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Sample records for brain spect imaging

  1. Brain spect imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.G.L.; Hill, T.C.; Holman, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how the rapid development of single-photon radiopharmaceuticals has given new life to tomographic brain imaging in nuclear medicine. Further developments in radiopharmaceuticals and refinements in neuro-SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography) instrumentation should help to reinstate brain scintigraphy as an important part of neurologic diagnosis. SPECT of the brain evolved from experimentation using prototype instrumentation during the early 1960s. Although tomographic studies provided superior diagnostic accuracy when compared to planar techniques, the arrival of X-ray CT of the head resulted in the rapid demise of technetium brain imaging

  2. Brain imaging during seizure: ictal brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottamasu, Sambasiva Rao

    1997-01-01

    The role of single photon computed tomography (SPECT) in presurgical localization of medically intractable complex partial epilepsy (CPE) in children is reviewed. 99m Technetium neurolite, a newer lipophylic agent with a high first pass brain extraction and little or no redistribution is injected during a seizure, while the child is monitored with a video recording and continuous EEG and SPECT imaging is performed in the next 1-3 hours with the images representing regional cerebral profusion at the time of injection. On SPECT studies performed with radiopharmaceutical injected during a seizure, ictal focus is generally hypervascular. Other findings on ictal brain SPECT include hypoperfusion of adjacent cerebral cortex and white matter, hyperperfusion of contralateral motor cortex, hyperperfusion of ipsilateral basal ganglia and thalamus, brain stem and contralateral cerebellum. Ictal brain SPECT is non-invasive, cost effective and highly sensitive for localization of epileptic focus in patients with intractable CPE. (author)

  3. Brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feistel, H.

    1991-01-01

    Brain SPECT investigations have gained broad acceptance since the introduction of the lipophilic tracer Tc-99m-HMPAO. Depending on equipment and objectives in different departments, the examinations can be divided into three groups: 1. Under normal conditions and standardised patient preparation the 'rest' SPECT can be performed in every department with a tomographic camera. In cerebrovascular disease there is a demand for determination of either the perfusion reserve in reversible ischemia or prognostic values in completed stroke. In cases of dementia, SPECT may yield useful results according to differential diagnosis. Central cerebral system involvement in immunologic disease may be estimated with higher sensitivity than in conventional brain imaging procedures. In psychiatric diseases there is only a relative indication for brain SPECT, since results during recent years have been contradictory and may be derived only in interventional manner. In brain tumor diagnostics SPECT with Tl-201 possibly permits grading. In inflammatory disease, especially in viral encephalitis, SPECT may be used to obtain early diagnosis. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can be distinguished from other forms of dementia and, consequently, the necessity for shunting surgery can be recognised. 2. In departments equipped for emergency cases an 'acute' SPECT can be performed in illnesses with rapid changing symptoms such as different forms of migraine, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures (so-called 'ictal SPECT') or urgent forms like trauma. 3. In cooperation with several departments brain SPECT can be practised as an interventional procedure in clinical and in scientific studies. (orig./MG) [de

  4. The clinical use of brain SPECT imaging in neuropsychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amen, Daniel G; Wu, Joseph C; Carmichael, Blake

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on brain SPECT imaging in brain trauma, dementia, and temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain SPECT allows clinicians the ability to view cerebral areas of healthy, low, and excessive perfusion. This information can be correlated with what is known about the function or dysfunction of each area. SPECT has a number of advantages over other imaging techniques, including wider availability, lower cost, and high quality resolution with multi-headed cameras. There are a number of issues that compromise the effective use of SPECT, including low quality of some imaging cameras, and variability of image rendering and readings (Au)

  5. Brain SPECT imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausz, Y.; Yaffe, S.; Atlan, H.; Cohen, D.; Konstantini, S.; Meiner, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs and by localization of an epileptogenic focus. A brain SPECT study of two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, using 99m Tc-HMPAO, was used to demonstrate a perfusion abnormality in the temporal lobe, while brain CT and MRI were non-contributory. The electroencephalogram, though abnormal, did not localize the diseased area. The potential role of the SPECT study in diagnosis and localization of temporal lobe epilepsy is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Brain lesion analysis using three-dimensional SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Iekado; Onagi, Atsuo; Kuroki, Takao

    1995-01-01

    A three-headed gamma camera (PRISM 3000) is capable to scan the protocol of early dynamic SPECT and to analyze two radioisotopes at the same time. We have framed three-dimensional brain SPECT images for several brain diseases by using the Application Visualization System (AVS). We carried out volume measurements in brain tumors and/or AVMs by applying this methodology. Thallium-201 and/or 123I-IMP were used for brain SPECT imaging. The dynamic scan protocol was changed in accordance with the given disease. The protocol for brain tumors was derived from a preliminary comparative study with thallium-201 and 123I-IMP that had suggested a disparity in the detection of brain tumors and the differentiation between tumor tissue and normal brain. The three-dimension SPECT image represented the brain tumor or AVM in a striking fashion, and the changes with respect to tumor or AVM after radiosurgery or embolization were understood readily. (author)

  7. SPECT brain perfusion imaging in mild traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Juan; Liu Baojun; Zhao Feng; He Lirong; Xia Yucheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical value of SPECT brain perfusion imaging after mild traumatic brain injury and to evaluate the mechanism of brain blood flow changes in the brain traumatic symptoms. Methods: SPECT 99 Tc m -ethylene cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain perfusion imaging was performed on 39 patients with normal consciousness and normal computed tomography. The study was performed on 23 patients within 3 months after the accidental injury and on 16 patients at more than 3 months post-injury. The cerebellum was used as the reference site (100% maximum value). Any decrease in cerebral perfusion in cortex or basal ganglia to below 70%, or even to below 50% in the medial temporal lobe, compared to the cerebellar reference was considered abnormal. Results: The results of 23 patients (59%) were abnormal. Among them, 20 patients showed 74 focal lesions with an average of 3.7 per patient (15 studies performed within 3 months and 8 studies performed more than 3 months after injury). The remaining 3 showed diffuse hypoperfusion (two at the early stage and one at more than 3 months after the injury). The 13 abnormal studies performed at the early stage showed 58 lesions (average, 4.5 per patient), whereas there was a reduction to an average of 2.3 per patient in the 7 patients (total 16 lesions) at more than 3 months post-injury. In the 20 patients with focal lesions, mainly the following regions were involved: frontal lobes 43.2% (32/74), basal ganglia 24.3% (18/74) and temporal lobes 17.6% (13/74). Conclusions: 1) SPECT brain perfusion imaging is more sensitive than computed tomography in detecting brain lesions of mild traumatic brain injury. 2) SPECT brain perfusion imaging is more sensitive at early stage than at late stage after injury. 3) The most common complaints were headache, dizziness, memory deficit. The patients without loss of consciousness may present brain hypoperfusion, too. 4) The changes may explain a neurological component of the patient symptoms in

  8. Technetium SPECT agents for imaging heart and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    One major goal of radiopharmaceutical research has been the development of technetium-based perfusion tracers for SPECT imaging of the heart and brain. The recent clinical introduction of the technetium complexes HM-PAO, ECD and DMG-2MP for brain imaging, and of CDO-MEB and MIBI for heart imaging promises to revolutionize the field of nuclear medicine. All of these agents appear to localize in the target tissue in proportion to blood flow, but their mechanisms of localization and/or retention may differ quite widely. In this talk, a survey of the new technetium SPECT agents will be presented. The inorganic and biological chemistry of these complexes, mechanisms of uptake and retention, QSAR studies, and potential clinical applications are discussed

  9. Preliminary application of brain perfusion SPECT imaging in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhixing; Guo Chanliu; Li Xingbao; Liang Rongxiang; Zhao Jun; Yan Tingxiu

    1996-01-01

    The clinical value of 99m Tc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT imaging was evaluated in patients with schizophrenia. 32 patients with schizophrenia and 21 normal controls were analyzed with 99m Tc-ECD SPECT. 93.8% (30/32) of the patients showed decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). There was normal rCBF in controls. In the patient group rCBF decreased significantly in bilateral frontal lobes, left temporal lobe and right basal ganglion. The rCBF of left temporal lobe was significantly lower than that of right temporal lobe. The decreasing rCBF was not significantly related to previous treatment and duration of illness. 99m Tc-ECD SPECT is useful for the study and diagnosis of patients with schizophrenia

  10. SPECT I-123 iodoamphetamine brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikofsky, R.S.; Liebman, A.; Hellman, R.S.; Collier, B.D.; Voslar, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    SPECT/IMP studies of 100 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of dementia were performed with a rotating gamma camera 15-20 minutes after intravenous injection of 3.5 mCi of IMP. Of these studies, 43 were interpreted as normal for age; 28 demonstrated decreased but not absent activity bilaterally in posterior parietal/occipital regions (consistent with Alzheimer-type dementia); 28 showed unilateral abnormalities in regional cerebral blood flow consistent with cerebrovascular disease; and one had mixed findings. Based on SPECT/IMP results, further diagnostic testing and/or management would be altered for 72% of patients, suggesting that SPECT/IMP provides valuable data, not available on clinical examination, to guide the evaluation and management of demented patients

  11. Optimization of Butterworth filter for brain SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoshima, Satoshi; Maruno, Hirotaka; Yui, Nobuharu

    1993-01-01

    A method has been described to optimize the cutoff frequency of the Butterworth filter for brain SPECT imaging. Since a computer simulation study has demonstrated that separation between an object signal and the random noise in projection images in a spatial-frequency domain is influenced by the total number of counts, the cutoff frequency of the Butterworth filter should be optimized for individual subjects according to total counts in a study. To reveal the relationship between the optimal cutoff frequencies and total counts in brain SPECT study, we used a normal volunteer and 99m Tc hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) to obtain projection sets with different total counts. High quality images were created from a projection set with an acquisition time of 300-seconds per projection. The filter was optimized by calculating mean square errors from high quality images visually inspecting filtered reconstructed images. Dependence between total counts and optimal cutoff frequencies was clearly demonstrated in a nomogram. Using this nomogram, the optimal cutoff frequency for each study can be estimated from total counts, maximizing visual image quality. The results suggest that the cutoff frequency of Butterworth filter should be determined by referring to total counts in each study. (author)

  12. SPECT and PET Serve as Molecular Imaging Techniques and in Vivo Biomarkers for Brain Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Barbara; Buresta, Tommaso; Nuvoli, Susanna; Spanu, Angela; Schillaci, Orazio; Fravolini, Mario Luca; Palumbo, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear medicine techniques (single photon emission computerized tomography, SPECT, and positron emission tomography, PET) represent molecular imaging tools, able to provide in vivo biomarkers of different diseases. To investigate brain tumours and metastases many different radiopharmaceuticals imaged by SPECT and PET can be used. In this review the main and most promising radiopharmaceuticals available to detect brain metastases are reported. Furthermore the diagnostic contribution of the combination of SPECT and PET data with radiological findings (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) is discussed. PMID:24897023

  13. Development of a new statistical evaluation method for brain SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Ryuta; Sato, Kazunori; Ito, Hiroshi; Koyama, Masamichi; Goto, Ryoui; Yoshioka, Seiro; Ono, Shuichi; Sato, Tachio; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new statistical evaluation method for brain SPECT images. First, we made normal brain image databases using 99m Tc-ECD and SPECT in 10 normal subjects as described previously. Each SPECT images were globally normalized and anatomically standardized to the standard brain shape using Human Brain Atlas (HBA) of Roland et al. and each subject's X-CT. Then, mean and SD images were calculated voxel by voxel. For the next step, 99m Tc-ECD SPECT images of a patient were obtained, and global normalization and anatomical standardization were performed as the same way. Then, a statistical map was calculated as following voxel by voxel; (P-Mean)/SDx10+50, where P, mean and SD indicate voxel value of patient, mean and SD images of normal databases, respectively. We found this statistical map was helpful for clinical diagnosis of brain SPECT studies. (author)

  14. Cortical region of interest definition on SPECT brain images using X-ray CT registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzourio, N.; Sutton, D. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot); Joliot, M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot INSERM, Orsay (France)); Mazoyer, B.M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot Antenne d' Information Medicale, C.H.U. Bichat, Paris (France)); Charlot, V. (Hopital Louis Mourier, Colombes (France). Service de Psychiatrie); Salamon, G. (CHU La Timone, Marseille (France). Service de Neuroradiologie)

    1992-11-01

    We present a method for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) analysis based on individual registration of anatomical (CT) and functional ([sup 133]Xe regional cerebral blood flow) images and on the definition of three-dimensional functional regions of interest. Registration of CT and SPECT is performed through adjustment of CT-defined cortex limits to the SPECT image. Regions are defined by sectioning a cortical ribbon on the CT images, copied over the SPECT images and pooled through slices to give 3D cortical regions of interest. The proposed method shows good intra- and interobserver reproducibility (regional intraclass correlation coefficient [approx equal]0.98), and good accuracy in terms of repositioning ([approx equal]3.5 mm) as compared to the SPECT image resolution (14 mm). The method should be particularly useful for analysing SPECT studies when variations in brain anatomy (normal or abnormal) must be accounted for. (orig.).

  15. Radiopharmaceuticals for brain - SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Perfusion tracers for brain SPECT imaging suitable for regional cerebral blood flow measurement and regional cerebral blood volume determination, with respect to their ability to pass the blood-brain-barrier, are described. Problems related t the use of specific radiotracers to map receptors distribution in the brain are also discussed in this lecture. 9 figs, 6 tabs

  16. Brain Perfusion SPECT Imaging in Sturge - Weber Syndrome : Comparison with MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jin Sook; Choi, Yun Young; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Yang, Seoung Oh; Ko, Tae Sung; Yoo, Shi Joon; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluate the characteristic perfusion changes in patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome by comparison of the findings of brain MR images and perfusion SPECT images. 99m Tc-HMPAO or 99m Tc-ECD interictal brain SPECTs were performed on 5 pediatric patients with Struge-Weber syndrome within 2 weeks after MR imaging. Brain SPECTs of three patients without calcification showed diminished perfusion in the affected area on MR image. A 3 month-old patient without brain atrophy or calcification demonstrated paradoxical hyperperfusion in the affected hemisphere, and follow-up perfusion SPECT revealed decreased perfusion in the same area. The other patient with advanced calcified lesion and atrophy on MR image showed diffusely decreased perfusion in the affected hemisphere, but a focal area of increased perfusion was also noted in the ipsilateral temporal lobe on SPECT. In conclusion, brain perfusion of the affected area of Sturge-Weber syndrome patients was usually diminished, but early or advanced patients may show paradoxical diffuse or focal hyperperfusion in the affected hemisphere. Further studies are needed for better understanding of these perfusion changes and pathophysiology of Struge-Weber syndrome.

  17. Preliminary application of SPECT three dimensional brain imaging in normal controls and patients with cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaosheng, Luan; Pengyong,; Xiqin, Sun; Wei, Wang; Huisheng, Liu; Wen, Zhou [88 Hospital PLA, Taian, SD (China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1992-11-01

    10 normal controls and 32 cerebral infarction patients were examined with SPECT three-dimensional (3D) and sectional imaging. The result shows that 3D brain imaging has significant value in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. 3D brain imaging is superior to sectional imaging in determining the location and size of superficial lesions. For the diagnosis of deep lesions, it is better to combine 3D brain imaging with sectional imaging. The methodology of 3D brain imaging is also discussed.

  18. Preliminary application of SPECT three dimensional brain imaging in normal controls and patients with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Zhaosheng; Pengyong; Sun Xiqin; Wang Wei; Liu Huisheng; Zhou Wen

    1992-01-01

    10 normal controls and 32 cerebral infarction patients were examined with SPECT three-dimensional (3D) and sectional imaging. The result shows that 3D brain imaging has significant value in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. 3D brain imaging is superior to sectional imaging in determining the location and size of superficial lesions. For the diagnosis of deep lesions, it is better to combine 3D brain imaging with sectional imaging. The methodology of 3D brain imaging is also discussed

  19. Quantitative SPECT brain imaging: Effects of attenuation and detector response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilland, D.R.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Bowsher, J.E.; Turkington, T.G.; Liang, Z.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Two physical factors that substantially degrade quantitative accuracy in SPECT imaging of the brain are attenuation and detector response. In addition to the physical factors, random noise in the reconstructed image can greatly affect the quantitative measurement. The purpose of this work was to implement two reconstruction methods that compensate for attenuation and detector response, a 3D maximum likelihood-EM method (ML) and a filtered backprojection method (FB) with Metz filter and Chang attenuation compensation, and compare the methods in terms of quantitative accuracy and image noise. The methods were tested on simulated data of the 3D Hoffman brain phantom. The simulation incorporated attenuation and distance-dependent detector response. Bias and standard deviation of reconstructed voxel intensities were measured in the gray and white matter regions. The results with ML showed that in both the gray and white matter regions as the number of iterations increased, bias decreased and standard deviation increased. Similar results were observed with FB as the Metz filter power increased. In both regions, ML had smaller standard deviation than FB for a given bias. Reconstruction times for the ML method have been greatly reduced through efficient coding, limited source support, and by computing attenuation factors only along rays perpendicular to the detector

  20. Baseline and cognition activated brain SPECT imaging in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinhua; Lin Xiangtong; Jiang Kaida; Liu Yongchang; Xu Lianqin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities through the semiquantitative analysis of the baseline and cognition activated rCBF imaging in unmedicated depressed patients. Methods: 27 depressed patients unmedicated by anti-depressants were enrolled. The diagnosis (depression of moderate degree with somatization) was confirmed by the ICD-10 criteria. 15 age matched normal controls were studied under identical conditions. Baseline and cognition activated 99m Tc-ECD SPECT were performed on 21 of the 27 patients with depression and 13 of the 15 normal controls. Baseline 99m Tc-ECD SPECT alone were performed on the rest 6 patients with depression and 2 normal controls. The cognitive activation is achieved by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). 1110 MBq of 99m Tc-ECD was administered by intravenous bolus injection 5 minutes after the onset of the WCST. Semi-quantitative analysis was conducted with the 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th slices of the transaxial imaging. rCBF ratios of every ROI were calculated using the average tissue activity in the region divided by the maximum activity in the cerebellum. Results: 1) The baseline rCBF of left frontal (0.720) and left temporal lobe (0.720) were decreased significantly in depressed patients comparing with those of the control subjects. 2) The activated rCBF of left frontal lobe (0.719) and left temporal lobe (0.690), left parietal lobe (0.701) were decreased evidently than those of the controls. Conclusions: 1) Hypoperfusions of left frontal and left temporal cortexes were identified in patients with depression. 2) The hypoperfusion of left frontal and left temporal cortexes may be the cause of cognition disorder and depressed mood in patients with depression. 3) Cognition activated brain perfusion imaging is helpful for making a more accurate diagnosis of depression

  1. SPECT and PET Serve as Molecular Imaging Techniques and in Vivo Biomarkers for Brain Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Palumbo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear medicine techniques (single photon emission computerized tomography, SPECT, and positron emission tomography, PET represent molecular imaging tools, able to provide in vivo biomarkers of different diseases. To investigate brain tumours and metastases many different radiopharmaceuticals imaged by SPECT and PET can be used. In this review the main and most promising radiopharmaceuticals available to detect brain metastases are reported. Furthermore the diagnostic contribution of the combination of SPECT and PET data with radiological findings (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI is discussed.

  2. Diagnostic evaluation of brain SPECT imaging in diseases of nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongsheng, Jiang; Chengmo, Zhu; Jixian, Zhang; Weijia, Tian [Shanghai Second Medical Univ. (China). Ruijing Hospital

    1992-11-01

    The dynamic distributions of home made ECD and the Amersham brain SPECT imaging agent 'Ceretec' in normal person as well as their diagnostic use in diseases of nervous system were investigated. Semi-quantitative analysis combined with direct observation was more accurate for the diagnosis. Aside from cerebrovascular diseases, SPECT brain imaging has its unique value for the diagnosis of transient ischemic attack, Alzheimer disease, multiple ischemic dementia and epilepsy etc.

  3. Compensation for nonuniform attenuation in SPECT brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, S.J.; King, M.A.; Pan, T.S.; Soares, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate compensation for photon attenuation is needed to perform quantitative brain single-photon-emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging. Bellini's attenuation-compensation method has been used with a nonuniform attenuation map to account for the nonuniform attenuation properties of the head. Simulation studies using a three-dimensional (3-D) digitized anthropomorphic brain phantom were conducted to compare quantitative accuracy of reconstructions obtained with the nonuniform Bellini method to that obtained with the Chang method and to iterative reconstruction using maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM). Using the Chang method and assuming the head to be a uniform attenuator gave reconstructions with an average bias of approximately 6-8%, whereas using the Bellini or the iterative ML-EM method with a nonuniform attenuation map gave an average bias of approximately 1%. The computation time required to implement nonuniform attenuation compensation with the Bellini algorithm is approximately equivalent to the time required to perform one iteration of ML-EM. Thus, using the Bellini method with a nonuniform attenuation map provides accurate compensation for photon attenuation within the head, and the method can be implemented in computation times suitable for routine clinical use

  4. Pinhole SPECT: high resolution imaging of brain tumours in small laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franceschim, M.; Bokulic, T.; Kusic, Z.; Strand, S.E.; Erlandsson, K.

    1994-01-01

    The performance properties of pinhole SPECT and the application of this technology to evaluate radionuclide uptake in brain in small laboratory animals were investigated. System sensitivity and spatial resolution measurements of a rotating scintillation camera system were made for a low energy pinhole collimator equipped with 2.0 mm aperture pinhole insert. Projection data were acquired at 4 degree increments over 360 degrees in the step and shoot mode using a 4.5 cm radius of rotation. Pinhole planar and SPECT imaging were obtained to evaluate regional uptake of Tl-201, Tc-99m-MIBI, Tc-99m-HMPAO and Tc-99m-DTPA in tumor and control regions of the brain in a primary brain tumor model in Fisher 344 rats. Pinhole SPECT images were reconstructed using a modified cone- beam algorithm developed from a two dimensional fan-beam filtered backprojection algorithm. The reconstructed transaxial resolution of 2.8 FWHM and system sensitivity of 0.086 c/s/kBq with the 2.0 mm pinhole collimator aperture were measured. Tumor to non-tumor uptake ratios at 19-28 days post tumor cell inoculation varied by a factor > 20:1 on SPECT images. Pinhole SPECT provides an important new approach for performing high resolution imaging: the resolution properties of pinhole SPECT are superior to those which have been achieved with conventional SPECT or PET imaging technologies. (author)

  5. Preoperative localization of epileptic foci with SPECT brain perfusion imaging, electrocorticography, surgery and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Shaowei; Xu Wengui; Chen Hongyan; Weng Yongmei; Yang Pinghua

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The value of preoperative localization of epileptic foci with SPECT brain perfusion imaging was investigated. Methods: The study population consisted of 23 patients with intractable partial seizures which was difficult to control with anticonvulsant for long period. In order to preoperatively locate the epileptic foci, double SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed during interictal and ictal stage. The foci were confirmed with electrocorticography (EcoG), surgery and pathology. Results: The author checked with EcoG the foci shown by SPECT, 23 patients had all typical spike discharge. The regions of radioactivity increase in ictal matched with the abnormal electrical activity areas that EcoG showed. The spike wave originated in the corresponding cerebrum cortex instead of hyperplastic and adherent arachnoid or tumor itself. Conclusions: SPECT brain perfusion imaging contributes to distinguishing location, size, perfusion and functioning of epileptogenic foci, and has some directive function on to making out a treatment programme at preoperation

  6. Brain SPECT. SPECT in der Gehirndiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feistel, H. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik)

    1991-12-01

    Brain SPECT investigations have gained broad acceptance since the introduction of the lipophilic tracer Tc-99m-HMPAO. Depending on equipment and objectives in different departments, the examinations can be divided into three groups: 1. Under normal conditions and standardised patient preparation the 'rest' SPECT can be performed in every department with a tomographic camera. In cerebrovascular disease there is a demand for determination of either the perfusion reserve in reversible ischemia or prognostic values in completed stroke. In cases of dementia, SPECT may yield useful results according to differential diagnosis. Central cerebral system involvement in immunologic disease may be estimated with higher sensitivity than in conventional brain imaging procedures. In psychiatric diseases there is only a relative indication for brain SPECT, since results during recent years have been contradictory and may be derived only in interventional manner. In brain tumor diagnostics SPECT with Tl-201 possibly permits grading. In inflammatory disease, especially in viral encephalitis, SPECT may be used to obtain early diagnosis. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can be distinguished from other forms of dementia and, consequently, the necessity for shunting surgery can be recognised. 2. In departments equipped for emergency cases an 'acute' SPECT can be performed in illnesses with rapid changing symptoms such as different forms of migraine, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures (so-called 'ictal SPECT') or urgent forms like trauma. 3. In cooperation with several departments brain SPECT can be practised as an interventional procedure in clinical and in scientific studies. (orig./MG).

  7. Brain SPECT in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, M.; Baulieu, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author)

  8. Brain SPECT in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranquart, F.; Saliba, E.; Prunier, C.; Baulieu, F.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D.; Baulieu, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  9. GATE simulation of a new design of pinhole SPECT system for small animal brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsahin, D. Uzun; Bläckberg, L.; Fakhri, G. El; Sabet, H.

    2017-01-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging has gained an increased interest over the past decade since it is an excellent tool for developing new drugs and tracers. Therefore, there is a huge effort on the development of cost-effective SPECT detectors with high capabilities. The aim of this study is to simulate the performance characteristics of new designs for a cost effective, stationary SPECT system dedicated to small animal imaging with a focus on mice brain. The conceptual design of this SPECT system platform, Stationary Small Animal SSA-SPECT, is to use many pixelated CsI:TI detector modules with 0.4 mm × 0.4 mm pixels in order to achieve excellent intrinsic detector resolution where each module is backed by a single pinhole collimator with 0.3 mm hole diameter. In this work, we present the simulation results of four variations of the SSA-SPECT platform where the number of detector modules and FOV size is varied while keeping the detector size and collimator hole size constant. Using the NEMA NU-4 protocol, we performed spatial resolution, sensitivity, image quality simulations followed by a Derenzo-like phantom evaluation. The results suggest that all four SSA-SPECT systems can provide better than 0.063% system sensitivity and < 1.5 mm FWHM spatial resolution without resolution recovery or other correction techniques. Specifically, SSA-SPECT-1 showed a system sensitivity of 0.09% in combination with 1.1 mm FWHM spatial resolution.

  10. Functional brain imaging with SPECT in normal again and dementia. Methodological, pathophysiological, and diagnostic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldemar, G.

    1996-03-01

    New developments in instrumentation, radiochemistry, and data analysis, particularly the introduction of 99m Tc-labeled brain-retained tracers for perfusion studies, have opened up a new era of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this review critical methodological issues relating to the SPECT instrument, the radioactive tracers, the scanning procedure, the data analysis and interpretation of data, and subject selection are discussed together with the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed in normal aging. An overview is given of the topography and the pathophysiological and diagnostic significance of focal rCBF deficits in Alzheimer's disease and in other dementia disorders, in which SPECT is capable of early or preclinical disease detection. In Alzheimer's disease, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of focal rCBF deficits measured with SPECT and brain-retained tracers are very high, in particular when combined with medial temporal lob atrophy on CT. Together with neuropsychological testing, SPECT serves to map the topography of brain dysfunction. Thus, in the clinical setting, SPECT provides information that is supplemental to that obtained in other studies. Future applications include neuroreceptor studies and treatment studies, in which SPECT may serve as a diagnostic aid in the selection of patients and as a potential mean for monitoring treatment effects. Although positron emission tomography is the best characterized tool for addressing some of these clinical and research issues in dementia, only the less expensive and technically simpler SPECT technique will have the potential of being available as a screening diagnostic instrument in the clinical setting. It is concluded that, properly approached, functional brain imaging with SPECT represents an important tool in the diagnosis, management, and research of dementia disorders. (au) 251 refs

  11. High-resolution brain SPECT imaging by combination of parallel and tilted detector heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsuro; Takeuchi, Wataru; Ishitsu, Takafumi; Morimoto, Yuichi; Kobashi, Keiji; Ueno, Yuichiro

    2015-10-01

    To improve the spatial resolution of brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), we propose a new brain SPECT system in which the detector heads are tilted towards the rotation axis so that they are closer to the brain. In addition, parallel detector heads are used to obtain the complete projection data set. We evaluated this parallel and tilted detector head system (PT-SPECT) in simulations. In the simulation study, the tilt angle of the detector heads relative to the axis was 45°. The distance from the collimator surface of the parallel detector heads to the axis was 130 mm. The distance from the collimator surface of the tilted detector heads to the origin on the axis was 110 mm. A CdTe semiconductor panel with a 1.4 mm detector pitch and a parallel-hole collimator were employed in both types of detector head. A line source phantom, cold-rod brain-shaped phantom, and cerebral blood flow phantom were evaluated. The projection data were generated by forward-projection of the phantom images using physics models, and Poisson noise at clinical levels was applied to the projection data. The ordered-subsets expectation maximization algorithm with physics models was used. We also evaluated conventional SPECT using four parallel detector heads for the sake of comparison. The evaluation of the line source phantom showed that the transaxial FWHM in the central slice for conventional SPECT ranged from 6.1 to 8.5 mm, while that for PT-SPECT ranged from 5.3 to 6.9 mm. The cold-rod brain-shaped phantom image showed that conventional SPECT could visualize up to 8-mm-diameter rods. By contrast, PT-SPECT could visualize up to 6-mm-diameter rods in upper slices of a cerebrum. The cerebral blood flow phantom image showed that the PT-SPECT system provided higher resolution at the thalamus and caudate nucleus as well as at the longitudinal fissure of the cerebrum compared with conventional SPECT. PT-SPECT provides improved image resolution at not only upper but also at

  12. Influences of reconstruction and attenuation correction in brain SPECT images obtained by the hybrid SPECT/CT device: evaluation with a 3-dimensional brain phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Mana; Yamashita, Yasuo; Akamatsu, Go; Tsutsui, Yuji; Ohya, Nobuyoshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences of reconstruction and attenuation correction on the differences in the radioactivity distributions in 123 I brain SPECT obtained by the hybrid SPECT/CT device. We used the 3-dimensional (3D) brain phantom, which imitates the precise structure of gray matter, white matter and bone regions. It was filled with 123 I solution (20.1 kBq/mL) in the gray matter region and with K 2 HPO 4 in the bone region. The SPECT/CT data were acquired by the hybrid SPECT/CT device. SPECT images were reconstructed by using filtered back projection with uniform attenuation correction (FBP-uAC), 3D ordered-subsets expectation-maximization with uniform AC (3D-OSEM-uAC) and 3D OSEM with CT-based non-uniform AC (3D-OSEM-CTAC). We evaluated the differences in the radioactivity distributions among these reconstruction methods using a 3D digital phantom, which was developed from CT images of the 3D brain phantom, as a reference. The normalized mean square error (NMSE) and regional radioactivity were calculated to evaluate the similarity of SPECT images to the 3D digital phantom. The NMSE values were 0.0811 in FBP-uAC, 0.0914 in 3D-OSEM-uAC and 0.0766 in 3D-OSEM-CTAC. The regional radioactivity of FBP-uAC was 11.5% lower in the middle cerebral artery territory, and that of 3D-OSEM-uAC was 5.8% higher in the anterior cerebral artery territory, compared with the digital phantom. On the other hand, that of 3D-OSEM-CTAC was 1.8% lower in all brain areas. By using the hybrid SPECT/CT device, the brain SPECT reconstructed by 3D-OSEM with CT attenuation correction can provide an accurate assessment of the distribution of brain radioactivity

  13. A methodology for generating normal and pathological brain perfusion SPECT images for evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods: application in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grova, C [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Jannin, P [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Biraben, A [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Buvat, I [INSERM U494, CHU Pitie Salpetriere, Paris (France); Benali, H [INSERM U494, CHU Pitie Salpetriere, Paris (France); Bernard, A M [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Centre Eugene Marquis, Rennes (France); Scarabin, J M [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Gibaud, B [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2003-12-21

    Quantitative evaluation of brain MRI/SPECT fusion methods for normal and in particular pathological datasets is difficult, due to the frequent lack of relevant ground truth. We propose a methodology to generate MRI and SPECT datasets dedicated to the evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods and illustrate the method when dealing with ictal SPECT. The method consists in generating normal or pathological SPECT data perfectly aligned with a high-resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI using realistic Monte Carlo simulations that closely reproduce the response of a SPECT imaging system. Anatomical input data for the SPECT simulations are obtained from this 3D T1-weighted MRI, while functional input data result from an inter-individual analysis of anatomically standardized SPECT data. The method makes it possible to control the 'brain perfusion' function by proposing a theoretical model of brain perfusion from measurements performed on real SPECT images. Our method provides an absolute gold standard for assessing MRI/SPECT registration method accuracy since, by construction, the SPECT data are perfectly registered with the MRI data. The proposed methodology has been applied to create a theoretical model of normal brain perfusion and ictal brain perfusion characteristic of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. To approach realistic and unbiased perfusion models, real SPECT data were corrected for uniform attenuation, scatter and partial volume effect. An anatomic standardization was used to account for anatomic variability between subjects. Realistic simulations of normal and ictal SPECT deduced from these perfusion models are presented. The comparison of real and simulated SPECT images showed relative differences in regional activity concentration of less than 20% in most anatomical structures, for both normal and ictal data, suggesting realistic models of perfusion distributions for evaluation purposes. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry coefficients measured on simulated data were

  14. Towards adapting a normal patient database for SPECT brain perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, N D; Soleimani, M; Mitchell, C N; Holmes, R B; Evans, M J; Cade, S C

    2012-01-01

    Single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) is a tool which can be used to image perfusion in the brain. Clinicians can use such images to help diagnose dementias such as Alzheimer's disease. Due to the intrinsic stochasticity in the photon imaging system, some form of statistical comparison of an individual image with a 'normal' patient database gives a clinician additional confidence in interpreting the image. Due to the variations between SPECT camera systems, ideally a normal patient database is required for each individual system. However, cost or ethical considerations often prohibit the collection of such a database for each new camera system. Some method of adapting existing normal patient databases to new camera systems would be beneficial. This paper introduces a method which may be regarded as a 'first-pass' attempt based on 2-norm regularization and a codebook of discrete spatially stationary convolutional kernels. Some preliminary illustrative results are presented, together with discussion on limitations and possible improvements

  15. A Silicon SPECT System for Molecular Imaging of the Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; Fritz, Mark A; McDonald, Benjamin S; Durko, Heather L; Furenlid, Lars R; Wilson, Donald W; Peterson, Todd E

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the feasibility of using silicon double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs) for SPECT imaging of the activity distribution of iodine-125 using a 300-micrometer thick detector. Based on this experience, we now have developed fully customized silicon DSSDs and associated readout electronics with the intent of developing a multi-pinhole SPECT system. Each DSSD has a 60.4 mm × 60.4 mm active area and is 1 mm thick. The strip pitch is 59 micrometers, and the readout of the 1024 strips on each side gives rise to a detector with over one million pixels. Combining four high-resolution DSSDs into a SPECT system offers an unprecedented space-bandwidth product for the imaging of single-photon emitters. The system consists of two camera heads with two silicon detectors stacked one behind the other in each head. The collimator has a focused pinhole system with cylindrical-shaped pinholes that are laser-drilled in a 250 μm tungsten plate. The unique ability to collect projection data at two magnifications simultaneously allows for multiplexed data at high resolution to be combined with lower magnification data with little or no multiplexing. With the current multi-pinhole collimator design, our SPECT system will be capable of offering high spatial resolution, sensitivity and angular sampling for small field-of-view applications, such as molecular imaging of the mouse brain.

  16. Functional brain imaging study in patients with anxiety disorders using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Da; Zhan Hongwei; Liu Hongbiao; Li Huichun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the changes of brain function in patients with anxiety disorders. Methods: Regional cerebral perfusion was investigated using SPECT in 65 patients with anxiety disorders dragnosed according to the fourth edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder (DSMTD) criteria and in a matched control group of 21 healthy volunteers. 65 cases of the patients were further divided into: drug treated group (31 patients) and non-drug treated group (34 patients). The mean ages of the patients and the controls were (39.2±26.1) and (34.4±9.7) years, respectively. The severity of the anxiety was assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Anxiety scale (mean: 24.8±5.5 and 24.7±7.5, respectively). After administration of 740-925 MBq 99 Tc m -ethylene cysteinate direct (ECD) brain SPECT image study was performed. For the semi- quantitative analysis of the data, the ratios of the mean counts/pixel in the different cerebral regions of interest (ROI) to that of cerebellum were calculated respectively as a regional perfusion index (RPI). Some patients had a repeated SPECT after three months of treatment. Results: 93.8% (61/65) patients had relative hypoperfusions in some cerebral regions. Compared with the control group, the patients had a significant decrease of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the bilateral frontal lobes, paralimbic system, temporal lobes and basal ganglia. The course of disease had negatively correlated with the changes of rCBF in both groups of patients. Follow-up SPECT study demonstrated increased rCBF related with the symptomatic improvement. Conclusions: Patients with anxiety disorders had profound dysfunction of the frontal and temporal cortices, and was closely related to the symptom and therapy. 99 Tc m -ECD brain SPECT may offer the most accurate assessment of response to therapy. . (authors)

  17. Brain perfusion SPECT imaging before and during the acetazolamide test using sup 99m Tc-HMPAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Higashi, Sotaro; Kinuya, Keiko; Tsuji, Shiro; Sumiya, Hisashi; Hisada, Kinichi; Yamashita, Junkoh (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-05-01

    A new method using brain perfusion {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT imaging was developed for evaluating cerebral perfusion reserve by the acetazolamide test with a short period. The first SPECT study was carried out for 13.5 min to obtain SPECT images at the resting state after 3 min postinjection of 555 MBq (15 mCi) of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO. At the same time as the start of the first SPECT study, 1 g of acetazolamide was intravenously injected. Immediately after the stop of the 1st SPECT study, 925 MBq (25 mCi) of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO from the same vial as in the first study was additionally injected. Three minutes later the second SPECT study was carried out for 10 min. After reconstruction the tomographic images in the first study were subtracted from the images in the second study to obtain those during the acetazolamide test after correction of the time differences in data acquisition between the two studies. This subtraction technique gives independent brain perfusion SPECT images before and during the acetazolamide test. Besides, the regional flow changes during the test were quantitatively analyzed. In conclusion this method seems to be practically useful for evaluating regional brain perfusion before and during drug treatments as a consecutive study with a short period of approximately 30 min. (author).

  18. Hypoperfusion in baseline and cognitively activated brain SPECT imaging of adult and elderly patients with depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinhua; Lin Xiangtong; Jiang Kaida; Ang Qiuqing; Shi Shenxun; Xue Fangping

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the rCBF abnormalities of the baseline and cognitively activated rCBF imaging in unmedicated adult and elderly patients with depression. Methods: The subjects were divided into four groups: depressed adults, normal adult controls, depressed elders and normal elderly controls. All depressed patients were unmedicated and the diagnoses (depression of moderate degree with accompanying somatization) were confirmed by the ICD-10 criteria. Age range of the 39 depressed adult patients was 17 - 55 years. 17 age-matched normal adult controls (age range 21 - 50 years) were studied under identical conditions. The age range of 18 depressed elderly patients was 62 - 76 years. 21 age-matched normal elderly controls (age range 60 - 72 years) were studied under identical conditions. Baseline and cognitively activated 99 Tc m -ECD SPECT were performed on 25 of the 39 adult patients with depression and 17 normal adult controls. Baseline 99 Tc m -ECD SPECT only was performed on the remaining 14 patients with depression. Baseline and cognitively activated 99 Tc m -ECD SPECT were performed on 12 of the 18 elderly patients with depression and 18 of the 21 normal elderly controls. Baseline 99 Tc m -ECD SPECT only was performed on the remaining elderly patients and 3 normal elderly controls. Results: 1) The characteristic abnormalities of baseline and cognitively activated brain SPECT imaging of depression in adults: the baseline rCBF values of frontal and temporal lobe decreased significantly and the activated rCBF values of frontal, temporal lobe decreased more evidently than that in the baseline imaging and additionally decreased activated rCBF values in parietal lobe were found. 2) The characteristic abnormalities of baseline and cognitively activated brain SPECT imaging of elderly patients with depression: the baseline rCBF values of frontal, temporal lobe and right basal ganglia decreased significantly and the activated rCBF values of frontal, temporal, right

  19. 123I-iodoamphetamine SPECT brain imaging in alternating hemiplegia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupanc, M.L.; Dobkin, J.A.; Perlman, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is an unusual disorder characterized by early onset (occurring before 18 months of age); repeated attacks of hemiplegia involving both sides of the body; other paroxysmal phenomena, such as tonic stiffening, dystonic posturing, choreoathetoid movements, ocular motor abnormalities, and autonomic disturbances, in association with bouts of hemiplegia or occurring independently; and evidence of mental or neurologic deficits. A girl was examined because of left hemiplegia at the age of 16 months. The patient had begun exhibiting episodes of alternating hemiplegia at approximately 4 months of age. They consisted of tonic stiffening and dystonia of the right or left extremities, lasting from 30 min to several hours and followed by residual hemiparesis. They were invariably accompanied by ocular motor abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and angiography all were normal. Single proton emission computed tomography brain images during an acute episode of right hemiplegia demonstrated hypoperfusion of the left cerebral hemisphere. Following improvement of the hemiplegia, the patient was re-evaluated. The uptake of the radiotracer in the left hemisphere was increased. The scan did not demonstrate significant asymmetry in cerebral perfusion

  20. Usefulness of brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.; Rancurel, G.; Kieffer, E.; Ricard, S.; Askienazy, S.; Moretti, J.L.; Bourdoiseau, M.; Rapin, J.; Soussaline, F.

    1983-01-01

    Brain SPECT was not effectively exploited until I-123 isopropyl amphetamine (IAMP), indicator able to penetrate the blood brain barrier, became available. Although the experience of research teams working with IAMP is quite restricted due to the high cost of the indicator, some applications now appear to be worth the cost and in some cases provide data which cannot be obtained with routine techniques, especially in cerebrovascular patients, in epilepsy and some cases of tumor. Brain SPECT appears as an atraumatic test which is useful to establish a functional evaluation of the cerebral parenchyma, and which is a complement to arteriography, X-ray scan and regional cerebral blood flow measurement

  1. Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease using brain perfusion SPECT and MR imaging: which modality achieves better diagnostic accuracy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Takao; Ushijima, Yo; Yamada, Kei; Okuyama, Chio; Kizu, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of MR imaging and brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) in diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD). The transaxial section display of brain perfusion SPECT, three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) SPECT image sets, thin-section MR imaging of the hippocampus and perfusion MR imaging were evaluated in 66 subjects comprising 35 AD patients and 31 subjects without AD. SPECT and MR imaging were visually interpreted by two experts and two novices, and the diagnostic ability of each modality was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the experts' interpretations, there was no significant difference in the area under the ROC curve (A z ) between 3D-SSP and thin-section MR imaging, whereas the A z of transaxial SPECT display was significantly lower than that of 3D-SSP (3D-SSP: 0.97, thin-section MR imaging: 0.96, transaxial SPECT: 0.91), and the A z of perfusion MR imaging was lowest (0.63). The sensitivity and specificity of each modality were, respectively, 80.0% and 96.8% for 3D-SSP, 77.1% and 96.8% for thin-section MR imaging, 60.0% and 93.5% for transaxial SPECT display and 34.3% and 100% for perfusion MR imaging. In the novices' interpretations, the A z , sensitivity and specificity of 3D-SSP were superior to those of thin-section MR imaging. Thin-section hippocampal MR imaging and 3D-SSP image sets had potentially equivalent value for the diagnosis of AD, and they were superior to transaxial SPECT display and perfusion MR imaging. For avoidance of the effect of interpreters' experience on image evaluation, 3D-SSP appears to be optimal. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2002-01-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5±3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis

  3. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  4. Validation of brain tumour imaging with p-[123I]iodo-l-phenylalanine and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellwig, Dirk; Sell, Nadja; Schaefer, Andrea; Kirsch, Carl-Martin; Samnick, Samuel; Ketter, Ralf; Moringlane, Jean R.; Romeike, Bernd F.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this prospective study were to validate single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with p-[ 123 I]iodo-l-phenylalanine (IPA) in brain tumours and to evaluate its potential for the characterisation of indeterminate brain lesions. In 45 patients with indeterminate brain lesions or suspected progression of glioma, amino acid uptake was studied using IPA-SPECT and compared with the final diagnosis established by biopsy or serial imaging. After image fusion of IPA-SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging, the presence of tumour was visually determined by two independent observers. IPA uptake was quantified as the ratio between maximum uptake in the suspicious lesion and mean uptake in unaffected brain. Primary brain tumours were present in 35 cases (12 low-grade and 23 high-grade gliomas). Non-neoplastic brain lesions were confirmed in seven cases (three dysplasias, three inflammatory lesions, one lesion after effective therapy). Visual analysis showed a high concordance between the two observers (kappa=0.90, p<0.001), with sensitivity and specificity of 86% and 100% for the discrimination of primary brain tumours and non-neoplastic lesions. At 30 min p.i., IPA uptake in primary brain tumours was higher than that in non-neoplastic lesions (1.70±0.36 vs 1.14±0.18, p<0.05). Brain metastases showed no increased uptake (1.13±0.22, n=3). The persistent retention of IPA in low-grade gliomas without disruption of the blood-brain barrier was visualised up to 24 h p.i. Low-grade and high-grade gliomas showed equivalent IPA uptake (1.72±0.37 vs 1.67±0.36 at 30 min, p=0.745). IPA shows long and specific retention in gliomas. IPA is a promising and safe radiopharmaceutical for the visualisation of gliomas and the characterisation of indeterminate brain lesions. (orig.)

  5. High-resolution single photon planar and spect imaging of brain and neck employing a system of two co-registered opposed gamma imaging heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA

    2011-12-06

    A compact, mobile, dedicated SPECT brain imager that can be easily moved to the patient to provide in-situ imaging, especially when the patient cannot be moved to the Nuclear Medicine imaging center. As a result of the widespread availability of single photon labeled biomarkers, the SPECT brain imager can be used in many locations, including remote locations away from medical centers. The SPECT imager improves the detection of gamma emission from the patient's head and neck area with a large field of view. Two identical lightweight gamma imaging detector heads are mounted to a rotating gantry and precisely mechanically co-registered to each other at 180 degrees. A unique imaging algorithm combines the co-registered images from the detector heads and provides several SPECT tomographic reconstructions of the imaged object thereby improving the diagnostic quality especially in the case of imaging requiring higher spatial resolution and sensitivity at the same time.

  6. Clinical brain imaging with isopropyl-iodoamphetamine and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royal, H.D.; Hill, T.C.; Holman, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, fierce competition has developed between the new high technology specialties of ultrasound, nuclear medicine, computerized transmission tomography, and most recently, nuclear magnetic resonance. Conventional brain scintigraphy, once the most common nuclear medicine procedure, has fallen victim to this rivalry despite the fact that routine scintigraphy remains a good diagnostic test. The agony of this defeat initially caused self-doubt among nuclear medicine physicians, but out of this gloom has emerged a number of radionuclide tests which have the potential to revolutionize how clinical neurology/psychiatry is practiced. 109 references

  7. Evaluation of brain perfusion SPECT imaging using 99mTc-ECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Kinuya, Keiko; Higashi, Sotaro; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Sumiya, Hisashi; Shuke, Noriyuki; Hisada, Kinichi; Yamashita, Junkoh; Yamaguchi, Nariyoshi

    1991-01-01

    Fundamental and clinical evaluation was performed on 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD), that is a new agent for brain perfusion SPECT. Radiochemical purity reaches a plateau of approximately 98% at 30 min after reconstruction and remains stable up to 24 hours later. A biodistribution study showed approximately 5% injected dose in the brain, very slow brain washout of 5.6% per hour on the average, and rapid washout from the other organ mainly through the urinary system. Brain ECD distribution was determined within 2 min postinjection and remained stable for up to 1 hour. Three hours later, slight but significant changes in brain distribution were observed, that were relative reduction of cerebral cortical activity and gray to white matter activity ratio, and relative elevation of white matter and thalamic activities. Comparative studies of ECD images with 123 I-iodoamphetamine (IMP) and 99m Tc-d, l-hexa-methylpro-pyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) images revealed that radioactivity contrast between affected and unaffected areas was less prominent in ECD than in IMP in cerebral and cerebellar cortical lesions, more prominent in ECD than in IMP in striatal and thalamic lesions, and somewhat more prominent in ECD than in HMPAO in both lesions. Imaging around 1 hour postinjection seems to be more appropriate than immediate postinjection imaging because of the clearance of the extracranial radioactivity and somewhat better radioactivity contrast between affected and unaffected areas. (author)

  8. Contralateral thalamic hypoperfusion on brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun; Yoo, Kyung Moo; Yum, Ha Yong

    2000-01-01

    Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is useful for the localization of cerebrovascular lesion and sometimes reveals more definite lesion than radiologic imaging modality such as CT or MRI does. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with hemisensory impairment. Thirteen consecutive patients (M:F= 8:5, mean age = 48) who has hemisensory impairment were included. Brain perfusion SPECT was performed after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD. The images were obtained using a dual-head gamma camera with ultra-high resolution collimator. Semiquantitative analysis was performed after placing multiple ROIs on cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. There were 10 patients with left hemisensory impairment and 3 patients with right-sided symptom. Only 2 patients revealed abnormal signal change in the thalamus on MRI. But brain perfusion SPECT showed decreased perfusion in the thalamus in 9 patients. Six patients among 10 patients with left hemisensory impairment revealed decreased perfusion in the contralateral thalamus on brain SPECT. The other 4 patients revealed no abnormality. Two patients among 3 patients with right hemisensory impairment also showed decreased perfusion in the contralateral thalamus on brain SPECT. One patients with right hemisensory impairment showed ipsilateral perfusion decrease. Two patients who had follow-up brain perfusion SEPCT after treatment revealed normalization of perfusion in the thalamus. Brain perfusion SPECT might be a useful tool in diagnosing patients with hemisensory impairment

  9. Introduction of a novel ultrahigh sensitivity collimator for brain SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mi-Ae, E-mail: miaepark@bwh.harvard.edu; Kijewski, Marie Foley; Lyon, Morgan C.; Horky, Laura; Moore, Stephen C. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Keijzers, Ronnie; Keijzers, Mark [Nuclear Fields USA, Des Plaines, Illinois 60018 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Noise levels of brain SPECT images are highest in central regions, due to preferential attenuation of photons emitted from deep structures. To address this problem, the authors have designed a novel collimator for brain SPECT imaging that yields greatly increased sensitivity near the center of the brain without loss of resolution. This hybrid collimator consisted of ultrashort cone-beam holes in the central regions and slant-holes in the periphery (USCB). We evaluated this collimator for quantitative brain imaging tasks. Methods: Owing to the uniqueness of the USCB collimation, the hole pattern required substantial variations in collimator parameters. To utilize the lead-casting technique, the authors designed two supporting plates to position about 37 000 hexagonal, slightly tapered pins. The holes in the supporting plates were modeled to yield the desired focal length, hole length, and septal thickness. To determine the properties of the manufactured collimator and to compute the system matrix, the authors prepared an array of point sources that covered the entire detector area. Each point source contained 32 μCi of Tc-99m at the first scan time. The array was imaged for 5 min at each of the 64 shifted locations to yield a 2-mm sampling distance, and hole parameters were calculated. The sensitivity was also measured using a point source placed along the central ray at several distances from the collimator face. High-count projection data from a five-compartment brain phantom were acquired with the three collimators on a dual-head SPECT/CT system. The authors calculated Cramer-Rao bounds on the precision of estimates of striatal and background activity concentration. In order to assess the new collimation system to detect changes in striatal activity, the authors evaluated the precision of measuring a 5% decrease in right putamen activity. The authors also reconstructed images of projection data obtained by summing data from the individual phantom

  10. Brain imaging with 123I-IMP-SPECT in migraine between attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlake, H.P.; Boettger, I.G.G.; Grotemeyer, K.H.; Husstedt, I.W.

    1989-01-01

    123 I-IMP-SPECT brain imaging was performed in patients with classic migraine (n = 5) and migraine accompagnee (n = 18) during the headache-free interval. A regional reduction of tracer uptake into brain was observed in all patients with migraine accompagnee, while in patients with classic migraine only one case showed an area of decreased activity. The most marked alteration was found in a patient with persisting neurological symptoms (complicated migraine). In most cases the areas of decreased tracer uptake corresponded to headache localization as well as to topography of neurologic symptoms during migraine attacks. It may be concluded that migraine attacks occur in connection with exacerbations of preexisting changes of cerebral autoregulation due to endogenous or exogenous factors

  11. Cerebrovascular disease in newborn infants: report of three cases with clinical follow-up and brain SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura-Ribeiro, Maria Valeriana L. de; Ciasca, Sylvia Maria; Vale-Cavalcanti, Mariza; Etchebehere, Elba C.S.C.; Camargo, Edwaldo E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    1999-07-01

    The clinical and neurological findings of three neonates with the diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease are reported. The neuropsychological evaluation disclosed impairment of fine motor function, coordination, language, perception and behavioral disturbances. Brain SPECT imaging revealed perfusional deficits in the three cases. (author)

  12. Cerebrovascular disease in newborn infants: report of three cases with clinical follow-up and brain SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura-Ribeiro, Maria Valeriana L. de; Ciasca, Sylvia Maria; Vale-Cavalcanti, Mariza; Etchebehere, Elba C.S.C.; Camargo, Edwaldo E.

    1999-01-01

    The clinical and neurological findings of three neonates with the diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease are reported. The neuropsychological evaluation disclosed impairment of fine motor function, coordination, language, perception and behavioral disturbances. Brain SPECT imaging revealed perfusional deficits in the three cases. (author)

  13. Impact of extraneous mispositioned events on motion-corrected brain SPECT images of freely moving animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis, Georgios I.; Ryder, William J.; Bashar, Rezaul; Meikle, Steven R.; Fulton, Roger R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain imaging of freely moving small animals would allow a wide range of important neurological processes and behaviors to be studied, which are normally inhibited by anesthetic drugs or precluded due to the animal being restrained. While rigid body motion of the head can be tracked and accounted for in the reconstruction, activity in the torso may confound brain measurements, especially since motion of the torso is more complex (i.e., nonrigid) and not well correlated with that of the head. The authors investigated the impact of mispositioned events and attenuation due to the torso on the accuracy of motion corrected brain images of freely moving mice. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of a realistic voxelized mouse phantom and a dual compartment phantom were performed. Each phantom comprised a target and an extraneous compartment which were able to move independently of each other. Motion correction was performed based on the known motion of the target compartment only. Two SPECT camera geometries were investigated: a rotating single head detector and a stationary full ring detector. The effects of motion, detector geometry, and energy of the emitted photons (hence, attenuation) on bias and noise in reconstructed brain regions were evaluated. Results: The authors observed two main sources of bias: (a) motion-related inconsistencies in the projection data and (b) the mismatch between attenuation and emission. Both effects are caused by the assumption that the orientation of the torso is difficult to track and model, and therefore cannot be conveniently corrected for. The motion induced bias in some regions was up to 12% when no attenuation effects were considered, while it reached 40% when also combined with attenuation related inconsistencies. The detector geometry (i.e., rotating vs full ring) has a big impact on the accuracy of the reconstructed images, with the full ring detector being more

  14. SPECT of the brain: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, F.; Lenzi, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In both PET and SPECT, most of the studies and the models have been addressed to two organs: brain and heart. So far, brain has certainly been investigated more. The several comparisons between planar scintigraphy and SPECT, between X-ray TCT and SPECT, and also between PET and SPECT, have tended to consider SPECT a cheap but scarcely useful tool for a nuclear medicine section. Again the authors feel that this is due to the fact that SPECT is really a ''physiological tomography'', with little known about its physiology or how it is measured. Thus the present state of the art of SPECT of the brain is characterized by a collection of data and reports on brain imaging and by a slowly growing basic understanding of the utilized modes. The introduction of a new brain-imaging radiopharmaceutical is immediately signaled by its ''first clinical application'' without parallel studies on the kinetics, the metabolic degradation, and the real suitability of the molecule as a tracer for measurement of regional CBF. Only a few attempts seek to narrow this discussion between clinic and biology, and the authors like to emphasize the need for nuclear medicine people to dedicate more time and effort

  15. SPECT Perfusion Imaging Demonstrates Improvement of Traumatic Brain Injury With Transcranial Near-infrared Laser Phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Theodore A; Morries, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a growing health concern affecting civilians and military personnel. Near-infrared (NIR) light has shown benefits in animal models and human trials for stroke and in animal models for TBI. Diodes emitting low-level NIR often have lacked therapeutic efficacy, perhaps failing to deliver sufficient radiant energy to the necessary depth. In this case report, a patient with moderate TBI documented in anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) received 20 NIR treatments in the course of 2 mo using a high-power NIR laser. Symptoms were monitored by clinical examination and a novel patient diary system specifically designed for this patient population. Clinical application of these levels of infrared energy for this patient with TBI yielded highly favorable outcomes with decreased depression, anxiety, headache, and insomnia, whereas cognition and quality of life improved. Neurological function appeared to improve based on changes in the SPECT by quantitative analysis. NIR in the power range of 10-15 W at 810 and 980 nm can safely and effectively treat chronic symptoms of TBI.

  16. Brain 99Tcm-ECD SPECT imaging in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Da; Zhan Hongwei; Ye Xiaojuan; He Gangqiang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic anxiety disorder of unknown aetiology. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the changes of brain function in patients with OCD. Methods: Regional cerebral perfusion was investigated using SPECT in 25 patients with OCD. The mean ages of the patients were 29.04 (1 8-46) years old. The clinical symptom consists of repeating thinking (suspect, worry, nervous) and repeating action (checking, washing, counting, making telephone calls) principally. After administration of 740-925 MBq (20-25 mCi) 99mTc-ECD a single photon emission tomography study was performed and then transaxial, sagittal and coronal slices were obtained. For the semiquantitative analysis of the data Results: 92 per cent of patients (23125) had relative hypoperfusions in some cerebral regions. The patients had a significant decrease of rCBF in the frontal lobes, temporal lobes, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cingulate gyrus. There were no correlation between the change of rCBF and age of age or course of disease. But there were some correlation with clinical symptom. Conclusion: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been linked to a dysfunction of brain orbitofrontal-striatum-pallidum-thalamus networks that were confirmed by PET SPECT functional imaging studies. These study indicated hypoperfusion in frontal lobes, basal ganglion, thalamus in OCD patients, and suggests a reduced serotonergic input into the fronto-subcortical circuits in OCD, thereby diminishing the inhibitory regulation of serotonin on these circuits. According to our results, patients with OCD had profound dysfunction of the frontal and temporal cortices, and basal ganglia. These may reflect a fundamental feature of clinical neuropathophysiology in OCD, and support previous findings about dysfunction of frontal-subcortical circuits in this disorder. (authors)

  17. SPECT imaging with the serotonin transporter radiotracer [123I]p ZIENT in nonhuman primate brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Staley, Julie K.; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Bois, Frederic; Plisson, Christophe; Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S.; Seibyl, John P.; Goodman, Mark M.; Tamagnan, Gilles D.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Serotonin dysfunction has been linked to a variety of psychiatric diseases; however, an adequate SPECT radioligand to probe the serotonin transporter system has not been successfully developed. The purpose of this study was to characterize and determine the in vivo selectivity of iodine-123-labeled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane, [ 123 I]p ZIENT, in nonhuman primate brain. Methods: Two ovariohysterectomized female baboons participated in nine studies (one bolus and eight bolus to constant infusion at a ratio of 9.0 h) to evaluate [ 123 I]p ZIENT. To evaluate the selectivity of [ 123 I]p ZIENT, the serotonin transporter blockers fenfluramine (1.5, 2.5 mg/kg) and citalopram (5 mg/kg), the dopamine transporter blocker methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg) and the norepinephrine transporter blocker nisoxetine (1 mg/kg) were given at 8 h post-radiotracer injection. Results: In the bolus to constant infusion studies, equilibrium was established by 4-8 h. [ 123 I]p ZIENT was 93% and 90% protein bound in the two baboons and there was no detection of lipophilic radiolabeled metabolites entering the brain. In the high-density serotonin transporter regions (diencephalon and brainstem), fenfluramine and citalopram resulted in 35-71% and 129-151% displacement, respectively, whereas methylphenidate and nisoxetine did not produce significant changes ( 123 I]p ZIENT is a favorable compound for in vivo SPECT imaging of serotonin transporters with negligible binding to norepinephrine and dopamine transporters.

  18. Advance prediction of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using 99mTc-ECD SPECT brain blood flow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Yohsuke

    2008-01-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is considered as a precursor state of Alzheimer disease (AD). Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain blood flow imaging was investigated in MCI and it's relevance to the prognosis of MCI was evaluated in an attempt define the characteristics of brain blood flow imaging of MCI (amnestic MCI; aMCI) converting to AD. Ninety-two patients over 60 years old with amnesia were studied. 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT brain blood flow examinations of the subject under drug-free conditions were conducted and imaging was analyzed according to the first clinical diagnosis. Patients given a diagnosis of MCI on the first clinical diagnosis, were examined again after 2 years and the SPECT imaging before 2 years previously was classified and analyzed. Of them, there were 35 MCI patients, converting of 13 AD patients (37.1%; aMCI), 10 MCI patients (28.6%; non-converter), 4 depression patients (11.4%; Depression type MCI (dMCI)), 1 Geriatric psychosis patient, but 7 patients dropped out. In the aMCI group, relative hypoperfusion was recognized in the posterior cingulate and the precuneus. In the dMCI group, relative hypoperfusion was recognized in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the anterior cingulate. In the non-converter group, relative hypoperfusion was recognized in the basal forebrain. The hypoperfusion of the precuneus in aMCI, and the hypoperfusion of the right frontal lobe (DLPFC, dorsal-anterior cingulate) in dMCI were characteristic brain blood-flow abnormalities. We believe 99m Tc-ECD SPECT brain blood flow imaging to be useful in the diagnosis of aMCI and in the early detection of depression. (author)

  19. 99Tcm-Neurolite brain SPECT imaging as an outcome predictor after brain trauma: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, D.M.; Lan, L.; Booth, G.; Christie, J.; Bookalil, A.; Pollack, M.; Pacey, D.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to use semi-quantitative 99 Tc m -ethylene cysteine dimer (Neurolite) cerebral blood flow (CBF) SPET brain imaging to assess its role in predicting outcome after brain trauma. Twelve adult patients (9 males, 3 females) who sustained moderate to severe brain trauma were studied by CBF/SPET within 4 weeks of the injury (scan A) and again after 1 year (scan B). Clinical assessment was also performed at these times and included extensive neuropsychometric testing. Patients received 800-850 MBq 99 Tc m -Neurolite intravenously, and were imaged using a triple-headed gamma camera with LEUHR fan beam collimators. Processing, filtering, reconstruction and data set selection were identical for scans A and B. Semi-quantitative analysis was performed using 25 regions of interest in the cerebral cortex and deep structures in 2 coronal, 2 sagittal and 3 oblique planes. Normalized mean counts per pixel for the whole brain, and regional brain ratios were calculated. Scans A and B were compared and correlated to the clinical outcome data. Two patients with minimal CBF abnormalities made full recoveries. The remaining 10 had moderate to severe focal CBF defects, which showed no significant improvement at 12 months. Of these patients, 2 had moderate disability, 3 had severe to moderate disability and 2 had severe disability at 12 months. Patients with persisting focal abnormal CBF showed persisting neurological deficits. Neurolite brain CBF imaging is a useful method of predicting outcome after moderate to severe head injury

  20. Effects of hole tapering on cone-beam collimation for brain SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mi-Ae; Kijewski, Marie Foley; Moore, Stephen C.

