 nm in size and negatively charged. Drug-release profiles demonstrated that a drug release was dependent on medium pH. Biodistribution of riluzole blended into solid lipid nanoparticles was carried out after administration to rats and the results were compared with those obtained by riluzole aqueous dispersion administration. Rats were sacrificed at time intervals of 8, 16 and 30 h, and the riluzole concentration in the blood and organs such as the brain, liver, spleen, heart and kidney was determined. It was demonstrated that these solid lipid nanoparticles were able to successfully carry riluzole into the CNS. Moreover, a low drug biodistribution in organs such as the liver, spleen, heart, kidneys and lung was found when riluzole was administered as drug-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Riluzole-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles showed colloidal size and high drug loading, a greater efficacy than free riluzole in rats, a higher capability to carry the drug into the brain and a lower indiscriminate biodistribution.

  17. Study of chicken liver and spleen by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@mail.utnet.ru [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Malakheeva, L. I. [Simbio Holding, Science Consultation Department (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, P. G. [Russian State Medical University, Faculty of Biochemistry (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-15

    A preliminary study of purified normal human liver ferritin, normal chicken liver and spleen tissues in lyophilized form showed differences in room temperature Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. An additional study of liver and spleen tissues with lower iron content from chicken with lymphoid leukemia indicated small differences between the quadrupole splittings in these samples compared with those in normal tissues.

  18. Study of chicken liver and spleen by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Malakheeva, L. I.; Prokopenko, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary study of purified normal human liver ferritin, normal chicken liver and spleen tissues in lyophilized form showed differences in room temperature Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. An additional study of liver and spleen tissues with lower iron content from chicken with lymphoid leukemia indicated small differences between the quadrupole splittings in these samples compared with those in normal tissues.

  19. Evolution of the CT imaging findings of accessory spleen infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendi, Resham; Abramson, Lisa P.; Pillai, Srikumar B.; Rigsby, Cynthia K.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 12-year-old girl presenting with multiple episodes of left upper-quadrant pain caused by torsion of an accessory spleen. We present the CT findings of progression of accessory spleen infarction over the course of 7 days. (orig.)

  20. The wandering spleen: CT findings and possible pitfalls in diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ely, A.; Zissin, R.; Copel, L.; Vasserman, M.; Hertz, M.; Gottlieb, P.; Gayer, G

    2006-11-15

    Aim: To report the CT features of wandering spleen, a rare condition which can be incidentally detected as an abdominal or pelvic mass or can present with torsion, causing an acute abdomen. Materials and methods: The CT studies of seven patients, two children and five adults, with wandering spleen were reviewed. CT was performed urgently in three patients for acute abdomen, and electively in four. Results: CT findings of wandering spleen included absence of the spleen in its normal position and a mass located elsewhere in the abdomen or pelvis, i.e. an ectopic spleen, enhancing homogeneously in four cases and failing partially or completely to enhance in the other three, indicating infarction. A 'whirl' appearance representing the twisted splenic pedicle was seen in the three cases with torsion. Urgent splenectomy confirmed infarction secondary to torsion. Conclusion: The possible diagnosis of wandering spleen should be kept in mind when CT shows the spleen to be absent from its usual position and a mass is found elsewhere in the abdomen or pelvis. When, in addition, a 'whirl' or partial or no enhancement of this mass are seen in a case presenting with acute abdomen, torsion of a wandering spleen is a likely diagnosis.

  1. Study of ultrasonic imagine of spleen in patients with leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hui; Zhou Chunyan; Jiang Ju; Luo Liying; Huang Yanhong

    2011-01-01

    To investigate spleen ultrasonic imagine in patients with leukemia and to provide basis information for preventing and treat disease,the spleens imaging of 158 patients with leukemia were detected by B mode ultrasonicgraphy and the data of clinical medical examination were analyzed.The results showed that the spleens' ultrasonic imagine of patients with leukemia were not related to the degree of anemia.The ultrasonic imagines of spleen in patients with chronic leukemia were different to the other kinds of leukemia.The ultrasonic imagine of spleens in leukemia patients are related to types and development of leukemia.The B-ultrasound screening should be used to help clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with leukemia. (authors)

  2. [Rupture of the spleen and acute pancreatitis after ESWL therapy: a rare complication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelan, Z; Derezic, D; Pasini, J; Stern-Padovan, R; Skegro, M; Mrazovac, D; Sosic, H

    2005-11-01

    ESWL is a safe and efficient method in the therapy of urolithiasis which, however, is not free of complications. ESWL was performed in a 54-year-old patient with a stone of 18 mm in size located in one of the upper calyces of the left kidney. Several hours after the ambulatory ESWL treatment the patient was admitted to the emergency room with strong pain in the left lumbar region and the upper abdomen. During examination low blood pressure, tachycardia and low Hb levels were found. Ultrasound and CAT scans revealed a subcapsular rupture of the spleen. Surgery was indicated, and a laparotomy with splenectomy was performed. Ten days after surgery the patient developed acute pancreatitis which was treated conservatively with success. Although ESWL is a safe method in the treatment of urinary stones with a relatively small number of complications, rare complications like ruptures of the spleen have to be considered. Special attention should be given to patients with kidney stones in the left upper calyces, pathological growth of the spleen, and accompanying diseases such as chronic heart failure or hypertension. In such patients ESWL should not be performed on an outpatient basis.

  3. NEW POSSIBILITIES FOR EVALUATION OF SEVERITY AND PROGNOSIS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE BASED ON N-TERMINAL PRO-BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE PLASMA LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Galjavich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study an importance of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (N-proBNP in evaluation of severity and prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic genesis.Material and methods. 77 patients (60 men and 17 women; 59,4±10,7 y.o. with CHF of ischemic genesis were included in the study. All patients had sinus rhythm and history of Q wave myocardial infarction. Standard examination was performed to all patients. Besides N-proBNP plasma level and patients yearly survival were evaluated.Results. N-proBNP plasma level had direct correlation with clinical indices (exercise tolerance, blood pressure, heart rate and echocardiographic heart sizes. N-proBNP plasma level had relationship with prognosis of CHF patients. Baseline N-proBNP level was more than 2 times higher in died patients in comparison with survived patients. The yearly survival rate of CHF patients was 51,3% if N-proBNP level had been more than 400 fmol/ml (>15% of normal value. The clinico-laboratory index (based on N-proBNP plasma level of severity and prognosis in CHF patients was developed.Conclusion. The clinico-laboratory index based on N-proBNP plasma level is easy to use and can improve medical practice.

  4. NEW POSSIBILITIES FOR EVALUATION OF SEVERITY AND PROGNOSIS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE BASED ON N-TERMINAL PRO-BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE PLASMA LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Galjavich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study an importance of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (N-proBNP in evaluation of severity and prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic genesis.Material and methods. 77 patients (60 men and 17 women; 59,4±10,7 y.o. with CHF of ischemic genesis were included in the study. All patients had sinus rhythm and history of Q wave myocardial infarction. Standard examination was performed to all patients. Besides N-proBNP plasma level and patients yearly survival were evaluated.Results. N-proBNP plasma level had direct correlation with clinical indices (exercise tolerance, blood pressure, heart rate and echocardiographic heart sizes. N-proBNP plasma level had relationship with prognosis of CHF patients. Baseline N-proBNP level was more than 2 times higher in died patients in comparison with survived patients. The yearly survival rate of CHF patients was 51,3% if N-proBNP level had been more than 400 fmol/ml (>15% of normal value. The clinico-laboratory index (based on N-proBNP plasma level of severity and prognosis in CHF patients was developed.Conclusion. The clinico-laboratory index based on N-proBNP plasma level is easy to use and can improve medical practice.

  5. Utility of brain natriuretic peptide in diagnosis of congestive heart failure and comparison with trans-thoracic echocardiography: a multicenter analysis in south asian and arabian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate serum Brain Natriuretic Peptide levels (BNP) as a screening test in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure. Study Design: Comparative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Prince Salman Heart Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between December 2010 to January 2012 and Nishtar Hospital, Multan, Pakistan, from February to August 2006. Methodology: A total of 80 patients with clinical diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) underwent measurement of serum BNP and had a trans-thoracic echocardiography to measure Ejection Fraction (EF). The normal limit for serum BNP levels, provided by the manufacturer of the kit was applied as a cut-off value for BNP. EF of > 45% was considered normal. Results: Forty seven patients (94%) had an EF < 45%. BNP levels were elevated in 36 patients (72%). Sensitivity and specificity of BNP was found to be 80% and 66% respectively and accuracy was 80%. Conclusion: BNP measurements as a screening tool for CHF has good sensitivity and accuracy when compared to echocardiography. (author)

  6. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  7. User Experience May be Producing Greater Heart Rate Variability than Motor Imagery Related Control Tasks during the User-System Adaptation in Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Valerdi, Luz M.; Gutiérrez-Begovich, David A.; Argüello-García, Janet; Sepulveda, Francisco; Ramírez-Mendoza, Ricardo A.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) is technology that is developing fast, but it remains inaccurate, unreliable and slow due to the difficulty to obtain precise information from the brain. Consequently, the involvement of other biosignals to decode the user control tasks has risen in importance. A traditional way to operate a BCI system is via motor imagery (MI) tasks. As imaginary movements activate similar cortical structures and vegetative mechanisms as a voluntary movement does, heart rate variability (HRV) has been proposed as a parameter to improve the detection of MI related control tasks. However, HR is very susceptible to body needs and environmental demands, and as BCI systems require high levels of attention, perceptual processing and mental workload, it is important to assess the practical effectiveness of HRV. The present study aimed to determine if brain and heart electrical signals (HRV) are modulated by MI activity used to control a BCI system, or if HRV is modulated by the user perceptions and responses that result from the operation of a BCI system (i.e., user experience). For this purpose, a database of 11 participants who were exposed to eight different situations was used. The sensory-cognitive load (intake and rejection tasks) was controlled in those situations. Two electrophysiological signals were utilized: electroencephalography and electrocardiography. From those biosignals, event-related (de-)synchronization maps and event-related HR changes were respectively estimated. The maps and the HR changes were cross-correlated in order to verify if both biosignals were modulated due to MI activity. The results suggest that HR varies according to the experience undergone by the user in a BCI working environment, and not because of the MI activity used to operate the system. PMID:27458384

  8. Quantification of the effect of water exchange in dynamic contrast MRI perfusion measurements in the brain and heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Rosenbaum, S; Fritz-Hansen, T

    2001-01-01

    Measurement of myocardial and brain perfusion when using exogenous contrast agents (CAs) such as gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) and MRI is affected by the diffusion of water between compartments. This water exchange may have an impact on signal enhancement, or, equivalently, on the longitudinal...... exchange can have a significant effect on perfusion estimation (F) in the brain when using Gd-DTPA, where it acts as an intravascular contrast agent....

  9. Accessory spleen compromising response to splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriz, P.; Munoz, R.; Quintanar, E.; Sigler, L.; Aviles, A.; Pizzuto, J.

    1985-01-01

    Accessory spleens were sought in 28 patients who had undergone splenectomy for chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), using a variety of techniques. Abdominal scintigraphy with autologous erythrocytes labeled with Tc-99m and opsonized with anit-D IgG (radioimmune method) proved to be most useful, clearly demonstrating one or more accessory spleens in 12 cases (43%). Computed tomography (CT) was also helpful. Four out of five patients demonstrated an increased platelet count following surgery, the effectiveness of which was illustrated by the radioimmune scan. Patients who have had splenectomy for chronic ITP should be scanned using radioimmune techniques and CT to determine whether an accessory spleen is present

  10. [Objective assessment of trauma severity in patients with spleen injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V S; Ivanov, V A; Alekseev, S V; Vaniukov, V P

    2013-01-01

    The work presents an analysis of condition severity of 139 casualties with isolated and combined spleen injuries on admission to a surgical hospital. The assessment of condition severity was made using the traditional gradation and score scale VPH-SP. The degree of the severity of combined trauma of the spleen was determined by the scales ISS. The investigation showed that the scale ISS and VPH-SP allowed objective measurement of the condition severity of patients with spleen trauma. The score assessment facilitated early detection of the severe category of the patients, determined the diagnostic algorithm and the well-timed medical aid.

  11. [Lymphangiomatosis of the spleen. Report of a clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, C; Cerasoli, V; Mancini, B; Mulieri, G; Cancellario D'Alena, F; Montemurro, L; Verna, F

    2000-01-01

    Lymphangiomatosis confined to the spleen is a very are condition. The authors in this article describes one new case and briefly reviews the literature. In this case, after the exclusion of an hydatidosis of the spleen, a total splenectomy was performed. The histologic findings confirmed the lymphangiomatosis of the spleen. The authors emphasize the surgical strategy in splenic lymphangiomyomatosis, infact the total splenectomy is mandatory, because the splenic parenchyma is nearly completely substitute by the cysts. For this reason is preferably, before surgery, to perform the antibateric profilaxis against the OPSI.

  12. Brain abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found. However, the most common source is a lung infection. Less often, a heart infection is the cause. The following raise your chance of developing a brain abscess: A weakened immune system (such as in people ...

  13. Adding serial N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide measurements to optimal clinical management in outpatients with systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Videbaek, Lars

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: This study was designed to evaluate a new NT-proBNP monitoring concept in outpatients with systolic heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a multicentre, prospective randomized open-label blinded endpoint study. A total of 407 systolic HF patients were allocated to either clinical...

  14. Alzheimer's disease pathological lesions activate the spleen tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweig, Jonas Elias; Yao, Hailan; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Mouzon, Benoit; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael; Paris, Daniel

    2017-09-06

    The pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dystrophic neurites (DNs) surrounding extracellular Aβ-plaques, microgliosis, astrogliosis, intraneuronal tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation. We have previously shown that inhibition of the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) lowers Aβ production and tau hyperphosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Aβ-overexpressing Tg PS1/APPsw, Tg APPsw mice, and tau overexpressing Tg Tau P301S mice exhibit a pathological activation of Syk compared to wild-type littermates. Syk activation is occurring in a subset of microglia and is age-dependently increased in Aβ-plaque-associated dystrophic neurites of Tg PS1/APPsw and Tg APPsw mice. In Tg Tau P301S mice, a pure model of tauopathy, activated Syk occurs in neurons that show an accumulation of misfolded and hyperphosphorylated tau in the cortex and hippocampus. Interestingly, the tau pathology is exacerbated in neurons that display high levels of Syk activation supporting a role of Syk in the formation of tau pathological species in vivo. Importantly, human AD brain sections show both pathological Syk activation in DNs around Aβ deposits and in neurons immunopositive for pathological tau species recapitulating the data obtained in transgenic mouse models of AD. Additionally, we show that Syk overexpression leads to increased tau accumulation and promotes tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple epitopes in human neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells, further supporting a role of Syk in the formation of tau pathogenic species. Collectively, our data show that Syk activation occurs following Aβ deposition and the formation of tau pathological species. Given that we have previously shown that Syk activation also promotes Aβ formation and tau hyperphosphorylation, our data suggest that AD pathological lesions may be self-propagating via a Syk dependent mechanism highlighting Syk as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of AD.

  15. The Spleen Revisited: An Overview on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Palas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being well visualized by different cross-sectional imaging techniques, the spleen is many times overlooked during the abdominal examination. The major reason is the low frequency of splenic abnormalities, the majority consisting of incidental findings. There has been a steady increase in the number of performed abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies; therefore, it is important to be familiar to the major MRI characteristics of disease processes involving the spleen, in order to interpret the findings correctly, reaching whenever possible the appropriate diagnosis. The spleen may be involved in several pathologic conditions like congenital diseases, trauma, inflammation, vascular disorders and hematologic disorders, benign and malignant tumors, and other disease processes that focally or diffusely affect the spleen. This paper presents a description and representative MRI images for many of these disorders.

  16. Sonographic determination of spleen to left kidney ratio among Igbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weight and height of the subjects were obtained with the participants wearing light ... Results: Measurement of spleen and left kidney lengths were reliable within and between .... obtained in the coronal plane passing through the renal.

  17. RNA Sequence of Spleen of Newcastle Disease Infected Chickens

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — At 21 days of age, chickens were infected with Newcastle Disease virus (or a mock injection as controls), and spleens were harvested at 2 and 6 days post infection....

  18. Effect of low dose radiation on apoptosis in mouse spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dong; Liu Jiamei; Chen Aijun; Liu Shuzheng

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of whole body irradiation (WBI) with different doses of X-ray on apoptosis in mouse spleen. Methods: Time course changes and dose-effect relationship of apoptosis in mouse spleen induced by WBI were observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) qualitatively and TUNEL method semi-quantitatively. Results: Many typical apoptotic lymphocytes were found by TEM in mouse spleen after WBI with 2 Gy. No marked alterations of ultrastructure were found following WBI with 0.075 Gy. It was observed by TUNEL that the apoptosis of splenocytes increased after high dose radiation and decreased following low dose radiation (LDR). The dose-effect relationship of radiation-induced apoptosis showed a J-shaped curve. Conclusion: The effect of different doses of ionizing radiation on apoptosis in mouse spleen was distinct. And the decrease of apoptosis after LDR is considered a manifestation of radiation hormesis

  19. Gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen in adult: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Büyükaşık

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen is a rare diagnosis in adult ages. So far, only two cases have been reported in the literature. 82 year old male patients admitted to emergency department with complaint of nausea, vomiting and constipation. Physical examination and computerize tomography detected a big solid mass with regular contour which is full filling abdominal left lower quadrant. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a wandering spleen in sizes of 13x13x15 cm in the mentioned region. The spleen which had two masses on was partially ischemic. The stomach had rotated through cardiopyloric axis due to long pedicle of the spleen and adhesions neighborhood to corpoantral junction. Thus gastric passage was partialy obstructed. Splenectomy and anterior gastropexy were applied. The patient was discharged in health at 6th day postoperatively.

  20. Torsion of a Wandering Spleen Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Narvir Singh; Kumar, Satish

    2016-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition which if uncorrected, can result in torsion and infarction. Clinical presentation of a wandering spleen can vary from asymptomatic abdominal mass to acute abdominal pain. Radiological investigations play a pivotal role in diagnosis as the clinical diagnosis is usually impossible. We present a case of wandering spleen with torsion and complete infarction that occurred in a 32-year-old multiparous female. The diagnosis was established preoperatively on colour Doppler and CT of the abdomen with subsequent confirmation on surgery. Wandering spleen is a rare clinical condition which can present as acute abdomen. An increased awareness of this entity together with the timely use of ultrasound and CT of the abdomen can play an important role in preoperative diagnosis and surgical management

  1. Evaluation by N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide concentrations and ross scoring of the efficacy of digoxin in the treatment of heart failure secondary to congenital heart disease with left-to-right shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkiran, Ozlem; Sandikkaya, Ayse; Kocak, Gulendam; Karakurt, Cemsit; Taskapan, Cagatay; Yologlu, Saim

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of digoxin in children with heart failure secondary to left-to-right shunt lesions and normal left ventricular systolic function. The study registered 37 such patients (ages 10 days to 24 months, groups 1 and 2) and used 20 healthy children as a control group (group 3). Left ventricular systolic function, as assessed by conventional echocardiography, was normal in all the subjects. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed by clinical evaluation and modified Ross scoring. Plasma N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations and complete blood counts were assessed in all the children. Group 1 was treated with digoxin, enalapril, and furosemide and group 2 with enalapril and furosemide. Approximately 1 month after starting treatment, the patients were reevaluated by physical and echocardiographic examinations, modified Ross scoring, plasma NT-proBNP concentrations, and complete blood counts. The pre- and posttreatment Ross scores of group 1 (p = 0.377) and group 2 (p = 0.616) did not differ significantly. The NT-proBNP values in both groups decreased after treatment (p = 0.0001). The pre- and posttreatment NT-proBNP values did not differ significantly in group 1 (p = 0.094)) and group 2 (p = 0.372). The pretreatment NT-proBNP values in groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.0001) were significantly higher than in the control group (p = 0.003). A smaller difference was observed between posttreatment NT-proBNP values in group 1 and the control group (p = 0.045). We found no significant difference between the posttreatment NT-proBNP values of group 2 and those of the control group (p = 0.271). The study showed that both treatments currently used to treat heart failure secondary to congenital heart disease with left-to-right shunts and preserved left ventricular systolic function are effective and do not differ significantly. Thus, digoxin does not provide any extra benefit in the treatment of such patients.

  2. Heart MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  3. Protein synthesis in the rat brain: a comparative in vivo and in vitro study in immature and adult animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbazian, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    Rates of protein synthesis of CNS and other organs were compared in immature and adult rats by in vivo and slice techniques with administration of flooding doses of labeled precursor. The relationship between synthesis and brain region, cell type, subcellular fraction, or MW was examined. Incorporation of [ 14 C]valine into protein of CNS regions in vivo was about 1.2% per hour for immature rats and 0.6% for adults. For slices, the rates decreased significantly more in adults. In adult organs, the highest synthesis rate in vivo was found in liver (2.2% per hour) followed by kidney, spleen, lung, heart, brain, and muscle (0.5% per hour). In immature animals synthesis was highest in liver and spleen (2.5% per hour) and lowest in muscle (0.9% per hour). Slices all showed lower rates than in vivo, especially in adults. In vivo, protein synthesis rates of immature neurons and astrocytes and adult neurons exceeded those of whole brain, while that in adult astrocytes was the same. These results demonstrate a developmental difference of protein synthesis (about double in immature animals) in all brain cells, cell fractions and most brain protein. Similarly the decreased synthesis in brain slices - especially in adults, affects most proteins and structural elements

  4. Modification of radioresponse of chick spleen with vitamin E treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, K.; Malhotra, N.

    1995-01-01

    Seven days old white leghorn male chicks were exposed to 2.25 Gy whole body gamma radiations with and without vitamin E and studied for histopathological changes in the spleen for a period of twenty eight days postirradiation. The results reveal that the radiation-induced depletion of lymphocytic population in the lymphoid region and the damage to the tissue architecture is comparatively less and reparation of the spleen faster in the vitamin E treated irradiated chicks. (author). 12 refs., 9 figs

  5. Investigation of the human spleen by X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopani, M.; Jakubovsky, J.; Polak, S.

    2001-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative topographic analysis using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy was performed in tissue samples of rat and human spleens. The presence of silico-aluminium and silico-calcareous particles of various sizes could be seen. The presence of the inorganic substances mentioned in the human red pulp cords is assumed to be a consequence of the purifying function of the spleen. (Authors)

  6. Prognostic usefulness of anemia and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in outpatients with systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Kistorp, Caroline N

    2007-01-01

    prospectively at the baseline visit to our heart failure clinic (inclusion criterion left ventricular ejection fraction exclusion criteria). Follow-up was 30 months (median), and 70 events (mortality) occurred. Prevalence of anemia was 27%. In a multivariate logistic regression model, anemia (p = 0...... for mortality (hazard ratio 4.77, 95% confidence interval 2.47 to 9.18, p independent prognostic information. Patients with anemia and high levels of NT-pro-BNP have...

  7. Torsion of wandering spleen in patient with horseshoe kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molski, St.; Zurada, A.; Meder, G.; Lasek, W.

    2005-01-01

    Wandering spleen is rare pathology, mostly occurring in young women. Disease may be congenital or acquired. Absence or laxity of ligaments leads to spleen pathologic mobility and may cause torsion of its pedicle, resulting in ischemia or infarct even haemorrhagic shock and patients death. We report a case of young woman previously diagnosed (and treated nonoperative) with wandering spleen who presented acute abdomen after minor blunt trauma. She was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound (US) and spiral computed tomography (CT). Torsion of splenic pedicle and splenic rupture was diagnosed and a horseshoe kidney as well. Laparotomy followed by splenectomy confirmed the existence of an intrapelvic torsioned wandering spleen. The only definitive treatment of wandering spleen is operative since nonoperative treatment is associated with high complication rate. Earlier diagnosis of wandering spleen in asymptomatic patients lets to direct diagnosis when patient starts to present with acute abdomen. CT and abdominal US play most important role in diagnosing splenic pedicle torsion. To our knowledge this is a first case of torsion of splenic pedicle in patient with horseshoe kidney. We consider this coincidence to be a congenital defect as both conditions may develop in second month gestation. (author)

  8. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of spleen for the treatment of hypersplenism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuxuan; Zhang Yanfang; Zheng Xuefen; Zhang Yuanhua; Kong Jian; Shen Xinying; Dou Yongchong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the clinical effect and experience of CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of spleen by using cool-tip electrodes in the treatment of hypersplenism in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Methods: CT-guided RFA of spleen by using cool-tip electrodes was performed in 15 patients with hypersplenism associated with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. The routine blood count was studied both before and after the procedure. Enhanced CT or MR scanning was reexamined after the treatment to determine the ablated volume of the spleen. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: The ablated volume of the spleen accounted for (31.0 ± 4.6)% of the whole spleen. Before the treatment the platelet count was (62 ± 9.8) x 10 9 /L. One month after the treatment, the platelet count was increased to (96 ± 11) x 10 9 /L, which was significantly higher than that before the treatment (P<0.05). One patient developed portal thrombosis four months after RFA, and no other serious complications occurred. Conclusion: CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of spleen by using cool-tip electrodes is an effective and safe treatment for hypersplenism in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. (authors)

  9. Functional assessment of hepatocytes after transplantation into rat spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.J.; Fuller, B.J.; Attenburrow, V.D.; Nutt, L.H.; Hobbs, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    The retention of structural integrity and metabolic function by isolated hepatocytes after ectopic transplantation has been investigated in autografted rats. Rats were partially hepatectomized and isolated hepatocytes prepared from the excised liver lobes were implanted into their spleens. Histological examination of the spleens 7 or more weeks after implantation revealed aggregates of hepatocytes in the red pulp. Two tests of biochemical function were applied to the hepatocytes after transplantation. In the first the hepatobiliary imaging agent technetium-99m N-[N'-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl)carbamoylmethyl]iminodiacetic acid (99mTc HIDA), which was shown to be avidly taken up by isolated hepatocytes in vitro, was infused into the tail veins of autograft and control rats. Radioactivity accumulating in the spleens of autografted rats was markedly greater than that in controls implanted with lethally damaged cells or in nontransplanted rats. In the second the presence of bilirubin metabolites was sought in autograft spleens after intravenous infusion of bilirubin. Both mono- and diglucuronides of bilirubin were recovered from the spleens of autograft rats but no conjugates were recovered from the spleens of unoperated controls. We conclude that after autotransplantation isolated hepatocytes retain their morphology and at least some of their functional activities

  10. CT numbers of liver and spleen in normal children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Kim

    2002-01-01

    To determine the mean liver CT numbers, and differences between liver and spleen, and liver and back muscle CT numbers in normal children, and to correlate the findings with sex and age. One hundred and five normal children aged 2-14 years underwent pre-contrast CT scanning. Mean CT numbers of the liver, spleen, and back muscles were calculated, as well as the differences in CT numbers between the liver and spleen (liver-spleen CT numbers), and between the liver-back muscle CT numbers were 70.22±6.51 HU, 53.28±3.57 HU, 17.13±6.57 HU, and 11.88±5.94 HU, respectively. Mean liver CT numbers and the difference between liver and back muscle CT numbers were not different by age. By sex, all the CT numbers did not vary according to age. The sex of a subject did not affect the CT number. The children's mean liver CT number was 70.22±6.51 HU and the difference between liver and spleen CT numbers was 17.13±6.57 HU. Younger children had higher liver CT and liver-spleen CT numbers than older children. No CT numbers varied according to sex

  11. [Torsion of wandering spleen in a teenager: about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dème, Hamidou; Akpo, Léra Géraud; Fall, Seynabou; Badji, Nfally; Ka, Ibrahima; Guèye, Mohamadou Lamine; Touré, Mouhamed Hamine; Niang, El Hadj

    2016-01-01

    Wandering or migrating spleen is a rare anomaly which is usually described in children. Complications, which include pedicle torsion, are common and can be life-threatening. We report the case of a 17 year-old patient with a long past medical history of epigastric pain suffering from wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle. The clinical picture was marked by spontaneously painful epigastric mass, evolved over the past 48 hours. Abdominal ultrasound objectified heterogeneous hypertrophied ectopic spleen in epigastric position and a subcapsular hematoma. Doppler showed a torsion of splenic pedicle which was untwisted 2 turns and a small blood stream on the splenic artery. Abdominal CT scan with contrast injection showed a lack of parenchymal enhancement of large epigastric ectopic spleen and a subcapsular hematoma. The diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle complicated by necrosis and subcapsular hematoma was confirmed. The patient underwent splenectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. We here discuss the contribution of ultrasound and CT scan in the diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle.

  12. Physiology and pathophysiology of Na+/H+ exchange and Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport in the heart, brain, and blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. F.; O´Donnell, M. E.; Anderson, S. E.

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of a stable cell volume and intracellular pH is critical for normal cell function. Arguably, two of the most important ion transporters involved in these processes are the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) and Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1). Both NHE1 and NKCC1....... The aim is to provide a comprehensive overview of the mechanisms and consequences of stress-induced stimulation of these transporters with focus on the heart, brain, and blood. The physiological stressors reviewed are metabolic/exercise stress, osmotic stress, and mechanical stress, conditions in which...... are stimulated by cell shrinkage and by numerous other stimuli, including a wide range of hormones and growth factors, and for NHE1, intracellular acidification. Both transporters can be important regulators of cell volume, yet their activity also, directly or indirectly, affects the intracellular concentrations...

  13. Study on the clinical significance of determination of serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Naijun; Mei Yibeng; Fan Bifu; Chen Donghai; Guan Lihua; Gao Meiying; Tong Lijun; Li Fuyuan; Pan Jiongwei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of the changes of serum BNP levels in patients with heart failure (HF). Methods: Serum BNP levels in 88 patients with HF(NYHA II-IV), 20 patients with compensated cardiac function (NYHA I) and 30 controls were determined with RIA. Results: The serum BNP levels in patients with HF (264±63.9 pmol/L) were significantly higher than those in patients with compensated cardiac function (NYHA I, 11.6±4.7 pmol/L, t=2.133, p 0.05). As the cardiac function deteriorated from NYHA II to NYHA IV, the BNP levels increased consecutively with significant differences from each other (F=2.595, p<0.05). BNP levels in patients with acute left heart failure were significantly higher than those in patients with chronic heart failure (t=2.268, p<0.05) and fell promptly at relief of the attack (p<0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum BNP levels in patients with HF was helpful to the study of the severity and prognosis of the disease

  14. [Establishment pharmacological research platform for "Concurrent treatment of the brain and heart" and its application on dissecting mechanism of Danhong injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Yu, Yun-Ru; Li, Xue; Shao, Qing; Wang, Yi-Min; Zhao, Tao; Zhao, Chao; Zhao, Bu-Chang; Wang, Yue-Fei; Wang, Yi

    2017-12-01

    The Concurrent treatment of the brain and heart (CTBH) theory is proposed based on traditional Chinese medical theory and clinical practice. In this study, a framework for the pharmacological research platform was established to investigate the principles of concurrent treatment of the brain and heart. The platform for CTBH includes several key techniques for network modeling, discovery of active substances, dissecting mechanism of action and investigation of pharmacokinetic property of TCM. Taking network modeling of CTBH as an example, using database search, literature mining, network construction and module analysis, the that network modules closely associated with the pathological progress of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were identified, while further functional enrichment analysis of these modules indicated that the key biological processes included oxidative stress, metabolism and inflammation. GSK3B, NOTCH1, CDK4 were identified as key nodes in these network modules. The above-mentioned platform was applied to construct component-biomolecules network of Danhong injection for the identification of common targets and pathways. Among them, GSK3B had the highest correlation with the composition of Danhong injection in the network, and the biological function of whose cluster was related to cell oxidative stress. Based upon results of network analysis, validation experiments suggested that Danhong injection significantly improved the survival rate of oxidative injured myocardial cells and nerve cells, and the protective effect was related to the increase of phosphorylated GSK3β protein expression. Moreover, extracts of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Carthami Flos exerted the synergisticcytoprotective effect. The results indicated that the mechanism of treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases of Danhong injection could be studied through network modeling and other methods. In summary, the proposed pharmacological

  15. Beneficial effect of perindopril on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and brain natriuretic peptide in patients with chronic heart failure. Comparison with enalapril

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutamoto, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Toshinari; Sakai, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), it remains unclear whether perindopril is more cardioprotective than enalapril. Forty-five stable CHF outpatients undergoing conventional therapy including enalapril therapy were randomized to 2 groups [group I (n=24): continuous enalapril treatment; group II (n=21): enalapril was changed to perindopril]. Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity was evaluated using cardiac 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, hemodynamic parameters and neurohumoral factors before and 6 months after treatment. There was no difference in baseline characteristics between the 2 groups. In group I, there were no changes in MIBG parameters, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or plasma level of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). In contrast, in group II delayed heart/mediastinum count ratio was significantly increased (2.0±0.07 vs 2.15±0.07, p=0.013) and the washout rate was significantly decreased (33.0±1.4 vs 30.5±1.2, p=0.030) after 6 months compared with the baseline value. In addition, LVEF was significantly increased and the plasma BNP level was significantly decreased. These findings suggest that for the treatment of CHF, perindopril is superior to enalapril with respect of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and BNP. (author)

  16. Sonographic determination of normal spleen size in an adult African population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, Zainab; Tahir, Abdulrahman [Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Tukur, Maisaratu [Department of Human Physiology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Bukar, Mohammed [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Lee, Wai-Kit, E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.co [Department of Medical Imaging, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of spleen size in an adult African population, and compare the findings to published data to determine any correlation with ethnicity. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-four African adults without conditions that can affect the spleen or splenic abnormalities were evaluated with ultrasonography. Spleen length, width and thickness were measured and spleen volume calculated. Spleen size was correlated with age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index. Results: The mean spleen volume was 120 cm{sup 3}. Spleen volume correlated with spleen width (r = 0.85), thickness (r = 0.83) and length (r = 0.80). Men had a larger mean spleen volume than women. No correlation was found between spleen volume and age, weight, height, or body mass index. Conclusion: Mean spleen volume in African adults is smaller than data from Western sources, and cannot be explained by difference in body habitus.

