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Sample records for brain spect analysis

  1. Brain SPECT. SPECT in der Gehirndiagnostik

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    Feistel, H. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik)

    1991-12-01

    Brain SPECT investigations have gained broad acceptance since the introduction of the lipophilic tracer Tc-99m-HMPAO. Depending on equipment and objectives in different departments, the examinations can be divided into three groups: 1. Under normal conditions and standardised patient preparation the 'rest' SPECT can be performed in every department with a tomographic camera. In cerebrovascular disease there is a demand for determination of either the perfusion reserve in reversible ischemia or prognostic values in completed stroke. In cases of dementia, SPECT may yield useful results according to differential diagnosis. Central cerebral system involvement in immunologic disease may be estimated with higher sensitivity than in conventional brain imaging procedures. In psychiatric diseases there is only a relative indication for brain SPECT, since results during recent years have been contradictory and may be derived only in interventional manner. In brain tumor diagnostics SPECT with Tl-201 possibly permits grading. In inflammatory disease, especially in viral encephalitis, SPECT may be used to obtain early diagnosis. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can be distinguished from other forms of dementia and, consequently, the necessity for shunting surgery can be recognised. 2. In departments equipped for emergency cases an 'acute' SPECT can be performed in illnesses with rapid changing symptoms such as different forms of migraine, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures (so-called 'ictal SPECT') or urgent forms like trauma. 3. In cooperation with several departments brain SPECT can be practised as an interventional procedure in clinical and in scientific studies. (orig./MG).

  2. Quantitative analysis of L-SPECT system for small animal brain imaging

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    Rahman, Tasneem; Tahtali, Murat; Pickering, Mark R.

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to investigate the performance of a newly proposed L-SPECT system for small animal brain imaging. The L-SPECT system consists of an array of 100 × 100 micro range diameter pinholes. The proposed detector module has a 48 mm by 48 mm active area and the system is based on a pixelated array of NaI crystals (10×10×10 mm elements) coupled with an array of position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs). The performance of this system was evaluated with pinhole radii of 50 μm, 60 μm and 100 μm. Monte Carlo simulation studies using the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) software package validate the performance of this novel dual head L-SPECT system where a geometric mouse phantom is used to investigate its performance. All SPECT data were obtained using 120 projection views from 0° to 360° with a 3° step. Slices were reconstructed using conventional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. We have evaluated the quality of the images in terms of spatial resolution (FWHM) based on line spread function, the system sensitivity, the point source response function and the image quality. The sensitivity of our newly proposed L- SPECT system was about 4500 cps/μCi at 6 cm along with excellent full width at half-maximum (FWHM) using 50 μm pinhole aperture at several radii of rotation. The analysis results show the combination of excellent spatial resolution and high detection efficiency over an energy range between 20-160 keV. The results demonstrate that SPECT imaging using a pixelated L-SPECT detector module is applicable in a quantitative study of mouse brain imaging.

  3. Voxel-by-voxel analysis of brain SPECT perfusion in Fibromyalgia

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    Guedj, Eric [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France)]. E-mail: eric.guedj@ap-hm.fr; Taieb, David [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France); Cammilleri, Serge [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France); Lussato, David [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France); Laforte, Catherine de [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France); Niboyet, Jean [Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Clinique La Phoceanne, Marseille (France); Mundler, Olivier [Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France)

    2007-02-01

    We evaluated brain perfusion SPECT at rest, without noxious stiumuli, in a homogeneous group of hyperalgesic FM patients. We performed a voxel-based analysis in comparison to a control group, matched for age and gender. Under such conditions, we made the assumption that significant cerebral perfusion abnormalities could be demonstrated, evidencing altered cerebral processing associated with spontaneous pain in FM patients. The secondary objective was to study the reversibility and the prognostic value of such possible perfusion abnormalities under specific treatment. Eighteen hyperalgesic FM women (mean age 48 yr; range 25-63 yr; ACR criteria) and 10 healthy women matched for age were enrolled in the study. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2 (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). All brain SPECT were performed before any change was made in therapy in the pain care unit. A second SPECT was performed a month later after specific treatment by Ketamine. Compared to control subjects, we observed individual brain SPECT abnormalities in FM patients, confirmed by SPM2 analysis with hyperperfusion of the somatosensory cortex and hypoperfusion of the frontal, cingulate, medial temporal and cerebellar cortices. We also found that a medial frontal and anterior cingulate hypoperfusions were highly predictive (PPV=83%; NPV=91%) of non-response on Ketamine, and that only responders showed significant modification of brain perfusion, after treatment. In the present study performed without noxious stimuli in hyperalgesic FM patients, we found significant hyperperfusion in regions of the brain known to be involved in sensory dimension of pain processing and significant hypoperfusion in areas assumed to be associated with the affective dimension. As current pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies act differently on both components of pain, we hypothesize that SPECT could be a valuable and readily available tool to guide individual therapeutic

  4. Voxel-by-voxel analysis of brain SPECT perfusion in Fibromyalgia

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    Guedj, Eric; Taïeb, David; Cammilleri, Serge; Lussato, David; de Laforte, Catherine; Niboyet, Jean; Mundler, Olivier

    2007-02-01

    We evaluated brain perfusion SPECT at rest, without noxious stiumuli, in a homogeneous group of hyperalgesic FM patients. We performed a voxel-based analysis in comparison to a control group, matched for age and gender. Under such conditions, we made the assumption that significant cerebral perfusion abnormalities could be demonstrated, evidencing altered cerebral processing associated with spontaneous pain in FM patients. The secondary objective was to study the reversibility and the prognostic value of such possible perfusion abnormalities under specific treatment. Eighteen hyperalgesic FM women (mean age 48 yr; range 25-63 yr; ACR criteria) and 10 healthy women matched for age were enrolled in the study. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2 ( ppain care unit. A second SPECT was performed a month later after specific treatment by Ketamine. Compared to control subjects, we observed individual brain SPECT abnormalities in FM patients, confirmed by SPM2 analysis with hyperperfusion of the somatosensory cortex and hypoperfusion of the frontal, cingulate, medial temporal and cerebellar cortices. We also found that a medial frontal and anterior cingulate hypoperfusions were highly predictive (PPV=83%; NPV=91%) of non-response on Ketamine, and that only responders showed significant modification of brain perfusion, after treatment. In the present study performed without noxious stimuli in hyperalgesic FM patients, we found significant hyperperfusion in regions of the brain known to be involved in sensory dimension of pain processing and significant hypoperfusion in areas assumed to be associated with the affective dimension. As current pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies act differently on both components of pain, we hypothesize that SPECT could be a valuable and readily available tool to guide individual therapeutic strategy and provide objective follow-up of pain-processing recovery under treatment.

  5. Simulation of realistic abnormal SPECT brain perfusion images: application in semi-quantitative analysis

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    Ward, T [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Southampton University Hospitals Trust, Southampton, Hampshire, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom); Fleming, J S [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Southampton University Hospitals Trust, Southampton, Hampshire, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom); Hoffmann, S M A [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Southampton University Hospitals Trust, Southampton, Hampshire, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom); Kemp, P M [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Southampton University Hospitals Trust, Southampton, Hampshire, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-21

    Simulation is useful in the validation of functional image analysis methods, particularly when considering the number of analysis techniques currently available lacking thorough validation. Problems exist with current simulation methods due to long run times or unrealistic results making it problematic to generate complete datasets. A method is presented for simulating known abnormalities within normal brain SPECT images using a measured point spread function (PSF), and incorporating a stereotactic atlas of the brain for anatomical positioning. This allows for the simulation of realistic images through the use of prior information regarding disease progression. SPECT images of cerebral perfusion have been generated consisting of a control database and a group of simulated abnormal subjects that are to be used in a UK audit of analysis methods. The abnormality is defined in the stereotactic space, then transformed to the individual subject space, convolved with a measured PSF and removed from the normal subject image. The dataset was analysed using SPM99 (Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College, London) and the MarsBaR volume of interest (VOI) analysis toolbox. The results were evaluated by comparison with the known ground truth. The analysis showed improvement when using a smoothing kernel equal to system resolution over the slightly larger kernel used routinely. Significant correlation was found between effective volume of a simulated abnormality and the detected size using SPM99. Improvements in VOI analysis sensitivity were found when using the region median over the region mean. The method and dataset provide an efficient methodology for use in the comparison and cross validation of semi-quantitative analysis methods in brain SPECT, and allow the optimization of analysis parameters.

  6. Simulation of realistic abnormal SPECT brain perfusion images: application in semi-quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, T.; Fleming, J. S.; Hoffmann, S. M. A.; Kemp, P. M.