    2006-01-01

    New collimator manufacturing technologies, such as photoetching, electrical discharge machining, and stereolithography, expand the range of possible cone-beam collimator configurations. For example, it might now be possible for brain SPECT to make a short-focusing cone-beam collimator with tapered holes that increase in size with distance from the collimator surface; conventional lead-casting techniques produce holes of constant size and, consequently, varying septal thicknesses. Moreover, the changes in hole shape and loss of close packing due to focusing leads to thicker septa in the collimator periphery, especially for shorter focal lengths. We investigated the potential advantages of new cone-beam collimator manufacturing processes, and proposed a new design for very short focal-length collimators for brain SPECT imaging. We compared three cone-beam collimators, a conventional collimator manufactured using casting techniques (CC), a novel collimator with uniform hole sizes on the collimator surface and constant hole size through the collimator thickness (FC), and a novel collimator with uniform hole sizes and tapered holes (TC). We determined the resolution of each collimator analytically for focal lengths ranging from 20-50 cm, and adjusted the entrance hole sizes of FC and TC to equalize resolution of all collimators. Sensitivity was calculated at several locations by Monte Carlo simulation. Sensitivity was higher at all points for TC and FC than for CC, and higher for TC than for FC. The differences in sensitivity were larger for shorter focal lengths. For a point on the focal line at 10 cm in front of the collimator entrance surface, the sensitivity gain for TC compared to CC was 7% and 45% for focal lengths of 50 and 20 cm, respectively. The sensitivity gain for a 20-cm focal length, compared to CC, averaged over all locations, was 44% for TC and 23% for FC. We have shown that the new collimator designs made possible by new manufacturing techniques will

  1. Brain perfusion spect imaging with sup 99m Tc-HM-PAO in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzhong, Song; Xiangtong, Lin [Shanghai Medical Univ. (China). Huashan Hospital

    1991-02-01

    Forty patients with Parkinson's disease were studied using {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO brain perfusion SPECT. 62.5% (25 cases) showed abnormal blood perfusion. Among them 55% showed local decreased blood perfusion of cerebral cortex, 22% showed asymmetric decreased blood perfusion in basal gaglia, 10% showed decreased uptake of tracer in cerebellum. The pathophysiologic basis of the abnormality of brain blood perfusion were briefly discussed.

  2. Brain SPECT in psychiatry: Delusion or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, D.G.; Davis, G.; Epstein, P.; Kohn, R.; Antonino, F.; Devore-Best, S.; Craita, I.; Liu, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The need for functional information is becoming increasingly evident for proper therapeutic approaches to the treatment and follow up of psychiatric diseases. While data on this subject already exists, there is a general lack of consensus about the use of brain SPECT in this domain and also a considerable negative prejudice due to a number of factors including poor quality imaging and unrealistic expectations. Based on a large group of brain SPECT-s performed over the past 3 years we attempted to sort and refine the indications for SPECT in psychiatry. Materials and Methods: High resolution brain SPECT was performed with triple head gamma camera, super-high resolution fan beam collimator and Tc-HMPAO. A comprehensive semiquantitative color, 3D surface as well as multi-thresholded volume display was routinely used and supplemented by automatic realignment in case of longitudinal follow-up. Results: 470 brain SPECT-s done on 432 patients were all referred by psychiatrists or neuro-psychiatrists for a wide spectrum of psychiatric diseases and ranged in age from 7 to 88 years. The most common primary reasons for referral were : attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD); anxiety; obsessive-compulsive disease, depression (refractory, chronic, bipolar ), impulse control problems; oppositional defiance, post traumatic brain injury; seizures, learning difficulties, pervasive development disorders, memory loss and differential of dementia. Among common denominators were long duration of the disease, unresponsiveness to treatment, worsening of clinical status, and presence of multiple conditions at the same time. The multiparametric display used enabled a comprehensive evaluation of the brain volume which included the hemispheric surfaces; the basal ganglia (striatum) and the thalamus, several components of the limbic and paralimbic systems: anterior and posterior cingulate and their respective subdivisions, insula-s and their subdivisions, apical and mesial

  3. A Silicon SPECT System for Molecular Imaging of the Mouse Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; Fritz, Mark A.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Durko, Heather L.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Peterson, Todd E.

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the feasibility of using silicon double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs) for SPECT imaging of the activity distribution of iodine-125 using a 300-micrometer thick detector. Based on this experience, we now have developed fully customized silicon DSSDs and associated readout electronics with the intent of developing a multi-pinhole SPECT system. Each DSSD has a 60.4 mm × 60.4 mm active area and is 1 mm thick. The strip pitch is 59 micrometers, and the readout of the 102...

  4. Imaging of striatal dopamine transporters in rat brain with single pinhole SPECT and co-aligned MRI is highly reproducible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, Jan; Bruin, Kora de; Win, Maartje M.L. de; Lavini, Cristina Mphil; Heeten, Gerard J. den; Habraken, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A recently developed pinhole high-resolution SPECT system was used to measure striatal to non-specific binding ratios in rats (n = 9), after injection of the dopamine transporter ligand 123 I-FP-CIT, and to assess its test/retest reproducibility. For co-alignment purposes, the rat brain was imaged on a 1.5 Tesla clinical MRI scanner using a specially developed surface coil. The SPECT images showed clear striatal uptake. On the MR images, cerebral and extra-cerebral structures could be easily delineated. The mean striatal to non-specific [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding ratios of the test/retest studies were 1.7 ± 0.2 and 1.6 ± 0.2, respectively. The test/retest variability was approximately 9%. We conclude that the assessment of striatal [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding ratios in rats is highly reproducible

  5. Development of a practical image-based scatter correction method for brain perfusion SPECT: comparison with the TEW method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidahara, Miho; Kato, Takashi; Kawatsu, Shoji; Yoshimura, Kumiko; Ito, Kengo; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Iida, Hidehiro; Kato, Rikio

    2005-01-01

    An image-based scatter correction (IBSC) method was developed to convert scatter-uncorrected into scatter-corrected SPECT images. The purpose of this study was to validate this method by means of phantom simulations and human studies with 99m Tc-labeled tracers, based on comparison with the conventional triple energy window (TEW) method. The IBSC method corrects scatter on the reconstructed image I AC μb with Chang's attenuation correction factor. The scatter component image is estimated by convolving I AC μb with a scatter function followed by multiplication with an image-based scatter fraction function. The IBSC method was evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT human brain perfusion studies obtained from five volunteers. The image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were compared. Using data obtained from the simulations, the image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were found to be nearly identical for both gray and white matter. In human brain images, no significant differences in image contrast were observed between the IBSC and TEW methods. The IBSC method is a simple scatter correction technique feasible for use in clinical routine. (orig.)

  6. Development of a practical image-based scatter correction method for brain perfusion SPECT: comparison with the TEW method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shidahara, Miho; Kato, Takashi; Kawatsu, Shoji; Yoshimura, Kumiko; Ito, Kengo [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology Research Institute, Department of Brain Science and Molecular Imaging, Obu, Aichi (Japan); Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Iida, Hidehiro [National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Department of Investigative Radiology, Suita (Japan); Kato, Rikio [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Radiology, Obu (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    An image-based scatter correction (IBSC) method was developed to convert scatter-uncorrected into scatter-corrected SPECT images. The purpose of this study was to validate this method by means of phantom simulations and human studies with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tracers, based on comparison with the conventional triple energy window (TEW) method. The IBSC method corrects scatter on the reconstructed image I{sub AC}{sup {mu}}{sup b} with Chang's attenuation correction factor. The scatter component image is estimated by convolving I{sub AC}{sup {mu}}{sup b} with a scatter function followed by multiplication with an image-based scatter fraction function. The IBSC method was evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT human brain perfusion studies obtained from five volunteers. The image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were compared. Using data obtained from the simulations, the image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were found to be nearly identical for both gray and white matter. In human brain images, no significant differences in image contrast were observed between the IBSC and TEW methods. The IBSC method is a simple scatter correction technique feasible for use in clinical routine. (orig.)

  7. Development of a practical image-based scatter correction method for brain perfusion SPECT: comparison with the TEW method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidahara, Miho; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kato, Takashi; Kawatsu, Shoji; Kato, Rikio; Yoshimura, Kumiko; Iida, Hidehiro; Ito, Kengo

    2005-10-01

    An image-based scatter correction (IBSC) method was developed to convert scatter-uncorrected into scatter-corrected SPECT images. The purpose of this study was to validate this method by means of phantom simulations and human studies with 99mTc-labeled tracers, based on comparison with the conventional triple energy window (TEW) method. The IBSC method corrects scatter on the reconstructed image I(mub)AC with Chang's attenuation correction factor. The scatter component image is estimated by convolving I(mub)AC with a scatter function followed by multiplication with an image-based scatter fraction function. The IBSC method was evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT human brain perfusion studies obtained from five volunteers. The image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were compared. Using data obtained from the simulations, the image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were found to be nearly identical for both gray and white matter. In human brain images, no significant differences in image contrast were observed between the IBSC and TEW methods. The IBSC method is a simple scatter correction technique feasible for use in clinical routine.

  8. Clinical relevance of n-isopropyl-(/sup 123/I)p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podreka, I.; Holl, K.; Dal Bianco, P.; Goldenberg, G.; Wimberger, D.; Auff, E.; Brucke, T.

    1986-01-01

    SPECT studies of the brain were performed by means of N-isopropyl-(/sup 123/I)p-iodoamphertamine and a double head rotating scintillation camera. Energy spectra showed an increase of scattered radiation proportional to the geometrical resolution of the used Tc-collimators. This is due to the higher lead content and thin septa (septum-penetration of high energy photons of /sup 123/I, scattering in the crystal) of HRES or UHRES collimators. A LEAP collimator (14 mm FWHM resolution in the reconstructed image) is the most suitable one (sufficient resolution - relatively low scatter-fraction) for /sup 123/I labeled tracers. With a multiple window technique scatter correction was performed. The width and position of the scatter windows were estimated in phantom studies. Further steps of data processing (prereconstructional filtering, analytical attenuation compensation), leading to an improvement of the final set of cross sections, are described. Clinical cases (Alzheimers, Huntingtons, Parkinson disease, Moya Moya, stroke and partial complex seizures) and stimulation (acoustic memory tasks, visual stimulations) studies in normal volunteers are presented, and results are compared with PET-data known from recent literature

  9. Quantification of GABAA receptors in the rat brain with [123I]Iomazenil SPECT from factor analysis-denoised images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsartsalis, Stergios; Moulin-Sallanon, Marcelle; Dumas, Noé; Tournier, Benjamin B.; Ghezzi, Catherine; Charnay, Yves; Ginovart, Nathalie; Millet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In vivo imaging of GABA A receptors is essential for the comprehension of psychiatric disorders in which the GABAergic system is implicated. Small animal SPECT provides a modality for in vivo imaging of the GABAergic system in rodents using [ 123 I]Iomazenil, an antagonist of the GABA A receptor. The goal of this work is to describe and evaluate different quantitative reference tissue methods that enable reliable binding potential (BP) estimations in the rat brain to be obtained. Methods: Five male Sprague–Dawley rats were used for [ 123 I]Iomazenil brain SPECT scans. Binding parameters were obtained with a one-tissue compartment model (1TC), a constrained two-tissue compartment model (2TC c ), the two-step Simplified Reference Tissue Model (SRTM2), Logan graphical analysis and analysis of delayed-activity images. In addition, we employed factor analysis (FA) to deal with noise in data. Results: BP ND obtained with SRTM2, Logan graphical analysis and delayed-activity analysis was highly correlated with BP F values obtained with 2TC c (r = 0.954 and 0.945 respectively, p c and SRTM2 in raw and FA-denoised images (r = 0.961 and 0.909 respectively, p ND values from raw images while scans of only 70 min are sufficient from FA-denoised images. These images are also associated with significantly lower standard errors of 2TC c and SRTM2 BP values. Conclusion: Reference tissue methods such as SRTM2 and Logan graphical analysis can provide equally reliable BP ND values from rat brain [ 123 I]Iomazenil SPECT. Acquisitions, however, can be much less time-consuming either with analysis of delayed activity obtained from a 20-minute scan 50 min after tracer injection or with FA-denoising of images

  10. Brain SPECT with Tl-201 DDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruine, J.F. de.

    1988-01-01

    The development, animal and human experiments and the first clinical results of a new blood flow tracer thallium-201 diethyldithiocarbamate (Tl-201 DDC) are discussed for functional brain imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). 325 refs.; 43 figs.; 22 tabs

  11. Clinical correlative evaluation of an iterative method for reconstruction of brain SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobili, Flavio; Vitali, Paolo; Calvini, Piero; Bollati, Francesca; Girtler, Nicola; Delmonte, Marta; Mariani, Giuliano; Rodriguez, Guido

    2001-01-01

    Background: Brain SPECT and PET investigations have showed discrepancies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) when considering data deriving from deeply located structures, such as the mesial temporal lobe. These discrepancies could be due to a variety of factors, including substantial differences in gamma-cameras and underlying technology. Mesial temporal structures are deeply located within the brain and the commonly used Filtered Back-Projection (FBP) technique does not fully take into account either the physical parameters of gamma-cameras or geometry of collimators. In order to overcome these limitations, alternative reconstruction methods have been proposed, such as the iterative method of the Conjugate Gradients with modified matrix (CG). However, the clinical applications of these methods have so far been only anecdotal. The present study was planned to compare perfusional SPECT data as derived from the conventional FBP method and from the iterative CG method, which takes into account the geometrical and physical characteristics of the gamma-camera, by a correlative approach with neuropsychology. Methods: Correlations were compared between perfusion of the hippocampal region, as achieved by both the FBP and the CG reconstruction methods, and a short-memory test (Selective Reminding Test, SRT), specifically addressing one of its function. A brain-dedicated camera (CERASPECT) was used for SPECT studies with 99m Tc-hexamethylpropylene-amine-oxime in 23 consecutive patients (mean age: 74.2±6.5) with mild (Mini-Mental Status Examination score ≥15, mean 20.3±3), probable AD. Counts from a hippocampal region in each hemisphere were referred to the average thalamic counts. Results: Hippocampal perfusion significantly correlated with the MMSE score with similar statistical significance (p<0.01) between the two reconstruction methods. Correlation between hippocampal perfusion and the SRT score was better with the CG method (r=0.50 for both hemispheres, p<0.01) than with

  12. Clinical correlative evaluation of an iterative method for reconstruction of brain SPECT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobili, Flavio E-mail: fnobili@smartino.ge.it; Vitali, Paolo; Calvini, Piero; Bollati, Francesca; Girtler, Nicola; Delmonte, Marta; Mariani, Giuliano; Rodriguez, Guido

    2001-08-01

    Background: Brain SPECT and PET investigations have showed discrepancies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) when considering data deriving from deeply located structures, such as the mesial temporal lobe. These discrepancies could be due to a variety of factors, including substantial differences in gamma-cameras and underlying technology. Mesial temporal structures are deeply located within the brain and the commonly used Filtered Back-Projection (FBP) technique does not fully take into account either the physical parameters of gamma-cameras or geometry of collimators. In order to overcome these limitations, alternative reconstruction methods have been proposed, such as the iterative method of the Conjugate Gradients with modified matrix (CG). However, the clinical applications of these methods have so far been only anecdotal. The present study was planned to compare perfusional SPECT data as derived from the conventional FBP method and from the iterative CG method, which takes into account the geometrical and physical characteristics of the gamma-camera, by a correlative approach with neuropsychology. Methods: Correlations were compared between perfusion of the hippocampal region, as achieved by both the FBP and the CG reconstruction methods, and a short-memory test (Selective Reminding Test, SRT), specifically addressing one of its function. A brain-dedicated camera (CERASPECT) was used for SPECT studies with {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropylene-amine-oxime in 23 consecutive patients (mean age: 74.2{+-}6.5) with mild (Mini-Mental Status Examination score {>=}15, mean 20.3{+-}3), probable AD. Counts from a hippocampal region in each hemisphere were referred to the average thalamic counts. Results: Hippocampal perfusion significantly correlated with the MMSE score with similar statistical significance (p<0.01) between the two reconstruction methods. Correlation between hippocampal perfusion and the SRT score was better with the CG method (r=0.50 for both hemispheres, p<0

  13. The study of brain dopamine transporter 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jian; Su Min; Liu Xiuqian; Liang Weijuan; Zhao Bin; Xu Zhien

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution character of 99 Tc m -2β-[N, N'-bis (2-mercaptoethyl) ethylenediamino] methyl, 3β-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane (TRODAT-1) in basal ganglia and the diagnostic value of SPECT imaging in Parkinson' s disease (PD). Methods: 99 Tc m -TRODAT-l SPECT imaging was performed in 30 PD patients and 16 age-matched healthy volunteers. Two semiquantitative analysis methods were used: (1)Striatum(ST)/cerebellum (CB) uptake ratio (ST/CB) was calculated by regions of interest (ROIs) in three transverse and sagittal slice. (2) ROIs were drawn manually on six subregions of both basal ganglia and also CB and occipital region(OC) as reference, and the corresponding uptake ratio of ROI/(OC + CB/2) was calculated. Results: The ST/CB in transverse and sagittal slice for the left and right were 1.55 ± 0.15, 1.58 ± 0.14 and 1.62 ± 0.17, 1.69 ± 0.16 respectively in healthy volunteers. The ST/CB and ROI/(OC + CB/2) in the basal ganglia of PD patients were significantly less than those of healthy volunteers (P 99 Tc m -TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging is an effective method in diagnosis of PD. (authors)

  14. The early diagnostic value of oral acetazolamide load combined with SPECT rCBF imaging in patients with transient ischemia attack in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xintong; Zheng Zhiping; Qiao Suixian; Tang Anwu

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In order to assess the diagnostic value of acetazolamide (ACZ) combined with rCBF-SPECT imaging in patients with transient ischemia attack (TIA). Methods: SPECT imaging was performed before and after oral ACZ with visual and semiquantitative analysis of the images. Blood gas analysis was done before and after ACZ administration either. Results: After ACZ loading, in normal group, 99 Tc m -ECD was distributed symmetrically on correspondent parts of the brain and rCBF was generally increased. The blood pH was decreased and blood PCO 2 was increased, respectively in TIA group, the positive rate of hypoperfusion foci on SPECT images were increased from 5/6 to 6/6 in symptomatic patients and from 60% to 92% in asymptomatic patients. The total positive rate was 93%. Conclusion: Oral ACZ before SPECT imaging is a simple, reliable way for early diagnosis in patients with TIA

  15. Evaluation of the effects of rehabilitation exercise on cerebral infarction with 99Tcm-ECD SPECT brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ningyi; Lu Xianping; Liu Xingguang; Xiao Xiuhong; Xu Jianxing

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effects of motor therapy on hemiplegia with SPECT brain perfusion imaging. Methods: The study population consisted of 59 patients with cerebral infarction, and all patients were treated with motor therapy. Among them, 30 cases were assigned to undertake single bridging exercise and 29 cases passive exercise. SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed before and after motor therapy under the same condition, and the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes were compared and analysed with visual and semi-quantitative methods; in addition, the relationship between rCBF changes and scores of Fugl-Meyer or Barthel index were also analysed. Results: After motor therapy, various degrees of radioactivity increase were compared with the pretreatment radioactivity hypoperfusion in patients with cerebral infarction, and showed that motor therapy could evidently improve rCBF of regional hypoperfusion. The posttreatment rCBF was higher than the pretreatment level (P<0.01), and the rCBF of group of single bridging was higher than that of passive exercise group. And the changes of rCBF were all significant after motor therapy. In addition, the variation of the rCBF after motor therapy was positively correlated with the variation of Fugl-Meyer and Barthel score. Conclusions: SPECT brain perfusion imaging can serve as a useful method for evaluating the effectiveness of motor therapy in cerebral infarction rehabilitation. The single bridging exercise and the passive exercise are both beneficial to brain rehabilitation, but the former improves the rCBF in lesions better than the later does

  16. Design, Synthesis, and Preliminary Evaluation of SPECT Probes for Imaging β-Amyloid in Alzheimer's Disease Affected Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Yuki; Maya, Yoshifumi; Onishi, Takako; Shoyama, Yoshinari; Izawa, Akihiro; Nakamura, Daisaku; Tanifuji, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Akihiro; Arano, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Hiroki

    2018-04-06

    In this study, we synthesized of a series of 2-phenyl- and 2-pyridyl-imidazo[1,2- a]pyridine derivatives and examine their suitability as novel probes for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based imaging of β-amyloid (Aβ). Among the 11 evaluated compounds, 10 showed moderate affinity to Aβ(1-42) aggregates, exhibiting half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of 14.7 ± 6.07-87.6 ± 39.8 nM. In vitro autoradiography indicated that 123 I-labeled triazole-substituted derivatives displayed highly selective binding to Aβ plaques in the hippocampal region of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-affected brain. Moreover, biodistribution studies performed on normal rats demonstrated that all 123 I-labeled probes featured high initial uptake into the brain followed by a rapid washout and were thus well suited for imaging Aβ plaques, with the highest selectivity observed for a 1 H-1,2,3-triazole-substituted 2-pyridyl-imidazopyridine derivative, [ 123 I]ABC577. This compound showed good kinetics in rat brain as well as moderate in vivo stability in rats and is thus a promising SPECT imaging probe for AD in clinical settings.

  17. Creation and evaluation of complementary composite three-dimensional image in various brain diseases. An application of three-dimensional brain SPECT image and three-dimensional CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Shibata, Iekado; Mito, Toshiaki; Sugo, Nobuo

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop 3D composite images for use in functional and anatomical evaluation of various cerebral pathologies. Imaging studies were performed in normal volunteers, patients with hydrocephalus and patients with brain tumor (meningioma and metastatic tumor) using a three-detector SPECT system (Prism 3000) and helical CT scanner (Xvigor). 123 I-IMP was used in normal volunteers and patients with hydrocephalus, and 201 TLCL in patients with brain tumor. An Application Visualization System-Medical Viewer (AVS-MV) was used on a workstation (Titan 2) to generate 3D images. A new program was developed by synthesizing surface rendering and volume rendering techniques. The clinical effects of shunt operations were successfully evaluated in patients with hydrocephalus by means of translucent 3D images of the deep brain. Changes in the hypoperfusion area around the cerebral ventricle were compared with morphological changes in the cerebral ventricle on CT. In addition to the information concerning the characteristics of brain tumors and surrounding edemas, hemodynamic changes and changeable hypoperfusion areas around the tumors were visualized on 3D composite CT and SPECT images. A new method of generating 3D composite images of CT and SPECT was developed by combining graphic data from different systems on the same workstation. Complementary 3D composite images facilitated quantitative analysis of brain volume and functional analysis in various brain diseases. (author)

  18. [Time consumption and quality of an automated fusion tool for SPECT and MRI images of the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, E; Platsch, G; Schwarz, A; Schmiedehausen, K; Tomandl, B; Huk, W; Rupprecht, Th; Rahn, N; Kuwert, T

    2003-10-01

    Although the fusion of images from different modalities may improve diagnostic accuracy, it is rarely used in clinical routine work due to logistic problems. Therefore we evaluated performance and time needed for fusing MRI and SPECT images using a semiautomated dedicated software. PATIENTS, MATERIAL AND METHOD: In 32 patients regional cerebral blood flow was measured using (99m)Tc ethylcystein dimer (ECD) and the three-headed SPECT camera MultiSPECT 3. MRI scans of the brain were performed using either a 0,2 T Open or a 1,5 T Sonata. Twelve of the MRI data sets were acquired using a 3D-T1w MPRAGE sequence, 20 with a 2D acquisition technique and different echo sequences. Image fusion was performed on a Syngo workstation using an entropy minimizing algorithm by an experienced user of the software. The fusion results were classified. We measured the time needed for the automated fusion procedure and in case of need that for manual realignment after automated, but insufficient fusion. The mean time of the automated fusion procedure was 123 s. It was for the 2D significantly shorter than for the 3D MRI datasets. For four of the 2D data sets and two of the 3D data sets an optimal fit was reached using the automated approach. The remaining 26 data sets required manual correction. The sum of the time required for automated fusion and that needed for manual correction averaged 320 s (50-886 s). The fusion of 3D MRI data sets lasted significantly longer than that of the 2D MRI data. The automated fusion tool delivered in 20% an optimal fit, in 80% manual correction was necessary. Nevertheless, each of the 32 SPECT data sets could be merged in less than 15 min with the corresponding MRI data, which seems acceptable for clinical routine use.

  19. Time consumption and quality of an automated fusion tool for SPECT and MRI images of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, E.; Platsch, G.; Schwarz, A.; Schmiedehausen, K.; Kuwert, T.; Tomandl, B.; Huk, W.; Rupprecht, Th.; Rahn, N.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Although the fusion of images from different modalities may improve diagnostic accuracy, it is rarely used in clinical routine work due to logistic problems. Therefore we evaluated performance and time needed for fusing MRI and SPECT images using a semiautomated dedicated software. Patients, material and method: In 32 patients regional cerebral blood flow was measured using 99m Tc ethylcystein dimer (ECD) and the three-headed SPECT camera MultiSPECT 3. MRI scans of the brain were performed using either a 0,2 T Open or a 1,5 T Sonata. Twelve of the MRI data sets were acquired using a 3 D-T1 w MPRAGE sequence, 20 with a 2D acquisition technique and different echo sequences. Image fusion was performed on a Syngo workstation using an entropy minimizing algorithm by an experienced user of the software. The fusion results were classified. We measured the time needed for the automated fusion procedure and in case of need that for manual realignment after automated, but insufficient fusion. Results: The mean time of the automated fusion procedure was 123 s. It was for the 2D significantly shorter than for the 3D MRI datasets. For four of the 2D data sets and two of the 3D data sets an optimal fit was reached using the automated approach. The remaining 26 data sets required manual correction. The sum of the time required for automated fusion and that needed for manual correction averaged 320 s (50-886 s). Conclusion: The fusion of 3D MRI data sets lasted significantly longer than that of the 2D MRI data. The automated fusion tool delivered in 20% an optimal fit, in 80% manual correction was necessary. Nevertheless, each of the 32 SPECT data sets could be merged in less than 15 min with the corresponding MRI data, which seems acceptable for clinical routine use. (orig.) [de

  20. Metabolic imaging using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Junichi; Matsunari, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    In normal condition, the heart obtains more than two-thirds of its energy from the oxidative metabolism of long chain fatty acids, although a wide variety of substrates such as glucose, lactate, ketone bodies and amino acids are also utilised. In ischaemic myocardium, on the other hand, oxidative metabolism of free fatty acid is suppressed and anaerobic glucose metabolism plays a major role in residual oxidative metabolism. Therefore, metabolic imaging can be an important technique for the assessment of various cardiac diseases and conditions. In SPECT, several iodinated fatty acid traces have been introduced and studied. Of these, 123 I-labelled 15-(p-iodophenyl)3-R, S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) has been the most commonly used tracer in clinical studies, especially in some of the European countries and Japan. In this review article, several fatty acid tracers for SPECT are characterised, and the mechanism of uptake and clinical utility of BMIPP are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  1. Does supplementation of contrast MR imaging with thallium-201 brain SPECT improve differentiation between benign and malignant ring-like contrast-enhanced cerebral lesions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Tamotsu; Hayashi, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kawauchi, Toshio; Sakata, Ikuko; Iwasaki, Yoshie; Kosuda, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could supplement magnetic resonance (MR) imaging diagnostic information by visual comparison of two separate data sets from patients with ring-like contrast-enhanced cerebral lesions. A combination of MR imaging and 201 Tl brain SPECT sets obtained from 13 patients (10 men, 3 women) ranging in age from 26 years to 86 years (mean 61.0 years) were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 12 patients had a solitary lesion, and the others had multiple lesions. All but two intracranial foci were pathologically confirmed. The final diagnoses were six glioblastomas, two cerebral metastases from lung cancer, and one each of abscess, resolving hematoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, toxoplasmosis, and radiation necrosis. The two separate image formats (MR images and SPECT) were shown to ten readers with practical experience. All of the MR images for each patient were shown to each reader first. After interpreting them, the readers were shown the SPECT images. Images were scored in terms of how benign or malignant the foci were on a 5-point scale from ''definitely benign'' to ''definitely malignant.'' The improvement in the performance of all ten readers was from 67.7% to 93.8% in mean accuracy (P=0.0028) and from 0.730 to 0.971 in mean Az value (P=0.0069) after they were shown the 201 Tl brain SPECT images. 201 Tl brain SPECT should substantially increase confidence in the diagnosis of intracranial lesions with ring-like contrast enhancement when MR imaging does not permit differentiation between benign and malignant disease. (author)

  2. A clustering model proposal for activity optimization vs. image quality. Application in HMPAO-99mTc brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Diaz, O.; Estevez, E.; Roque, R.; Hernandez, C.

    2008-01-01

    A method based on clustering analysis and image quality discriminant functions is tested over HMPAO- 99m Tc -SPECT images to optimize image quality vs. administered activity to patient. Signal-to-Noise ratios and Signal-to-Background ratios in each transaxial slice were measured over the images and used as image quality objective indexes. They were employed to develop image quality classification using a model of three clusters (k-mean Cluster Technique). The mathematical classification was compared with the subjective image quality evaluation, following expert observer criterion. Linear image quality discrimination was developed using the results of the cluster classification and taking as independent variables: the characteristics of the patients (sex, age and weight) and the radiopharmaceutical (labelling yield and administered activity). The dependent variables in the discriminant functions were the cluster centroids. The objective of this procedure was assigning a statistical weight to each image quality determinant variable for the optimization purpose. The method was applied in 30 brain SPECT images, acquired under different activities (400 MBq, 600 MBq, 800 MBq and 1000 MBq as reference), with a Sopha gamma camera, mean-resolution - general purpose - parallel-hole collimator, acquisition matrix 128 x 128 pixels and reconstruction following Filter - Back - Projection Algorithm. We looked for the minimum activity that guaranty most of the cases classified into the cluster with the best image quality (optimization criterion). The value of 800 MBq was the optimum obtained after application of the above methodology for the technology used. The labelling yield and the weight of the patients were the main parameters which determined image quality in clusters, as well as the processing digital filter used. The reduction in the effective dose, as a consequence of this procedure implementation, was also analysed. (author)

  3. An investigation of head movement with a view to minimising motion artefact during SPECT and PET imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, H.; Clarke, G.H.; Guy, R.; McKay, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Motion artefact has long been recognised as a major cause of image degradation. Single Photon Emission Computerised Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of the brain are playing an important role in the diagnosis and management of several neurological disorders. If these imaging modalities are to contribute fully to medical imaging it is essential that the improved spatial resolution of these systems is not compromised by patient movement. Thirty volunteer subjects have been examined using a simple video technique and the video images were used to classify and measure head movements which may occur during brain imaging. All subjects demonstrated angular movement within the transverse plane or rotation of the head. Angular movement within the sagittal plane or flexion/extension of the neck occurred in 69% of subjects and 72% of subjects exhibited translational movement of the sagittal plane. There was no movement of the coronal plane; nor was there any translational movement of the sagittal plane. These results suggest that when positioning the patient's head for brain imaging a system of head restraint which minimises rotation of the head should be used if image quality is to be maintained

  4. Initial experience with SPECT imaging of the brain using I-123 p-iodoamphetamine in focal epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaManna, M.M.; Sussman, N.M.; Harner, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    Nineteen patients with complex partial seizures refractory to medical treatment were examined with routine electroencephalography (EEG), video EEG monitoring, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological tests and interictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with I-123 iodoamphetamine (INT). In 18 patients, SPECT identified areas of focal reduction in tracer uptake that correlated with the epileptogenic focus identified on the EEG. In addition, SPECT disclosed other areas of neurologic dysfunction as elicited on neuropsychological tests. Thus, IMP SPECT is a useful tool for localizing epileptogenic foci and their associated dynamic deficits

  5. Alzheimer disease: Quantitative analysis of I-123-iodoamphetamine SPECT brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, R.S.; Tikofsky, R.S.; Collier, B.D.; Hoffmann, R.G.; Palmer, D.W.; Glatt, S.L.; Antuono, P.G.; Isitman, A.T.; Papke, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    To enable a more quantitative diagnosis of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT), the authors developed and tested a semiautomated method to define regions of interest (ROIs) to be used in quantitating results from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of regional cerebral blood flow performed with N-isopropyl iodine-123-iodoamphetamine. SPECT/IMP imaging was performed in ten patients with probable SDAT and seven healthy subjects. Multiple ROIs were manually and semiautomatically generated, and uptake was quantitated for each ROI. Mean cortical activity was estimated as the average of the mean activity in 24 semiautomatically generated ROIs; mean cerebellar activity was determined from the mean activity in separate ROIs. A ratio of parietal to cerebellar activity less than 0.60 and a ratio of parietal to mean cortical activity less than 0.90 allowed correct categorization of nine of ten and eight of ten patients, respectively, with SDAT and all control subjects. The degree of diminished mental status observed in patients with SDAT correlated with both global and regional changes in IMP uptake

  6. Mechanism study of recovery from aphasia with 99Tcm-ECD SPECT brain imaging after oral reading test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian; Xu Hao; Wang Hong; Chen Zhuoming; Wu Qiulian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: There may be two mechanisms for recovery from aphasia----repair of dam- aged left hemisphere language network and(or) activation of compensatory areas in right hemisphere. It is, however, still controversial on which mechanism plays a more important role. The goal of this study was to compare the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between baseline and during oral reading in aphasic patients who had shown definite recovery from a focal lesion in left hemisphere. It also aimed at exploring the role of the two hemispheres in recovery from aphasia, thus providing theoretic basis for rehabilitation therapy. Methods: Baseline and oral reading 99 Tc m -ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) brain SPECT imaging were performed in 7 patients with aphasia separately in one-day interval. Semi-quantitative analysis of rCBF was conducted on 26 symmetrical ROIs in bilateral hemispheres on the transverse slices. The rCBF was estimated by the ratio of the counts per pixel of each ROI to the average counts per pixel of the whole encephalon. The change in blood flow was represented by the difference in rCBF between oral reading and baseline. Results: The activated perfusion pattern of brain region was different in all 7 aphasic patients. In 5 of the 7 patients, whose reading capacity were relatively preserved, the brain perfusion pattern was mainly left lateralized, while the other two patients who had poor performance in reading showed bilateral activation foci with fight-sided dominance. Conclusion: Oral reading activated SPECT brain imaging may be a useful tool for monitoring the progress of speech recovery in the treatment of aphasic patients. (authors)

  7. Region of interest evaluation of SPECT image reconstruction methods using a realistic brain phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Weishi; Glick, S.J.; Soares, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    A realistic numerical brain phantom, developed by Zubal et al, was used for a region-of-interest evaluation of the accuracy and noise variance of the following SPECT reconstruction methods: (1) Maximum-Likelihood reconstruction using the Expectation-Maximization (ML-EM) algorithm; (2) an EM algorithm using ordered-subsets (OS-EM); (3) a re-scaled block iterative EM algorithm (RBI-EM); and (4) a filtered backprojection algorithm that uses a combination of the Bellini method for attenuation compensation and an iterative spatial blurring correction method using the frequency-distance principle (FDP). The Zubal phantom was made from segmented MRI slices of the brain, so that neuro-anatomical structures are well defined and indexed. Small regions-of-interest (ROIs) from the white matter, grey matter in the center of the brain and grey matter from the peripheral area of the brain were selected for the evaluation. Photon attenuation and distance-dependent collimator blurring were modeled. Multiple independent noise realizations were generated for two different count levels. The simulation study showed that the ROI bias measured for the EM-based algorithms decreased as the iteration number increased, and that the OS-EM and RBI-EM algorithms (16 and 64 subsets were used) achieved the equivalent accuracy of the ML-EM algorithm at about the same noise variance, with much fewer number of iterations. The Bellini-FDP restoration algorithm converged fast and required less computation per iteration. The ML-EM algorithm had a slightly better ROI bias vs. variance trade-off than the other algorithms

  8. Anything wrong with brain SPECT? Not really

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, D.G.; Davis, G.; Craita, I.; Liu, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Despite increased evidence about the usefulness of Brain SPECT in Neuro-Psychiatry, it continues to represent only a low percentage of Nuclear Medicine procedures. The prevalent perception is that it is an inadequate diagnostic tool, and/or is not changing patient management. There are objective reasons for this, as the lack of awareness by Psychiatrists about the value of SPECT, but most important is the frequently poor quality of images provided. This can be due to inadequate gamma cameras but is mostly due to poor quality software. Materials and Methods: High resolution brain SPECT via triple head gamma camera, super-high resolution fan beam collimator and Tc-HMPAO. A combination of commercial software and local optimization was used for the final displays as well as for realignment of sequential brain SPECT studies. Results: We found out that 6 basic software improvements are needed to generate a final display where features can be clearly distinguished and which can be also easily assimilated by the referring physician. 1) Color scales: simple and efficient tools needed to generate user friendly and semiquantitative color shades as needed. Unfortunately various color scales may be needed depending on printer and paper used. 2): 3 D displays allowing, multiple standardized thresholdings, any number of groupings, differential coloring (with functional meaning) and adequate labeling. Should be completely or at least mostly automatic. 3) Automatic realignment of sequential studies: such programs exist in various forms (free WWW versions, proprietary Beta versions, etc.) but are still not supplied by the gamma camera vendors for general use. Should provide SPECT -SPECT and SPECT MRI options. 4) Localization of structures and slices a) Triangulation of structures and b) Identification of section location. 5) Graphics improvement for generating any number of optimized summary displays to accompany reports. 6) Availability of voxel based quantification software

  9. A preliminary report of 99Tcm-ECD brain SPECT imaging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hao; Tong Yuwei; Luo Jinxiang; Chen Jian; Wu Qiulian

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: 99 Tc m -ECD brain SPECT imaging was performed on 5 patients with AIDS and 16 sex- and age-matched normal controls. The rCBF percentages compared to the cerebellum were calculated using a semi-quantitative processing software. Results: Hypo-perfusions in the right and left frontal, temporal, parietal lobe, basal ganglia and left thalamus were seen in 1 patient with dementia. Hypo-perfusions in the right and left frontal and temporal lobe were seen in 4 patients without dementia. The rCBF in the right and left frontal, temporal, parietal lobe, basal ganglia and thalamus, straight gyri and pons decreased significantly in patients with AIDS than those of the control subjects (P < 0.01). Conclusion: There is reduced cortico-subcortical rCBF in patients with AIDS

  10. 99mTc-bicisate (neurolite) SPECT brain imaging and cognitive impairment in dementia of the Alzheimer type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G; Walovitch, R C; Andersen, A R

    1994-01-01

    of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and to examine the interreader agreement for visual reading of images in a multicenter SPECT study. Images for a total of 86 subjects were available for the blinded read. The images for 28 subjects were rated as noninterpretable due to technical inadequacies. Images for 58 subjects (45...

  11. Application of statistical parametric mapping in PET and SPECT brain functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wanhua

    2002-01-01

    Regional of interest (ROI) is the method regularly used to analyze brain functional imaging. But, due to its obvious shortcomings such as subjectivity and poor reproducibility, precise analyzing the brain function was seriously limited. Therefore, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) as an automatic analyze software was developed based on voxel or pixel to resolve this problem. Using numerous mathematical models, it can be used to statistically assess the whole brain pixel. Present review introduces its main principle, modular composition and practical application. It can be concluded, with development of neuroscience, the SPM software will be used more widely in relative field, like neurobiology, cognition and neuropharmacology

  12. Initial experience with SPECT imaging of the brain using I-123 p-iodoamphetamine in focal epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Manna, M.M.; Sussman, N.M.; Harner, R.N.; Kaplan, L.R.; Hershey, B.L.; Bernstein, D.R.; Parker, J.A.; Wolodzko, J.G.; Popky, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with complex partial seizures refractory to medical treatment were examined with routine electroencephalography (EEG), closed-circuit television EEG (CCTV-EEG), CT and MR imaging, neuropsychological tests, and interictal single photon emission CT with I-123 rho-iodoamphetamine (IMP SPECT). In three patients CT and MR imaging results correlated with the epileptogenic foci as identified on CCTV-EEG. In 21 patients SPECT identified areas of focal reduction in tracer uptake that correlated with the epileptogenic focus identified on CCTV-EEG. In addition, SPECT disclosed other areas of neurologic dysfunction as elicited on neuropsychological tests. Thus, IMP SPECT is a useful tool for localizing epileptogenic foci and their associated dynamic deficits

  13. SPECT brain imaging with N-isopropyl [123I]-p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, B.L.; Hill, T.C.; Magistretti, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    N-isopropyl-[ 123 I]-p-iodoamphetamine is a lipophilic tracer that passes readily across the blood-brain barrier and is retained long enough to permit planar and tomographic imaging. Its distribution in the brain is proportional to blood flow, and its brain concentration remains unchanged between 30 min and 1 hr after intravenous injection. Tomographic imaging demonstrates increased activity in the gray matter, basal ganglia, and thalamus as would be expected with a cerebral perfusion tracer. In patients with acute cerebral infarction, decreased perfusion occurs immediately with the onset of symptoms. The technique also has utility in epilepsy in defining the abnormal focus in patients with medically intractable temporal-lobe epilepsy. This technique should prove to be a routine nuclear medicine procedure for the evaluation of cerebral perfusion

  14. SPECT imaging with the serotonin transporter radiotracer [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT in nonhuman primate brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosgrove, Kelly P., E-mail: kelly.cosgrove@yale.ed [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Staley, Julie K.; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Bois, Frederic [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Plisson, Christophe [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S. [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Seibyl, John P. [Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Goodman, Mark M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Tamagnan, Gilles D. [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: Serotonin dysfunction has been linked to a variety of psychiatric diseases; however, an adequate SPECT radioligand to probe the serotonin transporter system has not been successfully developed. The purpose of this study was to characterize and determine the in vivo selectivity of iodine-123-labeled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane, [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT, in nonhuman primate brain. Methods: Two ovariohysterectomized female baboons participated in nine studies (one bolus and eight bolus to constant infusion at a ratio of 9.0 h) to evaluate [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT. To evaluate the selectivity of [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT, the serotonin transporter blockers fenfluramine (1.5, 2.5 mg/kg) and citalopram (5 mg/kg), the dopamine transporter blocker methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg) and the norepinephrine transporter blocker nisoxetine (1 mg/kg) were given at 8 h post-radiotracer injection. Results: In the bolus to constant infusion studies, equilibrium was established by 4-8 h. [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT was 93% and 90% protein bound in the two baboons and there was no detection of lipophilic radiolabeled metabolites entering the brain. In the high-density serotonin transporter regions (diencephalon and brainstem), fenfluramine and citalopram resulted in 35-71% and 129-151% displacement, respectively, whereas methylphenidate and nisoxetine did not produce significant changes (<10%). Conclusion: These findings suggest that [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT is a favorable compound for in vivo SPECT imaging of serotonin transporters with negligible binding to norepinephrine and dopamine transporters.

  15. Technetium-99m p-iodophenethyldiaminodithiol (DADT-IPE): potential brain perfusion imaging agent for SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, K.; Mori, H.; Matsuda, H.; Hisada, K.

    1992-01-01

    A new ligand, an N-p-iodophenethyl diaminodithiol (DADT-IPE), an analog of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP), was synthesized and subsequently complexed with 99m Tc, using stannous chloride as a reducing agent. Two complexes (a and b) were separated from 99m Tc-DADT-IPE by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Competitive inhibition studies showed that the IC 50 value of DADT-IPE (70 μM) was similar to that of IMP (49 μM). Biodistribution studies of one of the complexes [ 99m Tc-DADT-IPE(a)] in rats showed that 0.65% of the injected dose of the tracer remained in the brain at 5 min after intravenous injection, with 0.53% of the dose remaining in the brain at 60 min post-injection, whereas the corresponding values for the other complex [ 99m Tc-DADT-IPE(b)] were 0.34% dose in the brain at 5 min and 0.28% dose in the brain at 60 min post-injection. The half-life for clearance of 99m Tc-DADT-IPE(a) from rat brain was found to be more than 5h. These results suggested that 99m Tc-DADT-IPE(a) has characteristics which are suitable for cerebral perfusion imaging. (author)

  16. SP-ECT imaging and its physical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Fujimi

    1983-01-01

    Recently, more than a hundred hospitals are provided with SPECT system for clinical examination in Japan. However, a standardization of measuring method and performance test of the systems is ont yet made. We have been studying some basic problems of SPECT system with special phantoms originaly designed by ourselves. We got a conclusion that a standardized phantom is necessary for comparing performances between SPECT systems. In clinical experiences with 3,332 cases, we think that SPECT image combined with conventional image presents much more informations for accurate diagnosis, especially in brain, bone and tumor imagings. Synthesized image of SPECT and XCT, double tracer image and transmission image are useful to visualize the body contour and the clinical diagnosis. (author)

  17. Crosstalk correction for simultaneous acquisition imaging by Tc-99m and I-123 in brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Lee, D. S.; Jung, J. K.; Lee, M. C.; Baek, M. Y.; Shin, S. A.

    1999-01-01

    We tend to separate a single isotope image in simultaneous acquisition image at different spatially distribution of dual isotope. Using the brain phantom to be separate two region with 2:1 ratio, each region filled with Tc-99m (140 keV) 185 MBq (1.5 mCi) and I-123 (159 keV) 55.5 MBq (1.5 mCi). We consider that Tc-99m exists in I-123 region, so inject 74 MBq Tc-99m on that region. For 10 % symmetrical energy windows centered on the Tc-99m and I-123 photopeaks we evaluate the crosstalk effects. That equation express as A140 Tcpp + KitIpp and A159 = KtiTcpp + Ipp. We acquired increase value comparable with naive value by the crosstalk. Then estimate crosstalk fraction, we can separate correction image. Through the experiment Kti and Kit are 0.38 and 0.29. Applying these values to Tc-99m energy window and I-123 window, we conclude that this method is able to separate images of each isotope. It is useful to investigate crosstalk contribution for other combinations of isotope

  18. SPECT imaging with resolution recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronnikov, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a method of choice for imaging spatial distributions of radioisotopes. Many applications of this method are found in nuclear industry, medicine, and biomedical research. We study mathematical modeling of a micro-SPECT system by using a point-spread function (PSF) and implement an OSEM-based iterative algorithm for image reconstruction with resolution recovery. Unlike other known implementations of the OSEM algorithm, we apply en efficient computation scheme based on a useful approximation of the PSF, which ensures relatively fast computations. The proposed approach can be applied with the data acquired with any type of collimators, including parallel-beam fan-beam, cone-beam and pinhole collimators. Experimental results obtained with a micro SPECT system demonstrate high efficiency of resolution recovery. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of epileptogenic focus in temporal lobe: correlation between ictal brain SPECT, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Avaliacao de foco epileptogenico do lobo temporal: correlacao entre SPECT ictal, ressonancia magnetica e ressonancia magnetica com espectroscopia de protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegues, Maria Elena Martins [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: emartyns@terra.com.br; Pellini, Marcos Pinto; Alves-Leon, Soniza Vieira [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Domingues, Romeu Cortes [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of concordance between radiological and radioisotopic methods and, if positive, to evaluate the usefulness of ictal SPECT in the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Ictal brain SPECT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were performed on six patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT was performed after withdrawal of the anti-epileptogenic drugs during video-EEG monitoring, using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD, administered to patients at the time of the ictus. MRI was performed in T1, T2 and FLAIR sequences and MRS was obtained using the PRESS technique, with a single voxel positioned in both hippocampi. The statistical analysis included the determination of the values of Kappa (k), standard error (se) and significance level (p) for the lateralization of the ictal focus. The analysis of all findings was based on EEG localization of the ictal discharge, seizure duration (109-280 s; 152 s average) and time of radiotracer injection (30-262 s; 96 s average). We obtained correlated data in four patients (67 per cent) and values of k = 0.67, se = 0.38, and p 0.041. We concluded that there is a concordance between ictal SPECT, MRI and MRS data and the usefulness of the radioisotopic procedure is related to a non diagnostic EEG and when there is a discordant or misleading diagnosis after a comparative analysis of EEG and MRS. (author)

  20. Computer-assisted superimposition of magnetic resonance and high-resolution technetium-99m-HMPAO and thallium-201 SPECT images of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, B.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Johnson, K.A.; Carvalho, P.A.; Schwartz, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Chen, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    A method for registering three-dimensional CT, MR, and PET data sets that require no special patient immobilization or other precise positioning measures was adapted to high-resolution SPECT and MRI and was applied in 14 subjects [five normal volunteers, four patients with dementia (Alzheimer's disease), two patients with recurrent glioblastoma, and three patients with focal lesions (stroke, arachnoid cyst and head trauma)]. T2-weighted axial magnetic resonance images and transaxial 99mTc-HMPAO and 201Tl images acquired with an annular gamma camera were merged using an objective registration (translation, rotation and rescaling) program. In the normal subjects and patients with dementia and focal lesions, focal areas of high uptake corresponded to gray matter structures. Focal lesions observed on MRI corresponded to perfusion defects on SPECT. In the patients who had undergone surgical resection of glioblastoma followed by interstitial brachytherapy, increased 201Tl corresponding to recurrent tumor could be localized from the superimposed images. The method was evaluated by measuring the residuals in all subjects and translational errors due to superimposition of deep structures in the 12 subjects with normal thalamic anatomy and 99mTc-HMPAO uptake. This method for superimposing magnetic resonance and high-resolution SPECT images of the brain is a useful technique for correlating regional function with brain anatomy

  1. Anatomically standardized statistical mapping of 123I-IMP SPECT in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Yasushi; Akimoto, Manabu; Matsushita, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Takano, Shingo; Matsumura, Akira

    2010-01-01

    123 I-iodoamphetamine Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (IMP SPECT) is used to evaluate cerebral blood flow. However, application of IMP SPECT to patients with brain tumors has been rarely reported. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare tumor that shows delayed IMP uptake. The relatively low spatial resolution of SPECT is a clinical problem in diagnosing brain tumors. We examined anatomically standardized statistical mapping of IMP SPECT in patients with brain lesions. This study included 49 IMP SPECT images for 49 patients with brain lesions: 20 PCNSL, 1 Burkitt's lymphoma, 14 glioma, 4 other tumor, 7 inflammatory disease and 3 without any pathological diagnosis but a clinical diagnosis of PCNSL. After intravenous injection of 222 MBq of 123 I-IMP, early (15 minutes) and delayed (4 hours) images were acquired using a multi-detector SPECT machine. All SPECT data were transferred to a newly developed software program iNeurostat+ (Nihon Medi-physics). SPECT data were anatomically standardized on normal brain images. Regions of increased uptake of IMP were statistically mapped on the tomographic images of normal brain. Eighteen patients showed high uptake in the delayed IMP SPECT images (16 PCNSL, 2 unknown). Other tumor or diseases did not show high uptake of delayed IMP SPECT, so there were no false positives. Four patients with pathologically proven PCNSL showed no uptake in original IMP SPECT. These tumors were too small to detect in IMP SPECT. However, statistical mapping revealed IMP uptake in 18 of 20 pathologically verified PCNSL patients. A heterogeneous IMP uptake was seen in homogenous tumors in MRI. For patients with a hot IMP uptake, statistical mapping showed clearer uptake. IMP SPECT is a sensitive test to diagnose of PCNSL, although it produced false negative results for small posterior fossa tumor. Anatomically standardized statistical mapping is therefore considered to be a useful method for improving the diagnostic

  2. Surface and volume three-dimensional displays of Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT images in stroke patients with three-head gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.J.; Slevin, J.T.; Schleenbaker, R.E.; Mills, B.J.; Magoun, S.L.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates volume and surface 3D displays in Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT imaging in stroke patients. Using a triple-head gamma camera interfaced with a 64-bit supercomputer, 20 patients with stroke were studied. Each patient was imaged 30-60 minutes after an intravenous injection of 20 mCi of Tc-99m HMPAO. SPECT images as well as planar images were routinely obtained; volume and surface 3D display then proceeded, with the process requiring 5-10 minutes. Volume and surface 3D displays show the brain from all angles; thus the location and extension of lesion(s) in the brain are much easier to appreciate. While a cerebral lesion(s) was more clearly delineated by surface 3D imaging, crossed cerebellar diaschisis in seven patients was clearly exhibited with volume 3D but not with surface 3D imaging. Volume and surface 3D displays enhance continuity of structures and understanding of spatial relationships

  3. 5-HT radioligands for human brain imaging with PET and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, Louise M; Kornum, Birgitte R; Nutt, David J

    2013-01-01

    The serotonergic system plays a key modulatory role in the brain and is the target for many drug treatments for brain disorders either through reuptake blockade or via interactions at the 14 subtypes of 5-HT receptors. This review provides the history and current status of radioligands used...

  4. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semah, F.

    2007-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging are very useful for the management of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy. Presurgical evaluation of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy often included PET imaging using FDG. The use of SPECT in these patients adds some more information and gives the clinicians the possibility of having ictal imaging. Furthermore, PET and SPECT imaging are performed to better understand the pathophysiology of epilepsy. (authors)

  5. Brain SPECT in severs traumatic head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, F.; Eder, V.; Pottier, J.M.; Baulieu, J.L.; Fournier, P.; Legros, B.; Chiaroni, P.; Dalonneau, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the results of the early brain scintigraphy in traumatic brain injury to the long term neuropsychological behavior. Twenty four patients had an ECD-Tc99m SPECT, within one month after the trauma; scintigraphic abnormalities were evaluated according to a semi-quantitative analysis. The neuropsychological clinical investigation was interpreted by a synthetic approach to evaluate abnormalities related to residual motor deficit, frontal behavior, memory and language disorders. Fourteen patients (58%) had sequela symptoms. SPECT revealed 80 abnormalities and CT scan only 31. Statistical analysis of uptake values showed significantly lower uptake in left basal ganglia and brain stem in patients with sequela memory disorders. We conclude that the brain perfusion scintigraphy is able to detect more lesions than CT and that it could really help to predict the neuropsychological behavior after severe head injury. Traumatology could become in the future a widely accepted indication of perfusion SPECT. (authors)

  6. Effect of cyclosporin A administration on the biodistribution and multipinhole {mu}SPECT imaging of [{sup 123}I]R91150 in rodent brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanckaert, P.; Burvenich, I.; Bruyne, S. de; Moerman, L.; Wyffels, L.; Vos, F. de [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Gent (Belgium); Staelens, S. [Ghent University - IBBT, MEDISIP, Faculty of Engineering, Gent (Belgium)

    2009-03-15

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an efflux protein found amongst other locations in the blood-brain barrier. It is important to investigate the effect of Pgp modulation on clinically used brain tracers, because brain uptake of the tracer can be altered by blocking of the Pgp efflux transporter. The function of Pgp can be blocked with cyclosporin A. We investigated the effect of cyclosporin A administration on the biodistribution of [{sup 123}I]R91150 in rodents, and the effect of Pgp blocking on the quality of multipinhole {mu}SPECT imaging with [{sup 123}I]R91150. The influence of increasing doses of cyclosporin A on the brain uptake of [{sup 123}I]R91150 was investigated in NMRI mice. A biodistribution study with [{sup 123}I]R91150 was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats pretreated with cyclosporin A and not pretreated. Brain uptake of [{sup 123}I]R91150 after cyclosporin A injection was compared to the brain uptake in untreated animals, and a displacement study with ketanserin was performed in both groups. A multipinhole {mu}SPECT brain imaging study was also performed using a Milabs U-SPECT-II camera in male Sprague-Dawley rats. To exclude the effect of possible metabolites, a metabolite study was also performed. At the highest cyclosporin A dose (50 mg/kg), a sevenfold increase in brain radioactivity concentration was observed in NMRI mice. Also, a dose-response relationship was established between the dose of cyclosporin A and the brain uptake of [{sup 123}I]R91150 in mice. Compared to the control group, a five-fold increase in [{sup 123}I]R91150 radioactivity concentration was observed in the brain of Sprague-Dawley rats after cyclosporin A treatment (50 mg/kg). Radioactivity concentration in the frontal cortex increased from 0.24{+-}0.0092 to 1.58{+-}0.097% injected dose per gram of tissue after treatment with cyclosporin A (at the 1-h time-point). Blood radioactivity concentrations did not increase to the same extent. The cortical activity was displaced by

  7. SPECT for smokers brain perfusion evaluation; SPECT para avaliacao da perfusao cerebral em fumantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliska, C.M.; Martins, E.F.; Barros, D.S.; Lopes, M.M.S.; Lourenco, C.; Goncalves, S.; Goncalves, M.B.; Miranda, M.M.B.G.; Neto, L.M.; Penque, E.; Antonucci, J.B. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Cigarette smoking increases brain stroke risk, however,five to fifteen years after ceasing this habit, brain perfusion recovers normal pattern. We propose to compare brain perfusion patterns performing brain SPECT scans of smokers and non-smokers. Thirteen volunteers age range 20-30 years old) composed of six non-smokers and seven smokers were studied by brain scans (SPECT).We used ECD- {sup 99m} Tc radiolabelled as recommended by the manufacturer. All patients received 740 MBq of the radiopharmaceutical through intravenous injection, with their eyes opened and their ears unplugged, in a quiet room. We used a one head SPECT camera ( General Electric/ StarCam 4000 and Siemens/ E.Cam) with low-energy ultrahigh resolution collimator. Imaging begin 40 minutes after tracer injection. For reconstruction we used a Butterworth filter.The preliminary results showed brain perfusion deficit areas on five of the smokers while all non- smokers had normal brain perfusion scans. We believe that smoking increases the possibility of brain perfusion deficits. (author)

  8. Role of brain SPECT in epilepsy exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biraben, A.; Bernard, AM.

    1996-01-01

    The management of epileptic patients is currently developing in relation with the introduction of video EEG and the opening of medical centers dedicated to epilepsy. The role of SPECT is now well established to assess the temporal and spatial dynamic phenomena during seizures. Ictal SPECT has technical and organisational requirements but is a very sensitive method, which appears to be superior to other available imaging techniques. (author)

  9. SPECT imaging of dopamine and serotonin transporters with [[sup 123]I][beta]-CIT. Binding kinetics in the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruecke, T; Asenbaum, S; Frassine, H; Podreka, I [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Neurologische Klinik; Kornhuber, J [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany); Angelberger, P [Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf GmbH (Austria)

    1993-01-01

    Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) studies in non-human primates have previously shown that the cocaine derivative [[sup 123]I]-2-[beta]-carbomethoxy-3-[beta]-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane ([[sup 123]I][beta]-CIT) labels dopamine transporters in the striatum and serotonin transporters in the hypothalamus-midbrain area. Here, we report on the regional kinetic uptake of [[sup 123]I][beta]-CIT in the brain of 4 normal volunteers and 2 patients with Parkinson's disease. In healthy subjects striatal activity increased slowly to reach peak values at about 20 hours post injection. In the hypothalamus-midbrain area peak activities were observed at about 4 hours with a slow decrease thereafter. Low activity was observed in cortical and cerebellar areas. The striatal to cerebellar ratio was about 4 after 5 hours and 9 after 20 hours. In 2 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease striatal activity was markedly decreased while the activity in hypothalamus-midbrain areas was only diminished. Uptake into cortical and cerebellar areas appeared to be unchanged in Parkinson's disease. Consequently, in Parkinson's disease the striatal to cerebellar ratio was decreased to values around 2.5 after 20 hours. These preliminary methodological studies suggest that [[sup 123]I][beta]-CIT is a useful SPECT ligand for studying dopamine and possibly also serotonin transporters in the living human brain.

  10. Quantification of brain perfusion SPECT with N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine using noninvasive microsphere method. Estimation of arterial input by dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Sugihara, Hideki; Taniguchi, Yoshimitsu; Aoki, Etsuo; Furuichi, Kenji; Miyazaki, Yoshiharu.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a noninvasive method to quantify brain perfusion SPECT with 123 I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) using serial dynamic planar imaging of the initial transit phase. The method is based on the microsphere model, but does not require arterial sampling. Serial dynamic planar imaging was performed for 6 min after the bolus injection of IMP (167 MBq in 1.5 ml), followed by additional planar imaging at 20 min and SPECT scan thereafter. The total arterial input to the brain during the initial 5 min after injection was estimated by the injected dose, with the correction of the lung retention, divided by cardiac output (CO). CO was estimated from the initial transit of IMP in the right heart. Cardiac output index (COI), obtained from the integral of the first transit of IMP in the right heart divided by the injected dose, was calibrated by CO measured by Doppler ultrasonography. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) obtained by this method in normal subjects was acceptable. However, the results may be influenced by the injection technique, and careful attention should be considered for clinical application of this method. (author)

  11. Molecular imaging agents for SPECT (and SPECT/CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Ballinger, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The development of hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) cameras has increased the diagnostic value of many existing single photon radiopharmaceuticals. Precise anatomical localization of lesions greatly increases diagnostic confidence in bone imaging of the extremities, infection imaging, sentinel lymph node localization, and imaging in other areas. Accurate anatomical localization is particularly important prior to surgery, especially involving the parathyroid glands and sentinel lymph node procedures. SPECT/CT plays a role in characterization of lesions, particularly in bone scintigraphy and radioiodine imaging of metastatic thyroid cancer. In the development of novel tracers, SPECT/CT is particularly important in monitoring response to therapies that do not result in an early change in lesion size. Preclinical SPECT/CT devices, which actually have spatial resolution superior to PET/CT devices, have become essential in characterization of the biodistribution and tissue kinetics of novel tracers, allowing coregistration of serial studies within the same animals, which serves both to reduce biological variability and reduce the number of animals required. In conclusion, SPECT/CT increases the utility of existing radiopharmaceuticals and plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of novel tracers. (orig.)

  12. Molecular imaging agents for SPECT (and SPECT/CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanasegaran, Gopinath [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Ballinger, James R. [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    The development of hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) cameras has increased the diagnostic value of many existing single photon radiopharmaceuticals. Precise anatomical localization of lesions greatly increases diagnostic confidence in bone imaging of the extremities, infection imaging, sentinel lymph node localization, and imaging in other areas. Accurate anatomical localization is particularly important prior to surgery, especially involving the parathyroid glands and sentinel lymph node procedures. SPECT/CT plays a role in characterization of lesions, particularly in bone scintigraphy and radioiodine imaging of metastatic thyroid cancer. In the development of novel tracers, SPECT/CT is particularly important in monitoring response to therapies that do not result in an early change in lesion size. Preclinical SPECT/CT devices, which actually have spatial resolution superior to PET/CT devices, have become essential in characterization of the biodistribution and tissue kinetics of novel tracers, allowing coregistration of serial studies within the same animals, which serves both to reduce biological variability and reduce the number of animals required. In conclusion, SPECT/CT increases the utility of existing radiopharmaceuticals and plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of novel tracers. (orig.)

  13. The Aomori Prefecture Brain Blood Flow SPECT Phantom Study (First information). Comparison between reference image and each facility to aim at grasp of the situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Makihito; Narita, Kazuo; Terayama, Yoshio; Kudou, Sukehiro

    2008-01-01

    As the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image has rather big between-facility and -machine differences, a questionnaire was done to 18 SPECT facilities in Aomori Prefecture in May, 03, 15 of which answered, for the purpose of standardization of the brain blood flow images in the prefecture. The questionnaire concerned the condition of data collection, image display and reconstruction, and quantitative analysis, based on whose results the Phantom Study was then conducted to see the relationship between the average count and Butterworth filter (BWF) cut-off value by comparison of reference and facilities' images. The gamma camera PRISM 200XP, processor Odyssey Fx and low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimator were used for the reference image with collection matrix 128 x 128, 3.5 mm pixel size, Ramp reconstruction filter, Chang decay correction (coefficient μ=0.09) and null scattering correction. Used was the Hoffman phantom containing 30-37 MBq of 99m Tc or 8-18 MBq of 123 I. It was found that the fluctuation of cut-off values became small depending on the increase of count and the collection count was low for both nuclides in those facilities, and thus further study of the measure for increasing the collection count was thought necessary. (R.T.)