  17. Light-enhanced inhibition of ouabain binding to digitalis receptor in rat brain and guinea pig heart by the food dye erythrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnatowich, M.; LaBella, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    Erythrosine (ERY) (FD and C red no. 3) inhibited specific binding of [ 3 H]ouabain to rat brain homogenates with an IC50 of 23 mM in the dark and 1 mM in ordinary fluorescent light. Competition studies demonstrated the presence of two components, only one of which was affected by light. Lineweaver-Burk analysis indicated that ERY preferentially antagonizes [ 3 H]ouabain binding at a high-affinity site in the light, whereas in the dark the dye inhibits binding in a manner qualitatively similar to inhibition by ouabain. Light enhancement of ERY potency occurred only when dye and tissue were present together in the incubation medium, pointing to participation of transient molecular species. However, neither superoxide dismutase nor catalase altered the effects of ERY in the light or dark, suggesting the absence of oxygen free radicals. In contrast to brain, membranes from guinea pig heart showed only one binding site for [ 3 H]ouabain, and antagonism by ERY at this site was markedly enhanced by light. Structural differences between classes of ouabain binding regions probably accounts for the discrimination exhibited by ERY in the presence of light and oxygen. Our findings also caution that metabolic transformation of this common food dye, light decomposition, or photoreaction with foodstuff may yield more toxic derivatives

  18. Light-enhanced inhibition of ouabain binding to digitalis receptor in rat brain and guinea pig heart by the food dye erythrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnatowich, M.; LaBella, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    Erythrosine (ERY) (FD and C red no. 3) inhibited specific binding of [ 3 H]ouabain to rat brain homogenates with an IC50 of 23 microM in the dark and 1 microM in ordinary fluorescent light. Competition studies demonstrated the presence of two components, only one of which was affected by light. Lineweaver-Burk analysis indicated that ERY preferentially antagonizes [ 3 H]ouabain binding at a high-affinity site in the light, whereas in the dark the dye inhibits binding in a manner qualitatively similar to inhibition by ouabain. Light enhancement of ERY potency occurred only when dye and tissue were present together in the incubation medium, pointing to participation of transient molecular species. However, neither superoxide dismutase nor catalase altered the effects of ERY in the light or dark, suggesting the absence of oxygen free radicals. When oxygen levels were raised, there was enhancement of inhibition by ERY at a high-affinity receptor accompanied by disappearance of [ 3 H]ouabain binding at one of lower affinity. In contrast to brain, membranes from guinea pig heart showed only one binding site for [ 3 H]ouabain, and antagonism by ERY at this site was markedly enhanced by light. Structural differences between classes of ouabain binding regions probably accounts for the discrimination exhibited by ERY in the presence of light and oxygen. Our findings also caution that metabolic transformation of this common food dye, light decomposition, or photoreaction with foodstuff may yield more toxic derivatives

  19. Cardiovascular diseases mortality following cancer during childhood: long term risk, role of chemotherapy and of radiation dose to heart and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenova, Markhaba; Guibout, Catherine; Oberlin, Odile; Doyon, Francoise; Moussannif, Abdedaid; Haddy, Nadia; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vathaire, Florent de; Pacquement, Helene; Hawkins, Mike; Winter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    long-term risk of mortality from cardiovascular pathologies when treated with radiotherapy if the average radiation dose to the heart or to the brain is higher than 5 Gy, or when treated with anthracyclines, alkylating agents and / or vinca alkaloids. (author)

  20. Heart murmurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has 4 chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...

  1. CT findings in children with blunt trauma in the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Ohmura, Makoto; Kawai, Naoki; Tauchi, Hayato; Hayakawa, Masao; Nishio, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Shinsuke.

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated CT findings in 19 children with blunt injuries in the spleen. CT demonstrated laceration of the spleen in 7 children, rupture of the spleen in 7, and splenic hematoma in 5. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in 3 children, of whom 1 was treated by arterial embolization. Laparotomy was performed in 3 children (15.8%) other than the 3 showing contrast medium leakage; hemostasis by compression was performed in 1 with laceration, and splenectomy in 2 with rupture. Late splenic rupture or abscess did not occur in any child. One child (5.3%) died of complicating injuries. Many of children with blunt splenic injuries can be successfully treated with conservative treatment, and CT scanning is useful for evaluating the degree of splenic injuries and complicating injuries. (author)

  2. CT findings in children with blunt trauma in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Ohmura, Makoto; Kawai, Naoki; Tauchi, Hayato; Hayakawa, Masao; Nishio, Yoshinori (Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital (Japan)); Watanabe, Shinsuke

    1991-09-01

    We evaluated CT findings in 19 children with blunt injuries in the spleen. CT demonstrated laceration of the spleen in 7 children, rupture of the spleen in 7, and splenic hematoma in 5. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in 3 children, of whom 1 was treated by arterial embolization. Laparotomy was performed in 3 children (15.8%) other than the 3 showing contrast medium leakage; hemostasis by compression was performed in 1 with laceration, and splenectomy in 2 with rupture. Late splenic rupture or abscess did not occur in any child. One child (5.3%) died of complicating injuries. Many of children with blunt splenic injuries can be successfully treated with conservative treatment, and CT scanning is useful for evaluating the degree of splenic injuries and complicating injuries. (author).

  3. Giant Accessory Right-Sided Suprarenal Spleen in Thalassaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An accessory spleen is defined as ectopic splenic tissue that develops due to failure of fusion of cells during embryonic development as they migrate from the midline to the left upper quadrant. While benign, complications may arise which include trauma, torsion, or infarction of the ectopic tissue. Additionally, patients who have had a splenectomy secondary to treatment for previous pathology such as a haematological malignancy or idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura may experience persistent symptoms due to the accessory splenic tissue. The presence of an accessory spleen is therefore of significant diagnostic and therapeutic importance. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case is the second and largest reported case of a giant right suprarenal accessory spleen and highlights the difficulty in differentiation of these masses from malignant adrenal tumours.

  4. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  5. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including 99 mTc-sulfur colloid and 67 Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. 99 mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With 67 Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  6. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H. (Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles, CA); Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  7. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  8. Semiautomated spleen volumetry with diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongjin; Kim, Kyoung Won; Lee, Ho; Lee, So Jung; Choi, Sanghyun; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kye, Heewon; Song, Gi-Won; Hwang, Shin; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we determined the relative accuracy of semiautomated spleen volumetry with diffusion-weighted (DW) MR images compared to standard manual volumetry with DW-MR or CT images. Semiautomated spleen volumetry using simple thresholding followed by 3D and 2D connected component analysis was performed with DW-MR images. Manual spleen volumetry was performed on DW-MR and CT images. In this study, 35 potential live liver donor candidates were included. Semiautomated volumetry results were highly correlated with manual volumetry results using DW-MR (r = 0.99; P volumetry was significantly shorter compared to that of manual volumetry with DW-MR (P volumetry with DW-MR images can be performed rapidly and accurately when compared with standard manual volumetry. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cancer of the colon spleen angle. Presentation of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Sanchez, Yariana; De la Rosa Perez, Nereida; Barcelo Casanova, Renato E

    2010-01-01

    The colon cancer is currently an important public health problem in developed countries. It is the fourth most common cancer in the world. We report the case of a 65-years-old, black, female patient, assisting our consultation with dyspeptic disturbances as the unique symptom, without known risk factors. We indicated a colon by enema and a distal narrowing was observed at the colon spleen angle, at the same zone of the physiologic narrowing at that level. A colonoscopy was carried out diagnosing a left colon tumor near the spleen angle. It was operated with segmental resection of the spleen angle and a biopsy was made. Pathologic anatomy informed a well-differentiated colon adenocarcinoma

  10. The forgotten organ: Contrast enhanced sonography of the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerg, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Ultrasound contrast agents in conjunction with contrast specific imaging techniques, are increasingly accepted in clinical use for diagnostic imaging in several organs. Contrast enhanced sonography (CES) of second-generation contrast media have shown a spleen-specific uptake of the microbubble contrast agent. The aim of this review is to illustrate indications for the use of CES in patients with suspected (peri-)splenic pathology. Methods: This review based on the experience of transcutaneous CES in 200 patients with (peri-)splenic pathology diagnosed by B-mode sonography at an internal medicine center. CES studies were performed with a contrast-devoted unit (Acuson, Sequoia, Siemens medical solution) that had contrast-specific, continuous-mode software. A low mechanical index was used. A sulfur hexafluoride-based microbubble contrast medium (Sonovue, Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy) was injected. Results: On our experience, there are several clinical conditions which may show an diagnostic advantage of CES in comparison to B-mode US. CES should be performed to investigate: (1) the perisplenic tumor to diagnose or exclude accessory spleen, (2) the small-sized spleen to diagnose functional asplenia/hyposplenia, (3) the inhomogenous spleen of unknown cause to diagnose focal lesions within the spleen, (4) the incidentally found hypoechoic splenic tumor to diagnose high vascular splenic hemangioma, (5) focal lesions suspect for splenic abscess, hematoma, infarction to confirme diagnosis, and (6) patients with abdominal trauma to diagnose or exclude splenic injuriy. Conclusion: CES is of diagnostic value in several clinical circumstances to diagnose accessory spleen, functional asplenia, small-sized splenic involvement, high vascular splenic hemangioma, and vascular splenic pathology like splenic infarction, splenic abscess, and splenic laceration

  11. The forgotten organ: Contrast enhanced sonography of the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerg, Christian [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg/Lahn (Germany)], E-mail: goergc@med.uni-marburg.de

    2007-11-15

    Objective: Ultrasound contrast agents in conjunction with contrast specific imaging techniques, are increasingly accepted in clinical use for diagnostic imaging in several organs. Contrast enhanced sonography (CES) of second-generation contrast media have shown a spleen-specific uptake of the microbubble contrast agent. The aim of this review is to illustrate indications for the use of CES in patients with suspected (peri-)splenic pathology. Methods: This review based on the experience of transcutaneous CES in 200 patients with (peri-)splenic pathology diagnosed by B-mode sonography at an internal medicine center. CES studies were performed with a contrast-devoted unit (Acuson, Sequoia, Siemens medical solution) that had contrast-specific, continuous-mode software. A low mechanical index was used. A sulfur hexafluoride-based microbubble contrast medium (Sonovue, Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy) was injected. Results: On our experience, there are several clinical conditions which may show an diagnostic advantage of CES in comparison to B-mode US. CES should be performed to investigate: (1) the perisplenic tumor to diagnose or exclude accessory spleen, (2) the small-sized spleen to diagnose functional asplenia/hyposplenia, (3) the inhomogenous spleen of unknown cause to diagnose focal lesions within the spleen, (4) the incidentally found hypoechoic splenic tumor to diagnose high vascular splenic hemangioma, (5) focal lesions suspect for splenic abscess, hematoma, infarction to confirme diagnosis, and (6) patients with abdominal trauma to diagnose or exclude splenic injuriy. Conclusion: CES is of diagnostic value in several clinical circumstances to diagnose accessory spleen, functional asplenia, small-sized splenic involvement, high vascular splenic hemangioma, and vascular splenic pathology like splenic infarction, splenic abscess, and splenic laceration.

  12. Biomechanical response of human spleen in tensile loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Andrew R; Santago, Anthony C; Stitzel, Joel D; Sparks, Jessica L; Duma, Stefan M

    2012-01-10

    Blunt splenic injuries are most frequently caused as a result of motor vehicle collisions and are associated with high mortality rates. In order to accurately assess the risk of automotive related spleen injuries using tools such as finite element models, tissue level tolerance values and suitable material models must be developed and validated based on appropriate biomechanical data. This study presents a total of 41 tension tests performed on spleen parenchyma coupons and 29 tension tests performed on spleen capsule/parenchyma coupons. Standard dog-bone coupons were obtained from fresh human spleen and tested within 48 h of death. Each coupon was tested once to failure at one of the four loading rates to investigate the effects of rate dependence. Load and acceleration data were obtained at each of the specimen grips. High-speed video and optical markers placed on the specimens were used to measure local displacement. Failure stress and strain were calculated at the location of failure in the gage length of the coupon. The results of the study showed that both the spleen parenchyma and the capsule are rate dependent, with higher loading rates yielding higher failure stresses and lower failure strains. The results also show that the failure stress of the splenic capsule is significantly greater than that of the underlying parenchyma. Overall, this study provides novel biomechanical data that demonstrate the rate dependent tissue level tolerance values of human spleen tissue in tensile loading, which can aid in the improvement of finite element models used to assess injury risk in blunt trauma. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Robotic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, C; Sgarbura, O; Tudor, S; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2009-01-01

    Distal pancreatectomy (DP) is the removal of the pancreatic tissue at the left side of the superior mesenteric vein and it is traditionally approached by an open or laparoscopic exposure. Preservation of the spleen is optional but appears to have a better immunological outcome. We present the case of a 53-year old patient with a 2.4/2.2 tumor located in the tail of the pancreas, with high tumour marker values for whom we decided to perform a robotic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (RSPDP). The postoperative outcome was satisfactory. In conclusion, we recommend this type of approach for small pancreatic tail lesions.

  14. Incidental Detection of Temporary Focal FDG Retention in the Spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youn Joon; Lee, Jai Hyuen; Jee, Keum Nahn; Namgung, Hwan [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is a valuable tool in discriminating malignancy from benign lesion. But because various false positive results reduce the diagnostic specificity, nuclear medicine physicians should be familiar with possible false positive cases. Although many cases of high FDG uptake mimicking malignancy have been reported, temporary intense focal FDG uptake of normal spleen has not been reported previously. We report herein a phenomenon of temporary intense focal FDG uptake of normal spleen without evidence of metastasis in a 46 year old woman with a history of anal cancer.

  15. Spleen and liver enlargement in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, María Eugenia; Ceccato, Federico; Paira, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with a seropositive, erosive, and non-nodular rheumatoid arthritis of 15 year of evolution. The patient had poor compliance with medical visits and treatment. She came to the clinic with persistent pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement. Liver and bone marrow biopsies were carried out and amyloidosis, neoplasias and infections were ruled out. We discuss the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement in a long-standing rheumatoid arthritis patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Gastric Volvulus and Wandering Spleen: A Rare Surgical Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Lianos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is a rare but potentially life-threatening clinical entity due to possible gastric necrosis. A wandering spleen may also be associated with gastric volvulus. Patients presenting with the triad epigastralgia, vomiting followed by retching, and difficulty or inability to pass a nasogastric tube into the stomach are likely to have gastric volvulus. The operating surgeon should include this rare entity in the differential diagnosis when dealing with a patient with such a clinical profile. Herein, we present a case of gastric volvulus associated with a wandering spleen in a 28-year-old Caucasian woman and we provide a brief review of the literature on this issue.

  17. Cystic lymphangioma of the spleen: US-CT-MRI correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzi, M.; Spinelli, A.; Pierleoni, M.; Andreoli, G.M. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    A case of a surgically confirmed cystic lymphangioma of the spleen is presented. Preoperative imaging consisted of US, contrast-enhanced CT and MRI, all showing a multiloculated lesion with small cystic cavities divided by thin septa, corresponding to dilated lymphatic spaces. Preoperative studies correlated well with the pathologic findings. Cystic lymphangioma of the spleen is a very rare condition and is usually solitary and asymptomatic. Large lymphangiomas may be an indication for splenectomy, since the risk of rupture is high even from minor abdominal trauma. Preoperative diagnosis may be achieved with correlated noninvasive imaging. (orig.)

  18. Relation of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and their prognostic power in chronic stable heart failure to obesity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, Lutz; Remppis, Andrew; Nelles, Manfred; Schaelling, Bernd; Schellberg, Dieter; Katus, Hugo; Zugck, Christian

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) level and resultant prognostic capacity in chronic heart failure (CHF) controlled for known confounders. We formed 206 triplets of patients (n = 618) with stable systolic CHF matched with respect to age, sex, renal function (MDRD, modification of diet in renal disease formula), and NYHA class, each with a BMI >30 kg/m(2) (group 3), 20-24.9 kg/m(2) (group 1), and 25-29.9 kg/m(2) (group 2). BMI conveys a 4% drop in NTproBNP per unit increase. This influence remained significant after correction for age, sex, MDRD, NYHA, heart rate, rhythm, and ejection fraction. NTproBNP remained an independent predictor of adverse outcome after correction for age, sex, BMI, NYHA, MDRD, and ejection fraction. Despite numerical differences, prognostic power was comparable between BMI groups (log-transformed NTproBNP; group 1: hazard ratio (HR) 1.435, 95% CI 1.046-1.967, chi(2) 5.02, P = 0.03; group 2: HR 1.604, 95% CI 1.203-2.138, chi(2) 10.36, P = 0.001; group 3: HR 1.735, 95% CI 1.302-2.313, chi(2) 14.12, P = 0.0002) (P = NS, all). An NTproBNP correction factor was calculated. Even matched for NYHA, age, sex, and renal function, BMI exerts a significant and independent inverse influence on NTproBNP in patients with stable CHF. NTproBNP retained equal statistical power in all three BMI groups.

  19. Echocardiographic evaluation and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide measurement of patients hospitalized for heart failure during weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbaud, E; Erickson, M; Grenouillet-Delacre, M; Beauvieux, M-C; Coste, P; Durrieu-Jaïs, C; Hilbert, G; Castaing, Y; Vargas, F

    2012-04-01

    Weaning patients with heart failure who have required mechanical ventilation remains challenging. We evaluated echocardiographic indexes and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) as markers of acute cardiac dysfunction before and after spontaneous breathing trials (SBT) in such patients to assess their ability to predict subsequent successful extubation. Forty-four patients who underwent their first SBT were prospectively included. Plasma levels of NT-proBNP and transthoracic echocardiography indices including cardiac index, E/A ratio and E/Ea ratio were recorded immediately before commencing and just before the end of SBT. Ten patients (22.7%) failed their SBT. No significant difference was observed concerning baseline echocardiographic data and NT-proBNP level between the patients who succeeded the SBT or those that failed. Cardiac index increased significantly at end-SBT in patients who passed (3.3 [3.06-3.77] vs. 3 [2.68-3.3] L/min/m(2), Pfailed. E/Ea ratio (16.8 [8.5-27.3] vs. 10.7 [6.7-20.5], P=0.006) and NT-proBNP level (8199 [3106-10949] vs. 4200 [1855-7125] pg/mL, P=0.004) increased significantly in those who failed the SBT, in contrast to the weaning success group where they remained unchanged. Neither NT-proBNP level nor the studied echocardiographic indices before SBT were able to predict SBT outcome in patients presenting with severe heart failure. Failure to increase the cardiac index and increases in both E/Ea ratio and NT-proBNP levels were seen at end-SBT in patients who failed the SBT, and may reflect failure of myocardial reserve to cope with the stress of SBT.

  20. Enlarged Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rheumatic fever, a heart defect, infections (infectious endocarditis), connective tissue disorders, certain medications or radiation treatments for cancer, your heart may enlarge. Disease of the heart ...

  1. Deterioration in brain and heart functions following a single sub-lethal (0.8 LCt50) inhalation exposure of rats to sarin vapor:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allon, N.; Chapman, S.; Egoz, I.; Rabinovitz, I.; Kapon, J.; Weissman, B.A.; Yacov, G.; Bloch-Shilderman, E.; Grauer, E.

    2011-01-01

    The main injuries among victims of the terrorist act in the Tokyo subway resulted from sub-lethal inhalation and whole body exposure to sarin vapor. In order to study the long term effects of such exposure and to simulate these conditions, freely moving rats were exposed to sarin vapor (27.2 ± 1.7 μg/l) for 10 min. About 50% of the rats showed no overt symptoms and the rest had mild to moderate clinical symptoms that subsided within 4 h following exposure. A reduction of weight was noted during the first 3 days with full recovery on the 4th day. Rat's heart was challenged with epinephrine 1 and 6 months post exposure. A significant reduction in the threshold for epinephrine-induced arrhythmia (EPIA) was noted in rats exposed to sarin. A time dependent increase in the kD and Bmax values of muscarinic auto receptors (M2) was recorded in the rat's cortex and striatum. No changes were recorded in the rats' brain trans locator protein (TSPO) levels, concomitant with no observed changes in the animals' performance in A Morris water maze test. A significant increase in open field activity was noted 6 months following exposure to sarin vapor as well as a significant decrease in prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) production in the brain. It is speculated that down regulation of the M2 auto receptor function, caused hyper reactivity of the cholinergic system which leads to the changes described above. The continuous reduction in M2 auto-receptor system through an unknown mechanism may be the cause for long lasting decline in sarin-exposed casualties' health.

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases brain MAPK signaling, inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity and sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Weiss, Robert M; Felder, Robert B

    2016-10-01

    We previously reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is induced in the subfornical organ (SFO) and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of heart failure (HF) rats and is reduced by inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. The present study further examined the relationship between brain MAPK signaling, ER stress, and sympathetic excitation in HF. Sham-operated (Sham) and HF rats received a 4-wk intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of vehicle (Veh) or the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, 10 μg/day). Lower mRNA levels of the ER stress biomarkers GRP78, ATF6, ATF4, and XBP-1s in the SFO and PVN of TUDCA-treated HF rats validated the efficacy of the TUDCA dose. The elevated levels of phosphorylated p44/42 and p38 MAPK in SFO and PVN of Veh-treated HF rats, compared with Sham rats, were significantly reduced in TUDCA-treated HF rats as shown by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Plasma norepinephrine levels were higher in Veh-treated HF rats, compared with Veh-treated Sham rats, and were significantly lower in the TUDCA-treated HF rats. TUDCA-treated HF rats also had lower mRNA levels for angiotensin converting enzyme, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and NF-κB p65, and a higher mRNA level of IκB-α, in the SFO and PVN than Veh-treated HF rats. These data suggest that ER stress contributes to the augmented sympathetic activity in HF by inducing MAPK signaling, thereby promoting inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity in key cardiovascular regulatory regions of the brain.

  3. The Potential Liver, Brain, and Embryo Toxicity of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaochuan; Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Lei; Sun, Li

    2017-08-01

    Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) has been widely used in industry and medicine. However, the safety of nano-TiO2 exposure remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the liver, brain, and embryo toxicity and the underlying mechanism of nano-TiO2 using mice models. The results showed that titanium was distributed to and accumulated in the heart, brain, spleen, lung, and kidney of mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) nano-TiO2 exposure, in a dose-dependent manner. The organ/body weight ratios of the heart, spleen, and kidney were significantly increased, and those of the brain and lung were decreased. High doses of nano-TiO2 significantly damaged the functions of liver and kidney and glucose and lipid metabolism, as showed in the blood biochemistry tests. Nano-TiO2 caused damages in mitochondria and apoptosis of hepatocytes, generation of reactive oxygen species, and expression disorders of protective genes in the liver of mice. We found ruptured and cracked nerve cells and inflammatory cell infiltration in the brain. We also found that the activities of constitutive nitric oxide synthases (cNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and acetylcholinesterase, and the levels of nitrous oxide and glutamic acid were changed in the brain after nano-TiO2 exposure. Ex vivo mouse embryo models exhibited developmental and genetic toxicity after high doses of nano-TiO2. The size of nano-TiO2 particles may affect toxicity, larger particles producing higher toxicity. In summary, nano-TiO2 exhibited toxicity in multiple organs in mice after exposure through i.p. injection and gavage. Our study may provide data for the assessment of the risk of nano-TiO2 exposure on human health.

  4. Pathologic rupture of the spleen in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia and leukostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Cunha De Santis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of the spleen can be classified as spontaneous, traumatic, or pathologic. Pathologic rupture has been reported in infectious diseases such as infectious mononucleosis, and hematologic malignancies such as acute and chronic leukemias. Splenomegaly is considered the most relevant factor that predisposes to splenic rupture. A 66-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia evolved from an unclassified myeloproliferative neoplasm, complaining of fatigue and mild upper left abdominal pain. He was pale and presented fever and tachypnea. Laboratory analyses showed hemoglobin 8.3 g/dL, white blood cell count 278 × 109/L, platelet count 367 × 109/L, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT ratio 2.10, and international normalized ratio (INR 1.60. A blood smear showed 62% of myeloblasts. The immunophenotype of the blasts was positive for CD117, HLA-DR, CD13, CD56, CD64, CD11c and CD14. Lactate dehydrogenase was 2384 U/L and creatinine 2.4 mg/dL (normal range: 0.7-1.6 mg/dL. Two sessions of leukapheresis were performed. At the end of the second session, the patient presented hemodynamic instability that culminated in circulatory shock and death. The post-mortem examination revealed infiltration of the vessels of the lungs, heart, and liver, and massive infiltration of the spleen by leukemic blasts. Blood volume in the peritoneal cavity was 500 mL. Acute leukemia is a rare cause of splenic rupture. Male gender, old age and splenomegaly are factors associated with this condition. As the patient had leukostasis, we hypothesize that this, associated with other factors such as lung and heart leukemic infiltration, had a role in inducing splenic rupture. Finally, we do not believe that leukapheresis in itself contributed to splenic rupture, as it is essentially atraumatic.

  5. The treatment of spleen injuries: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehli, Trond; Bågenholm, Anna; Trasti, Nora Christine; Monsen, Svein Arne; Bartnes, Kristian

    2015-10-29

    Hemorrhage after blunt trauma is a major contributor to death after trauma. In the abdomen, an injured spleen is the most frequent cause of major bleeding. Splenectomy is historically the treatment of choice. In 2007, non-operative management (NOM) with splenic artery embolization (SAE) was introduced in our institution. The indication for SAE is hemodynamically stable patients with extravasation of contrast, or grade 3-5 spleen injury according to the Abbreviated Organ Injury Scale 2005, Update 2008. We wanted to examine if the introduction of SAE increased the rate of salvaged spleens in our trauma center. All patients discharged with the diagnosis of splenic injury in the period 01.01.2000 - 31.12.2013 from the University Hospital of North Norway Tromsø were included in the study. Patients admitted for rehabilitation purposes or with an iatrogenic injury were excluded. A total of 109 patients were included in the study. In the period 2000-7, 20 of 52 patients were splenectomized. During 2007-13, there were 6 splenectomies and 24 SAE among 57 patients. The reduction in splenectomies is significant (p < 0.001). There is an increase in the rate of treated patients (splenectomy and SAE) from 38 to 53 % in the two time periods, but not significantly (p = 0.65). The rate of salvaged spleens has increased after the introduction of SAE in our center. The study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov with the identification number NCT01965548.

  6. [Spleen injuries in Spain: at what point are we?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Fuertes, Montiel; Costa Navarro, David; Jover Navalón, José María; Turégano Fuentes, Fernando; Ceballos Esparragón, José; Yuste, Pedro; Sánchez Tocino, Juan María; Navarro Soto, Salvador; Montmany, Sandra

    2013-11-01

    Management of spleen trauma has changed over last decades, although there is no data on its treatment in Spain. The aim of this study is to determine the characteristics of spleen injuries in adults with severe abdominal injuries and how we manage them. A prospective study using the databases of six Spanish hospitals: Gregorio Marañón Hospital, Virgen de la Vega Hospital, Torrevieja Hospital, Getafe Hospital, Doce de Octubre Hospital and Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí. A total of 566 patients who had sustained spleen injuries were analyzed (448 males and 118 females), most of them were due to blunt trauma (94%), and the most frequent mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 25.2. The initial treatment was surgical in 56.6% of the patients (85.3% total splenectomy and 14.7% other conservative surgical procedures, of which 4.6% finally failed and required total splenectomy). The remaining 43.4% were initially managed conservatively, but 6.5% of them finally required surgical splenectomy, and in 8.8% angio-embolization was performed. In Spain, management of spleen trauma is mainly surgical (particularly splenectomy). Angio-embolization and conservative surgical procedures are now hardly used. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Torsion of the spleen with incomplete infarction: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lernau, O.Z.; Baron, J.; Nissan, S.

    1977-01-01

    Torsion and infarction of a ''wandering spleen'' is a rare disease which is often confused with other acute abdominal crises. A correct preoperative diagnosis, when made, has usually been determined by arteriographic studies. A child is described in whom changes in the TcSC scan made a correct diagnosis possible by non-invasive methods

  8. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulstad, Mikkel Bak; Thomsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Non-traumatic rupture of the spleen (NRS) is a rare but serious complication to infectious mononucleosis (IM) and it is important to have in mind, when patients have IM. Although splenectomy has been advocated as the appropriate treatment for this problem, the trend goes towards conservative...

  9. Hydatid disease of the spleen; Ultrasonography, CT and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N. von; Stridbeck, H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital, and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden))

    1992-09-01

    Seven patients with hydatid disease of the spleen were examined by radiography, ultrasound, CT, and in one case MR imaging. The observations were confirmed by patho-anatomic findings except in 2 patients where high indirect hemagglutination tests confirmed the diagnosis. (orig./MG).

  10. Scintigraphic evidence of transplanted hepatocytes in spleen and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henne-Bruns, D.; Kremer, B.; Gramminger, K.; Broelsch, C.

    1986-01-01

    In rats suffering from hepatic enzymatic deficiency transplanted hepatocytes could be evidenced scintigraphically in liver, spleen and granulomas. In pigs, however, it is very difficult to demonstrate transplanted hepatocytes by scintiscanning because of the thickness of the tissues and the high background radiation in large animals

  11. Morphology and some biomechanical properties of human liver and spleen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stingl, J.; Bača, V.; Čech, V.; Kovanda, J.; Kovandová, H.; Mandys, Václav; Rejmontová, J.; Sosna, B.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2002), s. 285-289 ISSN 0930-1038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Human liver and spleen Subject RIV: FE - Other Internal Medicine Disciplines Impact factor: 0.252, year: 2002

  12. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Fogh, J; Graem, N

    1984-01-01

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional...

  13. Sonographic Determination of Spleen to Left Kidney Ratio among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Clinical determination of mild splenomegaly is notoriously inaccurate. Objectives: To determine sonographically the spleen to left kidney ratio according to age and somatometric parameters among school age children in a tropical environment. Methods: A cross sectional study and convenience sampling were ...

  14. Experimental heart failure causes depression-like behavior together with differential regulation of inflammatory and structural genes in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eFrey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background-Depression and anxiety are common and independent outcome predictors in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF. However, it is unclear whether CHF causes depression. Thus, we investigated whether mice develop anxiety- and depression-like behavior after induction of ischemic CHF by myocardial infarction (MI.Methods and Results- In order to assess depression-like behavior, anhedonia was investigated by repeatedly testing sucrose preference for 8 weeks after coronary artery ligation or sham operation. Mice with large MI and increased left ventricular dimensions on echocardiography (termed CHF mice showed reduced preference for sucrose, indicating depression-like behavior. 6 weeks after MI, mice were tested for exploratory activity, anxiety-like behavior and cognitive function using the elevated plus maze (EPM, light-dark box (LDB, open field (OF and object recognition (OR tests. In the EPM and OF, CHF mice exhibited diminished exploratory behavior and motivation despite similar movement capability. In the OR, CHF mice had reduced preference for novelty and impaired short-term memory. On histology, CHF mice had unaltered overall cerebral morphology. However, analysis of gene expression by RNA-sequencing in prefrontal cortical, hippocampal, and left ventricular tissue revealed changes in genes related to inflammation and cofactors of neuronal signal transduction in CHF mice, with Nr4a1 being dysregulated both in prefrontal cortex and myocardium after MI. Conclusions-After induction of ischemic CHF, mice exhibited anhedonic behavior, decreased exploratory activity and interest in novelty, and cognitive impairment. Thus, ischemic CHF leads to distinct behavioral changes in mice analogous to symptoms observed in humans with CHF and comorbid depression.

  15. Comparison of the binding of the irreversible monoamine oxidase tracers, [11C]clorgyline and [11C]l-deprenyl in brain and peripheral organs in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Joanna S.; Logan, Jean; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Telang, Frank; Ding Yushin; Shea, Colleen; Garza, Victor; Xu Youwen; Li Zizhong; Alexoff, David; Vaska, Paul; Ferrieri, Richard; Schlyer, David; Zhu Wei; John Gatley, S.

    2004-01-01

    The monoamine oxidase A and B (MAO A and B) radiotracers [ 11 C]clorgyline (CLG) and [ 11 C]L-deprenyl (DEP) and their deuterium labeled counterparts (CLG-D and DEP-D) were compared to determine whether their distribution and kinetics in humans are consistent with their physical, chemical and pharmacological properties and the reported ratios of MAO A:MAO B in post-mortem human tissues. Irreversible binding was consistently higher for DEP in brain, heart, kidneys and spleen but not lung where CLG >DEP and not in thyroid where there is no DEP binding. The generally higher DEP binding is consistent with its higher enzyme affinity and larger free fraction in plasma while differences in regional distribution for CLG and DEP in brain, heart, thyroid and lungs are consistent with different relative ratios of MAO A and B in humans

  16. Precision flow-controlled Rb-82 generator for bolus or constant-infusion studies of the heart and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Y.; Cahoon, J.L.; Budinger, T.F.

    1981-01-01

    A precision flow-controlled rubidium-82 generator has been constructed to deliver 76-sec Rb-82 at either fast or slow flow rates for bolus or constant-infusion studies. A stepping motor drive is interfaced to a microprocessor for pulsed control of flow rate to deliver the saline eluant solution from a large-volume (150 ml) machined pumping syringe through an alumina column that retains the 25-day Sr-82 parent. The generator system delivers 70-90% of the maximum Rb-82 activity in a 20-25 ml bolus elution of 2% NaCl. The Sr-82/Sr-85 breakthrough is 10 -7 - 10 -6 . Both yield and breakthrough are functions of column length and flow rate. Six separate Sr-82 loadings of the generator were evaluated over a period of nearly 2 yr in studies of myocardial blood perfusion and permeability changes in the blood-brain barrier. Sterility and apyrogenicity of the Rb-82 eluate were maintained during multiple elutions and long-term use of 3-4 mo for each generator loading

  17. The Effects of Wenxin Keli on Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Patients with Heart Failure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of Wenxin Keli (WXKL, either alone or in combination with Western medicine, on the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in the treatment of heart failure (HF. Methods. Seven major electronic databases were searched to retrieve potential randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of WXKL, either alone or in combination with Western medicine, for HF, with the LVEF or BNP after eight weeks of treatment as main outcome measures. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using criteria from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions, Version 5.1.0, and analyzed using RevMan 5.1.0 software. Results. Eleven RCTs of WXKL were included. The methodological quality of the trials was generally evaluated as low. The risk of bias was high. The results of the meta-analysis showed that WXKL, either alone or in combination with Western medicine, was more effective in LVEF and BNP, compared with no medicine or Western medicine alone, in patients with HF or HF complicated by other diseases. Five of the trials reported adverse events, while the others did not mention them, indicating that the safety of WXKL remains uncertain. Conclusions. WXKL, either alone or in combination with Western medicine, appears to be more effective in improving the LVEF and BNP in patients with HF and HF complications.