    2005-11-01

    Simulation is useful in the validation of functional image analysis methods, particularly when considering the number of analysis techniques currently available lacking thorough validation. Problems exist with current simulation methods due to long run times or unrealistic results making it problematic to generate complete datasets. A method is presented for simulating known abnormalities within normal brain SPECT images using a measured point spread function (PSF), and incorporating a stereotactic atlas of the brain for anatomical positioning. This allows for the simulation of realistic images through the use of prior information regarding disease progression. SPECT images of cerebral perfusion have been generated consisting of a control database and a group of simulated abnormal subjects that are to be used in a UK audit of analysis methods. The abnormality is defined in the stereotactic space, then transformed to the individual subject space, convolved with a measured PSF and removed from the normal subject image. The dataset was analysed using SPM99 (Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College, London) and the MarsBaR volume of interest (VOI) analysis toolbox. The results were evaluated by comparison with the known ground truth. The analysis showed improvement when using a smoothing kernel equal to system resolution over the slightly larger kernel used routinely. Significant correlation was found between effective volume of a simulated abnormality and the detected size using SPM99. Improvements in VOI analysis sensitivity were found when using the region median over the region mean. The method and dataset provide an efficient methodology for use in the comparison and cross validation of semi-quantitative analysis methods in brain SPECT, and allow the optimization of analysis parameters.

  7. Three modality image registration of brain SPECT/CT and MR images for quantitative analysis of dopamine transporter imaging

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    Yamaguchi, Yuzuho; Takeda, Yuta; Hara, Takeshi; Zhou, Xiangrong; Matsusako, Masaki; Tanaka, Yuki; Hosoya, Kazuhiko; Nihei, Tsutomu; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Important features in Parkinson's disease (PD) are degenerations and losses of dopamine neurons in corpus striatum. 123I-FP-CIT can visualize activities of the dopamine neurons. The activity radio of background to corpus striatum is used for diagnosis of PD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The specific activity can be observed in the corpus striatum on SPECT images, but the location and the shape of the corpus striatum on SPECT images only are often lost because of the low uptake. In contrast, MR images can visualize the locations of the corpus striatum. The purpose of this study was to realize a quantitative image analysis for the SPECT images by using image registration technique with brain MR images that can determine the region of corpus striatum. In this study, the image fusion technique was used to fuse SPECT and MR images by intervening CT image taken by SPECT/CT. The mutual information (MI) for image registration between CT and MR images was used for the registration. Six SPECT/CT and four MR scans of phantom materials are taken by changing the direction. As the results of the image registrations, 16 of 24 combinations were registered within 1.3mm. By applying the approach to 32 clinical SPECT/CT and MR cases, all of the cases were registered within 0.86mm. In conclusions, our registration method has a potential in superimposing MR images on SPECT images.

  8. Brain SPECT in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison between visual analysis and SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping)

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    Amorim, Barbara Juarez; Ramos, Celso Dario; Santos, Allan Oliveira dos; Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes de; Camargo, Edwaldo Eduardo; Etchebehere, Elba Cristina Sa de Camargo, E-mail: juarezbarbara@hotmail.co [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Radiology; Min, Li Li; Cendes, Fernando [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Neurology

    2010-04-15

    Objective: to compare the accuracy of SPM and visual analysis of brain SPECT in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Method: interictal and ictal SPECTs of 22 patients with MTLE were performed. Visual analysis were performed in interictal (VISUAL(inter)) and ictal (VISUAL(ictal/inter)) studies. SPM analysis consisted of comparing interictal (SPM(inter)) and ictal SPECTs (SPM(ictal)) of each patient to control group and by comparing perfusion of temporal lobes in ictal and interictal studies among themselves (SPM(ictal/inter)). Results: for detection of the epileptogenic focus, the sensitivities were as follows: VISUAL(inter)=68%; VISUAL(ictal/inter)=100%; SPM(inter)=45%; SPM(ictal)=64% and SPM(ictal/inter)=77%. SPM was able to detect more areas of hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion. Conclusion: SPM did not improve the sensitivity to detect epileptogenic focus. However, SPM detected different regions of hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion and is therefore a helpful tool for better understand pathophysiology of seizures in MTLE. (author)

  9. Functional improvement after carotid endarterectomy: demonstrated by gait analysis and acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT

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    Kim, J. S.; Kim, G. E.; Yoo, J. Y.; Kim, D. G.; Moon, D. H. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Scientific documentation of neurologic improvement following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has not been established. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate whether CEA performed for the internal carotid artery flow lesion improves gait and cerebrovascular hemodynamic status in patients with gait disturbance. We prospectively performed pre- and postCEA gait analysis and acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT (Acz-SPECT) with Tc-99m ECD in 91 patients (M/F: 81/10, mean age: 64.1 y) who had gait disturbance before receiving CEA. Gait performance was assessed using a Vicon 370 motion analyzer. The gait improvement after CEA was correlated to cerebrovascular hemodynamic change as well as symptom duration. 12 hemiparetic stroke patients (M/F=9/3, mean age: 51 y) who did not receive CEA as a control underwent gait analysis twice in a week interval to evaluate whether repeat testing of gait performance shows learning effect. Of 91 patients, 73 (80%) patients showed gait improvement (change of gait speed > 10%) and 42 (46%) showed marked improvement (change of gait speed > 20%), but no improvement was observed in control group at repeat test. Post-operative cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement was noted in 49 (54%) of 91 patients. There was marked gait improvement in patients group with cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement compared to no change group (p<0.05). Marked gait improvement and cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement were noted in 53% and 61% of the patient who had less than 3 month history of symptom compared to 31% and 24% of the patients who had longer than 3 months, respectively (p<0.05). Marked gait improvement was obtained in patients who had improvement of cerebrovascular hemodynamic status on Acz-SPECT after CEA. These results suggest functional improvement such as gait can result from the improved perfusion of misery perfusion area, which is viable for a longer period compared to literatures previously reported.

  10. A Computer-Aided Analysis Method of SPECT Brain Images for Quantitative Treatment Monitoring: Performance Evaluations and Clinical Applications

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    Wei, Wentao; Huang, Qiu; Wan, Jieqing; Huang, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The objective and quantitative analysis of longitudinal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images are significant for the treatment monitoring of brain disorders. Therefore, a computer aided analysis (CAA) method is introduced to extract a change-rate map (CRM) as a parametric image for quantifying the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in longitudinal SPECT brain images. The performances of the CAA-CRM approach in treatment monitoring are evaluated by the computer simulations and clinical applications. The results of computer simulations show that the derived CRMs have high similarities with their ground truths when the lesion size is larger than system spatial resolution and the change rate is higher than 20%. In clinical applications, the CAA-CRM approach is used to assess the treatment of 50 patients with brain ischemia. The results demonstrate that CAA-CRM approach has a 93.4% accuracy of recovered region's localization. Moreover, the quantitative indexes of recovered regions derived from CRM are all significantly different among the groups and highly correlated with the experienced clinical diagnosis. In conclusion, the proposed CAA-CRM approach provides a convenient solution to generate a parametric image and derive the quantitative indexes from the longitudinal SPECT brain images for treatment monitoring. PMID:28251150

  11. Correlation with neuropsychological assessment and SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy

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    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a degenerative condition of unknown aetiology that produces an akinetic-rigid form of parkinsonism characterised by early falls, dementia and abnormalities of extraocular movements. The patterns of decreased regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive impairment in PSP compared with normal control have been insufficiently investigated and a limited number of studies have been performed. We evaluated clinical symptoms, functional neuroimaging study using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and neuropsychological profiles in patients with PSP. Eleven patients with PSP diagnosed by the clinical criteria of National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Society for PSP (NINDS-SPSP) (mean age: 70.5{+-}5.6 years, educational period: 4.5{+-}4.7 years) and age-matched 10 healthy control subjects (mean age: 68.1{+-}4.5 years, educational period: 6.5{+-}4.1 years) participated in this study were participated. All patients were given a neurologic examination, brain MRI and cerebral perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO. We concomittently evaluated several cognitive profiles using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left caudate nucleus, left middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus in the patients with PSP compared with age-matched healthy control (uncorrected p<0.01). On neuropsychological assessment, cognitive deficits on verbal and visual memory, word fluency and frontal executive functions were prominent in most patients with PSP compared with healthy control subjects. Our findings suggest that measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by perfusion SPECT and voxel-based SPM analysis with neuropsychological assessment are useful to understanding the correlation between perfusion deficits and abnormal cognitive profiles in patients with PSP.