  14. Imaging of mild traumatic brain injury using 57Co and 99mTc HMPAO SPECT as compared to other diagnostic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenaert, Kurt; Jansen, Hugo M L; Otte, Andreas; Peremans, Kathelijne; Vervaet, Myriam; Crombez, Roger; de Ridder, Leo; van Heeringen, Cees; Thirot, Joel; Dierckx, Rudi; Korf, Jaap

    2003-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is usually assessed with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), CT and EEG. TBI can result from either the primary mechanical impact or secondary (ischemic) brain damage, in which calcium (Ca) plays a pivotal role. This study was undertaken to compare the applicability of SPECT using 57Co as a Ca-tracer in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. 8 patients with mild TBI (GCS 15) were clinically examined and studied with EEG, neuropsychological testing (NPT) and SPECT within 2 days post-TBI. After i.v.-administration of 37 MBq (1 mCi) 57Co (effective radiation dose 0.34 mSv x MBq(-1); 1.24 rem x mCi(-1); physical half-life 270 days, biological half-life 37.6 h), single-headed SPECT (12 h pi) was performed, consecutively followed by standard 925 MBq (25 mCi) Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. In 6 of the 8 patients, baseline NPT and SPECT showed focal abnormalities in the affected frontal and temporal brain regions, which were in good topographical accordance. CT and EEG did not detect (structural) lesions in any of these cases. Single-headed 57Co-SPECT is able to show the site and extent of brain damage in patients with mild TBI, even in the absence of structural lesions. It may confirm and localize NPT findings. The predictive value of 57Co-SPECT should be assessed in larger patient series.

  15. A comparative study of surface- and volume-based techniques for the automatic registration between CT and SPECT brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagadis, George C.; Delibasis, Konstantinos K.; Matsopoulos, George K.; Mouravliansky, Nikolaos A.; Asvestas, Pantelis A.; Nikiforidis, George C.

    2002-01-01

    Image registration of multimodality images is an essential task in numerous applications in three-dimensional medical image processing. Medical diagnosis can benefit from the complementary information in different modality images. Surface-based registration techniques, while still widely used, were succeeded by volume-based registration algorithms that appear to be theoretically advantageous in terms of reliability and accuracy. Several applications of such algorithms for the registration of CT-MRI, CT-PET, MRI-PET, and SPECT-MRI images have emerged in the literature, using local optimization techniques for the matching of images. Our purpose in this work is the development of automatic techniques for the registration of real CT and SPECT images, based on either surface- or volume-based algorithms. Optimization is achieved using genetic algorithms that are known for their robustness. The two techniques are compared against a well-established method, the Iterative Closest Point--ICP. The correlation coefficient was employed as an independent measure of spatial match, to produce unbiased results. The repeated measures ANOVA indicates the significant impact of the choice of registration method on the magnitude of the correlation (F=4.968, p=0.0396). The volume-based method achieves an average correlation coefficient value of 0.454 with a standard deviation of 0.0395, as opposed to an average of 0.380 with a standard deviation of 0.0603 achieved by the surface-based method and an average of 0.396 with a standard deviation equal to 0.0353 achieved by ICP. The volume-based technique performs significantly better compared to both ICP (p<0.05, Neuman Keuls test) and the surface-based technique (p<0.05, Neuman-Keuls test). Surface-based registration and ICP do not differ significantly in performance

  16. Clinical significance of I-123 IMP brain SPECT in children with brain diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takishima, Teruo; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Noriko

    1990-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain using N-isopropyl p-I-123-iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) was performed in 43 children with suspected brain diseases. Forty-three children (25 males and 18 females), with an age range of 24 days-15 years (mean: 6.6 years), were included in the study. Six patients were subsequently diagnosed as normal. Early SPECT of the brain was performed 30 minutes after intravenous administration of 74-111 MBq (2-3 mCi) I-123 IMP using a rotating gamma camera equipped with a 30-degree slant hole and medium energy collimator. Transverse images were reconstructed by Shepp-Logan filtered back projection method with attenuation correction after spatial filtering using an 8th order Butterworth-Wiener filter. Findings of I-123 IMP SPECT were compared with those of X-ray computed tomography (CT) and electroencephalography (EEG). The results showed that in I-123 IMP SPECT, abnormality was found in 30 out of 37 children with brain diseases. The incidence of abnormal findings in the 37 patients was 81% in I-123 IMP SPECT, 61% in X-ray CT, and 78% in EEG; in both cryptogenic and secondary epilepsy, the incidence of abnormality was higher in I-123 IMP SPECT than in X-ray CT. (70% and 94% vs 50% and 81% respectively), and epileptic foci detected by EEG did not correspond with defects found using I-123 IMP SPECT in 27% of the patients; and in asphyxiated infants, a high incidence of abnormality was observed on both I-123 IMP SPECT (86%) and X-ray CT (86%). In conclusion, I-123 IMP SPECT is a clinically useful examination in children with brain disease. (author)

  17. Brain SPECT in childhood; Temp cerebrale chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquart, F; Saliba, E; Prunier, C; Baulieu, F; Besnard, J C; Guilloteau, D; Baulieu, J L [Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Unite Inserm 316, 37 - Tours (France)

    2001-04-01

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  18. A correlation of clinical, MRI and brain SPECT in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, S.; Indirani, M.; Gokhale, S.; Anirudhan, N.; Sivakumar, M.R.; Jaganathan, K.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterised by acquired impairment in multiple neuropsycologic and behavior domains including memory, language, speech, visuospatial ability, cognition and mood/personality. Dementia produces deficits in perfusion reflecting decreased metabolic needs. Neuroimaging techniques help in determining whether the cognitive symptoms are organic and in which pattern of cognitive loss the patient may evolve. AIM: To differentiate various types of Dementia, based on the regional perfusion abnormalities seen in Brain SPECT and correlate this with Clinical and MRI findings. Material and methods: Patients suffering from memory impairment and memory loss were referred to our department for Brain SPECT as a part of work up for Dementia. They had undergone a detailed clinical examination, psychometry, mini mental status examination (MMSE), memory/cognitive testing and an MRI. Brain SPECT was done after injecting Tc 99m ECD (Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer ) and imaging after 45 minutes. The images obtained were reconstructed in a conventional way. The various patterns of perfusion abnormalities seen in the SPECT images was studied and correlated with MRI and clinical findings. The patients were thus classified as having Multi Infarct Dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Fronto-Temporal Dementia and Mixed variety. Results: Twenty One Patients were included in our study from February 2003 to February 2004. The mean age of the patients was 73 years ( 37 to 81). 15 were males and 6 were females. Out of 21 patients, 12 had Multi Infarct Dementia, 4 had Alzheimer's disease, 1 had Fronto- Temporal Dementia and 4 had Mixed variety. Conclusion: Brain SPECT aids in substantiating the clinical findings and in correlation with MRI helps in distinguishing various types of Dementia and thus has prognostic implications and helps in instituting early appropriate treatment to the patient. In our study, the majority of the patients have Multi Infarct Dementia

  19. Neuronal imaging using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Yamazaki, Jun-ichi

    2007-01-01

    123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy is one of only a few methods available for objective evaluation of cardiac sympathetic function at the clinical level. Disorders of cardiac sympathetic function play an important role in various heart diseases, and MIBG provides an abundance of useful information for the evaluation of severity, prognosis and therapeutic effects; this is particularly useful in cases of heart failure, ischaemic heart disease and arrhythmic disease. On the other hand, the quantitative indices for MIBG differ between institutions, and evidence has not been sufficiently well established for MIBG scintigraphy when compared with myocardial perfusion imaging in ischaemic heart diseases. In consideration of these difficulties, this review provides fundamental information regarding MIBG, its usefulness for various diseases and future difficulties. (orig.)

  20. Neuronal imaging using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Yamazaki, Jun-ichi

    2007-01-01

    123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy is one of only a few methods available for objective evaluation of cardiac sympathetic function at a clinical level. Disorders in cardiac sympathetic function play an important role in various heart diseases, and MIBG provides an abundance of useful information for evaluation of disease severity, prognosis, and therapeutic effects; this information is of particular value in patients with heart failure, ischemic heart diseases, or arrhythmic disorders. On the other hand, the quantitative indices for MIBG differ between institutions, and evidence has not been sufficiently well established for MIBG, compared with myocardial perfusion imaging, in ischemic heart diseases. In view of these difficulties, this review provides fundamental information regarding MIBG, its usefulness for various diseases and future difficulties. (orig.)

  1. Brain pertechnetate SPECT in perinatal asphyxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfakianakis, G.; Curless, R.; Goldberg, R.; Clarke, L.; Saw, C.; Sfakianakis, E.; Bloom, F.; Bauer, C.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography of the brain was performed in 6 patients with perinatal asphyxis aged 8-26 days. A single-head (LFOV) commercial SPECT system (Picker) was used and data were acquired 2-3 hr after an IV injection of 1-2 mCi Tc-99m-pertechnetate (360/sup 0/ rotation, 60 views, 64 x 64 matrix, 50K cts/view). Reconstruction in three planes was performed using MDS software (Hanning medium resolution filter, with or without attenuation correction using Sorenson's technique). For each clinical study, a ring type phantom source was used to identify the level of reconstruction noise in the tomographic planes. Abnormalities were found in all patients studied, 3 central (moderate intensity), 2 peripheral (1 severe, 1 moderate) and 1 diffuse (mild intensity). Despite use of oral perchlorate (50 mg) in one patient the choroid plexus was visible. Since attenuation correction tended to amplify noise, the clinical studies were interpreted both with and without this correction. All 3 patients with central lesions were found abnormal on early (1-4 mo) neurologic follow-up examination, whereas the others were normal. No correlation was found between SPECT and 24 hr blood levels of CPK, ammonia, base excess, or the Apgar scores. Ct scans were reported abnormal (3 diffuse, 1 peripheral, 1 central and 1 questionable). Planar scintigrams obtained immediately after SPECT were normal (2), questionable (2) and abnormal (2). Follow-up SPECT brain scintigrams in two of the patients showed partial resolution. SPECT of the brain appears promising in perinatal asphyxia but long-term correlation with patient development is necessary.

  2. [99mTc]/[123I] Simultaneous dual-isotope brain striatum phantom SPECT study: preparing for simultaneous [99mTc]TRODAT-1/[123I]-IBZM pre- and post-synaptic dopamine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, PF; Hsu, HT; Tzen, KY; Wey, SP

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The brain dopamine transporters (DAT) and dopamine D2 receptors are implicated in all kinds of movement disorders. Both sites are also targets for drug treatment, Therefore, brain dopamine system is important in both basic and clinical neurological researches. Kung HF et al. developed [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-l for DAT and [ 123 I]IBZM for D2 receptor SPECT imaging in living human brain. In this work, the possibility of doing [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1/[ 123 I]IBZM simultaneous dual-isotope SPECT for both DAT/D2 receptor imaging was studied. The SPECT acquisition protocol, the percent of 99m Tc/ 123 I energy cross contamination, and the reproducibility of striatal /background ratios were studied with a striatal phantom to confirm the accuracy of 99m Tc/ 123 I dual-isotope simultaneous SPECT technique. Materials and Methods: In each set of experiment, the 4 striatum (target) chambers and the rest of the brain (background) were filled with solutions containing 99m Tc only, 123 I only, and both isotopes. Several sets of experiment with different target/background ratios were tested. For SPECT image acquisition, a triple-head gamma camera equipp with high resolution fan-beam collimators (Siemens Multi-SPECT3). Energy window settings of a 15% centered window at 140KeV for 99m Tc and a 10% asymmetric window with a lower bound at 159KeV for 123 I were used. After filtered backprojection and Chang's attenuation correction, regions of interest were defined at the bilateral basal ganglia and occipital areas. The reproducibility of counting activity and the different target/background ratios from each isotope were observed. Results: The results of the study revealed that the energy crossed contaminations from I-123 into Tc- 99m and vice verse were 22±12.4 % and 0.4±1.0 %, respectively. The correlation of striatum/background ratios between single isotope and simultaneous was excellent (R2 = 0.99). The success of this simultaneous dual-isotope SPECT technique is suggestive of the

  3. Viewing the functional consequences of traumatic brain injury by using brain SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, D; Jobe, T; Devore-Best, S; Davis, G; Epstein, P; Sinha, S; Kohn, R; Craita, I; Liu, P; Chang, Y

    2006-03-01

    High-resolution brain SPECT is increasingly benefiting from improved image processing software and multiple complementary display capabilities. This enables detailed functional mapping of the disturbances in relative perfusion occurring after TBI. The patient population consisted of 26 cases (ages 8-61 years)between 3 months and 6 years after traumatic brain injury.A very strong case can be made for the routine use of Brain SPECT in TBI. Indeed it can provide a detailed evaluation of multiple functional consequences after TBI and is thus capable of supplementing the clinical evaluation and tailoring the therapeutic strategies needed. In so doing it also provides significant additional information beyond that available from MRI/CT. The critical factor for Brain SPECT's clinical relevance is a carefully designed technical protocol, including displays which should enable a comprehensive description of the patterns found, in a user friendly mode.

  4. The need of appropriate brain SPECT templates for SPM comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbelli, S.; Altrinetti, V.; Piccardo, A.; Rodriguez, G.; Brugnolo, A.; Nobili, F.; Mignone, A.; Pupi, A.; Koulibaly, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is used worldwide to compare brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. The default template within the SPM package used for SPECT image normalization includes images of a group of healthy subjects studied with 99m TcHMPAO. Since [ 99m Tc] HMPAO and [ 99m Tc] ECD have shown to distribute differently in SPECT studies, we formulated the hypothesis that comparing set of [ 99m Tc]ECD data normalized by means of a [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template may lead to incorrect results. A customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template was built with SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of 22 neurologically healthy women. Then, two sets of subjects, i.e. a group of patients with very early Alzheimer's disease (eAD) and a matched control group, studied by means of [ 99m Tc]ECD SPECT, were chosen for comparisons. The same statistical approach (t-test between eAD patients and controls and correlation analysis between brain SPECT and a cognitive score) was applied twice, i.e. after normalization with either the default [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template or the customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template. In the comparison between eAD and controls, a cluster of difference in the posterior-cingulate gyrus of both hemispheres was only highlighted when using the customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template, but was missed when using the default [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template. In the correlation between brain perfusion and a cognitive score, the significant cluster was more significant and far more extended, also including the right superior temporal gyrus, using the customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template than using the default [ 99m Tc]HMPAO template. These data suggest the need of customized, radiopharmaceutical-matched SPECT templates to be used within the SPM package. The present customized [ 99m Tc]ECD template is now freely available on the web. (authors)

  5. Brain abscess uptake at TI-201 brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Hyoung; Han, Eun Ji; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Chung, Yong An; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; Choi, Yeong Jin

    2007-01-01

    A 22-year-old woman with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was hospitalized for headache and vomiting CT scan showed a well-defined, ring like enhancing mass in the left frontal lobe with surrounding edema and midline shift. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a round homogeneous mass with a ring of enhancement in the left frontal lobe. TI-201 brain SPECT showed increased focal uptake coinciding with the CT and MRI abnormality. Aspiration of the lesion performed through a burr hole yielded many neutrophils, a few lymphocytes and histiocytes with some strands of filamentous microorganism-like material. Modified AFB stained negative for norcardia. Gram stain showed a few white blood cells and no microorganism. Antibiotics were started and produced a good clinical response. After one month, CT scan showed markedly reduction in size and extent was observed

  6. Brain abscess uptake at TI-201 brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hyoung; Han, Eun Ji; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Chung, Yong An; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; Choi, Yeong Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    A 22-year-old woman with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was hospitalized for headache and vomiting CT scan showed a well-defined, ring like enhancing mass in the left frontal lobe with surrounding edema and midline shift. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a round homogeneous mass with a ring of enhancement in the left frontal lobe. TI-201 brain SPECT showed increased focal uptake coinciding with the CT and MRI abnormality. Aspiration of the lesion performed through a burr hole yielded many neutrophils, a few lymphocytes and histiocytes with some strands of filamentous microorganism-like material. Modified AFB stained negative for norcardia. Gram stain showed a few white blood cells and no microorganism. Antibiotics were started and produced a good clinical response. After one month, CT scan showed markedly reduction in size and extent was observed.

  7. Preclinical imaging characteristics and quantification of Platinum-195m SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalbersberg, E.A.; Wit-van der Veen, B.J. de; Vegt, E.; Vogel, Wouter V. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI-AVL), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zwaagstra, O.; Codee-van der Schilden, K. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    In vivo biodistribution imaging of platinum-based compounds may allow better patient selection for treatment with chemo(radio)therapy. Radiolabeling with Platinum-195m ({sup 195m}Pt) allows SPECT imaging, without altering the chemical structure or biological activity of the compound. We have assessed the feasibility of {sup 195m}Pt SPECT imaging in mice, with the aim to determine the image quality and accuracy of quantification for current preclinical imaging equipment. Enriched (>96%) {sup 194}Pt was irradiated in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, The Netherlands (NRG). A 0.05 M HCl {sup 195m}Pt-solution with a specific activity of 33 MBq/mg was obtained. Image quality was assessed for the NanoSPECT/CT (Bioscan Inc., Washington DC, USA) and U-SPECT{sup +}/CT (MILabs BV, Utrecht, the Netherlands) scanners. A radioactivity-filled rod phantom (rod diameter 0.85-1.7 mm) filled with 1 MBq {sup 195m}Pt was scanned with different acquisition durations (10-120 min). Four healthy mice were injected intravenously with 3-4 MBq {sup 195m}Pt. Mouse images were acquired with the NanoSPECT for 120 min at 0, 2, 4, or 24 h after injection. Organs were delineated to quantify {sup 195m}Pt concentrations. Immediately after scanning, the mice were sacrificed, and the platinum concentration was determined in organs using a gamma counter and graphite furnace - atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) as reference standards. A 30-min acquisition of the phantom provided visually adequate image quality for both scanners. The smallest visible rods were 0.95 mm in diameter on the NanoSPECT and 0.85 mm in diameter on the U-SPECT{sup +}. The image quality in mice was visually adequate. Uptake was seen in the kidneys with excretion to the bladder, and in the liver, blood, and intestine. No uptake was seen in the brain. The Spearman correlation between SPECT and gamma counter was 0.92, between SPECT and GF-AAS it was 0.84, and between GF-AAS and gamma counter it was0.97 (all p < 0

  8. Comparison of 99Tcsup(m) complexes (NEP-DADT, ME-NEP-DADT and HMPAO) with 123IAMP for brain SPECT imaging in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, B.D.; Scheffel, U.; Goldfarb, H.W.; Burns, H.D.; Lever, S.Z.; Wong, D.F.; Bice, A.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In this study we have compared brain uptake and blood clearance of 99 Tcsup(m)-N-ethylpiperi-dinediamino dithiol ( 99 Tcsup(m)-NEP DADT), its 4-methylated derivative ( 99 Tcsup(m)-Me-NEP-DADT) and 99 Tcsup(m)-hexamethyl-propylene-amine-oxime ( 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO) with that of N-isopropyl( 123 I)iodoamphetamine ( 123 IAMP) in two dogs. Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) was employed to measure brain accumulation and retention of the four radiopharmaceuticals. Cerebral uptake of the 99 Tcsup(m) complexes was lower than that of 123 IAMP. There was considerable extracerebral activity in the dog's head, especially in the olfactory and snout regions. Because of slow blood clearance, 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO showed high uptake in these regions. Brain uptake of 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO reached a plateau 5 to 10 min after intravenous injection and remained constant for the entire study period (1 h). 99 Tcsup(m)-NEP-DADT, on the other hand, showed significant clearance from the brain after reaching maximal uptake at 10 to 15 min after injection. However, brain imaging with these agents was possible during the first 20 min. (author)

  9. HMPAO-SPECT during epileptic seizures: Early and late images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overbeck, B.; Gruenwald, F.; Bockisch, A.; Biersack, H.J.; Reinke, U.; Gratz, K.F.

    1990-01-01

    For presurgical evaluation of epilepsy a 44-year old patient with complex-partial seizures underwent HMPAO-SPECT. The morphology of the seizures, the MRI-scan, psychometry and ictal as well as interictal EEGs showed a left temporal origin of the seizures. Early images were obtained 20 min and late images 24 h following injection. On both scans a marked hyperperfusion was observed in the left temporal area. A crossed cerebellar diaschisis was also seen on both SPECTs. It could be shown that during ictal examinations there is no bloodflow-dependent wash-out from brain tissue. (orig.) [de

  10. High-resolution brain SPECT imaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children without comorbidity: quantitative analysis using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Oh, Eun Young; Chung, Young Ki; Hwang, Isaac; Lee, Jae Sung

    2002-01-01

    We examined the abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) without comorbidity using statistical parametric mapping(SPM) method. We used the patients with not compatible to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis as normal control children. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed on 75 patients (M:F=64:11, 10.0±2.5y) with the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and 13 normal control children (M:F=9:4, 10.3±4.1y). Using SPM method, we compared patient group's SPECT images with those of 13 control subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion(p<0.01) in predefined 34 cerebral regions. Only on area of left temporal lobe showed significant hypoperfusion in ADHD patients without comorbidity (n=75) compared with control subjects(n=13). (n=75, p<0.01, extent threshold=16). rCBF of left temporal area was decreased in ADHD group without comorbidity, such as tic, compared with control group

  11. High-resolution brain SPECT imaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children without comorbidity: quantitative analysis using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Oh, Eun Young [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Ki; Hwang, Isaac; Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We examined the abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) without comorbidity using statistical parametric mapping(SPM) method. We used the patients with not compatible to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis as normal control children. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed on 75 patients (M:F=64:11, 10.0{+-}2.5y) with the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and 13 normal control children (M:F=9:4, 10.3{+-}4.1y). Using SPM method, we compared patient group's SPECT images with those of 13 control subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion(p<0.01) in predefined 34 cerebral regions. Only on area of left temporal lobe showed significant hypoperfusion in ADHD patients without comorbidity (n=75) compared with control subjects(n=13). (n=75, p<0.01, extent threshold=16). rCBF of left temporal area was decreased in ADHD group without comorbidity, such as tic, compared with control group.

  12. Detection of tumor recurrence using technetium99m-tetrofosmin brain SPECT in patients with previously irradiated brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llamas A; Reyes A; Uribe, L F; Martinez T

    2004-01-01

    Objective: to assess the clinical utility of brain SPECT with Tc-99m Tetrofosmin to differentiate between tumor recurrence and radionecrosis in patients with primary brain tumors previously treated with external beam radiotherapy. Materials and methods: thirteen patients with clinical or radiological suspicion of tumor recurrence were studied with brain SPECT using 20-mCi of Tc-99m Tetrofosmin. Obtained images were interpreted by consensus between two experienced observers and subsequently classified as positive or negative for tumor viability. Results were compared to those of conventional diagnostic imaging techniques. Diagnostic test values and 95% confidence intervals were quantified. Results: SPECT results included 7 true-positives, 5 true-negatives and 1 false negative result. Conclusions: Tc-99m Tetrofosmin brain SPECT night be a useful alternative to diagnose recurrent brain tumors, especially with non-conclusive clinical and radiological findings

  13. Ictal 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT imaging: localization of seizure foci and correlation with semiology in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Ryu, Jin Sook; Lee, Hee Kyung; Ma, Hyeo Il; Lee, Sang Ahm; Lee, Jung Kyo; Kang, Joong Koo

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of ictal 99m Tc-ECD brain SPECT in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients for presurgical localization of seizure foci, and to correlate ictal SPECT patterns with the semiology of seizure. ictal 99m Tc-ECD Brain SPECT was performed in 23 TLE patients whose MRI showed unilateral hippocampal atrophy (18 patients), other focal temporal lesions (4 patients) and normal finding (1 patient). Under CCTV monitoring, injection was done during ictal period in all patients with the mean delay of 38.5±17.3 sec (mean seizure duration : 90.5±35.9 sec). Ictal 99m Tc-ECD Brain SPECT was visually analysed by three blinded observers. All patients underwent temporal lobectomy with a minimum 3 months follow-up (range 3-29 months) ; all had good post-surgical seizure control (Engel's calssification class I). Ictal 99m Tc-ECD Brain SPECT showed unilateral temporal hyperperfusion concordant with epileptic foci in 22/23 (95.7%), whereas non-lateralization in 1/23 (4.3%). The hyperperfusion of the ipsilateral basal ganglia was present in 72.7% (16/22) of patients with dystonic/tonic posture of the contralateral hand. The contralateral cerebellar hyperperfusion was observed in the 7/22 (32%). The group with secondary generalized tonic clonic seizure (GTC) had brain stem and bilateral thalamic hyperperfusion in 4/7 (57.1%) while the group without secondary GTC had the same hyperperfusion in 1/16 (6.3%). There was statistically significant difference in brain stem and bilateral thalamic perfusion between two groups. Ictal 99m Tc-ECD Brain SPECT is a useful modality in pre-surgical localization of the epileptic foci and well correlated with the semiology of seizure

  14. Brain SPECT in neurology: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartenstein, P.; Essen Univ.; Weiller, C.; Essen Univ.

    1994-01-01

    SPECT of the brain with radiopharmaceuticals monitoring regional cerebral blood flow, receptor binding and metabolism offers a wide variety of potentially clinically useful applications. These can be found in neuro-oncology, epilepsy, cerebrovascular diseases, extrapyramidal disorders, dementia and the determination of brain death. The evaluation of the benefit of these methods in routine use requires a close cooperation between nuclear medicine physicians and neurologists, not only in the interpretation and analysis of the actual clinical studies, but also in the design and realization of clinically oriented research with large series of patients. (orig.) [de

  15. Study of a simple method and software for quantitative measurement of rCBF with 99Tcm-ECD SPECT brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Boxue; Lai Huaan; Li Zhigang; Shi An

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To create a simple, practical, stable and easy to popularize rCBF quantitative measurement method. Methods: 1) Creating attenuation correction factor (δ) of brain; 2) Proving a factor (ρ) between planar image and tomographic image; 3) Creating SPECT system to determine the dead time and to correct linear regression equation; 4) Measuring lung retardation rate (R 1 ); 5) Improving Nickel model and editing the software; 6) Clinical application; The modified method was performed in 24 subjects, including 15 healthy controls, 8 patients with epilepsy in intermission and 1 patient with brain infarction. Results: δ = 1.7, ρ = 2.23, R 1 -1 ·100 g -1 . The rCBFs of foci in 8 cases of epilepsy were obviously decreased, (22.5∼34.2) mL·min -1 ·100 g -1 , and in the case of brain infarction was only 7.2 mL·min -1 ·100 g -1 . Conclusions: The method is reliable, practical and easy to perform with good quality control. Overall, it is of high clinical value

  16. I-123 iodoamphetamine brain SPECT of leukoencephalopathy in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, E.L.; George, A.E.; Sanger, J.J.; De Leon, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Six elderly patients with dementia underwent I-123 iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT and CT or MR imaging of the brain. In five of six, CT or MR imaging showed changes in the temporal lobes consistent with Alzheimer disease (AD). IMP scans in these five showed temporal and parietal defects. In five of six, CT or MR imaging showed white-matter lucencies and/or basal ganglia infarcts. In these, IMP defects corresponded to focal CT abnormalities but were more extensive and also involved structural normal adjacent cortex. IMP demonstrates the deficits of AD and leukoencephalopathy and may help clarify the contribution of small-vessel disease to dementia in the elderly

  17. 99mTc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in Patients with Post-Traumatic Organic Mental Disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Dong Jin; Shong, Min Ho; Kang, Min Hee; Ghi, Ick Sung; Shin, Young Tai; Ro, Heung Kyu

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT can reflect the functional lesions better than X-ray computerized tomography(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in the cerebral disorders. In order to evaluate the clinical utilities of 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT in patients with post-traumatic chronic organic mental disorder(OMD). We included 28 patients diagnosed as OMD in department of psychiatry after traumatic head injury. And we compared the results of 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT with those of MRI, EEG and MINI mental status examination(MMSE). The results were as follows 1) All patients diagnosed as OMD showed diffuse or focal decreased cerebral perfusion on 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT. 2) Most frequent lesion on brain 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT was decreased perfusion on both frontal lobe. And most frequent lesion on brain 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT was decreased perfusion on both frontal lobe. And most frequent lesion on brain 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT showing normal brain MRI result was also decreased both frontal perfusion. 3) Eight of 28 patients showed focal brain MRI lesions(4 small frontal hygroma, 3 small cerebral infarction and 1 cerebellar encephalomalacia) which were not detected in brain 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT. 4) The patients showing less than 20 points on MMSE disclosed abnormal results of EEG more frequently than those disclosing more than 20 points. In conclusion, we think that 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT is sensitive method to detect functional lesions of the brains in patients with chronic post-traumatic organic mental disorder.

  18. The characteristics of SPECT images in childhood benign partial epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Shaowei; Liao Jianxiang; Liu Xiaoyan; Zheng Xiyuan; Qin Jiong; Pan Zhongyun; Zuo Qihua

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate childhood benign partial epilepsy (BPE) with SPECT. Methods: Double SPECT imaging was performed on 21 cases of BPE at the stage of wake (interval spike discharge) and sleep (spike discharge), under EEG monitoring. The transverse images were reconstructed after digital image subtraction. The quantitative analysis was conducted with brain flow change rate (BFCR) % mathematical model. Results: EEG monitoring demonstrated approximately normal background of 21 cases of BPE during the stage of wake, and spike discharge frequency markedly increased during the stage of sleep, 117 foci were showed by SPeCT in cases of BPE, and the average was 5.6 +- 1.6 foci/case. The characteristics of SPECT transverse images were 1) multiple foci of mirror, 2) mostly seen in Rolandic region, 3) circular symbol, 4) the radioactivity in foci decreased during the stage of wake (interval spike discharge) and increased during the stage of sleep (spike discharge). The concordance of SPECT and EEG was 93.1% (109/117 foci). The BFCR% of all epileptogenic foci exceeded normal limit (99% confidence interval). There was no correlation between the spike discharge frequency and BFCR% (r = 0.45, P>0.05). Conclusions: Regional cerebral blood flow and function were abnormal during the epileptogenic foci were discharging abnormally in BPE

  19. Technical approach to improvement of SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukukita, Hiroyoshi

    1985-01-01

    At present, a large number of SPECT systems are being widely used in Japan, hence, it is reasonable for us to know the physical and imaging characteristics of these SPECT devices, and also to recommend the optimum utility of SPECT systems. For this reason, a survey respect of characteristics of the commercialy available SPECT devices was carried out. In addition to this, various factors which have significant influence over SPECT image quality, such as, data acquisition matrix, reconstruction filter, γ-ray attenuation correction and daily quality control procedure, were also investigated. The materials used for this study are PET/SPECT phantom, Alderson liver phantom filled with Tc-99m solution, and either LFOV-E or ZLC-7500 interfaced to Scintipac 2400 minicomputer with 256 K byte of memory. Following are the results of this study. 1) The suitable data acquisition procedure was 128 x 128 matrix for linear sampling and approximately 64 views for angular sampling. 2) Reconstructed image using pre-processing filter with Wiener and Butterworth filters provided high quality image as compared with the Ramp filter. 3) Weighted backprojection method (WBP) proposed by Tanaka was superior to other methods, such as Sorenson method and Chang method in the object with non-uniform distribution of radionuclide. 4) It was found that uniformity correction of gamma camera and precise adjustment of the center of rotation are most important to maintain the images with a high quality. (author)

  20. Brain perfusion SPECT in dementia syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libus, P.; Stupalova, J.; Kuzelka, I.; Konrad, J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Brain perfusion SPECT is used in differential diagnostics of dementia syndromes. First of all the aim is to distinguish vascular dementia from degenerative dementia and to differentiate dementia from delirium, psychiatric syndromes, depression and secondary dementia, which is important in relation to therapy. The purpose of our study was to detect significance of BP SPECT and include it into the diagnostic process in dementia syndromes. Materials and methods: 51 women and 63 men aged 55 - 88 were evaluated in the study. The patients correspond to the general criteria of dementia diagnosis. They were sent to the examination by neurological, internal and psychiatric departments and out-patient departments. All patients were examined by 99mTc ECD SPECT using a double head camera PRISM 200 VP with LEHR collimator. The scintigraphic data were evaluated by the visual and semiquantitative analysis. Results: It was established that most patients in our group had vascular dementia, while Alzheimer's disease was second. In other groups we found out dementia at strategic infarct location, e.g. in gyrus angularis in the dominant hemisphere, frontal temporal lobe dementia and alcoholic dementia. Twenty-four patients had a normal diagnosis. Fifteen of them had a somatic reason of the delirious state and were re-classified into pseudodementia. Nine patients were not diagnostically included and the examination will repeated in four months time. Conclusion: We have found out a good applicability of brain perfusion SPECT in dementia syndromes diagnosis in our work. The best diagnosticable and most specific were the findings in multi-infarct dementia, Alzheimer's disease and frontal temporal lobe dementia. When vascular dementia is concerned we can even distinguish dementia at strategic infarction location, e.g. in thalamus, basal frontal telencefalon, in gyrus angularis of the dominant hemisphere, etc

  1. Stereotactic radiosurgery planning with ictal SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerly, T.; RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC; Geso, M.; O'Keefe, G.; Smith, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is motivated by a clinical requirement to utilise ictal SPECT images for target localisation in stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning using the xknife system which only supports CT and MRI images. To achieve this, the SPECT images were converted from raw (pixel data only) format into a part 10 compliant DICOM CT fileset. The minimum requirements for the recasting of a raw format image as DICOM CT or MRI data set are described in detail. The method can be applied to the importation of raw format images into any radiotherapy treatment planning system that supports CT or MRI import. It is demonstrated that the combination of the low spatial resolution SPECT images, depicting functional information, with high spatial resolution MRI images, which show the structural information, is suitable for stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  2. SPM analysis of cerebrovascular reserve capacity after stimulation with acetazolamide measured by Tc-99m ECD SPECT in normal brain MRI patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. H.; Yoon, S. N.; Yoon, J. K.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Ajou, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate normal response of acetazolamide in normal individuals, whose brain MRI is normal, using SPM99. In total, 10 Tc- 99m ECD brain SPECT were evaluated retrospectively. The half of the patients were male. Their mean age was 47.1 years old with a range of 33-61 years. They all visited our neurology department to evaluate stroke symptom. Their brain MRI was normal. Rest/acetazolamide brain SPECT was perfomed using Tc-99m ECD and the sequential injection and subtraction method. SPECT was acquired using fanbeam collimators and triple-head gamma camera (MultiSPECT III, Siemens medical systems, Inc. Hoffman Estates, III, USA). Chang's attenuation correction was applied their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis by two nuclear physician and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared rest brain SPECT images with those of acetazolamide brain SPECT and measured the extent of the area with significant perfusion change (P<0.05) in predefined 34 cerebral regions. Acetazolamide brain SPECT showed no significant decreased region in comparison to rest brain SPECT. Only small portion of left mid temporal gyrus revealed increased rCBF on acetazolamide brain SPECT in comparison to rest brain SPECT. It apperas that there is no significant change in rCBF between rest and acetazolamide brain SPECT using Tc-99m ECD. The small number of this study is limitation of our study.

  3. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, Catherine [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Hustinx, Roland [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Oncologique, CHU de Liege, Liege (Belgium)

    2014-05-15

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  4. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckers, Catherine; Hustinx, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  5. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in Seizure Disorder: Comparison Brain SPECT, MRI / CT and EEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hyung In [Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Ju Hyuk; Choi, Chang Woon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; No, Jae Kyu; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    We studied 115 patients with seizure who had been performed brain SPECT brain MRI of CT and EEG. To evaluate the pattern of brain SPECT in seizure patients 28 of them had secondary epilepsies, 87 had primary epilepsies. In primary epilepsies, 42 were generalized seizure and 45 were partial seizure. The causes of secondary epilepsies were congenital malformation, cerebromalacia, cerebral infarction ultiple sclerosis, AV-malformation. granuloma and etc, in order. In 28 secondary epilepsies, 25 of them, brain SPECT lesions was concordant with MRI or CT lesions. 3 were disconcordant. The brain SPECT findings of generalized seizure were normal in 22 patients, diffuse irregular decreased perfusion in 8, decreased in frontal cortex in 4. temporal in 5 and frontotemporal in 3. In 45 partial seizure, 19 brain SPECT were concordant with EEG (42.4%).

  6. 99mTc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in Seizure Disorder: Comparison Brain SPECT, MRI / CT and EEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyung In; Im, Ju Hyuk; Choi, Chang Woon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; No, Jae Kyu; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon

    1994-01-01

    We studied 115 patients with seizure who had been performed brain SPECT brain MRI of CT and EEG. To evaluate the pattern of brain SPECT in seizure patients 28 of them had secondary epilepsies, 87 had primary epilepsies. In primary epilepsies, 42 were generalized seizure and 45 were partial seizure. The causes of secondary epilepsies were congenital malformation, cerebromalacia, cerebral infarction ultiple sclerosis, AV-malformation. granuloma and etc, in order. In 28 secondary epilepsies, 25 of them, brain SPECT lesions was concordant with MRI or CT lesions. 3 were disconcordant. The brain SPECT findings of generalized seizure were normal in 22 patients, diffuse irregular decreased perfusion in 8, decreased in frontal cortex in 4. temporal in 5 and frontotemporal in 3. In 45 partial seizure, 19 brain SPECT were concordant with EEG (42.4%).

  7. Herpes simplex encephalitis: increased retention of Tc-99m HMPAO on acetazolamide enhanced brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Kwon Hyung; Kim, Seung Hyun; Cho, Suk Shin

    1998-01-01

    We present an interesting case of herpes simplex encephalitis, which showed increased upta unilateral temporal cortex on brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO, but in bilateral tem cortex after acetazolamide administration. A 42-year-old man was admitted via emergency room, due to rapidly progressing hea disorientation and mental changes. On neurologic examination, neck stiffness and Kernig sign noted. CSF examination showed pleocytosis with lymphcyte predominance. MRI showed swelling bilateral temporal lobe with left predominance, suggestive of herpes simplex encephalitis. Baseline/ Acetazolamide brain perfusion SPECT were acquired consecutively at the same position IV administration of 740MBq and additional 1480 MBq of Tc-99m HMPAO respectively. The temporal and inferior frontal cortex showed markedly increased perfusion on the baseline acetazolamide-enhanced SPECT images. The right temporal cortex showed normal uptake on the b SPECT images, and markedly increased uptake after acetazolamide administration, which seemed to the abundant vascularity at the acute inflammation site without marked brain damage. The fo brain perfusion SPECT after 6 months showed perfusion defect in left temporal cortex but norm perfusion in right temporal cortex. Therefore, we can conclude that baseline SPECT is helpful for the prediction of the prognosis acetazolamide SPECT for the evaluation of the extent of herpes simples encephalitis

  8. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Sadato, Norihiro; Nishizawa, Sadahiko

    1993-01-01

    Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m Tc-d,l-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) was performed twice in a 78-year-old man clinically diagnosed as brain death according to the standard criteria of the Japanese Ministry of Welfare. The first brain SPECT demonstrated the tracer accumulation in the brain, indicating preserved cerebral blood flow. The second brain SPECT performed 3 days later revealed cessation of the blood flow. In patients with preserved cerebral blood flow, the diagnosis of brain death cannot be made, even if they meet the existing criteria, because previous report noted the recovery in some of those patients. Brain perfusion SPECT plays an important role as a confirmatory test for the diagnosis of brain death. (author)

  9. Detection of misery perfusion in the cerebral hemisphere with chronic unilateral major cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease using crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion: comparison of brain SPECT and PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Yoshiyasu; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Saito, Hideo; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Ogasawara, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogawa, Akira [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Cyclotron Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Terasaki, Kazunori [Iwate Medical University, Cyclotron Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Yoshida, Kenji; Beppu, Takaaki; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Fujiwara, Shunrou [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Tsushima, Eiki [Hirosaki University, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    In patients with unilateral internal carotid or middle cerebral artery (ICA or MCA) occlusive disease, the degree of crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion that is evident within a few months after the onset of stroke may reflect cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in the affected cerebral hemisphere relative to that in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the ratio of blood flow asymmetry in the cerebellar hemisphere to blood flow asymmetry in the cerebral hemisphere on positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) correlates with oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) asymmetry in the cerebral hemisphere on PET in patients with chronic unilateral ICA or MCA occlusive disease and whether this blood flow ratio on SPECT detects misery perfusion in the affected cerebral hemisphere in such patients. Brain blood flow and OEF were assessed using {sup 15}O-PET and N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) SPECT, respectively. All images were anatomically standardized using SPM2. A region of interest (ROI) was automatically placed in the bilateral MCA territories and in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres using a three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template, and affected-to-contralateral asymmetry in the MCA territory or contralateral-to-affected asymmetry in the cerebellar hemisphere was calculated. Sixty-three patients with reduced blood flow in the affected cerebral hemisphere on {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT were enrolled in this study. A significant correlation was observed between MCA ROI asymmetry of PET OEF and the ratio of cerebellar hemisphere asymmetry of blood flow to MCA ROI asymmetry of blood flow on PET (r = 0.381, p = 0.0019) or SPECT (r = 0.459, p = 0.0001). The correlation coefficient was higher when reanalyzed in a subgroup of 43 patients undergoing a PET study within 3 months after the last ischemic event (r = 0.541, p = 0.0001 for PET; r = 0.609, p < 0

  10. Multipinhole collimator with 20 apertures for a brain SPECT application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tzu-Cheng; Ellin, Justin R.; Shrestha, Uttam; Seo, Youngho, E-mail: youngho.seo@ucsf.edu [Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California 94107 (United States); Huang, Qiu [School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Gullberg, Grant T. [Department of Radiotracer Development and Imaging Technology, Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94702 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Several new technologies for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) instrumentation with parallel-hole collimation have been proposed to improve detector sensitivity and signal collection efficiency. Benefits from improved signal efficiency include shorter acquisition times and lower dose requirements. In this paper, the authors show a possibility of over an order of magnitude enhancement in photon detection efficiency (from 7.6 × 10{sup −5} to 1.6 × 10{sup −3}) for dopamine transporter (DaT) imaging of the striatum over the conventional SPECT parallel-hole collimators by use of custom-designed 20 multipinhole (20-MPH) collimators with apertures of 0.75 cm diameter. Methods: Quantifying specific binding ratio (SBR) of {sup 123}I-ioflupane or {sup 123}I-iometopane’s signal at the striatal region is a common brain imaging method to confirm the diagnosis of the Parkinson’s disease. The authors performed imaging of a striatal phantom filled with aqueous solution of I-123 and compared camera recovery ratios of SBR acquired between low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) parallel-hole collimators and 20-MPH collimators. Results: With only two-thirds of total acquisition time (20 min against 30 min), a comparable camera recovery ratio of SBR was achieved using 20-MPH collimators in comparison to that from the LEHR collimator study. Conclusions: Their systematic analyses showed that the 20-MPH collimator could be a promising alternative for the DaT SPECT imaging for brain over the traditional LEHR collimator, which could give both shorter scan time and improved diagnostic accuracy.

  11. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy: comparison with MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Joon; Ryu, Young Hoon; Jeon, Tae Joo; Kim, Jai Keun; Nam, Ji Eun; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Yoon, Choon Sik; Lee, Jong Doo

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated brain perfusion SPECT findings of MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy in correlation with MR imaging in search of specific imaging features. Subjects were five patients (four females and one male; age range, 1 to 25 year) who presented with repeated stroke like episodes, seizures or developmental delay or asymptomatic but had elevated lactic acid in CSF and serum. Conventional non-contrast MR imaging and Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain perfusion SPECT were performed and imaging features were analyzed. MRI demonstrated increased T2 signal intensities in the affected areas of gray and white matters mainly in the parietal (4/5) and occipital lobes (4/5) and in the basal ganglia (1/5), which were not restricted to a specific vascular territory. SPECT demonstrated decreased perfusion in the corresponding regions of MRI lesions. In addition, there were perfusion defects in parietal (1 patient), temporal (2), and frontal (1) lobes and basal ganglia (1) and thalami (2). In a patient with mitochondrial myopathy who had normal MRI, decreased perfusion was noted in left parietal area and bilateral thalami. Tc-99m ECD SPECT imaging in patients with MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy showed hypoperfusion of parieto-occipital cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and temporal cortex, which were not restricted to a specific vascular territory. There were no specific imaging features on SPECT. The significance of abnormal perfusion on SPECT without corresponding MR abnormalities needs to be evaluated further in larger number of patients

  12. SPECT brain perfusion findings in mild or moderate traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Judeh, H H; Parker, R; Aleksic, S; Singh, M L; Naddaf, S; Atay, S; Kumar, M; Omar, W; El-Zeftawy, H; Luo, J Q; Abdel-Dayem, H M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to present the findings in the largest series of SPECT brain perfusion imaging reported to date for mild or moderate traumatic brain injury. This is a retrospective evaluation of 228 SPECT brain perfusion-imaging studies of patients who suffered mild or moderate traumatic brain injury with or without loss of consciousness (LOC). All patients had no past medical history of previous brain trauma, neurological, or psychiatric diseases, HIV, alcohol or drug abuse. The patient population included 135 males and 93 females. The ages ranged from 11-88 years (mean 40.8). The most common complaints were characteristic of the postconcussion syndrome: headaches 139/228 (61%); dizziness 61/228 (27%); and memory problems 63/228 (28%). LOC status was reported to be positive in 121/228 (53%), negative in 41/228 (18%), and unknown for 63/228 (28%). Normal studies accounted for 52/228 (23%). For abnormal studies (176/228 or 77%) the findings were as follows: basal ganglia hypoperfusion 338 lesions (55.2%); frontal lobe hypoperfusion 146 (23.8%); temporal lobes hypoperfusion 80 (13%); parietal lobes hypoperfusion 20 (3.7%); insular and or occipital lobes hypoperfusion 28 (4.6%). Patients' symptoms correlated with the SPECT brain perfusion findings. The SPECT BPI studies in 122/228 (54%) were done early within 3 months of the date of the accident, and for the remainder, 106/228 (46%) over 3 months and less than 3 years from the date of the injury. In early imaging, 382 lesions were detected; in 92 patients (average 4.2 lesions per study) imaging after 3 months detected 230 lesions: in 84 patients (average 2.7 lesions per study). Basal ganglia hypoperfusion is the most common abnormality following mild or moderate traumatic brain injury (p = 0.006), and is more common in patients complaining of memory problem (p = 0.0005) and dizziness (p = 0.003). Early imaging can detect more lesions than delayed imaging (p = 0.0011). SPECT brain perfusion

  13. SPECT brain perfusion findings in mild or moderate traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Judeh, H.H.; Parker, R.; Aleksic, S.

    2000-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this manuscript is to present the findings in the largest series of SPECT brain perfusion imaging reported to date for mild or moderate traumatic brain injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective evaluation of 228 SPECT brain perfusion-imaging studies of patients who suffered mild or moderate traumatic brain injury with or without loss of consciousness (LOC). All patients had no past medical history of previous brain trauma, neurological, or psychiatric diseases, HIV, alcohol or drug abuse. The patient population included 135 males and 93 females. The ages ranged from 11-88 years (mean 40.8). The most common complaints were characteristic of the postconcussion syndrome: headaches 139/228 (61%); dizziness 61/228 (27%); and memory problems 63/228 (28%). LOC status was reported to be positive in 121/228 (53%), negative in 41/228 (18%), and unknown for 63/228 (28%). RESULTS: Normal studies accounted for 52/228 (23%). For abnormal studies (176/228 or 77%) the findings were as follows: basal ganglia hypoperfusion 338 lesions (55.2%); frontal lobe hypoperfusion 146 (23.8%); temporal lobes hypoperfusion 80 (13%); parietal lobes hypoperfusion 20 (3.7%); insular and or occipital lobes hypoperfusion 28 (4.6%). Patients' symptoms correlated with the SPECT brain perfusion findings. The SPECT BPI studies in 122/228 (54%) were done early within 3 months of the date of the accident, and for the remainder, 106/228 (46%) over 3 months and less than 3 years from the date of the injury. In early imaging, 382 lesions were detected; in 92 patients (average 4.2 lesions per study) imaging after 3 months detected 230 lesions: in 84 patients (average 2.7 lesions per study). CONCLUSIONS: Basal ganglia hypoperfusion is the most common abnormality following mild or moderate traumatic brain injury (p = 0.006), and is more common in patients complaining of memory problem (p = 0.0005) and dizziness (p = 0.003). Early imaging can detect more lesions than

  14. Resting functional imaging tools (MRS, SPECT, PET and PCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Naalt, J

    2015-01-01

    Functional imaging includes imaging techniques that provide information about the metabolic and hemodynamic status of the brain. Most commonly applied functional imaging techniques in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) include magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET) and perfusion CT (PCT). These imaging modalities are used to determine the extent of injury, to provide information for the prediction of outcome, and to assess evidence of cerebral ischemia. In TBI, secondary brain damage mainly comprises ischemia and is present in more than 80% of fatal cases with traumatic brain injury (Graham et al., 1989; Bouma et al., 1991; Coles et al., 2004). In particular, while SPECT measures cerebral perfusion and MRS determines metabolism, PET is able to assess both perfusion and cerebral metabolism. This chapter will describe the application of these techniques in traumatic brain injury separately for the major groups of severity comprising the mild and moderate to severe group. The application in TBI and potential difficulties of each technique is described. The use of imaging techniques in children will be separately outlined. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of a method for accurate and highly reproducible quantification of brain dopamine transporter SPECT studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter S; Ziebell, Morten; Skouboe, Glenna

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear medicine brain imaging, it is important to delineate regions of interest (ROIs) so that the outcome is both accurate and reproducible. The purpose of this study was to validate a new time-saving algorithm (DATquan) for accurate and reproducible quantification of the striatal dopamine t...... transporter (DAT) with appropriate radioligands and SPECT and without the need for structural brain scanning....

  16. Model-based crosstalk compensation for simultaneous 99mTc/123I dual-isotope brain SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Tsui, Benjamin M W; Frey, Eric C

    2007-09-01

    In this work, we developed a model-based method to estimate and compensate for the crosstalk contamination in simultaneous 123I and 99mTc dual isotope brain single photo emission computed tomography imaging. The model-based crosstalk compensation (MBCC) includes detailed modeling of photon interactions inside both the object and the detector system. In the method, scatter in the object is modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique, including contributions from all the photon emissions. The effects of the collimator-detector response, including the penetration and scatter components due to high-energy 123I photons, are modeled using precalculated tables of Monte Carlo simulated point-source response functions obtained from sources in air at various distances from the face of the collimator. The model-based crosstalk estimation method was combined with iterative reconstruction based compensation to reduce contamination due to crosstalk. The MBCC method was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulated and physical phantom experimentally acquired simultaneous dual-isotope data. Results showed that, for both experimental and simulation studies, the model-based method provided crosstalk estimates that were in good agreement with the true crosstalk. Compensation using MBCC improved image contrast and removed the artifacts for both Monte Carlo simulated and experimentally acquired data. The results were in good agreement with images acquired without any crosstalk contamination.

  17. Model-based crosstalk compensation for simultaneous Tc99m∕I123 dual-isotope brain SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Tsui, Benjamin M W; Frey, Eric C

    2007-09-01

    In this work, we developed a model-based method to estimate and compensate for the crosstalk contamination in simultaneous I123 and Tc99m dual isotope brain single photo emission computed tomography imaging. The model-based crosstalk compensation (MBCC) includes detailed modeling of photon interactions inside both the object and the detector system. In the method, scatter in the object is modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique, including contributions from all the photon emissions. The effects of the collimator-detector response, including the penetration and scatter components due to high-energy I123 photons, are modeled using pre-calculated tables of Monte Carlo simulated point-source response functions obtained from sources in air at various distances from the face of the collimator. The model-based crosstalk estimation method was combined with iterative reconstruction based compensation to reduce contamination due to crosstalk. The MBCC method was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulated and physical phantom experimentally acquired simultaneous dual-isotope data. Results showed that, for both experimental and simulation studies, the model-based method provided crosstalk estimates that were in good agreement with the true crosstalk. Compensation using MBCC improved image contrast and removed the artifacts for both Monte Carlo simulated and experimentally acquired data. The results were in good agreement with images acquired without any crosstalk contamination. © 2007 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Triangular SPECT system for 3-D total organ volume imaging: Design concept and preliminary imaging results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.B.; Anderson, J.; Covic, J.

    1985-01-01

    SPECT systems based on 2-D detectors for projection data collection and filtered back-projection image reconstruction have the potential for true 3-D imaging, providing contiguous slice images in any orientation. Anger camera-based SPECT systems have the natural advantage supporting planar imaging clinical procedures. However, current systems suffer from two drawbacks; poor utilization of emitted photons, and inadequate system design for SPECT. A SPECT system consisting of three rectangular cameras with radial translation would offer the variable cylindrical FOV of 25 cm to 40 cm diameter allowing close detector access to the object. This system would provide optimized imaging for both brain and body organs in terms of sensitivity and resolution. For brain imaging a tight detector triangle with fan beam collimation, matching detector UFOV to the head, allows full 2 π utilization of emitted photons, resulting in >4 times sensitivity increase over the single detector system. Minification of intrinsic detector resolution in fan beam collimation further improves system resolution. For body organ imaging the three detectors with parallel hole collimators, rotating in non-circular orbit, provide both improved resolution and three-fold sensitivity increase. Practical challenges lie in ensuring perfect image overlap from three detectors without resolution degradation and artifact generation in order to benefit from the above improvements. An experimental system has been developed to test the above imaging concept and we have successfully demonstrated the superior image quality of the overlapped images. Design concept will be presented with preliminary imaging results

  19. Adaptive Angular Sampling for SPECT Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Nan; Meng, Ling-Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical approach for performing adaptive angular sampling in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. It allows for a rapid determination of the optimum sampling strategy that minimizes image variance in regions-of-interest (ROIs). The proposed method consists of three key components: (a) a set of close-form equations for evaluating image variance and resolution attainable with a given sampling strategy, (b) a gradient-based algor...

  20. A SPECT study in internal carotid artery occlusion: Discrepancies between flow image and neurologic deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, H.; Hougaku, H.; Matsuda, I.; Kusunoki, M.; Shirai, J.

    1989-01-01

    A SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) study in internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion was performed in 6 patients. The validity of iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT study in the evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) or neurologic function is still controversial. In this study, the authors showed several cases in whom SPECT images of brain were not compatible with their neurologic deficits. In 2 typical cases, a large low-density area was observed in the non-dominant hemisphere in computed tomography (CT) scan, but no apparent motor-sensory deficits in left limbs were present. In these patients, SPECT study also revealed flow reduction in the affected side of the brain. So there was a possibility that an IMP brain image could not always reflect CBF, which maintains neurologic function of the brain

  1. In vivo characteristics of IBZM in rat brains: an agent for quantitative SPECT imaging of dopamine D[sub 2] receptors; Preparation of [sup 125]I-IBZM and its biodistribution and kinetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Kaname; Nakashima, Hiromichi; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine; Toyama, Hiroshi; Ichise, Masanori; Kurami, Miki; Maeda, Hisato; Takeuchi, Akira; Koga, Sukehiko

    1994-05-01

    [sup 123]I-(S)-(-)-3-iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl]-benzamide (IBZM) is a CNS dopamine D[sub 2] receptor imaging agent for SPECT and has already been used clinically in the United States, Canada and Europe. However, methods of quantitative SPECT measurement of the D[sub 2] receptor density have not been well established. We performed in vivo biodistribution studies of [sup 125]I-IBZM in rat brains as the first step toward establishment of a basis for quantitative SPECT imaging of D[sub 2] receptors in humans. [sup 125]I-IBZM was prepared by the chloramine-T method. Radiochemical yields were 80 to 90% and radiochemical purity was 94.7% on day 81 after labeling. At 10, 30, 60 and 120 min after injection of the radiopharmaceutical, the percent uptakes (% dose/g) in the rat striatum were 2.9, 1.9, 1.7 and 1.0, respectively. These kinetic data were considered suitable for SPECT imagings. Pretreatment with haloperidol (1 mg/kg) blocked specific striatal uptake and there was a significant reduction in the uptake to 40.9% of the unblocked uptake at 60 min after injection (p=0.006). The regional IBZM uptake ratio of striatum-to-cerebellum increased steadily from 1.7 at 10 min to 5.7 at 120 min. This suggests that SPECT imaging must be done during fixed time after tracer injection for the semiquantitative ratio to be meaningful. (author).

  2. Examination of brain function using PET and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Yasuhito; Momose, Toshinitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Oku, Shinya; Nishikawa, Junichi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the presentation is to elucidate the unique role of PET (positron emission computed tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) in assessing physiological and biochemical functions of the brain.

  3. 201Tl brain SPECT in differentiating central nervous system lymphoma from toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Noriko; Suzuki, Kenzo; Abe, Katsumi; Yokoyama, Yoshiaki; Ushimi, Hisashi; Terada, Kazushi

    1997-01-01

    In AIDS patients, toxoplasmosis and lymphoma are the leading causes of CNS mass lesions. It is important to make the correct diagnosis expeditiously, since the two diseases require markedly different treatments and have different prognoses. In general, CT and MR imaging have failed to provide specific distinguishing characteristics to differentiate CNS lymphoma from toxoplasmosis, and it is difficult to differentiate these entities clinically. We performed 201 Tl brain SPECT in order to differentiate two diseases. Counts ratio of a lesion to the normal brain (L/N ratio) was elevated in patients of lymphoma compared in patients of toxoplasmosis. 201 Tl brain SPECT is useful to differentiate CNS lymphoma from toxoplasmosis. (author)

  4. The clinical usefulness of Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in acute measles encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2003-01-01

    Since the prognosis of measles encephalitis is poor, early diagnosis and proper management are very important to improve clinical outcomes. We compared Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT (SPECT) with MR imaging (MRI) for the detection of acute measles encephalitis. Eleven patients (M : F=4 : 7, age range 18 months-14 yrs) with acute measles encephalitis were enrolled in this studies. All of them underwent both MRI and SPECT. The results of SPECT were scored from 0 (normal) to 3 (most severe defect) according to perfusion state. We compared two image modalities for the detection of brain abnormality in acute measles encephalitis. Seven of 11 patients (63.6%) revealed high signal intensity in the white matter on T2WI of MRI, on the other hand all patients (100%) showed hypoperfusion on SPECT. Severe perfusion deficits above score 2 were located with decreasing frequencies in the frontal lobe (81.8%), temporal lobe (72.7%), occipital lobe (27.3%), basal ganglia (27.3%), and parietal lobe (9.1%). We conclude that SPECT is more useful than MRI for the detection of brain involvement in patients with acute measles encephalitis

  5. The clinical usefulness of Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in acute measles encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee [School of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    Since the prognosis of measles encephalitis is poor, early diagnosis and proper management are very important to improve clinical outcomes. We compared Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT (SPECT) with MR imaging (MRI) for the detection of acute measles encephalitis. Eleven patients (M : F=4 : 7, age range 18 months-14 yrs) with acute measles encephalitis were enrolled in this studies. All of them underwent both MRI and SPECT. The results of SPECT were scored from 0 (normal) to 3 (most severe defect) according to perfusion state. We compared two image modalities for the detection of brain abnormality in acute measles encephalitis. Seven of 11 patients (63.6%) revealed high signal intensity in the white matter on T2WI of MRI, on the other hand all patients (100%) showed hypoperfusion on SPECT. Severe perfusion deficits above score 2 were located with decreasing frequencies in the frontal lobe (81.8%), temporal lobe (72.7%), occipital lobe (27.3%), basal ganglia (27.3%), and parietal lobe (9.1%). We conclude that SPECT is more useful than MRI for the detection of brain involvement in patients with acute measles encephalitis.

  6. The role of brain SPECT in children with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingdang; Liu Yongchang; Lin Xiangtong

    1996-01-01

    The rCBF brain SPECT with 99m Tc-HMPAO was performed in 15 children with interictal epilepsy, and some cases were compared with EEG, X-ray CT and MRI. The results showed that the positive rate of SPECT was the highest (93.33%,), then the EEG (92.31%), and the CT and MRI were the lowest (66.67% and 75%). This study indicated that brain SPECT was an effective method for diagnosis and foci localization in epileptic children, and also was useful to the study of prognosis and relationship between changes of rCBF and progress in clinical pictures

  7. Relationship between pre-reconstruction filter and accuracy of registration software based on mutual-information maximization. A study of SPECT-MR brain phantom images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, Suzuko; Magota, Keiichi; Arai, Hiroshi; Omote, Hidehiko; Katsuura, Hidenori; Suzuki, Kotaro; Kubo Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Image registration technique is becoming an increasingly important tool in SPECT. Recently, software based on mutual-information maximization has been developed for automatic multimodality image registration. The accuracy of the software is important for its application to image registration. During SPECT reconstruction, the projection data are pre-filtered in order to reduce Poisson noise, commonly using a Butterworth filter. We have investigated the dependence of the absolute accuracy of MRI-SPECT registration on the cut-off frequencies of a range of Butterworth filters. This study used a 3D Hoffman phantom (Model No. 9000, Data-spectrum Co.). For the reference volume, an magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRage) sequence was performed on a Vision MRI (Siemence, 1.5 T). For the floating volumes, SPECT data of a phantom including 99m Tc 85 kBq/mL were acquired by a GCA-9300 (Toshiba Medical Systems Co.). During SPECT, the orbito-meatal (OM) line of the phantom was tilted by 5 deg and 15 deg to mimic the incline of a patient's head. The projection data were pre-filtered with Butterworth filters (cut-off frequency varying between 0.24 to 0.94 cycles/cm in 0.02 steps, order 8). The automated registrations were performed using iNRT β version software (Nihon Medi. Co.) and the rotation angles of SPECT for registration were noted. In this study, the registrations of all SPECT data were successful. Graphs of registration rotation angles against cut-off frequencies were scattered and showed no correlation between the two. The registration rotation angles ranged with changing cut-off frequency from -0.4 deg to +3.8 deg at a 5 deg tilt and from +12.7 deg to +19.6 deg at a 15 deg tilt. The registration rotation angles showed variation even for slight differences in cut-off frequencies. The absolute errors were a few degrees for any cut-off frequency. Regardless of the cut-off frequency, automatic registration using this software provides similar results. (author)

  8. A study of 99mTc-HM-PAO brain SPECT in the senile parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenxin; Lin Xiangtong; Song Wenzhong; Liu Yongchang

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-three cases of senile Parkinson's disease (PD) imaged by 99m Tc-HM-PAO brain SPECT were reported. 66.7% of the patients had cortical hypoperfusion and 18.2% showed asymmetrical hypoperfusion in the basal ganglia. Such a finding was not related with the Hoehn-Yahr stage and the laterality of motor symptoms. If complicated with dementia, the SPECT brain imaging showed similar pattern in Alzheimer's disease with diffuse hypoperfusion in cortical area reflecting widespread pathological changes in tremor paralysis

  9. Evaluation of distance-dependent resolution compensation in brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badger, D.P.; Barnden, L.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Conventional SPECT reconstruction assumes that the volume of response for each collimator hole is a cylinder, but due to the finite depth of the holes, the volume of response is actually cone shaped. This leads to a loss of resolution as the distance from the collimator face is increased. If distance-dependent resolution compensation (DRC) is incorporated into an iterative reconstruction algorithm, then some of the lost resolution can be recovered (T Yokoi, H Shinohara and H Onishi. 2002, Ann Nuc Med, 16, 11-18). ORC has recently been included in some commercial reconstruction software, and the aim of this study was to assess whether the significantly increased reconstruction processing time can be justified for clinical or for research purposes. HMPAO brain scans from 104 healthy subjects were reconstructed using iterative OSEM, with and without ORC. A voxel based iterative sensitivity (VBIS) technique was used for gain correction in the scans. A Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) analysis found the statistical strength of the SPECT aging effect increased when the non-DRC image set was compared to the images with ORC, probably due to improvement in the imaging of partial volume effects when the interhemispheric fissure and sulci enlarge with age (L Barnden, S Behin Ain, R Kwiatek, R Casse and L Yelland. 2005, Nuc Med Comm, 26, 497-503). It was concluded that the use of ORC is justified for research purposes, but may not be for routine clinical use. (author)

  10. Comparison of Tc-99m HM-PAO SPECT brain scan and x-ray CT in the detection of brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Sadek, S.; Sahwell, A.; Kubasek, H.; El-Sayed, M.; Ziada, G.; Mobarak, L.; Al-Huda, F.; Omar, Y.T.