  18. Bioinformatical Analysis of Organ-Related (Heart, Brain, Liver, and Kidney and Serum Proteomic Data to Identify Protein Regulation Patterns and Potential Sepsis Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hohn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, proteomic studies have revealed several interesting findings in experimental sepsis models and septic patients. However, most studies investigated protein alterations only in single organs or in whole blood. To identify possible sepsis biomarkers and to evaluate the relationship between protein alteration in sepsis affected organs and blood, proteomics data from the heart, brain, liver, kidney, and serum were analysed. Using functional network analyses in combination with hierarchical cluster analysis, we found that protein regulation patterns in organ tissues as well as in serum are highly dynamic. In the tissue proteome, the main functions and pathways affected were the oxidoreductive activity, cell energy generation, or metabolism, whereas in the serum proteome, functions were associated with lipoproteins metabolism and, to a minor extent, with coagulation, inflammatory response, and organ regeneration. Proteins from network analyses of organ tissue did not correlate with statistically significantly regulated serum proteins or with predicted proteins of serum functions. In this study, the combination of proteomic network analyses with cluster analyses is introduced as an approach to deal with high-throughput proteomics data to evaluate the dynamics of protein regulation during sepsis.

  19. Reduced heart rate variability in chronic severe traumatic brain injury: Association with impaired emotional and social functioning, and potential for treatment using biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Heather M; Fisher, Alana; Rushby, Jacqueline A; McDonald, Skye

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) may provide an index of capacity for social functioning and may be remediated by HRV biofeedback. Given reductions in HRV are found following traumatic brain injury (TBI), the present study aimed to determine whether lower HRV in TBI is associated with social function, and whether HRV biofeedback might be a useful remediation technique in this population. Resting state HRV and measures of social and emotional processing were collected in 30 individuals with severe TBI (3-34 years post-injury) and 30 controls. This was followed by a single session of HRV biofeedback. HRV was positively associated with social cognition and empathy, and negatively associated with alexithymia for the TBI group. Both TBI and control groups showed significantly increased HRV on both time-domain (i.e., SDNN, rMSSD) and frequency-domain measures (LF, HF, LF:HF ratio) during biofeedback compared to baseline. These results suggest that decreased HRV is linked to social and emotional function following severe TBI, and may be a novel target for therapy using HRV biofeedback techniques.

  20. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijck, Willemijn P M; Groot, Vincent P; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS) is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. A cystic lesion in the pancreatic tail was discovered and evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance images. Based on clinical and radiological features a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm was suspected. The patient underwent robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy. Pathological evaluation revealed a 26 mm intrapancreatic accessory spleen with a 16 mm cyst, lined by multilayered epithelium in the tail of the pancreas. The postoperative course was uneventful. Differentiating ECIPAS from (pre)malignant cystic pancreatic neoplasms based on clinical and radiological features remains difficult. When typical radiological signs can be combined with scintigraphy using Technetium-99m labelled colloid or Technetium-99m labelled erythrocytes, which can identify the solid component of the lesion as splenic tissue, it should be possible to make the right diagnosis noninvasively. When pancreatectomy is inevitable due to symptoms or patient preference, minimally invasive laparoscopic or robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered.

  1. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijn P. M. van Dijck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. A cystic lesion in the pancreatic tail was discovered and evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance images. Based on clinical and radiological features a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm was suspected. The patient underwent robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy. Pathological evaluation revealed a 26 mm intrapancreatic accessory spleen with a 16 mm cyst, lined by multilayered epithelium in the tail of the pancreas. The postoperative course was uneventful. Differentiating ECIPAS from (premalignant cystic pancreatic neoplasms based on clinical and radiological features remains difficult. When typical radiological signs can be combined with scintigraphy using Technetium-99m labelled colloid or Technetium-99m labelled erythrocytes, which can identify the solid component of the lesion as splenic tissue, it should be possible to make the right diagnosis noninvasively. When pancreatectomy is inevitable due to symptoms or patient preference, minimally invasive laparoscopic or robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered.

  2. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, Willemijn P M; Groot, Vincent P; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS) is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted

  3. B-mode and contrast-enhanced sonographic assessment of accessory spleen in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Federica; Rabba, Silvia; Vignoli, Massimo; Haers, Hendrik; Terragni, Rossella; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2010-01-01

    Four dogs with an accessory spleen are described. The accessory spleens appeared as a round-to-triangular structure located in the perisplenic area. They were homogeneous and isoechoic with the adjacent spleen. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed using a second generation microbubble contrast medium (sulfur hexafluoride). The type and timing of enhancement of the accessory spleen was similar to that of the parent spleen. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a noninvasive modality useful in distinguishing an accessory spleen from a mass of another origin.

  4. Scintigraphy of liver and spleen in vinyl chloride workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H J; San Luis, T Jr; Lange, C E; Thelen, M; Veltman, G; Winkler, C [Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin; Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik und Poliklinik der Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten; Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik)

    1977-10-01

    In 152 VC-exposed workers of whom 124 were employed in the PVC-production and 28 in VC-processing plants, liver and spleen imaging was performed using sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid and /sup 197/Hg-BMHP. In 101 (= 81%) of the 124 workers of the PVC-production plant and in 18 (= 64%) workers of PVC-processing factories pathological liver and spleen scintigrams were found. The most frequent pathological change in the scintigraphic image was an increase in splenic colloid accumulation, when compared with the liver uptake. Three angiosarcomas of the liver were detected through circumscribed defects of colloid accumulation. Sequential liver scintigraphy was done in 15 cases. In 7 patients with esophageal varices, considerable decrease in portal venous blood flow was demonstrated. - As a result of our investigations it can be stated that scintigraphically detectable changes are sensitive indicators of VC-induced lesions of the liver including liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and angiosarcoma.

  5. Effect of synthetic adjuvants of biological activity of spleen proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartasheva, A.L.; Yuferova, N.V.; Drozhennikov, V.A.; Orlova, E.B.; Perevezentseva, O.S.; Filatov, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration to mice of synthetic adjuvants of a polyanion type increases the spleen mass by 500% and rises the content of proteins with activity of inhibitor of DNAase 1. A protein fraction isolated from the spleen of treated animals administered to exposed (7.7 Gy) mice alone or in a combination with exogenous DNA increases survival up to 61.1 and 80.5%, respectively, as opposed to 36.6% in the case of administration of proteins from intact animals, or 8.3% in the control (no treatment). The protein fraction from treated animals administered to mice exposed to 5.1-5.5 Gy accelerates the recovery of hemopoesis and immune response better than proteins of intact animals

  6. Inflammatory pseudo tumor of the spleen. Radiologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folgueral, M.; Naranjo, G.; Grasa, J.

    1998-01-01

    The inflammatory splenic pseudo tumor is an uncommon benign lesion of unknown etiology that usually is detected incidentally in patients being examined for other disorders. We present the ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings in two patients (a 56-year-old woman and 67-year-old man) with inflammatory pseudo tumor of the spleen. Ultrasound images of the inflammatory splenic pseudo tumor show a hypoechoic mass with or without calcifications. In CT, the mass presents a low attenuation that is slightly enhanced by intravenous injection of an iodinated contrast medium. MR images show an isointense spleen in T1-weighted spin-echo sequences that is hypointense in T2-weighted sequences. The differential diagnosis should consider other more common splenic masses. but the definitive diagnosis can not be based on imaging methods alone. In the both cases, the final diagnosis was reached after splenectomy and pathological study. (Author) 8 refs

  7. Primary Angiosarcoma of the Spleen: An Oncological Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoteri Despoina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary splenic angiosarcoma is an extremely unusual neoplasm originating from sinusoidal vascular endothelium. Surgical extirpation is the mainstay of treatment of this highly malignant disease. Case Presentation. An 82-year-old woman was admitted with left pleural effusion and a palpable left upper quadrant abdominal mass, secondary to splenomegaly by two large splenic tumors. Classic open splenectomy was performed and angiosarcoma of the spleen was the final histopathological diagnosis, which was primary since no other disease site was revealed. Discussion. The incidence of the disease is 0.14–0.23 cases per million, with slight male predominance. Etiology is not established and clinical presentation may confuse even experienced physicians. Imaging modalities cannot differentiate the lesion from other vascular splenic neoplasms and the correct diagnosis is mainly set after histopathological examination of the resected spleen. As with other sarcomas, surgery is the only curative approach, while chemo- and radiotherapy have poor results. Prognosis remains dismal.

  8. ALTERED HISTOLOGY OF THE THYMUS AND SPLEEN IN CONTAMINANT-EXPOSED JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological difference in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference si...

  9. Pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vick, C.W.; Simeone, J.F.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.; Wittenberg, J.; Mueller, P.R.; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    1981-01-01

    The clinical and radiographic features of 2 patients with dissecting pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen are described. A typical appearance of left upper quadrant fluid collection lateral to the splenic pulp was observed by ultrasonography (US) or computed body tomography (CBT). Although these findings are nonspecific, a left upper quadrant fluid collection may be characterized definitively by US/CBT-guided needle aspiration. (orig.)

  10. Spleens and holoendemic malaria in West New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    METSELAAR, D

    1956-01-01

    The author describes the results obtained in recent malaria surveys in West New Guinea, where what is essentially holoendemic malaria prevails. However, the spleen-rate in adults differs markedly from what is regarded as normal under holoendemic conditions according to the definition put forward at the Malaria Conference in Equatorial Africa in 1950. The author therefore concludes that that definition is not properly applicable to New Guinea.

  11. Postnatal development of the spleen in Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J H; Krause, W J

    1982-01-01

    The postnatal development of the spleen has been examined in 85 opossums ranging in age from newborn to adult. At birth the spleen consists of a well vascularized mass of mesenchymal tissue and lacks lymphatic tissue or any evidence of haemopoietic activity. Haemopoiesis is evident at seven days, increases to a maximum at about two to three weeks and thereafter gradually declines. Although production of granulocytes has disappeared by 60 days postnatum, a small degree of erythropoiesis and megakaryocyte formation continues throughout life. Lymphatic tissue appears by the third week, but germinal centres do not appear until after weaning. A feature of the spleen during the first three to four days is the presence of a population of primitive 'blast' cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 PMID:7153176

  12. Data from quantitative label free proteomics analysis of rat spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadar Dudekula

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The dataset presented in this work has been obtained using a label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of rat spleen. A robust method for extraction of proteins from rat spleen tissue and LC-MS-MS analysis was developed using a urea and SDS-based buffer. Different fractionation methods were compared. A total of 3484 different proteins were identified from the pool of all experiments run in this study (a total of 2460 proteins with at least two peptides. A total of 1822 proteins were identified from nine non-fractionated pulse gels, 2288 proteins and 2864 proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE fractionation into three and five fractions respectively. The proteomics data are deposited in ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE PXD003520, Progenesis and Maxquant output are presented in the supported information. The generated list of proteins under different regimes of fractionation allow assessing the nature of the identified proteins; variability in the quantitative analysis associated with the different sampling strategy and allow defining a proper number of replicates for future quantitative analysis. Keywords: Spleen, Rat, Protein extraction, Label-free quantitative proteomics

  13. Return to play after liver and spleen trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juyia, Rushad F; Kerr, Hamish A

    2014-05-01

    Sport-related spleen and liver injuries pose a challenge for the physician. Although rare, these injuries can have serious and even life-threatening outcomes if not accurately diagnosed and managed in a timely fashion. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines on duration and intensity of restricted activity and return to play after spleen and liver injury. In addition, there is controversy on follow-up imaging after injury. PubMed was searched using the terms splenic or spleen and trauma and hepatic or liver and trauma from 1980 to 2013. The citations from sentinel papers were also reviewed. Clinical review. Level 3. Ultrasound is ideal in the unstable athlete. Nonoperative management of blunt splenic and hepatic injuries is recommended for hemodynamically stable patients regardless of injury grade, patient age, or presence of associated injuries. Follow-up imaging is not routinely recommended unless clinically indicated. Athletes may engage in light activity for the first 3 months after injury and then gradual return to unrestricted activity as tolerated. High-level athletes may choose splenectomy or serial imaging for faster return to play. Intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice in stable athletes with blunt abdominal trauma. C.

  14. High dispersity of carbon nanotubes diminishes immunotoxicity in spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    From the various physiochemical material properties, the chemical functionalization order of single-walled carbon nanotubes (swCNTs) has not been considered as a critical factor for modulating immunological responses and toxicological aspects in drug delivery applications. Although most nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, are specifically accumulated in spleen, few studies have focused on spleen immunotoxicity. For this reason, this study demonstrated that the dispersity of swCNTs significantly influenced immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. For cytotoxicity of swCNTs, MTT assay, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, cellular uptake, and confocal microscopy were used in macrophages. In the in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with 1 mg/kg/day of swCNTs for 2 weeks. The body weight, organ weight, hematological change, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and lymphocyte population were evaluated. Different orders of chemical functionalization of swCNTs controlled immunotoxicity. In short, less-dispersed swCNTs caused cytotoxicity in macrophages and abnormalities in immune organs such as spleen, whereas highly dispersed swCNTs did not result in immunotoxicity. This study clarified that increasing carboxyl groups on swCNTs significantly mitigated immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings clarified the effective immunotoxicological factors of swCNTs by increasing dispersity of swCNTs and provided useful guidelines for the effective use of nanomaterials.

  15. Kupffer's vesicle is a ciliated organ of asymmetry in the zebrafish embryo that initiates left-right development of the brain, heart and gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essner, Jeffrey J; Amack, Jeffrey D; Nyholm, Molly K; Harris, Erin B; Yost, H Joseph

    2005-03-01

    Monocilia have been proposed to establish the left-right (LR) body axis in vertebrate embryos by creating a directional fluid flow that triggers asymmetric gene expression. In zebrafish, dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs) express a conserved ciliary dynein gene (left-right dynein-related1, lrdr1) and form a ciliated epithelium inside a fluid-filled organ called Kupffer's vesicle (KV). Here, videomicroscopy demonstrates that cilia inside KV are motile and create a directional fluid flow just prior to the onset of asymmetric gene expression in lateral cells. Laser ablation of DFCs and surgical disruption of KV provide direct evidence that ciliated KV cells are required during early somitogenesis for subsequent LR patterning in the brain, heart and gut. Antisense morpholinos against lrdr1 disrupt KV fluid flow and perturb LR development. Furthermore, lrdr1 morpholinos targeted to DFC/KV cells demonstrate that Lrdr1 functions in these ciliated cells to control LR patterning. This provides the first direct evidence, in any vertebrate, that impairing cilia function in derivatives of the dorsal organizer, and not in other cells that express ciliogenic genes, alters LR development. Finally, genetic analysis reveals novel roles for the T-box transcription factor no tail and the Nodal signaling pathway as upstream regulators of lrdr1 expression and KV morphogenesis. We propose that KV is a transient embryonic 'organ of asymmetry' that directs LR development by establishing a directional fluid flow. These results suggest that cilia are an essential component of a conserved mechanism that controls the transition from bilateral symmetry to LR asymmetry in vertebrates.

  16. Changes in cardiac aldosterone and its synthase in rats with chronic heart failure: an intervention study of long-term treatment with recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X.Q. [Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Department of Cardiology, The Central Hospital of Enshi Autonomous Prefecture, Enshi, Hubei (China); Hong, H.S. [Department of Geriatrics, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Lin, X.H. [Department of Emergency Medicine, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Chen, L.L. [Department of Cardiology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Y.H. [Department of Cardiology, The Central Hospital of Enshi Autonomous Prefecture, Enshi, Hubei (China)

    2014-07-11

    The physiological mechanisms involved in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced chronic heart failure (CHF) are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated local changes in cardiac aldosterone and its synthase in rats with ISO-induced CHF, and evaluated the effects of treatment with recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP). Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 different groups. Fifty rats received subcutaneous ISO injections to induce CHF and the control group (n=10) received equal volumes of saline. After establishing the rat model, 9 CHF rats received no further treatment, rats in the low-dose group (n=8) received 22.5 μg/kg rhBNP and those in the high-dose group (n=8) received 45 μg/kg rhBNP daily for 1 month. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiographic and hemodynamic analysis. Collagen volume fraction (CVF) was determined. Plasma and myocardial aldosterone concentrations were determined using radioimmunoassay. Myocardial aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Cardiac function was significantly lower in the CHF group than in the control group (P<0.01), whereas CVF, plasma and myocardial aldosterone, and CYP11B2 transcription were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.05). Low and high doses of rhBNP significantly improved hemodynamics (P<0.01) and cardiac function (P<0.05) and reduced CVF, plasma and myocardial aldosterone, and CYP11B2 transcription (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the rhBNP dose groups (P>0.05). Elevated cardiac aldosterone and upregulation of aldosterone synthase expression were detected in rats with ISO-induced CHF. Administration of rhBNP improved hemodynamics and ventricular remodeling and reduced myocardial fibrosis, possibly by downregulating CYP11B2 transcription and reducing myocardial aldosterone synthesis.

  17. Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  18. "Heart-cut" bidimensional achiral-chiral liquid chromatography applied to the evaluation of stereoselective metabolism, in vivo biological activity and brain response to chiral drug candidates targeting the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Umberto M; Citti, Cinzia; Larini, Martina; Ciccarella, Giuseppe; Stasiak, Natalia; Troisi, Luigino; Braghiroli, Daniela; Parenti, Carlo; Zoli, Michele; Cannazza, Giuseppe

    2016-04-22

    A "heart-cut" two-dimensional achiral-chiral liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry method (LC-LC-MS/MS) was developed and coupled to in vivo cerebral microdialysis to evaluate the brain response to the chiral compound (±)-7-chloro-5-(3-furanyl)-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide ((±)-1), a potent positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of AMPA receptor. The method was successfully employed to evaluate also its stereoselective metabolism and in vitro biological activity. In particular, the LC achiral method developed, employs a pentafluorinated silica based column (Discovery HS-F5) to separate dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, (±)-1 and its two hepatic metabolites. In the "heart-cut" two-dimension achiral-chiral configuration, (±)-1 and (±)-1-d4 eluted from the achiral column (1st dimension), were transferred to a polysaccharide-based chiral column (2nd dimension, Chiralcel OD-RH) by using an automatic six-port valve. Single enantiomers of (±)-1 were separated and detected using electrospray positive ionization mode and quantified in selected reaction monitoring mode. The method was validated and showed good performance in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. The new method employed showed several possible applications in the evaluation of: (a) brain response to neuroactive compounds by measuring variations in the brain extracellular levels of selected neurotransmitters and other biomarkers; (b) blood brain barrier penetration of drug candidates by measuring the free concentration of the drug in selected brain areas; (c) the presence of drug metabolites in the brain extracellular fluid that could prove very useful during drug discovery; (d) a possible stereoselective metabolization or blood brain barrier stereoselective crossing of chiral drugs. Finally, compared to the methods reported in the literature, this technique avoids the necessity of euthanizing an animal at each time point to measure drug

  19. Wandering spleen associated with omphalocele in a neonate: An unusual case with non-operative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Masui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wandering spleen with a history of omphalocele is extremely rare. We encountered a male baby with wandering spleen associated with omphalocele. This case of wandering spleen in a neonate was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography scans after surgery for omphalocele. Our case was able to be managed non-operatively due to the lack of any findings suggesting torsion of the spleen and its asymptomatic status. We herein report the clinical presentation as well as the treatment options regarding wandering spleen associated with omphalocele.

  20. Transplantation of homologous bone marrow cells to lethally irradiated mice: changes in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viktora, L; Hach, P; Zoubkova, M

    1975-01-01

    Bone marrow cell suspensions were administered intravenously to lethally irradiated mice. The number of colonies in the spleen and the regeneration of hematopoietic tissue in the spleen were studied on the 9th day after irradiation and transplantation. From a comparison of the histological picture and weight of the spleens, the authors conclude that the degree of regeneration of hematopoiesis in the spleen after irradiation and transplantation is reflected in the weight of the spleen as well as in the number of hematopoietic colonies.

  1. Long-term following-up of viability of spleen autotransplants in the Beagle canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajtos, Erika; Balint, Anita; Brath, Endre; Nemeth, Norbert; Peto, Katalin; Kovacs, Judit; Galuska, Laszlo; Varga, Jozsef; Fodor, Zoltan; Furka, Istvan; Miko, Iren

    2012-02-01

    To examine the possible late complications of splenectomy or spleen autotransplantation in large laboratory animal model, in which we need non-invasive or minimal-invasive methods for long-term monitoring of the experimental animals. Experimental groups of beagle dogs were: non-operated control, sham-operated control, splenectomy, spleen autotransplantation with 5 or 10 spleen-chips taken into the greater omentum (Furka's technique). Prior to operations, on the 1(st) postoperative week, monthly till the 6(th) as well as in the 9(th) and 12(th) month, hemorheological examinations were performed. In postoperative 12(th) month colloid scintigraphy and diagnostic laparoscopy were carried out. At the end of the investigation comparative morphological examinations were performed, too. From the 4(th)-5(th) postoperative month filtration function of spleen-autotransplants showed particular restoration compared to splenectomy group. However, the functional results did not reach the values of the control or sham-operated groups. Sham-operated control's scintigraphy nicely showed activity in the spleen. In spleen autotransplantation-groups scintigraphy indicated well the activity of spleen-chips. During diagnostic laparoscopy spleen-chips with their blood supply were found. Histologically, the structure of spleen-autotransplants was similar to normal splenic tissue. The autotransplants are regenerated, their functions have been partly restored, and thus spleen autotransplantation may prevent the possible complications of splenectomy. These parameters and the presented investigative protocol are suitable for long-term following-up of viability of the spleen-autotransplants.

  2. Adding left atrial appendage closure to open heart surgery provides protection from ischemic brain injury six years after surgery independently of atrial fibrillation history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park-Hansen, Jesper; Holme, Susanne J V; Irmukhamedov, Akhmadjon

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Open heart surgery is associated with high occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF), subsequently increasing the risk of post-operative ischemic stroke. Concomitant with open heart surgery, a cardiac ablation procedure is commonly performed in patients with known AF, often followed by l...

  3. Management of Blunt Trauma to the Spleen (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abbas Banani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSpleen is the most frequent solid organ to be injured in bluntabdominal trauma. Considering its important role in providingimmunity and preventing infection by a variety of mechanisms,every attempt should be made, if possible, to salvagethe traumatized spleen at any age particularly in children. Afterprimary resuscitation, mandatory requirements for nonoperativemanagement include absence of homodynamic instability,lack of associated major organ injury, admission inthe intensive care unit for high-grade splenic injury and in theward for milder types with close monitoring. About two thirdof the patients would respond to non-operative management.In most patients, failure of non-operative measures usuallyoccur within 12 hours of management. Determinant role ofabdominal sonography or computed tomography, and in selectedcases, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, for appropriate decisioncannot be overemphasized. However, the high status ofclinical judgment would not be replaced by any paraclinicalinvestigations. When operation is unavoidable, if possible,spleen saving procedures (splenorrhaphy or partial splenectomyshould be tried. In case of total splenectomy, autotransplantation,preferably in the omental pouch, may lead toreturn of immunity, at least partially, to prevent or reduce thechance of subsequent infection. Although total splenectomywith autograft is immunologically superior to total splenectomy-only procedure, these patients should also be protectedby vaccination and daily antibiotic for certain period of time.The essential steps for prevention of overwhelming infectionafter total splenectomy are not only immunization and administrationof daily antibiotic (up to 5 years of age or one year inolder children, but include education and information aboutthis dangerous complication. When non-operative managementis successful, the duration of activity restriction (inweeks is almost equal to the grade of splenic injury plus 2.Iran J Med Sci 2010

  4. Laparoscopic splenectomy for spontaneous rupture of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky M Thapar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic splenectomy is a gold standard for management of planned benign splenic pathologies. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen (SRS leading to acute abdomen occurs in only 1% of all splenic ruptures. Laparoscopic splenectomy in traumatic and atraumatic rupture due to intra-splenic pathology is reported. We present the first reported case of laparoscopic splenectomy in a 23-year-old male who presented with hemoperitoneum due to idiopathic or SRS. The procedure was safely accomplished with slight modified technique and minimum usage of advanced gadgets.

  5. Mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevitt, P.C.; Das Narla, L. [Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (United States); Hingsbergen, E.A. [Children' s Radiologic Institute, Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon and frequently fatal fungal infection. It characteristically affects patients with diabetes mellitus or patients with severe immunosuppression. The hallmark of mucormycosis infection is tissue infarction and vascular invasion. We present clinical data and imaging studies of a 16 year-old child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated by disseminated mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm of the spleen. This was successfully managed by a combination of systemic antifungal therapy (Amphotericin B) and surgery (splenectomy). This entity has not been described in the literature. (orig.)

  6. Mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm in the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevitt, P.C.; Das Narla, L.; Hingsbergen, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon and frequently fatal fungal infection. It characteristically affects patients with diabetes mellitus or patients with severe immunosuppression. The hallmark of mucormycosis infection is tissue infarction and vascular invasion. We present clinical data and imaging studies of a 16 year-old child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated by disseminated mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm of the spleen. This was successfully managed by a combination of systemic antifungal therapy (Amphotericin B) and surgery (splenectomy). This entity has not been described in the literature. (orig.)

  7. Increased DNA-repair in spleen cells of M. Hodgkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, H.; Neumann, E.; Howanietz, L.; Dolejs, I.; Tuschl, H.; Altmann, H.

    1974-11-01

    In spleen cells of control patients and cells of Morbus Hodgkin, DNA-repair after gamma- and UV-irradiation was determined measuring the incorporated 3H-thymidine activity in the DNA. Additionally, the ratio of labeled cells compared to non-labeled cells and the grains per cell were evaluated by autoradiographic investigations. DNA-content per cell was measured using pulsecytophotometry. A significant increase of DNA-repair capacity after gamma-irradiation was found by density gradient centrifugation in alkaline sucrose. The same trend could be shown by investigations of unscheduled DNA-synthesis using autoradiographic method. (author)

  8. [Spleen autotransplant. Natural history and description of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccherini, E; Sereni, P; Ferrari, F; Fagioli Zucchi, A; Croce, F; Di Maggio, G; Vattimo, A; Mancini, S

    1989-09-30

    After considering the natural history of spleen auto-transplant, a clinical case followed up for seven months with instrumental (echography, scintigraphy) and humoral (Jolly bodies, Heinz bodies, reticulocytes, platelets, complement, immune globulin) examinations has been considered so as to verify "take" and function. One months after reimplantation the patient was again operated on for the onset of an intestinal occlusion due to adherences. On that occasion it was possible to control that the implant had taken. It is concluded that personally used parameters proved to be well correlated and that scintigraphy and echography are two complementary, effective techniques for monitoring auto-transplants.

  9. Spiperone dithiocarbamate- 99mTc kit - a potential diagnosis agent for dopaminergic D-2 brain pathologies - biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Psycho pharmacology has been discovering much about the D 2 dopamine receptors and their interrelationship to brain pathologies such as Parkinson's Disease, Schizophrenia and Huntington Disease. Those biological receptors have got affinity with dopamine endogenous agent, so that they complex and, in non pathological individuals, the biological receptors contribute to bring the levels of dopamine and free acetylcholine into equilibrium. The Spiperon Dithiocarbamate (SPDC) from Spiperon is synthesized and its complexation with Technetium-99 m has been prepared with its reaction parameters after being studied and improved. The SPDC- 99m Tc complex biological distribution has been made in Wistar rats and the uptake of spleen, heart, liver, stomach, lung, kidney, blood, intestine and brain have been resolved. The plasmatic clearance curve has been based on Wistar rats data and the Know-how of the kit ( for label SPDC with 99m Tc) has been achieved. (author)

  10. Report of final results regarding brain and heart tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to mobile phone radiofrequency field representative of a 1.8 GHz GSM base station environmental emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcioni, L; Bua, L; Tibaldi, E; Lauriola, M; De Angelis, L; Gnudi, F; Mandrioli, D; Manservigi, M; Manservisi, F; Manzoli, I; Menghetti, I; Montella, R; Panzacchi, S; Sgargi, D; Strollo, V; Vornoli, A; Belpoggi, F

    2018-08-01

    In 2011, IARC classified radiofrequency radiation (RFR) as possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). According to IARC, animals studies, as well as epidemiological ones, showed limited evidence of carcinogenicity. In 2016, the NTP published the first results of its long-term bioassays on near field RFR, reporting increased incidence of malignant glial tumors of the brain and heart Schwannoma in rats exposed to GSM - and CDMA - modulated cell phone RFR. The tumors observed in the NTP study are of the type similar to the ones observed in some epidemiological studies of cell phone users. The Ramazzini Institute (RI) performed a life-span carcinogenic study on Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the carcinogenic effects of RFR in the situation of far field, reproducing the environmental exposure to RFR generated by 1.8 GHz GSM antenna of the radio base stations of mobile phone. This is the largest long-term study ever performed in rats on the health effects of RFR, including 2448 animals. In this article, we reported the final results regarding brain and heart tumors. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from prenatal life until natural death to a 1.8 GHz GSM far field of 0, 5, 25, 50 V/m with a whole-body exposure for 19 h/day. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of heart Schwannomas was observed in treated male rats at the highest dose (50 V/m). Furthermore, an increase in the incidence of heart Schwann cells hyperplasia was observed in treated male and female rats at the highest dose (50 V/m), although this was not statistically significant. An increase in the incidence of malignant glial tumors was observed in treated female rats at the highest dose (50 V/m), although not statistically significant. The RI findings on far field exposure to RFR are consistent with and reinforce the results of the NTP study on near field exposure, as both reported an increase in the incidence of tumors of the brain and heart in RFR-exposed Sprague

  11. Analysis of local perfusion rate (LPR) and local glucose transport rate (LGTR) in brain and heart in man by means of C-11-methyl-D-glucose (CMG) and dynamic positron emission tomography (dPET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyska, K.; Freundlieb, C.; Hoeck, A.; Becker, V.; Schmidt, A.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Kloster, G.; Stoecklin, G.; Heiss, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    A method has been developed to measure simultaneously the LPR and LGTR. CMG is used as an indicator. The transaxial distribution of activity in organism is registered with dPET. On the basis of a mathematical model, the LPR and LGTR can be calculated in terms of parameters of the time activity curves registered over different brain or heart regions and over the sup. long. sinus (brain) or the ventricular cavity (heart) (blood activity). The method was used in 10 normal subjects and 20 patients with ischemic brain or heart disease. The values of LGTR range from 0.43 to 0.6 μmol/min g in normal cortex and from 0.09 to 0.12 μmol/min g in normal white matter. The LPR was 0.9-098 ml/min g for the cortex and 0.3-0.4 ml/min g for the white matter. In patients with stroke the ischemic defects appeared to be larger in CMG scans than in CT. The results obtained in a patient with left homonymous hemianopia, caused by infarctions in the distribution area of RMCA, and in a patient with TIA, demonstrate that the inactivation of morphologically intact, cerebral cortex, observed in stroke patients, may be caused by undercutting of cortical fiber tracts as well as by the impairment of the glucose transport systems in the inactivated area. In myocardial studies the LPR in normal left myocardium was 0.68 ml/min g (subendocardium 0.74 ml/min g; subepicardiuim 0.65 ml/min g). In patients with old myocardial infarction, the infarcted areas could be easily recognized as accumulation defects. The results obtained in a patient with narrowing of the RCA indicate that repeated exposure of myocardial tissue to transient ischemia produces an irreversible damage of the glucose transport system. We conclude from the data that for diagnostic evaluation of ultimate brain or heart damage simultaneous quantitative assessment of both LPR and LGTR is of basic importance. (Author)

  12. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  13. Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  14. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A.; Rabah, Raja

    2009-01-01

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  15. Data from quantitative label free proteomics analysis of rat spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudekula, Khadar; Le Bihan, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    The dataset presented in this work has been obtained using a label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of rat spleen. A robust method for extraction of proteins from rat spleen tissue and LC-MS-MS analysis was developed using a urea and SDS-based buffer. Different fractionation methods were compared. A total of 3484 different proteins were identified from the pool of all experiments run in this study (a total of 2460 proteins with at least two peptides). A total of 1822 proteins were identified from nine non-fractionated pulse gels, 2288 proteins and 2864 proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE fractionation into three and five fractions respectively. The proteomics data are deposited in ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE PXD003520, Progenesis and Maxquant output are presented in the supported information. The generated list of proteins under different regimes of fractionation allow assessing the nature of the identified proteins; variability in the quantitative analysis associated with the different sampling strategy and allow defining a proper number of replicates for future quantitative analysis.

  16. Elastography of the normal canine liver, spleen and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Andrew; Bradley, Kate; Birch, Sally; Browne, William J; Barberet, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Elastography is a simple, expedient and noninvasive technique that may be used to assess the elasticity or stiffness of a tissue, in conjunction with traditional B-mode ultrasonography. Quantitative assessment of tissue stiffness can be made which involves measurement of the shear wave velocity within the tissue of interest. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of elastography for clinical use in the abdomen of conscious small animals and to investigate factors that affect shear wave velocity measurement. Elastography was performed on the liver, spleen, and kidneys of 15 dogs at predefined depths within the parenchyma. Breed, age, gender, neuter status, and weight were documented for each animal. Depth at which measurements were taken had a significant negative relationship with the shear wave velocity value obtained. Individual dog effects, such as weight and gender, also appeared to have a significant effect on the shear wave velocity measurement for specific organs; weight had a significant positive effect on the shear wave velocity for each of the organs examined, whereas the effect of gender was inconsistent between organs (having a positive effect for the liver and a negative effect for the spleen). It is hoped that these results may act as a baseline to guide further work into the field of elastography in companion animals. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  17. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Carmen and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Detroit, MI (United States); Rabah, Raja [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2009-01-15

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  18. Spleen lymphocyte function modulated by a cocoa-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, E; Pérez-Cano, F J; Ramírez-Santana, C; Castellote, C; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Permanyer, J; Franch, A; Castell, M

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have shown the down-regulating in vitro effect of cocoa flavonoids on lymphocyte and macrophage activation. In the present paper, we report the capacity of a long-term rich cocoa diet to modulate macrophage cytokine secretion and lymphocyte function in young rats. Weaned rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake), containing 32 mg flavonoids/g, for 3 weeks. Spleen immune function was then evaluated through the analysis of lymphocyte composition, their proliferative response and their ability to secrete cytokines and Ig. In addition, the status of activated peritoneal macrophages was established through tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion. The richest cocoa diet (10%) caused a reduction of TNF-alpha secretion by peritoneal macrophages showing anti-inflammatory activity. Similarly, although a 10% cocoa diet increased lymphocyte proliferation rate, it down-regulated T helper 2 (Th2)-related cytokines and decreased Ig secretion. These changes were accompanied by an increase in spleen B cell proportion and a decrease in Th cell percentage. In summary, these results demonstrate the functional activity of a cocoa-high dosage in down-regulating the immune response that might be beneficial in hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

  19. Pathomorphology of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis in large dose 60Co γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Linlu; Cui Yufang; Yang Hong; Xia Guowei; Peng Ruiyun; Gao Yabing; Wang Dewen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the authors was to investigate the pathomorphology changes of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis after 60 Co γ-irradiation. Methods: The mice were irradiated with 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays. At different times after irradiation, the mice were sacrificed and the pathological changes of spleen lymphocyte were observed by light and transmission electron microscopies. Results: Spleen lymphocyte decreased evidently and the peak of apoptosis in spleen lymphocyte was dependent on radiation dose and the time after irradiation. Conclusion: After γ-irradiation with large doses, pathological changes of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis in mice can be divided into obviously different stages. The main causes of death of spleen lymphocytes are different in different dose groups

  20. Role of nuclear medicine imaging in differential diagnosis of accessory spleens in patients after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Amico, Andrea; Cofalik, Anna; Przeorek, Cesary; Gawlik, Tomasz; Olczyk, Tomasz; Kalemba, Michał; Modorowska, Alicja; Turska-d’Amico, Maria; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara; Jarzab, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    More than 10% of healthy population has one or more accessory spleens. The most common location is the hilum of the spleen or area near the tail of the pancreas. The radiological appearance of accessory spleens in oncologic patients who underwent splenectomy can be misinterpreted as a recurrence, especially in the case of compensatory growth of an accessory spleen in successive radiological examinations. We present the cases of three patients who underwent splenectomy for gastric carcinoid, gastric adenocarcinoma and cancer of the left adrenal gland, respectively. CT examination and/or PET-CT scan revealed suspicious findings in the left upper abdomen. In one patient, the dimensional increase of this finding in successive examinations was initially considered suggestive for cancer recurrence. Scintigraphy with 99m Tc-nanocolloid was able to confirm the presence of an accessory spleen in all these patients. Splenic scintigraphy is an economical, accessible and accurate tool in differential diagnosis of accessory spleens in patients after splenectomy

  1. Wandering spleen, gastric and pancreatic volvulus and right-sided descending and sigmoid colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ríos, Enrique; Méndez-Díaz, Cristina; Rodríguez-García, Esther; Pérez-Ramos, Tania

    2015-10-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition, characterized by a mobile spleen that is attached only by an elongated vascular pedicle, allowing it to migrate to any part of the abdomen or pelvis. Mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus usually occurs in children and may be associated with wandering spleen. Both entities result from abnormal laxity or absence of the peritoneal attachments due to abnormal fusion of the peritoneal mesenteries. Pancreatic volvulus is a very rare anomaly, with only a few isolated case reports described in association with wandering spleen. Anomalous right sided descending and sigmoid colon is a very rare entity and its association with wandering spleen has not been previously reported. We report a case of wandering spleen associated with mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus, pancreatic volvulus and rightward shift of the splenic flexure of the colon and right sided descending and sigmoid colon in a young female.