  12. Compartment analysis of {sup 123}I-iomazenil brain SPECT in patients with moyamoya disease

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    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Shoki; Yamada, Shogo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Maruoka, Shin; Abe, Yoetsu

    1999-12-01

    We investigated 11 patients with moyamoya disease about {sup 123}I-Iomazenil kinetics in the brain using three-compartment, two-parameter model. The transition rate constant (K1) from the blood to the brain and the binding potential (BP) of the benzodiazepine to the receptors were calculated for every ROI (right and left side of cerebellum, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe and temporal lobe; 10 ROIs a case). The K1 value correlated with BP value significantly, but not so closely (r=0.639). And there is no significant difference in BP valued among low-K1 group (mean (of K1)-S.D.{<=}K1{<=}mean) and high-K1 group (meanSPECT presents an important information about the viability of the hypoperfused area in moyamoya disease patients' brain. (author)

  13. Voxel-based analysis of Tc-99 m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

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    Yoon, Bora [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong-Won [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: neuroman@catholic.ac.kr; Shim, Yong-Soo; Chung, Sung-Woo [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kook-Jin; O, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sohn, Hyung-Sun; Chung, Soo-Kyo [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong-An [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); East-West Research Institute of Translational Medicine (EWTM), Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Incheon 403-720 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: nm@catholic.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a reversible dementia characterized by gait disturbance, incontinence and dementia. This study investigates the neuropsychological characteristics and changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with iNPH. Ten patients who met the criteria of probable iNPH and 13 normal control subjects were evaluated. The general cognitive function and detailed neuropsychological functions were measured by K-MMSE and comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (Tc-99m-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed to measure the rCBF and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and statistical probabilistic brain anatomic map (SPAM) was applied to the objective analysis of SPECT data. On the neuropsychological examination, all the patients showed abnormality in memory, psychomotor speed and frontal executive function. SPM analysis of SPECT images revealed that rCBF in bilateral thalami, right prefrontal area, bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, right caudate nucleus, and left parahippocampal gyrus was significantly decreased in patients with iNPH compared to normal controls (uncorrected P<0.005). In SPAM analysis, rCBF reduction was observed in bilateral prefrontal area, anterior, posterior cingulate gyri and caudate nuclei. We have found that rCBF changes occurred predominantly in prefrontal and subcortical areas, the changes were associated with frontal subcortical circuit, and the affected frontal subcortical circuit may contribute to the cognitive decline seen in the iNPH patients. The reduction of rCBF and clinical cognitive impairment are closely connected in patients with iNPH.

  14. Brain SPECT analysis using statistical parametric mapping in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder

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    Kim, Euy Neyng; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; Yang, Dong Won [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    This study investigated alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). Noninvasive rCBF measurements using {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed on 23 patients with PTSD and 21 age matched normal controls without re-exposure to accident-related stimuli. The relative rCBF maps in patients with PTSD and controls were compared. In patients with PTSD, significant increased rCBF was found along the limbic system in the brain. There were a few foci of decreased rCBF in the superior frontal gyrus, parietal and temporal region. PTSD is associated with increased rCBF in limbic areas compared with age-matched normal controls. These findings implicate regions of the limbic brain, which may mediate the response to aversive stimuli in healthy individuals, play on important role in patients suffering from PTSD and suggest that ongoing hyperfunction of 'overlearned survival response' or flashbacks response in these regions after painful, life threatening, or horrifying events without re-exposure to same traumatic stimulus.

  15. Brain SPECT imaging in Sydenham's chorea

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    Barsottini O.G.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine whether brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging is capable of detecting perfusional abnormalities. Ten Sydenham's chorea (SC patients, eight females and two males, 8 to 25 years of age (mean 13.4, with a clinical diagnosis of SC were submitted to brain SPECT imaging. We used HMPAO labeled with technetium-99m at a dose of 740 MBq. Six examinations revealed hyperperfusion of the basal ganglia, while the remaining four were normal. The six patients with abnormal results were females and their data were not correlated with severity of symptoms. Patients with abnormal brain SPECT had a more recent onset of symptoms (mean of 49 days compared to those with normal SPECT (mean of 85 days but this difference did not reach statistical significance. Brain SPECT can be a helpful method to determine abnormalities of the basal ganglia in SC patients but further studies on a larger number of patients are needed in order to detect the phase of the disease during which the examination is more sensitive.

  16. NeuroGam Software Analysis in Epilepsy Diagnosis Using 99mTc-ECD Brain Perfusion SPECT Imaging.

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    Fu, Peng; Zhang, Fang; Gao, Jianqing; Jing, Jianmin; Pan, Liping; Li, Dongxue; Wei, Lingge

    2015-09-20

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore the value of NeuroGam software in diagnosis of epilepsy by 99Tcm-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS NeuroGam was used to analyze 52 cases of clinically proven epilepsy by 99Tcm-ECD brain imaging. The results were compared with EEG and MRI, and the positive rates and localization to epileptic foci were analyzed. RESULTS NeuroGam analysis showed that 42 of 52 epilepsy cases were abnormal. 99Tcm-ECD brain imaging revealed a positive rate of 80.8% (42/52), with 36 out of 42 patients (85.7%) clearly showing an abnormal area. Both were higher than that of brain perfusion SPECT, with a consistency of 64.5% (34/52) using these 2 methods. Decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was observed in frontal (18), temporal (20), and parietal lobes (2). Decreased rCBF was seen in frontal and temporal lobes in 4 out of 36 patients, and in temporal and parietal lobes of 2 out of 36 patients. NeuroGam further showed that the abnormal area was located in a different functional area of the brain. EEG abnormalities were detected in 29 out of 52 patients (55.8%) with 16 cases (55.2%) clearly showing an abnormal area. MRI abnormalities were detected in 17 out of 43 cases (39.5%), including 9 cases (52.9%) clearly showing an abnormal area. The consistency of NeuroGam software analysis, and EEG and MRI were 48.1% (25/52) and 34.9% (15/43), respectively. CONCLUSIONS NeuroGam software analysis offers a higher sensitivity in detecting epilepsy than EEG or MRI. It is a powerful tool in 99Tcm-ECD brain imaging.

  17. Brain pertechnetate SPECT in perinatal asphyxia

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    Sfakianakis, G.; Curless, R.; Goldberg, R.; Clarke, L.; Saw, C.; Sfakianakis, E.; Bloom, F.; Bauer, C.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography of the brain was performed in 6 patients with perinatal asphyxis aged 8-26 days. A single-head (LFOV) commercial SPECT system (Picker) was used and data were acquired 2-3 hr after an IV injection of 1-2 mCi Tc-99m-pertechnetate (360/sup 0/ rotation, 60 views, 64 x 64 matrix, 50K cts/view). Reconstruction in three planes was performed using MDS software (Hanning medium resolution filter, with or without attenuation correction using Sorenson's technique). For each clinical study, a ring type phantom source was used to identify the level of reconstruction noise in the tomographic planes. Abnormalities were found in all patients studied, 3 central (moderate intensity), 2 peripheral (1 severe, 1 moderate) and 1 diffuse (mild intensity). Despite use of oral perchlorate (50 mg) in one patient the choroid plexus was visible. Since attenuation correction tended to amplify noise, the clinical studies were interpreted both with and without this correction. All 3 patients with central lesions were found abnormal on early (1-4 mo) neurologic follow-up examination, whereas the others were normal. No correlation was found between SPECT and 24 hr blood levels of CPK, ammonia, base excess, or the Apgar scores. Ct scans were reported abnormal (3 diffuse, 1 peripheral, 1 central and 1 questionable). Planar scintigrams obtained immediately after SPECT were normal (2), questionable (2) and abnormal (2). Follow-up SPECT brain scintigrams in two of the patients showed partial resolution. SPECT of the brain appears promising in perinatal asphyxia but long-term correlation with patient development is necessary.

  18. Visual and SPM Analysis of Brain Perfusion SPECT in Patients of Dementia with Lewy Bodies with Clinical Correlation

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    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [College of Medicine, Univ. of Donga, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is widely recognized as the second commonest form of degenerative dementia. Its core clinical features include persistent visual hallucinosis, fluctuating cognitive impairment and parkinsonism. We evaluated the brain perfusion of dementia with Lewy bodies by SPM analysis and correlated the findings with clinical symptom. Twelve DLB patients (mean age ; 68.88.3 yrs, K-MMSE ; 17.36) and 30 control subjects (mean age ; 60.17.7 yrs) were included. Control subjects were selected by 28 items of exclusion criteria and checked by brain CT or MRI except 3 subjects. Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT was performed and the image data were analyzed by visual interpretation and SPM99 as routine protocol. In visual analysis, 7 patients showed hypoperfusion in both frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe, 2 patients in both frontal, temporal and parietal lobe, 2 patients in both temporal, parietal and occipital lobe, 1 patients in left temporal, parietal and occipital lobe. In SPM analysis (uncorrected p<0.01), significant hypoperfusion was shown in Lt inf. frontal gyrus (B no.47), both inf. parietal lobule (Rt B no.40), Rt parietal lobe (precuneus), both sup. temporal gyrus (Rt B no.42), Rt mid temporal gyrus, Lt transverse temporal gyrus (B no.41), both para hippocampal gyrus, Rt thalamus (pulvinar), both cingulate gyrus (Lt B no.24, Lt B no.25, Rt B no.23, Rt B no.24, Rt B no.33), Rt caudate body, both occipital lobe (cuneus, Lt B no.17, Rt B no.18). All patients had fluctuating cognition and parkinsonism, and 9 patients had visual hallucination. The result of SPM analysis was well correlated with visual interpretation and may be helpful to specify location to correlate with clinical symptom. Significant perfusion deficits in occipital region including visual cortex and visual association area are characteristic findings in DLB. Abnormalities in these areas may be important in understanding symptoms of visual hallucination and

  19. Cortical region of interest definition on SPECT brain images using X-ray CT registration

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    Tzourio, N.; Sutton, D. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot); Joliot, M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot INSERM, Orsay (France)); Mazoyer, B.M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot Antenne d' Information Medicale, C.H.U. Bichat, Paris (France)); Charlot, V. (Hopital Louis Mourier, Colombes (France). Service de Psychiatrie); Salamon, G. (CHU La Timone, Marseille (France). Service de Neuroradiologie)

    1992-11-01

    We present a method for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) analysis based on individual registration of anatomical (CT) and functional ([sup 133]Xe regional cerebral blood flow) images and on the definition of three-dimensional functional regions of interest. Registration of CT and SPECT is performed through adjustment of CT-defined cortex limits to the SPECT image. Regions are defined by sectioning a cortical ribbon on the CT images, copied over the SPECT images and pooled through slices to give 3D cortical regions of interest. The proposed method shows good intra- and interobserver reproducibility (regional intraclass correlation coefficient [approx equal]0.98), and good accuracy in terms of repositioning ([approx equal]3.5 mm) as compared to the SPECT image resolution (14 mm). The method should be particularly useful for analysing SPECT studies when variations in brain anatomy (normal or abnormal) must be accounted for. (orig.).