    1986-01-01

    Tc-99m HM-PAO imaging was compared with x-ray CT in 14 patients with known or suspected brain metastases. Both studies were done within 3 days of each other. Static and single photon emission CT (SPECT) images were acquired after intravenous injection of 13 mCi of Tc-99m HM-PAO. All 14 patients underwent static and SPECT Tc-99m HM-PAO imaging and x-ray CT. Studies were positive in 7, 12, and 10 patients, respectively, by static, SPECT, and x-ray CT imaging, and negative in 7, 2, and 2. The number of lesions identified was 0 (static imaging), 32 (SPECT), and 26(x-ray CT). There were no ''suspicious'' studies by any modality. This study indicates that Tc-99m HM-PAO SPECT cerebral blood flow imaging is more sensitive than x-ray CT for detecting brain metastases, that biplane imaging is not sensitive and SPECT is essential, and that for Tc-99m HM-PAO SPECT brain imaging to regain its importance with respect to x-ray CT, acquisition time must be 10 minutes or less and determination of percentage brain uptake of the injected dose, and of regional distribution, is necessary

  11. Brain SPECT using dipyridamole for evaluation of vascular reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Zy; Park, Chan Hee; Yoon, Soo Hwan; Pai, Moon Sun; Yoon, Suk Nam; Cho, Kyung Kee

    1997-01-01

    Baseline and stress brain SPECT studies using CO 2 inhalation, acetazolamide (Diamox R ) and adenosine administrations have been used in the evaluation of cerebral vascular reserve. Recently dipyridamole (Persantine R ) which is one of the pharmacologic myocardial perfusion SPECT agents as a potent vasodilator is suggested as another cerebral vasodilator. IV Diamox R is not available in Korea. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to evaluate dipyridamole in stress brain SPECT in patients with Moya Moya disease. Eight patients with angiographically proven Moya Moya disease were studied. Their ages ranged from 7 to 62 year old. There were 4 males and 4 females. Each patient had a baseline and persantine brain SPECT studies with 1 to 3 days' interval. Dipyridamole was given intravenously at a dose of 0.56 mg/kg over 4 minutes while watching vital signs such as blood pressure, heart rate, and electrocardiogram. Three minutes after the completion of the infusion, 99mTc-ECD (0.2 mCi/Ib body weight) was injected. Brain SPECT was performed 30 minutes later using a tripple head gamma camera equipped with LEHR collimators. A total of 128 projections with an acquisition time of 30 second per projection was obtained and reconstructed by filtered back projections without attenuation correction. The difference between the baseline and persantine studies was analysed by visual and semiquantitavely. During the infusion of persantine, heart rate, blood pressure and side effects such as headache, chest discomfort were similar to the persantine myocardial SPECT studies. Five of eight patients showed a significant decrease in rCBF on persantine brain SPECT in comparison to the baseline study. The remaining three revealed no significant change in rCBF. Our study suggests that the dipyridamole stress brain SPECT is feasible and useful in assessing cerebral blood flow reserve. However we need to evaluate more number of patients in the future

  12. Examination of statistical noise in SPECT image and sampling pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Akihiro; Soma, Tsutomu; Murase, Kenya; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Tomonori; Kawakami, Kazunori; Teraoka, Satomi; Kojima, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    Statistical noise in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image was examined for its relation with total count and with sampling pitch by simulation and phantom experiment to obtain their projection data under defined conditions. The former SPECT simulation was performed on assumption of a virtual, homogeneous water column (20 cm diameter) as an absorbing mass. In the latter, used were 3D-Hoffman brain phantom (Data Spectrum Corp.) filled with 370 MBq of 99m Tc-pertechnetate solution and a facing 2-detector SPECT machine with a low-energy/high-resolution collimator, E-CAM (Siemens). Projected data by the two methods were reconstructed through the filtered back projection to make each transaxial image. The noise was evaluated by vision, by their root mean square uncertainty calculated from average count and standard deviation (SD) in the region of interest (ROI) defined in reconstructed images and by normalized mean squares calculated from the difference between the reference image obtained with common sampling pitch to and all of obtained slices of, the simulation and phantom. As a conclusion, the pitch was recommended to be set in the machine as to approximating the value calculated by the sampling theorem, though the projection counts per one angular direction were smaller with the same total time of data acquisition. (R.T.)

  13. Hybrid SPECT/CT imaging in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarmiello, Andrea; Giovannini, Elisabetta; Meniconi, Martina; Cuccurullo, Vincenzo; Gaeta, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the SPECT/CT hybrid modality has led to a rapid development of imaging techniques in nuclear medicine, opening new perspectives for imaging staff and patients as well. However, while, the clinical role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is well consolidated, the diffusion and the consequent value of single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) has yet to be weighed, Hence, there is a need for a careful analysis, comparing the "potential" benefits of the hybrid modality with the "established" ones of the standalone machine. The aim of this article is to analyze the impact of this hybrid tool on the diagnosis of diseases of the central nervous system, comparing strengths and weaknesses of both modalities through the use of SWOT analysis.

  14. 123I-iomazenil brain receptor SPECT in focal epilepsy. In comparison with 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT, MRI and Video/EEG monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hao; Wang Tongge; Huang Li; Michael Cordes

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical value of 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT in diagnosis of focal epilepsy in comparison with 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT, MRI and Video/EEG monitoring. Methods 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT was performed on 40 patients with focal epilepsy. The results were compared with those obtained by 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT, MRI and Video/EEG monitoring. Results: In 40 patients, the sensitivity of Video/EEG monitoring for localization of epileptogenic area was 95% (38/40). The sensitivity of 123 I-iomazenil brain receptor SPECT, 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT and MRI for localization of epileptogenic area compared with Video/EEG monitoring ('gold standard') was 65.8%(25/38), 55.3%(21/38) and 47.4%(18/38), respectively. The localization of epileptogenic area with 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT was in concordance with Video/EEG monitoring in 20 patients, 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT in 15 patients and MRI in 16 patients, respectively. The sensitivity of 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT combined with MRI for localization of epileptogenic area was 84.2%(32/38). Conclusions: 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT is a useful method in detecting and localizing epileptogenic area. The combination of 123 I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT and MRI has a high sensitivity for detecting epileptogenic area

  15. Neuropsychological Correlates of Brain Perfusion SPECT in Patients with Macrophagic Myofasciitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Van Der Gucht

    Full Text Available Patients with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant-induced macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF complain of arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue and cognitive deficits. This study aimed to characterize brain perfusion in these patients.Brain perfusion SPECT was performed in 76 consecutive patients (aged 49±10 y followed in the Garches-Necker-Mondor-Hendaye reference center for rare neuromuscular diseases. Images were acquired 30 min after intravenous injection of 925 MBq 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD at rest. All patients also underwent a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests, within 1.3±5.5 mo from SPECT. Statistical parametric maps (SPM12 were obtained for each test using linear regressions between each performance score and brain perfusion, with adjustment for age, sex, socio-cultural level and time delay between brain SPECT and neuropsychological testing.SPM analysis revealed positive correlation between neuropsychological scores (mostly exploring executive functions and brain perfusion in the posterior associative cortex, including cuneus/precuneus/occipital lingual areas, the periventricular white matter/corpus callosum, and the cerebellum, while negative correlation was found with amygdalo-hippocampal/entorhinal complexes. A positive correlation was also observed between brain perfusion and the posterior associative cortex when the time elapsed since last vaccine injection was investigated.Brain perfusion SPECT showed a pattern of cortical and subcortical changes in accordance with the MMF-associated cognitive disorder previously described. These results provide a neurobiological substrate for brain dysfunction in aluminum hydroxide adjuvant-induced MMF patients.

  16. Individual patient dosimetry using quantitative SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.; Oliva, J.; Baum, R.; Fisher, S.

    2002-01-01

    An approach is described to provide individual patient dosimetry for routine clinical use. Accurate quantitative SPECT imaging was achieved using appropriate methods. The volume of interest (VOI) was defined semi-automatically using a fixed threshold value obtained from phantom studies. The calibration factor to convert the voxel counts from SPECT images into activity values was determine from calibrated point source using the same threshold value as in phantom studies. From selected radionuclide the dose within and outside a sphere of voxel dimension at different distances was computed through dose point-kernels to obtain a discrete absorbed dose kernel representation around the volume source with uniform activity distribution. The spatial activity distribution from SPECT imaging was convolved with this kernel representation using the discrete Fourier transform method to yield three-dimensional absorbed dose rate distribution. The accuracy of dose rates calculation was validated by software phantoms. The absorbed dose was determined by integration of the dose rate distribution for each volume of interest (VOI). Parameters for treatment optimization such as dose rate volume histograms and dose rate statistic are provided. A patient example was used to illustrate our dosimetric calculations

  17. Evaluation of pulmonary emphysema by the fused image of CT image and ventilation SPECT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Ituko; Maruno, Hiromasa; Mori, Kazuaki; Kohno, Tadashi; Kokubo, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated pulmonary emphysema using a diagnostic device that could obtain a CT image, a ventilation single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image and a lung perfusion SPECT image in one examination. The fused image made from the CT image and SPECT image had very little position gap between images, and the precision was high. From the fused image, we were able to detect the areas in which emphysematous change was the most marked in the CT image, while the accumulation decrease was most remarkable in the ventilation SPECT image. Thus it was possible to obtain an accurate status of pulmonary emphysema, and our method was regarded as a useful technique. (author)

  18. Voxel-based analysis of whole-brain effects of age and gender on dopamine transporter SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Girard, Nadine; Mundler, Olivier; Guedj, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown age- and gender-related differences in striatal dopamine transporter (DaT) binding. These studies were based on a striatal region on interest approach that may have underestimated these effects and could not evaluate extrastriatal regions. Our aim was to determine the effects at the voxel level of age and gender on whole-brain DaT distribution using [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT in healthy subjects. We performed a whole-brain [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT voxel-based analysis using SPM8 and a standardized normalization template (p < 0.05, corrected using the false discovery rate method) in 51 healthy subjects aged from 21 to 79 years. We found an age-related DaT binding decrease in the striatum, anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortices and insulo-opercular cortices. Also DaT binding ratios were higher in women than men in the striatum and opercular cortices. This study showed both striatal and extrastriatal age-related and gender-related differences in DaT binding in healthy subjects using a whole-brain voxel-based non-a priori approach. These differences highlight the need for careful age and gender matching in DaT analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  19. Voxel-based analysis of whole-brain effects of age and gender on dopamine transporter SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Azulay, Jean-Philippe [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et Pathologie du Mouvement, Marseille (France); CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); Ceccaldi, Mathieu [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR Inserm 1106, Institut de Neurosciences des Systemes, Marseille (France); Girard, Nadine [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neuroradiologie diagnostique et interventionnelle, Marseille (France); Mundler, Olivier [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France); Guedj, Eric [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France)

    2012-11-15

    Several studies have shown age- and gender-related differences in striatal dopamine transporter (DaT) binding. These studies were based on a striatal region on interest approach that may have underestimated these effects and could not evaluate extrastriatal regions. Our aim was to determine the effects at the voxel level of age and gender on whole-brain DaT distribution using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in healthy subjects. We performed a whole-brain [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT voxel-based analysis using SPM8 and a standardized normalization template (p < 0.05, corrected using the false discovery rate method) in 51 healthy subjects aged from 21 to 79 years. We found an age-related DaT binding decrease in the striatum, anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortices and insulo-opercular cortices. Also DaT binding ratios were higher in women than men in the striatum and opercular cortices. This study showed both striatal and extrastriatal age-related and gender-related differences in DaT binding in healthy subjects using a whole-brain voxel-based non-a priori approach. These differences highlight the need for careful age and gender matching in DaT analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  20. The variability of translocator protein signal in brain and blood of genotyped healthy humans using in vivo 123I-CLINDE SPECT imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Jensen, Per; Thomsen, Gerda

    2017-01-01

    123I-CLINDE is a radiotracer developed for SPECT and targets the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO). TSPO is upregulated in glial cells and used as a measure of neuroinflammation in a variety of central nervous system diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the test-retest variability of 123...... subjects and a population-based approach in combination with individual whole-blood time-activity curves in the other 8 subjects. Seven brain volumes of interest were extracted and quantified by SUVs and by 2-tissue-compartment modeling for calculation of distribution volumes (VT). Test-retest variability...... was measured by percentage difference (PD), the absolute PD, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and coefficient of variation. Results: The absolute PD of brain SUV and the VT had similar values. The ICC values were higher for VTs than for brain SUVs, which were both moderate to high; however, lower ICC...

  1. Evaluation of the monoamine uptake site ligand [123I]methyl 3β-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane-2β-carboxylate ([123I]β-CIT) in non-human primates: pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and SPECT brain imaging coregistered with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Zea-Ponce, Yolanda; Zoghbi, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The in vivo properties of a new radioiodinated probe of the dopamine and serotonin transporter, [ 123 )I] methyl 3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane-2β - carboxylate ([ 123 I]β-CIT) were evaluated in baboons and vervet monkeys. The labeled product was prepared by reaction of the tributylstannyl precursor with [ 123 I] NaI in the presence of peracetic acid followed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification. After intravenous administration, whole brain activity peaked at 6-10% injected dose within 1 h post injection (p.i.) and washed out in a biphasic manner with clearance half-lives of 1-2 and 7-35 h for the rapid and slow components, respectively. Excretion occurred primarily through the hepatobiliary route, with about 30% of the injected dose appearing in the GI tract after 5 h. Estimates of radiation absorbed dose gave 0.01, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.03 mGy/MBq to the brain, gall bladder wall, lower large intestine wall and urinary bladder wall, respectively. High resolution SPECT imaging in a baboon demonstrated high uptake of tracer in the region of the striatum in the hypothalamus and in a midbrain region comprising raphe, substantia nigra and superior colliculus with regional brain uptakes measured at 210 min p.i. of [ 123 I]β-CIT. The anatomical locations of the regions on the SPECT image were confirmed by coregistration with MRI. Plasma metabolites and pharmacokinetics were analyzed in baboons and vervets by ethyl acetate extraction and HPLC. [ 123 I]β-CIT promises to be a useful marker for SPECT study of the monoamine uptake system in primate brain. (Author)

  2. Clinical Significance of Brain SPECT in Zipeprol Abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dai Ok; Kim, Jae Phil; Kim, Deog Yoon; Yang, Hyung In; Koh, Eun Mi; Kim, Kwang Won; Choi, Young Kil [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-03-15

    Drug abuse is widespread in worldwide and has been associated with neurologic complication. Zipeprol is one of drugs which been abused for psychological satisfaction in some adolescents. This agent is non-opioid antitussive agent, which is not legally considered as being capable of creating dependence or abuse liability at therapeutic serum levels. But it has been reported that acute or chronic overdose create neurologic complication such as convulsion as well as dependence. Recently we experienced six zipeprol abusers who admitted due to convulsion and variable neurologic symptoms. The aim of our study was to determine the role of Tc-99m- HMPAO brain SPECT in those patients. EEG and brain CT showed no abnormal finding, but brain SPECT showed focal or multiple perfusion abnormalities in frontal, parietal, occipital cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and especially at temporal cortex. These results suggest that brain SPECT may be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate the cerebral dysfunction induced by zipeprol abuse.

  3. Clinical Significance of Brain SPECT in Zipeprol Abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dai Ok; Kim, Jae Phil; Kim, Deog Yoon; Yang, Hyung In; Koh, Eun Mi; Kim, Kwang Won; Choi, Young Kil

    1993-01-01

    Drug abuse is widespread in worldwide and has been associated with neurologic complication. Zipeprol is one of drugs which been abused for psychological satisfaction in some adolescents. This agent is non-opioid antitussive agent, which is not legally considered as being capable of creating dependence or abuse liability at therapeutic serum levels. But it has been reported that acute or chronic overdose create neurologic complication such as convulsion as well as dependence. Recently we experienced six zipeprol abusers who admitted due to convulsion and variable neurologic symptoms. The aim of our study was to determine the role of Tc-99m- HMPAO brain SPECT in those patients. EEG and brain CT showed no abnormal finding, but brain SPECT showed focal or multiple perfusion abnormalities in frontal, parietal, occipital cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and especially at temporal cortex. These results suggest that brain SPECT may be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate the cerebral dysfunction induced by zipeprol abuse.

  4. Contribution of ictal- and interictal brain SPECT to the diagnostic work-up of epileptic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dondi, M.; Salgarello, M.; Zoboli, S.; Cidda, C.; Nanni, C.; Rubboli, G.; Meletti, S.; Volpi, L.; Tassinari, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim of the study: We aimed at assessing the contribution of brain SPECT to the diagnostic work-up of patients admitted to the Intensive Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (IEMU) by evaluating concordance of SPECT results with clinical diagnosis (DX) at IEMU admittance (Adm-DX) and at hospital discharge (Disch-DX). Materials and methods: 48 consecutive patients were enrolled in this study and submitted to both ictal and inter-ictal brain SPECT, carried out by means of a three-head system. Before ictal studies, patients were video-EEG monitored in the IEMU. 740 MBq of Tc99m ECD were injected during seizures and imaging performed within 45-60 minutes. For interictal studies, injection was given after at least a 24-hours seizure-free interval. Slices were reconstructed along the orbito-meatal line as well as along the temporal cut. Possible epileptic foci were identified by visual comparison of ictal and interictal studies. Clinical data: Out of the 48 cases, 27 were diagnosed as temporal lobe epilepsies (TLE). Of these, 15 had an Adm-DX of lateralization, whereas 12 were not lateralized according to standardized clinical and EEG criteria. Frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) was diagnosed in 11 patients, another group of 3 was classified as cryptogenetic (CRYP), while the remaining 7 cases did not fall into any of the previous groups (OTH). SPECT results: in TLE, ictal/interictal SPECT results were congruent with Adm-Dx in 13/27 cases (48%) whereas congruence was found with 25 out of 27 (92%) of Disch-DX. In FLE, concordance between SPECT and clinical diagnosis remained unchanged (9/11 in comparison to either Adm-DX or Disch-DX). CRYPT patients had no lateralization at Adm-DX, while Dis-DX was concordant with SPECT in 2/3 cases. The group labeled as OTH showed concordance SPECT with Adm-DX in 0/7 cases, as opposed to 5/7 of Disch-DX. On the whole, SPECT results were concordant with Adm-DX in 34/48 cases (71%) but concordance was much higher with Dis-DX (41/48; 85%). Conclusions: Brain

  5. Registration and display of brain SPECT and MRI using external markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohjonen, H.; Nikkinen, P.; Sipilae, O.; Launes, J.; Salli, E.; Salonen, O.; Karp, P.; Ylae-Jaeaeski, J.; Katila, T.; Liewendahl, K.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate anatomical localisation of abnormalities observed in brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is difficult, but can be improved by correlating data from SPECT and other tomographic imaging modalities. For this purpose we have developed software to register, analyse and display 99m Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime SPECT and 1.0 T MRI of the brain. For registration of SPECT and MRI data external skin markers containing 99m Tc (220 kBq) in 50 μl of coconut butter were used. The software is coded in the C programming language, and the X Window system and the OSF/Motif standards are used for graphics and definition of the user interface. The registration algorithm follows a noniterative least-squares method using singular value decomposition of a 3 x 3 covariance matrix. After registration, the image slices of both data sets are shown at identical tomographic levels. The registration error in phantom studies was on average 4 mm. In the two-dimensional display mode the orthogonal cross-sections of the data sets are displayed side by side. In the three-dimensional mode MRI data are displayed as a surface-shaded 3 D reconstruction and SPECT data as cut planes. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated in patients with cerebral infarcts, brain tumour, herpes simplex encephalitis and epilepsy. (orig.). With 9 figs

  6. SPECT brain perfusion abnormalities in mild or moderate traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Dayem, H M; Abu-Judeh, H; Kumar, M; Atay, S; Naddaf, S; El-Zeftawy, H; Luo, J Q

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this atlas is to present a review of the literature showing the advantages of SPECT brain perfusion imaging (BPI) in mild or moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) over other morphologic imaging modalities such as x-ray CT or MRI. The authors also present the technical recommendations for SPECT brain perfusion currently practiced at their center. For the radiopharmaceutical of choice, a comparison between early and delayed images using Tc-99m HMPAO and Tc-99m ECD showed that Tc-99m HMPAO is more stable in the brain with no washout over time. Therefore, the authors feel that Tc-99m HMPAO is preferable to Tc-99m ECD. Recommendations regarding standardizing intravenous injection, the acquisition, processing parameters, and interpretation of scans using a ten grade color scale, and use of the cerebellum as the reference organ are presented. SPECT images of 228 patients (age range, 11 to 88; mean, 40.8 years) with mild or moderate TBI and no significant medical history that interfered with the results of the SPECT BP were reviewed. The etiology of the trauma was in the following order of frequency: motor vehicle accidents (45%) followed by blow to the head (36%) and a fall (19%). Frequency of the symptoms was headache (60.9%), memory problems (27.6%), dizziness (26.7%), and sleep disorders (8.7%). Comparison between patients imaged early (3 months) from the time of the accident, showed that early imaging detected more lesions (4.2 abnormal lesions per study compared to 2.7 in those imaged more than 3 months after the accident). Of 41 patients who had mild traumatic injury without loss of consciousness and had normal CT, 28 studies were abnormal. Focal areas of hypoperfusion were seen in 77% (176 patients, 612 lesions) of the group of 228 patients. The sites of abnormalities were in the following order: basal ganglia and thalami, 55.2%, frontal lobes, 23.8%, temporal lobes, 13%, parietal, 3.7%, insular and occipital lobes together, 4.6%.

  7. Recovered neuronal viability revealed by Iodine-123-iomazenil SPECT following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Fujisawa, Hirosuke; Kurokawa, Tetsu; Suehiro, Eiichi; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2010-10-01

    We evaluated cortical damages following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the acute phase with [(123)I] iomazenil (IMZ) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In all, 12 patients with cerebral contusion following TBI were recruited. All patients underwent IMZ SPECT within 1 week after TBI. To investigate the changes in distribution of IMZ in the cortex in the chronic phase, after conventional treatment, patients underwent IMZ SPECT again. A decrease in the accumulation of radioligand for the central benzodiazepine receptor in the cortex corresponding to the contusion revealed with computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were shown on IMZ SPECT in the acute phase in all patients. In 9 of 12 patients (75%), images of IMZ SPECT obtained in the chronic phase of TBI showed that areas with a decreased distribution of IMZ were remarkably reduced in comparison with those obtained in the acute phase. Both CT scans and MRI showed a normal appearance of the cortex morphologically, where the binding potential of IMZ recovered in the chronic phase. Reduced binding potential of radioligand for the central benzodiazepine receptor is considered to be an irreversible reaction; however, in this study, IMZ accumulation in the cortex following TBI was recovered in the chronic phase in several patients. [(123)I] iomazenil SPECT may have a potential to disclose a reversible vulnerability of neurons following TBI.

  8. Improvements in SPECT technology for cerebral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esser, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    Advancement in three major areas of SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) technology have resulted in improved image quality for cerebral studies. In the first area, single-crystal camera electronics, extensive use of microprocessors, custom digital circuitry, an data bus architecture have allowed precise external control of all gantry motions and improved signal processing. The new digital circuitry permits energy, uniformity, and linearity corrections to be an integral part of the processing electronics. Calibration of these correlations is controlled by algorithms stored in the camera's memory. The second area of improved SPECT technology is camera collimation and related imaging techniques. In this area, system resolution has been improved without loss of sensitivity by decreasing the air gap between patient and collimator surface. Since cerebral studies characteristically image high-contrast regions less than 1 cm in size, image quality has been improved by increasing collimator resolution even at the expense of sensitivity. Increased resolution also improved image contrast for studies using 123 I-labeled pharmaceuticals with 3% to 4% 124 I contamination. 65 references

  9. Imaging neurochemistry of cerebrovascular disease with PET and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatazawa, J.; Shimosegawa, E.

    1998-01-01

    Pathophysiology od cerebrovascular disease has been studied by measuring cerebral blood flow and energy metabolism using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). These parameters are measures for brain tissue consisting of heterogeneous components such as neurons, glial cells, and blood vessels. It is still difficult to evaluate brain damages specifically involving either neurons or other components. Several trials were recently conducted to visualize neuron-specific injury in cerebrovascular disease by means of 11 C flumazenil for PET and 123 I-iomazenil for SPECT. These tracers selectively bind to central benzodiazepine receptor which is purely neuronal. A reduced accumulation of these ligands was found in the area surrounding the complete infarction and in the cortex remote from putaminal hemorrhage, indicating the existence of neuron specific injury not visualized by CT and MR. Neurological deficits were well correlated with the loss of cortical accumulation of these ligands. These preliminary studies indicated a potential of neurochemical imaging in cerebrovascular disease. Vulnerability to ischemia which may differ among brain tissue components, among subpopulations of neurons, and among pre-synaptic and post-synaptic functions can be more precisely examined. Neurochemical imaging can be also applied to reveal releases and re-organization of each neurotransmitter-acceptor system after stroke

  10. Imaging neurochemistry of cerebrovascular disease with PET and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatazawa, J.; Shimosegawa, E. [Akita Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    1998-09-01

    Pathophysiology od cerebrovascular disease has been studied by measuring cerebral blood flow and energy metabolism using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). These parameters are measures for brain tissue consisting of heterogeneous components such as neurons, glial cells, and blood vessels. It is still difficult to evaluate brain damages specifically involving either neurons or other components. Several trials were recently conducted to visualize neuron-specific injury in cerebrovascular disease by means of {sup 11}C flumazenil for PET and {sup 123}I-iomazenil for SPECT. These tracers selectively bind to central benzodiazepine receptor which is purely neuronal. A reduced accumulation of these ligands was found in the area surrounding the complete infarction and in the cortex remote from putaminal hemorrhage, indicating the existence of neuron specific injury not visualized by CT and MR. Neurological deficits were well correlated with the loss of cortical accumulation of these ligands. These preliminary studies indicated a potential of neurochemical imaging in cerebrovascular disease. Vulnerability to ischemia which may differ among brain tissue components, among subpopulations of neurons, and among pre-synaptic and post-synaptic functions can be more precisely examined. Neurochemical imaging can be also applied to reveal releases and re-organization of each neurotransmitter-acceptor system after stroke.

  11. 99mTc HM-PAO brain perfusion SPECT in brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetti, M.G.; Ciritella, P.; Valle, G.; Perrone, E.

    1995-01-01

    We have easily carried out and interpreted 99m Tc HM-PAO SPECT in a consecutive series of 40 comatose patients with brain damage, without discontinuing therapy. Brain death was diagnosed in 7 patients, by recognising absence of brain perfusion, as shown by no intracranial radionuclide uptake. In patients in whom perfusion was seen on brain scans, HM-PAO SPECT improved assessment of the extent of injury, which in general was larger than suggested by CT. (orig.)

  12. In vivo quantification by SPECT of [{sup 123}I] ADAM bound to serotonin transporters in the brains of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, X.-X. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Hwang, J.-J. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, J.-F. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chi-Mei Foundation Medical Center, Yungkang City 710, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-C. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: jcchen@ym.edu.tw; Chou, Y.-T. [Institute of Physiology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Tu, K.-Y. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mackey Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan 104 (China); Wey, S.-P. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan 333 (China); Ting Gann [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Tao- Yuan 335, Taiwan (China)

    2004-11-01

    Background: A novel radioiodine ligand [{sup 123}I] ADAM (2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine) has been suggested as a promising serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging agent for the central nervous system. In this study, the biodistribution of SERTs in the rabbit brain was investigated using [{sup 123}I] ADAM and mapping images of the same animal produced by both single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and microautoradiography. A semiquantification method was adopted to deduce the optimum time for SPECT imaging, whereas the input for a simple fully quantitative tracer kinetic model was provided from arterial blood sampling data. Methods: SPECT imaging was performed on female rabbits postinjection of 185 MBq [{sup 123}I] ADAM. The time-activity curve obtained from the SPECT images was used to quantify the SERTs, for which the binding potential was calculated from the kinetic modeling of [{sup 123}I] ADAM. The kinetic data were analyzed by the nonlinear least squares method. The effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) on rabbits were also evaluated. After scanning, the same animal was sacrificed and the brain was removed for microautoradiography. Regions-of-interest were analyzed using both SPECT and microautoradiography images. The SPECT images were coregistered manually with the corresponding microautoradiography images for comparative study. Results: During the time interval 90-100 min postinjection, the peak specific binding levels in different brain regions were compared and the brain stem was shown to have the highest activity. The target-to-background ratio was 1.89{+-}0.02. Similar studies with fluoxetine and PCA showed a background level for SERT occupation. Microautoradiography demonstrated a higher level of anatomical details of the [{sup 123}I] ADAM distribution than that obtained by SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain. Conclusion: SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain with

  13. In vivo quantification by SPECT of [123I] ADAM bound to serotonin transporters in the brains of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, X.-X.; Hwang, J.-J.; Hsieh, J.-F.; Chen, J.-C.; Chou, Y.-T.; Tu, K.-Y.; Wey, S.-P.; Ting Gann

    2004-01-01

    Background: A novel radioiodine ligand [ 123 I] ADAM (2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine) has been suggested as a promising serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging agent for the central nervous system. In this study, the biodistribution of SERTs in the rabbit brain was investigated using [ 123 I] ADAM and mapping images of the same animal produced by both single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and microautoradiography. A semiquantification method was adopted to deduce the optimum time for SPECT imaging, whereas the input for a simple fully quantitative tracer kinetic model was provided from arterial blood sampling data. Methods: SPECT imaging was performed on female rabbits postinjection of 185 MBq [ 123 I] ADAM. The time-activity curve obtained from the SPECT images was used to quantify the SERTs, for which the binding potential was calculated from the kinetic modeling of [ 123 I] ADAM. The kinetic data were analyzed by the nonlinear least squares method. The effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) on rabbits were also evaluated. After scanning, the same animal was sacrificed and the brain was removed for microautoradiography. Regions-of-interest were analyzed using both SPECT and microautoradiography images. The SPECT images were coregistered manually with the corresponding microautoradiography images for comparative study. Results: During the time interval 90-100 min postinjection, the peak specific binding levels in different brain regions were compared and the brain stem was shown to have the highest activity. The target-to-background ratio was 1.89±0.02. Similar studies with fluoxetine and PCA showed a background level for SERT occupation. Microautoradiography demonstrated a higher level of anatomical details of the [ 123 I] ADAM distribution than that obtained by SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain. Conclusion: SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain with [ 123 I] ADAM showed

  14. Quantification of rat brain SPECT with 123I-ioflupane: evaluation of different reconstruction methods and image degradation compensations using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roé-Vellvé, N; Pino, F; Cot, A; Ros, D; Falcon, C; Gispert, J D; Pavía, J; Marin, C

    2014-01-01

    SPECT studies with 123 I-ioflupane facilitate the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The effect on quantification of image degradations has been extensively evaluated in human studies but their impact on studies of experimental PD models is still unclear. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of compensating for the degrading phenomena on the quantification of small animal SPECT studies using 123 I-ioflupane. This assessment enabled us to evaluate the feasibility of quantitatively detecting small pathological changes using different reconstruction methods and levels of compensation for the image degrading phenomena. Monte Carlo simulated studies of a rat phantom were reconstructed and quantified. Compensations for point spread function (PSF), scattering, attenuation and partial volume effect were progressively included in the quantification protocol. A linear relationship was found between calculated and simulated specific uptake ratio (SUR) in all cases. In order to significantly distinguish disease stages, noise-reduction during the reconstruction process was the most relevant factor, followed by PSF compensation. The smallest detectable SUR interval was determined by biological variability rather than by image degradations or coregistration errors. The quantification methods that gave the best results allowed us to distinguish PD stages with SUR values that are as close as 0.5 using groups of six rats to represent each stage. (paper)

  15. Cerebral abnormalities in cocaine abusers: Demonstration by SPECT perfusion brain scintigraphy. Work in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumeh, S.S.; Nagel, J.S.; English, R.J.; Moore, M.; Holman, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion brain scans with iodine-123 isopropyl iodoamphetamine (IMP) were obtained in 12 subjects who acknowledged using cocaine on a sporadic to a daily basis. The route of cocaine administration varied from nasal to intravenous. Concurrent abuse of other drugs was also reported. None of the patients were positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Brain scans demonstrated focal defects in 11 subjects, including seven who were asymptomatic, and no abnormality in one. Among the findings were scattered focal cortical deficits, which were seen in several patients and which ranged in severity from small and few to multiple and large, with a special predilection for the frontal and temporal lobes. No perfusion deficits were seen on I-123 SPECT images in five healthy volunteers. Focal alterations in cerebral perfusion are seen commonly in asymptomatic drug users, and these focal deficits are readily depicted by I-123 IMP SPECT

  16. The study of low level laser irradiation therapy on brain infarction with SPECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Xuechang; Jia Shaowei; Zleng Xiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Effect of rCBF and brain function on ILIB treating brain infarction will be investigated by SPECT brain perfusion imaging. Method: 3 1 patients with brain infarction, 17 patients were treated by ILIB on standard pharmaceutial treatment. SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed before and after ILIB therapy with comparison of oneself. They were quantified with BFCR% model effect during ILIB in 14 patients were observed. Result: ILIB 30 rnme SPECT showed the improvement of rCBF and cerebral function in 14 patients with brain infarction, and in 17 patients locus were prominence than mirror regions att er ILIB therapy, both are higher singnitficant difference ( t=4.4052, P<0.0001 ), but mirror regions were not singnificant difference before and after ILIB (t=1.6995, P>0.05). BFCR% quantitative results of locus were higher mirror regions, and higher singnificant difference (t=4.5278 p<0.0001 )。 Conclusion: ILIB can improve the rCBF and cerebral function of patients with brain infarction, and provoke function of brain cells. Some new evidence was provided for ILIB treatment of cerebral ischemia

  17. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    The techniques of brain imaging and results in perfusion studies and delayed images are outlined. An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the brain scan in a variety of common problems is discussed, especially as compared with other available procedures. Both nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions are considered. (Auth/C.F.)

  18. Utility of 99mTc-GHA Brain SPECT in the grading of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, B.R.; Kumar, Ashok

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Brain tumors are of diverse histological types, the most common being derived from glial tissue. The clinical management and prognosis of brain tumor patients is dependent on accurate neuro-pathologic diagnosis and grading. Radiological imaging is not always a good modality for assessing the exact nature and grade of a malignant tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a very high soft tissue resolution and is helpful in classifying the grade of tumor. Radionuclide imaging techniques that can reveal metabolic activity within tumor cells are very helpful in predicting the degree of malignancy. Usefulness of Tl-201 SPECT and FDG PET studies have been widely reported to evaluate malignant lesions by measuring increased regional glucose metabolism and amino acid uptake. 99mTc-GHA (Glucoheptonate), more or less analogous to 18F-FDG, may show increased glucose metabolism and help in grading tumors. This study was carried out to determine the utility of 99mTc-GHA SPECT for grading cerebral gliomas. Nineteen patients (12M, 7F) aged 22 to 51 years (36.1 ± 8.3) diagnosed clinically and radiologically to have a brain tumor were evaluated with 99mTc-GHA brain SPECT. All the patients had undergone CT/ MRI examination prior to the brain SPECT study. No patient had undergone surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy before the imaging studies. Brain SPECT was performed twice, i.e 40 min and 3 hours after intravenous administration of 20 mCi of Tc99m-GHA under a dual head SPECT gamma camera (Ecam, Siemens), with a low energy high-resolution collimator. A total of 128 frames of 30 seconds each, 64 per detector, were acquired in 128 x 128 matrix, with 360-degree rotation in step and shoot mode. Reconstruction of the SPECT data was done using standard software. Abnormal concentration of tracer at the tumor site was compared to normal uptake on the contralateral side, and ratios obtained for early (40 min) and delayed (3 hours) uptake of tracer. Retention ratio (RR), a

  19. Pre-evaluation study in SPECT images using a phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, Marina de Sa; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi; Abe, Rubens; Moura, Lincoln

    1996-01-01

    An alternative solution for the reconstruction of SPECT images using a Poisson Noise Model is presented. The proposed algorithm was applied on a real phantom and compared to the standard clinical procedures. Results have shown that the proposed method improves the quality of the SPECT images

  20. Physiological imaging with PET and SPECT in Dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagust, W.J. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Neurology Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1989-10-01

    Dementia is a medical problem of increasingly obvious importance. The most common cause of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for at least 50% of all cases of dementia, with multi-infarct dementia the next most common cause of the syndrome. While the accuracy of diagnosis of AD may range from 80 to 90%, there is currently no laboratory test to confirm the diagnosis. Functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) offer diagnostic advantages since brain function is unequivocally disturbed in all dementing illnesses. Both PET and SPECT have been utilized in the study of dementia. While both techniques rely on principles of emission tomography to produce three dimensional maps of injected radiotracers, the differences between positron and single photon emission have important consequences for the practical applications of the two procedures. This briefly reviews the technical differences between PET and SPECT, and discusses how both techniques have been used in our laboratory to elucidate the pathophysiology of dementia. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Physiological imaging with PET and SPECT in Dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagust, W.J.

    1989-10-01

    Dementia is a medical problem of increasingly obvious importance. The most common cause of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for at least 50% of all cases of dementia, with multi-infarct dementia the next most common cause of the syndrome. While the accuracy of diagnosis of AD may range from 80 to 90%, there is currently no laboratory test to confirm the diagnosis. Functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) offer diagnostic advantages since brain function is unequivocally disturbed in all dementing illnesses. Both PET and SPECT have been utilized in the study of dementia. While both techniques rely on principles of emission tomography to produce three dimensional maps of injected radiotracers, the differences between positron and single photon emission have important consequences for the practical applications of the two procedures. This briefly reviews the technical differences between PET and SPECT, and discusses how both techniques have been used in our laboratory to elucidate the pathophysiology of dementia. 32 refs., 2 figs

  2. Neuroimaging of post-traumatic higher brain dysfunction using 123I-Iomazenil (IMZ) SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji; Kamiyama, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaaki; Nakamura, Hirohiko

    2010-01-01

    In patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), higher brain dysfunctions which consist of cognitive impairments such as memory, attention, performance and social behavioral disturbances could be rarely apparent. However, higher brain dysfunctions should be identified by neuropsychological tests and supported by a social welfare for handicapped patients. Acknowledgement of higher brain dysfunctions after MTBI without obvious brain damages on morphological neuroimagings could be a social issue under controversy. An imaging of cortical neuron damages in patients with higher brain dysfunctions after MTBI was studied by functional neuroimaging using 123 I-Iomazenil (IMZ) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Statistical imaging analyses using 3 dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) for 123 I-IMZ SPECT and 123 I-IMP SPECT as cerebral blood flow (CBF) studies were performed in 11 patients with higher brain dysfunctions after MTBI. In all patients with higher brain dysfunctions defined by neuropsychological tests, cortical neuron damages were observed in bilateral medial frontal lobes, but reduction of CBF in bilateral medial frontal lobes were less obviously showed in 8 patients (apparent in 3 and little in 5). Group comparison of 3D-SSP of 123 I-IMZ SPECT between 11 patients and 18 normal controls demonstrated significant selective loss of cortical neuron in bilateral medial frontal gyrus (MFG). Extent of abnormal pixels on each cortical gyrus using stereotactic extraction estimation (SEE) for 3D-SSP of 123 I-IMZ SPECT confirmed that 8 patients had abnormal pixel extent >10% in bilateral MFG and 5 patients had abnormal pixel extent >10% in bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus. In patients with MTBI, higher brain dysfunctions seems to correlate with selective loss of cortical neuron within bilateral MFG which could be caused by Wallerian degeneration as secondary phenomena after diffuse axonal injury within corpus callosum. Statistical

  3. Brain SPECT in children; Explorations scintigraphiques en neurologie et psychiatrie de l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyot, M. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France)

    1996-12-31

    Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author). 18 refs.

  4. Study on SPECT image for children with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wenhuang; Xie Zhichun; Chen Yucai; Lin Haoxue; Zheng Aidong; Xie Hui

    1998-01-01

    To explore the diagnostic value of SPECT image for children with cerebral infarction (CCI), comparative research was made on 26 cases undergoing regional cerebral perfusion (rCP) image between SPECT imaging and CT scanning. The results showed that the rCP in the infarct and its distant area was decreased. The positive rate of SPECT and CT were 92.3% (24/26) and 84.5% (22/26) respectively. The difference was not significant (P = 0.67, P>0.05). But, the positive rate of SPECT image 2 days after onset in 9 CCI was 100% (9/9), significantly higher than 55.6% (5/9) in CT scanning (P = 0.04, P<0.05). These findings suggested that the SPECT imaging is a sensitive method for the early diagnosis of CCI, and also helpful for observation of the therapeutic effect and evaluation of the prognosis

  5. Dopamine D2-receptor imaging with [sup 123]I-iodobenzamide SPECT in migraine patients abusing ergotamine: does ergotamine cross the blood brain barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeff, N.P.; Visser, W.H.; Ferrari, M.D.; Saxena, P.R.; Royen, E.A. van (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-10-01

    Two migraine patients were studied by in vivo SPECT using the dopamine D2-receptor specific radioligand [sup 123]I-3-iodo-6-methoxybenzamide ([sup 123]I-IBZM) during ergotamine abuse and after withdrawal. Results were compared with 15 healthy controls. Striatum/cerebellum and striatum/occipital cortex ratios of count rate density were calculated as a semiquantitative measurement for striatal dopamine D2-receptor binding potential. No differences were found in striatal uptake of [sup 123]I-IBZM between healthy controls and the patients when on or off ergotamine. Preliminary evidence suggests that ergotamine may not occupy striatal dopamine D2-receptors to a large extent and thus may not cross the blood brain barrier in large quantities. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Evaluation of both perfusion and atrophy in multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type using brain SPECT alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Kuji, Ichiei; Seto, Akira; Ito, Kimiteru; Kikuta, Daisuke; Yamada, Minoru; Shimano, Yasumasa; Sato, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Partial volume effects in atrophied areas should be taken into account when interpreting brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of neurodegenerative diseases. To evaluate both perfusion and atrophy using brain SPECT alone, we developed a new technique applying tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to SPECT. After linear spatial normalization of brain perfusion SPECT using 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) to a Talairach space, high-dimension-warping was done using an original 99m Tc-ECD template. Contraction map images calculated from Jacobian determinants and spatially normalized SPECT images using this high-dimension-warping were compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) between two groups of 16 multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C) patients and 73 age-matched normal controls. This comparison was also performed in conventionally warped SPECT images. SPM2 demonstrated statistically significant contraction indicating local atrophy and decreased perfusion in the whole cerebellum and pons of MSA-C patients as compared to normal controls. Higher significance for decreased perfusion in these areas was obtained in high-dimension-warping than in conventional warping, possibly due to sufficient spatial normalization to a 99m Tc-ECD template in high-dimensional warping of severely atrophied cerebellum and pons. In the present high-dimension-warping, modification of tracer activity remained within 3% of the original tracer distribution. The present new technique applying TBM to brain SPECT provides information on both perfusion and atrophy at the same time thereby enhancing the role of brain perfusion SPECT

  7. Evaluation of both perfusion and atrophy in multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type using brain SPECT alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuda Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial volume effects in atrophied areas should be taken into account when interpreting brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images of neurodegenerative diseases. To evaluate both perfusion and atrophy using brain SPECT alone, we developed a new technique applying tensor-based morphometry (TBM to SPECT. Methods After linear spatial normalization of brain perfusion SPECT using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD to a Talairach space, high-dimension-warping was done using an original 99mTc-ECD template. Contraction map images calculated from Jacobian determinants and spatially normalized SPECT images using this high-dimension-warping were compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2 between two groups of 16 multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C patients and 73 age-matched normal controls. This comparison was also performed in conventionally warped SPECT images. Results SPM2 demonstrated statistically significant contraction indicating local atrophy and decreased perfusion in the whole cerebellum and pons of MSA-C patients as compared to normal controls. Higher significance for decreased perfusion in these areas was obtained in high-dimension-warping than in conventional warping, possibly due to sufficient spatial normalization to a 99mTc-ECD template in high-dimensional warping of severely atrophied cerebellum and pons. In the present high-dimension-warping, modification of tracer activity remained within 3% of the original tracer distribution. Conclusions The present new technique applying TBM to brain SPECT provides information on both perfusion and atrophy at the same time thereby enhancing the role of brain perfusion SPECT

  8. Cervical SPECT Camera for Parathyroid Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-08-31

    Primary hyperparathyroidism characterized by one or more enlarged parathyroid glands has become one of the most common endocrine diseases in the world affecting about 1 per 1000 in the United States. Standard treatment is highly invasive exploratory neck surgery called Parathyroidectomy. The surgery has a notable mortality rate because of the close proximity to vital structures. The move to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is hampered by the lack of high resolution pre-surgical imaging techniques that can accurately localize the parathyroid with respect to surrounding structures. We propose to develop a dedicated ultra-high resolution (~ 1 mm) and high sensitivity (10x conventional camera) cervical scintigraphic imaging device. It will be based on a multiple pinhole-camera SPECT system comprising a novel solid state CZT detector that offers the required performance. The overall system will be configured to fit around the neck and comfortably image a patient.

  9. Applications of SPECT imaging of dopaminergic neurotransmission in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugaya, Akira; Fujita, Masahiro; Innis, R.B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Medicine

    2000-02-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers selective for pre- and post-synaptic targets have allowed measurements of several aspects of dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission. In this article, we will first review our DA transporter imaging in Parkinson's disease. We have developed the in vivo dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT ((1R)-2{beta}-Carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane). This method showed that patients with Parkinson's disease have markedly reduced DAT levels in striatum, which correlated with disease severity and disease progression. Second, we applied DA imaging techniques in patients with schizophrenia. Using amphetamine as a releaser of DA, we observed the enhanced DA release, which was measured by imaging D2 receptors with [{sup 123}I]IBZM (iodobenzamide), in schizophrenics. Further we developed the measurement of basal synaptic DA levels by AMPT (alpha-methyl-paratyrosine)-induced unmasking of D2 receptors. Finally, we expanded our techniques to the measurement of extrastriatal DA receptors using [{sup 123}I]epidepride. The findings suggest that SPECT is a useful technique to measure DA transmission in human brain and may further our understanding of the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. (author)

  10. Clinical Utility of '99mTc-HMPAO Brain SPECT Findings in Chronic Head Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin ll; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Chang Yoon; Kim, Young Soo

    1992-01-01

    Minima deterioration of cerebral perfusion or microanatomical changes were undetectable on conventional Brain CT or MRI. So evaluation of focal functional changes of the brain parenchyme is essential in chronic head injury patients, who did not show focal anatomical changes on these radiological studies. However, the patients who had longstanding neurologic sequelae following head injury, there had been no available imaging modalities for evaluating these patients precisely. Therefore we tried to detect the focal functional changes on the brain parenchyme using 99m Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT on the patients of chronic head injuries. Twenty three patients who had suffered from headache, memory dysfunction, personality change and insomnia lasting more than six months following head injury were included in our cases, which showed no anatomical abnormalities on Brain CT or MRI. At first they underwent psychological test whether the symptoms were organic or not. Also we were able to evaluate the cerebral perfusion changes with 99m Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in 22 patients among the 23, which five patients were focal and 17 patients were nonfocally diffuse perfusion changes. Thus we can predict the perfusion changes such as local vascular deterioration or functional defects using 99m Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in the patients who had suffered from post-traumatic sequelae, which changes were undetectable on Brain CT or MRI.

  11. The value of rCBF brain SPECT in assessing visual function of patients with honeymoons hemianopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Ruiman; Yao Jingli; Qing Zheng

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT imaging of 8 cases with honeymoons hemianopia (HH) was taken before and after a course of oriented dynamic color photic stimulation (ODCPS). It was suggested that ODCPS in patients with HH was an effective method for increasing visual field and improving visual function. Cerebral metabolic patterns reflected the mechanism of ODCPS effecting the patients with HH. The retinal midbrain-occipital visual path-way may play an important role in mediating the increase of visual field and restoration of visual function. It was also concluded that brain SPECT imaging was an useful method for the studying of brain function

  12. Marchiafava-Bignami disease: a case studied with brain magnetic resonance and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo Oliver, J.; Casas Parera, Ignacio; Libere, G.; Malagold, S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To show the correlation between brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) and single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) in a patient with Marchiafava-Bignami (MB) disease. Background: MB disease is a rare disorder associated with chronic alcoholism. It is characterized by symmetric demyelination of corpus callosum (CC) and adjacent white matter. These lesions can be demonstrated both by computed tomography or/and MRI. Scarce information is available about MRI and SPECT according to the research done. Design/methods: A 79-year-old white man with a history of excessive alcohol consumption (predominantly wine) was admitted to our Institute. A decrease in his physical activity was evidenced in the two years prior to admission and in the last twelve months progressive dementia with hallucinations and severe apathy developed. On admission neurologic examination showed papillae pale in both eyes, left hearing loss, action tremor of upper limbs and proximal hyporeflexia with distal arreflexia of all four limbs was observed. Affectation of higher cortical functions was evident. Cerebrospinal fluid was normal and serology for syphilis and HIV were negative. Both renal and hepatic functions were normal. Brain MRI and SPECT were performed. The patient died 70 days after diagnosis of MB disease. Results: MRI scans of the brain showed multiple hyperintense T2-weighted lesions in white matter and basal ganglia. Cortical atrophy, especially in the fronto-temporal areas, and a CC thickness reduction were also observed. Sagittal view showed an irregular cavitation in the genu of the CC, hypointense and hyperintense on T1 and T2-weighted images respectively. The SPECT showed an abnormal low perfusion on both frontal lobes, left temporo-parietal lobes and right basal ganglia. Conclusion: The clinical features and MRI were consistent with the diagnosis of MB disease. MRI and SPECT studies showed the connection between the lesion in the CC and bilateral cortical

  13. Brain SPECT in childhood; Temp cerebrale chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquart, F.; Saliba, E.; Prunier, C.; Baulieu, F.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D.; Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Unite Inserm 316, 37 - Tours (France)

    2001-04-01

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  14. Dynamic SPECT of the brain using a lipophilic technetium-99m complex, PnAO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, S; Andersen, A R; Vorstrup, S

    1985-01-01

    m PnAO was injected i.v. as a bolus of 15 to 25 mCi. The distribution was followed over 10-sec intervals using a highly sensitive, rapidly rotating SPECT (Tomomatic 64) and compared to 133Xe flow maps. Upon arrival of the PnAO bolus to the brain, a high uptake was found in brain tissue with high......The lipophilic 99mTc-labeled oxime propylene amine oxime (PnAO) should, according to recent reports behave like 133Xe in the human brain. This study compares SPECT images of the two tracers in six subjects: four stroke cases, one transitory ischemic attack case and one normal subject. Technetium-99......AO has a high yet incomplete brain extraction yielding a flow dominated initial distribution with limitations mentioned....

  15. SPECT/CT imaging in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Gelfand, Michael J.; Sharp, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    SPECT/CT improves localization of single photon-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. To determine the utility of SPECT/CT in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma. 20 SPECT/CT and planar studies were reviewed in 13 children with papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Seven studies used I-123 and 13 used I-131, after elevating TSH by T4 deprivation or intramuscular thyrotropin alfa. Eight children had one study and five children had two to four studies. Studies were performed at initial post-total thyroidectomy evaluation, follow-up and after I-131 treatment doses. SPECT/CT was performed with a diagnostic-quality CT unit in 13 studies and a localization-only CT unit in 7. Stimulated thyroglobulin was measured (except in 2 cases with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies). In 13 studies, neck activity was present but poorly localized on planar imaging; all foci of uptake were precisely localized by SPECT/CT. Two additional foci of neck uptake were found on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT differentiated high neck uptake from facial activity. In six studies (four children), neck uptake was identified as benign by SPECT/CT (three thyroglossal duct remnants, one skin contamination, two by precise anatomical CT localization). In two children, SPECT/CT supported a decision not to treat with I-131. When SPECT/CT was unable to identify focal uptake as benign, stimulated thyroglobulin measurements were valuable. In three of 13 studies with neck uptake, SPECT/CT provided no useful additional information. SPECT/CT precisely localizes neck iodine uptake. In small numbers of patients, treatment is affected. SPECT/CT should be used when available in thyroid carcinoma patients. (orig.)

  16. Influence of void on image quality of industrial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J G; Jung, S H; Kim, J B; Moon, J; Kim, C H

    2013-01-01

    Industrial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a promising technique to determine the dynamic behavior of industrial process media and has been developed in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present study evaluated the influence of a void, which is presence in multiphase reactors of industrial process, on the image quality of an industrial SPECT. The results are very encouraging; that is, the performance of the industrial SPECT system is little influenced by the presence of a void, which means that industrial SPECT is an appropriate tool to estimate the dynamic characteristics of the process media in a water-air phase bubble column with a static gas sparger

  17. The effect of Compton scattering on quantitative SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.W.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Starmer, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    A Monte Carlo code has been developed to simulate the response of a SPECT system. The accuracy of the code has been verified and has been used in this research to study and illustrate the effects of Compton scatter on quantitative SPECT measurements. The effects of Compton scattered radiation on gamma camera response have been discussed by several authors, and will be extended to rotating gamma camera SPECT systems. The unique feature of this research includes the pictorial illustration of the Compton scattered and the unscattered components of the photopeak data on SPECT imaging by simulating phantom studies with and without Compton scatter

  18. Determination of hyperactive areas of Cortex Cerebri with using brain SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepien, A.; Pawlus, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was the assessment of the ability to apply of SPECT technique to determination of hyperactive areas of cortex cerebri. Analysis included 50 patients (mean aged 44 - 58). Brain SPECT scanning was performed after 1 hour after the intravenous injection of 740 MBq of ethylcisteinate dimmer labeled 99m Technetium (99mTc-ECD) with the use one-head gamma camera with a low-energy, ultra-high resolution collimator. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed using specialised software. In 20 cases normal biodistribution of the radiotracer was observed (hyperactive areas in cerebellum and occiput). In patients with psychiatric and neurological disturbances hyperactive areas were visualized in 25 cases in temporal lobes, in 4 cases in parietal lobes and in 1 patient in frontal area and basal ganglia. It is concluded that a number of factors limit the wide-scale use of SPECT, including the sophistication of imaging equipment (single-head cameras are inferior to the newer multihead units) and the experience of the physicians interpreting the scans and utilizing the data. In many diseases physicians do not know which areas of the patient's brain according disorders. Brain SPECT study can be a very useful tool to evaluation of hyperactive areas of cortex cerebri. This technique visualization of cortex cerebri completes standard analysis of disorders of brain activity

  19. Automated voxel-based analysis of brain perfusion SPECT for vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwabuchi, S.; Yokouchi, T.; Hayashi, M.; Kimura, H.; Tomiyama, A.; Hirata, Y.; Saito, N.; Harashina, J.; Nakayama, H.; Sato, K.; Aoki, K.; Samejima, H.; Ueda, M.; Terada, H.; Hamazaki, K.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage ISAH) using automated voxel-based analysis of brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPELT). Brain perfusion SPECT was performed 7 to 10 days after onset of SAH. Automated voxel-based analysis of SPECT used a Z-score map that was calculated by comparing the patients data with a control database. In cases where computed tomography (CT) scans detected an ischemic region due to vasospasm, automated voxel-based analysis of brain perfusion SPECT revealed dramatically reduced rCBF (Z-score ≤ -4). No patients with mildly or moderately diminished rCBF (Z-score > -3) progressed to cerebral infarction. Some patients with a Z-score < -4 did not progress to cerebral infarction after active treatment with a angioplasty. Three-dimensional images provided detailed anatomical information and helped us to distinguish surgical sequelae from vasospasm. In conclusion, automated voxel-based analysis of brain perfusion SPECT using a Z-score map is helpful in evaluating decreased rCBF due to vasospasm. (author)

  20. The group study of diagnostic efficacy of cerebro-vascular disease by I-123 IMP SPECT images obtained with ring type SPECT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Matsumoto, Toru

    1991-01-01

    We performed two image reading experiments in order to investigate the diagnostic capability of I-123 IMP SPECT obtained by the ring type SPECT scanner in cerebro-vascular disease. Fourteen physicians diagnosed SPECT images of 55 cases with reference to clinical neurological information, first without brain XCT images and second with XCT images. Each physician detected perfusion defects and redistributions of I-123 IMP and assigned a confidence level of abnormality for these SPECT findings by means of five rating method. From results obtained by ROC analysis, we concluded as follows. (1) Generally, I-123 IMP SPECT is a stable diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of cerebro-vascular disease and the image reading of XCT had no effects on the diagnosis of SPECT on the whole of physician. (2) However, there were unnegligible differences among individuals in the detectability of findings and the effect of XCT image reading. (3) Detectability of redistribution of I-123 IMP was lower than that of perfusion defect and inter-observer variation in the diagnostic performance for redistribution was larger than that of perfusion defect. The results suggest that it is necessary to standardize diagnostic criteria among physicians for redistribution of I-123 IMP. (author)

  1. Evaluation of Tl-201 SPECT imaging findings in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Ozyurt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare with histopathological findings the findings of prostate cancer imaging by SPECT method using Tl-201 as a tumor seeking agent. Methods: The study comprised 59 patients (age range 51-79 years, mean age 65.3 ± 6.8 years who were planned to have transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS-guided biopsies due to suspicion of prostate cancer between April 2011 and September 2011. Early planar, late planar and SPECT images were obtained for all patients. Scintigraphic evaluation was made in relation to uptake presence and patterns in the visual assessment and to Tumor/Background (T/Bg ratios for both planar and SPECT images in the quantitative assessment. Histopathological findings were compatible with benign etiology in 36 (61% patients and malign etiology in 23 (39% patients. Additionally, comparisons were made to evaluate the relationships between uptake patterns,total PSA values and Gleason scores. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between the benign and malignant groups in terms of uptake in planar and SPECT images and T/Bg ratios and PSA values. No statistically significant difference was found between uptake patterns of planar and SPECT images and Gleason scores in the malignant group. Conclusions: SPECT images were superior to planar images in the comparative assessment. Tl-201 SPECT imaging can provide an additional contribution to clinical practice in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and it can be used in selected patients.

  2. Differential diagnosis in patients with ring-like thallium-201 uptake in brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinuya, Keiko; Ohashi, Masahiro; Itoh, Syotaro

    2002-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate lesions with ring-like thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) uptake and to determine whether SPECT provides any information in differential diagnosis. A total of 244 201 Tl SPECT images were reviewed. In each study, early (15 min postinjection) and late (3 hr) brain SPECT images were obtained with 111 MBq of 201 Tl. The early uptake ratio (ER; lesion to normal brain average count ratio) and the late uptake ratio (LR) and the L/E ratio (ratio of LR to ER) were calculated. Ring-like uptake was observed in pre-therapeutic 26 SPECT images, including ten glioblastoma multiformes (ER, 3.45±0.64; LR, 2.74±0.54; L/E ratio 0.80±0.13), five meningiomas (6.48±2.34; 4.41±1.41; 0.72±0.19), four metastatic lung cancers (3.47±1.23; 2.40±0.98; 0.70±0.14), four brain abscesses (2.48±1.06; 1.59±0.30; 0.78±0.15), one invasive lesion of squamous cell carcinoma from the ethmoid sinus (1.54; 1.52; 0.99), one medulloblastoma (3.53; 3.52; 1.00) and one hematoma (3.32; 2.36; 0.71). The ER of meningioma was significantly higher than those of glioblastoma multiforme (p 201 Tl SPECT has still difficulty in differentiating abscess from brain tumor. (author)

  3. SPECT perfusion brain scintigraphy in dementia: early diagnostic and differential diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klisarova, A.

    2003-01-01

    The present review discusses the role of Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for the early detection and the differential diagnosis of the different types of dementia. The usefulness of the functional imaging is particularly emphasized in the detection of the early changes occurring in Alzheimer's diseases. The early diagnosis is a crucial factor for the treatment in the phase of reversible changes. The correlation between the severity of the diseases and the degree of hypoperfusion of the functional neuroimaging is also subject to review. SPECT and PET are of particular importance for the differential diagnosis of the various kinds of dementia. The imaging models are defined for the different stages of diseases. The functional imaging together with the clinical tests increase the diagnostic accuracy in Alzheimer's disease. The review presents the relation between the development of Alzheimer's disease and some risk factors. The review confirms the usefulness of SPECT and PET in the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and the differential diagnosis of the different types of dementia which proves the SPECT appropriateness in the routine clinical practice. The brain structures are more advantageous than the other methods of visualisation (CT and MRI) for the detection of the functional disorders in the brain cortex in a number of diseases of the central nervous system. (author)

  4. Minireview of Stereoselective Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Donald F.; Jakobsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Stereoselectivity is a fundamental principle in living systems. Stereoselectivity reflects the dependence of molecular processes on the spatial orientation of constituent atoms. Stereoselective processes govern many aspects of brain function and direct the course of many psychotropic drugs. Today......, modern imaging techniques such as SPECT and PET provide a means for studying stereoselective processes in the living brain. Chemists have prepared numerous radiolabelled stereoisomers for use in SPECT and PET in order to explore various molecular processes in the living brain of anesthetized laboratory...... animals and awake humans. The studies have demonstrated how many aspects of neurotransmission consist of crucial stereoselective events that can affect brain function in health and disease. Here, we present a brief account of those findings in hope of stimulating further interest in the vital topic....

  5. 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedj, Eric; Taieb, David; Cammilleri, Serge; Lussato, David; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier; Niboyet, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Neuro-imaging studies with 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT in fibromyalgia (FM) patients have reported only limited subcortical hypoperfusion. 99m Tc-ECD SPECT is known to provide better evaluation of areas of high cerebral blood flow and regional metabolic rate. We evaluated a homogeneous group of hyperalgesic patients with FM using 99m Tc-ECD SPECT. The aim of this study was to investigate brain processing associated with spontaneous pain in FM patients. Eighteen hyperalgesic FM women (mean age 49 years, range 25-63 years; American College of Rheumatology criteria) and ten healthy women matched for age were enrolled in the study. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2 (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). Visual Analogue Scale score for pain was 82±4 at the time of the SPECT study. Compared with control subjects, we observed individual brain SPECT abnormalities in FM patients, confirmed by SPM2 analysis, with hyperperfusion of the somatosensory cortex and hypoperfusion of the frontal, cingulate, medial temporal and cerebellar cortices. In the present study, performed without noxious stimuli in hyperalgesic FM patients, we found significant hyperperfusion in regions of the brain known to be involved in the sensory dimension of pain processing and significant hypoperfusion in areas assumed to be associated with the affective-attentional dimension. As current pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies act differently on the two components of pain, we hypothesise that SPECT could be a valuable and readily available tool to guide individual therapeutic strategy and provide objective follow-up of pain processing recovery under treatment. (orig.)