  2. [Organ-preserving method in the surgical treatment of the spleen injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khripun, A I; Alimov, A N; Salikov, A V; Priamikov, A D; Alimov, V A; Sukiasian, A A; Popov, T V; Urvantseva, O M

    2014-01-01

    The authors have experience in organ-preserving operations for spleen rupture with the splenic artery ligation in 156 casualties. They consider that such operations let to preserve the spleen, to avoid the postoperative rebleeding and ischemia of pancreas tail and body. Also it is accompanied by the low indications of lethality and postoperative complications. The authors consider that this operation is alternative to splenectomy and other techniques of organ-preserving operations in case of spleen trauma.

  3. GM-CSF augments the immunosuppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, P.J.; Ireland, R.

    1991-01-01

    Addition of exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to cultures of adult murine spleen cells with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) results in an augmented plaque forming cell (PFC) response. The influence of GM-CSF on the ability of neonatal spleen cells to suppress the anti-SRBC plaque forming response of adult spleen cells was tested by adding GM-CSF to cultures of neonatal and adult spleen cells. The suppressive capacity of the neonatal spleen cells was augmented by exogenous GM-CSF. The augmented suppression of the neonatal spleen cells was dependent on a G-10 adherent population since the addition of GM-CSF to cultures containing G-10 passed neonatal spleen cells resulted in an augmented PFC response and not suppression. Neonatal splenic glass adherent cells were also capable of suppressing the response. Neonatal spleen cells or purified neonatal glass adherent spleen cells cultured in the presence of GM-CSF had markedly increased levels of PGE2 in the culture supernatant. Neonatal spleen cells cultured with GM-CSF had increased numbers of morphologically identifiable macrophages after 48 hr of culture. Both irradiation and G-10 passage of the neonatal spleen diminished the numbers of macrophages formed in response to GM-CSF, and both of these manipulations resulted in reversal of suppression in response to GM-CSF. Thus, the augmented suppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in response to GM-CSF is probably mediated by its ability to drive monocyte to macrophage differentiation as well as increase the suppressive capacity of the existing neonatal splenic macrophages by increasing their production of PGE2

  4. Torsion of the accessory spleen with infarction : CT features in a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Jung Kyung; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Mee Eun; Pyun, Hae Wook; Lee, Il Gi; Lee, Jong Gil; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Ik Su [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Torsion of the accessory spleen is a rare entity that can have variable clinical presentations. We report case involving an 11-year-old boy with severe abdominal pain and a mass that was found to be due to infarction of the accessory spleen, which was twisted on its pedicle. CT revealed a low-attenuating mass with peripheral inflammatory changes in the left upper abdomen. The mass was pathologically confirmed as torsion of the accessory spleen with infarction. (author)

  5. Radioisotope spleen scan in patients with splenic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishalany, H.G.; Miller, J.H.; Woolley, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    The technetium /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid liver-spleen scan is a valuable aid in diagnosis and treatment of patients with splenic injury. After reviewing the charts of 47 patients who were ill as a result of splenic trauma, we came to the following conclusions: (1) the scan identified the injury, accurately mapped its extent, and indicated the presence or absence of associated liver injuries; (2) the scans were useful in following the extent and rate of healing of the splenic injury; (3) the scan is an indirect measurement of of return of splenic fuction; (4) the procedure can be performed in a reasonable time frame with no serious morbidity; and (5) the indications, contraindications, and timing of scans are now reasonably well established

  6. Radioisotope spleen scan in patients with splenic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishalany, H.G.; Miller, J.H.; Woolley, M.M.

    1982-09-01

    The technetium /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid liver-spleen scan is a valuable aid in diagnosis and treatment of patients with splenic injury. After reviewing the charts of 47 patients who were ill as a result of splenic trauma, we came to the following conclusions: (1) the scan identified the injury, accurately mapped its extent, and indicated the presence or absence of associated liver injuries; (2) the scans were useful in following the extent and rate of healing of the splenic injury; (3) the scan is an indirect measurement of of return of splenic fuction; (4) the procedure can be performed in a reasonable time frame with no serious morbidity; and (5) the indications, contraindications, and timing of scans are now reasonably well established.

  7. Post-Traumatic Pseudocyst of the Spleen: Sclerotherapy with Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelk, Markus; Rogler, Gerhard; Strotzer, Michael; Lock, Guntram; Manke, Christoph; Feuerbach, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of successful percutaneous treatment of a chronic post-traumatic splenic pseudocyst using alcohol as the sclerosing agent. A 26-year-old man presented with a symptomatic cystic mass located in the spleen. Aspiration of 300 ml of fluid was only temporarily effective, and therefore a drainage catheter was placed 3 days later. After histopathologic and microbiologic exclusion of a malignant or infectious origin, local sclerotherapy with alcohol was performed because of recurrence after percutaneous drainage. This therapy was repeated six times within 2 weeks. Two weeks later, the remaining volume was determined to be 16 ml. Six months after treatment the cyst was no longer visible. To our knowledge this is the first case of a chronic post-traumatic splenic cyst treated with alcohol. Percutaneous sclerotherapy of a symptomatic post-traumatic splenic pseudocyst may be an alternative to surgical treatment

  8. Role of the spleen in cyclophosphamide-induced hematosuppression and extramedullary hematopoiesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Meng, Qinggang; Qiao, Haiquan; Jiang, Hongchi; Sun, Xueying

    2009-05-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is induced in spleens due to various diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of spleen in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced hematosuppression and EMH in mice. Balb/c mice were IP injected with 300 mg/kg CTX 2 weeks after splenectomy or sham operation and randomly sacrificed 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after injection. Blood samples were collected, and spleens were weighed, histologically analyzed, and then used for flow cytometry. There were significant differences in white blood count, red blood count, platelet numbers and hemoglobin concentration between the splenectomized and sham-operated mice after CTX injection. The cellularity of the spleen was reduced 3 days following CTX treatment but then rose 7 days after CTX treatment. The numbers of colony-forming units in the spleen reached a peak 7 days after CTX injection, then declined. Flow cytometry demonstrated the percentage of CD34(+) and CD117(+) cells in the spleen increased 7 days after CTX injection, indicating the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the spleen. The study indicates that EMH occurs as a compensatory reaction to CTX-induced hematosuppression in the murine spleen, implying that conservation of the spleen may promote the recovery of cancer patients from chemotherapy-induced hematosuppression.

  9. Ehrlichia canis morulae and DNA detection in whole blood and spleen aspiration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Joice Lara Maia; Dagnone, Ana Sílvia; Munhoz, Thiago Demarchi; João, Carolina Franchi; Pereira, Wanderson Adriano Biscola; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the detection of Ehrlichia canis morulae and DNA by nPCR in whole blood and spleen aspiration. The sample included 40 dogs showing thrombocytopenia associated to clinical signs suggestive of canine ehrlichiosis. Morulae detection showed that in 35 of the dogs studied, 17 had morulae in spleen tissue, and two in buffy coat smears. E. canis DNA was detected in 29/40 blood samples. We verified that morulae detection is more efficient in cytological preparations from spleen aspiration. On the other hand, nPCR on spleen and blood samples were equally efficient for disease diagnosis.

  10. Interactions between Biliverdin, Oxidative Damage, and Spleen Morphology after Simulated Aggressive Encounters in Veiled Chameleons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Butler

    Full Text Available Stressors frequently increase oxidative damage--unless organisms simultaneously mount effective antioxidant responses. One putative mitigative mechanism is the use of biliverdin, an antioxidant produced in the spleen during erythrocyte degradation. We hypothesized that both wild and captive-bred male veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus, which are highly aggressive to conspecifics, would respond to agonistic displays with increased levels of oxidative damage, but that increased levels of biliverdin would limit this increase. We found that even just visual exposure to a potential combatant resulted in decreased body mass during the subsequent 48-hour period, but that hematocrit, biliverdin concentration in the bile, relative spleen size, and oxidative damage in plasma, liver, and spleen were unaffected. Contrary to our predictions, we found that individuals with smaller spleens exhibited greater decreases in hematocrit and higher bile biliverdin concentrations, suggesting a revision to the idea of spleen-dependent erythrocyte processing. Interestingly, individuals with larger spleens had reduced oxidative damage in both the liver and spleen, demonstrating the spleen's importance in modulating oxidative damage. We also uncovered differences in spleen size and oxidative damage between wild and captive-bred chameleons, highlighting environmentally dependent differences in oxidative physiology. Lastly, we found no relationship between oxidative damage and biliverdin concentration, calling into question biliverdin's antioxidant role in this species.

  11. Effect of (+)-amphetamine on the retention of 3H-catecholamines in slices of normal and reserpinized rat brain and heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.B.; Renyi, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of reserpine on the inhibition by (+)-amphetamine and cocaine of the accumulation of 3 H-dopamine (DA) in striatal slices and 3 H-noradrenaline (NA) in slices of cerebral occipital cortex and heart atrium of rats and the release of the 3 H-amines from these tissues were examined. Reserpine (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) was injected 18 hours before the experiments. It was found that reserpine markedly enhanced the in vitro potency of amphetamine in the striatum and heart but only slightly in the cortex. After administration in vivo (+)-amphetamine was about 10 times more potent in reducing the amine accumulation in the cortex as in the striatum. Reserpine enhanced the effect in both regions. The inhibitory potency of cocaine in vitro was unchanged by reserpine in the striatum but was reduced in the cortex and heart. Reserpine did not change the inhibitory potency of desipramine in the cortex and heart. The release of the 3 H-amines by (+)-amphetamine was enhanced by reserpine in the striatum and heart but the small release produced in the cortex was not increased. The release produced by cocaine was similarly enhanced by reserpine but cocaine was much less active than (+)-amphetamine. The results indicate that (+)-amphetamine and cocaine inhibit the amine accumulation by different mechanisms. (author)

  12. Heart Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health! Get a free badge or banner to post to your website or blog. Are you at risk for heart disease? Here's how to find out . Planning to use The Heart Truth logo? Check out our logo guidelines and downloads. ...

  13. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it may be caused by diseases, such as connective tissue disorders, excessive iron buildup in your body (hemochromatosis), the buildup of abnormal proteins (amyloidosis) or by some cancer treatments. Causes of heart infection A heart infection, ...

  14. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family history of heart attack race – African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and native Hawaiians are at ... Your doctor will prescribe the medicines that are right for you. If you have had a heart ...

  15. Heart pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation; Artificial pacemaker; Permanent pacemaker; Internal pacemaker; Cardiac resynchronization therapy; CRT; Biventricular pacemaker; Arrhythmia - pacemaker; Abnormal heart ...

  16. Utility of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, galectin-3, and apelin for the evaluation of patients with acute heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kimmenade, Roland R.; Januzzi, James L.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Sharma, Umesh C.; Bakker, Jaap A.; Low, Adrian F.; Martinez, Abelardo; Crijns, Harry J.; MacRae, Calum A.; Menheere, Paul P.; Pinto, Yigal M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to explore the role of new biomarkers in heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: We investigated the utility of novel serum markers alone or together with natriuretic peptide testing for diagnosis and short-term prognosis estimation in subjects with acute HF. METHODS: Plasma

  17. Effect of a regimen of optimal medical therapy on brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in heart failure in the Pakistani population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Kayani, M.; Munir, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To document the effect of optimal medical therapy (OMT) on BNP levels in heart failure in Pakistani population. Methodology: In this Quasi experimental study, 75 consecutive stage C heart failure patients that had not been on OMT were included. These patients had been referred to AFIC-NIHD Heart Transplantation Department for assessment regarding heart transplantation. Initial assessments were carried out in hospital. Patients who were on OMT already were excluded. The prescription (carvedilol, lisinopril, spironolactone) was introduced as in patient as per pre defined protocol after clinical, imaging and lab evaluation. The patients were followed up in clinic and the dose escalation was done at regular intervals in out patients department. Clinical and lab variables were collected included BNP levels before starting treatment and 4 weeks after treatment. Results : Males were 75% and females were 25%. Mean age was 38.69 +- 12.98 years (range 18-70 years). Mean Ejection fraction was 23.9% (range 15 - 34%). At one month clinical status of all patients improved except one. The patients had improved from NYHA class-III to NYHA class-II of dyspnoea. The mean baseline BNP level was 1331 pg/ mL, and the BNP level 4 weeks after the OMT trial was 951.9 pg/mL. This reduction was statistically significant (p=0.016). Conclusion: OMT improves the BNP levels within a span of one month in patients with advanced systolic heart failure. This also correlated with the clinical improvement in the patients, and it was observed that BNP levels helped to monitor patients objectively and adjust OMT. (author)

  18. Ex vivo perfusion of human spleens maintains clearing and processing functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Pierre A; Milon, Geneviève; Brousse, Valentine; Correas, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Bertrand; Couvelard, Anne; Kianmanesh, Reza; Farges, Olivier; Sauvanet, Alain; Paye, François; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noëlle; Ottone, Catherine; Khun, Huot; Fiette, Laurence; Guigon, Ghislaine; Huerre, Michel; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; David, Peter H

    2006-05-01

    The spleen plays a central role in the pathophysiology of several potentially severe diseases such as inherited red cell membrane disorders, hemolytic anemias, and malaria. Research on these diseases is hampered by ethical constraints that limit human spleen tissue explorations. We identified a surgical situation--left splenopancreatectomy for benign pancreas tumors--allowing spleen retrieval at no risk for patients. Ex vivo perfusion of retrieved intact spleens for 4 to 6 hours maintained a preserved parenchymal structure, vascular flow, and metabolic activity. Function preservation was assessed by testing the ability of isolated-perfused spleens to retain Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes preexposed to the antimalarial drug artesunate (Art-iRBCs). More than 95% of Art-iRBCs were cleared from the perfusate in 2 hours. At each transit through isolated-perfused spleens, parasite remnants were removed from 0.2% to 0.23% of Art-iRBCs, a proportion consistent with the 0.02% to 1% pitting rate previously established in artesunate-treated patients. Histologic analysis showed that more than 90% of Art-iRBCs were retained and processed in the red pulp, providing the first direct evidence of a zone-dependent parasite clearance by the human spleen. Human-specific physiologic or pathophysiologic mechanisms involving clearing or processing functions of the spleen can now be experimentally explored in a human tissue context.

  19. Thermal ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ya-Qi; Liang, Ping

    2013-05-01

    Many studies have been conducted on splenic thermal ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism. In this article, we review the evolution and current status of radiofrequency and microwave ablation in the treatment of spleen diseases. All publications from 1990 to 2011 on radiofrequency and microwave ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism were retrieved by searching PubMed. Thermal ablation in the spleen for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism can preserve part of the spleen and maintain splenic immunologic function. Thermal ablation for assisting hemostasis in partial splenectomy minimizes blood loss during operation. Thermal ablation for spleen trauma reduces the number of splenectomy and the amount of blood transfusion. Thermal ablation for splenic metastasis is minimally invasive and can be done under the guidance of an ultrasound, which helps shorten the recovery time. Thermal ablation for hypersplenism increases platelet (PLT) and white blood cell (WBC) counts and improves liver function. It also helps to maintain splenic immunologic function and even improves splenic immunologic function in the short-term. In conclusion, thermal ablative approaches are promising for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism. In order to improve therapeutic effects, directions for future studies may include standardized therapeutic indications, prolonged observation periods and enlarged sample sizes.

  20. Detection of early gamma-postirradiation effects in murine spleen by proton NMR relaxation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowska, G; Lewa, C J; Ramee, M P; Husson, F; De Certaines, J D

    2001-01-01

    It was our aim to evaluate the potential of proton relaxation times for the early detection of radiation-induced spleen changes. Female Swiss mice were irradiated with doses ranging from 0.05 Gy to 4 Gy. The body weight, the spleen weight and the spleen water content of single animals were determined. Measurements of longitudinal (T1) and transversal (T2) proton relaxation times of the spleen samples were performed in a 0.47 T spectrometer. Histological examinations of the control and irradiated organs were performed. NMR measurements during the first five days after irradiation showed that total body gamma-irradiation with doses from 1.5 Gy to 4 Gy results in decreasing T1 of the murine spleen. Significant shortening in T2 was observed for the spleen of animals irradiated with a dose of 4 Gy. Histological examinations demonstrated subnormal architecture in slices derived from animals irradiated with 2 Gy and 4 Gy. The fluctuations of the spleen T1 and T2 of irradiated mice are correlated with relative spleen weight and can be used to estimate radiation induced changes in this organ.

  1. Epithelial cyst of the spleen with squamous metaplasia: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, Vissa; Reddy, Vengala Chidananda; Rao, Nandam Mohan; Grandhi, Bhavana; Kona, Suneetha

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial splenic cysts are uncommon lesions which occur the spleen. The aetiopathogenesis of these cysts is not clear. We are reporting a case of an epithelial cyst which occurred in the spleen in a 40-year-old female, which was multi loculated and which had flattened lining epithelium. Some foci showed squamous metaplasia.

  2. Effects of boron on structure and antioxidative activities of spleen in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qianqian; Li, Shenghe; Qiao, Enmei; Tang, Zhongtao; Jin, Erhui; Jin, Guangming; Gu, Youfang

    2014-04-01

    In order to determine the relationship between boron and development of the spleen, especially in the promoting biological effects, we examined the effects of different levels of boron on weight, organ index, microstructure, and antioxidative activities of the spleen in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected and treated with different concentrations of boron, and then, the organs were resected and weighed. One half of the tissue was fixed and embedded in paraffin to observe tissue structure changes. The other half of the tissue was homogenated for determining the antioxidant activities. The results showed that 40 mg/L of boron could increase weight, organ indexes, and antioxidant capacity of spleens and improve the spleen tissue structure, while the boron concentration above 80 mg/L could decrease weight, organ indexes, and antioxidant capacity of spleens and damage the spleen tissue structure. The higher the concentration, the more serious the damage was. Especially at the concentration of 640 mg/L, it could significantly inhibit the development of the spleen and even exhibit toxic effect. Hence, low boron concentration played a protective role in the development of the spleen, while high boron concentration could damage the organs and even produce toxic effect.

  3. An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen simulating tumors of the tail of pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen, a rare condition may present as pseudocyst of pancreas and other cystic tumors of the pancreas. This case report along with the review of literature attributes some clinical features and investigative pattern to differentiate between epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen and other cystic tumor of pancreas.

  4. Two different mechanisms of immune-complex trapping in the mouse spleen during immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, K.; van den Berg, T. K.; Dijkstra, C. D.

    1993-01-01

    The capacity of immune-complex (IC) trapping was examined using purified horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-anti-HRP (PAP) on frozen sections of mouse spleen in vitro. We investigated the trapping mechanisms by applying the IC with or without fresh mouse serum added on the spleen sections of naive as

  5. Accessory spleen presenting as acute abdomen: A case report and operative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Landmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accessory spleens are found in 10–30% of patients and are asymptomatic. Rarely, torsion of an accessory spleen can cause abdominal pain and acute abdomen. We present the case of an 8-year-old girl who arrives to the emergency room with left upper quadrant abdominal pain. CT scan revealed a non-enhancing soft tissue mass and multiple small splenules. Laparoscopy revealed a torsed accessory spleen and malrotation. Accessory spleen is a common congenital anomaly that is frequently asymptomatic. Rarely, an accessory spleen may become torsed around its vascular pedicle resulting in severe abdominal pain. Treatment is surgical resection. Torsion of accessory splenic tissue is a rare cause of acute abdomen in pediatric patients.

  6. Increased numbers of spleen colony forming units in B cell deficient CBA/N mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Krupienicz, A.; Scher, I.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of exogenous and endogenous spleen colonies was studied in immune-defective mice expressing the CBA/N X-linked xid gene. Bone marrow and spleen cells of immune deficient mice formed increased numbers of eight-day exogenous spleen colonies when transferred to either normal or B cell deficient lethally irradiated recipients. Moreover, defective mice showed increased formation of five-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from transient endogenous colony forming units; T-CFU) and of ten-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from CFU-S). Among the possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects, the most probable appears the one in which decreased numbers of B cell precursors stimulate stem cell pools through a feedback mechanism. (orig.) [de

  7. The spleen-to-liver ratios in hepatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorne, M.; Jurvelin, J.; Vaehaetalo, S.; Himanka, E.

    1984-01-01

    We compared light pen (LPEN) and Region of Interest (ROI) computer methods in determining spleen-to-liver (S/L) ratios both in anterior and posterior images in various liver diseases. The S/L ratio was independent of age or type of colloid used (equal particle size provided). Results with corresponding LPEN and ROI programs did not differ significantly from each other. The sensitivity and specificity were tested and the anterior view yielded somewhat better results than the posterior view but the best results were obtained when both projections were used. The sensitivity for all liver diseases was 60% and the corresponding specificity 93%. In hepatocellular diseases the sensitivity was 80-100%, but the S/L ratio had only 37% sensitivity for hepatic metastases. Hepatomegaly in the anterior view was found in 67% of fatty liver cases, in 25% of cirrhosis cases, in 20% of hepatitis and in 25% of metastatic livers. Splenomegaly was noted in 39-54% of patients with hepatocellular diseases but only in 4-10% of metastatic diseases. (orig.) [de

  8. The effect of heart-and kidney-Benefiting Chinese Herbal Medicine on the function of cholinergic M-and Gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) receptor in brain tissues of analogue dementia rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Qizhong; Gong Bin; Fang Jun

    1993-01-01

    3 H-QNB and 3 H-GABA were used as radioactive ligand for M-and GABA receptors respectively. M-and GABA receptors were assayed by radioligand binding assay (RBA) in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of analogue dementia rats. It was found that R t of M receptor was decreased in cerebral cortex and hippocampus and R t of GABA receptor was decreased in cerebellum of analogue dementia rats. The dissociation constant (K D ) of M-receptor was decreased significantly in cerebral cortex and K D value of (GABA) receptor was decreased in cerebellum of analogue dementia rats. The decreased R t of M-and GABA receptor in brain tissue of analogue dementia rats was raised by Heart- and Kidney-Benefiting Chinese Herbs as well as hydergin

  9. The effect of heart-and kidney-Benefiting Chinese Herbal Medicine on the function of cholinergic M-and Gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) receptor in brain tissues of analogue dementia rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qizhong, Mo; Bin, Gong; Jun, Fang [Shanghai College of TCM, Shanghai (China); and others

    1993-05-01

    [sup 3]H-QNB and [sup 3]H-GABA were used as radioactive ligand for M-and GABA receptors respectively. M-and GABA receptors were assayed by radioligand binding assay (RBA) in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of analogue dementia rats. It was found that R[sub t] of M receptor was decreased in cerebral cortex and hippocampus and R[sub t] of GABA receptor was decreased in cerebellum of analogue dementia rats. The dissociation constant (K[sub D]) of M-receptor was decreased significantly in cerebral cortex and K[sub D] value of (GABA) receptor was decreased in cerebellum of analogue dementia rats. The decreased R[sub t] of M-and GABA receptor in brain tissue of analogue dementia rats was raised by Heart- and Kidney-Benefiting Chinese Herbs as well as hydergin.

  10. Effect of milrinone on the cardiac function and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels in patients with senile refractory heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-Na Wei1

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of milrinone on the cardiac function and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP levels in patients with senile refractory heart failure. Methods: 90 patients with senile refractory heart failure who were treated in our hospital between August 2013 and August 2016 were collected and divided into control group (n=45 and observation group (n=45 according to the random number table. The control group received regular clinical treatment, and the observation group received regular + milrinone treatment. The cardiac function and serum NT-proBN contents were compared between two groups of patients before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, the differences in ultrasound and serum cardiac function indexes and serum NT-proBN levels were not statistically significant between two groups of patients. After treatment, ultrasound serum cardiac function parameter LVEDD level in observation group was lower than that in control group while CI and SV levels were higher than those in control group; serum cardiac function indexes Cys-C, GDF-15, sST2 and H-FABP contents were lower than those in control group; serum NT-proBNP content was lower than that in control group. Conclusion: Milrinone therapy can optimize the cardiac function and reduce the serum NT-proBN levels in patients with senile refractory heart failure.

  11. Acute hypoxia stress induced abundant differential expression genes and alternative splicing events in heart of tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun Hong; Li, Hong Lian; Li, Bi Jun; Gu, Xiao Hui; Lin, Hao Ran

    2018-01-10

    Hypoxia is one of the critical environmental stressors for fish in aquatic environments. Although accumulating evidences indicate that gene expression is regulated by hypoxia stress in fish, how genes undergoing differential gene expression and/or alternative splicing (AS) in response to hypoxia stress in heart are not well understood. Using RNA-seq, we surveyed and detected 289 differential expressed genes (DEG) and 103 genes that undergo differential usage of exons and splice junctions events (DUES) in heart of a hypoxia tolerant fish, Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus following 12h hypoxic treatment. The spatio-temporal expression analysis validated the significant association of differential exon usages in two randomly selected DUES genes (fam162a and ndrg2) in 5 tissues (heart, liver, brain, gill and spleen) sampled at three time points (6h, 12h, and 24h) under acute hypoxia treatment. Functional analysis significantly associated the differential expressed genes with the categories related to energy conservation, protein synthesis and immune response. Different enrichment categories were found between the DEG and DUES dataset. The Isomerase activity, Oxidoreductase activity, Glycolysis and Oxidative stress process were significantly enriched for the DEG gene dataset, but the Structural constituent of ribosome and Structural molecule activity, Ribosomal protein and RNA binding protein were significantly enriched only for the DUES genes. Our comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals abundant stress responsive genes and their differential regulation function in the heart tissues of Nile tilapia under acute hypoxia stress. Our findings will facilitate future investigation on transcriptome complexity and AS regulation during hypoxia stress in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Heart regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckwoldt, Kaja; Weinberger, Florian; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Regenerating an injured heart holds great promise for millions of patients suffering from heart diseases. Since the human heart has very limited regenerative capacity, this is a challenging task. Numerous strategies aiming to improve heart function have been developed. In this review we focus on approaches intending to replace damaged heart muscle by new cardiomyocytes. Different strategies for the production of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, by direct reprogramming and induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation are discussed regarding their therapeutic potential and respective advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, different methods for the transplantation of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are described and their clinical perspectives are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    McMurray, John; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure occurs in 3% to 4% of adults aged over 65 years, usually as a consequence of coronary artery disease or hypertension, and causes breathlessness, effort intolerance, fluid retention, and increased mortality. The 5-year mortality in people with systolic heart failure ranges from 25% to 75%, often owing to sudden death following ventricular arrhythmia. Risks of cardiovascular events are increased in people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) or heart failure.

  14. Artificial heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-18

    Super-pure plutonium-238 could use heat produced during fission to power an implanted artificial heart. Three model hearts have worked for some time. Concern that excess heat would make the procedure unsafe for humans has broadened the search for another energy source, such as electrohydraulic drive or an external power battery. A back pack approach may provide an interim solution until materials are developed which can withstand heart activity and be small enough for implantation.

  15. Types of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  16. Splenectomy exacerbates atrial inflammatory fibrosis and vulnerability to atrial fibrillation induced by pressure overload in rats: Possible role of spleen-derived interleukin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Naohiko; Gotoh, Koro; Fukui, Akira; Saito, Shotaro; Aoki, Kohei; Kume, Osamu; Shinohara, Tetsuji; Teshima, Yasushi; Saikawa, Tetsunori

    2016-01-01

    The spleen is important for cardiac remodeling induced by myocardial infarction. However, the role of the spleen in inflammatory atrial fibrosis induced by pressure overload is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether splenectomy (SPX) attenuates or exacerbates pressure overload-induced atrial inflammatory fibrosis and vulnerability to atrial fibrillation (AF) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old) were divided into Sham+Sham, Sham+SPX, abdominal aortic constriction (AAC)+Sham, and AAC+SPX groups, and were evaluated for inflammation, fibrosis, and AF on days 2, 4, 14, and 28. On day 4, an AAC-induced rise in interleukin-10 (IL-10) level was observed in the spleen, serum, and left atrium (LA), with SPX showing inhibitory effects in the latter 2 instances. In addition, AAC-induced M2 macrophage recruitment into the LA was decreased by SPX, as determined by immunofluorescence labeling (P <.05). On day 28, AAC-induced heterogeneous interstitial fibrosis of the LA was enhanced by SPX (P <.05). Electrophysiologic recordings revealed that the duration of AF and prolongation of interatrial conduction time induced by AAC were increased by SPX (P < .01 and P <.05, respectively). Furthermore, in the AAC+SPX group, the number of macrophages infiltrating into the LA on day 2 was marginal, but increased on day 28 relative to the AAC+Sham group. IL-10 administration attenuated the AAC-induced atrial remodeling that was aggravated by SPX. The study results suggest that SPX exacerbates AAC-induced inflammatory atrial fibrosis and increases vulnerability to AF after 4 weeks, likely because of depletion of spleen-derived IL-10. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Spleen size changes in children with homozygous β-thalassaemia in relation to blood transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpathios, Th.; Antypas, A.; Dimitriou, P.; Nicolaidou, P.; Fretzayas, A.; Thomaidis, Th.; Matsaniotis, N.

    1982-01-01

    18 thalassaemic children, aged 3.5 to 13 years comprise our clinical material. In 14 of them, clinically elicited spleen markings, haematocrit, blood platelet count and red cell morphology were studied daily for a whole period between 2 transfusions. In 10 patients considerable changes in spleen size were noticed. According to our clinical observations the spleen size starts decreasing 1 to 3 d after blood transfusion up to the 10th posttransfusion day fluctuating thereafter to reach its maximum size again prior to the next blood transfusion. The decrease of spleen size was followed by an increase of haematocrit and blood platelet count and vice versa. 4 additional children were studied clinically only twice: prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. A definite decrease of the spleen size following blood transfusion was observed. Spleen and liver sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid uptake was studied in 10 of the above children prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. Statistically significant post-transfusion increase of the spleen uptake was demonstrated. Our findings suggest that (a) splenic size is relevant to blood volume sequestrated int this organ, (b) splenic radioactive uptake increases with its post-transfusion reductin in size. (author)

  18. Influence of apoptosis on liver and spleen resistance in dogs with visceral leishmaniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pamela Rodrigues Reina; Franciscato, Douglas Augusto; Rossit, Sabrina Micelli; Munari, Danísio Prado; Vasconcelos, Rosemeri de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate apoptosis and parasite load in the liver and spleen of dogs with visceral leishmaniosis (VL), using immunohistochemistry. Liver and spleen samples from 71 dogs with VL were used. The parasite load in the spleen and liver showed significant difference between organs in infected group (P=0.0219). The density of the parasite load in the spleen (median=2.4) was higher than liver (median=0.8). Immunodetection of apoptotic cells was predominant in lymphocytes and differ between the infected and control group in spleen (P=0.0307) and liver (P=0.0346). There was a significant correlation between apoptosis and parasite load (P = 0.0084; r=0.3104) only in the spleen of the infected group, where it was observed that, when increasing the number of apoptotic cells increases the parasitic load. It was concluded that the liver and spleen of infected dogs presented greater numbers of cells undergoing apoptosis (lymphocytes) than the control group, thus suggesting that this process may be contributing towards the survival of Leishmania in these organs, because lymphocyte in apoptosis did not have the ability to present and recognize the antigen, allowing the survival of the parasite.

  19. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV{sub R}/LV{sub W}), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV{sub R}/(LV{sub W} + SV{sub 0})], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} (r = 0.759, p < 0.01). The other analyzed factors showed no correlation with changes in liver and spleen volumes. The spleen and remnant liver volumes were increased at CT volumetry performed 2 weeks after partial liver donation. Among the various analyzed factors, LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  20. Phosphoprotein phosphatase of bovine spleen cell nuclei: physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezyapkin, V.I.; Leonova, L.E.; Komkova, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of phosphoprotein phosphatase (EC 1.3.1.16) from bovine spleen cell nuclei were studied. The enzyme possesses broad substrate specificity and catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphocasein, ATP, ADP, and p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). K/sub m/ for ATP, ADP, and pNPP are equal to 0.44, 0.43, and 1.25 mM, respectively. M/sub r/ of the enzyme, according to the data of gel filtraction of Sephadex G-75 and electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel of various concentrations is ∼ 33,000. In electrophoresis in the presence of SDS, two protein bands with M/sub r/ 12,000 and 18,000 are detected. In the enzyme molecule, acid amino acid residues predominate; two free SH groups and two disulfide bridges are detected. Phosphoprotein phosphatase is a glycoprotein, containing ∼ 22% carbonhydrates. The protein possesses a supplementary absorption maximum at 560 nm. Ammonium molybdate is a competitive inhibitor with K/sub i/ 0.37 μM, while sodium fluoride is a noncompetitive inhibitor with K/sub i/ 1.3 mM. Incubation in the presence of 2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride for 25 h leads to a loss of ∼ 46% of the enzymatic activity. Ammonium molybdate, sodium fluoride, and PMSF are reversible inhibitors. Modifications of the SH groups, NH 2 groups, and histidine leads to a decrease in the enzymatic activity. Incubation of phosphoprotein phosphatase with [γ- 32 P]ATP leads to the incorporation of 0.33 mole 33 P per mole of the enzyme. The mechanism of hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond, catalyzed by the enzyme, is discussed

  1. Palliative Spleen Irradiation: Can we Standardize its Technique?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NAZMY, M.S.; RADWAN, A.; MOKHTAR, M.