  20. A voxel-based analysis of cerebral perfusion with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Tae Joo; Lee, Jong Doo; Kim, Hee Joung; Chang, Jin Woo; Kim, Chan Hyung; Lee, Hong Shick; Min, Sung Kil; Chung, Sang Sup [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    Many neuroimaging studies, especially metabolic imaging with PET, showed a specific frontal-subcortical brain circuit connecting the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate gyrus, elements of basal ganglia and thalamus is involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite consistent metabolic alteration on PET, blood flow studies with SPECT were inconsistent and various cortical and subcortical structures showed abnormal perfusion patterns. In this study, brain SPECT images of seven patients with OCD were evaluated with a sophisticated method of statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Seven patients with severe, primary OCD (6 males and 1 female) with mean age of 25.4 4.7 yrs (20-32 yrs) were studied. The SPECT data of the patients were compared with those of healthy subjects and patients with drug nave schizophrenia using SPM. The SPM parameters were p value of 0.001 with Z value of 3.09 (higher threshold ) or p value of 0.005 with Z value 2.58 (lower threshold). On a higher threshold (p<0.01),five of the seven patients showed hyperperfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex, however, hyperperfusion within OFC or caudate nucleus was seen in only one patient. On a lower threshold (p<0.005), hyperperfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex was seen in all patients, and followed by thalamus (n=5), lentiform nucleus (n=4), caudate nucleus (n=3), and OFC (n=3). Perfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex was also increased in OCD compared with drug nave schizophrenia. Anterior cingulate cortex appears to be an important anatomical structure in the pathogenesis of OCD symptoms. Brain SPECT using a sophisticated analysis method of SPM is useful for the diagnosis of OCD and differentiation from schizophrenia.

  1. The need of appropriate brain SPECT templates for SPM comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbelli, S.; Altrinetti, V.; Piccardo, A. [S Martino Univ Hosp, Nucl MedUnit DIMI, I-16132 Genoa (Italy); Rodriguez, G.; Brugnolo, A.; Nobili, F. [S Martino Univ Hosp, Clin Neurophysiol Unit DiSEM, DiTeC, I-16132 Genoa (Italy); Mignone, A. [Osped Riuniti Bergamo, Nucl Med Unit, I-24100 Bergamo (Italy); Pupi, A. [Univ Florence, Nucl Med Unit DFP, Florence (Italy); Koulibaly, P.M. [CEA-Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, TIRO, Dept Nucl Med, Ctr Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France)

    2008-07-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is used worldwide to compare brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. The default template within the SPM package used for SPECT image normalization includes images of a group of healthy subjects studied with {sup 99m}TcHMPAO. Since [{sup 99m}Tc] HMPAO and [{sup 99m}Tc] ECD have shown to distribute differently in SPECT studies, we formulated the hypothesis that comparing set of [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD data normalized by means of a [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO template may lead to incorrect results. A customized [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD template was built with SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of 22 neurologically healthy women. Then, two sets of subjects, i.e. a group of patients with very early Alzheimer's disease (eAD) and a matched control group, studied by means of [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT, were chosen for comparisons. The same statistical approach (t-test between eAD patients and controls and correlation analysis between brain SPECT and a cognitive score) was applied twice, i.e. after normalization with either the default [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO template or the customized [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD template. In the comparison between eAD and controls, a cluster of difference in the posterior-cingulate gyrus of both hemispheres was only highlighted when using the customized [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD template, but was missed when using the default [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO template. In the correlation between brain perfusion and a cognitive score, the significant cluster was more significant and far more extended, also including the right superior temporal gyrus, using the customized [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD template than using the default [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO template. These data suggest the need of customized, radiopharmaceutical-matched SPECT templates to be used within the SPM package. The present customized [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD template is now freely available on the web. (authors)

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of Parkinson disease by support vector machine (SVM) analysis of 123I-FP-CIT brain SPECT data: implications of putaminal findings and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Barbara; Fravolini, Mario Luca; Buresta, Tommaso; Pompili, Filippo; Forini, Nevio; Nigro, Pasquale; Calabresi, Paolo; Tambasco, Nicola

    2014-12-01

    Brain single-photon-emission-computerized tomography (SPECT) with I-ioflupane (I-FP-CIT) is useful to diagnose Parkinson disease (PD). To investigate the diagnostic performance of I-FP-CIT brain SPECT with semiquantitative analysis by Basal Ganglia V2 software (BasGan), we evaluated semiquantitative data of patients with suspect of PD by a support vector machine classifier (SVM), a powerful supervised classification algorithm.I-FP-CIT SPECT with BasGan analysis was performed in 90 patients with suspect of PD showing mild symptoms (bradykinesia-rigidity and mild tremor). PD was confirmed in 56 patients, 34 resulted non-PD (essential tremor and drug-induced Parkinsonism). A clinical follow-up of at least 6 months confirmed diagnosis. To investigate BasGan diagnostic performance we trained SVM classification models featuring different descriptors using both a "leave-one-out" and a "five-fold" method. In the first study we used as class descriptors the semiquantitative radiopharmaceutical uptake values in the left (L) and right (R) putamen (P) and in the L and R caudate nucleus (C) for a total of 4 descriptors (CL, CR, PL, PR). In the second study each patient was described only by CL and CR, while in the third by PL and PR descriptors. Age was added as a further descriptor to evaluate its influence in the classification performance.I-FP-CIT SPECT with BasGan analysis reached a classification performance higher than 73.9% in all the models. Considering the "Leave-one-out" method, PL and PR were better predictors (accuracy of 91% for all patients) than CL and CR descriptors; using PL, PR, CL, and CR diagnostic accuracy was similar to that of PL and PR descriptors in the different groups. Adding age as a further descriptor accuracy improved in all the models. The best results were obtained by using all the 5 descriptors both in PD and non-PD subjects (CR and CL + PR and PL + age = 96.4% and 94.1%, respectively). Similar results were observed for the "five

  3. Comparison of heterogeneity quantification algorithms for brain SPECT perfusion images

    OpenAIRE

    Modzelewski, Romain; Janvresse, Elise; De La Rue, Thierry; Vera, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background Several algorithms from the literature were compared with the original random walk (RW) algorithm for brain perfusion heterogeneity quantification purposes. Algorithms are compared on a set of 210 brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) simulations and 40 patient exams. Methods Five algorithms were tested on numerical phantoms. The numerical anthropomorphic Zubal head phantom was used to generate 42 (6 × 7) different brain SPECT simulations. Seven diffuse cortical ...

  4. Voxel-based analysis of whole-brain effects of age and gender on dopamine transporter SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Azulay, Jean-Philippe [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et Pathologie du Mouvement, Marseille (France); CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); Ceccaldi, Mathieu [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR Inserm 1106, Institut de Neurosciences des Systemes, Marseille (France); Girard, Nadine [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neuroradiologie diagnostique et interventionnelle, Marseille (France); Mundler, Olivier [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France); Guedj, Eric [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France)

    2012-11-15

    Several studies have shown age- and gender-related differences in striatal dopamine transporter (DaT) binding. These studies were based on a striatal region on interest approach that may have underestimated these effects and could not evaluate extrastriatal regions. Our aim was to determine the effects at the voxel level of age and gender on whole-brain DaT distribution using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in healthy subjects. We performed a whole-brain [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT voxel-based analysis using SPM8 and a standardized normalization template (p < 0.05, corrected using the false discovery rate method) in 51 healthy subjects aged from 21 to 79 years. We found an age-related DaT binding decrease in the striatum, anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortices and insulo-opercular cortices. Also DaT binding ratios were higher in women than men in the striatum and opercular cortices. This study showed both striatal and extrastriatal age-related and gender-related differences in DaT binding in healthy subjects using a whole-brain voxel-based non-a priori approach. These differences highlight the need for careful age and gender matching in DaT analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  5. Brain SPECT in neurology: A critical review; Hirn-SPECT in der Neurologie: Eine kritische Uebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartenstein, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik]|[Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie; Weiller, C. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik]|[Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie

    1994-10-01

    SPECT of the brain with radiopharmaceuticals monitoring regional cerebral blood flow, receptor binding and metabolism offers a wide variety of potentially clinically useful applications. These can be found in neuro-oncology, epilepsy, cerebrovascular diseases, extrapyramidal disorders, dementia and the determination of brain death. The evaluation of the benefit of these methods in routine use requires a close cooperation between nuclear medicine physicians and neurologists, not only in the interpretation and analysis of the actual clinical studies, but also in the design and realization of clinically oriented research with large series of patients. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die SPECT-Untersuchung des Gehirnes bietet mit Radiopharmaka des regionalen zerebralen Blutflusses, Rezeptorliganden und Stoffwechselmarkern ein breites Spektrum diagnostischer Moeglichkeiten in der Neuro-Onkologie, die Epilepsiediagnostik, bei zerebrovaskulaeren Erkrankungen, extrapyramidalen Bewegungsstoerungen, dementiellen Syndromen und der Hirntodbestimmung. Zur Evaluierung klinisch sinnvoller Indikationen in der Routinediagnostik bedarf es einer engen Zusammenarbeit zwischen Nuklearmedizinern und Neurologen bei der Auswertung und Interpretation der Befunde, aber auch beim Design und der Durchfuehrung klinischer Studien mit ausreichend grossen Patientenzahlen. (orig.)