  6. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric; Taieb, David; Cammilleri, Serge; Lussato, David; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 05 (France); Niboyet, Jean [Clinique La Phoceanne, Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Marseille (France)

    2007-01-15

    Neuro-imaging studies with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in fibromyalgia (FM) patients have reported only limited subcortical hypoperfusion. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT is known to provide better evaluation of areas of high cerebral blood flow and regional metabolic rate. We evaluated a homogeneous group of hyperalgesic patients with FM using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT. The aim of this study was to investigate brain processing associated with spontaneous pain in FM patients. Eighteen hyperalgesic FM women (mean age 49 years, range 25-63 years; American College of Rheumatology criteria) and ten healthy women matched for age were enrolled in the study. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2 (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). Visual Analogue Scale score for pain was 82{+-}4 at the time of the SPECT study. Compared with control subjects, we observed individual brain SPECT abnormalities in FM patients, confirmed by SPM2 analysis, with hyperperfusion of the somatosensory cortex and hypoperfusion of the frontal, cingulate, medial temporal and cerebellar cortices. In the present study, performed without noxious stimuli in hyperalgesic FM patients, we found significant hyperperfusion in regions of the brain known to be involved in the sensory dimension of pain processing and significant hypoperfusion in areas assumed to be associated with the affective-attentional dimension. As current pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies act differently on the two components of pain, we hypothesise that SPECT could be a valuable and readily available tool to guide individual therapeutic strategy and provide objective follow-up of pain processing recovery under treatment. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT between patients with delayed development and cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, I.; Chun, K.; Won, K.; Lee, H.; Jang, S.; Lee, J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: In previous study, thalamic or cerebellar hypoperfusion were reported in patients with cerebral palsy. This study was performed to evaluate cerebral perfusion abnormalities using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in patients with delayed motor development. Methods: Nineteen patients (9 boys, 10 girls, mean age 25.5 months) with delayed development underwent brain SPECT after injection of 185∼370 MBq of Tc-99m ECD. The imaging was obtained between 30 minutes and 1hr after injection. The patients were divided clinically as follows, patients with delayed development (n=5) and patients with cerebral palsy (n=14) who has delayed development and abnormal movement. The clinical subtypes of cerebral palsy were spastic quadriplegia (n=5), spastic diplegia (n=6) and spastic hemiplegia (n=3). In each group, decrease of cerebral perfusion was evaluated visually as mild, moderate and severe and quantitation of cerebral perfusion after Lassen's correction was also obtained. Results: SPECT findings showed normal or mildly decreased thalamic perfusion in patients with delayed development and severe decrease of thalamic or cerebellar perfusion in patients with spastic quadriplegia. In patients with spastic diplegia, mild decrease of perfusion was observed in thalamus. In quantified data, thalamic perfusion was lowest in patients with spastic quadriplegia and highest in patients with delayed development, but there were no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Brain SPECT with Tc-99m ECD has a role in the detection of perfusion abnormalities in patients with delayed development and cerebral palsy

  8. Technetium-99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT in antiphospholipid syndrome - preliminary data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowicz, G.; Lass, P.; Koseda-Dragan, M.; Nowicki, R.; Krajka-Lauer, J.

    2000-01-01

    Background: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined as the presence of repeated episodes of arterial or venous thrombosis, recurrent spontaneous abortions and throbocytopenia in patients with elevated antiphospholipid antibodies. An important feature of APS are cerebrovascular disorders of thrombotic origin. The aim of the study was to assess cerebral blood flow changes utilising brain SPECT HMPAO scanning. METHODS: Brain SPECT 99mTc-HMPAO scanning was performed in 20 patients with APS: 12 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 4 with Sneddon's syndrome, 2 with Sjoegren's syndrome, 2 with primary APS. 30 healthy volunteers served as a control group. RESULTS: 19 studies were abnormal, 1 normal. Abnormalities consisted of multifocal perfusion deficits and diffuse decrease of regional blood flow. The average number of focal perfusion deficits was 4.8±1.7. In 7 patients diffuse hypoperfusion of frontal lobes was seen, in 1 patient additionally hypoperfusion of temporal and occipital lobes. There was a correlation between the number of focal perfusion deficits and cognitive impairment in this group of patients. Correlation between SPECT images and clinical data was moderate in cerebellar syndrome and paresis, weak in persistent headache and vertigo. CONCLUSIONS: Those results indicate the high utility of CBF brain SPECT scanning in antiphospholipid syndrome. (author)

  9. Evaluation of seizure propagation on ictal brain SPECT using statistical parametric mapping in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Tae Joo; Lee, Jong Doo; Kim, Hee Joung; Lee, Byung In; Kim, Ok Joon; Kim, Min Jung; Jeon, Jeong Dong

    1999-01-01

    Ictal brain SPECT has a high diagnostic sensitivity exceeding 90 % in the localization of seizure focus, however, it often shows increased uptake within the extratemporal areas due to early propagation of seizure discharge. This study aimed to evaluate seizure propagation on ictal brian SPECT in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Twenty-one patients (age 27.14 5.79 y) with temporal lobe epilepsy (right in 8, left in 13) who had successful seizure outcome after surgery and nine normal control were included. The data of ictal and interictal brain SPECT of the patients and baseline SPECT of normal control group were analyzed using automatic image registration and SPM96 softwares. The statistical analysis was performed to compare the mean SPECT image of normal group with individual ictal SPECT, and each mean image of the interictal groups of the right or left TLE with individual ictal scans. The t statistic SPM [t] was transformed to SPM [Z] with a threshold of 1.64. The statistical results were displayed and rendered on the reference 3 dimensional MRI images with P value of 0.05 and uncorrected extent threshold p value of 0.5 for SPM [Z]. SPM data demonstrated increased uptake within the epileptic lesion in 19 patients (90.4 %), among them, localized increased uptake confined to the epileptogenic lesion was seen in only 4 (19%) but 15 patients (71.4%) showed hyperperfusion within propagation sites. Bi-temporal hyperperfusion was observed in 11 out of 19 patients (57.9%, 5 in the right and 6 in the left); higher uptake within the lesion than contralateral side in 9, similar activity in 1 and higher uptake within contralateral lobe in one. Extra-temporal hyperperfusion was observed in 8 (2 in the right, 3 in the left, 3 in bilateral); unilateral hyperperfusion within the epileptogenic temporal lobe and extra-temporal area in 4, bi-temporal with extra-temporal hyperperfusion in remaining 4. Ictal brain SPECT is highly

  10. Comparison of acetazolamide-enhanced brain SPECT using Tc-99m ECD with cerebral angiography in patients with cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. Y.; Moon, D. H.; Ryu, J. S.; Yang, S. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, K. A.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral vascular reserve can be assessed by development of collateral channels (DCC) on cerebral angiography(CA) or vasoreactivity (VR) on acetazolamide-enhanced brain SPECT (ACZ-SPECT). The purpose of this study was to compare Tc-99m ECD ACZ-SPECT with CA in the evaluation of vascular reserve in patients (pts) with cerebrovascular disease(CVD). Twenty seven patients with CVD, including TIA (n=13), infarction (n=11) and asymptomatic pts (AS, n=3), underwent CA and ACZ-SPECT. Basal and ACZ-SPECT was obtained consecutively, and image subtraction was performed. On CA, degree of DCC was scored 0-3 (0: normal, 3: poor) according to parenchymal staining on delayed film. In ACZ-SPECT, decrease of VR was graded 0-3 (0: normal, 3: more than 30% decrease). The correlation between degree of stenosis, DCC and VR were analyzed. 1) Variable degree of VR or DCC was observed in totally occluded or stenotic cerebral arterial territories. 2) In arterial territories with poor DCC, ACZ-SPECT showed poor VR. However, in 5 out of 11 TIA or AS with good DCC, poor VR was observed. These data suggests that 1) cerebral hemodynamic status cannot be assessed by the degree of stenosis on CA alone. 2) DCC may overestimate the cerebral vascular reserve in patients with TIA or AS. 3) ACZ-SPECT plays a complementary role to CA for evaluation of cerebral hemodynamic status in pts with CVD

  11. Avaliação de foco epileptogênico do lobo temporal: correlação entre SPECT ictal, ressonância magnética e ressonância magnética com espectroscopia de prótons Evaluation of epileptogenic focus in temporal lobe: correlation between ictal brain SPECT, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Martins Diegues

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a existência de concordância entre os métodos radioisotópico e radiológico e, em caso positivo, avaliar a utilidade do SPECT ictal na determinação do foco epileptogênico. Foram realizados SPECT ictal, ressonância magnética (RM e ressonância magnética com espectroscopia de prótons (RME em seis pacientes com epilepsia de lobo temporal refratária. O SPECT ictal foi realizado após a retirada das drogas antiepilépticas durante monitoramento por vídeo-EEG, utilizando-se o 99mTc-ECD, administrado aos pacientes no início da crise. As imagens de RM foram obtidas em T1, T2 e FLAIR, com cortes de 3 e 5 mm de espessura, e a RME foi realizada com técnica PRESS, com voxel único posicionado no hipocampo, bilateralmente. A análise estatística incluiu os valores de Kappa (k, erro-padrão (ep e o nível de significância (p para a lateralização do foco. Os achados foram analisados com base na localização por EEG da descarga ictal, no tempo de duração da crise (109-280 s; média: 152 s e no tempo de administração do traçador (30-262 s; média: 96 s. Obtivemos dados correlatos em quatro pacientes (67%, com valores de k = 0,67, ep = 0,38 e p = 0,041. Concluímos que existe concordância entre SPECT ictal, RM e RME, e a utilidade do procedimento radioisotópico está relacionada aos casos em que o EEG não é diagnóstico e quando há discordância ou indefinição diagnóstica na análise comparativa entre EEG, RM e RME.The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of concordance between radiological and radioisotopic methods and, if positive, to evaluate the usefulness of ictal SPECT in the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Ictal brain SPECT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS were performed on six patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT was performed after withdrawal of the anti-epileptogenic drugs during video

  12. Initial Investigation of preclinical integrated SPECT and MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Mark J; Ha, Seunghoon; Roeck, Werner W; Wagenaar, Douglas J; Meier, Dirk; Patt, Bradley E; Nalcioglu, Orhan

    2010-02-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide specific functional information while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-spatial resolution anatomical information as well as complementary functional information. In this study, we utilized a dual modality SPECT/MRI (MRSPECT) system to investigate the integration of SPECT and MRI for improved image accuracy. The MRSPECT system consisted of a cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) nuclear radiation detector interfaced with a specialized radiofrequency (RF) coil that was placed within a whole-body 4 T MRI system. The importance of proper corrections for non-uniform detector sensitivity and Lorentz force effects was demonstrated. MRI data were utilized for attenuation correction (AC) of the nuclear projection data and optimized Wiener filtering of the SPECT reconstruction for improved image accuracy. Finally, simultaneous dual-imaging of a nude mouse was performed to demonstrated the utility of co-registration for accurate localization of a radioactive source.

  13. Clinical applications of SPECT/CT in imaging the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huellner, Martin W.; Strobel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Today, SPECT/CT is increasingly used and available in the majority of larger nuclear medicine departments. Several applications of SPECT/CT as a supplement to or replacement for traditional conventional bone scintigraphy have been established in recent years. SPECT/CT of the upper and lower extremities is valuable in many conditions with abnormal bone turnover due to trauma, inflammation, infection, degeneration or tumour. SPECT/CT is often used in patients if conventional radiographs are insufficient, if MR image quality is impaired due to metal implants or in patients with contraindications to MR. In complex joints such as those in the foot and wrist, SPECT/CT provides exact anatomical correlation of pathological uptake. In many cases SPECT increases the sensitivity and CT the specificity of the study, increasing confidence in the final diagnosis compared to planar images alone. The CT protocol should be adapted to the clinical question and may vary from very low-dose (e.g. attenuation correction only), to low-dose for anatomical correlation, to normal-dose protocols enabling precise anatomical resolution. The aim of this review is to give an overview of SPECT/CT imaging of the extremities with a focus on the hand and wrist, knee and foot, and for evaluation of patients after joint arthroplasty. (orig.)

  14. Clinical applications of SPECT/CT in imaging the extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huellner, Martin W. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Strobel, Klaus [Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Today, SPECT/CT is increasingly used and available in the majority of larger nuclear medicine departments. Several applications of SPECT/CT as a supplement to or replacement for traditional conventional bone scintigraphy have been established in recent years. SPECT/CT of the upper and lower extremities is valuable in many conditions with abnormal bone turnover due to trauma, inflammation, infection, degeneration or tumour. SPECT/CT is often used in patients if conventional radiographs are insufficient, if MR image quality is impaired due to metal implants or in patients with contraindications to MR. In complex joints such as those in the foot and wrist, SPECT/CT provides exact anatomical correlation of pathological uptake. In many cases SPECT increases the sensitivity and CT the specificity of the study, increasing confidence in the final diagnosis compared to planar images alone. The CT protocol should be adapted to the clinical question and may vary from very low-dose (e.g. attenuation correction only), to low-dose for anatomical correlation, to normal-dose protocols enabling precise anatomical resolution. The aim of this review is to give an overview of SPECT/CT imaging of the extremities with a focus on the hand and wrist, knee and foot, and for evaluation of patients after joint arthroplasty. (orig.)

  15. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, L.D.; Bennett, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Imaging with radionuclides should be used in a complementary fashion with other neuroradiologic techniques. It is useful in the early detection and evaluation of intracranial neoplasm, cerebrovascular accident and abscess, and in postsurgical follow-up. Cisternography yields useful information about the functional status of cerebrospinal fluid pathways. Computerized axial tomography is a new technique of great promise that produced a cross-sectional image of the brain

  16. Brain hypoxia imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Chun [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The measurement of pathologically low levels of tissue pO{sub 2} is an important diagnostic goal for determining the prognosis of many clinically important diseases including cardiovascular insufficiency, stroke and cancer. The target tissues nowadays have mostly been tumors or the myocardium, with less attention centered on the brain. Radiolabelled nitroimidazole or derivatives may be useful in identifying the hypoxic cells in cerebrovascular disease or traumatic brain injury, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. In acute stroke, the target of therapy is the severely hypoxic but salvageable tissue. {sup 18}F-MISO PET and {sup 99m}Tc-EC-metronidazole SPECT in patients with acute ischemic stroke identified hypoxic tissues and ischemic penumbra, and predicted its outcome. A study using {sup 123}I-IAZA in patient with closed head injury detected the hypoxic tissues after head injury. Up till now these radiopharmaceuticals have drawbacks due to its relatively low concentration with hypoxic tissues associated with/without low blood-brain barrier permeability and the necessity to wait a long time to achieve acceptable target to background ratios for imaging in acute ischemic stroke. It is needed to develop new hypoxic marker exhibiting more rapid localization in the hypoxic region in the brain. And then, the hypoxic brain imaging with imidazoles or non-imidazoles may be very useful in detecting the hypoxic tissues, determining therapeutic strategies and developing therapeutic drugs in several neurological disease, especially, in acute ischemic stroke.

  17. Myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in patients with myocardial bridging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Wei; Qiu Hong; Yang Weixian; Wang Feng; He Zuoxiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Stress myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging was used to assess myocardial ischemia in patients with myocardial bridging. Methods: Ninety-six patients with myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending artery documented by coronary angiography were included in this study. All under- went exercise or pharmacological stress myocardial perfusion SPECT assessing myocardial ischemia. None had prior myocardial infarction. One year follow-up by telephone interview was performed in all patients. Results The mean stenotic severity of systolic phase on angiography was (65 ± 19)%. In the SPECT study, 20 of 96 (20.8%) patients showed abnormal perfusion. This percentage was significantly higher than that of stress electrocardiogram (ECG). The higher positive rate of SPECT perfusion images was showed in the group of patients with severe systolic narrowing (≥75%) than that with mild-to-moderate systolic narrowing (50% vs 6.3%, P<0.001). The prevalence of abnormal image was significantly higher in ELDERLY PEOPLE; patients with STT change on rest ECG than in those with normal rest ECG (54.2% vs 9.7%, P<0.001). During follow-up, one patient with abnormal SPECT perfusion image sustained angina and accepted percutaneous coronary intervention, and no cardiac event occurred in patients with normal images. Conclusions: Stress myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging can be used effectively for assessing myocardial ischemia and has potential prognostic value for patients with myocardial bridging. (authors)

  18. Brain SPECT perfusion in children and adolescents poly drug abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, R.R.N.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Santos, A.O.; Lima, M.C.L.; Ramos, C.D.; Camargo, E.E.; Silva, C.A.M.; Serrat, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Polydrug abuse in children and adolescents is a major social problem. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate brain perfusion in polydrug abuser adolescents with brain SPECT imaging (BSI) using 99m Tc-HMPAO. Materials and Methods: Sixteen male polydrug abuser patients (11 to 18 years) were submitted to BSI. Forty-eight normal individuals (26 males, 22 females; 18 to 31 years) were used as a control group. Images were performed after an intravenous injection of 99m Tc-HMPAO in a dark, quiet room. Images were acquired in a camera-computer system equipped with a fan beam collimator. The images were reconstructed in the transaxial, coronal and sagittal views and submitted to semi-quantitative analysis using the thalami as reference, by placing regions of interest (ROIs) in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices. Patients were also submitted to neuropsychology tests and neurologic examination. Results: Significant hypoperfusion was found in the inferior portion of the frontal lobes (left and right: p<0.0001), temporal lobes (left lateral: p=0.0392; right lateral: p=0.0044; left and right mesial: p<0.0005), right parietal lobe (p=0.025), visual cortex (p=0.0013), pons (p = 0.0002), cerebellar hemispheres (left: p=0.0216; right: p=0.0005) and vermis (p=0.0015). An inverse relationship was observed between the degree of perfusion and the duration of drug abuse in the inferior left frontal lobe (? = -0.55; p=0.0255), superior right frontal lobe (? = -0.51; p=0.043), lateral right temporal lobe (? = -0.58; p=0.0172), mesial left temporal lobe (? -0.52; p=0.0384), left parietal lobe (? = -0.51; p=0.0416), basal ganglia (left: ? = -0.70; p=0.0022; right: ? = -0.65; p=0.0056) and cingulate gyrus (? = -0.66; p=0.0054). A significant correlation was observed between the perfusion of the temporal lobes with the Bender-Koppits test (left and right lateral: p=0.0559). Significant correlation was also noted between the perfusion of the lateral left temporal lobe (p=0.0559), parietal

  19. Differential diagnosis in patients with ring-like thallium-201 uptake in brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinuya, Keiko; Ohashi, Masahiro; Itoh, Syotaro [Tonami General Hospital, Toyama (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate lesions with ring-like thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) uptake and to determine whether SPECT provides any information in differential diagnosis. A total of 244 {sup 201}Tl SPECT images were reviewed. In each study, early (15 min postinjection) and late (3 hr) brain SPECT images were obtained with 111 MBq of {sup 201}Tl. The early uptake ratio (ER; lesion to normal brain average count ratio) and the late uptake ratio (LR) and the L/E ratio (ratio of LR to ER) were calculated. Ring-like uptake was observed in pre-therapeutic 26 SPECT images, including ten glioblastoma multiformes (ER, 3.45{+-}0.64; LR, 2.74{+-}0.54; L/E ratio 0.80{+-}0.13), five meningiomas (6.48{+-}2.34; 4.41{+-}1.41; 0.72{+-}0.19), four metastatic lung cancers (3.47{+-}1.23; 2.40{+-}0.98; 0.70{+-}0.14), four brain abscesses (2.48{+-}1.06; 1.59{+-}0.30; 0.78{+-}0.15), one invasive lesion of squamous cell carcinoma from the ethmoid sinus (1.54; 1.52; 0.99), one medulloblastoma (3.53; 3.52; 1.00) and one hematoma (3.32; 2.36; 0.71). The ER of meningioma was significantly higher than those of glioblastoma multiforme (p<0.0005), metastatic lung cancer (p<0.005) and brain abscess (p<0.0005). There were no significant differences among these three entities. The LR of meningioma was significantly higher than those of glioblastoma multiforme (p<0.005), metastatic lung cancer (p<0.005) and brain abscess (p<0.0001). The LR of brain abscess was significantly lower than that of glioblastoma multiforme (p<0.05). The L/E ratio could not differentiate these four entities. High ER and high LR in a lesion with ring-like uptake is likely an indicator of meningioma. The LR of brain abscess was significantly lower than that of glioblastoma multiforme, but {sup 201}Tl SPECT has still difficulty in differentiating abscess from brain tumor. (author)

  20. Evaluation of role of brain SPECT in diagnosis of post stroke dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousepour, G.; Alavi, M.

    2003-01-01

    Post stroke dementia is one of the most common complications of stroke that is preventable and relatively treatable too. The purpose of the study is comparison between the positive findings in the brain CT scan and brain perfusion SPECT. 15 patients who were complicated by dementia after cerebrovascular accident and also 5 patients as a control group enrolled in this study. Brain CT scan and brain SPECT were performed during at most one week after stroke. Abnormal findings in both brain CT scan and SPECT were seen in 46% of patients. Brain CT scan disclosed more abnormal findings compared to brain SPECT (33.3%). While brain SPECT findings were more information than brain CT scan (20%) this study is indicating that brain CT scan and the brain SPECT concomitantly for each other in better diagnosis of post stroke dementia. We did not find any specific diagnostic pattern in brain SPECT of patients suffering from post stroke dementia. The low quality of brain SPECT in spite of uniformity of gamma camera may be suggestive of low quality of Iran produced ECD kit that needs further evaluation

  1. SPECT data acquisition and image reconstruction in a stationary small animal SPECT/MRI system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyan; Chen, Si; Yu, Jianhua; Meier, Dirk; Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2010-04-01

    The goal of the study was to investigate data acquisition strategies and image reconstruction methods for a stationary SPECT insert that can operate inside an MRI scanner with a 12 cm bore diameter for simultaneous SPECT/MRI imaging of small animals. The SPECT insert consists of 3 octagonal rings of 8 MR-compatible CZT detectors per ring surrounding a multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator sleeve. Each pinhole is constructed to project the field-of-view (FOV) to one CZT detector. All 24 pinholes are focused to a cylindrical FOV of 25 mm in diameter and 34 mm in length. The data acquisition strategies we evaluated were optional collimator rotations to improve tomographic sampling; and the image reconstruction methods were iterative ML-EM with and without compensation for the geometric response function (GRF) of the MPH collimator. For this purpose, we developed an analytic simulator that calculates the system matrix with the GRF models of the MPH collimator. The simulator was used to generate projection data of a digital rod phantom with pinhole aperture sizes of 1 mm and 2 mm and with different collimator rotation patterns. Iterative ML-EM reconstruction with and without GRF compensation were used to reconstruct the projection data from the central ring of 8 detectors only, and from all 24 detectors. Our results indicated that without GRF compensation and at the default design of 24 projection views, the reconstructed images had significant artifacts. Accurate GRF compensation substantially improved the reconstructed image resolution and reduced image artifacts. With accurate GRF compensation, useful reconstructed images can be obtained using 24 projection views only. This last finding potentially enables dynamic SPECT (and/or MRI) studies in small animals, one of many possible application areas of the SPECT/MRI system. Further research efforts are warranted including experimentally measuring the system matrix for improved geometrical accuracy, incorporating the co

  2. Demonstration of cerebral abnormalities in cocaine abusers with SPECT perfusion brain scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, J.S.; Tumeh, S.S.; English, R.J.; Moore, M.; Lee, V.W.; Holman, L.B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports I-123 isopropyl iodoamphetamine (IMP) single-photon emission CT (SPECT) brain scans performed on cocaine users to investigate the effects of cocaine on the cerebral perfusion in a manner similar to previous CT, angiographic and positron-emission tomographic (PET) studies. Ten asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic cocaine users, two users with major neurovascular complications, and five normal subjects were studied with IMP SPECT. Rotating-brain images of the cerebral IMP uptake were displayed by using a distance-weighted surface-projection technique and were visually analyzed for focal cortical perfusion deficits. Eleven cocaine users had multiple scattered cortical IMP defects. Frontal lobe defects were most prominent. One user had confluent defects resembling swiss cheese. Concurrent CT scans available in nine patients were negative in seven and showed infarcts in two. No similar focal findings were visible in normals

  3. Ictal and interictal SPECT imaging of 8 patients with symptomatic partial epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motooka, Hiromichi

    1993-01-01

    Although epileptic discharges such as spike, spike and wave complex, sharp wave, and sharp and wave complex can be recorded by interictal scalp electroencephalography (EEG) in many patients with epilepsy, recent studies have demonstrated that no epileptic discharges can be recorded by interictal and ictal scalp EEGs in some patients who clinically exhibit epileptic seizures. Accordingly scalp EEG is not always helpful for diagnosing epilepsy or identifying the epileptic foci in the brain in these patients. Recently, studies using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been performed for patients with epilepsy and evidence that epileptic foci can be identified by changes in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) seen on SPECT scanning have been accumulated. In the present study, therefore, 8 patients with medically intractable partial seizures were simultaneously or independently investigated by the recordings of scalp EEG and SPECT scanning during the interictal and ictal period. N-isopropyl-p[ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) was used for SPECT scanning for 7 patients and 99m Tc-d,l-hexamethyl-propyleneamineoxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) for 1 patient. An increase in rCBF (hyperperfusion) or decrease in rCBF (hypoperfusion) were found in 4 patients by interictal SPECT imaging and in all patients by ictal SPECT imaging although epileptic discharges were observed in 3 patients by interictal scalp EEG and 5 patients by ictal scalp EEG. The findings of the present study indicate that ictal SPECT scanning is more useful for diagnosing epilepsy and identifying the epileptic foci in the brain than ictal scalp EEG. (author)

  4. Atlas of Skeletal SPECT/CT Clinical Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The atlas focuses specifically on single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in musculoskeletal imaging, and thus illustrates the inherent advantages of the combination of the metabolic and anatomical component in a single procedure. In addition, the atlas provides information on the usefulness of several sets of specific indications. The publication, which serves more as a training tool rather than a textbook, will help to further integrate the SPECT and CT experience in clinical practice by presenting a series of typical cases with many different patterns of SPECT/CT seen in bone scintigraphy

  5. Predictive value of brain SPECT with 99 technetium - MIBI for differentiation of histologic grade brain gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León Castellón, Roberto; Martín Escuela, Juan Miguel; López Díaz, Ing. Adlin; Salva Camaño, Silvia; Gómez Viera, DrC. Nelson; San Pedro, Aley Palau; Castro Jiménez, Mayté

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of primary tumors of the nervous system remain difficult and are a challenge to be addressed in a multidisciplinary way. In order to determine the usefulness of brain SPECT 99 Tc MIBI to differentiate histologic grade brain gliomas - Frequently brain tumors - they were studied 68 patients with this technique. A dynamic study first step in AP and lateral view was performed, and a SPECT at 20 minutes post-administration and at 2 hours late views. the post-surgical histological study of injuries was used as control. several imaging parameters such as the absolute activity of 99m Tc-MIBI were calculated both early and late phase, cortex contralateral tumor rates; pituitary tumor; choroid plexus tumor and Reason Late / Early phase tumor index / contralateral cortex tumor volume functional phase, the volume concentration of MIBI activity in the tumor and the retention rate of the radiopharmaceutical. Of the 68 patients studied, 11 were high-grade tumors and 57 low grade. The cortex contralateral tumor in late stage index showed a negative satisfactory sensitivity of 98.6% and specificity 77.1%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 48.2% and (NPV) of 99.8%. The reason late stage / early in the index tumor / contralateral cortex showed values ​​in turn 96.3%, 98.7%, 98.8% and 98.8% sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV respectively. The retention rate showed a 99% sensitivity, 89% specificity and PPV, NPV of 95% and 99% respectively. Conclusion: The combination cortex contralateral tumor rate in late stage, the reason late stage / early stage tumor index / contralateral cortex and the retention rate of the radiopharmaceutical are the most useful parameters to predict histologic grade of brain gliomas. (author)

  6. A new method for brain functional study using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Kosaka, Noboru; Nishikawa, Junichi; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Iio, Masahiro

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of 99m Tc-HMPAO in brain is in proportion to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and can be interpreted as functional mapping. To evaluate local changes in CBF during neuropsychological testing, we developed a new subtraction method using HMPAO and SPECT. With patients resting, 15 mCi of HMPAO was injected and the first acquisition was performed, lasting a total of 10 minutes. Soon after the end of the first scan, patients were requested to undergo Buschke's memory test or to repeat words or numbers (repetition test). During the task, an additional 15 mCi of HMPAO was injected using the same position as in the first scan, and a second acquisition was started. A functional image was made by subtracting the image in the first scan from that in the second. In two patients with transient global amnesia and two normal controls, Buschke's memory test was performed in combination with SPECT. A relative increase in activity was seen in the thalamus, subthalamic area, hippocampus, and some cortial areas, apparently reflecting local functional change induced by the memory task. In two patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease with severe memory loss, no increase was detected in these areas. In one patient with aphasia, the repetition test with SPECT was correlated with the WADA test and dichotic listening test, and good agreement was obtained. In conclusion, our new SPECT technique is useful in detecting alterations in rCBF during mental activity and can be applied to neurophysiological studies. (author)

  7. High-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yujin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the development of high-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging. A pinhole collimator has been used for high-resolution animal SPECT to provide better spatial resolution and detection efficiency in comparison with a parallel-hole collimator. The theory of imaging characteristics of the pinhole collimator is presented and the designs of the pinhole aperture are discussed. The detector technologies used for the development of small-animal SPECT and the recent advances are presented. The evolving trend of small-animal SPECT is toward a multi-pinhole and a multi-detector system to obtain a high resolution and also a high detection efficiency. (authors)

  8. Brain perfusion SPECT in the mouse: normal pattern according to gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Wunder, Andreas; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Michel, Roger; Stemmer, Nina; Lukas, Mathias; Derlin, Thorsten; Gregor-Mamoudou, Betina; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph

    2012-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is a useful surrogate marker of neuronal activity and a parameter of primary interest in the diagnosis of many diseases. The increasing use of mouse models spawns the demand for in vivo measurement of rCBF in the mouse. Small animal SPECT provides excellent spatial resolution at adequate sensitivity and is therefore a promising tool for imaging the mouse brain. This study evaluates the feasibility of mouse brain perfusion SPECT and assesses the regional pattern of normal Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake and the impact of age and gender. Whole-brain kinetics was compared between Tc-99m-HMPAO and Tc-99m-ECD using rapid dynamic planar scans in 10 mice. Assessment of the regional uptake pattern was restricted to the more suitable tracer, HMPAO. Two HMPAO SPECTs were performed in 18 juvenile mice aged 7.5 ± 1.5weeks, and in the same animals at young adulthood, 19.1 ± 4.0 weeks (nanoSPECT/CTplus, general purpose mouse apertures: 1.2kcps/MBq, 0.7mm FWHM). The 3-D MRI Digital Atlas Database of an adult C57BL/6J mouse brain was used for region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. SPECT images were stereotactically normalized using SPM8 and a custom made, left-right symmetric HMPAO template in atlas space. For testing lateral asymmetry, each SPECT was left-right flipped prior to stereotactical normalization. Flipped and unflipped SPECTs were compared by paired testing. Peak brain uptake was similar for ECD and HMPAO: 1.8 ± 0.2 and 2.1 ± 0.6 %ID (p=0.357). Washout after the peak was much faster for ECD than for HMPAO: 24 ± 7min vs. 4.6 ± 1.7h (p=0.001). The general linear model for repeated measures with gender as an intersubject factor revealed an increase in relative HMPAO uptake with age in the neocortex (p=0.018) and the hippocampus (p=0.012). A decrease was detected in the midbrain (p=0.025). Lateral asymmetry, with HMPAO uptake larger in the left hemisphere, was detected primarily in the neocortex, both at juvenile age (asymmetry index AI=2.7 ± 1

  9. Brain imaging and autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilbovicius, M.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  10. Brain imaging and autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilbovicius, M [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM CEA 0205, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  11. Multimodality imaging: transfer and fusion of SPECT and MRI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knesaurek, K.

    1994-01-01

    Image fusion is a technique which offers the best of both worlds. It unites the two basic types of medical images: functional body images(PET or SPECT scans), which provide physiological information, and structural images (CT or MRI), which provide an anatomic map of the body. Control-point based registration technique was developed and used. Tc-99m point sources were used as external markers in SPECT studies while, for MRI and CT imaging only anatomic landmarks were used as a control points. The MRI images were acquired on GE Signa 1.2 system and CT data on a GE 9800 scanner. SPECT studies were performed 1h after intravenous injection of the 740 MBq of the Tc-99m-HMPAO on the triple-headed TRIONIX gamma camera. B-spline and bilinear interpolation were used for the rotation, scaling and translation of the images. In the process of creation of a single composite image, in order to retain information from the individual images, MRI (or CT) image was scaled to one color range and a SPECT image to another. In some situations the MRI image was kept black-and-white while the SPECT image was pasted on top of it in 'opaque' mode. Most errors which propagate through the matching process are due to sample size, imperfection of the acquisition system, noise and interpolations used. Accuracy of the registration was investigated by SPECT-CT study performed on a phantom study. The results has shown that accuracy of the matching process is better, or at worse, equal to 2 mm. (author)

  12. SPECT imaging of cardiac reporter gene expression in living rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ying; Lan Xiaoli; Zhang Liang; Wu Tao; Jiang Rifeng; Zhang Yongxue

    2009-01-01

    This work is to demonstrate feasibility of imaging the expression of herpes simplex virus 1-thymidine kinase (HSVI-tk) reporter gene in rabbits myocardium by using the reporter probe 131 I-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-l-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil ( 131 I-FIAU) and SPECT. Rabbits of the study group received intramyocardial injection of Ad5-tk and control group received aseptic saline injection. Two sets of experiments were performed on the study group. Rabbits of the 1st set were injected with 131 I-FIAU 600 μCi at Day 2 after intramyocardial transfection of Ad5-tk in 1xl0 9 , 5x10 8 , 1x10 8 , 5x10 7 and 1x10 7 pfu, and heart SPECT imaging was done at different hours. Rabbits of the 2nd were transferred various titers of Ad5-tk (1x10 9 , 5x10 8 , 1x10 8 , 5x10 7 , 1x10 7 pfu) to determine the threshold and optimal viral titer needed for detection of gene expression. Two days later, 131 I-FIAU was injected and heart SPECT imaging was performed at 6, 24 and 48 h, before killing them for gamma counting of the hearts. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to verify the transferred HSVI-tk gene expression. Semi-quantitative analysis derived of region of interest (ROI) of SPECT images and RT-PCR images was performed and the relationship of SPECT images with ex vivo gamma counting and mRNA level were evaluated. SPECT images conformed 131 I-FIAU accumulation in rabbits injected with Ad5-tk in the anterolateral wall. The optimal images quality was obtained at 24-48 h for different viral titers. The highest radioactivity in the focal myocardium was seen at 6 h, and then declined with time. The threshold was 5x10 7 pfu of virus titer. The result could be set better in 1-5x10 8 pfu by SPECT analysis and gamma counting. ROI-derived semi-quantitative study on SPECT images correlated well with ex vivo gamma counting and mRNA levels from RT-PCR analysis. The HSVI-tk/ 131 I-FIAU reporter gene/reporter probe system is feasible for cardiac SPECT reporter

  13. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions

  14. Brain perfusion SPECT and FDG PET findings in a patient with ballism associated with hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Kyun; Kim, Sang Jin [Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Ballism is a very rare presentation in association with hyperthyroidism. We describe a 22-year-old lady with episodes of recurrent ballism and hyperthyroidism. A 22-year-old lady was admitted to Neurology department because of sudden development of vigorous involuntary movement and dysarthria. She was diagnosed as hyperthyroidism at the age 12 and treated irregularly. She arrived at the emergency room because of sudden onset of involuntary movement. Computed tomography (CT) scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain was normal. Serum levels of thyroid hormone were increased (Free T4 3.15 ng/dl; normal range 0.93-1.71 ng/dl), whereas thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was undetectable. The thyroid gland was diffusely enlarged and exophthalmos was found. She had been given antithyroid medication from local clinic but medicated irregularly. Technetium thyroid scan reveals diffusely enlarged thyroid with increased radioactivity. Radioiodine uptake in 24 hours was 71 %. Brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD reveals asymmetrical perfusion pattern in basal ganglia. Brain PET using F-18 FDG reveals increased metabolism at both caudate nucleus and putamen. She was treated with radioiodine and involuntary movement was improved. There is only few report on ballism associated with hyperthyroidism and no report on functional brain imaging. Brain perfusion SPECT and FDG PET may give useful information about functional status of brain in patients with ballism associated with hyperthyroidism in case of normal anatomical finding on CT/MRI.

  15. Brain perfusion SPECT and FDG PET findings in a patient with ballism associated with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sang Kyun; Kim, Sang Jin

    2007-01-01

    Ballism is a very rare presentation in association with hyperthyroidism. We describe a 22-year-old lady with episodes of recurrent ballism and hyperthyroidism. A 22-year-old lady was admitted to Neurology department because of sudden development of vigorous involuntary movement and dysarthria. She was diagnosed as hyperthyroidism at the age 12 and treated irregularly. She arrived at the emergency room because of sudden onset of involuntary movement. Computed tomography (CT) scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain was normal. Serum levels of thyroid hormone were increased (Free T4 3.15 ng/dl; normal range 0.93-1.71 ng/dl), whereas thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was undetectable. The thyroid gland was diffusely enlarged and exophthalmos was found. She had been given antithyroid medication from local clinic but medicated irregularly. Technetium thyroid scan reveals diffusely enlarged thyroid with increased radioactivity. Radioiodine uptake in 24 hours was 71 %. Brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD reveals asymmetrical perfusion pattern in basal ganglia. Brain PET using F-18 FDG reveals increased metabolism at both caudate nucleus and putamen. She was treated with radioiodine and involuntary movement was improved. There is only few report on ballism associated with hyperthyroidism and no report on functional brain imaging. Brain perfusion SPECT and FDG PET may give useful information about functional status of brain in patients with ballism associated with hyperthyroidism in case of normal anatomical finding on CT/MRI

  16. Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease using brain SPECT with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Asano, Tetsuichi; Kogure, Daiji; Abe, Shine; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Takasaki, Masaru

    2001-01-01

    We compared the diagnostic usefulness of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) with that of standard transaxial images in brain SPECT in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The subjects consisted of 69 patients with AD and 60 patients with non-AD, including vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease with dementia, frontotemporal dementia, other dementing diseases and neuropsychiatric diseases. Standard transaxial section and 3D-SSP SPECT images with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine were blindly interpreted by three examiners and were classified into the following three patterns: typical AD, atypical AD, and not indicative AD patterns. The 3D-SSP images demonstrated reductions of cerebral blood flow in the parieto-temporal association cortex and posterior cingulate gyrus more clearly and easily than the standard transaxial images. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 85% with 3D-SSP and 83% and 82% with standard transaxial section respectively. 3D-SSP was especially useful for early or atypical AD which showed no characteristic perfusion abnormalities on standard transaxial images. These results suggest that SPECT with 3D-SSP provides an sensitive as well as accurate tool for the diagnosis of AD. (author)

  17. Clinical significance of brain SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in cerebral palsy with normal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. H.; Lim, S. Y.; Lee, I. Y.; Kim, O. H.; Bai, M. S.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W.

    1997-01-01

    The cerebral palsy(CP) encephalopathies are often of uncertain etiology and various functional image findings comparing with anatomical image findings have been reported. However, only a few have mentioned its clinical implications. The purpose of our report is to compare clinical severity and functional SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in CP patients with normal MRI. Thirty six CP patients with bilateral spastic palsy who had normal MRI and brain SPECT were studied from July 1996 to September 1997. The patients' age at the time of SPECT was 22.84±17.69 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to motor quotient(MQ); moderate defect (>50MQ : n=27 MQ=22.78±10.36), mild defect ( 2 test. Brain SPECT was performed following IV administration of 0.05-0.1 mCi/kg (minimum 2.0 mCi) of Tc-99m ECD and chloral hydrate sedation (50-80 mg/kg p.o) using a triple head system (MS 3, Siemens). Interpretation of brain SPECT was visual analysis: severe decrease is defined when the defect is moderate to marked and mild decrease in rCBF as mild. Seven of 36 (19.4%) showed unilateral or bilateral moderate decrease in rCBF in thalami, 20(55.6%) showed mild decrease, and 9(25.0%) showed no decreased rCBF. All 7 who had moderate thalamic defect reveled moderate motor defect clinically. Ten of 36(27.9%) revealed unilateral or bilateral moderate rCBF defect, 23 (63.9%) depicted mild defect, and 3(8.3%) showed no defect. Sixteen with moderate thalamic rCBF defect showed moderate motor defect in 15 patients. There was statistically significant (p=0.02605) relationship between rCBF defect and motor defect in our CP patients. In conclusion, brain SPECT appears sensitive, non-invasive tool in the evaluation as well as in the prognostication of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy patients and deserves further study using larger number of patients

  18. Clinical significance of brain SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in cerebral palsy with normal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Lim, S. Y.; Lee, I. Y.; Kim, O. H.; Bai, M. S.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The cerebral palsy(CP) encephalopathies are often of uncertain etiology and various functional image findings comparing with anatomical image findings have been reported. However, only a few have mentioned its clinical implications. The purpose of our report is to compare clinical severity and functional SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in CP patients with normal MRI. Thirty six CP patients with bilateral spastic palsy who had normal MRI and brain SPECT were studied from July 1996 to September 1997. The patients' age at the time of SPECT was 22.84{+-}17.69 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to motor quotient(MQ); moderate defect (>50MQ : n=27 MQ=22.78{+-}10.36), mild defect (<50MQ : n=9, MQ=66.11{+-}13.87). The degree of rCBF decrease between the two groups was evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} test. Brain SPECT was performed following IV administration of 0.05-0.1 mCi/kg (minimum 2.0 mCi) of Tc-99m ECD and chloral hydrate sedation (50-80 mg/kg p.o) using a triple head system (MS 3, Siemens). Interpretation of brain SPECT was visual analysis: severe decrease is defined when the defect is moderate to marked and mild decrease in rCBF as mild. Seven of 36 (19.4%) showed unilateral or bilateral moderate decrease in rCBF in thalami, 20(55.6%) showed mild decrease, and 9(25.0%) showed no decreased rCBF. All 7 who had moderate thalamic defect reveled moderate motor defect clinically. Ten of 36(27.9%) revealed unilateral or bilateral moderate rCBF defect, 23 (63.9%) depicted mild defect, and 3(8.3%) showed no defect. Sixteen with moderate thalamic rCBF defect showed moderate motor defect in 15 patients. There was statistically significant (p=0.02605) relationship between rCBF defect and motor defect in our CP patients. In conclusion, brain SPECT appears sensitive, non-invasive tool in the evaluation as well as in the prognostication of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy patients and deserves further study using larger number of patients.

  19. Problems in the optimum display of SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielding, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    The instrumentation, computer hardware and software, and the image display system are all very important in the production of diagnostically useful SPECT images. Acquisition and processing parameters are discussed which can affect the quality of SPECT images. Regular quality control of the gamma camera and computer is important to keep the artifacts due to instrumentation to a minimum. The choice of reconstruction method will depend on the statistics in the study. The paper has shown that for high count rate studies, a high pass filter can be used to enhance the reconstructions. For lower count rate studies, pre-filtering is useful and the data can be reconstructed into thicker slices to reduce the effect of image noise. Finally, the optimum display for the images must be chosen, so that the information contained in the SPECT data can be easily perceived by the clinician. (orig.) [de

  20. Radiotracers for SPECT imaging. Current scenario and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adak, S.; Vijaya Raj, K.K.; Mandal, S.

    2012-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been the cornerstone of nuclear medicine and today it is widely used to detect molecular changes in cardiovascular, neurological and oncological diseases. While SPECT has been available since the 1980s, advances in instrumentation hardware, software and the availability of new radiotracers that are creating a revival in SPECT imaging are reviewed in this paper. The biggest change in the last decade has been the fusion of CT with SPECT, which has improved attenuation correction and image quality. Advances in collimator design, replacement of sodium iodide crystals in the detectors with cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors as well as advances in software and reconstruction algorithms have all helped to retain SPECT as a much needed and used technology. Today, a wide spectrum of radiotracers is available for use in cardiovascular, neurology and oncology applications. The development of several radiotracers for neurological disorders is briefly described in this review, including [ 123 I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN trademark) available for Parkinson's disease. In cardiology, while technetium-99m labeled tetrofosmin and technetium-99m labeled sestamibi have been well known for myocardial perfusion imaging, we describe a recently completed multicenter clinical study on the use of [ 123 I]mIBG (AdreView trademark) for imaging in chronic heart failure patients. For oncology, while bone scanning has been prevalent, newer radiotracers that target cancer mechanisms are being developed. Technetium-99m labeled RGD peptides have been reported in the literature that can be used for imaging angiogenesis, while technetium-99m labeled duramycin has been used to image apoptosis. While PET/CT is considered to be the more advanced technology particularly for oncology applications, SPECT continues to be the modality of choice and the workhorse in many hospitals and nuclear medicine centers. The cost of SPECT instruments also makes them more

  1. Radiotracers for SPECT imaging. Current scenario and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adak, S.; Vijaya Raj, K.K.; Mandal, S. [GE Healthcare Medical Diagnostics, John F. Welch Technology Center, Bangalore (India).; Bhalla, R.; Pickett, R.; Luthra, S.K. [GE Healthcare Medical Diagnostics, The Grove Centre, Amersham (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been the cornerstone of nuclear medicine and today it is widely used to detect molecular changes in cardiovascular, neurological and oncological diseases. While SPECT has been available since the 1980s, advances in instrumentation hardware, software and the availability of new radiotracers that are creating a revival in SPECT imaging are reviewed in this paper. The biggest change in the last decade has been the fusion of CT with SPECT, which has improved attenuation correction and image quality. Advances in collimator design, replacement of sodium iodide crystals in the detectors with cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors as well as advances in software and reconstruction algorithms have all helped to retain SPECT as a much needed and used technology. Today, a wide spectrum of radiotracers is available for use in cardiovascular, neurology and oncology applications. The development of several radiotracers for neurological disorders is briefly described in this review, including [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN trademark) available for Parkinson's disease. In cardiology, while technetium-99m labeled tetrofosmin and technetium-99m labeled sestamibi have been well known for myocardial perfusion imaging, we describe a recently completed multicenter clinical study on the use of [{sup 123}I]mIBG (AdreView trademark) for imaging in chronic heart failure patients. For oncology, while bone scanning has been prevalent, newer radiotracers that target cancer mechanisms are being developed. Technetium-99m labeled RGD peptides have been reported in the literature that can be used for imaging angiogenesis, while technetium-99m labeled duramycin has been used to image apoptosis. While PET/CT is considered to be the more advanced technology particularly for oncology applications, SPECT continues to be the modality of choice and the workhorse in many hospitals and nuclear medicine centers. The cost of SPECT instruments also

  2. Cortical damage following traumatic brain injury evaluated by iomazenil SPECT and in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Fujisawa, Hirosuke; Suehiro, Eiichi; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2013-01-01

    [(123)I] iomazenil (IMZ) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been reported to be a useful marker of neuronal integrity. We evaluated cortical damage following traumatic brain injury (TBI) with IMZ SPECT at the acute stage. After conventional therapy for a cranial trauma, an IMZ SPECT re-evaluation was performed at the chronic stage. A reduction in IMZ uptake in the location of cerebral contusions was observed during the TBI acute phase; however, images of IMZ SPECT obtained during the chronic phase showed that areas with decreased IMZ distribution were remarkably reduced compared with those obtained during the acute phase. As a result of in vivo microdialysis study, the extracellular levels of glutamate in the cortex, where decreased IMZ distribution was shown during the acute phase, were increased during the 168-h monitoring period. During the chronic phase, IMZ uptake in the region with the microdialysis probes was recovered. The results suggest that this reduction in IMZ uptake might not be a sign of irreversible tissue damage in TBI.

  3. Evaluation of the effects of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with brain involvement by Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, S.S.; Kao, C.H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Huang, W.S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Chen, J.J.H. [Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, China Medicine University Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Chang, C.P. [Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua (Taiwan); Wang, J.J. [Department of Medical Research, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-07-01

    Methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPT) was introduced to avoid life-threatening complications in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with brain manifestations; however, the efficacy of MPT in SLE patients with brain involvement is still uncertain and needs to be objectively evaluated. We enrolled 15 female SLE patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations in this study. All patients had normal brain MRI and abnormal brain HMPAO-SPECT findings. Follow-up HMPAO-SPECT studies were conducted 2 weeks after MPT. Serum levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) and anti-ribosomal P antibodies (anti-P) were measured before and after MPT. Before MPT, 7 patients were positive for ACA and 7 patients were positive for anti-P. After MPT, none of the 15 patients demonstrated positive serologic findings or neuropsychiatric manifestations. Based on the follow up brain HMPAO-SPECT images following MPT, 13 patients showed disappearance of the perfusion defects and 2 patients showed partial recovery of rCBF. Brain HMPAO-SPECT imaging is a logical and objective tool for measuring the effects of MPT in SLE patients with brain involvement by determining of changes in rCBF. (orig.)

  4. A filtering approach to image reconstruction in 3D SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronnikov, Andrei V.

    2000-01-01

    We present a new approach to three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction using analytical inversion of the exponential divergent beam transform, which can serve as a mathematical model for cone-beam 3D SPECT imaging. We apply a circular cone-beam scan and assume constant attenuation inside a convex area with a known boundary, which is satisfactory in brain imaging. The reconstruction problem is reduced to an image restoration problem characterized by a shift-variant point spread function which is given analytically. The method requires two computation steps: backprojection and filtering. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of the filter is derived by means of an original methodology using the 2D Laplace transform. The filter is implemented in the frequency domain and requires 2D Fourier transform of transverse slices. In order to obtain a shift-invariant cone-beam projection-backprojection operator we resort to an approximation, assuming that the collimator has a relatively large focal length. Nevertheless, numerical experiments demonstrate surprisingly good results for detectors with relatively short focal lengths. The use of a wavelet-based filtering algorithm greatly improves the stability to Poisson noise. (author)

  5. Deficits in Regional Cerebral Blood Flow on Brain SPECT Predict Treatment Resistant Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Daniel G; Taylor, Derek V; Meysami, Somayeh; Raji, Cyrus A

    2018-03-22

    Depression remains an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, yet few neuroimaging biomarkers are available to identify treatment response in depression. To analyze and compare functional perfusion neuroimaging in persons with treatment resistant depression (TRD) compared to those experiencing full remission. A total of 951 subjects from a community psychiatry cohort were scanned with perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain in both resting and task related settings. Of these, 78% experienced either full remission (n = 506) or partial remission (n = 237) and 11% were minimally responsive (n = 103) or non-responsive (11%. n = 106). Severity of depression symptoms were used to define these groups with changes in the Beck Depression Inventory prior to and following treatment. Voxel-based analyses of brain SPECT images from full remission compared to the worsening group was conducted with the statistical parametric mapping software, version 8 (SPM 8). Multiple comparisons were accounted for with a false discovery rate (p <  0.001). Persons with depression that worsened following treatment had reduced cerebral perfusion compared to full remission in the multiple regions including the bilateral frontal lobes, right hippocampus, left precuneus, and cerebellar vermis. Such differences were observed on both resting and concentration SPECT scans. Our findings identify imaging-based biomarkers in persons with depression related to treatment response. These findings have implications in understanding both depression to prognosis and its role as a risk factor for dementia.

  6. Multi-pinhole collimator design for small-object imaging with SiliSPECT: a high-resolution SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokouhi, S; Peterson, T E; Metzler, S D; Wilson, D W

    2009-01-01

    We have designed a multi-pinhole collimator for a dual-headed, stationary SPECT system that incorporates high-resolution silicon double-sided strip detectors. The compact camera design of our system enables imaging at source-collimator distances between 20 and 30 mm. Our analytical calculations show that using knife-edge pinholes with small-opening angles or cylindrically shaped pinholes in a focused, multi-pinhole configuration in combination with this camera geometry can generate narrow sensitivity profiles across the field of view that can be useful for imaging small objects at high sensitivity and resolution. The current prototype system uses two collimators each containing 127 cylindrically shaped pinholes that are focused toward a target volume. Our goal is imaging objects such as a mouse brain, which could find potential applications in molecular imaging.

  7. Data-driven motion correction in brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyme, A.Z.; Hutton, B.F.; Hatton, R.L.; Skerrett, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    Patient motion can cause image artifacts in SPECT despite restraining measures. Data-driven detection and correction of motion can be achieved by comparison of acquired data with the forward-projections. By optimising the orientation of the reconstruction, parameters can be obtained for each misaligned projection and applied to update this volume using a 3D reconstruction algorithm. Digital and physical phantom validation was performed to investigate this approach. Noisy projection data simulating at least one fully 3D patient head movement during acquisition were constructed by projecting the digital Huffman brain phantom at various orientations. Motion correction was applied to the reconstructed studies. The importance of including attenuation effects in the estimation of motion and the need for implementing an iterated correction were assessed in the process. Correction success was assessed visually for artifact reduction, and quantitatively using a mean square difference (MSD) measure. Physical Huffman phantom studies with deliberate movements introduced during the acquisition were also acquired and motion corrected. Effective artifact reduction in the simulated corrupt studies was achieved by motion correction. Typically the MSD ratio between the corrected and reference studies compared to the corrupted and reference studies was > 2. Motion correction could be achieved without inclusion of attenuation effects in the motion estimation stage, providing simpler implementation and greater efficiency. Moreover the additional improvement with multiple iterations of the approach was small. Improvement was also observed in the physical phantom data, though the technique appeared limited here by an object symmetry. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  8. Ventilation/perfusion SPECT or SPECT/CT for lung function imaging in patients with pulmonary emphysema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeling, Vera; Heimann, Uwe; Huebner, Ralf-Harto; Kroencke, Thomas J; Maurer, Martin H; Doellinger, Felix; Geisel, Dominik; Hamm, Bernd; Brenner, Winfried; Schreiter, Nils F

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the utility of attenuation correction (AC) of V/P SPECT images for patients with pulmonary emphysema. Twenty-one patients (mean age 67.6 years) with pulmonary emphysema who underwent V/P SPECT/CT were included. AC/non-AC V/P SPECT images were compared visually and semiquantitatively. Visual comparison of AC/non-AC images was based on a 5-point likert scale. Semiquantitative comparison assessed absolute counts per lung (aCpLu) and lung lobe (aCpLo) for AC/non-AC images using software-based analysis; percentage counts (PC = (aCpLo/aCpLu) × 100) were calculated. Correlation between AC/non-AC V/P SPECT images was analyzed using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient; differences were tested for significance with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Visual analysis revealed high conformity for AC and non-AC V/P SPECT images. Semiquantitative analysis of PC in AC/non-AC images had an excellent correlation and showed no significant differences in perfusion (ρ = 0.986) or ventilation (ρ = 0.979, p = 0.809) SPECT/CT images. AC of V/P SPECT images for lung lobe-based function imaging in patients with pulmonary emphysema do not improve visual or semiquantitative image analysis.

  9. Clinical utility of SPECT neuroimaging in the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic brain injury: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrus A Raji

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This systematic review evaluated the clinical utility of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT in traumatic brain injury (TBI. METHODS: After defining a PICO Statement (Population, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome Statement, PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria were applied to identify 1600 articles. After screening, 374 articles were eligible for review. Inclusion for review was focus on SPECT in the setting of mild, moderate, or severe TBI with cerebral lobar specificity of SPECT findings. Other inclusion criteria were comparison modalities in the same subjects and articles in English. Foreign language articles, SPECT studies that did not include comparison modalities, and case reports were not included for review. RESULTS: We identified 19 longitudinal and 52 cross-sectional studies meeting inclusion criteria. Three longitudinal studies examined diagnostic predictive value. The first showed positive predictive value increases from initial SPECT scan shortly after trauma to one year follow up scans, from 59% to 95%. Subsequent work replicated these results in a larger cohort. Longitudinal and cross sectional studies demonstrated SPECT lesion localization not detected by CT or MRI. The most commonly abnormal regions revealed by SPECT in cross-sectional studies were frontal (94% and temporal (77% lobes. SPECT was found to outperform both CT and MRI in both acute and chronic imaging of TBI, particularly mild TBI. It was also found to have a near 100% negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: This review demonstrates Level IIA evidence (at least one non-randomized controlled trial for the value of SPECT in TBI. Given its advantages over CT and MRI in the detection of mild TBI in numerous studies of adequate quality, and given its excellent negative predictive value, it may be an important second test in settings where CT or MRI are negative after a closed head injury with post

  10. Clinical utility of SPECT neuroimaging in the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic brain injury: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Cyrus A; Tarzwell, Robert; Pavel, Dan; Schneider, Howard; Uszler, Michael; Thornton, John; van Lierop, Muriel; Cohen, Phil; Amen, Daniel G; Henderson, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review evaluated the clinical utility of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). After defining a PICO Statement (Population, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome Statement), PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) criteria were applied to identify 1600 articles. After screening, 374 articles were eligible for review. Inclusion for review was focus on SPECT in the setting of mild, moderate, or severe TBI with cerebral lobar specificity of SPECT findings. Other inclusion criteria were comparison modalities in the same subjects and articles in English. Foreign language articles, SPECT studies that did not include comparison modalities, and case reports were not included for review. We identified 19 longitudinal and 52 cross-sectional studies meeting inclusion criteria. Three longitudinal studies examined diagnostic predictive value. The first showed positive predictive value increases from initial SPECT scan shortly after trauma to one year follow up scans, from 59% to 95%. Subsequent work replicated these results in a larger cohort. Longitudinal and cross sectional studies demonstrated SPECT lesion localization not detected by CT or MRI. The most commonly abnormal regions revealed by SPECT in cross-sectional studies were frontal (94%) and temporal (77%) lobes. SPECT was found to outperform both CT and MRI in both acute and chronic imaging of TBI, particularly mild TBI. It was also found to have a near 100% negative predictive value. This review demonstrates Level IIA evidence (at least one non-randomized controlled trial) for the value of SPECT in TBI. Given its advantages over CT and MRI in the detection of mild TBI in numerous studies of adequate quality, and given its excellent negative predictive value, it may be an important second test in settings where CT or MRI are negative after a closed head injury with post-injury neurological or psychiatric symptoms.

  11. 3D composite image, 3D MRI, 3D SPECT, hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, T.; Shibata, I.; Sugo, N.; Takano, M.; Takahashi, H.

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D)SPECT imaging technique we have studied and published for the past several years is an analytical tool that permits visual expression of the cerebral circulation profile in various cerebral diseases. The greatest drawback of SPECT is that the limitation on precision of spacial resolution makes intracranial localization impossible. In 3D SPECT imaging, intracranial volume and morphology may vary with the threshold established. To solve this problem, we have produced complimentarily combined SPECT and helical-CT 3D images by means of general-purpose visualization software for intracranial localization. In hydrocephalus, however, the key subject to be studied is the profile of cerebral circulation around the ventricles of the brain. This suggests that, for displaying the cerebral ventricles in three dimensions, CT is a difficult technique whereas MRI is more useful. For this reason, we attempted to establish the profile of cerebral circulation around the cerebral ventricles by the production of combined 3D images of SPECT and MRI. In patients who had shunt surgery for hydrocephalus, a difference between pre- and postoperative cerebral circulation profiles was assessed by a voxel distribution curve, 3D SPECT images, and combined 3D SPECT and MRI images. As the shunt system in this study, an Orbis-Sigma valve of the automatic cerebrospinal fluid volume adjustment type was used in place of the variable pressure type Medos valve currently in use, because this device requires frequent changes in pressure and a change in pressure may be detected after MRI procedure. The SPECT apparatus used was PRISM3000 of the three-detector type, and 123I-IMP was used as the radionuclide in a dose of 222 MBq. MRI data were collected with an MAGNEXa+2 with a magnetic flux density of 0.5 tesla under the following conditions: field echo; TR 50 msec; TE, 10 msec; flip, 30ueK; 1 NEX; FOV, 23 cm; 1-mm slices; and gapless. 3D images are produced on the workstation TITAN

  12. Changes in the peritumoral hypoperfusion area immediately after radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumor. Analysis using 3D-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Masaaki [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-09-01

    Sixteen patients with single metastatic brain tumor underwent SPECT using N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I) iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) before and after radiosurgery. Influence of treatment was evaluated using three-dimensional SPECT images, threshold-voxel graphs and changes in the volume of the peritumoral hypoperfusion area. A three-detector type scanner, the PRISM3000, was also used. SPECT scanning was performed for 30 minutes after intravenous administration of {sup 123}I-IMP with sequential scans every 1 minutes. The data obtained 16-30 minutes after administration were processed using a low-pass ramp filter, and three-dimensional SPECT images were constructed from these data using the Application Visualization System (AVS). Furthermore, a threshold-voxel graph was plotted and the volume of the peritumoral hypoperfusion area was calculated. SPECT was performed before radiosurgery, and 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after, and these data were compared. Three-dimensional SPECT presented the area of peritumoral hypoperfusion as a deficit image and changes were evaluated visually. Threshold-voxel graphs were evaluated as follows: changes in voxels with a threshold of 40-50% indicated a hypoperfusion area, and changes in voxels with a threshold of 70-95% indicated a hyperperfusion area in the tumor side hemisphere. The volume of the peritumoral hypoperfusion area was calculated using the voxel difference between the tumor side and normal hemispheres. Our results showed that the peritumoral hypoperfusion area gradually decreased after an initial first-day increase following radiosurgery. Visual three-dimensional SPECT allowed us to monitor both the volume of the peritumoral hypoperfusion area of metastatic brain tumors after radiosurgery by means of a threshold-voxel graph and changes in the peritumoral hypoperfusion area. (author)

  13. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landvogt, C.