    2008-01-01

    To explore the pattern of practice of palliative splenic irradiation (PSI) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University. Patients and Methods: The medical records of patients referred for PSI during the time period from 1990 to 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. We compared the three most common planning techniques (two parallel opposing, single direct field, anterior and lateral fields). Results: Eighteen patients who received PSI were identified. Thirteen patients were diagnosed as CML and 5 as CLL. The mean age of the patients was 44 (±16) years and the majority were men (60%). Spleen enlargement was documented in all cases. The single direct anterior field was the most commonly used technique. The dose per fraction ranged from 25 c Gy to 100 c Gy. The total dose ranged from 125 c Gy to 1200 c Gy and the median was 200 c Gy (mean 327 c Gy). There was no significant difference between CML and CLL patients regarding the dose level. Three out of 5 CLL patients and only one out of 13 CML patients received re-irradiation. All patients showed subjective improvement regarding pain and swelling. There was a significant increase in the hemoglobin level and a significant decrease in the WBC count. The single direct field shows variations in the dose from 56 to 102%; however, it is the simplest and the best regarding the dose to the surrounding normal tissues especially the kidney and the liver. Conclusion: PSI has a significant palliative benefit. Although the most widely accepted technique is the 2 parallel opposing anterior-posterior fields, single anterior field is also considered as a suitable option. Higher doses are needed for CLL patients compared to CML patients

  2. Tie2 Expressing Monocytes in the Spleen of Patients with Primary Myelofibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Campanelli

    Full Text Available Primary myelofibrosis (PMF is a Philadelphia-negative (Ph- myeloproliferative disorder, showing abnormal CD34+ progenitor cell trafficking, splenomegaly, marrow fibrosis leading to extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis, and abnormal neoangiogenesis in either the bone marrow or the spleen. Monocytes expressing the angiopoietin-2 receptor (Tie2 have been shown to support abnormal angiogenic processes in solid tumors through a paracrine action that takes place in proximity to the vessels. In this study we investigated the frequency of Tie2 expressing monocytes in the spleen tissue samples of patients with PMF, and healthy subjects (CTRLs, and evaluated their possible role in favouring spleen angiogenesis. We show by confocal microscopy that in the spleen tissue of patients with PMF, but not of CTRLs, the most of the CD14+ cells are Tie2+ and are close to vessels; by flow cytometry, we found that Tie2 expressing monocytes were Tie2+CD14lowCD16brightCDL62-CCR2- (TEMs and their frequency was higher (p = 0.008 in spleen tissue-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs of patients with PMF than in spleen tissue-derived MNCs from CTRLs undergoing splenectomy for abdominal trauma. By in vitro angiogenesis assay we evidenced that conditioned medium of immunomagnetically selected spleen tissue derived CD14+ cells of patients with PMF induced a denser tube like net than that of CTRLs; in addition, CD14+Tie2+ cells sorted from spleen tissue derived single cell suspension of patients with PMF show a higher expression of genes involved in angiogenesis than that found in CTRLs. Our results document the enrichment of Tie2+ monocytes expressing angiogenic genes in the spleen of patients with PMF, suggesting a role for these cells in starting/maintaining the pathological angiogenesis in this organ.

  3. Dynamics and distribution of /sup 3/H-dopamine in serum and tissues of heart, brain and adrenal glands of rats with endotoxic shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainov, A; Boschkov, B; Nikolov, N [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1980-04-01

    The dynamics and the distribution of /sup 3/H-dopamine in the serum and tissues of the heart, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and adrenal glands were studied in 60 Wistar rats. The rats received intravenously 7.4 MBq /sup 3/H-dopamine/kg body weight 10 minutes before they were killed. The experimental animals were subjected to endotoxic shock by injecting them with 2 mg endotoxin of E. coli O 111:B/sub 4//kg body weight, and killed after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min, respectively. Maximum increase of the tritium activity in the organs investigated was observed 20 min after the shock.

  4. Computed tomography of the spleen and liver in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    The spleen was assessed in 10 patients with sickle cell disease studied with computed tomography (CT) for abdominal pain and/or unexplained fever. Patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia were found to have small, densely calcified spleens with occasional low-density infarcts. Five of six had hepatomegaly, and there was one case each of hepatic abscess, infarcts, and hemochromatosis. All patients with heterozygous sickle cell disease were found to have splenomegaly, with a variety of findings including acute hemorrhage, acute and chronic infarcts, rupture, and possible sequestration. It was concluded that CT is useful for evaluating the status of the spleen and liver in symptomatic patients with sickle cell disease

  5. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the spleen: report of a case in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardanelli, Esteban; Cermeno, Claudia; Rizzi, Ana Maria; Felipe, Laura; Goldberg, Alberto; Moguillansky, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor of the spleen in a 4 years old child. Clinical findings were limited to diffuse abdominal pain and a palpable mass at the left hypochondrium. Ultrasonography and CT revealed a solid homogeneous mass in the lower pole of the spleen, with irregular enhancement with IV contrast. Laparoscopic splenectomy was performed. The diagnosis was histological. The pseudotumor of the spleen is extremely rare, especially in children, with only 4 cases (including our own) reported in the literature. Our patient constitutes the youngest case ever reported. (author)

  6. Active suppression of in vitro reactivity of spleen cells after BCG treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbach-Arbouys, S.; Poupon, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    It was found that spleen cells from mice injected i.v. with large doses of BCG responded to PHA stimulation less intensely than did normal spleen cells. It was shown that nylon wool column purified BCG treated T cells also had a low PHA reactivity. Unfractionated spleen cells, adherent cells or T-enriched populations from BCG treated mice, when added to normal T cells lowered their PHA reactivity. When the same BCG treated cell populations were added to tumor cells in vitro, they inhibited their growth. (author)

  7. Recurrent spleen enlargement during cyclic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor therapy for myelodysplastic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmer, A.; Karmochkine, M.; Cadiou, M.; Gerhartz, H.; Zittoun, R.

    1990-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman with refractory anemia with excess of blasts received sequential courses of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor therapy (GM-CSF) and low-dose cytosine arabinoside. Each course of GM-CSF induced a rapid and tremendous increase in leukocyte count as well as in spleen size, 111-indium chloride scanning suggested a myeloid metaplasia of the spleen. This observation suggests that in some patients the granulopoietic response to the myeloid growth factor stimulation may be predominant in the spleen

  8. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era.

  9. Regeneration of hemopoietic precursor cells in spleen organ cultures from irradiated mice: influence of genotype of cells injected and of the spleen microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Melchner, H.; Lieschke, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    The regeneration of hemopoietic precursor cells was monitored in spleen organ cultures from lethally irradiated mice injected with 10(7) normal syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow cells. The important role of the microenvironment in supporting hemopoiesis was confirmed by the failure of mutant Sl/Sld spleens to support CFC regeneration in organ cultures. However, the extent and quality of the CFC regeneration was clearly dependent on the genetic properties of the injected cells. Evidence for this was obtained from the regeneration patterns of various CFC types in organ cultured spleens derived from different mouse donor-recipient strain combinations that maintained the differences in the bone marrow frequency of various CFC types characteristic of the donor strain

  10. Regeneration of hemopoietic precursor cells in spleen organ cultures from irradiated mice: influence of genotype of cells injected and of the spleen microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Melchner, H.; Lieschke, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    The regeneration of hemopoietic precursor cells (colony-forming cells, CFC) was monitored in spleen organ cultures from lethally irradiated mice injected with 10(7) normal syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow cells. The important role of the microenvironment in supporting hemopoiesis was confirmed by the failure of mutant S1/S1d spleens to support CFC regeneration in organ cultures. However, the extent and quality of the CFC regeneration was clearly dependent on the genetic properties of the injected cells. Evidence for this was obtained from the regeneration patterns of various CFC types in organ cultured spleens derived from different mouse donor-recipient strain combinations (CBA/CBA, CBA/C57BL, CBA/BALB/c, C57BL/C57BL, C57BL/CBA, C57BL/BALB/c) that maintained the differences in the bone marrow frequency of various CFC types characteristic of the donor strain

  11. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  12. Spleen artery embolization increases the success of nonoperative management following blunt splenic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Chun-Jen Chen

    2011-08-01

    Conclusion: Performance of SAE for the patients with blunt splenic injury could increase the successful rate of NOM significantly and safely. An algorithm including the angioembolization might be beneficial in the management of patients with blunt spleen trauma.

  13. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Yasuo; Tamakawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Miura, R.; Ishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis. (author)

  14. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seino, Yasuo; Tamakawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Miura, R.; Ishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis.

  15. Dose to the liver and spleen in pediatric patients undergoing technetium-99m sulfur colloid scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.R.; Purdom, R.C.; Kereiakes, J.G.; Gelfand, M.J.; Maxon, H.R.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative conjugate view external counting techniques were applied to determine radiation dose to the liver and spleen in pediatric patients undergoing /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) liver scans. The effective half-life of /sup99m/Tc-SC was 5.8 +- 0.23 hours and 5.2 +- 0.68 hours in the liver and spleen, respectively. Dose per administered activity ranged from 0.34 to 0.63 rad/mCi (92 to 170 μGy/MBq) for the liver and 0.35 to 1.96 rad/mCi (95.0 to 530.0 μGy/MBq) for the spleen. The spleen to liver dose ratio ranged from 1.0 to 4.9. These values are compared with results extrapolated from published adult data to the pediatric population

  16. Scintigraphic diagnosis and computed tomographic localization of an accessory spleen following relapse of chronic immune thrombocytopaenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardaci, G.T.; Blake, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic immune thrombocytopaenia is an immunologically mediated disorder resulting in disordered platelet kinetics and potentially life-threatening disease. Failure of medical therapy is an indication for splenectomy, and responses are seen in 80% of patients following this procedure. An important cause of relapse following splenectomy is the presence of an accessory spleen. A patient with Hodgkin's Disease developed chronic immune thrombocytopaenia despite previous splenectomy. A remission was induced with immunosuppressive therapy, but he later relapsed. An accessory spleen was detected using 99 m Tc denatured red blood cells and localized using computed tomography. Resection of the accessory spleen resulted in clinical remission. As accessory spleens are often small in size, combined modality imaging is recommended in the evaluation of this disorder. 15 refs., 2 figs

  17. Loss of Sympathetic Nerves in Spleens from Patients with End Stage Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald B. Hoover

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The spleen is an important site for central regulation of immune function by noradrenergic sympathetic nerves, but little is known about this major region of neuroimmune communication in humans. Experimental studies using animal models have established that sympathetic innervation of the spleen is essential for cholinergic anti-inflammatory responses evoked by vagal nerve stimulation, and clinical studies are evaluating this approach for treating inflammatory diseases. Most data on sympathetic nerves in spleen derive from rodent studies, and this work has established that remodeling of sympathetic innervation can occur during inflammation. However, little is known about the effects of sepsis on spleen innervation. Our primary goals were to (i localize noradrenergic nerves in human spleen by immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, a specific noradrenergic marker, (ii determine if nerves occur in close apposition to leukocytes, and (iii determine if splenic sympathetic innervation is altered in patients who died from end stage sepsis. Staining for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT was done to screen for cholinergic nerves. Archived paraffin tissue blocks were used. Control samples were obtained from trauma patients or patients who died after hemorrhagic stroke. TH + nerves were associated with arteries and arterioles in all control spleens, occurring in bundles or as nerve fibers. Individual TH + nerve fibers entered the perivascular region where some appeared in close apposition to leukocytes. In marked contrast, spleens from half of the septic patients lacked TH + nerves fibers and the average abundance of TH + nerves for the septic group was only 16% of that for the control group (control: 0.272 ± 0.060% area, n = 6; sepsis: 0.043 ± 0.026% area, n = 8; P < 0.005. All spleens lacked cholinergic innervation. Our results provide definitive evidence for the distribution of noradrenergic

  18. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the heart, brain and skeletal muscle of rats; the influence of time after injection, depressed lipid metabolism and glucose-insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasalicky, J.; Konopkova, M.; Melichar, F.

    2001-01-01

    To study the effect of lipid depressing drugs on 18 FDG myocardial concentration. The changes of 18 FDG uptake in myocardium, brain and skeletal muscle of rats were compared as influenced by acipimox, tyloxapol and glucose with insulin. 5.55 MBq of 18 FDG were administered to Wistar rats. Control rats were killed 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes following intravenous injection and the radioactivity concentration (cpm/g of tissue) in relation to injected cpm was determined in a well crystal adjusted to 511 KeV in order to check the time of maximal 18 FDG tissue uptake. The radioactivity in myocardium, skeletal muscle and brain in intact animals was compared with that of rats treated with tyloxapol (tritton WR 1339, 125 mg intravenously immediately before 18 FDG injection), acipimox (nicotinic acid derivative, 25 mg by stomach cannula 15 minutes before 18 FDG), or glucose with insulin (intravenous injection of 0.04 g and 0.04 UI immediately before 18 FDG). The animals were killed 45 minutes following 18 FDG injection. Tyloxapol and acipimox significantly elevated myocardial 18 FDG concentration (tyloxapol +37% and acipimox +48%), but the increase in 18 FDG concentration after glucose and insulin was slight and insignificant. The changes in skeletal muscle after lipid depressing agents were quite contrasting; the decrease in 18 FDG concentration was -74% after tyloxapol and -44% following acipimox administration. The accumulation of 18 FDG in brain was not influenced markedly by the drugs used or by glucose with insulin. The highest 18 FDG uptake in myocardium could be achieved by depressing the lipid metabolism and not by administration of glucose with insulin only. A marked increase in glucose accumulation in myocardium is not possible without previous shift from the utilisation of fatty acids. This finding is fully in agreement with present knowledge about energetic metabolism of myocardium. (author)

  19. Aniline-induced nitrosative stress in rat spleen: Proteomic identification of nitrated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiuzhen; Wang Jianling; Soman, Kizhake V.; Ansari, G.A.S.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2011-01-01

    Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen which is characterized by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis, and a variety of sarcomas on chronic exposure in rats. However, mechanisms by which aniline elicits splenotoxic responses are not well understood. Earlier we have shown that aniline exposure leads to increased nitration of proteins in the spleen. However, nitrated proteins remain to be characterized. Therefore, in the current study using proteomic approaches, we focused on characterizing the nitrated proteins in the spleen of aniline-exposed rats. Aniline exposure led to increased tyrosine nitration of proteins, as determined by 2D Western blotting with anti-3-nitrotyrosine specific antibody, compared to the controls. The analyzed nitrated proteins were found in the molecular weight range of 27.7 to 123.6 kDa. A total of 37 nitrated proteins were identified in aniline-treated and control spleens. Among them, 25 were found only in aniline-treated rats, 11 were present in both aniline-treated and control rats, while one was found in controls only. The nitrated proteins identified mainly represent skeletal proteins, chaperones, ferric iron transporter, enzymes, nucleic acids binding protein, and signaling and protein synthesis pathways. Furthermore, aniline exposure led to significantly increased iNOS mRNA and protein expression in the spleen, suggesting its role in increased reactive nitrogen species formation and contribution to increased nitrated proteins. The identified nitrated proteins provide a global map to further investigate alterations in their structural and functional properties, which will lead to a better understanding of the role of protein nitration in aniline-mediated splenic toxicity. - Highlights: → Proteomic approaches are used to identify nitrated proteins in the spleen. → Twenty five nitrated proteins were found only in the spleen of aniline-treated rats. → Aniline exposure led to increased iNOS mRNA and protein

  20. Role of the spleen in the maturation of B-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.

    1976-01-01

    Spleen cells from unimmunized Lewis rats were fractionated by 1 x g velocity sedimentation and assayed for their ability to restore the adoptive primary antibody response to horse spleen ferritin in irradiated syngeneic recipients given T cell supplementation. Large, medium and small cell fractions all showed virgin B cell activity. Similar studies with thoractic duct cells show that virgin B cell activity is restricted to the small and medium cells. Large spleen cells produced a 2-ME sensitive adoptive antibody response which persisted for 21 days. All antibody produced by small cells at 21 days was 2-ME resistant. Examination of spleen cells during recovery from sublethal irradiation showed that virgin B cell activity was first detected at 14 days, and is confined to the large cell fraction. Experiments with congenic rats which differ at the immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain allotype showed that small cells from the bone marrow injected intravenously can transform into large Ig-bearing cells in the spleen. The relationship of the subclasses of virgin B cells in the spleen to B cell maturation is discussed

  1. EFFECT OF SEDATION ON CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF THE SPLEEN IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Federica; Fina, Caroline; Stock, Emmelie; Vanderperren, Katrien; Duchateau, Luc; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen enables the dynamic assessment of the perfusion of this organ, however, both subjective and quantitative evaluation can be strongly influenced by sedative agent administration. The purpose of this prospective, experimental study was to test effects of two sedative agents on splenic perfusion during contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen in a sample of healthy dogs. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen was repeated in six healthy Beagles following a cross-over study design comparing three protocols: awake, butorphanol 0.2 mg/Kg intramuscular (IM), and dexmedetomidine 500 μg/m(2) IM. After intravenous injection of a phospholipid stabilized sulfur hexafluoride microbubble solution (SonoVue®, Bracco Imaging, Milano, Italy), the enhancement intensity and perfusion pattern of the splenic parenchyma were assessed and perfusion parameters were calculated. Normal spleen was slightly heterogeneous in the early phase, but the parenchyma was homogeneous at a later phase. Sedation with butorphanol did not modify perfusion of the spleen. Dexmedetomidine significantly reduced splenic enhancement, providing diffuse parenchymal hypoechogenicity during the entire examination. Measured parameters were significantly modified, with increased arrival time (AT; (dogs. Short-term and diffuse heterogeneity of the spleen in the early venous phase was determined to be a normal finding. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. Age dependence of spleen- and muscle-corrected hepatic signal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoori, Simon [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Breitenstein, Stefan [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Surgery, Clinic for Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Winterthur (Switzerland); Doert, Aleksis [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Pozdniakova, Viktoria [Stavanger University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stavanger (Norway); Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Surrey, England (United Kingdom); Gutzeit, Andreas [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    To identify correlations of signal enhancements (SE) and SE normalized to reference tissues of the spleen, kidney, liver, musculus erector spinae (MES) and ductus hepatocholedochus (DHC) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI with patient age in non-cirrhotic patients. A heterogeneous cohort of 131 patients with different clinical backgrounds underwent a standardized 3.0-T gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI between November 2008 and June 2013. After exclusion of cirrhotic patients, a cohort of 75 patients with no diagnosed diffuse liver disease was selected. The ratio of signal intensity 20 min post- to pre-contrast administration (SE) in the spleen, kidney, liver, MES and DHC, and the SE of the kidney, liver and DHC normalized to the reference tissues spleen or MES were compared to patient age. Patient age was inversely correlated with the liver SE normalized to the spleen and MES SE (both p < 0.001) and proportionally with the SE of the spleen (p = 0.043), the MES (p = 0.030) and the kidney (p = 0.022). No significant correlations were observed for the DHC (p = 0.347) and liver SE (p = 0.606). The age dependence of hepatic SE normalized to the enhancement in the spleen and MES calls for a cautious interpretation of these quantification methods. (orig.)

  3. Preliminary experimental study on splenic hemodynamics of radiofrequency ablation for the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yasutaka; Hayashi, Sadao; Nagasato, Kohei; Higashi, Michiyo; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    To test the splenic blood flow change after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the spleen in a porcine experimental model. Six pigs underwent RFA of the spleen via laparotomy. During the procedure of RFA, clamping of splenic artery (one) and both splenic artery/vein (one) was also performed. Measurement of blood flow of both splenic artery (SA) and splenic vein (SV) with flow-wire at pre- and post-RFA of the spleen was also performed. Ablated splenic lesions were created as estimating ∼50% area of the spleen in all pigs. Resected specimens reveal not only the coagulated necrosis but also the congestion of the spleen. On the SA hemodynamics, maximum peak velocity (MPV) changed from 37 ± 7 to 24 ± 8 cm/s (normal), 11 to 10 cm/s (clamp of the SA), and 12 to 7.5 cm/s (clamp of both SA/SV), respectively. On the SV hemodynamic, MPV changed from 15 ± 5 to 13 ± 4 cm/s (normal), 17 to 15 cm/s (clamp of the SA), and 17 to 26 cm/s (clamp of both SA/SV), respectively. RFA of the spleen could induce coagulation necrosis and reduce the splenic arterial blood flow.

  4. Age dependence of spleen- and muscle-corrected hepatic signal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoori, Simon; Froehlich, Johannes M.; Breitenstein, Stefan; Doert, Aleksis; Pozdniakova, Viktoria; Koh, Dow-Mu; Gutzeit, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    To identify correlations of signal enhancements (SE) and SE normalized to reference tissues of the spleen, kidney, liver, musculus erector spinae (MES) and ductus hepatocholedochus (DHC) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI with patient age in non-cirrhotic patients. A heterogeneous cohort of 131 patients with different clinical backgrounds underwent a standardized 3.0-T gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI between November 2008 and June 2013. After exclusion of cirrhotic patients, a cohort of 75 patients with no diagnosed diffuse liver disease was selected. The ratio of signal intensity 20 min post- to pre-contrast administration (SE) in the spleen, kidney, liver, MES and DHC, and the SE of the kidney, liver and DHC normalized to the reference tissues spleen or MES were compared to patient age. Patient age was inversely correlated with the liver SE normalized to the spleen and MES SE (both p < 0.001) and proportionally with the SE of the spleen (p = 0.043), the MES (p = 0.030) and the kidney (p = 0.022). No significant correlations were observed for the DHC (p = 0.347) and liver SE (p = 0.606). The age dependence of hepatic SE normalized to the enhancement in the spleen and MES calls for a cautious interpretation of these quantification methods. (orig.)

  5. Spleen Stiffness Correlates with the Presence of Ascites but Not Esophageal Varices in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Mori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although spleen stiffness has recently been identified as potential surrogate marker for portal hypertension, the relationship between spleen stiffness and portal hypertension has not been fully elucidated. We attempted to determine the relationship between the liver or spleen stiffness and the presence of ascites or esophageal varices by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI imaging. A total of 33 chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients (median age 68; range 51–84 were enrolled. We evaluated the relationship between the liver or spleen stiffness and indicators of portal hypertension as well as clinical and biochemical parameters. Fourteen healthy volunteers were used for validating the accuracy of AFRI imaging. The liver and spleen stiffness increased significantly with progression of liver disease. A significant positive correlation was observed between the liver and spleen stiffness. However, spleen stiffness, but not liver stiffness, was significantly associated with the presence of ascites (, while there was no significant association between the spleen stiffness and spleen index/presence of esophageal varices in CHC patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve based on the spleen stiffness was 0.80. In conclusion, spleen stiffness significantly correlates with the presence of ascites but not esophageal varices in CHC patients.

  6. A minimally invasive approach to spleen histopathology in dogs: A new method for follow-up studies of spleen changes in the course of Leishmania infantum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Silvana Ornelas; Fontes, Jonathan L M; Laranjeira, Daniela F; Vassallo, José; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Dos-Santos, Washington L C

    2016-10-01

    Severe forms of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis (ZVL) are associated with disruption of the spleen structure. However, the study of spleen histology requires splenectomy or necropsy. In this work, we present a minimally invasive cell-block technique for studying spleen tissue histology in dogs with ZVL. We examined 13 dogs with and seven dogs without Leishmania infantum infection. The dogs with Leishmania infection had a lower frequency of lymphoid follicles (2/13, Fisher's test, Pdogs (5/7 exhibiting lymphoid follicles and a plasma cell score of 1). The dogs with Leishmania infection also presented with granulomas (8/13) and infected macrophages (5/13). These differences in the histological presentations of spleen tissue from infected and uninfected dogs corresponded to changes observed in conventional histology. Hence, the cell-block technique described here may be used in the follow-up care and study of dogs with ZVL and other diseases in both clinical practice and research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other diseases. Chronic diseases — such as diabetes, HIV, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or a buildup of iron (hemochromatosis) or ... transplantation or support with a ventricular assist device. Prevention The key to preventing heart failure is to ...

  8. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... properly causes your body's blood sugar levels to rise, increasing your risk of heart attack. Metabolic syndrome. This occurs when you have obesity, high blood pressure and high blood sugar. Having metabolic ...

  9. Classes of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and Advanced HF • Tools and Resources • Personal Stories Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  10. Men and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Men and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Source: Interactive Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke Heart Disease Facts in Men Heart disease is the leading ...

  11. Wine and heart health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  12. Transplantation of Hearts Donated after Circulatory Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. White

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac transplantation has become limited by a critical shortage of suitable organs from brain-dead donors. Reports describing the successful clinical transplantation of hearts donated after circulatory death (DCD have recently emerged. Hearts from DCD donors suffer significant ischemic injury prior to organ procurement; therefore, the traditional approach to the transplantation of hearts from brain-dead donors is not applicable to the DCD context. Advances in our understanding of ischemic post-conditioning have facilitated the development of DCD heart resuscitation strategies that can be used to minimize ischemia-reperfusion injury at the time of organ procurement. The availability of a clinically approved ex situ heart perfusion device now allows DCD heart preservation in a normothermic beating state and minimizes exposure to incremental cold ischemia. This technology also facilitates assessments of organ viability to be undertaken prior to transplantation, thereby minimizing the risk of primary graft dysfunction. The application of a tailored approach to DCD heart transplantation that focuses on organ resuscitation at the time of procurement, ex situ preservation, and pre-transplant assessments of organ viability has facilitated the successful clinical application of DCD heart transplantation. The transplantation of hearts from DCD donors is now a clinical reality. Investigating ways to optimize the resuscitation, preservation, evaluation, and long-term outcomes is vital to ensure a broader application of DCD heart transplantation in the future.

  13. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves bone marrow haematopoietic activity via extramedullary haematopoiesis of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Hsing; Chen, Fei-Peng; Liu, Rong-Kai; Lin, Chun-Lin; Chang, Ko-Tung

    2015-11-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer and immunological diseases. It induces cytotoxicity of bone marrow and causes myelosuppression and extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in treated patients. EMH is characterized with the emergence of multipotent haematopoietic progenitors most likely in the spleen and liver. Previous studies indicated that a Chinese medicine, ginsenoside Rg1, confers a significant effect to elevate the number of lineage (Lin(-) ) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restore the function of bone marrow in CY-treated myelosuppressed mice. However, whether the amelioration of bone marrow by Rg1 accompanies an alleviation of EMH in the spleen was still unknown. In our study, the cellularity and weight of the spleen were significantly reduced after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. Moreover, the number of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was significantly decreased but not as a result of apoptosis, indicating that Rg1 alleviated EMH of the spleen induced by CY. Unexpectedly, the proliferation activity of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was only up-regulated in the spleen, but not in the bone marrow, after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. We also found that a fraction of c-Kit(+) /CD45(+) HSPCs was simultaneously increased in the circulation after Rg1 treatment. Interestingly, the effects of Rg1 on the elevation of HSPCs in bone marrow and in the peripheral blood were suppressed in CY-treated splenectomized mice. These results demonstrated that Rg1 improves myelosuppression induced by CY through its action on the proliferation of HSPCs in EMH of the spleen and migration of HSPCs from the spleen to the bone marrow. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  14. Obesity-related chronic kidney disease is associated with spleen-derived IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Koro; Inoue, Megumi; Masaki, Takayuki; Chiba, Seiichi; Shiraishi, Kentaro; Shimasaki, Takanobu; Matsuoka, Kazue; Ando, Hisae; Fujiwara, Kansuke; Fukunaga, Naoya; Aoki, Kohei; Nawata, Tomoko; Katsuragi, Isao; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Seike, Masataka; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is associated with systemic low-grade inflammation and is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the molecular mechanism remains uncertain. We noticed spleen-derived interleukin (IL)-10 because it is observed that obesity reduces several cytokines in the spleen. We examined whether spleen-derived IL-10 regulates CKD caused by a high-fat diet (HF)-induced obesity as follows: (i) male mice were fed with HF (60% fat) during 8 weeks and IL-10 induction from the spleen was examined, (ii) glomerular hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammatory responses in the kidney and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were evaluated in splenectomy (SPX)-treated mice fed HF, (iii) exogenous IL-10 was systemically administered to HF-induced obese mice and the alteration of obesity-induced pathogenesis caused by IL-10 treatment was assessed. (iv) IL-10 knockout (IL-10KO) mice were treated with SPX and glomerular hypertrophy, fibrosis and the inflammatory condition in the kidney and SBP were also investigated. Obesity decreased serum levels of only IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine even though pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in the spleen was significantly lower in the obese group. SPX aggravated HF-induced inflammatory responses in the kidney and hypertension. These HF-induced alterations were inhibited by systemically administered IL-10. Moreover, SPX had little effect on inflammatory responses and SBP in the kidney of IL-10KO mice. We suggest that obesity reduces IL-10 induction from the spleen, and spleen-derived IL-10 may protect against the development of CKD induced by obesity.