  6. A methodology for generating normal and pathological brain perfusion SPECT images for evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods: application in epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grova, C.; Jannin, P.; Biraben, A.; Buvat, I.; Benali, H.; Bernard, A. M.; Scarabin, J. M.; Gibaud, B.

    2003-12-01

    Quantitative evaluation of brain MRI/SPECT fusion methods for normal and in particular pathological datasets is difficult, due to the frequent lack of relevant ground truth. We propose a methodology to generate MRI and SPECT datasets dedicated to the evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods and illustrate the method when dealing with ictal SPECT. The method consists in generating normal or pathological SPECT data perfectly aligned with a high-resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI using realistic Monte Carlo simulations that closely reproduce the response of a SPECT imaging system. Anatomical input data for the SPECT simulations are obtained from this 3D T1-weighted MRI, while functional input data result from an inter-individual analysis of anatomically standardized SPECT data. The method makes it possible to control the 'brain perfusion' function by proposing a theoretical model of brain perfusion from measurements performed on real SPECT images. Our method provides an absolute gold standard for assessing MRI/SPECT registration method accuracy since, by construction, the SPECT data are perfectly registered with the MRI data. The proposed methodology has been applied to create a theoretical model of normal brain perfusion and ictal brain perfusion characteristic of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. To approach realistic and unbiased perfusion models, real SPECT data were corrected for uniform attenuation, scatter and partial volume effect. An anatomic standardization was used to account for anatomic variability between subjects. Realistic simulations of normal and ictal SPECT deduced from these perfusion models are presented. The comparison of real and simulated SPECT images showed relative differences in regional activity concentration of less than 20% in most anatomical structures, for both normal and ictal data, suggesting realistic models of perfusion distributions for evaluation purposes. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry coefficients measured on simulated data were found within

  7. PET/SPECT imaging: From carotid vulnerability to brain viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerwaldt, Robbert [Department of Surgery, Isala Clinics, Zwolle (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dam, Gooitzen M. van [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijckx, Gert-Jan [Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Tio, Rene A. [Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Zeebregts, Clark J. [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: czeebregts@hotmail.com

    2010-04-15

    Background: Current key issues in ischemic stroke are related to carotid plaque vulnerability, brain viability, and timing of intervention. The treatment of ischemic stroke has evolved into urgent active interventions, as 'time is brain'. Functional imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could improve selection of patients with a vulnerable plaque and evaluation of brain viability in ischemic stroke. Objective: To describe the current applications of PET and SPECT as a diagnostic tool in relation to ischemic stroke. Methods: A literature search using PubMed identified articles. Manual cross-referencing was also performed. Results: Several papers, all observational studies, identified PET/SPECT to be used as a tool to monitor systemic atheroma modifying treatment and to select high-risk patients for surgery regardless of the degree of luminal stenosis in carotid lesions. Furthermore, PET/SPECT is able to quantify the penumbra region during ischemic stroke and in this way may identify those patients who may benefit from timely intervention. Discussion: Functional imaging modalities such as PET/SPECT may become important tools for risk-assessment and evaluation of treatment strategies in carotid plaque vulnerability and brain viability. Prospective clinical studies are needed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PET/SPECT.

  8. High-resolution brain SPECT imaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children without comorbidity: quantitative analysis using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Oh, Eun Young [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Ki; Hwang, Isaac; Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We examined the abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) without comorbidity using statistical parametric mapping(SPM) method. We used the patients with not compatible to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis as normal control children. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed on 75 patients (M:F=64:11, 10.0{+-}2.5y) with the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of ADHD and 13 normal control children (M:F=9:4, 10.3{+-}4.1y). Using SPM method, we compared patient group's SPECT images with those of 13 control subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion(p<0.01) in predefined 34 cerebral regions. Only on area of left temporal lobe showed significant hypoperfusion in ADHD patients without comorbidity (n=75) compared with control subjects(n=13). (n=75, p<0.01, extent threshold=16). rCBF of left temporal area was decreased in ADHD group without comorbidity, such as tic, compared with control group.

  9. Motor cortex stimulation(MCS) for intractable complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II: PSM analysis of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. A.; Son, B. C.; Yoo, I. R.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, E. N.; Park, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    We had experienced a patient with intractable CRPS in whom statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of cerebral perfusion explained the mechanism of pain control by MCS. A 43-year-old man presented spontaneous severe burning pain in his left hand and forearm and allodynia over the left arm and left hemibody. After the electrodes for neuromodulation therapy were inserted in the central sulcus, the baseline and stimulation brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD were obtained within two days. The differences between the baseline and stimulation SPECT images, estimated at every voxel using t-statistics using SPM-99 software, were considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Among several areas significantly activated following pain relief with MCS, ipsilateral pyramidal tract in the cerebral peduncle might be related to the mechanism of pain control with MCS through efferent motor pathway. The result suggested that corticospinal neurons themselves or motor cortex efferent pathway maintained by the presence of intact corticospinal neurons could play an important role in producing pain control after MCS. This study would helpful in understanding of neurophysiology.

  10. Performance of a high-sensitivity dedicated cardiac SPECT scanner for striatal uptake quantification in the brain based on analysis of projection data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mi-Ae; Moore, Stephen C.; McQuaid, Sarah J.; Kijewski, Marie Foley [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Mueller, Stefan P. [Abteilung Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Essen, 45147 Essen (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors have previously reported the advantages of high-sensitivity single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems for imaging structures located deep inside the brain. DaTscan (Isoflupane I-123) is a dopamine transporter (DaT) imaging agent that has shown potential for early detection of Parkinson disease (PD), as well as for monitoring progression of the disease. Realizing the full potential of DaTscan requires efficient estimation of striatal uptake from SPECT images. They have evaluated two SPECT systems, a conventional dual-head gamma camera with low-energy high-resolution collimators (conventional) and a dedicated high-sensitivity multidetector cardiac imaging system (dedicated) for imaging tasks related to PD. Methods: Cramer-Rao bounds (CRB) on precision of estimates of striatal and background activity concentrations were calculated from high-count, separate acquisitions of the compartments (right striata, left striata, background) of a striatal phantom. CRB on striatal and background activity concentration were calculated from essentially noise-free projection datasets, synthesized by scaling and summing the compartment projection datasets, for a range of total detected counts. They also calculated variances of estimates of specific-to-nonspecific binding ratios (BR) and asymmetry indices from these values using propagation of error analysis, as well as the precision of measuring changes in BR on the order of the average annual decline in early PD. Results: Under typical clinical conditions, the conventional camera detected 2 M counts while the dedicated camera detected 12 M counts. Assuming a normal BR of 5, the standard deviation of BR estimates was 0.042 and 0.021 for the conventional and dedicated system, respectively. For an 8% decrease to BR = 4.6, the signal-to-noise ratio were 6.8 (conventional) and 13.3 (dedicated); for a 5% decrease, they were 4.2 (conventional) and 8.3 (dedicated). Conclusions: This implies that PD can

  11. Assessment of Cerebral Hemodynamic Changes in Pediatric Patients with Moyamoya Disease Using Probabilistic Maps on Analysis of Basal/Acetazolamide Stress Brain Perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Seung Ki; Wang, Kyu Chang; Cho, Byung Kyu; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the hemodynamic changes and the predictive factors of the clinical outcome in pediatric patients with moyamoya disease, we analyzed pre/post basal/acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT with automated volume of interest (VOIs) method. Total fifty six (M:F=33:24, age 6.7{+-}3.2 years) pediatric patients with moyamoya disease, who underwent basal/acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT within 6 before and after revascularization surgery (encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS) with frontal encephalo-galeo-synangiosis (EGS) and EDAS only followed on contralateral hemisphere), and followed-up more than 6 months after post-operative SPECT, were included. A mean follow-up period after post-operative SPECT was 33{+-}21 months. Each patient's SPECT image was spatially normalized to Korean template with the SPM2. For the regional count normalization, the count of pons was used as a reference region. The basal/acetazolamide-stressed cerebral blood flow (CBF), the cerebral vascular reserve index (CVRI), and the extent of area with significantly decreased basal/acetazolamide- stressed rCBF than age-matched normal control were evaluated on both medial frontal, frontal, parietal, occipital lobes, and whole brain in each patient's images. The post-operative clinical outcome was assigned as good, poor according to the presence of transient ischemic attacks and/or fixed neurological deficits by pediatric neurosurgeon. In a paired t-test, basal/acetazolamide-stressed rCBF and the CVRI were significantly improved after revascularization (p<0.05). The significant difference in the pre-operative basal/acetazolamide-stressed rCBF and the CVRI between the hemispheres where EDAS with frontal EGS was performed and their contralateral counterparts where EDAS only was done disappeared after operation (p<0.05). In an independent student t-test, the pre-operative basal rCBF in the medial frontal gyrus, the post-operative CVRI in the frontal lobe and the parietal