    2007-01-01

    In preoperative localisation of epileptogenic foci, nuclear medicine diagnostics plays a crucial role. FDG-PET is used as first line diagnostics. In case of inconsistent MRI, EEG and FDG-PET findings, 11 C-Flumazenil-PET or ictal and interictal perfusion-SPECT should be performed. Other than FDG, Flumazenil can help to identify the extend of the region, which should be resected. To enhance sensitivity and specificity, further data analysis using voxelbased statistical analyses or SISCOM (substraction ictal SPECT coregistered MRI) should be performed

  14. Brain SPECT with short focal-length cone-beam collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mi-Ae; Moore, Stephen C.; Kijewski, Marie Foley

    2005-01-01

    Single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of deep brain structures is compromised by loss of photons due to attenuation. We have previously shown that a centrally peaked collimator sensitivity function can compensate for this phenomenon, increasing sensitivity over most of the brain. For dual-head instruments, parallel-hole collimators cannot provide variable sensitivity without simultaneously degrading spatial resolution near the center of the brain; this suggests the use of converging collimators. We have designed collimator pairs for dual-head SPECT systems to increase sensitivity, particularly in the center of the brain, and compared the new collimation approach to existing approaches on the basis of performance in estimating activity concentration of small structures at various locations in the brain. The collimator pairs we evaluated included a cone-beam collimator, for increased sensitivity, and a fan-beam collimator, for data sufficiency. We calculated projections of an ellipsoidal uniform background, with 0.9-cm-radius spherical lesions at several locations in the background. From these, we determined ideal signal-to-noise ratios (SNR CRB ) for estimation of activity concentration within the spheres, based on the Cramer-Rao lower bound on variance. We also reconstructed, by an ordered-subset expectation-maximization (OS-EM) procedure, images of this phantom, as well as of the Zubal brain phantom, to allow visual assessment and to ensure that they were free of artifacts. The best of the collimator pairs evaluated comprised a cone-beam collimator with 20 cm focal length, for which the focal point is inside the brain, and a fan-beam collimator with 40 cm focal length. This pair yielded increased SNR CRB , compared to the parallel-parallel pair, throughout the imaging volume. The factor by which SNR CRB increased ranged from 1.1 at the most axially extreme location to 3.5 at the center. The gains in SNR CRB were relatively robust to mismatches

  15. Improvement of image quality using interpolated projection data estimation method in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Akihiro; Soma, Tsutomu; Murase, Kenya; Kojima, Akihiro; Asao, Kimie; Kamada, Shinya; Matsumoto, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    General data acquisition for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is performed in 90 or 60 directions, with a coarse pitch of approximately 4-6 deg for a rotation of 360 deg or 180 deg, using a gamma camera. No data between adjacent projections will be sampled under these circumstances. The aim of the study was to develop a method to improve SPECT image quality by generating lacking projection data through interpolation of data obtained with a coarse pitch such as 6 deg. The projection data set at each individual degree in 360 directions was generated by a weighted average interpolation method from the projection data acquired with a coarse sampling angle (interpolated projection data estimation processing method, IPDE method). The IPDE method was applied to the numerical digital phantom data, actual phantom data and clinical brain data with Tc-99m ethyle cysteinate dimer (ECD). All SPECT images were reconstructed by the filtered back-projection method and compared with the original SPECT images. The results confirmed that streak artifacts decreased by apparently increasing a sampling number in SPECT after interpolation and also improved signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of the root mean square uncertainty value. Furthermore, the normalized mean square error values, compared with standard images, had similar ones after interpolation. Moreover, the contrast and concentration ratios increased their effects after interpolation. These results indicate that effective improvement of image quality can be expected with interpolation. Thus, image quality and the ability to depict images can be improved while maintaining the present acquisition time and image quality. In addition, this can be achieved more effectively than at present even if the acquisition time is reduced. (author)

  16. CT-based attenuation correction and resolution compensation for I-123 IMP brain SPECT normal database: a multicenter phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Yoshitaka; Ichihara, Takashi; Uno, Masaki; Ishiguro, Masanobu; Ito, Kengo; Kato, Katsuhiko; Sakuma, Hajime; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2018-03-19

    Statistical image analysis of brain SPECT images has improved diagnostic accuracy for brain disorders. However, the results of statistical analysis vary depending on the institution even when they use a common normal database (NDB), due to different intrinsic spatial resolutions or correction methods. The present study aimed to evaluate the correction of spatial resolution differences between equipment and examine the differences in skull bone attenuation to construct a common NDB for use in multicenter settings. The proposed acquisition and processing protocols were those routinely used at each participating center with additional triple energy window (TEW) scatter correction (SC) and computed tomography (CT) based attenuation correction (CTAC). A multicenter phantom study was conducted on six imaging systems in five centers, with either single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or SPECT/CT, and two brain phantoms. The gray/white matter I-123 activity ratio in the brain phantoms was 4, and they were enclosed in either an artificial adult male skull, 1300 Hounsfield units (HU), a female skull, 850 HU, or an acrylic cover. The cut-off frequency of the Butterworth filters was adjusted so that the spatial resolution was unified to a 17.9 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM), that of the lowest resolution system. The gray-to-white matter count ratios were measured from SPECT images and compared with the actual activity ratio. In addition, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation images were calculated after normalization and anatomical standardization to evaluate the variability of the NDB. The gray-to-white matter count ratio error without SC and attenuation correction (AC) was significantly larger for higher bone densities (p correction. The proposed protocol showed potential for constructing an appropriate common NDB from SPECT images with SC, AC and spatial resolution compensation.

  17. HM-PAO-SPECT of the brain in a new-born child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenwald, F.; Biersack, H.J.; Bindl, L.

    1988-08-01

    HM-PAO-SPECT of the brain was performed in a 14 days old new-born child. Diencephalon, brain stem and cerebellum showed a relative high tracer accumulation; there was nearly no accumulation in the neocortex.

  18. Importance of brain perfusion SPECT in the diagnosis and prognosis of migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenter, L.F.; Paz-Araviche, V.; Celedon-Arrieta, P.; Mora, E.; Tavares, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this investigation was to establish the usefulness of ECD-99mTc brain perfusion SPECT in the evaluation of the diagnosis of functional alterations of Vascular Headaches of migrainous origin and to determine the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (FSCr) during the headache phase. Material and Methods: A population of 21 female patients, 5 controls, of the same age and sex, aged between 20 and 76 years, with clinical evidence of headache with or without aura, with a duration of 8 to 72 hours, pulsating pain, associated to nausea, photophobia, phonophobia, that does not resolve with common analgesics and characterized by increase of the pain with physical activity. Brain perfusion SPECT was practiced on them at the moment of crisis, independent of the presence of aura or pain, and without crisis. ECD-99mTc was administered at a dose of 925 to 1110 MBq. Images were analyzed by the semi quantification method. Results: SPECT detected 13 hypo-captures on the 16 patients studied. With an 81% sensitivity and 100% specificity, with a precision value of 86%. Analysis through X Binomial Aleatory Variable showed a precision of 90% (p= < 0,023) for the isotopic test, with a significance level of 5%. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm that brain SPECT is a neuroimaging technique capable of identifying migrainous patients, being able to reevaluate the type of hypo perfusion that each patient has, during crisis or out of crisis, and correlate the cortical perfusion deficits and the deterioration of neuropsychological functions

  19. Usefulness of corregistration and post-processing of MR and interictal SPECT images for localization of epileptogenic focus in children – preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miśko, Jolanta; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta; Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Monika; Kamińska, Anna; Bachański, Zbigniew; Chełstowska, Sylwia; Walecki, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    Children with focal epilepsy unresponsive to anticonvulsant therapy may become surgical candidates. Inter-ictal SPECT (SPECT-IN) studies demonstrate an area of hypoperfusion within the seizure focus in up to 50% of patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of corregistration of MR and SPECT-IN images for localization of the epileptogenic focus. Brain MRI and SPECT-IN were performed in 20 children (mean age 9.5). We found multifocal (3–6 perfusion deficits in 10 patients) or diffuse perfusion deficits (lobar) in all patients. In fused MR and SPECT images we evaluated average activity in volumes-of-interest (VOIs) outlined in each gray matter region with deficits. Average VOI activity below average total brain activity with at least 15% difference to the mirror VOI in the brain cortex on the opposite side of was considered as “true” perfusion deficit (TPD). In all children from our group, MRI and SPECT-IN image fusion and evaluation of TPD allowed to verify most of multifocal or diffuse deficits: in each of 12 patients we found 1 TPD, in each of 6 patients 2 TPD and in each of 2 patients 3 TPD. In 8 patients with 2 or 3 TPD we used scalp EEG or ictal SPECT for identification of one probable location of epileptogenic focus. In children with refractory focal epilepsy, image fusion of MRI and SPECT-IN with evaluation of TPD has potential clinical utility in localization of epileptogenic focus

  20. A small-animal imaging system capable of multipinhole circular/helical SPECT and parallel-hole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jianguo; Bradley, Eric L.; Majewski, Stan; Popov, Vladimir; Saha, Margaret S.; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Welsh, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and built a small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system equipped with parallel-hole and multipinhole collimators and capable of circular or helical SPECT. Copper-beryllium parallel-hole collimators suitable for imaging the ∼35 keV photons from the decay of 125 I have been built and installed to achieve useful spatial resolution over a range of object-detector distances and to reduce imaging time on our dual-detector array. To address the resolution limitations in the parallel-hole SPECT and the sensitivity and limited field of view of single-pinhole SPECT, we have incorporated multipinhole circular and helical SPECT in addition to expanding the parallel-hole SPECT capabilities. The pinhole SPECT system is based on a 110 mm diameter circular detector equipped with a pixellated NaI(Tl) scintillator array (1x1x5 mm 3 /pixel). The helical trajectory is accomplished by two stepping motors controlling the rotation of the detector-support gantry and displacement of the animal bed along the axis of rotation of the gantry. Results obtained in SPECT studies of various phantoms show an enlarged field of view, very good resolution and improved sensitivity using multipinhole circular or helical SPECT. Collimators with one, three and five, 1-mm-diameter pinholes have been implemented and compared in these tests. Our objective is to develop a system on which one may readily select a suitable mode of either parallel-hole SPECT or pinhole circular or helical SPECT for a variety of small animal imaging applications

  1. Neuroreceptor and its transporters imaging by PET and SPECT in heroin addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jie; Liu Xingdang; Han Mei

    2013-01-01

    Heroin abuse can cause prominent hazardous effects,including the collapse of social,economic status and health. The research of heroin addiction mechanism has got some progress, but the neurotransmitter and receptor mechanism are still not clear. This review discussed potential neurobiology mechanisms of heroin addiction, including opioid receptor, dopamine receptors and dopamine transporters in different brain areas when exposed to heroin and the application of PET and SPECT imaging of Neuroreceptor and its transporters in heroin addiction research. (authors)

  2. SPECT/CT imaging in general orthopedic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Stephen

    2009-09-01

    The availability of hybrid devices that combine the latest single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging technology with multislice computed tomography (CT) scanning has allowed us to detect subtle, nonspecific abnormalities on bone scans and interpret them as specific focal areas of pathology. Abnormalities in the spine can be separated into those caused by pars fractures, facet joint arthritis, or osteophyte formation on vertebral bodies. Compression fractures can be distinguished from severe degenerative disease, both of which can cause intense activity across the spine on either planar or SPECT imaging. Localizing activity in patients who have had spinal fusion can provide tremendous insight into the causes of therapeutic failures. Infections of the spine now can be diagnosed with gallium SPECT/CT, despite the fact that gallium has long been abandoned because of its failure to detect spine infection on either planar or SPECT imaging. Small focal abnormalities in the feet and ankles can be localized well enough to make specific orthopedic diagnoses on the basis of their location. Moreover, when radiographic imaging provides equivocal or inadequate information, SPECT/CT can provide a road map for further diagnostic studies and has been invaluable in planning surgery. Our ability to localize activity within a bone or at an articular surface has allowed us to distinguish between fractures and joint disease. Increased activity associated with congenital anomalies, such as tarsal coalition and Bertolotti's syndrome have allowed us to understand the pathophysiology of these conditions, to confirm them as the cause of the patient's symptoms, and to provide information that is useful in determining appropriate clinical management. As our experience broadens, SPECT/CT will undoubtedly become an important tool in the evaluation and management of a wider variety of orthopedic patients.

  3. Imaging fusion (SPECT/CT) in degenerative disease of spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Bermudez, S.; Ocampo, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To determine the utility of Fusion Imaging SPECT/CT in degenerative pathology of the spine and to establish the impact of the use of fusion imaging in spinal pain due to degenerative changes of the spine. Materials and methods: 44 Patients (M=21, F=23) average age of 63 years and with degenerative pathology of spine were sent to Diagnosis Imaging department in FSFB. Bone scintigraphy (SPECT), CT of spine (cervical: 30%, Lumbar 70%) and fusion imaging were performed in all of them. Bone scintigraphy was carried out in a gamma camera Siemens Diacam double head attached to ESOFT computer. The images were acquired in matrix 128 x 128, 20 seg/imag, 64 images. CT of spine was performed same day or two days after in Helycoidal Siemens somatom emotion CT. The fusion was done in a Dicom workstation in sagital, axial and coronal reconstruction. The findings were evaluated by 2 Nuclear Medicine physicians and 2 radiologists of the staff of FSFB in an independent way. Results: Bone scan (SPECT) and CT of 44 patients were evaluated. CT showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 27 (61.3%) patients, uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 7 (15.9%), bulging disc in 9(20.4%), spinal nucleus lesion in 7(15.9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%), spinal foraminal stenosis in 7 (15.9%), spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis in 4 (9%). Bone scan showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 29 (65.9%), uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 4 (9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%) and normal 3 (6.8%). The imaging fusion showed coincidence findings (main lesion in CT with high uptake in scintigraphy) in 34 patients (77.2%) and no coincidence in 10 (22.8%). In 15 (34.09%) patients the fusion provided additional information. The analysis of the findings of CT and SPECT showed similar results in most of the cases and the fusion didn't provide additional information but it allowed to confirm the findings but when the findings didn't match where the CT showed several findings and SPECT only one area with high uptake

  4. Voxel-by-voxel analysis of ECD-brain SPECT can separate penumbra from irreversibly damaged tissue at the acute phase of stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcourt, J.; Migneco, O.; David, O.; Bussiere, F.; Mahagne, M.H.; Dunac, A.; Baron, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim. At the acute phase of ischemic stroke, the target of treatment is still salvageable hypoperfused cerebral tissue; so called penumbra. We tested the possibility of separating on early ECD brain SPECT penumbral voxels (P) from irreversibly damaged damaged tissue (IDT). We used ECD which is not only a perfusion tracer but also a metabolic marker. Materials and methods. We prospectively studied 18 patients who underwent ECD-SPECT within the 12 hours following a first-ever acute middle cerebral artery stroke. Neurological evaluation was performed using the Orgogozo's scale at admission and 3 months later in order to calculate and evolution index (IE%) (Martinez-Vila et al.). SPECT data were obtained using a triple head camera equipped with fan beam collimators one hour after injection of 1000 MBq of 99mTc-ECD. On reconstructed images gray matter voxels were automatically segmented. Contralateral healthy hemisphere was used as reference leading to the identification of 3 cortical voxel types: normal (N-SPECT) above 80%; penumbra (P-SPECT) between 80% and 40% and IDT (IDT-SPECT) below 40%. 10 patients also underwent a T2 weighted 3D MRI study at 3 months. Cortical voxels with hypersignal served as reference for IDT (IDT-MRI) the others were considered normal (N-MRI). SPECT and MRI data were co-registered. Therefore each voxel belonged to one of 6 categories (3 SPECT x 2 MRI). Results. (1) The SPECT thresholds were validated on the MRI subgroup. 99% of the N-SPECT voxels were normal on late MRI. 84% of IDT-SPECT voxels corresponded to IDT-MRI. 89% of P-SPECT voxels were normal on late MRI and 11% corresponded to IDT on late MRI. Other categories of voxels (N-SPECT IDT-MRI and IDT-SPECT N-MRI) represented less than 5%. (2) Percentages of each voxel SPECT type was correlated with the EI% on the entire population (Spearman test). P-SPECT extent correlated with EI% improvement (p<0.001) and IDT-SPECT with EI% worsening (p<0.001). Conclusion. Analysis of ECD cortical

  5. Clinical advances of SPECT rCBF and interventional imaging applied in the diagnosis of dementias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kaijun

    2002-01-01

    Brain perfusion SPECT is a functional and noninvasive neuroimaging technique that allow the investigation of physiological and physiopathologic events in the human brain, including cerebral perfusion and function. Interventional rCBF imaging can also evaluate cerebrovascular reserve. In clinically, rCBF imaging play an important role in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementias, especially vascular and Alzheimer's dementia. If etiology of some types of dementias is determined so that it can be early diagnosed, treated and taken prevention; the partial patients with dementia can get recovery or remission

  6. Diamox-enhanced brain SPECT in cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Young

    2007-01-01

    Acute event in cerebrovascular disease is the second most common cause of death in Korea following cancer, and it can also cause serious neurologic deficits. Understanding of perfusion status is important for clinical applications in management of patients with cerebrovascular diseases, and then the attacks of ischemic neurologic symptoms and the risk of acute events can be reduced. Therefore, the normal vascular anatomy of brain, various clinical applications of acetazolamide-enhanced brain perfusion SPECT, including meaning and role of assessment of vascular reserve in carotid stenosis before procedure, in pediatric Moyamoya disease before and after operation, in prediction of development of hyperperfusion syndrome before procedure, and in prediction of vasospasm and of prognosis in subarachnoid hemorrhage were reviewed in this paper

  7. Recovered neuronal viability revealed by Iodine-123-iomazenil SPECT following traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Fujisawa, Hirosuke; Kurokawa, Tetsu; Suehiro, Eiichi; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated cortical damages following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the acute phase with [123I] iomazenil (IMZ) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In all, 12 patients with cerebral contusion following TBI were recruited. All patients underwent IMZ SPECT within 1 week after TBI. To investigate the changes in distribution of IMZ in the cortex in the chronic phase, after conventional treatment, patients underwent IMZ SPECT again. A decrease in the accumulation of radioligand...

  8. Skeletal scintigraphy and SPECT/CT in orthopedic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaeser, B.; Walter, M.; Krause, T.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-modality imaging with SPECT-CT in orthopaedics combines the excellent sensitivity of scintigraphy with the morphological information of CT as a key for specific interpretation of findings in bone scans. The result is an imaging modality with the clear potential to prove of value even in a competitive setting dominated by MRI, and to significantly add to diagnostic imaging in orthopaedics. SPECT-CT is of great value in the diagnostic evaluation after fractures, and - in contrast to MRI - it is well suited for imaging in patients with osteosyntheses and metallic implants. In sports medicine, SPECT-CT allows for a sensitive and specific detection of osseous stress reactions before morphological changes become detectable by CT or MRI. In patients with osseous pain syndromes, actively evolving degenerative changes as a cause of pain can be identified and accurately localized. Further, particularly prospective diagnostic studies providing comparative data are needed to strengthen the position of nuclear imaging in orthopaedics and sports medicine and to help implementing SPECT/CT in diagnostic algorithms. (orig.)

  9. Clinical Utility of '9{sup 9m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT Findings in Chronic Head Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jin ll; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Chang Yoon; Kim, Young Soo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Minima deterioration of cerebral perfusion or microanatomical changes were undetectable on conventional Brain CT or MRI. So evaluation of focal functional changes of the brain parenchyme is essential in chronic head injury patients, who did not show focal anatomical changes on these radiological studies. However, the patients who had longstanding neurologic sequelae following head injury, there had been no available imaging modalities for evaluating these patients precisely. Therefore we tried to detect the focal functional changes on the brain parenchyme using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT on the patients of chronic head injuries. Twenty three patients who had suffered from headache, memory dysfunction, personality change and insomnia lasting more than six months following head injury were included in our cases, which showed no anatomical abnormalities on Brain CT or MRI. At first they underwent psychological test whether the symptoms were organic or not. Also we were able to evaluate the cerebral perfusion changes with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in 22 patients among the 23, which five patients were focal and 17 patients were nonfocally diffuse perfusion changes. Thus we can predict the perfusion changes such as local vascular deterioration or functional defects using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in the patients who had suffered from post-traumatic sequelae, which changes were undetectable on Brain CT or MRI.

  10. Usefulness of CT based SPECT Fusion Image in the lung Disease : Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Lyu, Kwang Yeul; Kim, Tae Hyung; Shin, Ji Yun

    2012-01-01

    Recently, SPECT/CT system has been applied to many diseases, however, the application is not extensively applied at pulmonary disease. Especially, in case that, the pulmonary embolisms suspect at the CT images, SPECT is performed. For the accurate diagnosis, SPECT/CT tests are subsequently undergoing. However, without SPECT/CT, there are some limitations to apply these procedures. With SPECT/CT, although, most of the examination performed after CT. Moreover, such a test procedures generate unnecessary dual irradiation problem to the patient. In this study, we evaluated the amount of unnecessary irradiation, and the usefulness of fusion images of pulmonary disease, which independently acquired from SPECT and CT. Using NEMA PhantomTM (NU2-2001), SPECT and CT scan were performed for fusion images. From June 2011 to September 2010, 10 patients who didn't have other personal history, except lung disease were selected (male: 7, female: 3, mean age: 65.3±12.7). In both clinical patient and phantom data, the fusion images scored higher than SPECT and CT images. The fusion images, which is combined with pulmonary vessel images from CT and functional images from SPECT, can increase the detection possibility in detecting pulmonary embolism in the resin of lung parenchyma. It is sure that performing SPECT and CT in integral SPECT/CT system were better. However, we believe this protocol can give more informative data to have more accurate diagnosis in the hospital without integral SPECT/CT system.

  11. Technetium-99m-ECD SPECT in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: a drastic improvement in brain perfusion by antiplatelet therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumaru, Sunao; Yoshikai, Tomonori; Uchino, Akira; Kudo, Sho [Dept. of Radiology, Saga Medical School (Japan); Matsui, Makoto; Kuroda, Yasuo [Dept. of Neurology, Saga Medical School (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    We present a case of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) with repeated transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple cerebral infarcts and ischemic changes in the cerebral white matter. Cerebral angiographies showed no abnormalities. Technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer (Tc-99m-ECD) brain SPECT showed multiple decreased perfusion areas, which were more extensive than the lesions demonstrated on MRI. After treatment with an antiplatelet agent, the patient subsequently recovered from the TIAs. Although no interval changes were observed by MRI after therapy, follow-up Tc-99m-ECD SPECT revealed a marked improvement in brain perfusion. This is the first imaging report of remarkable post-therapy improvement in brain perfusion in APS cases. (orig.)

  12. Technetium-99m-ECD SPECT in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: a drastic improvement in brain perfusion by antiplatelet therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumaru, Sunao; Yoshikai, Tomonori; Uchino, Akira; Kudo, Sho; Matsui, Makoto; Kuroda, Yasuo

    2001-01-01

    We present a case of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) with repeated transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple cerebral infarcts and ischemic changes in the cerebral white matter. Cerebral angiographies showed no abnormalities. Technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer (Tc-99m-ECD) brain SPECT showed multiple decreased perfusion areas, which were more extensive than the lesions demonstrated on MRI. After treatment with an antiplatelet agent, the patient subsequently recovered from the TIAs. Although no interval changes were observed by MRI after therapy, follow-up Tc-99m-ECD SPECT revealed a marked improvement in brain perfusion. This is the first imaging report of remarkable post-therapy improvement in brain perfusion in APS cases. (orig.)

  13. Ocular melanoma: Detection using iodine-123-iodoamphetamine and SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, S.H.; Leonard, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Uptake of iodine-123-iodoamphetamine has been demonstrated in malignant melanoma using planar imaging techniques and has been used to detect an ocular melanoma at 12 hr postinjection. Using SPECT technique, an ocular melanoma is identified in a 64-yr-old male at 1 hr postinjection

  14. Is SPECT useful in imaging of abdominal inflammatory processes using 99mTc-HMPAO-WBCs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smole, M.S.; Stantic, T.S.; Fettich, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to determine whether SPECT gives additional information in the assessment of inflammation of the abdominal region with labelled white blood cells as compared with usual planar imaging. Patients And Methods: SPECT and planar imaging was performed in 26 patients with suspected inflammatory process in the abdomen, within three hours after injection of autologous white blood cells labelled with 99m Tc HMPAO. Planar images where acquired as static spot images using high resolution low energy collimator on 256 x 256 matrix. SPECT was performed using the same collimator on 128 x 128 matrix in 128 projections. Filtered back projection was used for reconstruction and volume rendering was performed. Results: The lesions in the abdomen were classified as jejunum, colon ascendents, colon transversum, colon descendents, sigmoid, and lesions outside GIT. All lesions, which were seen on planar images, except one, were also seen on SPECT. Five equivocal lesions seen on planar images were reconfirmed as pathological on SPECT. Additionally SPECT revealed three lesions not seen on planar images. Fourteen lesions were seen by both imaging techniques. All together SPECT improved diagnostic accuracy of 99m Tc - HMPAO - WBC scintigraphy in 7/28 patients. Conclusion: more inflammatory lesions in the abdomen are revealed by SPECT and volume rendering, than by planar imaging equivocal lesions seen on planar images can be characterised as positive or negative by SPECT. SPECT artefacts can cause possible false positive results; therefore usual planar imaging cannot be omitted if SPECT is performed

  15. Clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Itaru; Doi, Kenji; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Hou, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Koujirou; Matsui, Ritsuo; Sueyoshi, Kouzou; Utsunomiya, Keita; Narabayashi, Isamu

    1998-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction (SAC) of brain SPECT in infants to compare the standard reconstruction (STD). The brain SPECT was performed in 31 patients with 19 epilepsy, 5 cerebro-vascular disease, 2 brain tumor, 3 meningitis, 1 hydrocephalus and psychosis (mean age 5.0±4.9 years old). Many patients was necessary to be injected sedatives for restraining body motion after Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) was injected at the convulsion or rest. Brain SPECT data were acquired with triple detector gamma camera (GCA-9300 Toshiba Japan). These data were reconstructed by filtered backprojection after the raw data were corrected by triple energy windows method of scatter correction and Chang filtered method of attenuation correction. The same data was reconstructed by filtered backprojection without these corrections. Both SAC and STD SPECT images were analyzed by the visual interpretation. The uptake ratio of cerebral basal nuclei was calculated by the counts of the thalamus or lenticular nuclei divided by the cortex. All images of SAC method were excellent than that of STD method. The thalamic uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.22±0.09>0.87±0.22 p 1.02±0.16 p<0.01). Transmission scan is the most suitable method of absorption correction. But the transmission scan is not adequate for examination of children, because this scan needs a lot of time and the infants are exposed by the line source radioisotope. It was concluded that these scatter and absorption corrections were most suitable method for brain SPECT in pediatrics. (author)

  16. Clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Itaru; Doi, Kenji; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Hou, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Koujirou; Matsui, Ritsuo; Sueyoshi, Kouzou; Utsunomiya, Keita; Narabayashi, Isamu [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction (SAC) of brain SPECT in infants to compare the standard reconstruction (STD). The brain SPECT was performed in 31 patients with 19 epilepsy, 5 cerebro-vascular disease, 2 brain tumor, 3 meningitis, 1 hydrocephalus and psychosis (mean age 5.0{+-}4.9 years old). Many patients was necessary to be injected sedatives for restraining body motion after Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) was injected at the convulsion or rest. Brain SPECT data were acquired with triple detector gamma camera (GCA-9300 Toshiba Japan). These data were reconstructed by filtered backprojection after the raw data were corrected by triple energy windows method of scatter correction and Chang filtered method of attenuation correction. The same data was reconstructed by filtered backprojection without these corrections. Both SAC and STD SPECT images were analyzed by the visual interpretation. The uptake ratio of cerebral basal nuclei was calculated by the counts of the thalamus or lenticular nuclei divided by the cortex. All images of SAC method were excellent than that of STD method. The thalamic uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.22{+-}0.09>0.87{+-}0.22 p<0.01). The lenticular nuclear uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.26{+-}0.15>1.02{+-}0.16 p<0.01). Transmission scan is the most suitable method of absorption correction. But the transmission scan is not adequate for examination of children, because this scan needs a lot of time and the infants are exposed by the line source radioisotope. It was concluded that these scatter and absorption corrections were most suitable method for brain SPECT in pediatrics. (author)

  17. A new method for brain functional study using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Kosaka, Noboru; Nishikawa, Junichi; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Iio, Masahiro (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-04-01

    The distribution of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in brain is in proportion to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and can be interpreted as functional mapping. To evaluate local changes in CBF during neuropsychological testing, we developed a new subtraction method using HMPAO and SPECT. With patients resting, 15 mCi of HMPAO was injected and the first acquisition was performed, lasting a total of 10 minutes. Soon after the end of the first scan, patients were requested to undergo Buschke's memory test or to repeat words or numbers (repetition test). During the task, an additional 15 mCi of HMPAO was injected using the same position as in the first scan, and a second acquisition was started. A functional image was made by subtracting the image in the first scan from that in the second. In two patients with transient global amnesia and two normal controls, Buschke's memory test was performed in combination with SPECT. A relative increase in activity was seen in the thalamus, subthalamic area, hippocampus, and some cortial areas, apparently reflecting local functional change induced by the memory task. In two patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease with severe memory loss, no increase was detected in these areas. In one patient with aphasia, the repetition test with SPECT was correlated with the WADA test and dichotic listening test, and good agreement was obtained. In conclusion, our new SPECT technique is useful in detecting alterations in rCBF during mental activity and can be applied to neurophysiological studies. (author).

  18. SPECT in psychiatry. SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barocka, A. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Feistel, H. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Ebert, D. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Lungershausen, E. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D[sub 2] and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.)

  19. In vivo SPECT reporter gene imaging of regulatory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sharif-Paghaleh

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs were identified several years ago and are key in controlling autoimmune diseases and limiting immune responses to foreign antigens, including alloantigens. In vivo imaging techniques including intravital microscopy as well as whole body imaging using bioluminescence probes have contributed to the understanding of in vivo Treg function, their mechanisms of action and target cells. Imaging of the human sodium/iodide symporter via Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT has been used to image various cell types in vivo. It has several advantages over the aforementioned imaging techniques including high sensitivity, it allows non-invasive whole body studies of viable cell migration and localisation of cells over time and lastly it may offer the possibility to be translated to the clinic. This study addresses whether SPECT/CT imaging can be used to visualise the migratory pattern of Tregs in vivo. Treg lines derived from CD4(+CD25(+FoxP3(+ cells were retrovirally transduced with a construct encoding for the human Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS and the fluorescent protein mCherry and stimulated with autologous DCs. NIS expressing self-specific Tregs were specifically radiolabelled in vitro with Technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99mTcO(4(- and exposure of these cells to radioactivity did not affect cell viability, phenotype or function. In addition adoptively transferred Treg-NIS cells were imaged in vivo in C57BL/6 (BL/6 mice by SPECT/CT using (99mTcO(4(-. After 24 hours NIS expressing Tregs were observed in the spleen and their localisation was further confirmed by organ biodistribution studies and flow cytometry analysis. The data presented here suggests that SPECT/CT imaging can be utilised in preclinical imaging studies of adoptively transferred Tregs without affecting Treg function and viability thereby allowing longitudinal studies within disease models.

  20. Brain SPECT analysis by 3D-SSP and clinical features of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, Yasunori; Yoshida, Kazuto; Makino, Kenichi; Yabe, Ichiro; Kikuchi, Seiji; Sasaki, Hidenao; Tashiro, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the association of symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) with cerebral perfusion on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The clinical features of PD were compared with SPECT images of the brain obtained by three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) analysis. Thirty-eight patients who had PD without dementia (17 men and 21 women with a mean age of 68.6±4.7 years) were enrolled in this study. Their symptoms were rated using the unified parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS). Within a week, all patients were examined by SPECT with I-123, and reconstructed images were analyzed with 3D-SSP using an image-analysis software, iSSP ver. 3.5. Data on brain surface perfusion extracted by 3D-SSP analysis were compared between the PD patients and the normal control group. The same comparisons were made for subgroups of PD patients with severe symptoms, such as tremor, gait disturbance, bradykinesia, and the UPDRS motor score. Cerebral perfusion was decreased at the anterior cingulate cortex and occipital lobe of the PD patients compared with the normal controls. In the subgroups with severe gait disturbance and severe bradykinesia, additional hypoperfusion was seen at the lateral frontal association and lateral temporal association and the medial frontal gyrus, and by the pixel-by-pixel comparison, perfusion was significantly decreased (p<0.05) at the medial frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex compared with the normal control group. In PD patients, severe gait disturbance and bradykinesia may be correlated with hypoperfusion of the medial aspect of the frontal lobe. This suggests that functional disturbance of the supplementary motor area and other parts of the frontal lobe are involved in the development of gait disturbance and bradykinesia in PD. (author)

  1. Infective endocarditis detection through SPECT/CT images digital processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Albino; Valdés, Raquel; Jiménez, Luis; Vallejo, Enrique; Hernández, Salvador; Soto, Gabriel

    2014-03-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a difficult-to-diagnose pathology, since its manifestation in patients is highly variable. In this work, it was proposed a semiautomatic algorithm based on SPECT images digital processing for the detection of IE using a CT images volume as a spatial reference. The heart/lung rate was calculated using the SPECT images information. There were no statistically significant differences between the heart/lung rates values of a group of patients diagnosed with IE (2.62+/-0.47) and a group of healthy or control subjects (2.84+/-0.68). However, it is necessary to increase the study sample of both the individuals diagnosed with IE and the control group subjects, as well as to improve the images quality.

  2. Resting functional imaging tools (MRS, SPECT, PET and PCT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Naalt, Joukje; Grafman, Jordan; Salazar, Andres M

    2015-01-01

    Functional imaging includes imaging techniques that provide information about the metabolic and hemodynamic status of the brain. Most commonly applied functional imaging techniques in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) include magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), single photon emission

  3. Novel SPECT Technologies and Approaches in Cardiac Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Slomka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent novel approaches in myocardial perfusion single photon emission CT (SPECT have been facilitated by new dedicated high-efficiency hardware with solid-state detectors and optimized collimators. New protocols include very low-dose (1 mSv stress-only, two-position imaging to mitigate attenuation artifacts, and simultaneous dual-isotope imaging. Attenuation correction can be performed by specialized low-dose systems or by previously obtained CT coronary calcium scans. Hybrid protocols using CT angiography have been proposed. Image quality improvements have been demonstrated by novel reconstructions and motion correction. Fast SPECT acquisition facilitates dynamic flow and early function measurements. Image processing algorithms have become automated with virtually unsupervised extraction of quantitative imaging variables. This automation facilitates integration with clinical variables derived by machine learning to predict patient outcome or diagnosis. In this review, we describe new imaging protocols made possible by the new hardware developments. We also discuss several novel software approaches for the quantification and interpretation of myocardial perfusion SPECT scans.

  4. The impact of exercise myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging on the selection of patients for coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Liping; He Zuoxiang; Liu Xiujie; Shi Rongfang; Liu Yunzhong; Tian Yueqin; Zhang Xiaoli; Qin Xuewen; Chen Jilin; Gao Runlin

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Exercise 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT is accurate for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study assessed the impact of exercise myocardial perfusion imaging on the selection of patients for coronary angiography. Methods: 2188 consecutive patients who underwent exercise myocardial perfusion SPECT in authors' department in 1999 were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 1807 were men, 381 women (average age: 53.5 +- 7.2 years). Overall, exercise myocardial SPECT was normal in 1731 patients, abnormal in 359 cases, and equivocal in 98 patients. There were 141 patients who underwent CAG within 60 days after myocardial SPECT. Results: Overall, 12% of the patients with abnormal SPECT imaging underwent coronary angiography, but only 5% of the patients with a normal SPECT imaging did (P < 0.001). Among these 141 patients who underwent coronary angiography, significant coronary stenosis was present in 91% of the patients who had had an abnormal SPECT imaging, but only 8% of those who had had a normal SPECT imaging (P < 0.001). In those patients who underwent coronary angiography, revascularization rate was 25% for the patients with abnormal SPECT imaging, but only 1% for the patients with a normal SPECT imaging. Conclusion: The results of exercise myocardial perfusion SPECT have a significant impact on the selection of patients for coronary angiography and revascularization

  5. Automated Analysis of 123I-beta-CIT SPECT Images with Statistical Probabilistic Anatomical Mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Hoyoung; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Yu Kyung; Jeon, Bumseok; Lee, Dong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Population-based statistical probabilistic anatomical maps have been used to generate probabilistic volumes of interest for analyzing perfusion and metabolic brain imaging. We investigated the feasibility of automated analysis for dopamine transporter images using this technique and evaluated striatal binding potentials in Parkinson's disease and Wilson's disease. We analyzed 2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4- 123 I-iodophenyl)tropane ( 123 I-beta-CIT) SPECT images acquired from 26 people with Parkinson's disease (M:F=11:15,mean age=49±12 years), 9 people with Wilson's disease (M: F=6:3, mean age=26±11 years) and 17 normal controls (M:F=5:12, mean age=39±16 years). A SPECT template was created using striatal statistical probabilistic map images. All images were spatially normalized onto the template, and probability-weighted regional counts in striatal structures were estimated. The binding potential was calculated using the ratio of specific and nonspecific binding activities at equilibrium. Voxel-based comparisons between groups were also performed using statistical parametric mapping. Qualitative assessment showed that spatial normalizations of the SPECT images were successful for all images. The striatal binding potentials of participants with Parkinson's disease and Wilson's disease were significantly lower than those of normal controls. Statistical parametric mapping analysis found statistically significant differences only in striatal regions in both disease groups compared to controls. We successfully evaluated the regional 123 I-beta-CIT distribution using the SPECT template and probabilistic map data automatically. This procedure allows an objective and quantitative comparison of the binding potential, which in this case showed a significantly decreased binding potential in the striata of patients with Parkinson's disease or Wilson's disease

  6. Registration of SPECT, PET and/or X-ray CT images in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, K.; Toyama, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Yoshikawa, K.; Mori, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: In order to evaluate the therapeutic gain of heavy ion therapy performed on patients with lung cancer, the regional pulmonary functions and the amount of radio tracer accumulation to the tumor, we are investigated by using the region of interest based on anatomical information obtained from X-ray CT. There are many registration techniques for brain images, but not so much for the other organ images that we have studied registration of chest SPECT, PET and/or X-ray CT images. Materials and Methods: Perfusion, ventilation and blood pool images with Tc 99m labeled radiopharmaceuticals and SPECT, tumor images with 11 C-methionine and PET and X-ray CT scans were performed on several patients with lung cancer before and after heavy ion therapy. The registrations of SPECT-CT, PET-CT and CT-CT were performed by using AMIR (Automatic Multimodality Image Registration), which was developed by Babak et al. for registration of brain images. In a case of SPECT-CT registration, each of the three functional images was registered to the X-ray CT image, and the accuracy of each registration was compared. In the studies of PET-CT registration, the transmission images and X-ray CT images were registered at first, because the 11 C-methionine PET images bear little resemblance to the underlying anatomical images. Next, the emission images were realigned by using the same registration parameters. The X-ray CT images obtained from a single subject at the different time were registered to the first X-ray CT images, respectively. Results: In the SPECT-CT registration, the blood pool-CT registration is the best among three SPECT images in visual inspection by radiologists. In the PET-CT registration, the Transmission-CT registrations got good results. Therefore, Emission-CT registrations also got good results. In the CT-CT registration, the X-ray CT images obtained from a single subject at the different time were superimposed well each other except for lower lobe. As the results, it was

  7. Evaluation of the quality of picture in studies of sect brain acquired with various collimators; Evaluacion de la calidad de imagen en estudios de spect cerebral adquiridos con distintos colimadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran Velasco, V.; Prieto Azcarete, E.; Barbes Fernandez, B.; Sancho rodriguez, L.; Ribelles Segura, M. J.; Richter echevarria, J. A.; Arbizu Lostao, J.; Marti-Climent, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    On the practice clinic , the performance of the systems SPECT depends on in large measurement of the quality of image. The goal of East study was evaluate how affect the parameters of reconstruction of studies SPECT of perfusion brain acquired with a collimator of holes parallel (LEHR) and other of holes in fan (Fan-Beam). (Author)

  8. Cerebral perfusion changes in traumatic diffuse brain injury. IMP SPECT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Onuma, Takehide.

    1997-01-01

    Diffuse brain injury (DBI) is characterized by axonal degeneration and neuronal damage which cause diffuse brain atrophy. We have investigated the time course of abnormalities in cerebral perfusion distribution in cases of DBI by using Iodine-123-IMP SPECT, and the relationship to the appearance of diffuse brain atrophy. SPECT scans were performed on eight patients with diffuse brain injury due to closed cranial trauma in acute and chronic stages. All patients showed abnormalities in cerebral perfusion with decreases in perfusion, even in non-depicted regions on MRI, and the affected areas varied throughout the period of observation. Diffuse brain atrophy appeared in all patients. In some patients, diffuse brain atrophy was observed at or just after the time when the maximum number of lesions on SPECT were seen. The abnormalities in cerebral perfusion in cases of DBI might therefore be related to axonal degeneration and neuronal damage which causes diffuse brain atrophy. (author)

  9. Presentation of regional cerebral blood flow in amphetamine abusers by 99Tcm-HMPAO brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.H.; Wang, S.J.; Yeh, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of 99 Tc m -hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ( 99 Tc m -HMPAO) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the assessment of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in amphetamine abusers. Twenty-one amphetamine abusers were included and 99 Tc m -HMPAO brain SPECT performed to evaluate rCBF. The drug-using periods ranged from 1 month to several years. The demonstrated neuropsychogenic symptoms and signs of the abusers were from normal presentation to various neurologic complications. The brain SPECT scans were interpreted visually as either normal or abnormal. The degree of abnormality was classified into mild or severe. The results revealed that (a) most SPECT studies in abusers show small defects (95%, 20/21 cases); 71% (15/21) of cases revealed multiple defects over both hemispheres (classified as severe); 24% (5/21) of the cases had focal defects (classified as mild); and only one case (5%, 1/21) demonstrated a normal SPECT finding; (b) the degree of abnormality on SPECT scans was not related to the dose and duration of drug use or the severity of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs. In conclusion, 99 Tc m -HMPAO brain SPECT is a sensitive but not specific test for neuropsychogenic abnormalities associated with amphetamine abuse. (Author)

  10. Reduced brain perfusion in basal forebrain associated with cognitive decline in Alzheimer's diseases: a Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.C.; Kang, H.; Kang, E.; Lee, J.S.; Lee, D.S.; Lee, D.W.; Cho, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Reduction of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in various cerebral regions and decline of cognitive function have been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The aim of this study was to identify the brain areas showing correlation between longitudinal changes of rCBFs and decline of general mental function, measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in probable Alzheimer's disease patients. Materials and Methods: Nine probable AD patients according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and DSM-IV were studied with Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT at an initial point and at the follow-up after a period of average 1.8 year. MMSE score was obtained in both occasions (average MMSE 16.4 at initial study; average MMSE = 8.1 at follow-up). Single SPECT was performed in 30 age-matched normal controls. Each SPECT image was normalized to the cerebellar activity. Using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99), correlation was analyzed between individual changes in rCBF of two SPECT scans and the MMSE scores at the time of each study in AD patients. In addition, the SPECT images of the initial study and the follow-up study were compared with SPECT images of the age-matched normal group respectively. Results: Significant correlation between longitudinal changes of rCBFs and MMSE scores was found in left basal forebrain region including substantia innominata (x, y, z = -24, 16, -23; P < .05, corrected). Within a short follow-up period of 1.8 years, cerebral hypoperfusion extended to various cortical regions from bilateral temporo-parietal to bilateral frontal regions and cingulate cortex, compared to normal controls. Conclusion: The decline of cognitive function in individual AD patients was correlated with rCBF reduction in left basal forebrain. This finding supports the cholinergic hypothesis of AD since hypoperfusion in basal forebrain region might indicate deterioration of cholinergic neurons in nucleus basalis of Meynert or substantia innominata

  11. High resolution SPECT imaging for visualization of intratumoral heterogeneity using a SPECT/CT scanner dedicated for small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Izumi O.; Tani, Kotaro; Tsuda, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    Tumor interiors are never homogeneous and in vivo visualization of intratumoral heterogeneity would be an innovation that contributes to improved cancer therapy. But, conventional nuclear medicine tests have failed to visualize heterogeneity in vivo because of limited spatial resolution. Recently developed single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) scanners dedicated for small animal imaging are of interest due to their excellent spatial resolution of 111 In and simulations of actual small animal imaging. The optimal conditions obtained were validated by in vivo imaging of sarcoma 180-bearing mice. Larger number of counts must be obtained within limited acquisition time to visualize tumor heterogeneity in vivo in animal imaging, compared to cases that simply detect tumors. At an acquisition time of 30 min, better image quality was obtained with pinhole apertures diameter of 1.4 mm than of 1.0 mm. The obtained best spatial resolution was 1.3 mm, it was acceptable for our purpose, though a little worse than the best possible performance of the scanner (1.0 mm). Additionally, the reconstruction parameters, such as noise suppression, voxel size, and iteration/subset number, needed to be optimized under the limited conditions and were different from those found under the ideal condition. The minimal radioactivity concentration for visualization of heterogeneous tumor interiors was estimated to be as high as 0.2-0.5 MBq/mL. Liposomes containing 111 In met this requirement and were administered to tumor-bearing mice. SPECT imaging successfully showed heterogeneous 111 In distribution within the tumors in vivo with good spatial resolution. A threshold of 0.2 MBq/g for clear visualization of tumor heterogeneity was validated. Autoradiograms obtained ex vivo of excised tumors confirmed that the in vivo SPECT images accurately depicted the heterogeneous intratumoral accumulation of liposomes. Intratumoral heterogeneity was successfully visualized under the optimized

  12. Brain imaging and brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage

  13. Usefulness of Ga-67 citrate whole body imaging, chest spot imaging, and chest SPECT in sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Kyoichi; Nishi, Koichi; Namura, Masanobu; Kawashima, Yoshio; Kurumaya, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    To assess the sensitivity, and the relative role of Ga-67 whole body, chest spot imaging, and chest SPECT, we retrospectively studied 34 cases of sarcoidosis (24 biopsy proven, 10 clinically diagnosed) with Ga-67 (111 MBq), and compared the results of lung (25 cases), muscle (25 cases), skin (3 cases), and myocardial (2 cases) biopsies. Ga-67 chest SPECT (single photon emission CT) were done in 17 cases with Siemens MultiSPECT3. Ga-67 planar imaging visualized only 2 of 12 (16.7%) lung biopsy-positive cases, 5 of 12 (41.6%) muscle biopsy-positive cases, 2 of 3 (66.7%) skin biopsy-positive cases. However, Ga-67 imaging revealed the lesions in 1 of 9 (11.1%) of muscle biopsy-negative cases, in 2 of 3 (66.7%) of skin biopsy-negative cases, and in 1 of 2 myocardial biopsy-negative cases. Ga-67 chest SPECT visualized 14 hilar lymphadenopathy (LN), 3 supraclavicular LN, and 1 myocardial sarcoidosis. Although both SPECT, and planar spot imaging detected the lesions equally, the former showed them more clearly. Compared with various biopsies, the sensitivity of Ga-67 imaging was not so high. However, Ga-67 imaging is non-invasive, easy to perform the whole body imaging, and can detect the activity of the lesions. Ga-67 SPECT showed clear imaging of the hilar, mediastinal LN, and potentially fatal myocardial sarcoidosis. (author)

  14. Design and evaluation of two multi-pinhole collimators for brain SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Tsui, Benjamin M W; Mok, Greta S P

    2017-10-01

    SPECT is a powerful tool for diagnosing or staging brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) but is limited by its inferior resolution and sensitivity. At the same time, pinhole SPECT provides superior resolution and detection efficiency trade-off as compared to the conventional parallel-hole collimator for imaging small field-of-view (FOV), which fits for the case of brain imaging. In this study, we propose to develop and evaluate two multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator designs to improve the imaging of cerebral blood flow and striatum. We set the target resolutions to be 12 and 8 mm, respectively, and the FOV at 200 mm which is large enough to cover the whole brain. The constraints for system optimization include maximum and minimum detector-to-center-of-FOV (CFOV) distances of 344 and 294 mm, respectively, and minimal radius-of-rotation (ROR) of 135 mm to accommodate patients' shoulder. According to the targeted FOV, resolutions, and constraints, we determined the pinhole number, ROR, focal length, aperture acceptance angle, and aperture diameter which maximized the system sensitivity. We then assessed the imaging performance of the proposed MPH and standard low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimators using analytical simulations of a digital NCAT brain phantom with 99m Tc-HMPAO/ 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 distributions; Monte Carlo simulations of a hot-rod phantom; and a Defrise phantom using GATE v6.1. Projections were generated over 360° and reconstructed using the 3D MPH/LEHR OS-EM methods with up to 720 updates. The normalized mean square error (NMSE) was calculated over the cerebral and striatal regions extracted from the reconstructed images for 99m Tc-HMPAO and 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 simulations, respectively, and average normalized standard deviation (NSD) based on 20 noise realizations was assessed on selected uniform 3D regions as the noise index. Visual assessment and image profiles were applied to the results of Monte Carlo

  15. Technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT, CT and MRI in the evaluation of patients with chronic traumatic brain injury: a correlation with neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichise, M; Chung, D G; Wang, P; Wortzman, G; Gray, B G; Franks, W

    1994-02-01

    The purposes of this study were: (1) to compare 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (HMPAO) SPECT with CT and MRI in chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and (2) to correlate both functional and structural neuroimaging measurements of brain damage with neuropsychological (NP) performance. Twenty-nine patients (minor TBI, n = 15 and major TBI, n = 14) and 17 normal controls (NC) underwent HMPAO SPECT, CT, MRI and NP testing. Imaging data were analyzed both visually and quantitatively. Nineteen (66%) patients showed 42 abnormalities on SPECT images, whereas 13 (45%) and 10 (34%) patients showed 29 abnormalities on MRI and 24 abnormalities on CT. SPECT detected relatively more abnormalities than CT or MRI in the minor TBI subgroup. The TBI group showed impairment on 11 tests for memory, attention and executive function. Of these, the anterior-posterior ratio (APR) correlated with six tests, whereas the ventricle-to-brain ratio (VBR), a known structural index of a poor NP outcome, correlated with only two tests. In evaluating chronic TBI patients, HMPAO SPECT, as a complement to CT or MRI, may play a useful role by demonstrating brain dysfunction in morphologically intact brain regions and providing objective evidence for some of the impaired NP performance.

  16. Molecular Imaging of Hydrolytic Enzymes Using PET and SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Brian P; Price, Eric W; Phenix, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Hydrolytic enzymes are a large class of biological catalysts that play a vital role in a plethora of critical biochemical processes required to maintain human health. However, the expression and/or activity of these important enzymes can change in many different diseases and therefore represent exciting targets for the development of positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracers. This review focuses on recently reported radiolabeled substrates, reversible inhibitors, and irreversible inhibitors investigated as PET and SPECT tracers for imaging hydrolytic enzymes. By learning from the most successful examples of tracer development for hydrolytic enzymes, it appears that an early focus on careful enzyme kinetics and cell-based studies are key factors for identifying potentially useful new molecular imaging agents.

  17. Evaluation of linear registration algorithms for brain SPECT and the errors due to hypoperfusion lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radau, Perry E.; Slomka, Piotr J.; Julin, Per; Svensson, Leif; Wahlund, Lars-Olof

    2001-01-01

    The semiquantitative analysis of perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images requires a reproducible, objective method. Automated spatial standardization (registration) of images is a prerequisite to this goal. A source of registration error is the presence of hypoperfusion defects, which was evaluated in this study with simulated lesions. The brain perfusion images measured by 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT from 21 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 35 control subjects were retrospectively analyzed. An automatic segmentation method was developed to remove external activity. Three registration methods, robust least squares, normalized mutual information (NMI), and count difference were implemented and the effects of simulated defects were compared. The tested registration methods required segmentation of the cerebrum from external activity, and the automatic and manual methods differed by a three-dimensional displacement of 1.4±1.1 mm. NMI registration proved to be least adversely effected by simulated defects with 3 mm average displacement caused by severe defects. The error in quantifying the patient-template parietal ratio due to misregistration was 2.0% for large defects (70% hypoperfusion) and 0.5% for smaller defects (85% hypoperfusion)

  18. Automatic extraction of left ventricle in SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Li; Zhao Shujun; Yao Zhiming; Wang Daoyu

    1999-01-01

    An automatic method of extracting left ventricle from SPECT myocardial perfusion data was introduced. This method was based on the least square analysis of the positions of all short-axis slices pixels from the half sphere-cylinder myocardial model, and used a iterative reconstruction technique to automatically cut off the non-left ventricular tissue from the perfusion images. Thereby, this technique provided the bases for further quantitative analysis

  19. Clinical value of scatter correction for interictal brain 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Catasus, C.; Morales, L.; Aguila, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: It is well known that some patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) show normal perfusion during interictal SPECT study. The aim of this research was to evaluate if the scatter radiation has some influence on this kind of result. Materials and Methods: We studied 15 patients with TLE by clinical diagnosis and by video-EEG monitoring with surface electrodes (11 left TLE, 4 right TLE), which showed normal perfusion during interictal brain 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT. The SPECT data were reconstructed by filtered backprojection without scatter correction (A). The same SPECT data were reconstructed after the projections were corrected by dual energy window method of scatter correction (B). Attenuation was corrected in all cases using first order Chang Method. For A and B images groups, cerebellum perfusion ratios were calculated on irregular regions of interest (ROI) drawn on anterior (ATL), lateral (LTL), mesial (MTL) and whole temporal lobe (WTL). To evaluate the influence of scatter radiation, the cerebellum perfusion ratios of each subject were compared with a normal database of 10 normal subjects, with and without scatter correction, using z-score analysis. Results: In group A, the z-score was less than 2 in all cases. In group B, the z-score was more than 2 in 6 cases, 4 in MTL (3 left, 1 right) and 2 in left LTL, which were coincident with the EEG localization. All images of group B showed better contrast than images of group A. Conclusions: These results suggest that scatter correction could improve the sensitivity of interictal brain SPECT to identify epileptic focus in patients with TLE

  20. IQ-SPECT for thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging: effect of normal databases on quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Takahiro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Okuda, Koichi; Yoneyama, Hiroto; Matsuo, Shinro; Shibutani, Takayuki; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Kinuya, Seigo

    2017-07-01

    Although IQ-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides rapid acquisition and attenuation-corrected images, the unique technology may create characteristic distribution different from the conventional imaging. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of IQ-SPECT using Japanese normal databases (NDBs) with that of the conventional SPECT for thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). A total of 36 patients underwent 1-day 201 Tl adenosine stress-rest MPI. Images were acquired with IQ-SPECT at approximately one-quarter of the standard time of conventional SPECT. Projection data acquired with the IQ-SPECT system were reconstructed via an ordered subset conjugate gradient minimizer method with or without scatter and attenuation correction (SCAC). Projection data obtained using the conventional SPECT were reconstructed via a filtered back projection method without SCAC. The summed stress score (SSS) was calculated using NDBs created by the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine working group, and scores were compared between IQ-SPECT and conventional SPECT using the acquisition condition-matched NDBs. The diagnostic performance of the methods for the detection of coronary artery disease was also compared. SSSs were 6.6 ± 8.2 for the conventional SPECT, 6.6 ± 9.4 for IQ-SPECT without SCAC, and 6.5 ± 9.7 for IQ-SPECT with SCAC (p = n.s. for each comparison). The SSS showed a strong positive correlation between conventional SPECT and IQ-SPECT (r = 0.921 and p IQ-SPECT with and without SCAC was also good (r = 0.907 and p IQ-SPECT without SCAC; and 88.5, 86.8, and 87.3%, respectively, for IQ-SPECT with SCAC, respectively. The area under the curve obtained via receiver operating characteristic analysis were 0.77, 0.80, and 0.86 for conventional SPECT, IQ-SPECT without SCAC, and IQ-SPECT with SCAC, respectively (p = n.s. for each comparison). When appropriate NDBs were used, the diagnostic performance of 201 Tl IQ-SPECT

  1. A survey of head movement during clinical brain SPECT using an optical tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandos, G.; Barnden, L.; Lineage, H.; Smith, T.; Unger, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to survey patient motion during clinical brain SPECT using a commercial motion detection system called Polaris. Polaris is an optical tracker that remotely tracks head position and orientation via a small target attached to the patient. Its accuracy for position measurement is 1mm or 1 degree (deg), 33% moved > 2mm or 2deg and 10% moved > 4mm or 4deg. 65% of subjects moved 3 or more times. Motion in the D and P groups was equally likely to be small (<3mm or <3deg) or large and equally likely to occur early or late during acquisition. Motion in the N, F and C groups was less likely to be large and for N and F more likely to occur late in the acquisition suggesting fatigue was the main cause. The most common large movements were anterior-posterior translations and axial (Z) rotations. Significant head movement is common in brain SPECT, particularly in dementia and psychiatric subjects, and accurate motion correction is desirable to maintain image quality. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  2. Image viewing station for MR and SPECT : using personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Byung Il; Jeong, Eun Kee; Suh, Jin Suck; Kim, Myeong Joon

    1996-01-01

    Macro language was programmed to analyze and process on Macintosh personal computers, GEMR images digitally transferred from the MR main computer, with special interest in the interpretation of information such as patients data and imaging parameters under each image header. By this method, raw data(files) of certain patients may be digitally stored on a hard disk or CD ROM, and the quantitative analysis, interpretation and display is possible. Patients and images were randomly selected 4.X MR images were transferred through FTP using the ethernet network. 5.X and SPECT images were transferred using floppy diskettes. To process transferred images, an freely distributed software for Macintosh namely NIH Image, with its macro language, was used to import images and translate header information. To identify necessary information, a separate window named I nfo=txt , was made for each image series. MacLC, Centris650, and PowerMac6100/CD, 7100/CD, 8100/CD models with 256 color and RAM over 8Mbyte were used. Different versions of MR images and SPECT images were displayed simultaneously and a separate window named 'info-txt' was used to show all necessary information(name of the patient, unit number, date, TR, TE, FOV etc.). Additional information(diagnosis, pathologic report etc.) was stored in another text box in 'info-txt'. The size of the file for each image plane was about 149Kbytes and the images were stored in a step-like file folders. 4.X and 5.X GE Signa 1.5T images were successfully processed with Macintosh computer and NIH Image. This result may be applied to many fields and there is hope of a broader area of application with the linkage of NIH Image and a database program

  3. SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barocka, A.; Feistel, H.; Ebert, D.; Lungershausen, E.

    1993-01-01

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D 2 and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.) [de

  4. Imaging the neurobiological substrate of atypical depression by SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, Dario [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Nardo, Davide [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome (Italy); Jonsson, Cathrine; Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, Hans [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Gardner, Ann [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    Neurobiological abnormalities underlying atypical depression have previously been suggested. The purpose of this study was to explore differences at functional brain imaging between depressed patients with and without atypical features and healthy controls. Twenty-three out-patients with chronic depressive disorder recruited from a service for patients with audiological symptoms were investigated. Eleven fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression (mood reactivity and at least two of the following: weight gain, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis and interpersonal rejection sensitivity). Twenty-three healthy subjects served as controls. Voxel-based analysis was applied to explore differences in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO uptake between groups. Patients in the atypical group had a higher prevalence of bilateral hearing impairment and higher depression and somatic distress ratings at the time of SPECT. Significantly higher tracer uptake was found bilaterally in the atypical group as compared with the non-atypicals in the sensorimotor (Brodmann areas, BA1-3) and premotor cortex in the superior frontal gyri (BA6), in the middle frontal cortex (BA8), in the parietal associative cortex (BA5, BA7) and in the inferior parietal lobule (BA40). Significantly lower tracer distribution was found in the right hemisphere in the non-atypicals compared with the controls in BA6, BA8, BA44, BA45 and BA46 in the frontal cortex, in the orbito-frontal cortex (BA11, BA47), in the postcentral parietal cortex (BA2) and in the multimodal association parietal cortex (BA40). The differences found between atypical and non-atypical depressed patients suggest different neurobiological substrates in these patient groups. The putative links with the clinical features of atypical depression are discussed. These findings encourage the use of functional neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  5. Imaging the neurobiological substrate of atypical depression by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, Marco; Salmaso, Dario; Nardo, Davide; Jonsson, Cathrine; Larsson, Stig A.; Jacobsson, Hans; Gardner, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Neurobiological abnormalities underlying atypical depression have previously been suggested. The purpose of this study was to explore differences at functional brain imaging between depressed patients with and without atypical features and healthy controls. Twenty-three out-patients with chronic depressive disorder recruited from a service for patients with audiological symptoms were investigated. Eleven fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression (mood reactivity and at least two of the following: weight gain, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis and interpersonal rejection sensitivity). Twenty-three healthy subjects served as controls. Voxel-based analysis was applied to explore differences in 99m Tc-HMPAO uptake between groups. Patients in the atypical group had a higher prevalence of bilateral hearing impairment and higher depression and somatic distress ratings at the time of SPECT. Significantly higher tracer uptake was found bilaterally in the atypical group as compared with the non-atypicals in the sensorimotor (Brodmann areas, BA1-3) and premotor cortex in the superior frontal gyri (BA6), in the middle frontal cortex (BA8), in the parietal associative cortex (BA5, BA7) and in the inferior parietal lobule (BA40). Significantly lower tracer distribution was found in the right hemisphere in the non-atypicals compared with the controls in BA6, BA8, BA44, BA45 and BA46 in the frontal cortex, in the orbito-frontal cortex (BA11, BA47), in the postcentral parietal cortex (BA2) and in the multimodal association parietal cortex (BA40). The differences found between atypical and non-atypical depressed patients suggest different neurobiological substrates in these patient groups. The putative links with the clinical features of atypical depression are discussed. These findings encourage the use of functional neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  6. Feasibility of one-eighth time gated myocardial perfusion SPECT functional imaging using IQ-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caobelli, Federico; Thackeray, James T.; Bengel, Frank M. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Hannover (Germany); Soffientini, Alberto; Pizzocaro, Claudio; Guerra, Ugo Paolo [Fondazione Poliambulanza, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    IQ-SPECT, an add-on to general purpose cameras based on multifocal collimation, can reduce myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) acquisition times to one-fourth that of standard procedures (to 12 s/view). In a phantom study, a reduction of the acquisition time to one-eighth of the standard time (to 6 s/view) was demonstrated as feasible. It remains unclear whether such a reduction could be extended to clinical practice. Fifty patients with suspected or diagnosed CAD underwent a 2-day stress-rest {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi MPI protocol. Two consecutive SPECT acquisitions (6 and 12 s/view) were performed. Electrocardiogram-gated images were reconstructed with and without attenuation correction (AC). Polar maps were generated and visually scored by two blinded observers for image quality and perfusion in 17 segments. Global and regional summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS) and summed difference score (SDS) were determined. Left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction were calculated based on automated contour detection. Image quality was scored higher with the 12 s/view acquisition, both with and without AC. Summed scores were statistically comparable between the 6 s/view and the 12 s/view acquisition, both globally and in individual coronary territories (e.g. in images with AC, SSS were 6.6 ± 8.3 and 6.2 ± 8.2 with 6 s and 12 s/view, respectively, p = 0.10; SRS were 3.9 ± 5.6 and 3.5 ± 5.3, respectively, p = 0.19; and SDS were 2.8 ± 5.7 and 2.6 ± 5.7, respectively, p = 0.59). Both acquisitions allowed MPI-based diagnosis of CAD in 25 of the 50 patients (with AC). Calculated end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) were modestly higher with the 6 s/view acquisition than with the 12 s/view acquisition (EDV +4.8 ml at rest and +3.7 ml after stress, p = 0.003; ESV +4.1 ml at rest and +2.6 ml after stress, p = 0.01), whereas the ejection fraction did not differ (-1.2 % at rest, p = 0.20, and -0.9 % after stress, p = 0.27). Image quality and

  7. Diagnostic role of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for early and atypical bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Liang; Li, Qian; Cao, Lin; Jiang, Shi-Xi

    2014-01-01

    The bone metastasis appeared early before the bone imaging for most of the above patients. (99)Tc(m)-MDP ((99)Tc(m) marked methylene diphosphonate) bone imaging could diagnosis the bone metastasis with highly sensitivity, but with lower specificity. The aim of this study is to explore the diagnostic value of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for the early period atypical bone metastases. 15 to 30 mCi (99)Tc(m)-MDP was intravenously injected to the 34 malignant patients diagnosed as doubtful early bone metastases. SPECT, CT and SPECT/CT images were captured and analyzed consequently. For the patients diagnosed as early period atypical bone metastases by SPECT/CT, combining the SPECT/CT and MRI together as the SPECT/MRI integrated image. The obtained SPECT/MRI image was analyzed and compared with the pathogenic results of patients. The results indicated that 34 early period doubtful metastatic focus, including 34 SPECT positive focus, 17 focus without special changes by using CT method, 11 bone metastases focus by using SPECT/CT method, 23 doubtful bone metastases focus, 8 doubtful bone metastases focus, 14 doubtful bone metastases focus and 2 focus without clear image. Totally, SPECT/CT combined with SPECT/MRI method diagnosed 30 bone metastatic focus and 4 doubtfully metastatic focus. In conclusion, (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging shows a higher diagnostic value for the early period bone metastases, which also enhances the diagnostic accuracy rate.