  15. Estimation of the volume and percent uptake of the liver and spleen by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, Atushi

    1988-01-01

    The volume and percent uptake of the liver and spleen were estimated with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 99m Tc-phytate. Clinical usefulness of these parameters was evaluated by comparison with other liver function tests in 87 patients including 25 normal controls, 24 liver cirrhosis and 16 other chronic liver diseases. SPECT images were obtained by Maxi Camera 400T. Cut-off level for reconstruction of images and relationship between counts and activity (mCi) were obtained from phantom studies. Volumes estimated using SPECT and computed tomography were compared in 16 patients. Results obtained were as follows. 1) Optimal cut-off level for measurement of volumes for the liver was 37 % and for the spleen was 42 %. 2) Correlation between organ volumes estimated with CT and SPECT was good (r = 0.92 for the liver and r = 0.96 for the spleen), although volumes measured with SPECT were larger than those with CT. 3) Significant differences of percent uptake were observed between normal controls and liver cirrhosis. 4) Better correlation between spleen volumes and uptake was recognized in cases without liver cirrhosis than in cases with liver cirrhosis. The spleen uptake in liver cirrhosis was higher than those in others in comparison with the volume. 5) The liver/spleen ratio of 99m Tc-phytae uptake could most clearly differentiate liver cirrhosis from others. 6) Negative correlation was observed between liver volume or uptake and ICG (R 15 ). Estimation of volume and uptake of the liver and spleen could be a useful procedure to assess liver function, probably related with effective hepatic blood flow in liver cirrhosis. (author)

  16. Management of Chronic Heart Failure Guided by Individual N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Targets Results of the PRIMA (Can PRo-brain-natriuretic peptide guided therapy of chronic heart failure IMprove heart fAilure morbidity and mortality?) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eurlings, Luc W. M.; van Pol, Petra E. J.; Kok, Wouter E.; van Wijk, Sandra; Lodewijks-van der Bolt, Cara; Balk, Aggie H. M. M.; Lok, Dirk J. A.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; van Kraaij, Dave J. W.; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Meeder, Joan G.; Prins, Martin; Pinto, Yigal M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess whether management of heart failure (HF) guided by an individualized N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) target would lead to improved outcome compared with HF management guided by clinical assessment alone. Background Natriuretic

  17. Assessment of potential heart donors: A statement from the French heart transplant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorent, Richard; Gandjbakhch, Estelle; Goéminne, Céline; Ivanes, Fabrice; Sebbag, Laurent; Bauer, Fabrice; Epailly, Eric; Boissonnat, Pascale; Nubret, Karine; Amour, Julien; Vermes, Emmanuelle; Ou, Phalla; Guendouz, Soulef; Chevalier, Philippe; Lebreton, Guillaume; Flecher, Erwan; Obadia, Jean-François; Logeart, Damien; de Groote, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    Assessment of potential donors is an essential part of heart transplantation. Despite the shortage of donor hearts, donor heart procurement from brain-dead organ donors remains low in France, which may be explained by the increasing proportion of high-risk donors, as well as the mismatch between donor assessment and the transplant team's expectations. Improving donor and donor heart assessment is essential to improve the low utilization rate of available donor hearts without increasing post-transplant recipient mortality. This document provides information to practitioners involved in brain-dead donor management, evaluation and selection, concerning the place of medical history, electrocardiography, cardiac imaging, biomarkers and haemodynamic and arrhythmia assessment in the characterization of potential heart donors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes F2365 cells to synthetic gastric fluid is greater following growth on ready-to-eat deli turkey meat than in brain heart infusion broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Luke D; Faith, Nancy G; Czuprynski, Charles J

    2007-11-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meats have been categorized as high-risk foods for contraction of foodborne listeriosis. Several recent listeriosis outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of RTE deli turkey meat. In this study, we examined whether the growth of Listeria monocytogenes F2365 on commercially prepared RTE deli turkey meat causes listerial cells to become more resistant to inactivation by synthetic gastric fluid (SGF). Listerial cells grown on turkey meat to late logarithmic-early stationary phase were significantly more resistant to SGF at pH 7.0, 5.0, or 3.5 than listerial cells grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth. The pH was lower in the fluid in packages of turkey meat than in BHI broth (6.5 versus 7.5). However, listerial cells grown in BHI broth adjusted to a lower pH (6.0) did not exhibit enhanced resistance to SGF. The lesser resistance to SGF of listerial cells grown in BHI broth may be due, in part, to the presence of glucose (0.2%). This study indicates the environment presented by the growth of L. monocytogenes on deli turkey meat affects its ability to survive conditions it encounters in the gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Acute cadmium administration to rats exerts both immunosuppressive and proinflammatory effects in spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demenesku, Jelena; Mirkov, Ivana; Ninkov, Marina; Popov Aleksandrov, Aleksandra; Zolotarevski, Lidija; Kataranovski, Dragan; Kataranovski, Milena

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of cadmium on splenic T and innate immune cells in rats is explored. • Differential effects of 1 mg/kg on T cell and innate immune activities were shown. • Lower Cd dose (0.5 mg/kg) cause less pronounced immunosuppressive effects. • Proinflammatory effects on innate immune activities were seen at that dose. • Presented data depict complexity of immunomodulatory potential of this metal. - Abstract: Conflicting data (both suppression and augmentation as well as lack of the effect) exist in respect to cadmium (Cd) and splenic T cell-based immune cell activity. Spleen is also the site of innate immune responses but impact of Cd on this type of immunity has been less explored. In the present study the effects of acute Cd administration on basic aspects of both T cell-based and innate immune spleen cell activity were examined in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg of Cd/kg resulted in decrease in concanavalin A (ConA) induced proliferation which seems to be more related to altered spleen cells responsiveness to IL-2 than to apoptosis. Differential effects on proinflammatory T cell derived cytokines were observed (decreases of IFN-γ gene expression and ConA-stimulated production, but increases in IL-17 mRNA levels with no effect on concentrations of protein product). Reduction of IFN-γ production seemed not to rely on IL-4 and IL-10, but at least partly on nitric oxide (NO). Increased activity relevant for innate immunity (granulocyte and CD11b + cell accumulation in the spleen, inducible nitric oxide synthase/iNOS expression and NO production by spleen cells) was observed, but there was a decrease in respiratory burst (dihydrorhodamine/DHR oxidation and nitroblue tetrazolium/NBT reduction). Increases of TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression and IL-1β protein product were noted as well. Administration of 0.5 mg Cd/kg resulted in less pronounced (ConA-induced proliferation) or lack of the effect (IFN-γ production) on spleen T cell

  20. Trauma center variation in splenic artery embolization and spleen salvage: a multicenter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aman; Duane, Therese M; Wilson, Sean P; Haney, Starre; O'Neill, Patrick J; Evans, Heather L; Como, John J; Claridge, Jeffrey A

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate if variation in management of blunt splenic injury (BSI) among Level I trauma centers is associated with different outcomes related to the use of splenic artery embolization (SAE). All adult patients admitted for BSI from 2008 to 2010 at 4 Level I trauma centers were reviewed. Use of SAE was determined, and outcomes of spleen salvage and nonoperative management (NOM) failure were evaluated. A priori, a 10% SAE rate was used to group centers into high- or low-use groups. There were 1,275 BSI patients. There were intercenter differences in age, injury severity, and grade of spleen injury (Spleen Injury Scale [SIS]). Mortality was similar by center; however, BSI treatment varied significantly by center. Overall, SAE use was highest at center A compared with B, C, and D (19%, 11%, 1%, and 4%, respectively; p trauma centers. Centers with higher rates of SAE use have higher spleen salvage and less NOM failure. SAE was shown to be an independent predictor of spleen salvage. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  1. Atheroprotector role of the spleen based on the teaching of Avicenna (Ibn Sina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtiazy, Majid; Choopani, Rasool; Khodadoost, Mahmood; Tansaz, Mojgan; Nazem, Esmaiel

    2013-07-15

    Many studies have proven atherosclerosis is an inflammatory immune disease. The spleen plays an important immune role in the human body. Splenectomy is often used in several clinical disorders; but recent studies have shown that splenectomy may be effective in the development of atheroma lesions. Ibn Sina or Avicenna was known as one of the greatest philosopher and physician in Islam and in Medicine. He is remembered for his masterpiece, The "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb" or "Qanun of medicine". According to the "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb", spleen as storage organ plays an important role in absorption and secretion of the black bile in the human body. Therefore any disruption in the function of the spleen can lead to various diseases such as atherosclerosis. Based on his description, it is clear that Ibn Sina first described the role of spleen in prevention of atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the Avicenna (Ibn Sina) aspect of atheroprotector role of the spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Trivial trauma and delayed rupture of a normal spleen: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowers Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although a majority of splenic ruptures present acutely with a known mechanism of injury, a minority of patients present days to weeks following trauma with a delayed rupture. Also uncommon is the atraumatic rupture, the vast majority of which occur in patients with underlying splenic pathology. A handful of cases of apparently spontaneous rupture of a normal spleen are reported; however, there is debate about whether these actually represent delayed ruptures following a history of trauma that is not elicited. Although a few cases of delayed rupture of the spleen following trivial trauma have been reported, the majority of these present evidence of an underlying disease process. We found only two such cases that documented a normal spleen and three cases where underlying splenic pathology was not reported. We review the literature and discuss the phenomenon of delayed rupture of the normal spleen following trivial trauma. Case presentation A 27-year-old Caucasian man with no underlying splenic pathology presented with splenic rupture one week after playfully wrestling with his partner. The patient did not present at the time of the injury and only recalled it upon repeated questioning after computed tomography diagnosis. Conclusions This case lends support to the theory that the normal spleen can rupture some time after trivial trauma, which seems like a more plausible explanation than rupture without cause. However, given the dearth of similar reports in the literature, the possibility remains that the association we have observed is not causational.

  3. Comparative histology in the liver and spleen of three species of freshwater teleost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila F. Sales

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe and compare the histology of liver and spleen ofGeophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes, Hypostomus francisci (Siluriformes and Hoplias aff. malabaricus (Characiformes, tropical freshwater fishes. InG. brasiliensisandH. aff. malabaricusthe hepatocytes were arranged in tubular form whereas in H. franciscithey cord-like. In all species, hepatocytes presented glycogen, but in G. brasiliensis and H. aff. malabaricus they showed strong stained for hemossiderin in the cytoplasm. InG. brasiliensis and H. aff. malabaricus, melanomacrophage centres (MMCs were associated to hepatic structures and only in G. brasiliensis was observed intrahepatic exocrine pancreas. The spleen, in all species, was characterized by red and white pulp without boundary between the two regions, but only in H. francisci was recorded nodular organization in splenic parenchyma. The G. brasiliensisandH. aff. malabaricuspresented in the white pulp MMCs linked mainly to ellipsoids. Besides, we observed large MMCs in the spleen in relation to liver of G. brasiliensis and H. aff. malabaricus. In liver, highest values of reticular fibers and collagen were observed inG. brasiliensis. In spleen, highest values of reticular fibers and collagen were recorded inH. aff. malabaricusandH. francisci, respectively. Histological differences confirm the hypothesis that the phylogenetic distance is reflected in liver and spleen.

  4. Pancreatic islet allograft in spleen with immunosuppression with cyclosporine. Experimental model in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisberg, Jaques; Neff, Charles Benjamin; Waisberg, Daniel Reis; Germini, Demetrius; Gonçalves, José Eduardo; Zanotto, Arnaldo; Speranzini, Manlio Basilio

    2011-01-01

    To study the functional behavior of the allograft with immunosuppression of pancreatic islets in the spleen. Five groups of 10 Mongrel dogs were used: Group A (control) underwent biochemical tests; Group B underwent total pancreatectomy; Group C underwent total pancreatectomy and pancreatic islet autotransplant in the spleen; Group D underwent pancreatic islet allograft in the spleen without immunosuppressive therapy; Group E underwent pancreatic islet allograft in the spleen and immunosuppression with cyclosporine. All of the animals with grafts received pancreatic islets prepared by the mechanical-enzymatic method - stationary collagenase digestion and purification with dextran discontinuous density gradient, implanted in the spleen. The animals with autotransplant and those with allografts with immunosuppression that became normoglycemic showed altered results of intravenous tolerance glucose (p < 0.001) and peripheral and splenic vein plasmatic insulin levels were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in animals that had allografts with immunosuppression than in those with just autotransplants. In the animals with immunosuppression with cyclosporine subjected to allograft of pancreatic islets prepared with the mechanical-enzymatic preparation method (stationary collagenase digestion and purification with dextran discontinuous density gradient), the production of insulin is decreased and the response to intravenous glucose is altered.

  5. The Spleen as an Optimal Site for Islet Transplantation and a Source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoaki Sakata

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This review demonstrates the unique potential of the spleen as an optimal site for islet transplantation and as a source of mesenchymal stem cells. Islet transplantation is a cellular replacement therapy used to treat severe diabetes mellitus; however, its clinical outcome is currently unsatisfactory. Selection of the most appropriate transplantation site is a major factor affecting the clinical success of this therapy. The spleen has long been studied as a candidate site for islet transplantation. Its advantages include physiological insulin drainage and regulation of immunity, and it has recently also been shown to contribute to the regeneration of transplanted islets. However, the efficacy of transplantation in the spleen is lower than that of intraportal transplantation, which is the current representative method of clinical islet transplantation. Safer and more effective methods of islet transplantation need to be established to allow the spleen to be used for clinical transplantation. The spleen is also of interest as a mesenchymal stem cell reservoir. Splenic mesenchymal stem cells contribute to the repair of damaged tissue, and their infusion may thus be a promising therapy for autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus and Sjogren’s syndrome.

  6. Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice demonstrate imbalanced myelopoiesis between bone marrow and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitano, Maegan L; Chitteti, Brahmananda R; Cooper, Scott; Srour, Edward F; Bartke, Andrzej; Broxmeyer, Hal E

    2015-06-01

    Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. The phenotype of these mice demonstrates irregularities in the immune system with skewing of the normal cytokine milieu towards a more anti-inflammatory environment. However, the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell composition of the bone marrow (BM) and spleen in Ames dwarf mice has not been well characterized. We found that there was a significant decrease in overall cell count when comparing the BM and spleen of 4-5 month old dwarf mice to their littermate controls. Upon adjusting counts to differences in body weight between the dwarf and control mice, the number of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, confirmed by immunophenotyping and colony-formation assay was increased in the BM. In contrast, the numbers of all myeloid progenitor populations in the spleen were greatly reduced, as confirmed by colony-formation assays. This suggests that there is a shift of myelopoiesis from the spleen to the BM of Ames dwarf mice; however, this shift does not appear to involve erythropoiesis. The reasons for this unusual shift in spleen to marrow hematopoiesis in Ames dwarf mice are yet to be determined but may relate to the decreased hormone levels in these mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Transcription factor TLX1 controls retinoic acid signaling to ensure spleen development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenti, Elisa; Farinello, Diego; Penkov, Dmitry; Castagnaro, Laura; Lavorgna, Giovanni; Wuputra, Kenly; Tjaden, Naomi E. Butler; Bernassola, Francesca; Caridi, Nicoletta; Wagner, Michael; Kozinc, Katja; Niederreither, Karen; Blasi, Francesco; Pasini, Diego; Trainor, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underlie spleen development and congenital asplenia, a condition linked to increased risk of overwhelming infections, remain largely unknown. The transcription factor TLX1 controls cell fate specification and organ expansion during spleen development, and Tlx1 deletion causes asplenia in mice. Deregulation of TLX1 expression has recently been proposed in the pathogenesis of congenital asplenia in patients carrying mutations of the gene-encoding transcription factor SF-1. Herein, we have shown that TLX1-dependent regulation of retinoic acid (RA) metabolism is critical for spleen organogenesis. In a murine model, loss of Tlx1 during formation of the splenic anlage increased RA signaling by regulating several genes involved in RA metabolism. Uncontrolled RA activity resulted in premature differentiation of mesenchymal cells and reduced vasculogenesis of the splenic primordium. Pharmacological inhibition of RA signaling in Tlx1-deficient animals partially rescued the spleen defect. Finally, spleen growth was impaired in mice lacking either cytochrome P450 26B1 (Cyp26b1), which results in excess RA, or retinol dehydrogenase 10 (Rdh10), which results in RA deficiency. Together, these findings establish TLX1 as a critical regulator of RA metabolism and provide mechanistic insights into the molecular determinants of human congenital asplenia. PMID:27214556

  8. Spleen and thymic sonography as estimator of the immune response in children with repeated infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabaza, Jesus; Fundora, Hermes; Rodriguez, Alexis; Hernandez, Maria de los Angeles

    2010-01-01

    The spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ. The spleen has many functions: IgM class antibody production and phagocytosis of encapsulated bacteria. We propose to measure the dimensions of the spleen in children with repeated infections, in order to describe them as a diagnosis marker and to explore the probable correlation between the thymic characteristics and the dimensions of the spleen. We study 81 patients that attended the consultation of Immunology from Aballi hospital with repeated infections and they were from 8 months to 9 years old. Children with nutritional value up to the third percentile and those taking steroids 45 days before the study were excluded. We measured the thymic and splenic areas by mediastinal and abdominal echography. The length, the splenic index and the weight are less in patients with repeated infections. These data were significant in 12 to 23 month of age group. The length and the splenic index were less in patients with depletion of thymic area. The sonographic evaluation of the spleen is very important in patients from 1 to 2 years old and in patients with thymic depletion, because they are on the age of vaccine administration according to the Cuban schedule and having affected a main organ for immune response might be a reason for them to show a deficient response and need special schedules

  9. The Spleen as an Optimal Site for Islet Transplantation and a Source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Naoaki; Yoshimatsu, Gumpei; Kodama, Shohta

    2018-05-07

    This review demonstrates the unique potential of the spleen as an optimal site for islet transplantation and as a source of mesenchymal stem cells. Islet transplantation is a cellular replacement therapy used to treat severe diabetes mellitus; however, its clinical outcome is currently unsatisfactory. Selection of the most appropriate transplantation site is a major factor affecting the clinical success of this therapy. The spleen has long been studied as a candidate site for islet transplantation. Its advantages include physiological insulin drainage and regulation of immunity, and it has recently also been shown to contribute to the regeneration of transplanted islets. However, the efficacy of transplantation in the spleen is lower than that of intraportal transplantation, which is the current representative method of clinical islet transplantation. Safer and more effective methods of islet transplantation need to be established to allow the spleen to be used for clinical transplantation. The spleen is also of interest as a mesenchymal stem cell reservoir. Splenic mesenchymal stem cells contribute to the repair of damaged tissue, and their infusion may thus be a promising therapy for autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus and Sjogren’s syndrome.

  10. The Spleen Is an Ideal Site for Inducing Transplanted Islet Graft Expansion in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Itoh

    Full Text Available Alternative islet transplantation sites have the potential to reduce the marginal number of islets required to ameliorate hyperglycemia in recipients with diabetes. Previously, we reported that T cell leukemia homeobox 1 (Tlx1+ stem cells in the spleen effectively regenerated into insulin-producing cells in the pancreas of non-obese diabetic mice with end-stage disease. Thus, we investigated the spleen as a potential alternative islet transplantation site. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice received syngeneic islets into the portal vein (PV, beneath the kidney capsule (KC, or into the spleen (SP. The marginal number of islets by PV, KC, or SP was 200, 100, and 50, respectively. Some plasma inflammatory cytokine levels in the SP group were significantly lower than those of the PV group after receiving a marginal number of islets, indicating reduced inflammation in the SP group. Insulin contents were increased 280 days after islet transplantation compared with those immediately following transplantation (p<0.05. Additionally, Tlx1-related genes, including Rrm2b and Pla2g2d, were up-regulated, which indicates that islet grafts expanded in the spleen. The spleen is an ideal candidate for an alternative islet transplantation site because of the resulting reduced inflammation and expansion of the islet graft.

  11. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup

    2013-01-01

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV R /LV W ), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV R /(LV W + SV 0 )], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV R /LV W (r = 0.759, p R /LV W influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  12. The effect of lysate of spleen cells after low dose radiation (LDR) on NK activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Duicai; Su Liaoyuan

    2003-01-01

    To find effect of lysate of spleen cells after LDR on NK activity of CD 57 cells or non-CD 57 cells, lysate of spleen cells after LDR were extracted. McAb (anti CD 57 cells) was used to separate CD 57 cells from human peripheral blood by Panning direct method. The CD 57 cells and non-CD 57 cells were used as effective cells. K 562 cells labelled by 3 H-TdR were used as target cells. The ratio of effect cells to target cells was 10:1. NK activity of CD 57 cells or non-CD 5 -7 cells with the lysate of spleen cells after LDR was reflected by the efficiency of anti tumor cells. The 3 H-TdR incorporation in K 562 cells cultured with non-CD 57 cells was significantly lower than that with CD 57 cells. After use of the lysate of spleen cells after LDR, NK activities of CD 57 cells and non-CD 57 cells were 1.24 and 1.58 respectively. They were both increased obviously compared with control groups. The effect of anti K 562 cells of non-CD 57 cells is even greater than that of CD 57 cells. The lysate of spleen cells after LDR can enhance the effect of both non-CD 57 cells and CD 57 cells

  13. Heart valve surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... replacement; Valve repair; Heart valve prosthesis; Mechanical valves; Prosthetic valves ... surgery. Your heart valve has been damaged by infection ( endocarditis ). You have received a new heart valve ...

  14. Heart failure - tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... the best test to: Identify which type of heart failure (systolic, diastolic, valvular) Monitor your heart failure and ...

  15. Spontaneous bleeding from liver after open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Najeeb H; Shah, Mian T; Obeid, Mahmoud Ali; Gallo, Ricardo; Aliter, Hashem

    2013-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hemorrhage after open heart surgery is very uncommon in routine clinical practice. There are case reports of having bleeding from spleen or liver after starting low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) postoperatively. Our patient is a 58-year-old man with mitral valve regurgitation, who underwent mitral valve repair and developed intra-abdominal hemorrhage 8h after open heart surgery. The exploratory laparotomy revealed the source of bleeding from ruptured sub-capsular liver hematoma and oozing from raw areas of the liver surface. Liver packing was done to control the bleeding. The gastrointestinal complications after open heart surgery are rare and spontaneous bleeding from spleen has been reported. This is the first case from our hospital to have intra-abdominal hemorrhage after open heart surgery. Spontaneous bleeding from liver is a possible complication after open heart surgery. We submit the case for the academic interest and to discuss the possible cause of hemorrhage. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes of red blood cell aggregation parameters in a long-term follow-up of splenectomy, spleen-autotransplantation and partial or subtotal spleen resections in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko, Iren; Nemeth, Norbert; Peto, Katalin; Furka, Andrea; Toth, Laszlo; Furka, Istvan

    2017-01-01

    Decrease or loss in splenic filtration function may influence the hemorheological state. To follow-up the long-term effects of splenectomy, spleen autotransplantation and spleen resections on red blood cell aggregation in a canine model. Beagle dogs were subjected to control (n = 6), splenectomy (SE, n = 4), spleen autotransplantation (AU, Furka's spleen-chip method, n = 8) or partial and subtotal spleen resection (n = 4/each) groups, and followed-up for 18 postoperative (p.o.) months. Erythrocyte aggregation was determined in parallel by light-transmittance aggregometry (Myrenne MA-1 aggregometer) and syllectometry (LoRRca). Erythrocyte aggregation decreased three months after splenectomy, with lower aggregation index and elongated aggregation time. It was more or less associated with relatively lower hematocrit and fibrinogen concentration. However, in autotransplantated animals a relatively higher fibrinogen did not increase the aggregation markedly. Spleen resection resulted in the most controversial red blood cell aggregation findings, and it seems, that the degree of the resection is an influencing factor. Splenectomy alters erythrocyte aggregation, spleen autotransplantation can be useful to preserve filtration function. However, the degree of restoration shows individual differences with a kind of 'functional periodicity'. Spleen resection controversially influences erythrocyte aggregation parameters. The subtotal resection is supposed to be worse than spleen autotransplantation.

  17. Multidetector computed tomography findings of mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus combined with torsion of wandering spleen: A case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, In Kyung; Ku, Young Mi; Lee, Su Lim

    2016-01-01

    Gastric volvulus, defined as an abnormal rotation of stomach, may be idiopathic or secondary to abnormal fixation of intraperitoneal visceral ligaments. Wandering spleen is a movable spleen resulting from absence or underdevelopment of the splenic supporting ligaments that suspend the spleen to its normal position in the left part of the supramesocolic compartment of the abdomen. Wandering spleen increases the risk of splenic torsion. Both gastric volvulus and splenic torsion are potentially life-threatening if not urgently managed with surgery. Prompt and accurate diagnosis based on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is crucial to prevent unforeseen complications. Gastric volvulus and coexistent torsion of wandering spleen is a very rare condition. Herein, we described a case of gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen and intestinal non-rotation in a 15-year-old girl focusing on MDCT findings

  18. Multidetector computed tomography findings of mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus combined with torsion of wandering spleen: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Kyung; Ku, Young Mi; Lee, Su Lim [Dept. of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Gastric volvulus, defined as an abnormal rotation of stomach, may be idiopathic or secondary to abnormal fixation of intraperitoneal visceral ligaments. Wandering spleen is a movable spleen resulting from absence or underdevelopment of the splenic supporting ligaments that suspend the spleen to its normal position in the left part of the supramesocolic compartment of the abdomen. Wandering spleen increases the risk of splenic torsion. Both gastric volvulus and splenic torsion are potentially life-threatening if not urgently managed with surgery. Prompt and accurate diagnosis based on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is crucial to prevent unforeseen complications. Gastric volvulus and coexistent torsion of wandering spleen is a very rare condition. Herein, we described a case of gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen and intestinal non-rotation in a 15-year-old girl focusing on MDCT findings.

  19. 3D confocal imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehrhoff, I.; Bocancea, D.; Vaquero, J.; Vaquero, J.J.; Lorrio, M.T.; Ripoll, J.; Desco, M.; Gomez-Gaviro, M.V.

    2016-07-01

    Acquiring high resolution 3D images of the heart enables the ability to study heart diseases more in detail. Here, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was adapted for thick mouse heart sections to increase the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. The adapted CUBIC clearing of the heart lets the antibody penetrate deeper into the tissue by a factor of five. The here shown protocol enables deep 3D highresolution image acquisition in the heart. This allows a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases. (Author)

  20. 3D confocal imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehrhoff, I.; Bocancea, D.; Vaquero, J.; Vaquero, J.J.; Lorrio, M.T.; Ripoll, J.; Desco, M.; Gomez-Gaviro, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring high resolution 3D images of the heart enables the ability to study heart diseases more in detail. Here, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was adapted for thick mouse heart sections to increase the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. The adapted CUBIC clearing of the heart lets the antibody penetrate deeper into the tissue by a factor of five. The here shown protocol enables deep 3D highresolution image acquisition in the heart. This allows a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases. (Author)

  1. Usefulness of liposomes carrying losefamate for CT opacification of liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, S.E.; Shulkin, P.M.; Adams, D.F.; Davis, M.A.; Hoey, G.B.; Hopkins, R.M.; Bosworth, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Iosefamate, a hepatobiliary contrast agent, was encapsulated into liposomes to increase its ability to opacify the liver and spleen on computed tomographic (CT) images. Multilamellar lipid vesicles containing iosefamate in their aqueous phase were prepared. Seven dogs received intravenous injections of 100-300 mg l/kg in one of three forms; encapsulated, unencapsulated, or a mixture of the two in equal parts. Animals that received the opaque vesicles had marked opacification of their livers, bile ducts, gallbladders, spleens and gastrointestinal tracts. At the high-dose level, liver upake of the encapsulated materials was also greater. Liposome-encapsulated hepatobiliary contrast agents are effective liver and spleen opacifiers for CT imaging in the dog

  2. Extra-adrenal myelolipoma presenting in the spleen: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Aguilera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myelolipoma is a rare neoplasm composed of mature fat and bone marrow occurring most frequently in the adrenal gland with rare occurrences in extra adrenal locations including lung, liver, retroperitoneum, mediastinum and testes. Splenic myelolipomas are seen most commonly in non-human species including cat and dog. Only rare cases of splenic myelolipoma in humans have been reported previously. We present two cases of myelolipoma in the spleen. The first is a 62 year old female presenting with abdominal pain and a splenic mass. The second is a 44 year old male presenting with hematuria and a mass in the spleen. Both cases showed trilineage bone marrow elements with mature fat. These cases demonstrate that myelolipoma do rarely occur in human spleen and we highlight the distinction from extramedullary hematopoiesis, mature extramedullary myeloid tumor (myeloid sarcoma, lipoma and well differentiated liposarcoma.

  3. Effect of adeturone on the concentration of endogenous sulfhydryl groups in mouse spleen and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantev, T.; Bychvarova, K.

    1981-01-01

    Levels of endogenous sulfhydryl groups (total, protein, and non-protein) in mouse liver and spleen were studied for response to the radioprotective drug Adeturone (AET adenosine triphosphate) as recorded at various time intervals (5 - 90 min) following administration of a 300 mg/kg b.w. dose. Spleen sulfhydryl concentration levels tended to elevation, with the peak effect noted at 45 min post-treatment. In the liver, augmentation was observed only for non-protein sylfhydryl groups, at 10 and 15 min post-treatment (time intervals when Adeturone affords maximum protection against radiation); at the 60 min, however, there was a statistically reliable drop. The findings indicate that Adeturone treatment produces response patterns of opposite directions in liver and spleen endogenous thiols. (A.B.)

  4. The Spleen Is an HIV-1 Sanctuary During Combined Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, David J; Rose, Rebecca; Rodriguez, Patricia H; Salemi, Marco; Singer, Elyse J; Lamers, Susanna L; McGrath, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) does not eradicate HIV, which persists for years and can re-establish replication if treatment is stopped. The current challenge is identifying those tissues harboring virus through cART. Here, we used HIV env-nef single genome sequencing and HIV gag droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to survey 50 tissues from five subjects on cART with no detectable plasma viral load at death. The spleen most consistently contained multiple proviral and expressed sequences (4/5 participants). Spleen-derived HIV demonstrated two distinct phylogenetic patterns: multiple identical sequences, often from different tissues, as well as diverse viral sequences on long terminal branches. Our results suggested that ddPCR may overestimate the size of the tissue-based viral reservoir. The spleen, a lymphatic organ at the intersection of the immune and circulatory systems, may play a key role in viral persistence.

  5. Measurement of spleen size using gamma camera scintigraphy in essential thrombocythaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revesz, P. (Department of Medicine, Oestra Hospital, University of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Carneskog, J.; Wadenvik, H.; Kutti, J. (Haematology Section, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Hospital, University of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Jarneborn, L. (Department of Clinical Physiology, Oestra Hospital, University of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1993-09-01

    By using gamma camera imaging the spleen size was determined in 33 consecutive patients with essential thrombocythaemia (ET) and in 33 consecutive patients with reactive thrombocytosis (RT). All ET patients were newly diagnosed and had not received myelosuppressive treatment prior to study; they all fulfilled the criteria for ET as established by the Polycythemia Vera Study Group. In both posterior and lateral projections, the spleen area in the group of ET patients was significantly larger than in the RT patients. The present study has shown that 39% of ET patients at diagnosis have splenic enlargement. Evaluation of Spleen size is therefore a useful diagnostic test in patients presenting with unexplained thrombocytosis. (au) (15 refs.).

  6. Yersinia enterocolitica-associated generalized microinfarctions of bone and spleen in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang; Schille, Regine; Beer, Joerg

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of unusual extraintestinal yersiniosis in a 16-year-old girl with generalized microinfarctions of the bone and spleen. For the past 2 years she had been repeatedly admitted to our hospital with reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and iridocyclitis of unknown aetiology. Ultrasound showed multiple round hypoechoic lesions in the spleen that were shown to have low T2 signal on MRI. MRI also showed disseminated nodular lesions of the skeleton that were low T1 and high T2 signal and demonstrated inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. The patient is currently in good health on low-dose nonsteroidal immunosuppressive therapy. This is a unique case of microinfarctions of the skeleton and spleen caused by a severe postinfectious autoimmune reaction following extraintestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. (orig.)

  7. Yersinia enterocolitica-associated generalized microinfarctions of bone and spleen in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang [University Hospital Leipzig, Paediatric Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Schille, Regine [University Hospital Leipzig, Paediatric Department, Leipzig (Germany); Beer, Joerg [University of Leipzig, Institute for Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    We report a case of unusual extraintestinal yersiniosis in a 16-year-old girl with generalized microinfarctions of the bone and spleen. For the past 2 years she had been repeatedly admitted to our hospital with reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and iridocyclitis of unknown aetiology. Ultrasound showed multiple round hypoechoic lesions in the spleen that were shown to have low T2 signal on MRI. MRI also showed disseminated nodular lesions of the skeleton that were low T1 and high T2 signal and demonstrated inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. The patient is currently in good health on low-dose nonsteroidal immunosuppressive therapy. This is a unique case of microinfarctions of the skeleton and spleen caused by a severe postinfectious autoimmune reaction following extraintestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. (orig.)

  8. Natural history of nonoperative management for grade 4 and 5 liver and spleen injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeannie C; Sharp, Susan W; Ostlie, Daniel J; Holcomb, George W; St Peter, Shawn D

    2008-12-01

    Nonoperative management is standard treatment of blunt liver or spleen injuries. However, there are few reports outlining the natural history and outcomes of severe blunt hepatic and splenic trauma. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with nonoperative management of grade 4 or 5 liver and spleen injuries. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with grade 4 or 5 (high-grade) blunt liver and/or spleen injuries from April 1997 to July 2007 at our children's hospital. Demographics, hospital course data, and follow-up data were analyzed. There were 74 high-grade injuries in 72 patients. There were 30 high-grade liver and 44 high-grade spleen injuries. Two patients had both a liver and splenic injury. High-grade liver injuries had a significantly longer length of intensive care and hospital stay compared to high-grade spleen injuries. There were also a significantly higher number of transfusions, radiographs, and total charges in the high-grade liver injuries when compared to the high-grade splenic injuries. The only mortality from solid organ injury was a grade 4 liver injury with portal vein disruption. In contrast, there was only one complication from a high-grade splenic injury-a pleural effusion treated with thoracentesis. There were 5 patients with complications from their liver injury requiring 18 therapeutic procedures. Three patients (10%) with liver injury required readmission as follows: one 5 times, one 3 times, and another one time. Patients with high-grade liver injuries have a longer recovery, more complications, and greater use of resources than in patients with similar injuries to the spleen.

  9. Parasitic load and histological aspects in different regions of the spleen of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagues, Naiara Carvalho Teixeira; Pinheiro, Cristiane Garboggini Melo de; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Dos-Santos, Washington L C; Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno de Sá

    2018-02-01

    Leishmania infantum causes from subclinical infection to severe disease in humans and dogs. The spleen is one of the organs most affected by the infection. Although evidence exists that the parasitic load distribution and histological alterations may not be homogeneous in the affected organs of naturally infected individuals, it has not been formally demonstrated using the current techniques used for studying the disease. In six dogs naturally infected with Leishmania, parasitic load and histological changes were compared in samples collected from the lower, middle and upper third of the spleen. Parasitic load in the spleen of the group of dogs was variable, revealing a difference of 61 times between animals with the lowest and the highest parasitism. The set of parasitic load values of each dog showed a cluster trend, when compared to the other animals. Nevertheless, the parasitic load values of each dog showed a variation ranging from 3.2 to 34.7 times between lowest and highest value. Histological changes showed recognizable variation in frequency (granulomas) or intensity (perisplenitis) in the spleen of 2 out of the 6 dogs. The agreement of histological findings between samples collected from the different thirds of the spleen was good (kappa coeficient, 0.61-0.80) very good (0.81-0.99) or perfect (1.00), for most of the parameters analyzed. Variability of parasitic load and, to a lesser extent, histological changes in spleen of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis is observed. Such variability may be taken in account in the design of studies on pathogenesis, vaccine and therapeutic drug development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Attack Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Attack Symptoms Past Issues / Winter ... most common heart attack symptom in men and women is chest pain or discomfort. However, women also ...

  11. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...

  12. Heart Health - Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Most heart attacks happen when a clot in the coronary ...

  13. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  14. Locomotion, physical development, and brain myelination in rats treated with ionizing radiation in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of ionizing radiation on the emergence of locomotion skill and some physical development parameters were studied in laboratory rats (Fisher F-344 inbred strain). Rats were treated with 3 different doses of radiation (150 R, 15 R, and 6.8 R) delivered on the 20th day of the prenatal life. Results indicated that relatively moderate (15 R) to high (150 R) doses of radiation have effects on certain locomotion and physical development parameters. Exposure to 150 R affected pivoting, cliff-avoidance, upper jaw tooth eruption, body weight, and organs, such as brain, cerebral cortex, ovary, kidney, heart and spleen weights. Other parameters, such as negative geotaxis, eye opening, and lower jaw tooth eruption appeared to be affected in the 150 R treated animals. Exposure to 15 R affected pivoting and cliff-avoidance parameters. The cerebral cortex weight of the 15 R treated animals was found to be reduced at the age of day 30. Exposure to 6.8 R had no adverse effects on these parameters. Prenatal exposure to 150 R of radiation reduced the cerebral cortex weight by 22.07% at 30 days of age, and 20.15% at 52 days of age which caused a reduction in cerebral cortex myelin content by 20.16, and 22.89% at the ages of day 30 and day 52 respectively. Exposure to 150 R did not affect the myelin content of the cerebellum or the brain stem; or the myelin concentration (mg myelin/g brain tissue weight) of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and the brain stem. Exposure to 15 R, and 6.8 R did not affect either the myelin content or the myelin concentration of these brain areas

  15. Shear-wave elastography of the liver and spleen identifies clinically significant portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Christian; Bogs, Christopher; Verlinden, Wim

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) is associated with severe complications and decompensation of cirrhosis. Liver stiffness measured either by transient elastography (TE) or Shear-wave elastography (SWE) and spleen stiffness by TE might be helpful in the diagnosis...... correlate with portal pressure and can both be used as a non-invasive method to investigate CSPH. Even though external validation is still missing, these algorithms to rule-out and rule-in CSPH using sequential SWE of liver and spleen might change the clinical practice....

  16. Locally advanced leiomyosarcoma of the spleen. A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recchia Franco

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leiomyosarcomas are rare tumours, predominantly localized in the stomach, small intestine and retroperitoneum. Only one case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the spleen is described in human beings in literature. Case presentation We report a case of locally advanced primary leiomyosarcoma of the spleen in a 54 year-old woman, diagnosed only after splenectomy, performed with the suspicion of splenic haematoma. Conclusion Due to the lack of cases, no specific chemotherapy regimen has been tested to provide a longer survival.

  17. Reactive Hypertrophy of an Accessory Spleen Mimicking Tumour Recurrence of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Tjaden

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available De novo occurrence of an accessory spleen after splenectomy is worth noting for two reasons. First, it is known that splenectomy can cause reactive hypertrophy of initially inactive and macroscopically invisible splenic tissue. Second, it can mimic tumour recurrence in situations in which splenectomy has been performed for oncological reasons. This might cause difficulties in differential diagnosis and the clinical decision for reoperation. We report the case of a patient with suspected recurrence of renal cell carcinoma after total pancreatectomy and splenectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which finally revealed an accessory spleen as the morphological correlate of the newly diagnosed mass in the left retroperitoneum.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-technefit in radionuclide investigations of liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovdienko, N.I.; Starovojtova, L.P.; Kodina, G.E.; Malysheva, A.O.; Tul'skaya, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the results of an experimental study of pharmacokinetics of a new Soviet drug 99m Tc-technefit for scintigraphy of the liver and spleen. The results of biological distribution of the agent in rat, scintigrams of the liver and spleen in rabbits and dogs have shown a high accumulation of 99m Tc-technefit in the liver (up to 90%). The agent is prepared within one stage from a kit of reagents and 99m Tc-sodium pertechnate obtained using a generator

  19. Photon activation analysis of trace metals in the livers and spleens of pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.