  12. Clinical Significance of Brain SPECT in Zipeprol Abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dai Ok; Kim, Jae Phil; Kim, Deog Yoon; Yang, Hyung In; Koh, Eun Mi; Kim, Kwang Won; Choi, Young Kil [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-03-15

    Drug abuse is widespread in worldwide and has been associated with neurologic complication. Zipeprol is one of drugs which been abused for psychological satisfaction in some adolescents. This agent is non-opioid antitussive agent, which is not legally considered as being capable of creating dependence or abuse liability at therapeutic serum levels. But it has been reported that acute or chronic overdose create neurologic complication such as convulsion as well as dependence. Recently we experienced six zipeprol abusers who admitted due to convulsion and variable neurologic symptoms. The aim of our study was to determine the role of Tc-99m- HMPAO brain SPECT in those patients. EEG and brain CT showed no abnormal finding, but brain SPECT showed focal or multiple perfusion abnormalities in frontal, parietal, occipital cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and especially at temporal cortex. These results suggest that brain SPECT may be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate the cerebral dysfunction induced by zipeprol abuse.

  13. Neuropsychological Correlates of Brain Perfusion SPECT in Patients with Macrophagic Myofasciitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Van Der Gucht

    Full Text Available Patients with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant-induced macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF complain of arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue and cognitive deficits. This study aimed to characterize brain perfusion in these patients.Brain perfusion SPECT was performed in 76 consecutive patients (aged 49±10 y followed in the Garches-Necker-Mondor-Hendaye reference center for rare neuromuscular diseases. Images were acquired 30 min after intravenous injection of 925 MBq 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD at rest. All patients also underwent a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests, within 1.3±5.5 mo from SPECT. Statistical parametric maps (SPM12 were obtained for each test using linear regressions between each performance score and brain perfusion, with adjustment for age, sex, socio-cultural level and time delay between brain SPECT and neuropsychological testing.SPM analysis revealed positive correlation between neuropsychological scores (mostly exploring executive functions and brain perfusion in the posterior associative cortex, including cuneus/precuneus/occipital lingual areas, the periventricular white matter/corpus callosum, and the cerebellum, while negative correlation was found with amygdalo-hippocampal/entorhinal complexes. A positive correlation was also observed between brain perfusion and the posterior associative cortex when the time elapsed since last vaccine injection was investigated.Brain perfusion SPECT showed a pattern of cortical and subcortical changes in accordance with the MMF-associated cognitive disorder previously described. These results provide a neurobiological substrate for brain dysfunction in aluminum hydroxide adjuvant-induced MMF patients.

  14. NeuroGam Software Analysis in Epilepsy Diagnosis Using 99mTc-ECD Brain Perfusion SPECT Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Peng; Zhang, Fang; Gao, Jianqing; Jing, Jianmin; Pan, Liping; Li, Dongxue; Wei, Lingge

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the value of NeuroGam software in diagnosis of epilepsy by 99Tcm-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain imaging. Material/Methods NeuroGam was used to analyze 52 cases of clinically proven epilepsy by 99Tcm-ECD brain imaging. The results were compared with EEG and MRI, and the positive rates and localization to epileptic foci were analyzed. Results NeuroGam analysis showed that 42 of 52 epilepsy cases were abnormal. 99Tcm-ECD brain imaging revealed ...

  15. Brain SPECT in children; Explorations scintigraphiques en neurologie et psychiatrie de l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyot, M. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France)

    1996-12-31

    Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author). 18 refs.

  16. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for ketamine response in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric; Cammilleri, Serge; Colavolpe, Cecile; Taieb, David; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Niboyet, Jean [Clinique La Phoceanne, Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Marseille (France)

    2007-08-15

    Ketamine has been used successfully in various proportions of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. However, the response to this specific treatment remains largely unpredictable. We evaluated brain SPECT perfusion before treatment with ketamine, using voxel-based analysis. The objective was to determine the predictive value of brain SPECT for ketamine response. Seventeen women with FM (48 {+-} 11 years; ACR criteria) were enrolled in the study. Brain SPECT was performed before any change was made in therapy in the pain care unit. We considered that a patient was a good responder to ketamine if the VAS score for pain decreased by at least 50% after treatment. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2, in comparison to a group of ten healthy women matched for age. The VAS score for pain was 81.8 {+-} 4.2 before ketamine and 31.8 {+-} 27.1 after ketamine. Eleven patients were considered ''good responders'' to ketamine. Responder and non-responder subgroups were similar in terms of pain intensity before ketamine. In comparison to responding patients and healthy subjects, non-responding patients exhibited a significant reduction in bilateral perfusion of the medial frontal gyrus. This cluster of hypoperfusion was highly predictive of non-response to ketamine (positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 91%). Brain perfusion SPECT may predict response to ketamine in hyperalgesic FM patients. (orig.)

  17. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric; Taieb, David; Cammilleri, Serge; Lussato, David; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 05 (France); Niboyet, Jean [Clinique La Phoceanne, Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Marseille (France)

    2007-01-15

    Neuro-imaging studies with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in fibromyalgia (FM) patients have reported only limited subcortical hypoperfusion. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT is known to provide better evaluation of areas of high cerebral blood flow and regional metabolic rate. We evaluated a homogeneous group of hyperalgesic patients with FM using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT. The aim of this study was to investigate brain processing associated with spontaneous pain in FM patients. Eighteen hyperalgesic FM women (mean age 49 years, range 25-63 years; American College of Rheumatology criteria) and ten healthy women matched for age were enrolled in the study. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2 (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). Visual Analogue Scale score for pain was 82{+-}4 at the time of the SPECT study. Compared with control subjects, we observed individual brain SPECT abnormalities in FM patients, confirmed by SPM2 analysis, with hyperperfusion of the somatosensory cortex and hypoperfusion of the frontal, cingulate, medial temporal and cerebellar cortices. In the present study, performed without noxious stimuli in hyperalgesic FM patients, we found significant hyperperfusion in regions of the brain known to be involved in the sensory dimension of pain processing and significant hypoperfusion in areas assumed to be associated with the affective-attentional dimension. As current pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies act differently on the two components of pain, we hypothesise that SPECT could be a valuable and readily available tool to guide individual therapeutic strategy and provide objective follow-up of pain processing recovery under treatment. (orig.)

  18. Cerebral infarction mimicking brain tumor on Tc-99m tetrofosmin brain SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon [College of Medicine, Dongguk Univ., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Zeon, Seok Kil; Won, Kyoung Sook [School of Medicine, Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-01

    A 43-year-old man was presented with persistent headache for two weeks. T2 weighted MR imaging showed high signal intensity with surrounding edema in the left frontal lobe. These findings were considered with intracranial tumor such as glioma or metastasis. Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT showed focal radiotracer accumulation in the left frontal lobe. The operative specimen contained cerebral infarction with organizing leptomeningeal hematoma by pathologist. Another 73-year-old man was hospitalized for chronic headache. Initial CT showed ill-defined hypodensity with mass effect in the right parietal lobe. Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT showed focal radiotracer uptake in the right parietal lobe. These findings were considered with low-grade glioma or infarction. Follow-up CT after 5 months showed slightly decreased in size of low density in the right parietal lobe, and cerebral infarction is more likely than others. Tc-99m tetrofosmin has been proposed as a cardiotracer of myocardial perfusion imaging and an oncotropic radiotracer. Tc-99 tetrofosmin SPECT image provides a better attractive alternative agent than TI-201 as a tumor-imaging agent, with characteristics such as high-energy flux, short half-life, favorable biodistribution, dosimetry and lower background radioactivity. We have keep in mind on the analysis of Tc-99m tetrofosmin imaging when cerebral infarction is being differentiated from brain tumor.