  8. The relationship between BMI and striatal dopamine transporter with 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Rongbin; Liu Xingdang; Liu Congjin; Wang Yuankai; Zhang Guangming; Tang Jie; Chen Zhengqing; Luo Shineng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between the BMI and the brain DAT, and the influence of BMI on the brain SPECT imaging with 99 Tc m -TRODAT-1. Methods: MRI and 99 Tc m -TRODAT-1SPECT imaging were performed in 31 healthy volunteers (16 males and 15 females), and then the three-dimensional reconstruction of SPECT images were completed. Based on the MRI images, right striatum (RST) and the left striatum (LST) were drawn as ROI on the 4 most clearly consecutive transverse slices.The cerebellum (CB) was taken as the background reference area and the corresponding uptake ratios of ST/CB, LST/CB and RST/CB were calculated. The Pearson correlation tests for radio-uptake ratios (ST/CB, LST/CB, RST/CB), BMI and age were performed, Then multiple linear regression analysis using ST/CB as dependent variable and BMI and age as independent variables was performed. SPSS 15.0 was used in data analysis. Results: The ST imaging was symmetrical. The radioactivity was higher in the ST front area than that of the back area. The average uptake ratios of ST/CB, LST/CB, RST/CB were 1.71±0.16,1.70±0.16 and 1.72±0.17 respectively, in which the three ratios of the female were 1.74±0.18, 1.71±0.19 and 1.76±0.19 respectively and those of the male were 1.68±0.14, 1.68±0.13 and 1.69±0.15 respectively. ST/CB, LST/CB and RST/CB were negatively correlated with patients' BMI (r = -0.53, -0.57, -0.47, all P<0.05). The ST/CB was negatively correlated with patients' age (r=-0.39, P=0.03). The multiple linear regression analysis showed that the BMI was significant independent variable (β=-0.53, t= -3.36, P=0.002). Conclusions: The ST DAT level may decrease as patients' BMI and age increase. Females' DAT level is slightly higher than males'. For ST DAT imaging, age, gender and BMI should be all taken into consideration. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of brain tumors by simultaneous dual isotope SPECT with 201Tl-chloride and 99mTc-MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Hidemasa; Yamasaki, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Takada, Daikei; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Keiji; Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Akiyama, Yasuhiko; Moritake, Kouzo

    2004-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is useful for detecting brain tumors. In this study, we evaluated the utility of simultaneous dual SPECT with 201 Tl-Chloride (Tl) and 99m Tc-MIBI (MIBI) for diagnosis of brain tumors. We evaluated 20 cases, including 2 glioblastomas, 7 anaplastic astrocytomas, 2 oligodendrogliomas, 2 anaplastic ependymomas, 2 medulloblastomas, 2 meningiomas, 1 malignant meningioma, 1 pituitary adenoma, and 1 craniopharyngioma. We analyzed the uptake ratio (T/N ratio) of tracers in both Tl and MIBI at max counts/pixels ratio in the region of interest. The T/N ratios in early and delayed images were described as early ratios (ER) and delay ratios (DR), respectively. The retention index (RI) was calculated as the DR/ER ratio. Significant correlations were found between ER and DR for both Tl (DR=0.797 x ER+0.359, r=0.871), and MIBI (DR=0.961 x ER-0.191, r=0.784). Next, we analyzed the correlations between Tl and MIBI SPECT, for ER, DR, and RI. ER values for the two were strongly correlated (r=0.791), DR values were weakly correlated (r=0.556), and RI exhibited no correlation between them (r=0.328). There were no correlations between tumor volume and T/N ratio for the two (ER-Tl; r=0.0095, DR-Tl; r=0.0050, ER-MIBI; r=0.036, DR-MIBI; r=0.254). Lastly no correlation was found between RI-Tl and RI-MIBI (r=0.328). We discuss the difference in the mechanism of accumulation of two tracers and the significance of simultaneous dual SPECT using them for the differential diagnosis of pituitary tumors, regrowth of oligodendrogliomas, and multi-drug resistance of chemotherapy. Dual SPECT with Tl and MIBI appears to be useful for the diagnosis of brain tumor. (author)

  10. 99mTc-MIBI-SPECT-studies in the evaluation of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrus, E.; Pavics, L.; Gruenwald, F.; Barath, B.; Tiszlavicz, L.; Bender, H.; Menzel, C.; Almasi, L.; Lang, J.; Bodosi, M.; Biersack, H.J.; Csernay, L.

    1994-01-01

    Brain SPECT studies were performed 5 and 60 minutes after 99m Tc-MIBI administration in 41 patients with brain tumors confirmed by CT and surgical removal (13 meningeomas, 8 astrocytomas grades I-III, 10 glioblastomas, 10 metastases). 99m Tc-MIBI uptake was found in 32 out of 41 brain tumors. According to the semiquantitative SPECT analysis, the tumor/non tumor radios revealed a statistically significant difference in the early tracer uptake between meningeomas and astrocytomas (+4.73±2.91 vs -1.75±0.75, p 99m Tc-MIBI uptake and its changes with time. We concluded that the combination of an early and late 99m Tc-MIBI brain SPECT may be helpful in the non invasive histological classification of brain tumors and the determination of the grade of theirs malignancy. (orig.) [de

  11. Comparison of SPECT and whole-body planar imaging in radioimmunoscintigraphy with Tc-labeled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacic, K.; Bokulic, T.; Lukac, J.; Dakovic, N.; Kusic, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The authors of some recent clinical studies suggested 20-24 hours SPECT imaging as a mandatory procedure in radioimmunoscintigraphy with Tc-labeled antibodies. The aim of our study was to compare whole-body (WB) planar imaging versus SPECT as well as 4-6 hours SPECT to 20-24 hours one. For this purpose we analyzed 33 lesions in 12 postsurgical patients with colorectal carcinoma. Each patient received intravenously 0.5-1.0 mg anti-CEA BW 431/26 murine monoclonal IgG-antibodies labeled with Tc-99m (814-1110 MBq). WB and SPECT imaging were performed at 4-6 and 20-24 hours post infusion. 20-24 hours WB scan imaged more 'hot' and less 'cold' lesions than 4-6 hours one. SPECT scan showed significantly more lesions than WB scan. 20-24 hours SPECT scan detected more 'hot' lesions than 4-6 hours SPECT. At the same time the number of 'cold' lesions decreased in 20-24 hours SPECT in comparison to 4-6 hours one. As a conclusion we can say that our results suggest a superiority of SPECT imaging in comparison to WB scan. Except that, in our opinion performing of a 20-24 hours SPECT scan in radioimmunoscintigraphy with Tc-labeled antibodies should be mandatory. (author)

  12. Comparison of SPECT and whole-body planar imaging in radioimmunoscintigraphy with Tc-labeled antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacic, K; Bokulic, T; Lukac, J; Dakovic, N; Kusic, Z [Clinical Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice, Zagreb (Croatia). Dept. of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine

    1994-10-01

    The authors of some recent clinical studies suggested 20-24 hours SPECT imaging as a mandatory procedure in radioimmunoscintigraphy with Tc-labeled antibodies. The aim of our study was to compare whole-body (WB) planar imaging versus SPECT as well as 4-6 hours SPECT to 20-24 hours one. For this purpose we analyzed 33 lesions in 12 postsurgical patients with colorectal carcinoma. Each patient received intravenously 0.5-1.0 mg anti-CEA BW 431/26 murine monoclonal IgG-antibodies labeled with Tc-99m (814-1110 MBq). WB and SPECT imaging were performed at 4-6 and 20-24 hours post infusion. 20-24 hours WB scan imaged more `hot` and less `cold` lesions than 4-6 hours one. SPECT scan showed significantly more lesions than WB scan. 20-24 hours SPECT scan detected more `hot` lesions than 4-6 hours SPECT. At the same time the number of `cold` lesions decreased in 20-24 hours SPECT in comparison to 4-6 hours one. As a conclusion we can say that our results suggest a superiority of SPECT imaging in comparison to WB scan. Except that, in our opinion performing of a 20-24 hours SPECT scan in radioimmunoscintigraphy with Tc-labeled antibodies should be mandatory. (author).

  13. Effects of partial volume correction on discrimination between very early Alzheimer's dementia and controls using brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanetaka, Hidekazu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Takashi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Tanaka, Fumiko; Asada, Takashi; Yamashita, Fumio; Nakano, Seigo; Takasaki, Masaru

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the accuracy of brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in discriminating between patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the very early stage and age-matched controls before and after partial volume correction (PVC). Three-dimensional MRI was used for PVC. We randomly divided the subjects into two groups. The first group, comprising 30 patients and 30 healthy volunteers, was used to identify the brain area with the most significant decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients compared with normal controls based on the voxel-based analysis of a group comparison. The second group, comprising 31 patients and 31 healthy volunteers, was used to study the improvement in diagnostic accuracy provided by PVC. A Z score map for a SPECT image of a subject was obtained by comparison with mean and standard deviation SPECT images of the healthy volunteers for each voxel after anatomical standardization and voxel normalization to global mean or cerebellar values using the following equation: Z score = ([control mean]-[individual value])/(control SD). Analysis of receiver operating characteristics curves for a Z score discriminating AD and controls in the posterior cingulate gyrus, where a significant decrease in rCBF was identified in the first group, showed that the PVC significantly enhanced the accuracy of the SPECT diagnosis of very early AD from 73.9% to 83.7% with global mean normalization. The PVC mildly enhanced the accuracy from 73.1% to 76.3% with cerebellar normalization. This result suggests that early diagnosis of AD requires PVC in a SPECT study. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of brain perfusion SPECT and MRI findings in children with neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis and in their families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayit, E.; Yorulmaz, I; Gumuser, F.G.; Dirik, E.; Bekis, R.; Kaya, G.; Durak, H.

    2002-01-01

    Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCL) are among the progressive encephalopathies of childhood that are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. In this study we specifically aimed to investigate any white-matter changes in the carriers (parents) and the healthy siblings of individuals with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis disease and whether we may be able to predict the occurrence of any neurological symptoms in healthy children in the future thus enabling early management. Since the NCLs are genetically determined diseases, we investigated fifteen individuals in three families that had diseased children of the juvenile type, with brain perfusion SPECT and MRI. Brain perfusion SPECT was performed after administering 222-555 MBq (6-15 mCi) Tc-99m hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) intravenously in a dimmed and quiet room. Imaging was performed at least one hour after injection, with a three headed gamma camera equipped with high resolution collimators. A Metz filter (FWHM: 11 mm) was used for processing. Cranial MRI was performed with an imager operating at 1.5 Tesla. Spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted and FLAIR slices were obtained for each individual. In all of the five diseased children we observed pathologic findings both on MRI and Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. The findings on MRI were mainly features of cerebral and cerebellar atrophy and the observations on Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT were regional perfusion abnormalities. We observed some structural abnormalities on MRI in four of the parents and two of the four healthy siblings. We also noted perfusion abnormalities on Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in two of the parents and two of the healthy siblings. Because the disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, the parents and the healthy siblings were not supposed to exhibit any demonstrable brain lesions, but the brain perfusion SPECT and MRI examinations clearly revealed multiple lesions in some of the parents and healthy siblings. Detailed neurological examinations of these

  15. MRI and brain spect findings in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and normal CT scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Carrilho

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available 26 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy clinically documented by several abnormal interictal surface EEGs with typical unitemporal epileptiform activity and a normal CT scan were studied. Interictal99mTC HMPAO brain SPECT and MRI were performed in all subjects. Abnormalities were shown in 61.5% of MRI (n=16 and 65.4% of SPECT (n=17. Hippocampal atrophy associated to a high signal on T2-weighted MRI slices suggesting mesial temporal sclerosis was the main finding (n=12; 75% of abnormal MRI. MRI correlated well to surface EEG in 50% (n=13. There was also a good correlation between MRI and SPECT in 30.7% (n=8. SPECT and EEG were in agreement in 57.7% (n=l5. MRI, SPECT and EEG were congruent in 26.9% (n=7. These results support the usefulness of interictal brain SPECT and MRI in detecting lateralized abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy. On the other hand, in two cases, interictal SPECT correlated poorly with surface EEG. This functional method should not be used isolately in the detection of temporal lobe foci. MRI is more useful than CT as a neuroimaging technique in temporal lobe epilepsy. It may detect small structural lesions and mesial temporal lobe sclerosis which are not easily seen with traditional CT scanning.

  16. Dual head HIPDM SPECT imaging in the differential diagnosis of dementia with MR and CT correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, H.N.; Gilmor, R.; Hendrie, H.; Mock, B.; Kapuscinski, A.; Appledorn, C.R.; Krepshaw, J.

    1985-01-01

    Dual head SPECT brain imaging was performed in 25 patients with a clinical diagnosis of dementia approximately one-half hour after a 5mCi dose of high purity (p,5n) I-123 HIPDM (N,N,N'-Trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)- 1,3-propane diamine). Tomographic reconstruction used a 30th order, moderate cutoff (0.2) Butterworth filter found previously to optimize low noise and conspicuity. Most patients had CT and MR imaging and some patients were studied more than once. In approximately one-half of patients referred with a diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer's type, SPECT results were consistent with multiple infarct dementia (MID). MR studies in most of these patients with MID demonstrated multiple white matter defects correlating with multiple gray matter defects seen with SPECT and consistent with angiogenic disease of the Binswanger's type. While CT demonstrated cortical abnormalities in some patients, the findings were often nonspecific with enlarged ventricles and widened sulci

  17. Molecular imaging of cancer using PET and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    for molecular imaging of cancer. Especially the possibility of a quick transfer of methods developed in animals to patients (translational research) is an important strength. This article will briefly discuss the newest applications and their importance and perspective in relation to the shift in paradigm......Molecular imaging allows for the study of molecular and cellular events in the living intact organism. The nuclear medicine methodologies of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) posses several advantages, which make them particularly suited...

  18. Sequential SPECT/CT imaging starting with stress SPECT in patients with left bundle branch block suspected for coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engbers, Elsemiek M.; Mouden, Mohamed [Isala, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Isala, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands); Timmer, Jorik R.; Ottervanger, Jan Paul [Isala, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L. [Isala, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2017-01-15

    To investigate the impact of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on sequential single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/ CT imaging starting with stress-first SPECT. Consecutive symptomatic low- to intermediate-risk patients without a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) referred for SPECT/CT were included from an observational registry. If stress SPECT was abnormal, additional rest SPECT and, if feasible, coronary CT angiography (CCTA) were acquired. Of the 5,018 patients, 218 (4.3 %) demonstrated LBBB. Patients with LBBB were slightly older than patients without LBBB (65±12 vs. 61±11 years, p<0.001). Stress SPECT was more frequently abnormal in patients with LBBB (82 % vs. 46 %, p<0.001). After reviewing stress and rest images, SPECT was normal in 43 % of the patients with LBBB, compared to 77 % of the patients without LBBB (p<0.001). Sixty-four of the 124 patients with LBBB and abnormal stress-rest SPECT underwent CCTA (52 %), which could exclude obstructive CAD in 46 of the patients (72 %). Sequential SPECT/CT imaging starting with stress SPECT is not the optimal imaging protocol in patients with LBBB, as the majority of these patients have potentially false-positive stress SPECT. First-line testing using CCTA may be more appropriate in low- to intermediate-risk patients with LBBB. (orig.)

  19. New SPECT and PET Radiopharmaceuticals for Imaging Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyebola O. Sogbein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear cardiology has experienced exponential growth within the past four decades with converging capacity to diagnose and influence management of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI with technetium-99m radiotracers or thallium-201 has dominated the field; however new hardware and software designs that optimize image quality with reduced radiation exposure are fuelling a resurgence of interest at the preclinical and clinical levels to expand beyond MPI. Other imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI continue to emerge as powerful players with an expanded capacity to diagnose a variety of cardiac conditions. At the forefront of this resurgence is the development of novel target vectors based on an enhanced understanding of the underlying pathophysiological process in the subcellular domain. Molecular imaging with novel radiopharmaceuticals engineered to target a specific subcellular process has the capacity to improve diagnostic accuracy and deliver enhanced prognostic information to alter management. This paper, while not comprehensive, will review the recent advancements in radiotracer development for SPECT and PET MPI, autonomic dysfunction, apoptosis, atherosclerotic plaques, metabolism, and viability. The relevant radiochemistry and preclinical and clinical development in addition to molecular imaging with emerging modalities such as cardiac MRI and PET-MR will be discussed.

  20. FlipADAM: a potential new SPECT imaging agent for the serotonin transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Julie L.; Deutsch, Eric C. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Oya, Shunichi [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung, Hank F., E-mail: kunghf@gmail.co [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the brain is a useful tool for examining normal physiological functions and disease states involving the serotonergic system. The goal of this study was to develop an improved SPECT radiotracer with faster kinetics than the current leading SPECT tracer, [{sup 123}I]ADAM, for selective SERT imaging. Methods: The in vitro binding affinities of (2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-4'-iodophenylthio)benzenamine) (FlipADAM) (1c), were determined using Hampshire pig kidney cells stably overexpressing the serotonin, norepinephrine (NET) or dopamine transporter (DAT). Localization of [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) was evaluated through biodistribution and autoradiography in male Sprague Dawley rats, and the specificity of binding was assessed by injecting selective SERT or NET inhibitors prior to [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c). Results: FlipADAM (1c) displayed a high binding affinity for SERT (K{sub i}=1.0 nM) and good selectivity over NET and DAT binding (43-fold and 257-fold, respectively). [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) successfully penetrated the blood brain barrier, as evidenced by the brain uptake at 2 min (1.75% dose/g). [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM(1c) also had a good target to non-target (hypothalamus/cerebellum) ratio of 3.35 at 60 min post-injection. In autoradiography studies, [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) showed selective localization in SERT-rich brain regions such as the thalamic nuclei, amygdala, dorsal raphe nuclei and other areas. Conclusion: [{sup 125}I]FlipADAM (1c) exhibited faster clearance from the brain and time to binding equilibrium when compared to [{sup 125}I]2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-phenylthio)-5-iodophenylamine [{sup 125}I]ADAM (1b) and a higher target to non-target ratio when compared to [{sup 125}I]5-iodo-2-(2'-((dimethylamino)methyl)-phenylthio)benzyl alcohol [{sup 125}I]IDAM (1a). Therefore, [{sup 123}I]FlipADAM (1c) may be an improved

  1. Functional brain imaging - baric and clinical questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mager, T.; Moeller, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The advancing biological knowledge of disease processes plays a central part in the progress of modern psychiatry. An essential contribution comes from the functional and structural brain imaging techniques (CT, MRI, SPECT, PET). Their application is important for biological oriented research in psychiatry and there is also a growing relevance in clinical aspects. This development is taken into account by recent diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry. The capabilities and limitations of functional brain imaging in the context of research and clinic will be presented and discussed by examples and own investigations. (orig.) [de

  2. Diagnosis and staging of breast cancer by SPECT images fused with CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanjing; Zhu Qiaomei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the TNM staging value of 99mTc-MIBI scintimammotraphy with SPECT-CT images fusing for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods: 10 patients with breast cancer underwent scintimammography with 99mTc-MIBI, and SPECT images were fused with CT images. Images were compared with final diagnosis confirmed by histopathology. Results: Of the 19 breast cancer patients, one case of invasive ductal carcinoma showed false-negative. Among 18 cases of positive lesions, axillary metastases were involved in 10, supraclavicular nodes were also defined in 3, para-sternum nodes were involved in 2, 2 were missed and 1 cases without metastatic node. The axillary lymph nodes were divided into three levels with respect to their position relative to the pectoralis minor muscle by fused images. Conclusion: 99mTc-MIBI scintimammotraphy combined with SPECT-CT images fusing is of some clinical value in TNM staging of breast cancer. (authors)

  3. Interictal brain SPECT in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andraus, Maria Emilia Cosenza

    2000-06-01

    The brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is s functional neuroimaging method that can detect localized changes in cerebral blood flow. The temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common epileptic syndrome in adults, and more than 50% are medically refractory. The SPECT can contribute to investigation of epileptogenic focus and is one of the methods of pre-surgical evaluation of these patients. (author)

  4. 201Tl/99mTc-MIBI SPECT to evaluate therapy effect of BNCT with BSH and BPA for malignant brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Yasushi; Katayama, Wataru; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Nakai, Kei; Endo, Kiyoshi; Matsuda, Masahide; Matsushita, Akira; Matsumura, Akira

    2006-01-01

    201 Tl/ 99m Tc-MIBI SPECT are imaging modalities to evaluate the malignancy and viability of brain tumor. We reviewed these SPECT findings before and after BNCT, and evaluated the usefulness of SPECT. The study includes total 11 patients admitted in our hospital between 1999 and 2005, 8 with glioblastoma, 2 with anaplastic astrocytoma and 2 with anaplastic oligodendroglioma. SPECT was taken with multidetector SPECT at 15 minutes and 3 hours after intravenous injection of Tl 74 MBq or MIBI 740 MBq. Region of interests were set on tumor and contralateral white matter and radioactivity ratios were calculated as Tl, MIBI indexes. For patients with no residual tumor in MRI, Tl/MIBI indexes were low. For patients with large residual tumor the indexes were high. For the patients with recurrent tumor the indexes were very high. Tl/MIBI indexes before BNCT correlated with survival and progression-free period after BNCT. SPECT indexes decreased after BNCT. For 8 patients with recurrent tumor, the indexes increased. Tl and MIBI SPECT are valuable to evaluate malignancy, viability, survival and recurrence of malignant glioma in BNCT. (author)

  5. EANM procedure guidelines for brain neurotransmission SPECT/PET using dopamine D2 receptor ligands, version 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Laere, Koen; Varrone, Andrea; Booij, Jan

    2010-01-01

    receptor SPECT or PET studies, and to achieve a high quality standard of dopamine D2 receptor imaging, which will increase the impact of this technique in neurological practice.The present document is an update of the first guidelines for SPECT using D2 receptor ligands labelled with (123)I [1......The guidelines summarize the current views of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine Neuroimaging Committee (ENC). The aims of the guidelines are to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in making recommendations, performing, interpreting and reporting the results of clinical dopamine D2......] and was guided by the views of the Society of Nuclear Medicine Brain Imaging Council [2], and the individual experience of experts in European countries. The guidelines intend to present information specifically adapted to European practice. The information provided should be taken in the context of local...

  6. Brain MRI and SPECT in the diagnosis of early neurological involvement in Wilson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piga, Mario; Satta, Loredana; Serra, Alessandra; Loi, Gianluigi; Murru, Alessandra; Demelia, Luigi; Sias, Alessandro; Marrosu, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in early detection of central nervous system abnormalities in patients affected by Wilson's disease (WD) with or without neurological involvement. Out of 25 consecutive WD patients, 13 showed hepatic involvement, ten hepatic and neurological manifestations, and twp hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric symptoms, including mainly movement disorders, major depression, and psychosis. Twenty-four healthy, age-gender matched subjects served as controls. All patients underwent brain MRI and 99m Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT before starting specific therapy. Voxel-by-voxel analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping to compare differences in 99m Tc-ECD brain uptake between the two groups. Brain MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in seven patients (28%), six of whom were affected by hepatic and neurological forms. Brain perfusion SPECT showed pathological data in 19 patients (76%), revealing diffuse or focal hypoperfusion in superior frontal (Brodmann area (BA) 6), prefrontal (BA 9), parietal (BA 40), and occipital (BA 18, BA 39) cortices in temporal gyri (BA 37, BA 21) and in caudatus and putamen. Moreover, hepatic involvement was detected in nine subjects; eight presented both hepatic and neurological signs, while two exhibited WD-correlated hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric alterations. All but one patient with abnormal MRI matched with abnormal ECD SPECT. Pathologic MRI findings were obtained in six out of ten patients with hepatic and neurological involvement while abnormal ECD SPECT was revealed in eight patients. Both patients with hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric involvement displayed abnormal ECD SPECT and one displayed an altered MRI. These findings suggest that ECD SPECT might be useful in detecting early brain damage in WD, not only in the perspective of assessing and treating motor impairment but also in evaluating better the

  7. Are there any determinants of interictal brain SPECT perfusion change in unilateral hippocampal sclerosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepmongkol, S.; Locharernkul, C.; Lerdlum, S.

    2005-01-01

    In localizing ictal onset during pre-surgical evaluation, interictal brain SPECT has been used to determine baseline brain abnormalities in order to compare with ictal SPECT. However, in some patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), no baseline perfusion abnormality is seen. In this subgroup of patients, performing interictal SPECT may be considered unnecessary. This study is aimed at determining the factors that may influence the interictal SPECT perfusion change in unilateral HS. Forty-one unilateral HS patients (21 males, 20 females; age 30.3±8.0 years) who had interictal brain perfusion SPECT (more than 24 hours after the seizure) were enrolled. Multiple factors i.e. age, sex, age of epilepsy onset, duration of epilepsy, presence of aura, clinical lateralization, interictal EEG lateralization, and ictal EEG lateralization were used as independent variables to predict hypoperfusion of the temporal lobe ipsilateral to hippocampal sclerosis detected on MRI. Ipsilateral temporal hypoperfusion were observed in 18/41 (43.9%) patients. None of these factors showed significant correlation to the perfusion changes. It was also concluded that age, sex, age of epilepsy onset, duration of epilepsy, presence of aura, clinical lateralization, interictal EEG lateralization, and ictal EEG lateralization cannot be used to predict interictal SPECT perfusion changes at the hippocampal sclerosis region. (author)

  8. Feasibility of a CdTe-based SPECT for high-resolution low-dose small animal imaging: a Monte Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S-J; Yu, A R; Lee, Y-J; Kim, Y-S; Kim, H-J

    2014-01-01

    Dedicated single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems based on pixelated semiconductors such as cadmium telluride (CdTe) are in development to study small animal models of human disease. In an effort to develop a high-resolution, low-dose system for small animal imaging, we compared a CdTe-based SPECT system and a conventional NaI(Tl)-based SPECT system in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). In addition, we investigated the radiation absorbed dose and calculated a figure of merit (FOM) for both SPECT systems. Using the conventional NaI(Tl)-based SPECT system, we achieved a spatial resolution of 1.66 mm at a 30 mm source-to-collimator distance, and a resolution of 2.4-mm hot-rods. Using the newly-developed CdTe-based SPECT system, we achieved a spatial resolution of 1.32 mm FWHM at a 30 mm source-to-collimator distance, and a resolution of 1.7-mm hot-rods. The sensitivities at a 30 mm source-to-collimator distance were 115.73 counts/sec/MBq and 83.38 counts/sec/MBq for the CdTe-based SPECT and conventional NaI(Tl)-based SPECT systems, respectively. To compare quantitative measurements in the mouse brain, we calculated the CNR for images from both systems. The CNR from the CdTe-based SPECT system was 4.41, while that from the conventional NaI(Tl)-based SPECT system was 3.11 when the injected striatal dose was 160 Bq/voxel. The CNR increased as a function of injected dose in both systems. The FOM of the CdTe-based SPECT system was superior to that of the conventional NaI(Tl)-based SPECT system, and the highest FOM was achieved with the CdTe-based SPECT at a dose of 40 Bq/voxel injected into the striatum. Thus, a CdTe-based SPECT system showed significant improvement in performance compared with a conventional system in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity, and CNR, while reducing the radiation dose to the small animal subject. Herein, we discuss the feasibility of a CdTe-based SPECT system for high

  9. The current status of SPECT or SPECT/CT in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ik Dong; Choi, Eun Kyung; Chung, Yong An [Dept. of Radiology, Incheon Saint Mary' s HospitalThe Catholic University of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The first step to nuclear medicine in Korea started with introduction of the gamma camera in 1969. Although planar images with the gamma camera give important functional information, they have the limitations that result from 2-dimensional images. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) due to its 3-dimensional image acquisition is superior to earlier planar gamma imaging in image resolution and diagnostic accuracy. As demand for a hybrid functional and anatomical imaging device has increased, integrated SPECT/CT systems have been used. In Korea, SPECT/CT was for the first time installed in 2003. SPECT/CT can eliminate many possible pitfalls on SPECT-alone images, making better attenuation correction and thereby improving image quality. Therefore, SPECT/CT is clinically preferred in many hospitals in various aspects. More recently, additional SPECT/CT images taken from the region with equivocal uptake on planar images have been helpful in making precise interpretation as part of their clinical workup in postoperative thyroid cancer patients. SPECT and SPECT/CT have various advantages, but its clinical application has gradually decreased in recent few years. While some researchers investigated the myocardial blood flow with cardiac PET using F-18 FDG or N-13 ammonia, myocardial perfusion SPECT is, at present, the radionuclide imaging study of choice for the risk stratification and guiding therapy in the coronary artery disease patients in Korea. New diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals for AD have received increasing attention; nevertheless, brain SPECT will remain the most reliable modality evaluating cerebral perfusion.

  10. Role of SPECT imaging in symptomatic posterior element lumbar stress injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debnath U

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Diagnosis of stress injuries of spine is very difficult with conventional radiography. Methods : In a observational study, 132 subjects were recruited (between 8 and 38 years of age, who had lumbar spondylolysis or posterior element stress injuries. All these patients underwent clinical examination followed by plain X-rays, planar bone scintigraphy and SPECT (single photon emission computerised tomography. SPECT scans can identify the posterior element lumbar stress injuries earlier than other imaging modalities. As the lesions evolve and the completed spondylolysis becomes chronic, the SPECT scans tend to revert to normal even though healing of the defect has not occurred. The aim of the study was to determine the time lag after which SPECT imaging tends to be negative. We divided the patients into two groups, one SPECT positive group and the other SPECT negative group. Pre treatment background variables such as age, gender, back pain in extension or flexion, sporting activities, time of onset of symptoms, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI were used in a univariate logistic regression model to find the strong predictors of positive SPECT imaging results. Determinants of positivity versus negativity of SPECT were identified by discriminant analysis using multivariate logistic regression. Results : Seventy nine patients had positive SPECT scans whereas 53 patients had negative SPECT scans. Bilateral increased uptake was more common than unilateral uptake. Increased uptake at the L5 lumbar spine was more common (70% in SPECT positive group. Low back pain in extension was significantly more common in SPECT positive subjects. Active sporting individuals had higher probability of having a positive SPECT scan. The mean time lag from the onset of low back pain to SPECT imaging was 7 months in SPECT positive group and 25 months in the SPECT negative group. Multivariate analysis predicted that there is a significant difference in positivity of

  11. Reliability evaluation of I-123 ADAM SPECT imaging using SPM software and AAL ROI methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bang-Hung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Sung-Yi [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Imaging Medical, St.Martin De Porres Hospital, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Su, Tung-Ping; Chou, Yuan-Hwa [Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chia-Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jyh-Cheng, E-mail: jcchen@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-21

    The level of serotonin was regulated by serotonin transporter (SERT), which is a decisive protein in regulation of serotonin neurotransmission system. Many psychiatric disorders and therapies were also related to concentration of cerebral serotonin. I-123 ADAM was the novel radiopharmaceutical to image SERT in brain. The aim of this study was to measure reliability of SERT densities of healthy volunteers by automated anatomical labeling (AAL) method. Furthermore, we also used statistic parametric mapping (SPM) on a voxel by voxel analysis to find difference of cortex between test and retest of I-123 ADAM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Twenty-one healthy volunteers were scanned twice with SPECT at 4 h after intravenous administration of 185 MBq of {sup 123}I-ADAM. The image matrix size was 128x128 and pixel size was 3.9 mm. All images were obtained through filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Region of interest (ROI) definition was performed based on the AAL brain template in PMOD version 2.95 software package. ROI demarcations were placed on midbrain, pons, striatum, and cerebellum. All images were spatially normalized to the SPECT MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute) templates supplied with SPM2. And each image was transformed into standard stereotactic space, which was matched to the Talairach and Tournoux atlas. Then differences across scans were statistically estimated on a voxel by voxel analysis using paired t-test (population main effect: 2 cond's, 1 scan/cond.), which was applied to compare concentration of SERT between the test and retest cerebral scans. The average of specific uptake ratio (SUR: target/cerebellum-1) of {sup 123}I-ADAM binding to SERT in midbrain was 1.78{+-}0.27, pons was 1.21{+-}0.53, and striatum was 0.79{+-}0.13. The cronbach's {alpha} of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.92. Besides, there was also no significant statistical finding in cerebral area using SPM2

  12. A SPECT study of language and brain reorganization three years after pediatric brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu Wong, Stephanie B; Chapman, Sandra B; Cook, Lois G; Anand, Raksha; Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Devous, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), we investigated brain plasticity in children 3 years after sustaining a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). First, we assessed brain perfusion patterns (i.e., the extent of brain blood flow to regions of the brain) at rest in eight children who suffered severe TBI as compared to perfusion patterns in eight normally developing children. Second, we examined differences in perfusion between children with severe TBI who showed good versus poor recovery in complex discourse skills. Specifically, the children were asked to produce and abstract core meaning for two stories in the form of a lesson. Inconsistent with our predictions, children with severe TBI showed areas of increased perfusion as compared to normally developing controls. Adult studies have shown the reverse pattern with TBI associated with reduced perfusion. With regard to the second aim and consistent with previously identified brain-discourse relations, we found a strong positive association between perfusion in right frontal regions and discourse abstraction abilities, with higher perfusion linked to better discourse outcomes and lower perfusion linked to poorer discourse outcomes. Furthermore, brain-discourse patterns of increased perfusion in left frontal regions were associated with lower discourse abstraction ability. The results are discussed in terms of how brain changes may represent adaptive and maladaptive plasticity. The findings offer direction for future studies of brain plasticity in response to neurocognitive treatments.

  13. Preoperative evaluation of brain lesion with 201TI brain SPECT: is it useful to differentiate benign and malignant lesions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kim, Euy Neyng; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Yong An; Chung, Soo Kyo; Hong, Yong Gil; Lee, Youn Soo

    2000-01-01

    Thallium-201 ( 201 TI) brain SPECT, which can represent cellular activity of brain lesions, may provide more useful information in differentiating between benign and malignant brain lesions more so than CT or MRI, that merely represents anatomic changes or breakdown of blood brain barrier. We used 201 TI brain SPECT prospectively to evaluate the utility of 201 TI-indices as an indicator of benign or malignant lesions. We studied 28 patients. There were 13 cases of benign lesions (3: nonspecific benign lesion, 3: meningioma, 2: low grade glioma, 1: tuberculoma, central neurocytoma, hemangioblastoma, radiation necrosis, and choroid plexus papilloma) and 15 cases of malignant lesions (6: glioblastoma multiforme, 5: anaplastic glioma, 2: medulloblastoma, 1: metastasis and lymphoma). In all patients, CT and/or MRI were obtained and then 201 TI brain SPECT was obtained with measuring mean 201 TI index and peak 201 TI index. An unpaired t-test was performed to compare the 201 TI-indices and pathologic diagnoses to evaluate the utility of 201 TI-indices as an indicator of benign or malignant lesions. There were no statistically significant difference in 201 TI-indices between benign and malignant brain lesions (P>0.05). These results demonstrated that we could not use 201 TI indices on brain SPECT alone as an indicator of benign or malignant brain lesions

  14. Old wine in new bottles: validating the clinical utility of SPECT in predicting cognitive performance in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Kristoffer; Lobaugh, Nancy J; Black, Sandra E; Ehrlich, Lisa; Feinstein, Anthony

    2015-01-30

    The neural underpinnings of cognitive dysfunction in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) are not fully understood. Consequently, patient prognosis using existing clinical imaging is somewhat imprecise. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a frequently employed investigation in this population, notwithstanding uncertainty over the clinical utility of the data obtained. In this study, subjects with mild TBI underwent (99m)Tc-ECD SPECT scanning, and were administered a brief battery of cognitive tests and self-report symptom scales of concussion and emotional distress. Testing took place 2 weeks (n=84) and 1 year (n=49) post-injury. Multivariate analysis (i.e., partial least squares analysis) revealed that frontal perfusion in right superior frontal and middle frontal gyri predicted poorer performance on the Stroop test, an index of executive function, both at initial and follow-up testing. Conversely, SPECT scans categorized as normal or abnormal by radiologists did not differentiate cognitively impaired from intact subjects. These results demonstrate the clinical utility of SPECT in mild TBI, but only when data are subjected to blood flow quantification analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine brain scintigraphy with SPECT in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Kosaka, Noboru; Nishikawa, Junichi; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-10-01

    Two patients of clinically diagnosed Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were examined with N-Isopropyl I-123 p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT, MRI and XCT. Both patient has myoclonus and severe conscious disturbance with periodic synchronized discharge (PSD) on EEG. SPECT images were obtained using GE400AC/T. Regional IMP uptake was determined by calculating the ratio of each cortical regional to cerebellar IMP uptake (cortico-cerebellar ratio: CCR) and compared with that of five normal controls. In both case, CCR was remarkably decreased in all cortical areas, although XCT or MRI shows no abnormality except slight cortical atrophy. It suggests that metabolic and functional changes proceed morphological abnormality seen on XCT or MRI. In one case of CJD, serial studies of SPECT and XCT were performed after three months of interval. CCR in second study was higher than in first study, while XCT revealed remarkable brain atrophy including cerebrum, pons and cerebellum. It can be interpreted as regional differences of disease process. In conclusion, I-123 IMP-SPECT is useful for the earlier detection of lesions in CJD.

  16. N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine brain scintigraphy with SPECT in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Kosaka, Noboru; Nishikawa, Junichi; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-01-01

    Two patients of clinically diagnosed Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were examined with N-Isopropyl I-123 p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT, MRI and XCT. Both patient has myoclonus and severe conscious disturbance with periodic synchronized discharge (PSD) on EEG. SPECT images were obtained using GE400AC/T. Regional IMP uptake was determined by calculating the ratio of each cortical regional to cerebellar IMP uptake [cortico-cerebellar ratio: CCR] and compared with that of five normal controls. In both case, CCR was remarkably decreased in all cortical areas, although XCT or MRI shows no abnormality except slight cortical atrophy. It suggests that metabolic and functional changes proceed morphological abnormality seen on XCT or MRI. In one case of CJD, serial studies of SPECT and XCT were performed after three months of interval. CCR in second study was higher than in first study, while XCT revealed remarkable brain atrophy including cerebrum, pons and cerebellum. It can be interpreted as regional differences of disease process. In conclusion, I-123 IMP-SPECT is useful for the earlier detection of lesions in CJD. (author)

  17. The study of ictal brain SPECT during seizures induced by clonidine and sleep-deprivation in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Chen Xuehong; Wang Zhengjiang; Liu Jiangyan; Feng Jianzhong; Ye Jiang; Zhao Li

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical value of combined clonidine and sleep-deprivation induced seizures for ictal brain SPECT imaging in patients with epilepsy. Methods: Fifty-two epilepsy patients were given oral clonidine plus sleep-deprivation to induce seizures with video-electroencephalogram (VEEG) monitoring. Forty-seven patients were selected as control group, whose seizures were induced by sleep-deprivation only. 99 Tc m -ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) was injected within 30 s since a clinical sign and/or a typical EEG discharge of epilepsy was recognized. Brain SPECT was performed 30 min after 99 Tc m -ECD injection. χ 2 -test was performed by using software SPSS 10.0. Results: One to two hr after oral intake of clonidine plus sleep-deprivation, 75% (39/52) patients were induced seizures, including 92.3% (36/39) with subclinical seizures and 7.7% (3/39) with clinical seizures. Ictal brain SPECT localized the lesions with high uptake of 99 Tc m -ECD in 37 (94.9%) patients. In control group, 38.3% (18/47) were induced epileptic seizures, including 77.8% (14/18) with subclinical seizures and 22.2% (4/18) with clinical seizures. The induction rate of epileptic seizures in clonidine plus sleep-deprivation group was significantly higher than that of control group (χ 2 = 13.614, P 2 = 1.253, P>0.05). Conclusions: The combination of oral intake of clonidine and sleep-deprivation could increase the induction rate of epileptic seizures and it is effective for epilepsy SPECT imaging. (authors)

  18. DMSA SPECT imaging using oblique reconstruction in a paediatric population - benefits and technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, G.; Ford, M.; Crisp, J.; Bernard, E.; Howman-Giles, R.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: DMSA renal scans are frequently requested for the diagnosis and follow-up of acute pyelonephritis and cortical scarring. This study was designed to:- 1. evaluate oblique reconstruction of DMSA SPECT over standard plane reconstruction and planar imaging; and 2. report on the technical aspects important in obtaining high quality DMSA SPECT, particularly in neonates. Over seven months, 210/231 (91 %) of DMSA scans were performed with SPECT on children from age nine days to 16 years, the median age being 2.5 years. 65 patients (31 %) were under one year and 39 (18%) were under six months. Planar and SPECT imaging with standard plane reconstruction and oblique reorientation was performed on the Siemens triple-headed gamma camera. High quality SPECT images were obtained on the smallest babies using a paediatric palette, and were of comparable quality to those of older children. At the time of reporting, the nuclear medicine physician assessed the diagnostic value of the three types of date presented: (1) planar images; (2) standard plane SPECT reconstruction; and (3) oblique SPECT reconstruction. Cortical defects were identified separately for upper, middle and lower poles. Three physicians concluded that high quality SPECT is superior to planar images when assessing the renal cortex. In addition, oblique reorientation is superior to standard reconstruction, particularly at the upper and lower poles. SPECT is now performed routinely on patients of all ages, and the oblique sagittal and coronal reorientation is now used in place of the standard reconstruction

  19. Clinical experience with Tc-99m HM-PAO high resolution SPECT of the brain in patients with cerebrovascular accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roo, M. de; Mortelmans, L.; Devos, P.; Verbruggen, A.; Wilms, G.; Carton, H.; Wils, V.; Bergh, R. van den

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the diagnostic contribution of brain SPECT imaging with 99m Tc-HMPAO in cerebrovascular disease, we examined 92 stroke cases (144 lesions), 2 hematoma cases and 30 cases with transient neurologic symptoms. Abnormal tracer distribution is visible as zones of either hypoactivity or hyperactivity (border zone hyperemia or luxury perfusion). Remote vascularization changes could also be found (crossed cerebellar diaschisis or ipsilateral cortical perfusion reduction in thalamic or capsula interna lesions). Both X-ray CT and blood flow SPECT have comparable sensitivity in the exploaration of cerebral infarction, with detection in, respectively, 89,5% and 87,5% of the lesions. False negative scintitomographic images are frequently recorded in small lacunar infarcts within the basal ganglia and white matter (capsula interna). Some early infarcts and asymmetry of brain perfusion in patients with transient neurologic symptoms are frequently not detected by CT. An additional advantage of blood flow SPECT is its ability to visualize remote blood flow changes and the changing pattern of vascularization of ischemic lesions and their surrounding areas including hyperemia. (orig.)

  20. Clinical experience with Tc-99m HM-PAO high resolution SPECT of the brain in patients with cerebrovascular accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roo, M. de; Mortelmans, L.; Devos, P.; Verbruggen, A.; Wilms, G.; Carton, H.; Wils, V.; Bergh, R. van den

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the diagnostic contribution of brain SPECT imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO in cerebrovascular disease, we examined 92 stroke cases (144 lesions), 2 hematoma cases and 30 cases with transient neurologic symptoms. Abnormal tracer distribution is visible as zones of either hypoactivity or hyperactivity (border zone hyperemia or luxury perfusion). Remote vascularization changes could also be found (crossed cerebellar diaschisis or ipsilateral cortical perfusion reduction in thalamic or capsula interna lesions). Both X-ray CT and blood flow SPECT have comparable sensitivity in the exploaration of cerebral infarction, with detection in, respectively, 89,5% and 87,5% of the lesions. False negative scintitomographic images are frequently recorded in small lacunar infarcts within the basal ganglia and white matter (capsula interna). Some early infarcts and asymmetry of brain perfusion in patients with transient neurologic symptoms are frequently not detected by CT. An additional advantage of blood flow SPECT is its ability to visualize remote blood flow changes and the changing pattern of vascularization of ischemic lesions and their surrounding areas including hyperemia.

  1. Construction of McSPECT II - a clinical brain SPECT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, W.; Jin, Y.; Liu, J. [Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke`s Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    Since reported the design concept and system configuration of the McSPECT II last year, we have settled the design details and moved on to the construction phase. The major components being developed in this phase are: detector, collimator, electronics, interfaces, acquisition and processing software, and gantry systems. To provide adequate number of angular sampling (= views), we have increased the number of transverse detector elements to 120 NaI(Tl) bar-detectors in the new cylindrical detector system. These bar-detector are housed in 24 detector modules. Since we have developed a new light-guide and implemented a new 2-step centriod position calculation, the intrinsic performance of the detector modules has been substantially improved. These improvements lead to a simpler position estimation which yields < 4 mm FWHM spatial resolution in the 12 cm axial FOV. The imaging volume is 21 cm (dia.) x 12.8 (axial) cm. The number of collimator units (= rays) is increased to 100 to achieve high linear sampling density (2.3 mm) and sampling resolution ({approximately}5.6 mm). The collimator is still being manufacture. The electronics, acquisition, and processing systems are all in the final phases of debugging through simulated testing. The electronics is divided into 24 independent channels, one for each module. A 10-bit 1.0{mu}s ADC is connected to each of the 72 PMTs. A Pentium based PC performs real-time position calculation in 20 {mu}s/event. After de-randomizing, we expect 50 K/sec count-rate performance with little loss. Linearity and energy corrections are being implemented, in a separate calibration procedure, to yield <0.5 mm non-linearity and {approximately}10% energy resolution at 140 keV. The gantry construction is moving along well but slowly. The large (27.5 cm) aperture and the adjustable orientation of the gantry plane promise easy operation and patient comfort. The system construction should be completed soon to allow imaging studies to be performed.

  2. Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection of brain perfusion SPECT improves diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Norinari; Machida, Kikuo

    2003-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is diagnosed by either inspection of the brain perfusion SPECT, or three-dimensional stereotactic surface display (3D-SSP). The purpose was to compare diagnostic performances of these methods. Sixteen nuclear medicine physicians independently interpreted 99m Tc-ECD SPECT in one session and SPECT with 3D-SSP in another session without clinical information for 50 studies of AD patients and 40 studies of healthy volunteers. Probabilities of AD were reported according to a subjective scale from 0% (normal) to 100% (definite AD). Receiver operating characteristics curves were generated to calculate areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (Az's) for the inspection as well as for an automated diagnosis based on a mean Z value in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri in a 3D-SSP template. Mean Az for visual interpretation of SPECT alone (0.679±0.058) was significantly smaller than that for visual interpretation of both SPECT and 3D-SSP (0.778±0.060). Az for the automated diagnosis (0.883±0.037) was significantly greater than that for both modes of visual interpretation. 3D-SSP enhanced performance of the nuclear medicine physicians inspecting SPECT. Performance of the automated diagnosis exceeded that of the physicians inspecting SPECT with and without 3D-SSP. (author)

  3. A new reconstruction strategy for image improvement in pinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeniya, Tsutomu; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Teramoto, Noboru; Hayashi, Takuya; Iida, Hidehiro; Aoi, Toshiyuki; Sohlberg, Antti; Kudo, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is able to provide information on the biodistribution of several radioligands in small laboratory animals, but has limitations associated with non-uniform spatial resolution or axial blurring. We have hypothesised that this blurring is due to incompleteness of the projection data acquired by a single circular pinhole orbit, and have evaluated a new strategy for accurate image reconstruction with better spatial resolution uniformity. A pinhole SPECT system using two circular orbits and a dedicated three-dimensional ordered subsets expectation maximisation (3D-OSEM) reconstruction method were developed. In this system, not the camera but the object rotates, and the two orbits are at 90 and 45 relative to the object's axis. This system satisfies Tuy's condition, and is thus able to provide complete data for 3D pinhole SPECT reconstruction within the whole field of view (FOV). To evaluate this system, a series of experiments was carried out using a multiple-disk phantom filled with 99m Tc solution. The feasibility of the proposed method for small animal imaging was tested with a mouse bone study using 99m Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. Feldkamp's filtered back-projection (FBP) method and the 3D-OSEM method were applied to these data sets, and the visual and statistical properties were examined. Axial blurring, which was still visible at the edge of the FOV even after applying the conventional 3D-OSEM instead of FBP for single-orbit data, was not visible after application of 3D-OSEM using two-orbit data. 3D-OSEM using two-orbit data dramatically reduced the resolution non-uniformity and statistical noise, and also demonstrated considerably better image quality in the mouse scan. This system may be of use in quantitative assessment of bio-physiological functions in small animals. (orig.)

  4. Complexity and accuracy of image registration methods in SPECT-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, L S; Duzenli, C; Moiseenko, V [Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Tang, L; Hamarneh, G [Computing Science, Simon Fraser University, 9400 TASC1, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Gill, B [Medical Physics, Vancouver Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Celler, A; Shcherbinin, S [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, 828 West 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L8 (Canada); Fua, T F; Thompson, A; Sheehan, F [Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Liu, M [Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, 13750 9th Ave, Surrey, BC, V3V 1Z2 (Canada)], E-mail: lyin@bccancer.bc.ca

    2010-01-07

    The use of functional imaging in radiotherapy treatment (RT) planning requires accurate co-registration of functional imaging scans to CT scans. We evaluated six methods of image registration for use in SPECT-guided radiotherapy treatment planning. Methods varied in complexity from 3D affine transform based on control points to diffeomorphic demons and level set non-rigid registration. Ten lung cancer patients underwent perfusion SPECT-scans prior to their radiotherapy. CT images from a hybrid SPECT/CT scanner were registered to a planning CT, and then the same transformation was applied to the SPECT images. According to registration evaluation measures computed based on the intensity difference between the registered CT images or based on target registration error, non-rigid registrations provided a higher degree of accuracy than rigid methods. However, due to the irregularities in some of the obtained deformation fields, warping the SPECT using these fields may result in unacceptable changes to the SPECT intensity distribution that would preclude use in RT planning. Moreover, the differences between intensity histograms in the original and registered SPECT image sets were the largest for diffeomorphic demons and level set methods. In conclusion, the use of intensity-based validation measures alone is not sufficient for SPECT/CT registration for RTTP. It was also found that the proper evaluation of image registration requires the use of several accuracy metrics.

  5. Accuracy evaluation of fusion of CT, MR, and SPECT images using commercially available software packages (SRS PLATO and IFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongioj, Valeria; Brusa, Anna; Loi, Gianfranco; Pignoli, Emanuele; Gramaglia, Alberto; Scorsetti, Marta; Bombardieri, Emilio; Marchesini, Renato

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A problem for clinicians is to mentally integrate information from multiple diagnostic sources, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), whose images give anatomic and metabolic information. Methods and Materials: To combine this different imaging procedure information, and to overlay correspondent slices, we used commercially available software packages (SRS PLATO and IFS). The algorithms utilize a fiducial-based coordinate system (or frame) with 3 N-shaped markers, which allows coordinate transformation of a clinical examination data set (9 spots for each transaxial section) to a stereotactic coordinate system. The N-shaped markers were filled with fluids visible in each modality (gadolinium for MR, calcium chloride for CT, and 99m Tc for SPECT). The frame is relocatable, in the different acquisition modalities, by means of a head holder to which a face mask is fixed so as to immobilize the patient. Position errors due to the algorithms were obtained by evaluating the stereotactic coordinates of five sources detectable in each modality. Results: SPECT and MR position errors due to the algorithms were evaluated with respect to CT: Δx was ≤ 0.9 mm for MR and ≤ 1.4 mm for SPECT, Δy was ≤ 1 mm and ≤ 3 mm for MR and SPECT, respectively. Maximal differences in distance between estimated and actual fiducial centers (geometric mismatch) were in the order of the pixel size (0.8 mm for CT, 1.4 mm for MR, and 1.8 mm for SPECT). In an attempt to distinguish necrosis from residual disease, the image fusion protocol was studied in 35 primary or metastatic brain tumor patients. Conclusions: The image fusion technique has a good degree of accuracy as well as the potential to improve the specificity of tissue identification and the precision of the subsequent treatment planning

  6. Fusion of SPECT/TC images: Usefulness and benefits in degenerative spinal cord pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, Monica; Ucros, Gonzalo; Bermudez, Sonia; Morillo, Anibal; Rodriguez, Andres

    2005-01-01

    The objectives are to compare CT and SPECT bone scintigraphy evaluated independently with SPECT-CT fusion images in patients with known degenerative spinal pathology. To demonstrate the clinical usefulness of CT and SPECT fusion images. Materials and methods: Thirty-one patients with suspected degenerative spinal disease were evaluated with thin-slice, non-angled helical CT and bone scintigrams with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), both with multiplanar reconstructions within a 24-hour period After independent evaluation by a nuclear medicine specialist and a radiologist, multimodality image fusion software was used to merge the CT and SPECT studies and a final consensus interpretation of the combined images was obtained. Results: Thirty-two SPECT bone scintigraphy images, helical CT studies and SPECT-CT fusion images were obtained for 31 patients with degenerative spinal disease. The results of the bone scintigraphy and CT scans were in agreement in 17 pairs of studies (53.12%). In these studies image fusion did not provide additional information on the location or extension of the lesions. In 11 of the study pairs (34.2%), the information obtained was not in agreement between scintigraphy and CT studies: CT images demonstrated several abnormalities, whereas the SPECT images showed only one dominant lesion, or the SPECT images did not provide enough information for anatomical localization. In these cases image fusion helped establish the precise localization of the most clinically significant lesion, which matched the lesion with the greatest uptake. In 4 studies (12.5%) the CT and SPECT images were not in agreement: CT and SPECT images showed different information (normal scintigraphy, abnormal CT), thus leading to inconclusive fusion images. Conclusion: The use of CT-SPECT fusion images in degenerative spinal disease allows for the integration of anatomic detail with physiologic and functional information. CT-SPECT fusion improves the

  7. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in MELAS syndrome: comparison with MR finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Joon; Ryu, Young Hoon; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Jeon, Tae Joo; Kim, Jai Keun; Nam, Ji Eun; Lee, Jong Doo; Lee, Byung Hee; Shin, Hyung Cheol

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate SPECT findings of MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy and correlate them with MR findings in search of specific imaging features and to assess the role of SPECT in MELAS syndrome. Five patients (four females and one male; age range, 1 to 25 years) who presented with repeated stroke-like episodes or seizures or developmental delay or were asymptomatic but had elevated lactic acid in CSF and serum were evaluated with conventional noncontrast MR imaging and SPECT. MRI demonstrated increased T2 signal intensities in the affected areas of gray and white matters mainly on the parietal (4/5) and occipital lobes (4/5) and in the basal ganglias (1/5), which were not restricted to a specific vascular territory. SPECT demonstrated decreased uptake of Tc-99m ECD on parietal (5/5) and occipital (4/5) and temporal (2/5) and frontal (1/5) lobe and basal ganglia (2/5) and thalami (2/5). In a patient with mitochondrial myopathy who had normal MRI, decreased perfusion is noted on left parietal area and bilateral thalami. Comparison of the numbers of abnormal findings revealed that decreased perfusion seen on SPECT were more numerous than anatomical abnormalities seen on MRI. SPECT may be a sensitive method for pathophysiological study of metabolic disturbances in MELAS. Moreover, in patients with mitochondrial myopathy without clinical encephalopathy, SPECT may play a role in evaluating subclinical encephalopathy even with normal conventional MR findings

  8. Filter and slice thickness selection in SPECT image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovic, M.; Weber, D.A.; Wilson, G.A.; O'Mara, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of filter and slice thickness in SPECT image reconstruction as function of activity and linear and angular sampling were investigated in phantom and patient imaging studies. Reconstructed transverse and longitudinal spatial resolution of the system were measured using a line source in a water filled phantom. Phantom studies included measurements of the Data Spectrum phantom; clinical studies included tomographic procedures in 40 patients undergoing imaging of the temporomandibular joint. Slices of the phantom and patient images were evaluated for spatial of the phantom and patient images were evaluated for spatial resolution, noise, and image quality. Major findings include; spatial resolution and image quality improve with increasing linear sampling frequencies over the range of 4-8 mm/p in the phantom images, best spatial resolution and image quality in clinical images were observed at a linear sampling frequency of 6mm/p, Shepp and Logan filter gives the best spatial resolution for phantom studies at the lowest linear sampling frequency; smoothed Shepp and Logan filter provides best quality images without loss of resolution at higher frequencies and, spatial resolution and image quality improve with increased angular sampling frequency in the phantom at 40 c/p but appear to be independent of angular sampling frequency at 400 c/p

  9. In vivo characteristics of IBZM in rat brains, an agent for quantitative SPECT imaging of D2 dopamine receptors. A basis for semiquantitative measurement of the receptor density using equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Hiroshi; Maeda, Hisato; Takeuchi, Akira; Koga, Sukehiko; Matsumura, Kaname; Nakashima, Hiromichi; Ichise, Masanori; Kurami, Miki; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi.

    1994-01-01

    To establish a basis for semiquantitative SPECT measurements of the D 2 dopamine receptor density using equilibrium analysis, we evaluated in vivo kinetic properties of 125 I-IBZM in rat brains. We measured percent uptakes (% dose/g) of 125 I-IBZM in the striatum, frontal cortex, and cerebellum. We made these regional measurements at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after injection, respectively. The specific striatal uptake, which is the uptake difference between striatum and frontal cortex or cerebellum, showed a transient equilibrium phase at 60 min. Theoretically, with these 'reversible' D 2 receptor binding ligands, the tracer-uptake ratio of the striatum-to-frontal cortex or cerebellum during the equilibrium phase provides an estimate of binding potential (Bound/Free=B max /K d ). Our experiment showed that these ratio increased with time after bolus injection of the tracer. Striatum to frontal cortex or cerebellum ratios which were calculated with pooled data (n=12) at 60 minutes in equilibrium phase showed nearly constant values (C.V.=12.3% and 13.5%, respectively). Although measuring the striatum to frontal cortex or cerebellum ratios near equilibrium phase by bolus injection of the tracer which are widely used in human SPECT study could not exactly signify the binding potential, those ratios at fixed time after injection would be reliable for semiquantitative index. (author)

  10. Analysis of simulataneous I-123-IPT/Tc-99m-HMPAO dual isotope brain SPECT in Parkinson's disease and normal volunteers using SPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y. A.; Juh, R. H.; Kim, S. H.; Park, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    The basal ganglia are usually poorly delineated in Parkinson's diseases on IPT images. We have studied simultaneous dual isotope brain SPECTs using I-123-IPT and Tc-99m-HMPAO, in order to overcome this limitation of IPT imaging. 17 patients (M: 7, F: 10) with Parkinson's disease (Idiopathic parkison's disease: 12, Multiple system atrophy: 5) and 4 normal volunteers (N) underwent the dual isotope brain SPECT following simultaneously injection of 370 MBq Tc-99m-HMPAO (energy window: 130-146 keV) and 111 MBq I-123-IPT (energy window: 152-168 keV). We first obtained parameters of spatial normalization during spatial normalization of Tc-99m-HMPAO brain SPECT using SPECT template. Using these parameters, we could spatially normalized I-123-IPT brain PSECT to standard space, because these images were obtained simultaneously. The difference between each groups(N vs IPD, N vs MSA, IPD vs MSA) were compared with t-test (p<0.01). We demonstrated decreased perfusion in the head and body caudate and globus pallidus on MSA compared with IPD. No significant hypo- and hyperperfusion area was observed in the other analysis. The method proposed in this study can effectively evaluate the dopamine function, and is easily applicable to conventional gamma camera system with any dual energy window acquisition modes

  11. Compton scatter correction in case of multiple crosstalks in SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychra, J J; Blend, M J; Jobe, T H

    1996-02-01

    A strategy for Compton scatter correction in brain SPECT images was proposed recently. It assumes that two radioisotopes are used and that a significant portion of photons of one radioisotope (for example, Tc99m) spills over into the low energy acquisition window of the other radioisotope (for example, Tl201). We are extending this approach to cases of several radioisotopes with mutual, multiple and significant photon spillover. In the example above, one may correct not only the Tl201 image but also the Tc99m image corrupted by the Compton scatter originating from the small component of high energy Tl201 photons. The proposed extension is applicable to other anatomical domains (cardiac imaging).

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of PET and SPECT imaging of {sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akihiko, E-mail: takahsr@hs.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Sasaki, Masayuki [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Himuro, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Yasuo; Komiya, Isao [Division of Radiology, Department of Medical Technology, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Baba, Shingo [Department of Clinical Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Yittrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) is traditionally thought of as a pure beta emitter, and is used in targeted radionuclide therapy, with imaging performed using bremsstrahlung single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, because {sup 90}Y also emits positrons through internal pair production with a very small branching ratio, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is also available. Because of the insufficient image quality of {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung SPECT, PET imaging has been suggested as an alternative. In this paper, the authors present the Monte Carlo-based simulation–reconstruction framework for {sup 90}Y to comprehensively analyze the PET and SPECT imaging techniques and to quantitatively consider the disadvantages associated with them. Methods: Our PET and SPECT simulation modules were developed using Monte Carlo simulation of Electrons and Photons (MCEP), developed by Dr. S. Uehara. PET code (MCEP-PET) generates a sinogram, and reconstructs the tomography image using a time-of-flight ordered subset expectation maximization (TOF-OSEM) algorithm with attenuation compensation. To evaluate MCEP-PET, simulated results of {sup 18}F PET imaging were compared with the experimental results. The results confirmed that MCEP-PET can simulate the experimental results very well. The SPECT code (MCEP-SPECT) models the collimator and NaI detector system, and generates the projection images and projection data. To save the computational time, the authors adopt the prerecorded {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung photon data calculated by MCEP. The projection data are also reconstructed using the OSEM algorithm. The authors simulated PET and SPECT images of a water phantom containing six hot spheres filled with different concentrations of {sup 90}Y without background activity. The amount of activity was 163 MBq, with an acquisition time of 40 min. Results: The simulated {sup 90}Y-PET image accurately simulated the experimental results. PET image is visually

  13. Evaluation of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome with [99mTc] HMPAO Brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreira, LCTF; Santos, A. O; Juarez, B. A; Leite, H. A; Lima, M. C. L; Ramos, C. D; Camargo, E. E

    2002-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GLTS) is a disorder characterized by tics and several behavioral disturbances. Although GLTS is a relatively common disorder, little is known about its pathophysiology. Previous studies with SPECT and PET were performed in a small number of patients and have shown some discordant data. The aim of this study is to evaluate brain perfusion abnormalities in patients with GLTS and to correlate them with the clinical manifestations of the syndrome. Twenty-eight patients were submitted to brain [99mTc]-HMPAO SPECT. 82 percent of the patients had abnormal studies. The most frequent finding was perfusion abnormalities in the thalami in 16 patients (57 percent) and 85 percent of patients with hyperperfusion of one or both thalami had complex motor tics. This investigation has demonstrated that brain perfusion SPECT is able to identify cortical perfusion abnormalities, associated with clinical symptoms in patients with GLTS. These abnormalities involve the pre-frontal-striatal-thalamic-cortical pathways (Au)

  14. SPECT versus planar bone radionuclide imaging in the detection of spondylolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, C.G.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Chang, P.J.; Seabold, J.E.; Found, E.M.; Renfrew, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relative performance and ease of interpretation of SPECT versus planar radionuclide bone imaging in the detection of spondylolysis. The authors studied all patients presenting with back pain suggestive of spondylolysis from November 1989 to January 1991 who underwent bone scanning; patients underwent both planar and SPECT imaging. The planar and SPECT images were randomly mixed and independently interpreted by four observers for presence or absence of spondylolysis and ease of interpretation for each scan. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Of 72 patients, 19 had confirmed spondylolysis, and 53 did not. While ROC analysis showed that SPECT performed slightly better than planar imaging for all four observers, the difference was not statistically significant. ANOVA results suggest that planar imaging was significantly easier to use than SPECT and that ease of use was strongly correlated with the observer's confidence in the diagnosis

  15. Skeletal scintigraphy and SPECT/CT in orthopedic imaging; Knochenszintigrafie und SPECT/CT bei orthopaedischen Fragestellungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaeser, B.; Walter, M.; Krause, T. [Inselspital Bern (Switzerland). Universitaetsklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2011-03-15

    Multi-modality imaging with SPECT-CT in orthopaedics combines the excellent sensitivity of scintigraphy with the morphological information of CT as a key for specific interpretation of findings in bone scans. The result is an imaging modality with the clear potential to prove of value even in a competitive setting dominated by MRI, and to significantly add to diagnostic imaging in orthopaedics. SPECT-CT is of great value in the diagnostic evaluation after fractures, and - in contrast to MRI - it is well suited for imaging in patients with osteosyntheses and metallic implants. In sports medicine, SPECT-CT allows for a sensitive and specific detection of osseous stress reactions before morphological changes become detectable by CT or MRI. In patients with osseous pain syndromes, actively evolving degenerative changes as a cause of pain can be identified and accurately localized. Further, particularly prospective diagnostic studies providing comparative data are needed to strengthen the position of nuclear imaging in orthopaedics and sports medicine and to help implementing SPECT/CT in diagnostic algorithms. (orig.)