    1995-01-01

    Nondestructive photon activation analysis with 30 MeV bremsstrahlung was applied to determine trace element concentrations in the livers and spleens of five pigs. Samples were freeze-dried, pulverized and fractionated into four groups corresponding mesh size ; smaller than 60 mesh, 60-100 mesh, 100-200 mesh and larger than 200 mesh. Up to 9 elements in each fraction were analyzed. The concentrations of Br, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb and Zn in each liver fractions were almost constant, as were concentrations of Mg and Rb in spleens. (author). 10 refs., 7 tabs

  20. Amplification of the spleen macrophage population in malaria: possible role of a factor chemotactic for blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyler, D.J.; Gallin, J.I.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism of amplification of the splenic macrophages' population was investigated using mice infected with malaria as a model of an obligate intravascular infection. It was observed that these macrophages derived from blood monocytes rather than by local proliferation in the spleen. A factor, chemotactic for blood mononuclear cells, was present in spleen cells shortly after infection and preceded detectable increases in spleen macrophage number by 48 hours. This factor, in concert with spleen derived macrophage migration inhibition factor, may be important in the amplification of splenic macrophage population in intravascular infections

  1. Automatized spleen segmentation in non-contrast-enhanced MR volume data using subject-specific shape priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloger, Oliver; Tönnies, Klaus; Bülow, Robin; Völzke, Henry

    2017-07-01

    To develop the first fully automated 3D spleen segmentation framework derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data and to verify its performance for spleen delineation and volumetry. This approach considers the issue of low contrast between spleen and adjacent tissue in non-contrast-enhanced MR images. Native T1-weighted MR volume data was performed on a 1.5 T MR system in an epidemiological study. We analyzed random subsamples of MR examinations without pathologies to develop and verify the spleen segmentation framework. The framework is modularized to include different kinds of prior knowledge into the segmentation pipeline. Classification by support vector machines differentiates between five different shape types in computed foreground probability maps and recognizes characteristic spleen regions in axial slices of MR volume data. A spleen-shape space generated by training produces subject-specific prior shape knowledge that is then incorporated into a final 3D level set segmentation method. Individually adapted shape-driven forces as well as image-driven forces resulting from refined foreground probability maps steer the level set successfully to the segment the spleen. The framework achieves promising segmentation results with mean Dice coefficients of nearly 0.91 and low volumetric mean errors of 6.3%. The presented spleen segmentation approach can delineate spleen tissue in native MR volume data. Several kinds of prior shape knowledge including subject-specific 3D prior shape knowledge can be used to guide segmentation processes achieving promising results.

  2. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: A previous heart attack Open heart surgery Chest trauma A heart attack that has affected the thickness of your heart muscle Symptoms Symptoms include: Anxiety Chest pain from the swollen pericardium rubbing on the ...

  3. Heart failure - home monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000113.htm Heart failure - home monitoring To use the sharing features on ... your high blood pressure Fast food tips Heart failure - discharge Heart failure - fluids and diuretics Heart failure - what to ...

  4. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Back to Patient Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Millions of people experience irregular or abnormal ... harmless and happen in healthy people free of heart disease. However, some abnormal heart rhythms can be serious ...

  5. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  6. Coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... buildup of plaque in the arteries to your heart. This may also be called hardening of the ...

  7. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  8. Pediatric heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  9. Competitive proliferation in the hematopoietic tissues of irradiated hybrid mice engrafted with parental bone marrow and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, S.; Monnot, P.; Duplan, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    e kinetics of growth and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells differ markedly according to their origin. A study of the ability of CFU from bone marrow (BM) or spleen to repopulate hemopoietic organs has been carried out in lethally irradiated mice restored with BM cells admixed with spleen cells bearing different chromosomal markers. Hemopoietic cells originating from AKR (40 acbrocentrics) and AKR/T1ALD (36 acrocentrics + 2 metacentrics) mice were engrafted into lethally irradiated (AKR x AKR/T1ALD)F1 or (C3H x AKR/T1ALD)F1 hybrid recipients. Within 10 days, the BM-derived elements outnumbered the spleen-derived population in BM and spleen. This held even when the number of injected spleen-CFU was twice that of BM-CFU. This difference of growth rate subsided within 20 days. The first cells to reappear in the thymus bore the recipient karyotype (endoregeneration); they were later replaced by BM-derived elements but spleen-derived cecells were never present in thymus in the case of competitive engraftment. In contrast, the lymph node cells bore the BM karyotype as well as the spleen karyotype. Injecting the spleen cells 3 days prior to the BM cells partially counterbalanced the overgrowth of the BM-derived elements in the BM and spleen but did not affect the thymic repopulation which remained strictly derived from BM-CFU. When mice were injected only with BM-CFU, or only with spleen-CFU, BM-derived cells were found in the thymus as early as 10-12 days after engraftment, whereas the spleen-derived cells did not appear in the thymus until days 18-20. (author)

  10. Solitary metastasis of ampullary carcinoma to the spleen: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tri M

    2018-04-01

    Here, we report a first case of ampullary cancer with solitary metastasis of the spleen, which was successfully treated with pancreatoduodenectomy and splenectomy and was discharged 7 days after the operation with outpatient chemotherapy. In such cases, physicians should consider splenectomy as an effective treatment option.

  11. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen – a rare and potentially fatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous (non-traumatic) rupture of the normal spleen in pregnancy is a rare clinical event that can endanger the lives of both mother and baby. The aetiology of the condition is unknown, but it occurs most commonly in multiple pregnancies and in the third trimester. We present a case of a spontaneous splenic rupture ...

  12. Enhanced gamma interferon responses of mouse spleen cells following immunotherapy for tuberculosis relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Olga; Vilaplana, Cristina; Guirado, Evelyn; Díaz, Jorge; Cáceres, Neus; Singh, Mahavir; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2008-11-01

    Gamma interferon responses of spleen cells in mice were examined during postchemotherapy relapse of intraperitoneally induced latent tuberculous infection. The mycobacterial extract RUTI, which prevented the relapse, significantly enhanced the immune responses to secreted and structural recombinant mycobacterial antigens, suggesting that RUTI-mediated protection was mediated by activated T cells.

  13. Detection of titanium particles in human liver and spleen and possible health implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, M.B.; Peters, R.J.B.; Bleys, R.L.A.W.; Lee, van der M.K.; Tromp, P.C.; Kesteren, van P.C.E.; Eijkeren, van J.C.H.; Undas, A.K.; Oomen, A.G.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is produced at high volumes and applied in many consumer and food products. Recent toxicokinetic modelling indicated the potential of TiO2 to accumulate in human liver and spleen upon daily oral exposure, which is not routinely investigated in chronic animal

  14. Accessory spleen versus lymph node: Value of iodine quantification with dual-energy computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winklhofer, Sebastian; Lin, Wei-Ching; Lambert, Jack W.; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether iodine quantification with Dual-Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) improves the differentiation of accessory spleens (AS) from lymph nodes (LN) compared to CT number measurements. Methods: Abdominal DECT images of 75 patients with either AS (n = 35) or LN (n = 48) (benign entity) were retrospectively evaluated. Hounsfield Units (HU) and iodine concentrations of AS, LN and the main spleen were measured. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were performed to calculate an optimal threshold for distinguishing AS from LN. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for distinguishing AS from LN by iodine concentration measurements. Results: Mean CT numbers and iodine concentrations were higher for AS (148 ± 29 HU and 48.2 ± 11 × 100 μg/cc) than LN (83 ± 19 HU and 31.5 ± 6.2 × 100 μg/cc, respectively, P < 0.001 each). Mean CT numbers were lower for AS compared to the main spleen (161 ± 29HU, P < 0.01), whereas mean iodine concentrations (47.7 ± 10 × 100 μg/cc) were not significantly different (P = 0.095). An iodine concentration greater than 38 × 100 μg/cc suggested AS with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 91%, 85%, and 88%, respectively (Area under ROC curve 0.941). Conclusions: Iodine measurements might contribute to the differentiation of AS from LN. Iodine concentrations similar to that of the main spleen may help to confirm the diagnosis of AS.

  15. Differential Susceptibility of Spleen Focus-Forming Virus and Murine Leukemia Viruses to Ansamycin Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horoszewicz, Julius S.; Leong, Susan S.; Carter, William A.

    1977-01-01

    The streptovaricin complex (SvCx) and rifamycin SV derivatives display potent antiviral activity against the polycythemic strain of Friend leukemia virus (FV-P), as measured by a reduction in the number of spleen foci produced in mice. Such reductions may be explained by inactivation of functions of (i) the spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV), (ii) its “helper” murine leukemia virus (MuLV), or (iii) both viruses normally present in FV-P. We noted that preincubation of FV-P with fractionation products of SvCx, or derivatives of rifamycin SV, at low concentrations (3 to 5 μg/ml) reduces the number of spleen foci 80 to 97%, whereas titers of MuLV (from the same inoculum) remain unaffected (MuLV titers were measured by XC, S+L−, and “helper activity” assays). Our findings indicate a remarkable biological selectivity of ansamycins, as well as nonansamycin components of SvCx, against the transforming and defective spleen focus-forming virus as compared to MuLV. Thus, the drugs might be useful in distinguishing other types of oncornaviruses. PMID:18986

  16. Coexisting Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation of the Spleen with Multiple Calcifying Fibrous Pseudotumors in a Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chieh Lee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary tumor or tumor-like lesions of the spleen are rare. Among them, vascular lesions are the most common. Vascular tumor of the spleen is different from the usual hemangioma of soft tissue because the vascular structure of the spleen is unique. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT is a recently described vascular lesion of the spleen. Grossly, it is a multinodular, well-circumscribed tumor containing a hypervascular core. Microscopically, it comprises three types of vessels, and each type recapitulates the immunohistochemical characteristics of the normal vascular elements of the splenic red pulp, i.e. capillaries, sinusoids, and small veins, respectively. Because of the rarity of this entity, its actual pathogenesis is still unknown. In this study, we report a case of SANT occurring in a 43-year-old woman, in whom there were also multiple calcifying fibrous pseudotumors (CFPTs in the abdominal cavity. Both SANT and CFPT are thought to be variants of inflammatory pseudotumor. Coexistence of these two rare entities in a patient has never been reported, and this fact suggests that there might be a common mechanism contributing to the formation of these two types of lesions. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3:234-239

  17. Isolation and partial characterization of two porcine spleen ferritin fractions with different electrophoretic mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Van Gelder (Carin); M.I.E. Huijskes-Heins (M. I E); D. Klepper (D.); W.L. van Noort (W.); M.I. Cleton-Soeteman (Maud); H.G. van Eijk (Henk)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractFerritin isolated from porcine spleen could routinely be separated in two fractions on nondenaturating gradient gels. Both fractions could be isolated with a purity of 96% when applied to two serially linked columns, each 200 cm in length, packed respectively with Sepharose 4B and

  18. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency in rats: Lipid analyses and lipase activities in liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, M.; Yoshida, H.; Suzuki, M.; Fujiyama, J.; Igata, A.

    1990-01-01

    We report the biological characterization of an animal model of a genetic lipid storage disease analogous to human Wolman's disease. Affected rats accumulated cholesteryl esters (13.3-fold), free cholesterol (2.8-fold), and triglycerides (5.4-fold) in the liver, as well as cholesteryl esters (2.5-fold) and free cholesterol (1.33-fold) in the spleen. Triglycerides did not accumulate, and the levels actually decreased in the spleen. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides showed high percentages of linoleic acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) in both organs, especially in the liver. No accumulation of phospholipids, neutral glycosphingolipids, or gangliosides was found in the affected rats. Acid lipase activity for [14C]triolein, [14C]cholesteryl oleate, and 4-methyl-umbelliferyl oleate was deficient in both the liver and spleen of affected rats. Lipase activity at neutral pH was normal in both liver and spleen. Heterozygous rats showed intermediate utilization of these substrates in both organs at levels between those for affected rats and those for normal controls, although they did not accumulate any lipids. These data suggest that these rats represent an animal counterpart of Wolman's disease in humans

  19. 915 MHz microwave ablation with high output power in in vivo porcine spleens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yongyan; Wang Yang; Duan Yaqi; Li Chunling; Sun Yuanyuan; Zhang Dakun; Lu Tong; Liang Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 915 MHz microwave (MW) ablation with high output power in in vivo porcine spleens. Materials and methods: MW ablations were performed in 9 porcine spleens with an internally cooled 915 MHz antenna. Thermocouples were placed at 5, 10, 15, 20 mm away from the antenna to measure temperatures in real-time during MW emission. The energy was applied for 10 min at high output power of 60 W, 70 W or 80 W. Gross specimens were sectioned and measured to determine ablation size. Representative areas were examined by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Coagulation sizes and temperatures were compared among the three power groups. Results: Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed irreversible necrosis in the splenic coagulation area after MW ablation. As the power was increased, long-axis diameter enlarged significantly (p .05). The coagulation size of long-axis and short-axis diameter with 80 W in vivo spleen ablation was 6.43 ± 0.52 and 4.95 ± 0.30 cm, respectively. With the increase of output power, maximum temperatures at 5, 10, 15, 20 mm from the antenna were increased accordingly (p o C respectively. Conclusion: With internally cooled antenna and high output power, 915 MHz MW ablation in the spleen could produce irreversible tissue necrosis of clinical significance. MW ablation may be used as a promising minimally invasive method for the treatment of splenic diseases.

  20. The onset of hemoglobin synthesis in spleens of irradiated mice after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponka, P.; Fuchs, O.; Borova, J.; Necas, E.

    1977-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) for globin was isolated from spleens of irradiated mice in which erythroid differentiation was induced by a bone marrow graft. The globin mRNA was isolated either by means of sucrose gradients of reticulocyte polysomal RNA or by affinity chromatography of total spleen RNA on poly (U)-sepharose. The globin mRNA was tested in a wheat embryo cell-free system. The appearance of mRNA in the spleen erythroid colonies was correlated with other parameters of erythroid differentiation such as globin synthesis, activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and iron uptake. Poly(A) containing mRNA did appear already on the 3rd day after grafting. However, significant translational activity of globin mRNA could be demonstrated only one day later together with increase in globin synthesis and delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and enhanced iron uptake. In the second part of this study mouse spleen cells rich in erythroid elements were incubated with a specific heme synthesis inhibitor (isonicotinic acid hydrazide, INH) and the synthesis of 9 S RNA was estimated. It was found that a 40-minute incubation with INH reduced uridine incorporation into 9 S RNA fraction by about 40%. (author)

  1. Coconut water solutions for the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino César, J M; Petroianu, A; de Souza Vasconcelos, L; Cardoso, V N; das Graças Mota, L; Barbosa, A J A; Vianna Soares, C D; Lima de Oliveira, A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coconut water in the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplantations in rats. Fifty female Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups on the basis of the following tissue graft preservation solutions: group 1, lactated Ringer's; group 2, Belzer's solution; group 3, mature coconut water; group 4, green coconut water; and group 5, modified green coconut water. In group 5, the green coconut water solution was modified to obtain the same electrolyte composition as Belzer's solution. The spleen, ovaries, and a skin fragment were removed from each animal, stored for 6 hours in one of the solutions, and then re-implanted. The recoveries of tissue functions were assessed 90 days after surgery by means of spleen scintigraphy and blood tests. The implanted tissues were collected for histological analyses. Higher immunoglobulin G levels were observed in the animals of group 5 than in the animals of group 1. Differences in follicle-stimulating hormone levels were observed between groups 1 and 2 (P coconut water group (P coconut water allowed for the preservation of the spleen, ovaries, and skin for 6 hours, and the normal functions of these tissues were maintained in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of cortisol on the primary response of mouse spleen cell cultures to heterologous erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracott, B.N.

    1974-01-01

    Cell viability and the production of direct PFC were studied in mouse spleen cell cultures after cortisol treatment in vivo or in vitro at various times relative to primary stimulation with SRBC in vitro. Cortisol treatment in vivo reduced spleen cell numbers by 88 percent after 48 hr, but cultures of the remaining cells produced as many PFC in vitro as did cultures of equal numbers of normal spleen cells. In normal spleen cell cultures incubated with cortisol for 4 hr prior to the addition of antigen, peak responses of PFC/culture and PFC/10 6 cells occurred 24 hr later than in controls and averaged, respectively, 27 and 141 percent of control values. Minimum viable cell numbers were observed in cortisol-treated cultures after 3 days; thereafter cell numbers gradually increased. These results were not significantly altered when cultures were treated simultaneously with cortisol and antigen. The response was not suppressed if the addition of antigen preceded that of cortisol by more than 4 hr. Suppression was also considerably reduced if fetal calf serum was used when preparing cells for culture

  3. Hematopoietic differentiative properties of murine spleen implanted in the omenta of irradiated and nonirradiated hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, J E; Tjio, J H; Smith, W W; Brecher, G [California Univ., San Francisco (USA); National Inst. of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases, Bethesda, Md. (USA); National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, Md. (USA). Lab. of Viral Oncology)

    1975-01-01

    Whole body irradiation of the recipients of syngeneic splenic implants into the omentum greatly enhances hematopoiesis and permits survival of and repopulation by stem cells of donor origin. Donor hematopoietic stem cells do not survive in spleen implants of the nonirradiated host.Irradiated hosts were therefore used in the bulk of the experiments. Differentiation in the implants of splenic fragments is predominantly erythrocytic at 10 days and shifts to predominantly granulocytic differentiation at 21 days. Suspensions of spleen cells injected into the omentum are predominantly granulocytopoietic at 10 days. The differentiation in fragments of spleen depleted of stem cells by irradiation, seeded with bone marrow cells and implanted into the omentum results in mixed erythrocytic and granulocytic hematopoiesis, with granulocytic predominance. Lymphocytic cells appeared late in the implants of irradiated recipients even at a time of prolific lymphocytopoiesis in the hosts' own spleens. The cause of the delay in the implants is not clear. The data are consistent with the concept that differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells is influenced by the stromal cells of the parent organ. The erythrocytic inductive capacity of the stromal cells may belost by mechanical disruption or modified by irradiation or a prolonged period of implantation.

  4. Accessory spleen versus lymph node: Value of iodine quantification with dual-energy computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winklhofer, Sebastian, E-mail: Sebastian.winklhofer@usz.ch [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, M-372, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Lin, Wei-Ching, E-mail: d7466@mail.cmuh.org.tw [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, M-372, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Department of Radiology, China Medical University Hospital, No. 2, Yuh-Der Rd., Taichung 40447, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological science, China Medical University, No. 91, Syueshih Rd., Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Lambert, Jack W., E-mail: Jack.Lambert@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, M-372, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Yeh, Benjamin M., E-mail: Benjamin.Yeh@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, M-372, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Objectives: To evaluate whether iodine quantification with Dual-Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) improves the differentiation of accessory spleens (AS) from lymph nodes (LN) compared to CT number measurements. Methods: Abdominal DECT images of 75 patients with either AS (n = 35) or LN (n = 48) (benign entity) were retrospectively evaluated. Hounsfield Units (HU) and iodine concentrations of AS, LN and the main spleen were measured. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were performed to calculate an optimal threshold for distinguishing AS from LN. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for distinguishing AS from LN by iodine concentration measurements. Results: Mean CT numbers and iodine concentrations were higher for AS (148 ± 29 HU and 48.2 ± 11 × 100 μg/cc) than LN (83 ± 19 HU and 31.5 ± 6.2 × 100 μg/cc, respectively, P < 0.001 each). Mean CT numbers were lower for AS compared to the main spleen (161 ± 29HU, P < 0.01), whereas mean iodine concentrations (47.7 ± 10 × 100 μg/cc) were not significantly different (P = 0.095). An iodine concentration greater than 38 × 100 μg/cc suggested AS with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 91%, 85%, and 88%, respectively (Area under ROC curve 0.941). Conclusions: Iodine measurements might contribute to the differentiation of AS from LN. Iodine concentrations similar to that of the main spleen may help to confirm the diagnosis of AS.

  5. The bovine spleen: Interactions among splenic cell populations in the innate immunologic control of hemoparasitic infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past several years, innate immunity has been recognized as having an important role as a front-line defense mechanism and as an integral part of the adaptive immune response. Innate immunity in cattle exposed to hemoparasites is spleen-dependent and age-related. In this review, we discuss g...

  6. Signal changes in liver and spleen after Endorem administration in patients with and without liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, W.; Helmberger, T.; Reiser, M.; Petsch, R.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effect of Endorem on the signal intensity of the spleen in patients with normal liver tissue and in patients with liver cirrhosis. Thirty patients with normal liver tissue and 47 with liver cirrhosis were examined before and after i. v. Endorem administration. The patients were examined with a 1.5-T magnet system (Magnetom Vision) using a semiflexible cp-array coil. Three different pulse sequences were used: a T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence, a T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence with spectral fat suppression, and a T2 * -weighted gradient-echo sequence. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of two areas of the liver and spleen were determined. The mean SNRs of the liver and spleen in patients with and without liver cirrhosis were compared. For assessment of statistical significance, the t-test at a level of P * -weighted gradient-echo sequence, the SNRs of the liver and spleen in the noncirrhotic liver group, compared with the cirrhotic liver group, were 126.8 % and 45.6 % less, respectively. The effect of Endorem on the liver in patients with Child C-stage liver cirrhosis was 32.1 % less than in patients with Child B-stage liver cirrhosis. Likewise, the Endorem effect on the spleen was 27.1 % less in patients with Child C-stage compared with Child B-stage liver cirrhosis. Hepatic and splenic uptake of Endorem is significantly decreased in patients with liver cirrhosis. (orig.)

  7. The safety of low molecular-weight heparin after blunt liver and spleen injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostas, Jack W; Manley, Justin; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Ahmed, Naveed; Frotan, Mohammad Amin; Mitchell, Ellen; Simmons, Jon D

    2015-07-01

    Anticoagulation is routinely administered to all trauma patients owing to the high incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the timing of administration of anticoagulation is not clearly defined when patients have blunt spleen or liver injuries because of the perceived risk of hemorrhage with early administration. A retrospective chart review was performed of all blunt trauma patients who sustained blunt liver and/or spleen injuries during the 5-year period from 2007 to 2011. Data were collected for all patients managed with nonoperative therapy for these injuries while also receiving routine prophylactic anticoagulation with low molecular-weight heparin. Patients were categorized based on the initiation of enoxaparin therapy after injury: early (72 hours). Primary and secondary outcomes were designated as need for operative or radiologic intervention secondary to spleen or liver hemorrhage, number of transfusions, and incidence of VTE. Three hundred and twenty-eight patients were included. There were no enoxaparin-related hemorrhagic complications or hemorrhage necessitating operative intervention. Patients in the early, intermediate, and late groups received an average of .9, .93, and 1.55 units of blood, respectively. There was 1 pulmonary embolism in the early group, and there were 6 VTE complications in the late group (3 deep venous thromboses and 3 pulmonary embolisms). There are currently no standards for the initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation in trauma patients with blunt liver and spleen injuries. Early administration may be safe and reduce the incidence of thrombotic complications in patients with blunt spleen and liver injuries. Prospective studies in this area are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Leishmania donovani infection induces anemia in hamsters by differentially altering erythropoiesis in bone marrow and spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Lafuse

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis by infecting and replicating in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Severe anemia and leucopenia is associated with the disease. Although immune defense mechanisms against the parasite have been studied, we have a limited understanding of how L. donovani alters hematopoiesis. In this study, we used Syrian golden hamsters to investigate effects of L. donovani infection on erythropoiesis. Infection resulted in severe anemia and leucopenia by 8 weeks post-infection. Anemia was associated with increased levels of serum erythropoietin, which indicates the hamsters respond to the anemia by producing erythropoietin. We found that infection also increased numbers of BFU-E and CFU-E progenitor populations in the spleen and bone marrow and differentially altered erythroid gene expression in these organs. In the bone marrow, the mRNA expression of erythroid differentiation genes (α-globin, β-globin, ALAS2 were inhibited by 50%, but mRNA levels of erythroid receptor (c-kit, EpoR and transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, FOG1 were not affected by the infection. This suggests that infection has a negative effect on differentiation of erythroblasts. In the spleen, erythroid gene expression was enhanced by infection, indicating that the anemia activates a stress erythropoiesis response in the spleen. Analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in spleen and bone marrow found that IFN-γ mRNA is highly increased by L. donovani infection. Expression of the IFN-γ inducible cytokine, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, was also up-regulated. Since TRAIL induces erythroblasts apoptosis, apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts from infected hamsters was examined by flow cytometry. Percentage of erythroblasts that were apoptotic was significantly increased by L. donovani infection. Together, our results suggest that L. donovani infection inhibits erythropoiesis in the bone marrow by

  9. Long non-coding RNAs and mRNAs profiling during spleen development in pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Tiandong; Li, Diyan; Jin, Long; Fu, Yuhua; Liu, Yingkai; Liu, Pengliang; Wang, Yixin; Tang, Qianzi; Ma, Jideng; Wang, Xun; Jiang, Anan; Li, Xuewei; Li, Mingzhou

    2018-01-01

    Genome-wide transcriptomic studies in humans and mice have become extensive and mature. However, a comprehensive and systematic understanding of protein-coding genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) expressed during pig spleen development has not been achieved. LncRNAs are known to participate in regulatory networks for an array of biological processes. Here, we constructed 18 RNA libraries from developing fetal pig spleen (55 days before birth), postnatal pig spleens (0, 30, 180 days and 2 years after birth), and the samples from the 2-year-old Wild Boar. A total of 15,040 lncRNA transcripts were identified among these samples. We found that the temporal expression pattern of lncRNAs was more restricted than observed for protein-coding genes. Time-series analysis showed two large modules for protein-coding genes and lncRNAs. The up-regulated module was enriched for genes related to immune and inflammatory function, while the down-regulated module was enriched for cell proliferation processes such as cell division and DNA replication. Co-expression networks indicated the functional relatedness between protein-coding genes and lncRNAs, which were enriched for similar functions over the series of time points examined. We identified numerous differentially expressed protein-coding genes and lncRNAs in all five developmental stages. Notably, ceruloplasmin precursor (CP), a protein-coding gene participating in antioxidant and iron transport processes, was differentially expressed in all stages. This study provides the first catalog of the developing pig spleen, and contributes to a fuller understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning mammalian spleen development.

  10. Heterogeneity within the spleen colony-forming cell population in rat bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, A.C.; van Bekkum, D.W.; Hagenbeek, A.

    1986-01-01

    The pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell (HSC) of the rat can be enumerated in a spleen colony assay (SCA) in rats as well as mice. After injection of rat bone marrow into lethally irradiated mice, macroscopically visible spleen colonies (CFU-S) are found from day 6 through 14, but the number varies on consecutive days. In normal bone marrow a constant ratio of day-8 to day-12 colony numbers is observed. However, this ratio is changed after in vivo treatment of rats with cyclophosphamide, as well as after in vitro treatment of rat bone marrow with cyclophosphamide derivatives. This indicates that the CFU-S that form colonies on day 8 react differently to this treatment than the CFU-S that form colonies on day 12, and suggests heterogeneity among the CFU-S population. Posttreatment regrowth of day-8 and day-12 CFU-S is characterized by differences in population-doubling times (Td = 0.85 days vs 1.65 days). Another argument in support of the postulate of heterogeneity within the rat CFU-S population is derived from the fact that (in contrast to normal rat spleen) the spleen of leukemic rats contains high numbers of CFU-S that show a ratio of day-8 to day-12 CFU-S of 4.5, which is different than that observed for a CFU-S population in normal bone marrow (a ratio of 2.4). It is concluded that, in rat hemopoiesis, two populations of spleen colony-forming cells can be distinguished using the rat-to-mouse SCA. This indicates that mouse and rat hemopoiesis are comparable in this respect and that heterogeneity in the stem cell compartment is a general phenomenon

  11. Bulk enrichment of transplantable hemopoietic stem cell subsets from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploemacher, R.E.; Brons, R.H.; Leenen, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE) in combination with density flotation centrifugation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting on wheat-germ agglutinin-FITC(WGA)-binding cells within the light-scatter ''blast window'' were used consecutively to enrich pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) in bulk from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse spleen. The medium-to-strong WGA + ve fraction contained 3.10(6) cells isolated from 3-4 X 10(9) spleen cells, with an average of 126% day-12 CFU-S and 65% day-8 CFU-S as calculated on the basis of their seeding fraction, suggesting that virtually all cells represented in vivo macroscopic colony formers. In view of the large differences reported elsewhere between stem cell subsets differing in reconstitutive capacity and secondary stem cell generation ability, we also studied various isolated cell fractions with respect to spleen colony formation, radioprotective ability, and spleen- and marrow- repopulating ability. Day-8 and day-12 CFU-S copurified when isolated by CCE. Cells from a fraction with high affinity for WGA were most highly enriched for their radioprotective ability (RPA) and their ability to repopulate the cellularity of the spleen and femur of irradiated recipients. This fraction contained virtually pure day-12 CFU-S. However, the ability to generate secondary day-12 CFU-S and CFU-GM in irradiated organs was enriched most in the medium WGA + ve cell fraction. MRA and SRA, according to the latter criteria, could therefore be partly separated from day-12 CFU-S and RPA on the basis of affinity for WGA. The data strongly suggest that at least part of all day-12 CFU-S have a high potential to proliferate and differentiate into mature progeny, but a relatively low self-renewal ability, and may therefore not be representative of the genuine stem cell

  12. Reduction of rainbow trout spleen size by splenectomy does not alter resistance against bacterial cold water disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In lower vertebrates, the contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity is poorly understood. Researchers have previously reported a phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and spleen so...

  13. Sympathetic Nerve Hyperactivity in the Spleen: Causal for Nonpathogenic-Driven Chronic Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Bellinger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs is a descriptive term coined for an eclectic group of diseases or conditions that share common inflammatory pathways, and for which there is no definitive etiology. IMIDs affect the elderly most severely, with many older individuals having two or more IMIDs. These diseases include, but are not limited to, type-1 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Sjőgren’s syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. These diseases are ostensibly unrelated mechanistically, but increase in frequency with age and share chronic systemic inflammation, implicating major roles for the spleen. Chronic systemic and regional inflammation underlies the disease manifestations of IMIDs. Regional inflammation and immune dysfunction promotes targeted end organ tissue damage, whereas systemic inflammation increases morbidity and mortality by affecting multiple organ systems. Chronic inflammation and skewed dysregulated cell-mediated immune responses drive many of these age-related medical disorders. IMIDs are commonly autoimmune-mediated or suspected to be autoimmune diseases. Another shared feature is dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis. Here, we focus on dysautonomia. In many IMIDs, dysautonomia manifests as an imbalance in activity/reactivity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. These major autonomic pathways are essential for allostasis of the immune system, and regulating inflammatory processes and innate and adaptive immunity. Pathology in ANS is a hallmark and causal feature of all IMIDs. Chronic systemic inflammation comorbid with stress pathway dysregulation implicate neural-immune cross-talk in the etiology and pathophysiology of IMIDs

  14. The time-course relationship between endogenous spleen colony formation and marrow cellularity after midlethal irradiation of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, I.; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Wojskowa Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of appearance and disappearance of endogenous spleen colonies following 4 and 6 Gy of X-irradiation was compared with the kinetics of changes of cellular contents of femur cavities. Additionally, the effect of postirradiation bleeding and this way of the subsequent increase in the level of endogenous erythropoietin was studied. It was found that the kinetics of endogenous haemopoietic recovery in the marrow follows the same characteristic biphasic pattern as in the spleen although it is slightly delayed in time. First wave of regeneration corresponded in time with the formation of transient endogenous spleen colonies 4-7 days postirradiation, and the 2nd wave corresponded in time witn the formation of classical haemopoietic stem-cell derived endogenous spleen colonies 9-12 days following irradiation. Postirradiation bleeding markedly stimulated particularly the first wave of regeneration both in the marrow and in the spleen. (orig.) [de

  15. Correlation study of spleen stiffness measured by FibroTouch with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Yutong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the correlation of spleen stiffness measured by FibroScan with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsSpleen and liver stiffness was measured by FibroScan in 72 patients with liver cirrhosis who received gastroscopy in our hospital from December 2012 to December 2013. Categorical data were analyzed by χ2 test, and continuous data were analyzed by t test. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation between the degree of esophageal varices and spleen stiffness. ResultsWith the increase in the Child-Pugh score in patients, the measurements of liver and spleen stiffness showed a rising trend. Correlation was found between the measurements of spleen and liver stiffness (r=0.367, P<0.05. The differences in measurements of spleen stiffness between patients with Child-Pugh classes A, B, and C were all significant (t=5.149, 7.231, and 6.119, respectively; P=0031, 0.025, and 0.037, respectively. The measurements of spleen and liver stiffness showed marked increases in patients with moderate and severe esophageal and gastric varices. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, and specificity for spleen stiffness were significantly higher than those for liver stiffness and platelet count/spleen thickness. ConclusionThe spleen stiffness measurement by FibroScan shows a good correlation with the esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. FibroScan is safe and noninvasive, and especially useful for those who are not suitable for gastroscopy.

  16. Scintigraphic evaluation of brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. H.; Bai, M. S.; Cho, K. K.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W.

    1997-01-01

    A law recognizing brain death is a life saving legal measure in patients suffering from badly diseased organs such as kidney, liver, heart, and lung. Such law is being discussed for legalization at the Korean National Assembly. There are various criteria used for brain death in western world and brain scintiscan is one of them. However, the scintiscan is not considered in establishing brain death in the draft of the law. The purpose of this report is to spread this technique in nuclear medicine society as well as in other medical societies. We evaluated 7 patients with clinical suspicion of brain death by various causes. The patient's age ranged from 5 to 39 years. We used 5-20mCi 99m Tc-HMPAO (d.1-hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) or ECD (Ethyl Cysteinate Dimer), lipophilic agents that cross BBB (blood brain barrier). A dynamic study followed by static or SPECT (single photon emission tomography) was performed. Interpretive criteria used for brain death were 1) no intracranial circulation 2) no brain uptake. The second criteria is heavily used. Five of 7 patients were scintigraphically brain dead and the remaining 2 had some brain uptake excluding the diagnosis of scintigraphic brain death. In conclusion, cerebral perfusion study using a lipophilic brain tracer offers a noninvasive, rapid, easy, accurate and reliable mean in the diagnosis of brain death. We believe that this modality should be included in the criteria of brain death in the draft of the proposed Korean law

  17. Heart failure - surgeries and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery; HF - surgery; Intra-aortic balloon pumps - heart failure; IABP - heart failure; Catheter based assist devices - heart failure ... problem may cause heart failure or make heart failure worse. Heart valve surgery may be needed to repair or ...