  19. Collimator design for a multipinhole brain SPECT insert for MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Audenhaege, Karen; Van Holen, Roel; Vanhove, Christian; Vandenberghe, Stefaan [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent University-iMinds Medical IT, MEDISIP-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B/5, Ghent B-9000 (Belgium)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is an important clinical tool, with unique tracers for studying neurological diseases. Nowadays, most commercial SPECT systems are combined with x-ray computed tomography (CT) in so-called SPECT/CT systems to obtain an anatomical background for the functional information. However, while CT images have a high spatial resolution, they have a low soft-tissue contrast, which is an important disadvantage for brain imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, has a very high soft-tissue contrast and does not involve extra ionizing radiation. Therefore, the authors designed a brain SPECT insert that can operate inside a clinical MRI. Methods: The authors designed and simulated a compact stationary multipinhole SPECT insert based on digital silicon photomultiplier detector modules, which have shown to be MR-compatible and have an excellent intrinsic resolution (0.5 mm) when combined with a monolithic 2 mm thick LYSO crystal. First, the authors optimized the different parameters of the SPECT system to maximize sensitivity for a given target resolution of 7.2 mm in the center of the field-of-view, given the spatial constraints of the MR system. Second, the authors performed noiseless simulations of two multipinhole configurations to evaluate sampling and reconstructed resolution. Finally, the authors performed Monte Carlo simulations and compared the SPECT insert with a clinical system with ultrahigh-resolution (UHR) fan beam collimators, based on contrast-to-noise ratio and a visual comparison of a Hoffman phantom with a 9 mm cold lesion. Results: The optimization resulted in a stationary multipinhole system with a collimator radius of 150.2 mm and a detector radius of 172.67 mm, which corresponds to four rings of 34 diSPM detector modules. This allows the authors to include eight rings of 24 pinholes, which results in a system volume sensitivity of 395 cps/MBq. Noiseless simulations

  20. Brain FDG-PET Scan and Brain Perfusion SPECT in the Diagnosis of Neuroacanthocytosis Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Değirmenci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroacanthocytosis syndromes (NA include autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome consisting of a choreatic movement disorder, psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline, and additional multi-system features including myopathy and axonal neuropathy. Fluor 18 -2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG-PET positron emission tomography (PET and technetium 99m -d, l-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT have been increasingly used for the detection of neurologic disorders, such as dementia, epilepsy, and movement disorders. In this case report, we report two patients with neuroacanthocytosis syndromes with the imaging features of brain metabolism by PET and brain perfusion by SPECT. Brain PET and brain SPECT findings of patients with neuroacanthocytosis syndromes were also reviewed.

  1. Application of Quantitative Analysis in Brain SPECT Imaging of Neuropsychiatric in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus%定量分析在系统性红斑狼疮脑病SPECT脑显像中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许守林; 冯雪凤; 施鸣

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate a method for the quantitative analysis in 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT imaging of neuropsychiatric in systemic lupus erythematosus and the correlation of visual and quantitative analysis. Methods: 99mTc-ECD SPECT imaging was performed in 33 SLE patients and 29 controls. The results were analyzed by visual and quantitative comparison. The images were analyzed with brain search (BS). Results: The change of cerebral blood flow, especially decreases in regional cerebral blood flow were associated with serious neuropsychiatric SLE presentations. Cingulate gyrus and temporal- parietal were most involved areas under unpaired t-test. The positive rate of SPECT imaging by visual and quantitative analysis was respectively 51.51%, and 57.57%. The method of quantitative and visual analysis had high correlation. Conclusions: 99mTc-ECD SPECT could easily demonstrate metabolic, functional lesions and cerebral blood flow change without structural abnormalities. The sensitivity of cerebral blood flow perfusion SPECT imaging was high, but lack of specificity. The combination of brain perfusion SPECT and brain search (BS) was a convenient and shortcut method to align the disfunctional areas of the brain. 99Tcm-ECD SPECT was a useful and objective method for detecting perfusion abnormalities in SLE patients.%目的:探讨定量分析在SPECT脑99mTc-ECD显像检测系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)脑病中的应用价值和目测分析与定量分析方法的相关性.方法:选择年龄匹配的健康人作比较,分别对33例SLE患者和29例正常对照进行SPECT脑血流灌注显像,采用肉眼读片分析及定量分析进行评价,BS软件进行分析.结果:狼疮脑病患者99mTc-ECD显像有脑血流改变,多表现为局部脑血流降低.肉眼读片分析SPECT诊断的SLE脑部受损的阳性率为51.51%,定量分析的阳性率达57.57%.成组t检验示扣带回、颞顶叶等部位最常受累.结论:SPECT脑血流灌注显像可探查到脑组织代谢

  2. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  3. Brain perfusion SPECT in the mouse: normal pattern according to gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Wunder, Andreas; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Michel, Roger; Stemmer, Nina; Lukas, Mathias; Derlin, Thorsten; Gregor-Mamoudou, Betina; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph

    2012-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is a useful surrogate marker of neuronal activity and a parameter of primary interest in the diagnosis of many diseases. The increasing use of mouse models spawns the demand for in vivo measurement of rCBF in the mouse. Small animal SPECT provides excellent spatial resolution at adequate sensitivity and is therefore a promising tool for imaging the mouse brain. This study evaluates the feasibility of mouse brain perfusion SPECT and assesses the regional pattern of normal Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake and the impact of age and gender. Whole-brain kinetics was compared between Tc-99m-HMPAO and Tc-99m-ECD using rapid dynamic planar scans in 10 mice. Assessment of the regional uptake pattern was restricted to the more suitable tracer, HMPAO. Two HMPAO SPECTs were performed in 18 juvenile mice aged 7.5 ± 1.5weeks, and in the same animals at young adulthood, 19.1 ± 4.0 weeks (nanoSPECT/CTplus, general purpose mouse apertures: 1.2kcps/MBq, 0.7mm FWHM). The 3-D MRI Digital Atlas Database of an adult C57BL/6J mouse brain was used for region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. SPECT images were stereotactically normalized using SPM8 and a custom made, left-right symmetric HMPAO template in atlas space. For testing lateral asymmetry, each SPECT was left-right flipped prior to stereotactical normalization. Flipped and unflipped SPECTs were compared by paired testing. Peak brain uptake was similar for ECD and HMPAO: 1.8 ± 0.2 and 2.1 ± 0.6 %ID (p=0.357). Washout after the peak was much faster for ECD than for HMPAO: 24 ± 7min vs. 4.6 ± 1.7h (p=0.001). The general linear model for repeated measures with gender as an intersubject factor revealed an increase in relative HMPAO uptake with age in the neocortex (p=0.018) and the hippocampus (p=0.012). A decrease was detected in the midbrain (p=0.025). Lateral asymmetry, with HMPAO uptake larger in the left hemisphere, was detected primarily in the neocortex, both at juvenile age (asymmetry index AI=2.7 ± 1

  4. Multipinhole collimator with 20 apertures for a brain SPECT application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tzu-Cheng; Ellin, Justin R.; Shrestha, Uttam; Seo, Youngho, E-mail: youngho.seo@ucsf.edu [Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California 94107 (United States); Huang, Qiu [School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Gullberg, Grant T. [Department of Radiotracer Development and Imaging Technology, Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94702 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Several new technologies for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) instrumentation with parallel-hole collimation have been proposed to improve detector sensitivity and signal collection efficiency. Benefits from improved signal efficiency include shorter acquisition times and lower dose requirements. In this paper, the authors show a possibility of over an order of magnitude enhancement in photon detection efficiency (from 7.6 × 10{sup −5} to 1.6 × 10{sup −3}) for dopamine transporter (DaT) imaging of the striatum over the conventional SPECT parallel-hole collimators by use of custom-designed 20 multipinhole (20-MPH) collimators with apertures of 0.75 cm diameter. Methods: Quantifying specific binding ratio (SBR) of {sup 123}I-ioflupane or {sup 123}I-iometopane’s signal at the striatal region is a common brain imaging method to confirm the diagnosis of the Parkinson’s disease. The authors performed imaging of a striatal phantom filled with aqueous solution of I-123 and compared camera recovery ratios of SBR acquired between low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) parallel-hole collimators and 20-MPH collimators. Results: With only two-thirds of total acquisition time (20 min against 30 min), a comparable camera recovery ratio of SBR was achieved using 20-MPH collimators in comparison to that from the LEHR collimator study. Conclusions: Their systematic analyses showed that the 20-MPH collimator could be a promising alternative for the DaT SPECT imaging for brain over the traditional LEHR collimator, which could give both shorter scan time and improved diagnostic accuracy.

  5. Clinical significance of brain SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in cerebral palsy with normal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Lim, S. Y.; Lee, I. Y.; Kim, O. H.; Bai, M. S.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The cerebral palsy(CP) encephalopathies are often of uncertain etiology and various functional image findings comparing with anatomical image findings have been reported. However, only a few have mentioned its clinical implications. The purpose of our report is to compare clinical severity and functional SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in CP patients with normal MRI. Thirty six CP patients with bilateral spastic palsy who had normal MRI and brain SPECT were studied from July 1996 to September 1997. The patients' age at the time of SPECT was 22.84{+-}17.69 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to motor quotient(MQ); moderate defect (>50MQ : n=27 MQ=22.78{+-}10.36), mild defect (<50MQ : n=9, MQ=66.11{+-}13.87). The degree of rCBF decrease between the two groups was evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} test. Brain SPECT was performed following IV administration of 0.05-0.1 mCi/kg (minimum 2.0 mCi) of Tc-99m ECD and chloral hydrate sedation (50-80 mg/kg p.o) using a triple head system (MS 3, Siemens). Interpretation of brain SPECT was visual analysis: severe decrease is defined when the defect is moderate to marked and mild decrease in rCBF as mild. Seven of 36 (19.4%) showed unilateral or bilateral moderate decrease in rCBF in thalami, 20(55.6%) showed mild decrease, and 9(25.0%) showed no decreased rCBF. All 7 who had moderate thalamic defect reveled moderate motor defect clinically. Ten of 36(27.9%) revealed unilateral or bilateral moderate rCBF defect, 23 (63.9%) depicted mild defect, and 3(8.3%) showed no defect. Sixteen with moderate thalamic rCBF defect showed moderate motor defect in 15 patients. There was statistically significant (p=0.02605) relationship between rCBF defect and motor defect in our CP patients. In conclusion, brain SPECT appears sensitive, non-invasive tool in the evaluation as well as in the prognostication of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy patients and deserves further study using larger number of patients.