  16. NeuroSPECT assessment of ischemic penumbra in acute brain infarct: control of intra-arterial thrombolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena, F.J.; Mena, I.; Contreras, I.; Soto, F.; Ducci, H.; Fruns, M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Brain infarct is the most common cause of incapacity in adults, the second cause of dementia and the 2nd or 3rd cause of death. Acute brain infarct is a medical emergency potentially reversible if treated with thrombolysis in the first hours of evolution. Thrombolysis is now an approved and efficacious method of treatment for acute ischemic stroke. During the first 3 hours of evolution, intravenous administration of plasminogen activator (tPA) can be performed. The window of time of treatment is expanded to 6 hours with the intra-arterial super selective route for thrombolysis. Aim: The aim of this study was to define levels of reversible ischemia (penumbra) demonstrated by statistically evaluated HMPAO Tc99m NeuroSPECT performed before and after intra-arterial thrombolysis in the treatment of acute infarct. Materials and Methods: 21 patients were treated during the first 6 hours of evolution of an acute ischemic stroke with the following protocol. 1) Admission, and complete neurological evaluation. 2) Brain CT scan to rule hemorrhage or established infarct. 3) I.V injection of 1100MBq Tc99m HMPAO (Ceretec tm) 4) Conventional cerebral angiography and intra-arterial thrombolysis and/or angioplasty/stenting if necessary. 5) NeuroSPECT assessment of ischemic penumbra. 6) Control at 24 hrs with NeuroSPECT. NeuroSPECT image acquisition is performed immediately following arterial thrombolysis with a dual Head Camera, SHR collimators and conventional protocol. Image processing was performed using the Segami Software, as previously reported in Alasbimn Journal2 (7): April 2000. http://www.alasbimnjournal.cl. The analysis consists of 1) Tallairach brain volume normalization. 2) Voxel by voxel comparison of the individual brain cortex uptake normalized to the maximum in the cortex with a normal database of 24 age-matched controls. Results: The results are expressed in standard deviations (S.D.) below the normal mean. Normal mean is 72% + 6. Only voxels between

  17. [Application of GVF snake model in segmentation of whole body bone SPECT image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmei; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Lifei; Ye, Guangchun; Mao, Zongyuan

    2008-02-01

    Limited by the imaging principle of whole body bone SPECT image, the gray value of bladder area is quite high, which affects the image's brightness, contrast and readability. In the meantime, the similarity between bladder area and focus makes it difficult for some images to be segmented automatically. In this paper, an improved Snake model, GVF Snake, is adopted to automatically segment bladder area, preparing for further processing of whole body bone SPECT images.

  18. Global cerebral blood flow changes measured by brain perfusion SPECT immediately after whole brain irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtawa, Nobuyuki; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Hosono, Makoto; Takahashi, Takeo

    2003-01-01

    Whole brain irradiation (WBI) is still a major treatment option for patients with metastatic brain tumor despite recent advances in chemotherapy and newer techniques of radiation therapy. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) of changes induced by whole brain radiation is not fully investigated, and the aim of the study was to measure CBF changes non-invasively with brain perfusion SPECT to correlate with treatment effect or prognosis. Total of 106 patients underwent WBI during April 1998 to March 2002. Both brain MRI and brain perfusion SPECT could be performed before (less than 1 week before or less than 10 Gy of WBI) and immediately after (between 1 week before and 2 weeks after the completion of WBI) the therapy in 17 of these patients. They, 10 men and 7 women, all had metastatic brain tumor with age range of 45 to 87 (mean of 61.4) years. Tc-99m brain perfusion agent (HMPAO in 4, ECD in 13) was rapidly administered in a 740-MBq dose to measure global and regional CBF according to Matsuda's method, which based on both Patlak plot and Lassens' linearity correction. Brain MRI was used to measure therapeutic response according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification as complete remission (CR), partial response (PR), no change (NC), and progressive disease (PD). Survival period was measured from the completion of WBI. Mean global CBF was 40.6 and 41.5 ml/100 g/min before and immediately after the WBI, respectively. Four patients increased (greater than 10%) their global mean CBF, 10 unchanged (less than 10% increase or decrease), and 3 decreased after the WBI. The WBI achieved CR in none, PR in 8, NC in 6, and PD in 3 on brain MRI. Change in global mean CBF (mean±SD) was significantly larger in PR (4.3±2.0 ml/100 g/min, p=0.002) and in NC (-0.1±4.5) than in PD (-3.9±6.4, P=0.002, P=0.016, respectively). Survival was not significantly (p>0.05) different among the patients with CR (20 weeks), NC (48 weeks), and PD (21 weeks). Change in global CBF and survival was

  19. Evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT for the detection of brain tumor. Comparison with {sup 201}Tl SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Motoo; Sasaki, Yasushi; Kikuchi, Yoshirou; Kaminaga, Tatsuro; Furui, Shigeru [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Konoeda, Kouichi; Karigome, Masato; Yoshida, Katsuhiko

    1997-01-01

    For the evaluation of brain tumor (n=15), we performed both dynamic and static {sup 99m}Tc-ECD (ECD) SPECT studies. {sup 201}Tl SPECT was also used for comparison with the results of ECD SPECT. Dynamic ECD SPECT was obtained following the injection of 600 MBq of ECD. Five min after the injection of ECD, static ECD SPECT was performed. {sup 201}Tl SPECT was obtained 10 min after the injection of 74 MBq. Abnormal uptake was recognized in 7 of 15 tumors with dynamic ECD; 5 of 7 meningiomas, 1 of 1 glioblastoma and 1 of 1 astrocytoma. However, no abnormal uptake was seen in 3 of 3 benign tumors (1 low grade astrocytoma, 1 hemangioma, 1 craniopharyngioma) and in 2 of 2 brain metastases. In contrast abnormal uptake was seen in 11 of 15 tumors with {sup 201}Tl; 7 of 7 meningiomas, 2 of 2 brain metastases, 1 of 1 glioblastoma and 1 of 1 craniopharyngioma. No abnormal uptake was seen in 3 of 3 benign tumors (1 hemangioma and 2 low grade astrocytomas). Equivocal uptake was seen in 1 low grade astrocytoma with dynamic ECD and {sup 201}Tl. The mechanism of the accumulation of dynamic ECD to brain tumor is unclear. However, it may reflect not only blood flow, but also metabolism. (author)

  20. Regional Cerebral Blood-Flow with 99mTc-ECD Brain Perfusion SPECT in Landau-Kleffner Syndrome: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Nemati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS is a rare childhood disorder characterized by acquired aphasia and epilepsy. 99mTc-ECD SPECT imaging was performed in two right-handed children with LKS. A relative decrease in perfusion was found in the left frontal-temporal cortices of both patients as well as in the left and right parietal cortices of one patient with aphasia, without clinical epilepsy. The degree of regional cerebral perfusion impairment did not correlate with the severity of the clinical and EEG abnormalities, but the area of hypoperfusion was compatible with the speech area of the brain. Overall, although asymmetrical temporoparietal perfusion appears as a common finding in LKS, SPECT findings in LKS alone cannot elucidate the pathogenic features of the disorder in the brain. Here, we present two cases of LKS in which we investigated SPECT perfusion scans.

  1. Study of regional cerebral blood flow SPECT imaging for sudden sensorineural deafness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Changhui; Kui Xixiao; Xiong Qibin; Wen Hui; Xie Jiabiao

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To study the clinical value of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) SPECT imaging for sudden sensorineural deafness (SSD). Methods: 10 normal persons, 19 conductive deafness and 31 SSD patients were examined by rCBF SPECT imaging, and compared with X CT at the same time. All SSD patients were followed up for 6∼12 months with repeated rCBF SPECT imaging. Results: 1) The radioactivity of diseased and normal horizontal temporal gyrus ratio (T/NT) in SSD patients was the lowest among three groups (P < 0.01). 2) The sensitivity (80.6%) and accurate rate (88.3%) of rCBF SPECT imaging in SSD patients were much higher than those of CT (3.2% and 50%, P < 0.01). 3) There was a significant correlation between degree of deafness and T/NT in SSD patients. 4) Good prognosis of SSD patients with normal rCBF SPECT was found. 5) The rCBF SPECT had close concordance between rCBF SPECT imaging and clinical prognosis (84.6%). Conclusions: rCBF SPECT imaging was superior to X CT in diagnosis of SSD and played an important clinical role

  2. Attenuation correction of myocardial SPECT images with X-ray CT. Effects of registration errors between X-ray CT and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Murase, Kenya; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Motomura, Nobutoku

    2002-01-01

    Attenuation correction with an X-ray CT image is a new method to correct attenuation on SPECT imaging, but the effect of the registration errors between CT and SPECT images is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of the registration errors on myocardial SPECT, analyzing data from a phantom and a human volunteer. Registerion (fusion) of the X-ray CT and SPECT images was done with standard packaged software in three dimensional fashion, by using linked transaxial, coronal and sagittal images. In the phantom study, and X-ray CT image was shifted 1 to 3 pixels on the x, y and z axes, and rotated 6 degrees clockwise. Attenuation correction maps generated from each misaligned X-ray CT image were used to reconstruct misaligned SPECT images of the phantom filled with 201 Tl. In a human volunteer, X-ray CT was acquired in different conditions (during inspiration vs. expiration). CT values were transferred to an attenuation constant by using straight lines; an attenuation constant of 0/cm in the air (CT value=-1,000 HU) and that of 0.150/cm in water (CT value=0 HU). For comparison, attenuation correction with transmission CT (TCT) data and an external γ-ray source ( 99m Tc) was also applied to reconstruct SPECT images. Simulated breast attenuation with a breast attachment, and inferior wall attenuation were properly corrected by means of the attenuation correction map generated from X-ray CT. As pixel shift increased, deviation of the SPECT images increased in misaligned images in the phantom study. In the human study, SPECT images were affected by the scan conditions of the X-ray CT. Attenuation correction of myocardial SPECT with an X-ray CT image is a simple and potentially beneficial method for clinical use, but accurate registration of the X-ray CT to SPECT image is essential for satisfactory attenuation correction. (author)

  3. EANM procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging with SPECT and SPECT/CT: 2015 revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verberne, Hein J.; Eck-Smit, Berthe L.F. van; Wit, Tim C. de; Acampa, Wanda; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos; Ballinger, Jim; Bengel, Frank; Bondt, Pieter De; Buechel, Ronny R.; Kaufmann, Philip A.; Cuocolo, Alberto; Flotats, Albert; Hacker, Marcus; Hindorf, Cecilia; Lindner, Oliver; Ljungberg, Michael; Lonsdale, Markus; Manrique, Alain; Minarik, David; Scholte, Arthur J.H.A.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.; Traegaardh, Elin; Hesse, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in 2005, many small and some larger steps of progress have been made, improving MPI procedures. In this paper, the major changes from the updated 2015 procedural guidelines are highlighted, focusing on the important changes related to new instrumentation with improved image information and the possibility to reduce radiation exposure, which is further discussed in relation to the recent developments of new International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models. Introduction of the selective coronary vasodilator regadenoson and the use of coronary CT-contrast agents for hybrid imaging with SPECT/CT angiography are other important areas for nuclear cardiology that were not included in the previous guidelines. A large number of minor changes have been described in more detail in the fully revised version available at the EANM home page: http://eanm.org/ publications/guidelines/2015 0 7 E ANM F INAL myocardial p erfusion g uideline.pdf. (orig.)

  4. EANM procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging with SPECT and SPECT/CT: 2015 revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verberne, Hein J.; Eck-Smit, Berthe L.F. van; Wit, Tim C. de [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, F2-238, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Acampa, Wanda [National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos [Academy of Athens, Center for Experimental Surgery, Clinical and Translational Research, Biomedical Research Foundation, Athens (Greece); Ballinger, Jim [Guy' s Hospital - Guy' s and St Thomas' Trust Foundation, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Bengel, Frank [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Bondt, Pieter De [OLV Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aalst (Belgium); Buechel, Ronny R.; Kaufmann, Philip A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Flotats, Albert [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hacker, Marcus [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Hindorf, Cecilia [Skaane University Hospital, Department of Radiation Physics, Lund (Sweden); Lindner, Oliver [University Hospital of the Ruhr-University Bochum, Heart and Diabetes Center North Rhine-Westphalia, Institute for Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Ljungberg, Michael [Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund (Sweden); Lonsdale, Markus [Bispebjerg Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Copenhagen (Denmark); Manrique, Alain [Caen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Service Commun Investigations chez l' Homme, GIP Cyceron, Caen (France); Minarik, David [Skaane University Hospital, Radiation Physics, Malmoe (Sweden); Scholte, Arthur J.H.A. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Traegaardh, Elin [Skaane University Hospital and Lund University, Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Malmoe (Sweden); Hesse, Birger [University Hospital of Copenhagen, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-11-15

    Since the publication of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in 2005, many small and some larger steps of progress have been made, improving MPI procedures. In this paper, the major changes from the updated 2015 procedural guidelines are highlighted, focusing on the important changes related to new instrumentation with improved image information and the possibility to reduce radiation exposure, which is further discussed in relation to the recent developments of new International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models. Introduction of the selective coronary vasodilator regadenoson and the use of coronary CT-contrast agents for hybrid imaging with SPECT/CT angiography are other important areas for nuclear cardiology that were not included in the previous guidelines. A large number of minor changes have been described in more detail in the fully revised version available at the EANM home page: http://eanm.org/ publications/guidelines/2015{sub 0}7{sub E}ANM{sub F}INAL myocardial{sub p}erfusion{sub g}uideline.pdf. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of the monoamine uptake site ligand [123I]methyl 3β-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane-2β-carboxylate ([123I]β-CIT) in non-human primates: pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and SPECT brain imaging coregistered with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Zea-Ponce, Y.; Zoghbi, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The in vivo properties of a new radioiodinated probe of the dopamine and serotonin transporter, [ 123 I]methyl 3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane-2β-carboxylate ([ 123 I]β-CIT) were evaluated in baboons and vervet monkeys. The labeled product was prepared in 65.2 ± 2.8% yield (mean ± SEM; n = 8) by reaction of the tributylstannyl precursor with [ 123 I]NaI in the presence of peracetic acid followed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification to give a product with radiochemical purity of 97.5 ± 0.5% and specific activity of 500-1200 Ci/mmol. [ 123 I]β-CIT promises to be a useful marker for SPECT study of the monoamine uptake system in primate brain. (author)

  6. Improved image quality for asymmetric double-focal cone-beam SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Z.J.; Tsui, B.M.W.

    1993-01-01

    To optimize both spatial resolution and detection efficiency in brain SPECT imaging using a rectangular camera, an asymmetric double-focal cone-beam collimator is proposed with the focal points located near the base plane of the patient's head. To fit the entire head into the field-of-view of the collimator with dimensions of 50cmx40cm and at a radius-of-rotation of 15 cm, the focal lengths of the collimator are 55 and 70 cm, respectively, in the transverse and axial directions. With this geometry, the artifacts in the reconstructed image produced by the Feldkamp algorithm are more severe compared to those in a symmetric cone-beam geometry, due to the larger vertex angle between the top of the head and the base plane. To improve the reconstructed image quality, a fully three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction algorithm developed previously for single-focal cone-beam SPECT was extended to the asymmetric double-focal cone-beam geometry. The algorithm involves nonstationary 2D filtering and a reprojection technique for estimation of the missing data caused by a single-orbit cone-beam geometry. The results from simulation studies with the 3D Defrise slab phantom demonstrated that the fully 3D algorithm provided a much improved image quality in terms of reduced slice-to-slice cross talks and shape elongation compared to that produced by the conventional Feldkamp algorithm

  7. Simultaneous reconstruction and segmentation for dynamic SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Martin; Rossmanith, Carolin; Zhang, Xiaoqun

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the reconstruction of dynamic images that incorporate characteristic dynamics in certain subregions, as arising for the kinetics of many tracers in emission tomography (SPECT, PET). We make use of a basis function approach for the unknown tracer concentration by assuming that the region of interest can be divided into subregions with spatially constant concentration curves. Applying a regularised variational framework reminiscent of the Chan-Vese model for image segmentation we simultaneously reconstruct both the labelling functions of the subregions as well as the subconcentrations within each region. Our particular focus is on applications in SPECT with the Poisson noise model, resulting in a Kullback–Leibler data fidelity in the variational approach. We present a detailed analysis of the proposed variational model and prove existence of minimisers as well as error estimates. The latter apply to a more general class of problems and generalise existing results in literature since we deal with a nonlinear forward operator and a nonquadratic data fidelity. A computational algorithm based on alternating minimisation and splitting techniques is developed for the solution of the problem and tested on appropriately designed synthetic data sets. For those we compare the results to those of standard EM reconstructions and investigate the effects of Poisson noise in the data. (paper)

  8. Technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT in the evaluation of patients with a remote history of traumatic brain injury: a comparison with x-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, B G; Ichise, M; Chung, D G; Kirsh, J C; Franks, W

    1992-01-01

    The functional imaging modality has potential for demonstrating parenchymal abnormalities not detectable by traditional morphological imaging. Fifty-three patients with a remote history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were studied with SPECT using 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (HMPAO) and x-ray computed tomography (CT). Overall, 42 patients (80%) showed regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) deficits by HMPAO SPECT, whereas 29 patients (55%) showed morphological abnormalities by CT. Out of 20 patients with minor head injury, 12 patients (60%) showed rCBF deficits and 5 patients (25%) showed CT abnormalities. Of 33 patients with major head injury, 30 patients (90%) showed rCBF deficits and 24 patients (72%) showed CT abnormalities. Thus, HMPAO SPECT was more sensitive than CT in detecting abnormalities in patients with a history of TBI, particularly in the minor head injury group. In the major head injury group, three patients showed localized cortical atrophy by CT and normal rCBF by HMPAO SPECT. In the evaluation of TBI patients, HMPAO SPECT is a useful technique to demonstrate regional brain dysfunction in the presence of morphological integrity as assessed by CT.

  9. Technical Note: Development of a 3D printed subresolution sandwich phantom for validation of brain SPECT analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negus, Ian S.; Holmes, Robin B.; Thorne, Gareth C.; Saunders, Margaret; Jordan, Kirsty C.; Nash, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To make an adaptable, head shaped radionuclide phantom to simulate molecular imaging of the brain using clinical acquisition and reconstruction protocols. This will allow the characterization and correction of scanner characteristics, and improve the accuracy of clinical image analysis, including the application of databases of normal subjects. Methods: A fused deposition modeling 3D printer was used to create a head shaped phantom made up of transaxial slabs, derived from a simulated MRI dataset. The attenuation of the printed polylactide (PLA), measured by means of the Hounsfield unit on CT scanning, was set to match that of the brain by adjusting the proportion of plastic filament and air (fill ratio). Transmission measurements were made to verify the attenuation of the printed slabs. The radionuclide distribution within the phantom was created by adding 99m Tc pertechnetate to the ink cartridge of a paper printer and printing images of gray and white matter anatomy, segmented from the same MRI data. The complete subresolution sandwich phantom was assembled from alternate 3D printed slabs and radioactive paper sheets, and then imaged on a dual headed gamma camera to simulate an HMPAO SPECT scan. Results: Reconstructions of phantom scans successfully used automated ellipse fitting to apply attenuation correction. This removed the variability inherent in manual application of attenuation correction and registration inherent in existing cylindrical phantom designs. The resulting images were assessed visually and by count profiles and found to be similar to those from an existing elliptical PMMA phantom. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated the ability to create physically realistic HMPAO SPECT simulations using a novel head-shaped 3D printed subresolution sandwich method phantom. The phantom can be used to validate all neurological SPECT imaging applications. A simple modification of the phantom design to use thinner slabs would make it suitable for

  10. Technical Note: Development of a 3D printed subresolution sandwich phantom for validation of brain SPECT analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negus, Ian S.; Holmes, Robin B.; Thorne, Gareth C.; Saunders, Margaret [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol BS28HW (United Kingdom); Jordan, Kirsty C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G11XQ (United Kingdom); Nash, David A. [Department of Medical Physics, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Portsmouth PO63LY (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: To make an adaptable, head shaped radionuclide phantom to simulate molecular imaging of the brain using clinical acquisition and reconstruction protocols. This will allow the characterization and correction of scanner characteristics, and improve the accuracy of clinical image analysis, including the application of databases of normal subjects. Methods: A fused deposition modeling 3D printer was used to create a head shaped phantom made up of transaxial slabs, derived from a simulated MRI dataset. The attenuation of the printed polylactide (PLA), measured by means of the Hounsfield unit on CT scanning, was set to match that of the brain by adjusting the proportion of plastic filament and air (fill ratio). Transmission measurements were made to verify the attenuation of the printed slabs. The radionuclide distribution within the phantom was created by adding {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate to the ink cartridge of a paper printer and printing images of gray and white matter anatomy, segmented from the same MRI data. The complete subresolution sandwich phantom was assembled from alternate 3D printed slabs and radioactive paper sheets, and then imaged on a dual headed gamma camera to simulate an HMPAO SPECT scan. Results: Reconstructions of phantom scans successfully used automated ellipse fitting to apply attenuation correction. This removed the variability inherent in manual application of attenuation correction and registration inherent in existing cylindrical phantom designs. The resulting images were assessed visually and by count profiles and found to be similar to those from an existing elliptical PMMA phantom. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated the ability to create physically realistic HMPAO SPECT simulations using a novel head-shaped 3D printed subresolution sandwich method phantom. The phantom can be used to validate all neurological SPECT imaging applications. A simple modification of the phantom design to use thinner slabs would make it suitable

  11. Evaluation of image reconstruction methods for 123I-MIBG-SPECT. A rank-order study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, Marcus; Mattsson, Soeren; Oddstig, Jenny; Uusijaervi-Lizana, Helena; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Valind, Sven; Thorsson, Ola; Garpered, Sabine; Prautzsch, Tilmann; Tischenko, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is an opportunity to improve the image quality and lesion detectability in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) by choosing an appropriate reconstruction method and optimal parameters for the reconstruction. Purpose: To optimize the use of the Flash 3D reconstruction algorithm in terms of equivalent iteration (EI) number (number of subsets times the number of iterations) and to compare with two recently developed reconstruction algorithms ReSPECT and orthogonal polynomial expansion on disc (OPED) for application on 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)-SPECT. Material and Methods: Eleven adult patients underwent SPECT 4 h and 14 patients 24 h after injection of approximately 200 MBq 123 I-MIBG using a Siemens Symbia T6 SPECT/CT. Images were reconstructed from raw data using the Flash 3D algorithm at eight different EI numbers. The images were ranked by three experienced nuclear medicine physicians according to their overall impression of the image quality. The obtained optimal images were then compared in one further visual comparison with images reconstructed using the ReSPECT and OPED algorithms. Results: The optimal EI number for Flash 3D was determined to be 32 for acquisition 4 h and 24 h after injection. The average rank order (best first) for the different reconstructions for acquisition after 4 h was: Flash 3D 32 > ReSPECT > Flash 3D 64 > OPED, and after 24 h: Flash 3D 16 > ReSPECT > Flash 3D 32 > OPED. A fair level of inter-observer agreement concerning optimal EI number and reconstruction algorithm was obtained, which may be explained by the different individual preferences of what is appropriate image quality. Conclusion: Using Siemens Symbia T6 SPECT/CT and specified acquisition parameters, Flash 3D 32 (4 h) and Flash 3D 16 (24 h), followed by ReSPECT, were assessed to be the preferable reconstruction algorithms in visual assessment of 123 I-MIBG images

  12. Implications of CT noise and artifacts for quantitative 99mTc SPECT/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulme, K. W.; Kappadath, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper evaluates the effects of computed tomography (CT) image noise and artifacts on quantitative single-photon emission computed-tomography (SPECT) imaging, with the aim of establishing an appropriate range of CT acquisition parameters for low-dose protocols with respect to accurate SPECT attenuation correction (AC). Methods: SPECT images of two geometric and one anthropomorphic phantom were reconstructed iteratively using CT scans acquired at a range of dose levels (CTDI vol = 0.4 to 46 mGy). Resultant SPECT image quality was evaluated by comparing mean signal, background noise, and artifacts to SPECT images reconstructed using the highest dose CT for AC. Noise injection was performed on linear-attenuation (μ) maps to determine the CT noise threshold for accurate AC. Results: High levels of CT noise (σ ∼ 200–400 HU) resulted in low μ-maps noise (σ ∼ 1%–3%). Noise levels greater than ∼10% in 140 keV μ-maps were required to produce visibly perceptible increases of ∼15% in 99m Tc SPECT images. These noise levels would be achieved at low CT dose levels (CTDI vol = 4 μGy) that are over 2 orders of magnitude lower than the minimum dose for diagnostic CT scanners. CT noise could also lower (bias) the expected μ values. The relative error in reconstructed SPECT signal trended linearly with the relative shift in μ. SPECT signal was, on average, underestimated in regions corresponding with beam-hardening artifacts in CT images. Any process that has the potential to change the CT number of a region by ∼100 HU (e.g., misregistration between CT images and SPECT images due to motion, the presence of contrast in CT images) could introduce errors in μ 140 keV on the order of 10%, that in turn, could introduce errors on the order of ∼10% into the reconstructed 99m Tc SPECT image. Conclusions: The impact of CT noise on SPECT noise was demonstrated to be negligible for clinically achievable CT parameters. Because CT dose levels that affect

  13. Interictal brain SPECT in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy; SPECT cerebral interictal em pacientes com epilepsia do lobo temporal de dificil controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraus, Maria Emilia Cosenza

    2000-06-01

    The brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is s functional neuroimaging method that can detect localized changes in cerebral blood flow. The temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common epileptic syndrome in adults, and more than 50% are medically refractory. The SPECT can contribute to investigation of epileptogenic focus and is one of the methods of pre-surgical evaluation of these patients. (author)

  14. Brain perfusion SPECT in children with frequent fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiskala, H.; Launes, J.; Pihko, H.; Nikkinen, P.; Santavuori, P.

    1993-01-01

    We studied 14 children with frequent fits using 99m Tc-HM-PAO single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). There were 11 patients with partial secondary generalized epilepsy (PSGE) and 3 with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). The typical regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) finding in PSGE was a single area of abnormally low perfused cortex, and that in LGS, multiple hypoperfused areas. Clinically, the LGS patients were more severely affected. SPECT was more sensitive in detecting abnormalities than EEG, CT or MRI. Extensive impairment of rCBF may thus indicate unfavourable development of intellectual performance and poor seizure control. (author)

  15. 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT in patients with Moyamoya disease: a reflection of cerebral perfusion status at tissue level in the disease process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Raghava; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Sunil, Hejjaji Venkataramarao; Bhattacharya, Anish; Singh, Baljinder; Mukherjee, Kanchan Kumar; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder caused by intracranial stenosis of the circle of Willis, resulting in successive ischemic events. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play a major role in diagnosis. The aim of the study was to describe the spectrum of findings on brain SPECT in patients with Moyamoya disease and to compare the findings with other investigations. 99m Tc-ECD SPECT scans of seventeen patients (7 children and 10 adults) were analysed to study the brain perfusion. Features of Moyamoya disease were detected on DSA in 11 patients, CTA in one, MR angiography in one patient. Brain perfusion SPECT analysis showed unilateral perfusion defects in 11 patients, normal perfusion in 2 and bilateral defects in 4 patients. No perfusion defects despite bilateral vascular changes were noted in one patient. Cerebral infarcts were detected on MRI unilaterally in three subjects while multiple infarcts were identified in one. 99m Tc-ECD Brain SPECT showed perfusion defects that were more extensive compared to those detected on MRI. Post acetazolamide studies for assessment of cerebrovascular reserve were done in three patients. Two of them showed good cerebrovascular reserve (>1). Follow-up studies post-surgical procedures (Myo-dura synangiosis) done in two patients showed partial resolution of perfusion defects in the involved areas. Brain perfusion scintigraphy is an important adjunct in evaluation of patients with Moyamoya disease yielding information about the direct end results of the pathology in the vessels and also prognostic information. (author)

  16. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT of the brain in mild to moderate traumatic brain injury patients: compared with CT--a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedd, K; Sfakianakis, G; Ganz, W; Uricchio, B; Vernberg, D; Villanueva, P; Jabir, A M; Bartlett, J; Keena, J

    1993-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Technetium-99m hexamethyl propylenamine oxime (Tc-99m-HMPAO) was used in 20 patients with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) to evaluate the effects of brain trauma on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). SPECT scan was compared with CT scan in 16 patients. SPECT showed intraparenchymal differences in rCBF more often than lesions diagnosed with CT scans (87.5% vs. 37.5%). In five of six patients with lesions in both modalities, the area of involvement was relatively larger on SPECT scans than on CT scans. Contrecoup changes were seen in five patients on SPECT alone, two patients with CT alone and one patient had contrecoup lesions on CT and SPECT. Of the eight patients (50%) with skull fractures, seven (43.7%) had rCBF findings on SPECT scan and five (31.3%) demonstrated decrease in rCBF in brain underlying the fracture. All these patients with fractures had normal brain on CT scans. Conversely, extra-axial lesions and fractures evident on CT did not visualize on SPECT, but SPECT demonstrated associated changes in rCBF. Although there is still lack of clinical and pathological correlation, SPECT appears to be a promising method for a more sensitive evaluation of axial lesions in patients with mild to moderate TBI.

  17. Brain imaging and schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, J.L.; Dao-Castellana, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Brain structures and brain function have been investigated by the new brain imaging techniques for more than ten years. In Psychiatry, these techniques could afford a new understanding of mental diseases. In schizophrenic patients, CAT scanner and RMI pointed out statistically significant ventricular enlargments which are presently considered as evidence for abnormalities in brain maturation. Functional imaging techniques reported metabolic dysfunctions in the cortical associative areas which are probably linked to the cognitive features of schizophrenics [fr

  18. The Performance of Ictal Brain SPECT Localizing for Epileptogenic Zone in Neocortical Epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Sik; Lee, Dong Soo; Hyun, In Young; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Sang Kun; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1995-01-01

    The epileptogenic zones should be localized precisely before surgical resection of these zones in intractable epilepsy. The localization is more difficult in patients with neocortical epilepsy than in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. This study aimed at evaluation of the usefulness of ictal brain perfusion SPECT for the localization of epileptogenic zones in neocortical epilepsy. We compared the performance of ictal SPECT with MRI referring to ictal scalp electroencephalography (sEEG). Ictal 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT were done in twenty-one patients. Ictal EEG were also obtained during video monitoring. MRI were reviewed. According to the ictal sEEG and semiology, 8 patients were frontal lobe epilepsy, 7 patients were lateral temporal lobe epilepsy, 2 patients were parietal lobe epilepsy, and 4 patients were occipital lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT showed hyperperfusion in 14 patients(67%) in the zones which were suspected to be epileptogenic according to ictal EEG and semiology. MRI found morphologic abnormalities in 9 patients(43%). Among the 12 patients, in whom no epileptogenic zones were revealed by MR1, ictal SPECT found zones of hyperperfusion concordant with ictal sEEG in 9 patients(75%). However, no zones of hyperperfusion were found in 4 among 9 patients who were found to have cerebromalacia, abnormal calcification and migration anomaly in MRI. We thought that ictal SPECT was useful for localization of epileptogenic zones in neocortical epilepsy and especially in patients with negative findings in MRI.

  19. Functional brain SPECT with 99mTc-HMPAO in the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanek, J.; Kupka, K.; Samal, M.; Jirak, R.; Obenberger, J.

    1998-01-01

    The explanatory power of perfusion diagrams obtained by the title technique was examined. In addition to the standard reconstruction procedure, a special reorientation procedure aimed at a differentiation of the hippocampus structure was applied. The study gave evidence of a high specificity and sensitivity of brain SPECT in the differential diagnosis of dementias. Multifactorial analysis of all available diagnostic techniques has borne out the dominant position of brain SPECT with 99m Tc-HMPAO, particularly when using special projection onto the hippocampus, and has led to the formulation of an examination algorithm where a combination of SPECT and MRI (and CT) enables DAT to be distinguished from dementias of other etiologies with a probability higher than 90%

  20. The clinical application of SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging with 99mTc-MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Weiyu

    1992-01-01

    This paper reported 182 SPECT myocardial perfusion images with China made 99m Tc-MIBI and were compared with ECG and UCG. The sensitivity of SPECT in ischemic were 91.2% and was higher than ECG (74.9%)and UCG (61.8%) (P < 0.01). And its specificity, accuracy and positive predictive rate were 78.3%, 90% and 97% respectively. Besides 9 cases have reverse distribution after exercise and rest images. In some ICD patients had shown their SPECT images, the perfusion defects in exercise as well as in rest image

  1. Clinical assessment of SPECT/CT co-registration image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wen; Luan Zhaosheng; Peng Yong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Study the methodology of the SPECT/CT co-registration image fusion, and Assessment the Clinical application value. Method: 172 patients who underwent SPECT/CT image fusion during 2001-2003 were studied, 119 men, 53 women. 51 patients underwent 18FDG image +CT, 26 patients underwent 99m Tc-RBC Liver pool image +CT, 43 patients underwent 99mTc-MDP Bone image +CT, 18 patients underwent 99m Tc-MAA Lung perfusion image +CT. The machine is Millium VG SPECT of GE Company. All patients have been taken three steps image: X-ray survey, X-ray transmission and nuclear emission image (Including planer imaging, SPECT or 18 F-FDG of dual head camera) without changing the position of the patients. We reconstruct the emission image with X-ray map and do reconstruction, 18FDG with COSEM and 99mTc with OSEM. Then combine the transmission image and the reconstructed emission image. We use different process parameters in deferent image methods. The accurate rate of SPECT/CT image fusion were statistics, and compare their accurate with that of single nuclear emission image. Results: The nuclear image which have been reconstructed by X-ray attenuation and OSEM are apparent better than pre-reconstructed. The post-reconstructed emission images have no scatter lines around the organs. The outline between different issues is more clear than before. The validity of All post-reconstructed images is better than pre-reconstructed. SPECT/CT image fusion make localization have worthy bases. 138 patients, the accuracy of SPECT/CT image fusion is 91.3% (126/138), whereas 60(88.2%) were found through SPECT/CT image fusion, There are significant difference between them(P 99m Tc- RBC-SPECT +CT image fusion, but 21 of them were inspected by emission image. In BONE 99m Tc -MDP-SPECT +CT image fusion, 4 patients' removed bone(1-6 months after surgery) and their relay with normal bone had activity, their morphologic and density in CT were different from normal bones. 11 of 20 patients who could

  2. The role of Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT in the psychiatric disability evaluation of patients with chronic traumatic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young [Nuclear Medicne, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Sun Woo; Ghi, Lek Sung; Song, Chang June [College of Medicine, Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    We studied whether brain perfusion SPECT is useful in the psychiatric disability evaluation of patients with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty-nine patients (M:F=58:11, age 39 {+-} 14 years) who underwent Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT, brain MRI and neuropsychological (NP) tests during hospitalization in psychiatric wards for the psychiatric disability evaluation were included; the severity of injury was mild in 31, moderate in 17 and severe in 21. SPECT, MRI, NP tests were performed 6 {approx} 61 months (mean 23 months) post-injury. Diagnostic accuracy of SPECT and MRI to show hypoperfusion or abnormal signal intensity in patients with cognitive impairment represented by NP test results were compared. Forty-two patients were considered to have cognitive impairment on NP tests and 27 not. Brain SPECT showed 71% sensitivity and 85% specificity, while brain MRI showed 62% sensitivity and 93% specificity (p>0.05, McNemar test). SPECT found more cortical lesions and MRI was superior in detecting white matter lesions. sensitivity and specificity of 31 mild TBI patients were 45%, 90% for SPECT and 27%, 100% for MRI (p>0.05, McNemar test). Among 41 patients with normal brain MRI, SEPCT showed 63% sensitivity (50% for mild TBI) and 88% specificity (85% for malingerers). Brain SPECT has a supplementary role to neuropsychological tests in the psychiatric disability evaluation of chronic TBI patients by detecting more cortical lesions than MRI.

  3. The role of Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT in the psychiatric disability evaluation of patients with chronic traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Young; Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Sun Woo; Ghi, Lek Sung; Song, Chang June

    2002-01-01

    We studied whether brain perfusion SPECT is useful in the psychiatric disability evaluation of patients with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty-nine patients (M:F=58:11, age 39 ± 14 years) who underwent Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT, brain MRI and neuropsychological (NP) tests during hospitalization in psychiatric wards for the psychiatric disability evaluation were included; the severity of injury was mild in 31, moderate in 17 and severe in 21. SPECT, MRI, NP tests were performed 6 ∼ 61 months (mean 23 months) post-injury. Diagnostic accuracy of SPECT and MRI to show hypoperfusion or abnormal signal intensity in patients with cognitive impairment represented by NP test results were compared. Forty-two patients were considered to have cognitive impairment on NP tests and 27 not. Brain SPECT showed 71% sensitivity and 85% specificity, while brain MRI showed 62% sensitivity and 93% specificity (p>0.05, McNemar test). SPECT found more cortical lesions and MRI was superior in detecting white matter lesions. sensitivity and specificity of 31 mild TBI patients were 45%, 90% for SPECT and 27%, 100% for MRI (p>0.05, McNemar test). Among 41 patients with normal brain MRI, SEPCT showed 63% sensitivity (50% for mild TBI) and 88% specificity (85% for malingerers). Brain SPECT has a supplementary role to neuropsychological tests in the psychiatric disability evaluation of chronic TBI patients by detecting more cortical lesions than MRI

  4. Brain SPECT study of detrusor overactivity and healthy men in urine withholding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Yafu; Li Xuena; Li Yaming; Noriyuki Shuke; Atsutaka Okizaki; Junichi Sato; Tamio Aburano

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the brain areas, which control the bladder storage by 99 Tc m -HMPAO SPECT with Neurological Statistical Image Analysis Software (NEUROSTAT). SPECT were performed on twenty-five patients with some storage symptoms of lower urinary tract, among which nineteen patients were with detrusor overactivity (DO) (Group II) and six patients were with normal detrusor function (Group III), and fifteen healthy volunteers (Group I). All the subjects were male and right-handed, and were scanned twice under two conditions: resting state and urine withholding state. NEUROSTAT was adopted to analyze the difference in rCBF between groups and states. The results were displayed on Z-score images at a significance threshold of P<0.05 with correction for multiple comparisons. No region reached significant threshold in comparison of Group II and III in resting state. There were significant increases in tracer activity in bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the right middle temporal gyrus in urine withholding state as compared with resting state in Group I and III (P<0.05 with correction for multiple comparisons, the corresponding Z value was more than 4.476 for Group I, more than 4.414 for Group III). Among the regions,the right inferior frontal gyrus was distinctly prominent at both Z-score and the extent. In Group II, only the left middle temporal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus were activated significantly in urine withholding state as compared with resting (P<0.05 with correction for multiple comparisons, the corresponding Z value was more than 4.35). The results indicated that bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the right middle temporal gyrus associated with the control of bladder storage.Especially, the right inferior frontal gyrus played a more important role in cerebral control of bladder storage, inhibiting the contraction of detrusor in urine storage. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of Tourette's syndrome by 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Feng; Liu Hong; Meng Zhaowei; Tan Jian; Zhang Benshu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe dopamine transporter (DAT) binding capacity using 99 Tc m -TRODAT-1 in drug-naive patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS) on SPECT imaging, and explore possible correlations between 99 Tc m -TRODAT-1 uptake ratio and TS patient's age, disease duration, and tic severity. Methods: Eighteen drug-naive TS patients, male 14, female 4, as well as 8 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were recruited. Brain SPECT imaging was performed 2. 5 h after intravenous injection of 11.1 - 14.8 MBq/kg 99 Tc m -TRODAT-1. ROI was drawn on the striatum including its sub-regions of caudate and putamen, with cerebellum as the background. Striatum/cerebellum ratio was calculated. Comparisons of the ratios between TS patients and controls were carried out by independent-sample t-test. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between DAT uptake ratios of striatum and patients' age, disease duration, tic severity. Results: Compared with the control, higher symmetrically striatum uptake of 99 Tc m -TRODAT-1 in TS patients was observed (2.17±0.23 vs 1.87±0.24, t=2.957, P 0.05)and tic severity(r=0.345, P>0.05) scores were not significantly correlated with specific uptake ratios measured in the striatum. But there was significant negative correlation between disease duration and the specific uptake ratios (r=-0.483, P 99 Tc m -TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging may play an adjuvant role for initial evaluation of untreated TS. (authors)

  6. Analysis of brain SPECT with the statistical parametric mapping package SPM99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnden, L.R.; Rowe, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) package of the Welcome Department of Cognitive Neurology permits detection in the brain of different regional uptake in an individual subject or a population of subjects compared to a normal population. SPM does not require a-priori specification of regions of interest. Recently SPM has been upgraded from SPM96 to SPM99. Our aim was to vary brain SPECT processing options in the application of SPM to optimise the final statistical map in three clinical trials. The sensitivity of SPM depends on the fidelity of the preliminary spatial normalisation of each scan to the standard anatomical space defined by a template scan provided with SPM. We generated our own SPECT template and compared spatial normalisation to it and to SPM's internal PET template. We also investigated the effects of scatter subtraction, stripping of scalp activity, reconstruction algorithm, non-linear deformation and derivation of spatial normalisation parameters using co-registered MR. Use of our SPECT template yielded better results than with SPM's PET template. Accuracy of SPECT to MR co-registration was 2.5mm with SPM96 and 1.2mm with SPM99. Stripping of scalp activity improved results with SPM96 but was unnecessary with SPM99. Scatter subtraction increased the sensitivity of SPM. Non-linear deformation additional to linear (affine) transformation only marginally improved the final result. Use of the SPECT template yielded more significant results than those obtained when co registered MR was used to derive the transformation parameters. SPM99 is more robust than SPM96 and optimum SPECT analysis requires a SPECT template. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  7. Brain 18F-FDG, 18F-florbtaben PET/CT, 123I-FP-CIT SPECT and cardiac 123I-MBG imaging for diagnosis of a 'cerebral type' of Lewy Body disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gucht, Axel Van Der; Bélissant, Ophélie; Rabu, Corenti; Cottereau, Anne-Ségolène; Evangelista, Eva; Chalaye, Julia; Bonnot-Lours, Sophie; Fénelon, Gilles; Itti, Emmanuel; De Langavant, Laurent Cleret

    2016-01-01

    A 67-year-old man was referred for fluctuating neuropsychiatric symptoms, featuring depression, delirious episodes, recurrent visual hallucinations and catatonic syndrome associated with cognitive decline. No parkinsonism was found clinically even under neuroleptic treatment. 18 F-FDG PET/CT showed hypometabolism in the posterior associative cortex including the occipital cortex, suggesting Lewy body dementia, but 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT was normal and cardiac 123 I-MIBG imaging showed no signs of sympathetic denervation. Alzheimer's disease was excluded by a normal 18 F-florbetaben PET/CT. This report suggests a rare case of α-synucleinopathy without brainstem involvement, referred to as 'cerebral type' of Lewy body disease

  8. Filters in 2D and 3D Cardiac SPECT Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lyra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear cardiac imaging is a noninvasive, sensitive method providing information on cardiac structure and physiology. Single photon emission tomography (SPECT evaluates myocardial perfusion, viability, and function and is widely used in clinical routine. The quality of the tomographic image is a key for accurate diagnosis. Image filtering, a mathematical processing, compensates for loss of detail in an image while reducing image noise, and it can improve the image resolution and limit the degradation of the image. SPECT images are then reconstructed, either by filter back projection (FBP analytical technique or iteratively, by algebraic methods. The aim of this study is to review filters in cardiac 2D, 3D, and 4D SPECT applications and how these affect the image quality mirroring the diagnostic accuracy of SPECT images. Several filters, including the Hanning, Butterworth, and Parzen filters, were evaluated in combination with the two reconstruction methods as well as with a specified MatLab program. Results showed that for both 3D and 4D cardiac SPECT the Butterworth filter, for different critical frequencies and orders, produced the best results. Between the two reconstruction methods, the iterative one might be more appropriate for cardiac SPECT, since it improves lesion detectability due to the significant improvement of image contrast.

  9. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for ketamine response in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric; Cammilleri, Serge; Colavolpe, Cecile; Taieb, David; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Niboyet, Jean [Clinique La Phoceanne, Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Marseille (France)

    2007-08-15

    Ketamine has been used successfully in various proportions of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. However, the response to this specific treatment remains largely unpredictable. We evaluated brain SPECT perfusion before treatment with ketamine, using voxel-based analysis. The objective was to determine the predictive value of brain SPECT for ketamine response. Seventeen women with FM (48 {+-} 11 years; ACR criteria) were enrolled in the study. Brain SPECT was performed before any change was made in therapy in the pain care unit. We considered that a patient was a good responder to ketamine if the VAS score for pain decreased by at least 50% after treatment. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2, in comparison to a group of ten healthy women matched for age. The VAS score for pain was 81.8 {+-} 4.2 before ketamine and 31.8 {+-} 27.1 after ketamine. Eleven patients were considered ''good responders'' to ketamine. Responder and non-responder subgroups were similar in terms of pain intensity before ketamine. In comparison to responding patients and healthy subjects, non-responding patients exhibited a significant reduction in bilateral perfusion of the medial frontal gyrus. This cluster of hypoperfusion was highly predictive of non-response to ketamine (positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 91%). Brain perfusion SPECT may predict response to ketamine in hyperalgesic FM patients. (orig.)

  10. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for ketamine response in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedj, Eric; Cammilleri, Serge; Colavolpe, Cecile; Taieb, David; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier; Niboyet, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Ketamine has been used successfully in various proportions of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. However, the response to this specific treatment remains largely unpredictable. We evaluated brain SPECT perfusion before treatment with ketamine, using voxel-based analysis. The objective was to determine the predictive value of brain SPECT for ketamine response. Seventeen women with FM (48 ± 11 years; ACR criteria) were enrolled in the study. Brain SPECT was performed before any change was made in therapy in the pain care unit. We considered that a patient was a good responder to ketamine if the VAS score for pain decreased by at least 50% after treatment. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2, in comparison to a group of ten healthy women matched for age. The VAS score for pain was 81.8 ± 4.2 before ketamine and 31.8 ± 27.1 after ketamine. Eleven patients were considered ''good responders'' to ketamine. Responder and non-responder subgroups were similar in terms of pain intensity before ketamine. In comparison to responding patients and healthy subjects, non-responding patients exhibited a significant reduction in bilateral perfusion of the medial frontal gyrus. This cluster of hypoperfusion was highly predictive of non-response to ketamine (positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 91%). Brain perfusion SPECT may predict response to ketamine in hyperalgesic FM patients. (orig.)

  11. Cranial MR imaging and cerebral 99mTc HM-PAO-SPECT in patients with subacute or chronic severe closed head injury and normal CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, L.; Wimberger, D.; Oder, W.; Kramer, J.; Schindler, E.; Podreka, I.; Imhof, H.

    1993-01-01

    Eighteen patients in the subacute or chronic state following severe closed head injury with normal cranial CT scans were examined by MR and 99m Tc HM-PAO SPECT. Correlations were sought between these 2 imaging modalities and the clinical outcome, as defined by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOX) score. Both MR and SPECT revealed cerebral damage in all patients examined but structural and functional alterations did not coincide topographically in 64.9% of lesions. Nevertheless, complementary injury patterns suggesting poor recovery were found; cortical contusions and diffuse axonal injury (MR) in conjunction with cortical and thalamic hypoperfusion (SPECT) were noticed in 8 out of 12 patients with unfavorable outcome (GOS = III and IV). The synthesis of MR and SPECT information clearly enhanced the ability both to accurately assess posttraumatic brain damage and to improve patients' outcome prediction. (au) (18 refs.)

  12. Cranial MR imaging and cerebral 99mTc HM-PAO-SPECT in patients with subacute or chronic severe closed head injury and normal CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, L.; Wimberger, D.; Oder, W.; Kramer, J.; Schindler, E.; Podreka, I.; Imhof, H.

    1993-01-01

    Eighteen patients in the subacute or chronic state following severe closed head injury with normal cranial CT scans were examined by MR and 99m Tc HM-PAO SPECT. Correlations were sought between these 2 imaging modalities and the clinical outcome, as defined by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score. Both MR and SPECT revealed cerebral damage in all patients examined but structural and functional alterations did not coincide topographically in 64.9% of lesions. Nevertheless, complementary injury patterns suggesting poor recovery were found; cortical contusions and diffuse axonal injury (MR) in conjunction with cortical and thalamic hypoperfusion (SPECT) were noticed in 8 out of 12 patients with unfavorable outcome (GOS=III and IV). The synthesis of MR and SPECT information clearly enhanced the ability both to accurately assess posttraumatic brain damage and to improve patients' outcome prediction. (orig.)

  13. Cranial MR imaging and cerebral [sup 99m]Tc HM-PAO-SPECT in patients with subacute or chronic severe closed head injury and normal CT examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, L.; Wimberger, D.; Oder, W.; Kramer, J.; Schindler, E.; Podreka, I.; Imhof, H.

    1993-11-01

    Eighteen patients in the subacute or chronic state following severe closed head injury with normal cranial CT scans were examined by MR and [sup 99m]Tc HM-PAO SPECT. Correlations were sought between these 2 imaging modalities and the clinical outcome, as defined by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOX) score. Both MR and SPECT revealed cerebral damage in all patients examined but structural and functional alterations did not coincide topographically in 64.9% of lesions. Nevertheless, complementary injury patterns suggesting poor recovery were found; cortical contusions and diffuse axonal injury (MR) in conjunction with cortical and thalamic hypoperfusion (SPECT) were noticed in 8 out of 12 patients with unfavorable outcome (GOS = III and IV). The synthesis of MR and SPECT information clearly enhanced the ability both to accurately assess posttraumatic brain damage and to improve patients' outcome prediction. (au) (18 refs.).

  14. Combined SPECT/CT and PET/CT for breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Paolo [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); Larobina, Michele [Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Tommaso De Amicis, 95, Naples I-80145 (Italy); Di Lillo, Francesca [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); Del Vecchio, Silvana [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Avanzate, Via Pansini, 5, Naples I-80131 (Italy); Mettivier, Giovanni, E-mail: mettivier@na.infn.it [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Naples I-80126 (Italy)

    2016-02-11

    In the field of nuclear medicine imaging, breast imaging for cancer diagnosis is still mainly based on 2D imaging techniques. Three-dimensional tomographic imaging with whole-body PET or SPECT scanners, when used for imaging the breast, has performance limits in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity, which can be overcome only with a dedicated instrumentation. However, only few hybrid imaging systems for PET/CT or SPECT/CT dedicated to the breast have been developed in the last decade, providing complementary functional and anatomical information on normal breast tissue and lesions. These systems are still under development and clinical trials on just few patients have been reported; no commercial dedicated breast PET/CT or SPECT/CT is available. This paper reviews combined dedicated breast PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners described in the recent literature, with focus on their technological aspects.

  15. Brain scintigraphy (SPECT) using 201thallium in patients with primary tumors of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzen, G.; Schubert, C.; Richter, W.; Calder, D.; Eichstaedt, H.; Felix, R.; Baerwald, M.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the role of thallium 201 Single-Photon-Emission-Computed-Tomography (SPECT) in diagnosis, differential diagnosis and follow-up of 33 patients with primary brain tumors. 27 of 33 lesions were detectable by Tl-201-SPECT because only two of eight low-grade (grade 1 and 2) astrocytomas showed Tl-201 accumulation up to a tumor to nontumor ratio of 2.6. High grade (grade 3 and 4) astrocytomas showed Tl-201 accumulation in the range of 2.2 up to 13.0 and were different from low-grade astrocytomas. Noninvasive grading of astrocytomas is therefore possible, whereas differential diagnosis of oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas or meningeomas was not possible with Tl-201. In the follow-up of six patients, we could demonstrate, that tumor progression is correlated with increasing and tumor regression with decreasing Tl-201 accumulations. This functional changings proceed morphological findings in CT. But vanishing of Tl-201 accumulation during therapy does not mean vanishing of tumor as could be demonstrated by follow-up. (orig.) [de

  16. State-of-the-art of small animal imaging with high-resolution SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaus, S.; Wirrwar, A.; Antke, C.; Kley, K.; Mueller, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    During the recent years, in vivo imaging of small animals using SPECT has become of growing relevance. Along with the development of dedicated high-resolution small animal SPECT cameras, an increasing number of conventional clinical scanners has been equipped with single or multipinhole collimators. This paper reviews the small animal tomographs, which are operating at present and compares their performance characteristics. Furthermore, we describe the in vivo imaging studies, which have been performed so far with the individual scanners and survey current approaches to optimize molecular imaging with small animal SPECT. (orig.)

  17. Ideal flood field images for SPECT uniformity correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenheim, B.E.; Appledorn, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Since as little as 2.5% camera non-uniformity can cause disturbing artifacts in SPECT imaging, the ideal flood field images for uniformity correction would be made with the collimator in place using a perfectly uniform sheet source. While such a source is not realizable the equivalent images can be generated by mapping the activity distribution of a Co-57 sheet source and correcting subsequent images of the source with this mapping. Mapping is accomplished by analyzing equal-time images of the source made in multiple precisely determined positions. The ratio of counts detected in the same region of two images is a measure of the ratio of the activities of the two portions of the source imaged in that region. The activity distribution in the sheet source is determined from a set of such ratios. The more source positions imaged in a given time, the more accurate the source mapping, according to results of a computer simulation. A 1.9 mCi Co-57 sheet source was shifted by 12 mm increments along the horizontal and vertical axis of the camera face to 9 positions on each axis. The source was imaged for 20 min in each position and 214 million total counts were accumulated. The activity distribution of the source, relative to the center pixel, was determined for a 31 x 31 array. The integral uniformity was found to be 2.8%. The RMS error for such a mapping was determined by computer simulation to be 0.46%. The activity distribution was used to correct a high count flood field image for non-uniformities attributable to the Co-57 source. Such a corrected image represents camera plus collimator response to an almost perfectly uniform sheet source

  18. Onboard functional and molecular imaging: A design investigation for robotic multipinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, James; Giles, William; Yin, Fang-Fang; Yan, Susu; Roper, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Onboard imaging—currently performed primarily by x-ray transmission modalities—is essential in modern radiation therapy. As radiation therapy moves toward personalized medicine, molecular imaging, which views individual gene expression, may also be important onboard. Nuclear medicine methods, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), are premier modalities for molecular imaging. The purpose of this study is to investigate a robotic multipinhole approach to onboard SPECT. Methods: Computer-aided design (CAD) studies were performed to assess the feasibility of maneuvering a robotic SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. In order to obtain fast, high-quality SPECT images, a 49-pinhole SPECT camera was designed which provides high sensitivity to photons emitted from an imaging region of interest. This multipinhole system was investigated by computer-simulation studies. Seventeen hot spots 10 and 7 mm in diameter were placed in the breast region of a supine female phantom. Hot spot activity concentration was six times that of background. For the 49-pinhole camera and a reference, more conventional, broad field-of-view (FOV) SPECT system, projection data were computer simulated for 4-min scans and SPECT images were reconstructed. Hot-spot localization was evaluated using a nonprewhitening forced-choice numerical observer. Results: The CAD simulation studies found that robots could maneuver SPECT cameras about patients in position for radiation therapy. In the imaging studies, most hot spots were apparent in the 49-pinhole images. Average localization errors for 10-mm- and 7-mm-diameter hot spots were 0.4 and 1.7 mm, respectively, for the 49-pinhole system, and 3.1 and 5.7 mm, respectively, for the reference broad-FOV system. Conclusions: A robot could maneuver a multipinhole SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. The system could provide onboard functional and molecular imaging with 4-min

  19. Onboard functional and molecular imaging: A design investigation for robotic multipinhole SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowsher, James, E-mail: james.bowsher@duke.edu; Giles, William; Yin, Fang-Fang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Yan, Susu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Roper, Justin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Onboard imaging—currently performed primarily by x-ray transmission modalities—is essential in modern radiation therapy. As radiation therapy moves toward personalized medicine, molecular imaging, which views individual gene expression, may also be important onboard. Nuclear medicine methods, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), are premier modalities for molecular imaging. The purpose of this study is to investigate a robotic multipinhole approach to onboard SPECT. Methods: Computer-aided design (CAD) studies were performed to assess the feasibility of maneuvering a robotic SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. In order to obtain fast, high-quality SPECT images, a 49-pinhole SPECT camera was designed which provides high sensitivity to photons emitted from an imaging region of interest. This multipinhole system was investigated by computer-simulation studies. Seventeen hot spots 10 and 7 mm in diameter were placed in the breast region of a supine female phantom. Hot spot activity concentration was six times that of background. For the 49-pinhole camera and a reference, more conventional, broad field-of-view (FOV) SPECT system, projection data were computer simulated for 4-min scans and SPECT images were reconstructed. Hot-spot localization was evaluated using a nonprewhitening forced-choice numerical observer. Results: The CAD simulation studies found that robots could maneuver SPECT cameras about patients in position for radiation therapy. In the imaging studies, most hot spots were apparent in the 49-pinhole images. Average localization errors for 10-mm- and 7-mm-diameter hot spots were 0.4 and 1.7 mm, respectively, for the 49-pinhole system, and 3.1 and 5.7 mm, respectively, for the reference broad-FOV system. Conclusions: A robot could maneuver a multipinhole SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. The system could provide onboard functional and molecular imaging with 4-min

  20. Clinical applications of brain spect with N-isopropyl-123I-p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.; Sergent, A.; Raynaud, C.; Baron, J.C.; Samson, Y.; Lassen, N.; Bourdoiseau, M.

    1985-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl- 123 I-p-iodoamphetamine (IAMP-I-123) was used for 250 patients suffering from brain disorders, comprising brain tumours (36), normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) (23), cerebrovascular pathologies (127) and partial epilepsy (64). Brain tumours were found to be hypoactive, whatever the grade and nature. Frontal hypoactivity was found in NPH patients, and IAMP-I-123 perfusion was improved after cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) lumbar drainage, giving a good predictive criterion of clinical outcome after CSF diversion. For cerebrovascular disorders, it was possible to obtain with IAMP-I-123 SPECT larger pictures of hypoactive areas than the pictures of hypodense lesions obtained with X-ray CT scans; other hypoactive areas that could not be observed with CT were also delineated by IAMP-I-123 SPECT. The hypoactive areas found in constituted infarctions can present two types of kinetics - those which are 'persistent' (still present on delayed scans performed 5 h after IAMP-I-123 injection) and those which disappear with time, thereby suggesting hypofunctional parenchyma without tissue impairment. IAMP-I-123 SPECT was proved to be useful in assessing ischaemia, especially in reversible ischaemia patients, by defining the affected arterial territory and guiding complementary arteriographic exploration in view of surgical procedures. IAMP-I-123 SPECT was able to accurately delineate the affected parenchymal areas. It could also be of help in the follow-up of the efficiency of drug therapy and surgery, and it can be regarded as a good predictive criterion for stroke rehabilitation. The results obtained with IAMP-I-123 indicate that the lesional and epileptogenic areas in epileptic patients are hypoactive. The localization of these territories by IAMP-I-123 SPECT correlates well with other, more accurate, neuroradiological and stereotactic techniques. (author)

  1. SPECT imaging of dopaminergic system: a preliminary study of nine patients with clinically uncertain Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, S. K.; Gopinath, G.; Buscombe, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    Parkinsonism is the result of various neuro degenerative disorders, the common and related causes are Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). In each of these three causes, there is degeneration of presynaptic neurons in corpus striatum. Nine patients having clinically uncertain parkinsonian symptoms undergone brain SPECT imaging using the tracer (I-123 Ioflupane) that binds to dopamine transporter (DaT) in the pre-synaptic nerve terminals in basal ganglia. There was significantly decreased tracer uptake in the tail (putamen) portion of basal ganglia in five patients confirming presence of presynaptic neuro degeneration and reported as parkinsonism. Three patients revealed normal tracer uptake with one equivocal result. DaT imaging can effectively confirm parkinsonism and discriminate from normal subjects as well as other clinical simulators like essential tremor and dopa-responsive dystonia where no neuro degeneration occur.(author)

  2. Brain SPECT in the pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchpiguel, C.A.; Cukiert, A.; Hironaka, F.H.; Cerri, G.G.; Magalhaes, A.E.A.; Marino Junior, R.

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen adult epileptic patients were studied pre-operatively using a rotational scintillation camera interfaced to a dedicated computer. The tomographic images were obtained 15 minutes after intravenous injection of 99 m Tc-HMPAO. All had MRI scanning and intensive EEG monitoring which generally included seizure recording. Five patients had progressive lesions (3 meningiomas, 2 astrocytomas). In 10 patients, neuroradiological studies did not show the presence of progressive lesions (2 normal scans and 8 cases with inactive lesions). Two patients with meningioma showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site while the third patient had a marked hypoperfusion which might correlate with the clinical diagnosis of epilepsia partialis continua. In the astrocytoma patients SPECT scans showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site. Data obtained from the 10 patients without progressive CNS lesions showed: in 4, SPECT findings correlated well with the anatomical findings; in 5 instances, SPECT was able to disclose additional functional deficits; in one case, there was no SPECT correlate of a discrete anatomical lesion. In 5 of these cases with no progressive lesions (n=10) SPECT findings were useful as a complementary tool in determining the clinical or surgical management of these patients. Despite the small number and heterogeneity of the present sample, SPECT seems to be an useful tool as part of the clinical workup of epileptic who are candidates for epilepsy surgery. (author)

  3. A combined static-dynamic single-dose imaging protocol to compare quantitative dynamic SPECT with static conventional SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Maria; Shrestha, Uttam M; Seo, Youngho; Gullberg, Grant T; Botvinick, Elias H

    2017-08-03

    SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a clinical mainstay that is typically performed with static imaging protocols and visually or semi-quantitatively assessed for perfusion defects based upon the relative intensity of myocardial regions. Dynamic cardiac SPECT presents a new imaging technique based on time-varying information of radiotracer distribution, which permits the evaluation of regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR). In this work, a preliminary feasibility study was conducted in a small patient sample designed to implement a unique combined static-dynamic single-dose one-day visit imaging protocol to compare quantitative dynamic SPECT with static conventional SPECT for improving the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifteen patients (11 males, four females, mean age 71 ± 9 years) were enrolled for a combined dynamic and static SPECT (Infinia Hawkeye 4, GE Healthcare) imaging protocol with a single dose of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin administered at rest and a single dose adminis