  18. Oxidative DNA damage and its repair in rat spleen following subchronic exposure to aniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Huaxian; Wang Jianling; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z.; Boor, Paul J.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which aniline exposure elicits splenotoxic response, especially the tumorigenic response, are not well-understood. Splenotoxicity of aniline is associated with iron overload and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids (oxidative stress). 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is one of the most abundant oxidative DNA lesions resulting from ROS, and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), a specific DNA glycosylase/lyase enzyme, plays a key role in the removal of 8-OHdG adducts. This study focused on examining DNA damage (8-OHdG) and repair (OGG1) in the spleen in an experimental condition preceding a tumorigenic response. To achieve that, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subchronically exposed to aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day via drinking water for 30 days), while controls received drinking water only. Aniline treatment led to a significant increase in splenic oxidative DNA damage, manifested as a 2.8-fold increase in 8-OHdG levels. DNA repair activity, measured as OGG1 base excision repair (BER) activity, increased by ∼ 1.3 fold in the nuclear protein extracts (NE) and ∼ 1.2 fold in the mitochondrial protein extracts (ME) of spleens from aniline-treated rats as compared to the controls. Real-time PCR analysis for OGG1 mRNA expression in the spleen revealed a 2-fold increase in expression in aniline-treated rats than the controls. Likewise, OGG1 protein expression in the NEs of spleens from aniline-treated rats was ∼ 1.5 fold higher, whereas in the MEs it was ∼ 1.3 fold higher than the controls. Aniline treatment also led to stronger immunostaining for both 8-OHdG and OGG1 in the spleens, confined to the red pulp areas. It is thus evident from our studies that aniline-induced oxidative stress is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage. The BER pathway was also activated, but not enough to prevent the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG). Accumulation of mutagenic oxidative

  19. Premalignant lesions skew spleen cell responses to immune modulation by adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielma, Silvana A; Klein, Richard L; Levingston, Corinne A; Young, M Rita I

    2013-05-01

    Obesity can promote a chronic inflammatory state and is associated with an increased risk for cancer. Since adipocytes can produce mediators that can regulate conventional immune cells, this study sought to determine if the presence of premalignant oral lesions would skew how immune cells respond to adipocyte-derived mediators to create an environment that may be more favorable for their progression toward cancer. While media conditioned by adipocytes stimulated normal spleen cell production of the T helper (Th) type-1 cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-12 and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM CSF), media from premalignant lesion cells either blocked or had no added affect on the adipocyte-stimulated Th1 cytokine production. In contrast, media conditioned by premalignant lesion cells exacerbated adipocyte-stimulated spleen cell production of the Th2 cytokines IL-10 and IL-13, although it did not further enhance the adipocyte-stimulated spleen cell production of IL-4 and TGF-β. The premalignant lesion environment also heightened the adipocyte-stimulated spleen cell production of the inflammatory mediators IL 1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-9, although it did not further increase the adipocyte-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). IL 17 production was unaffected by the adipocyte-derived mediators, but was synergistically triggered by adding media from premalignant lesion cells. These stimulatory effects on spleen cell production of Th2 and inflammatory mediators were not induced in the absence of media conditioned by adipocytes. In contrast, media conditioned by adipocytes did not stimulate production of predominantly monocyte-derived chemokine C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL)9, chemokine C-C motif ligand (CCL)3 or CCL4, although it stimulated production of CCL2 and the predominantly T cell-derived chemokine CCL5, which was the only chemokine whose production was further increased by media from premalignant lesions

  20. Valvular Heart Disease in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe MC Rosano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural valvular heart disease may be the cause of heart failure or may worsen the clinical status of patients with heart failure. Heart failure may also develop in patients treated with valve surgery. Patients with heart failure with valvular heart disease are at increased risk of events including sudden cardiac death. Before considering intervention (surgical or percutaneous all patients should receive appropriate medical and device therapy taking into account that vasodilators must be used with caution in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Numerous percutaneous and/or hybrid procedures have been introduced in the past few years and they are changing the management of valvular heart disease. In patients with heart failure and valvular heart disease, either primary or functional, the whole process of decision-making should be staged through a comprehensive evaluation of the risk– benefit ratio of different treatment strategies and should be made by a multidisciplinary ‘heart team’ with a particular expertise in valvular heart disease. The heart team should include heart failure cardiologists, cardiac surgeons/structural valve interventionists, imaging specialists, anaesthetists, geriatricians and intensive care specialists. This article will review recent developments and distill practical guidance in the management of this important heart failure co-morbidity.

  1. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  2. [Multicentric inflammatory pseudotumor with asynchronic presentation in meninges, liver, spleen and lymph nodes in a patient with seronegative spondiloarthropathy. Case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuña-González, R M; Rivera-Salgado, M I; García-Velarde, P M Pasquel; de León-Bojorge, B; Ortiz-Hidalgo, C

    Inflammatory pseudotumor is a reactive process in which the etiology and pathogenesis are not well defined, that can be found in any location. The cases with central nervous system affection have been described in meninges, brain, choroid plexus and cranial and spinal nerves. Multicentric cases, synchronous and asynchronous have been described. A 45 years-old woman with a rheumatologic disease (a seronegative spondiloarthropathy) who developed an inflammatory pseudotumor in spleen, liver and abdominal lymph nodes in 1995, associated to fever of unknown origin, six years later she presented with an inflammatory pseudotumor of the meninges in the convexity of the right frontoparietal region, with fever, malaise, and increase of globular sedimentation rate, microcytic hypochromic anemia and thrombocytosis. The clinicopathologic features of this lesion are revised, including the different theories in regard to the etiology and pathogenesis, and the role of cytokines produced by inflammatory cells in the tumor.

  3. A healthy heart is not a metronome: an integrative review of the heart's anatomy and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Fred; McCraty, Rollin; Zerr, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), the change in the time intervals between adjacent heartbeats, is an emergent property of interdependent regulatory systems that operate on different time scales to adapt to challenges and achieve optimal performance. This article briefly reviews neural regulation of the heart, and its basic anatomy, the cardiac cycle, and the sinoatrial and atrioventricular pacemakers. The cardiovascular regulation center in the medulla integrates sensory information and input from higher brain centers, and afferent cardiovascular system inputs to adjust heart rate and blood pressure via sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent pathways. This article reviews sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on the heart, and examines the interpretation of HRV and the association between reduced HRV, risk of disease and mortality, and the loss of regulatory capacity. This article also discusses the intrinsic cardiac nervous system and the heart-brain connection, through which afferent information can influence activity in the subcortical and frontocortical areas, and motor cortex. It also considers new perspectives on the putative underlying physiological mechanisms and properties of the ultra-low-frequency (ULF), very-low-frequency (VLF), low-frequency (LF), and high-frequency (HF) bands. Additionally, it reviews the most common time and frequency domain measurements as well as standardized data collection protocols. In its final section, this article integrates Porges' polyvagal theory, Thayer and colleagues' neurovisceral integration model, Lehrer et al.'s resonance frequency model, and the Institute of HeartMath's coherence model. The authors conclude that a coherent heart is not a metronome because its rhythms are characterized by both complexity and stability over longer time scales. Future research should expand understanding of how the heart and its intrinsic nervous system influence the brain.

  4. Effect of Progressive Heart Failure on Cerebral Hemodynamics and Monoamine Metabolism in CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamalyga, M L; Mamalyga, L M

    2017-07-01

    Compensated and decompensated heart failure are characterized by different associations of disorders in the brain and heart. In compensated heart failure, the blood flow in the common carotid and basilar arteries does not change. Exacerbation of heart failure leads to severe decompensation and is accompanied by a decrease in blood flow in the carotid and basilar arteries. Changes in monoamine content occurring in the brain at different stages of heart failure are determined by various factors. The functional exercise test showed unequal monoamine-synthesizing capacities of the brain in compensated and decompensated heart failure. Reduced capacity of the monoaminergic systems in decompensated heart failure probably leads to overstrain of the central regulatory mechanisms, their gradual exhaustion, and failure of the compensatory mechanisms, which contributes to progression of heart failure.

  5. Reparative processes in spleen of rats irradiated with higher daily dose rates of continuous irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackova, N.; Praslicka, M.; Misurova, E.

    1975-01-01

    Histological and DNA content values were used in evaluating repair processes in the spleen of rats at various intervals following continuous irradiation with daily doses of 50 R, 100 R, 200 R and 500 R (a total dose of 1000 R), and following a single exposure to 1000 R. Histological changes found immediately after irradiation indicated the induction of significant injuries, this mainly as a result of daily doses of 200 R and 500 R. The complete repair of the DNA content and of a number of erythroid elements and also a 70 to 80% regeneration of the white pulp took place within 25 days. The same period was found to be insufficient for the complete repair of megakaryocytes. No signs of repair were observed in spleen in the histological picture or DNA content after a single irradiation with a dose of 1000 R. (author)

  6. Reparative processes in spleen of rats irradiated with higher daily dose rates of continuous irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackova, N; Praslicka, M; Misurova, E [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta

    1975-01-01

    Histological and DNA content values were used in evaluating repair processes in the spleen of rats at various intervals following continuous irradiation with daily doses of 50 R, 100 R, 200 R and 500 R (a total dose of 1000 R), and following a single exposure to 1000 R. Histological changes found immediately after irradiation indicated the induction of significant injuries, this mainly as a result of daily doses of 200 R and 500 R. The complete repair of the DNA content and of a number of erythroid elements and also a 70 to 80% regeneration of the white pulp took place within 25 days. The same period was found to be insufficient for the complete repair of megakaryocytes. No signs of repair were observed in spleen in the histological picture or DNA content after a single irradiation with a dose of 1000 R.

  7. CT and MR findings of langerhans cell histiocytois involving the spleen: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyun, Hae Wook; Kim, Mee Eun; Kim, Jang Ho [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-02-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is systemic disease resulting from the proliferation and dissemination of abnormal histiocytic cells of the Langerhans cell system. Common sites of involvement include the skin, bone, bone marrow, lung, lymph nodes and central nervous system, and the condition manifests in variety of ways. We present the CT and MR findings of a case of LCH involving the spleen, an organ invloved relatively rarely. Post-contrast CT revealed multiple hypodense nodules. T1-weighted MR images of the spleen depicted no definitive lesion, but T2-weighted images showed abnormal low signals scattered throughout this organ. In addition, post-contrast, fat-saturated T1-weighted MR images lesions showed multiple, low-signal-intensity lesions.

  8. Spleen scanning with 99Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, G.R.; Bird, C.; Prothero, D.L.; Brown, T.R.; Mackenzie, F.A.F.; Phillips, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to correlate the haematological changes which occur after splenectomy, with the presence or absence of residual splenic tissue, spleen scans using 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells were performed in 36 patients who had had a splenectomy. Positive spleen scans were found in 44 per cent (8 out of 18) of patients who had undergone splenectomy for trauma and in 17 per cent (3 out of 18) of patients who had undergone elective splenectomy. No relationship was found between the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies, platelet counts, the levels of IgG, IgM and IgA and the scan result. It is concluded that these findings are due to the presence of splenunculi, whose incidence is more common than the 12 per cent usually quoted. (author)

  9. Incomplete development of the spleen and the deformity in the chimeras between asplenic mutant (Dominant hemimelia) and normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, J; Wakayama, T; Imamura, K; Goto, S; Fukuta, K

    1995-08-01

    The semidominant gene Dh (Dominant hemimelia) induces skeletal and visceral abnormalities of various degrees and failure of the spleen in mice. The homozygous individual (Dh/Dh) seems to be lethal. The present experiment was designed to investigate the ability Dh cells to form a spleen and the genesis of the hind limb malformations by Dh/Dh and Dh/+ cells in chimeric mice. The Dh/Dh and Dh/+ embryos were produced in the F2 progeny of a cross between inbred strains of Dh/+ and DDD mice. They were aggregated with C3H/He or C57BL/6 embryos to make chimeras. Identification of Dh/Dh or Dh/+ embryos was carried out by Pep-3, and chimerism was analyzed by Gpi-1. Of 25 chimeras carrying the Dh gene, four mice formed a small spleen, two mice had a vestigial spleen, and the others no spleen. The tissues of the incompletely developed spleens were normal histologically and Dh cells were involved in the tissues of the spleen. In the chimeric mice, hindlimb malformation by the Dh gene was reduced in severity and the lethality of the homozygote (Dh/Dh) was rescued.

  10. Revealing Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saghaug, Kristin Falck; Pattison, George; Lindgren, Peter

    2014-01-01

    with reference to Tillich’s account of the meaning of revelation through culture and art, summed up in the statement that “(...) revelation is the manifestation of the ground of being for human knowledge” (Tillich, 1951, p.94), which, we argue, can be extended to everyday experiences, for example, in business......Some small business owners want to balance personal values as well as economic values. “I have to follow my heart” or “it must be meaningful” some of them say. But how might they be able to know what gives meaning to the heart? The philosophical theologian Paul Tillich finds that the problem...... life. In Tillich’s own terms, even preliminary concerns may point at an ultimate concern (Tillich, 1964), which can also be understood as ‘knowledge of the heart’. Our account is also connected to wider discussions concerning the nature of intuition....

  11. Activation of spleen cells by ArtinM may account for its immunomodulatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thiago Aparecido da; Souza, Maria Aparecida de; Cecílio, Nerry Tatiana; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2014-09-01

    ArtinM is a D-mannose-binding lectin extracted from Artocarpus heterophyllus that promotes interleukin-12 production by macrophages and dendritic cells. This property is considered responsible for T helper 1 immunity induced in vivo after ArtinM administration. In this study, we investigated the effect of native (jArtinM) and recombinant (rArtinM) forms of lectin on murine spleen cells and isolated T lymphocytes. We found that ArtinM binds to the surface of spleen cells. This interaction, which was blocked by D-mannose, induced cell activation, as manifested by increased mitochondrial activity, interleukin-2 production, and cell proliferation. We verified that a 30-times higher concentration of rArtinM was required to trigger optimal activation of spleen cells compared with that needed with jArtinM, although these proteins have identical sugar recognition properties and use the same signaling molecules to trigger cell activation. Because the distinction between native and recombinant is restricted to their tertiary structure (tetrameric and monomeric, respectively), we postulated that the multi-valence of jArtinM accounts for its superiority in promoting clustering of cell surface glycoreceptors and activation. The jArtinM and rArtinM activation effect exerted on spleen cells was reproduced on purified CD4(+) T cells. Our results suggest that ArtinM interaction with T cells leads to responses that may act in concert with the interleukin-12 produced by antigen-presenting cells to modulate immunity toward the T helper 1 axis. Further studies are necessary to dissect ArtinM/T-cell interactions to more fully understand the immunomodulation induced by carbohydrate recognition.

  12. Management of spleen injuries in the adult trauma population: a ten-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, Margherita; Garnett, Anna; Al-Anezi, Khaled; Farrokhyar, Forough

    2006-12-01

    Increasing awareness of the postoperative risks associated with splenectomies has led physicians and surgeons to use an alternative nonoperative strategy in handling traumatic spleen injuries. Our primary objective was to compare clinical outcomes between operative and nonoperative managements in adult patients with blunt splenic injuries. The secondary objective was to assess the changes in the patterns of managing splenic injuries in the past 10 years. We performed a retrospective chart review on 266 adult patients with a spleen injury who were admitted to a tertiary trauma centre in Ontario between 1992 and 2001. We grouped and compared the patients according to the treatment received, either operative or nonoperative. Frequencies and confidence intervals are reported. Categorical variables were compared with chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Continuous variables were reported as median and quartile (Q) and were compared with the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Of 266 patients, 118 had surgery and 148 were managed nonoperatively. The mortality rate was similar between operative and nonoperative groups (9.3% v. 6.8%, p = 0.49), respectively. The rate of any complication was 47.9% for the operative group and 37.9% for the nonoperative group. The median length of stay in hospital was significantly higher in the operative group than in the nonoperative group (21.0 [Q 11.0-40.5] v. 14.0 [Q 7.0-31.5] d, p trauma has increased over time and has acceptable mortality and complication rates in selected patients. Additional prospective studies are needed to assess the feasibility and safety of nonoperative management in adult spleen injuries. Furthermore, the management of traumatic spleen injuries with respect to associated injuries, such as head injuries or intra-abdominal injuries, needs ongoing evaluation.

  13. PRIMARY GIANT HYDATID DISEASE OF THE SPLEEN: A RARE CASE REPORT WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanyam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The most common organ involved in hydatid disease is the liver, followed by the lungs. Hydatid disease of spleen is a rare clinical condition, as even in the endemic region the frequency is reported to be 0.5 – 4% of abdominal hydatid diseases. Most commonly splenic involvement is secondary i.e., along with other organs. Primary hydatid diseases in s pleen is rare, here we are reporting a rare case of primary splenic hydatid disease

  14. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG uptake by spleen in acute radiation disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-jie WU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether 18F-FDG uptake can be applied in dosimetry to facilitate a rapid and accurate evaluation of individual radiation dosage after a nuclear accident. Methods Forty-eight Tibetan minipigs were randomly assigned into 6 groups, i.e., 0, 1, 2, 5, 8 and 11Gy groups. Animals in all except 0Gy group received total body irradiation (TBI with a 8MV X centrifugal linear accelerator, and 18F-FDG combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT were carried out before TBI, and also at 6, 24 and 72h after receiving TBI in different doses ranging from 1 to 11Gy. Spleen tissues and blood samples were collected for histological examination, apoptosis, and routine blood analysis. Results Mean standardized uptake values (SUVs of the spleen showed significant differences between experimental groups and control group. The spleen SUVs at 6h post-irradiation showed significant correlation with radiation dose; Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.95(P<0.01. Histopathological observations showed that the degree of splenic damage was proportional to the radiation dose. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed that apoptosis was one of the major forms of splenic lymphocyte death. Conclusion In the Tibetan minipig model, it was shown that radiation doses bear a close relationship with the 18F-FDG uptake of spleen. This finding suggests that 18F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for the rapid detection of individual radiation dosage after acute radiation disease (ARD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.08

  15. [Liver and spleen biometrics in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariento, Andressa; Silva, Marco Felipe C; Tassetano, Priscilla S F; Rocha, Sílvia Maria S; Campos, Lúcia M A; Valente, Marcelo; Silva, Clovis A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate liver and spleen dimensions in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (c-SLE) patients and healthy controls. 30 c-SLE patients and 30 healthy control volunteers underwent abdominal ultrasound. The following two liver measurements were performed in left hepatic lobe: craniocaudal and anteroposterior and three in right hepatic lobe (RHL): posterior craniocaudal (PCC-RHL), anterior craniocaudal and anteroposterior. Three spleen dimension measurements were also evaluated: longitudinal, transverse and anteroposterior. Demographic, clinical and laboratorial data, SLEDAI-2K, ECLAM, SLAM and treatment were assessed. Mean current age was similar in c-SLE and controls (170.31 ± 27.81 vs. 164.15 ± 39.25 months; p = 0.486). The mean of PCC-RHL dimension was significantly higher in c-SLE compared to controls (13.30 ± 1.85 vs. 12.52 ± 0.93, p = 0.044). There were no differences between the other hepatic biometrics and splenic parameters (p > 0.05). Further analysis in c-SLE patients according to PCC-RHL dimension ≥ 13.3cm versus 0.05). Positive correlation was observed between SLEDAI-2K and PCC-RHL (p = 0.001, r = +0.595). Negative correlation was evidenced between disease duration and longitudinal dimension of spleen (p = 0.031, r = -0.394). Our data raises the possibility that disease activity could lead to a subclinical and localized hepatomegaly during the disease course. Long disease duration resulted to spleen atrophy in c-SLE patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Surgical retrieval of a metallic foreign body from the spleen of a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shashi K; Anand, Arun; Sangwan, Vandana; Mohindroo, Jitender; Singh, Kiranjit

    2012-04-01

    This is the first report of a metallic foreign body in the spleen of a dog. The animal had abdominal discomfort with a tucked-up abdomen and occasional vomition. Radiography and ultrasonography were used to identify a splenic foreign body which was surgically removed through a ventral midline celiotomy. Migration of the foreign body through the stomach wall was suspected as the most likely cause.

  17. CD4+FOXP3+ cells produce IL-10 in the spleens of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira; de Andrade, Mariana M C; Melo, Larissa M; Perosso, Juliana; Vasconcelos, Rosemeri O; Munari, Danisio P; Lima, Valéria M F

    2014-05-28

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by intracellular parasites of the genus Leishmania that affect humans and several animal species. Dogs are one of the main urban reservoirs of the parasite and play a central role in the transmission cycle to humans via sandflies. Studies concerning the immune response in dogs with VL have demonstrated that protective immunity is associated with cellular immune response, while disease progression is associated with humoral response and IL-10 and TGF-β production. The study aimed to evaluate IL-10 and TGF-β production by regulatory T (Treg) cells in the blood and spleen of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania spp. and correlate this with parasite load. Five healthy dogs and 29 dogs with proven infection were selected for the study group. Real-time PCR was used to quantify parasite load and confirm infection by Leishmania spp. Treg cells producing IL-10 and TGF-β were quantified using flow cytometry. An increase in IL-10 production by Treg cells was verified in the spleen of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania spp. Concurrently, a decrease in the total number of T cells in these dogs was verified compared with healthy dogs. No association was determined between parasite load and the percentage of spleen Treg cells producing IL-10 and TGF-β. These findings suggest that Treg cells are an important source of IL-10 in the spleen, participating in immune response modulation, while the reduced percentage of these cells in infected dogs could be attributed to persistent immune activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Surgical retrieval of a metallic foreign body from the spleen of a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Shashi K.; Anand, Arun; Sangwan, Vandana; Mohindroo, Jitender; Singh, Kiranjit

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report of a metallic foreign body in the spleen of a dog. The animal had abdominal discomfort with a tucked-up abdomen and occasional vomition. Radiography and ultrasonography were used to identify a splenic foreign body which was surgically removed through a ventral midline celiotomy. Migration of the foreign body through the stomach wall was suspected as the most likely cause.

  19. Pathological changes of Golgi complex in hemocytoblasts of spleen of young axolotls after x-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turska, R.

    1975-01-01

    The data available up to now concerning the structure of Golgi complex in different types of normal and pathologically changed cells are very divergent. Results are reported from detailed studies on changes occurring within the Golgi complex in the spleen of three-month old axolotls after x-ray irradiation with a single dose of 1,200 R and killed by decapitation 15, 30, 60 minutes and 3, 6, and 12 hours after irradiation.

  20. Electronmicroscopic study of gamma irradiated mouse spleen during primary immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burneva, V.G.; Gitsov, L.G.; Boyadzhieva-Mikhajlova, A.; Kyncheva, L.S.; Viklichka, St.

    1978-01-01

    An electronmicroscopic study of the mouse spleen immunocompetent cells during the productive phase of the primary immune response after sublethal gamma ray irradiation is carried out. For this purpose the animals were immunized with sheep red blood cells 24 hours after irradiation and sacrified on the 5th day after immunization. The number of small lymphocytes is reduced in all zones of the spleen. Only in the periarteriolar area the lymphoid sheaths are well outlines and the ultrastructure of the cells preserved. Three types of reticulohistocytic elements, according to their radiosensitivity are observed. The most radioresistant cells are the fixed ''dark'' reticular cells which do not complete phagocytosis. The ultrastructure of their nucleus and cytoplasm is not damaged. The macrophages are also quite resistant. The ''light'' reticular cells are the most radiosensitive. The chromatine of their nuclei is dispersed. The mitochondria are imbibed, with a reduced number of cristae. The cytoplasm contains many electron light vesicles, different in size. The changes in the processes of the dendridic cells in the spleen lymph follicles are of particular interest. Compared with the control animals the processes of dendritic reticular cells are markedly reduced. The postirradiation ultrastructural changes of the spleen cells indicate that parallel with the basic factor (the death of a considerable part of the small lymphocytes, precursors of the antibody-synthetizing cells) the reduced antibody-formation is due also to the limited capacity for ''traping'' the antigen on the processes of the dendritic follicular cells and to the reduced capacity of the reticulo-histocytic cells for antigen phagocytosis. The later is determined both by the damage of a considerable part of the phagocytes (radiosensitive ''light'' reticulo-histocytic cells) and by the blocking of the functionally undamaged phagocytes from ingested debris. (K.M.)

  1. Accuracy of apparent diffusion coefficient in differentiating pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour from intrapancreatic accessory spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Ankur; Pandey, Pallavi; Ghasabeh, Mounes Aliyari; Varzaneh, Farnaz Najmi; Khoshpouri, Pegah; Shao, Nannan; Pour, Manijeh Zargham; Fouladi, Daniel Fadaei; Kamel, Ihab R.; Hruban, Ralph H.; O'Broin-Lennon, Anne Marie

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the accuracy of absolute apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and normalised ADC (lesion-to-spleen ADC ratio) in differentiating pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (NET) from intrapancreatic accessory spleen (IPAS). Study included 62 patients with the diagnosis of pancreatic NET (n=51) or IPAS (n=11). Two independent reviewers measured ADC on all lesions and spleen. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to differentiate NET from IPAS was performed and compared for absolute and normalised ADC. Inter-reader reliability for the two methods was assessed. Pancreatic NET had significantly higher absolute ADC (1.431 x 10 -3 vs 0.967 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s; P<0.0001) and normalised ADC (1.59 vs 1.09; P<0.0001) compared to IPAS. An ADC value of ≥1.206 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s was 70.6% sensitive and 90.9% specific for the diagnosis of NET vs. IPAS. Lesion to spleen ADC ratio of ≥1.25 was 80.4% sensitive, and 81.8% specific while ratio of ≥1.29 was 74.5% sensitive and 100% specific in the differentiation. The area under the curve (AUCs) for two methods were similar (88.2% vs. 88.8%; P=0.899). Both methods demonstrated excellent inter-reader reliability with ICCs for absolute ADC and ADC ratio being 0.957 and 0.927, respectively. Both absolute and normalised ADC allow clinically relevant differentiation of pancreatic NET and IPAS. (orig.)

  2. Spontaneous gastric ulcer perforation and acute spleen infarction caused by invasive gastric and splenic mucormycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushira Abdulaziz Enani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening fungal infection mostly affecting immunocompromised hosts. The main categories of human disease with the Mucorales are sinusitis/rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous/subcutaneous, gastrointestinal and disseminated disease. Other disease states occur with a much lower frequency and include cystitis, vaginitis; external otitis and allergic disease. We report a diabetic patient with comorbidities, who developed gastric perforation clinically indistinguishable from perforated peptic ulcer due to invasive gastric mucormycosis complicated by spleen infarction.

  3. Unfolding the mechanism of cisplatin induced pathophysiology in spleen and its amelioration by carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sharmistha; Sinha, Krishnendu; Chowdhury, Sayantani; Sil, Parames C

    2018-01-05

    cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin) is an effective chemotherapeutic and is widely used for the treatment of various types of solid tumors. Bio-distribution of cisplatin to other organs due to poor targeting towards only cancer cells constitutes the backbone of cisplatin-induced toxicity. The adverse effect of this drug on spleen is not well characterized so far. Therefore, we have set our goal to explore the mechanism of the cisplatin-induced pathophysiology of the spleen and would also like to evaluate whether carnosine, an endogenous neurotransmitter and antioxidant, can ameliorate this pathophysiological response. We found a dose and time-dependent increase of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, in the spleen tissue of the experimental mice exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight of cisplatin. The increase in inflammatory cytokine can be attributed to the activation of the transcription factor, NF-ĸB. This also aids in the transcription of other pro-inflammatory cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules. Exposure of animals to cisplatin at both the doses resulted in ROS and NO production leading to oxidative stress. The MAP Kinase pathway, especially JNK activation, was also triggered by cisplatin. Eventually, the persistence of inflammatory response and oxidative stress lead to apoptosis through extrinsic pathway. Carnosine has been found to restore the expression of inflammatory molecules and catalase to normal levels through inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, NF-ĸB and JNK. Carnosine also protected the splenic cells from apoptosis. Our study elucidated the detailed mechanism of cisplatin-induced spleen toxicity and use of carnosine as a protective agent against this cytotoxic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A case report with atypical liver-spleen scan after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcora, N.; Ilgin, N.; Basaklar, C.

    1992-01-01

    Remodeling of the liver following splenectomy may simulate hypertrophy of an accessory spleen on sulphur colloid scans. There are but a few reports about the persistent splenic activity as a prominent finding during the post-splenectomy period. Splenic simulation may be attributed to the unusual hepatic lobe displacement, as in this case. The clinician should be aware of possible splenic simulation in the post-splenectomy period, if hypersplenism is suspected

  5. Littoral cell angioma of the spleen: CT and MR imaging appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G.; Uder, M.; Altmeyer, K.; Gruber, M.; Kramann, B. [Univ. Hospital Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Bonkhoff, H. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Saarland University, D-66421 Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    We report a case of littoral cell angioma (LCA) of the spleen, a recently described splenic pathology, which imaging characteristics and pathologic morphology have been discussed only by a few authors. The imaging findings in unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI and CT as well as histologic specimen are presented. Diagnosis was made after elective splenectomy. Differential diagnosis of splenic tumors as well as the imaging findings in this particular case are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Getting a New Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be able to replace it with an artificial (man-made) valve. Cardiac size reduction . During this procedure, your doctor removes a piece of the heart muscle from an enlarged heart. This makes your heart ...

  7. Heart-Health Screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools For Your Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Subscribe to Heart Insight magazine and monthly ... in Spanish . Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  8. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommendations to make a full recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  9. Open heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002950.htm Open heart surgery To use the sharing features on this ... large arteries connected to the heart. The term "open heart surgery" means that you are connected to a ...

  10. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  11. Congenital Heart Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

  12. Heart disease and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000790.htm Heart disease and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... a heart attack or heart surgery Signs of Depression It is pretty common to feel down or ...

  13. Hypertensive heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000163.htm Hypertensive heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart problems that occur because of ...

  14. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  15. Right heart ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiography - right heart ... moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can ... is injected into the right side of the heart. It helps the cardiologist determine the size and ...

  16. Congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a problem with the heart's structure and function that is present at birth. ... Fraser CD, Kane LC. Congenital heart disease. In: Townsend CM Jr, ... Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern ...

  17. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Home About Heart Disease Coronary Artery Disease Heart Attack Heart Attack Signs and Symptoms ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  18. Ultrasound-guided cytology of spleen and liver: a prognostic tool in canine cutaneous mast cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, D; Valenti, P; Faverzani, S; Bronzo, V; Fiorbianco, V; Pinto da Cunha, N; Romussi, S; Cantatore, M; Caniatti, M

    2009-01-01

    In the clinical staging of cutaneous mast cell tumors (cMCT), the diagnosis of metastasis is controversial based on cytological examination of lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and blood. To define the prognostic role of ultrasound-guided cytology of spleen and liver in cMCT. The results of cytological evaluation were compared in relation with survival time. Fifty-two client-owned dogs with a diagnosis of cMCT. Selection of cases was based on cytological evaluation of liver and spleen to detect infiltration at distant sites. The Kaplan Meier method was used to compare survival in dogs with and without infiltration of spleen and liver (log-rank test P dogs with cMCT had mast cell infiltration of spleen, liver, or both and 4 of these dogs had involvement of the regional lymph nodes. The majority of dogs had 2 or more ultrasonographically abnormal findings simultaneously in spleen and liver. Nine dogs had grade II cMCT, and 1 had grade III cMCT. Dogs with positive evidence of mast cell infiltration to spleen, liver, or both had shorter survival times (34 versus 733 days) compared with dogs negative for mast cell infiltration at distant sites. Dogs with evidence of mast cell infiltration at distant sites have a shorter survival times than dogs without evidence of infiltration at distant sites. This study suggests that cytology of spleen and liver is indicated either for ultrasonographically normal or for ultrasonographically abnormal spleen and liver in dogs with cMCT.

  19. [Spleen-preserving surgery after blunt abdominal trauma with splenic hilum involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Cuéllar, José Aurelio; Cañete-Gómez, Jesús; López-Bernal, Francisco; García-Rivera, Carla; Pareja-Ciuró, Felipe; Padillo-Ruiz, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Splenic involvement secondary to blunt abdominal trauma is often treated by performing a splenectomy. The severity of the post-splenectomy syndrome is currently well known (blood loss, sepsis), so there is an increasing tendency to preserve the spleen. The case is presented of splenic preservation after blunt abdominal trauma with hilum involvement, emphasising the role of Floseal as a haemostatic agent, as well as the use of resorbable meshes to preserve the spleen. A 22-year-old woman presenting with a grade IV splenic lesion secondary to a blunt abdominal trauma after a traffic accident. Partial splenic resection was performed and bleeding was controlled with Floseal and use of a reinforcing polyglycolic acid mesh. No postoperative complications occurred, being discharged on day 5. The long-term follow-up has been uneventful. The use of haemostatic agents such as thrombin and the gelatine gel (FloSeal) and the use of polyglycolic acid meshes enable spleen-preserving surgery, making it a feasible and reproducible procedure and an alternative to classical splenectomy. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Radionuclide imaging in the nonsurgical treatment of liver and spleen trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutzker, L.G.; Chun, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    As part of evaluation in patients with abdominal trauma severe enough to require hospital admission but not sufficiently severe to warrant immediate surgery, liver-spleen imaging with Tc-99m sulfur coloid was performed in 30 patients in the following age ranges: 10 mo-5 yr (3 patients), 6-10 yr (11), 11-15 yr (7), and 16-40 yr (9). Routine projections by gamma camera were acquired in the anterior, posterior, lateral, anterior oblique, and posterior oblique projections, supplemented with caudally angulated or upright views when indicated. Scintigraphically, there was a linear defect in ten patients, a round, intraparenchymal or wedge defect in 12, and an edge defect in eight. In 24 patients that underwent subsequent studies, the initial image was positive in 21 and equivocal in three. Of the 21 patients, partial resolution of the defects was seen on the images 2 wk to 7 mo following trauma in 14 patients, and nearly complete resolution in 2 wk to 10 mo in nine patients. Complete resolution was seen in 1-13 mo in nine patients. No defects enlarged over time. These authors presented a decision tree for the initial evaluation and subsequent studies in patients with liver-spleen trauma. They feel that consideration of clinical signs and serial liver-spleen imaging can eliminate some surgery when there is a question of delayed or missed splenic rupture.