  6. [Neurological diseases and SPECT--analysis using easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    We developed a method for automated diagnosis of brain perfusion SPECT and designated this method as an easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS). In this software program, voxel-by-voxel Z-score analysis after voxel normalization to global mean or cerebellar values; Z-score = ( [control mean] - [individual value] )/ (control SD) is performed. These Z-score maps are displayed by overlay on tomographic sections and by projection with averaged Z-score of 14mm thickness to surface rendering of the anatomically standardized MRI template. Anatomical standardization of SPECT images into a stereotactic space is performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 2. This program has an advantage of capability of incorporation of SPM results into automated analysis of Z-score values as a volume of interest (VOI). A specific VOI can be determined by group comparison of SPECT images for patients with a neuropsychiatric disease with those for healthy volunteers using SPM. Even if a center can construct a normal database with good quality comprising a large number of healthy volunteers, other centers have not been able to use this normal database because of differences between the used gamma cameras, collimators and physical correction algorithms. Since SPECT exhibits greater variations in image quality among different centers than PET, conversion of SPECT images may be necessary for sharing a normal database. In this eZIS software, we incorporated a newly developed program for making it possible to share a normal database in SPECT studies. A Hoffman 3-dimensional brain phantom experiment was conducted to determine systematic differences between SPECT scanners. SPECT images for the brain phantom were obtained using two different scanners. Dividing these two phantom images after anatomical standardization by SPM created a 3-dimensional conversion map. The use of a conversion map obtained from SPECT images of the same phantom provided very similar SPECT data despite extreme differences

  7. Diamox-enhanced brain SPECT in cerebrovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Young [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Acute event in cerebrovascular disease is the second most common cause of death in Korea following cancer, and it can also cause serious neurologic deficits. Understanding of perfusion status is important for clinical applications in management of patients with cerebrovascular diseases, and then the attacks of ischemic neurologic symptoms and the risk of acute events can be reduced. Therefore, the normal vascular anatomy of brain, various clinical applications of acetazolamide-enhanced brain perfusion SPECT, including meaning and role of assessment of vascular reserve in carotid stenosis before procedure, in pediatric Moyamoya disease before and after operation, in prediction of development of hyperperfusion syndrome before procedure, and in prediction of vasospasm and of prognosis in subarachnoid hemorrhage were reviewed in this paper.

  8. Cortical neuron loss in post-traumatic higher brain dysfunction using (123)I-iomazenil SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji; Kamiyama, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaaki; Nakamura, Hirohiko

    2013-01-01

    In patients with higher brain dysfunction (HBD) after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), diagnostic imaging of cortical neuron loss in the frontal lobes was studied using SPECT with (123)I-iomazenil (IMZ), as a radioligand for central benzodiazepine receptor (BZR). Statistical imaging analysis using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) for (123)I-IMZ SPECT was performed in 17 patients. In all patients with HBD defined by neuropsychological tests, cortical neuron loss was indicated in the bilateral medial frontal lobes in 14 patients (83 %). A comparison between the group of 17 patients and the normal database demonstrated common areas of cortical neuron loss in the bilateral medial frontal lobes involving the medial frontal gyrus (MFG) and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). In an assessment of cortical neuron loss in the frontal medial cortex using the stereotactic extraction estimation (SEE) method (level 3), significant cortical neuron loss was observed within bilateral MFG in 9 patients and unilateral MFG in 4, and bilateral ACG in 12 and unilateral ACG in 3. Fourteen patients showed significant cortical neuron loss in bilateral MFG or ACG. In patients with MTBI, HBD seemed to correlate with selective cortical neuron loss within the bilateral MFG or ACG where the responsible lesion could be. 3D-SSP and SEE level 3 analysis for (123)I-IMZ SPECT could be valuable for diagnostic imaging of HBD after MTBI.

  9. 99mTc-HMPAO perfusion SPECT/CT in the diagnosis of brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlin, Thorsten; Weiberg, Desiree

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a case of brain death (BD) evaluated by 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). A 16-year-old boy with a history of rapid unexpected brain herniation due to pilocytic astrocytoma underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT/CT for evaluation of brain death in the context of organ donation. Flow images demonstrated lack of blood flow to the brain, and delayed images showed absence of demonstrable radionuclide activity within the brain. SPECT/CT confirmed absence of tracer accumulation, and was deemed helpful for evaluation of the brain stem. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT/CT is a valuable tool enabling imaging-based confirmation of BD.

  10. Cerebral perfusion changes in traumatic diffuse brain injury. IMP SPECT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Development, Aging and Cancer; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Onuma, Takehide

    1997-05-01

    Diffuse brain injury (DBI) is characterized by axonal degeneration and neuronal damage which cause diffuse brain atrophy. We have investigated the time course of abnormalities in cerebral perfusion distribution in cases of DBI by using Iodine-123-IMP SPECT, and the relationship to the appearance of diffuse brain atrophy. SPECT scans were performed on eight patients with diffuse brain injury due to closed cranial trauma in acute and chronic stages. All patients showed abnormalities in cerebral perfusion with decreases in perfusion, even in non-depicted regions on MRI, and the affected areas varied throughout the period of observation. Diffuse brain atrophy appeared in all patients. In some patients, diffuse brain atrophy was observed at or just after the time when the maximum number of lesions on SPECT were seen. The abnormalities in cerebral perfusion in cases of DBI might therefore be related to axonal degeneration and neuronal damage which causes diffuse brain atrophy. (author)

  11. Meta-analysis of the literature on diagnostic accuracy of SPECT in parkinsonian syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessels Alfons GH

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. One of the most widely used techniques to diagnose PD is a Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT scan to visualise the integrity of the dopaminergic pathways in the brain. Despite this there remains some discussion on the value of SPECT in the differential diagnosis of PD. We did a meta-analysis of all the existing literature on the diagnostic accuracy of both pre- and post-synaptic SPECT imaging in the differential diagnosis of PD. Methods Relevant studies were searched in Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases with back-searching of their reference lists. We limited our analysis to studies with a clinically relevant methodology: i.e. when they assessed the ability of the SPECT to provide 1. diagnosis of PD in an early phase vs. normalcy; 2 diagnostic differentiation between PD and essential tremor (ET; 3. distinguishing between PD and vascular parkinsonism (VP; 4. delineation of PD from atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS. Gold standard was, dependent on the study type, clinical examination at initial visit or follow-up, and/or response to dopaminergic agents. Results The search gave 185 hits, of which we deemed 32 suitable for our analysis. From these we recalculated the diagnostic odds ratio of SPECT for the clinical questions above. The pooled odds ratio (with 95%CI for presynaptic SPECT scan's ability to distinguish between early PD and normalcy was 60 (13 – 277. For the ability to differentiate between PD and ET this ratio was 210 (79–562. The ratio for presynaptic SPECT's ability to delineate PD from VP was 105 (32 – 348. The mean odds ratio for the presynaptic SPECT scans to differentiate between PD and the two APS was 2 (1 – 4, and for the postsynaptic SPECT imaging this was 19 (9–36. Conclusion SPECT with presynaptic radiotracers is relatively accurate to differentiate patients with PD in an early phase from

  12. Including anatomical and functional information in MC simulation of PET and SPECT brain studies. Brain-VISET: a voxel-based iterative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti-Fuster, Berta; Esteban, Oscar; Thielemans, Kris; Setoain, Xavier; Santos, Andres; Ros, Domenec; Pavia, Javier

    2014-10-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation provides a flexible and robust framework to efficiently evaluate and optimize image processing methods in emission tomography. In this work we present Brain-VISET (Voxel-based Iterative Simulation for Emission Tomography), a method that aims to simulate realistic [ (99m) Tc]-SPECT and [ (18) F]-PET brain databases by including anatomical and functional information. To this end, activity and attenuation maps generated using high-resolution anatomical images from patients were used as input maps in a MC projector to simulate SPECT or PET sinograms. The reconstructed images were compared with the corresponding real SPECT or PET studies in an iterative process where the activity inputs maps were being modified at each iteration. Datasets of 30 refractory epileptic patients were used to assess the new method. Each set consisted of structural images (MRI and CT) and functional studies (SPECT and PET), thereby allowing the inclusion of anatomical and functional variability in the simulation input models. SPECT and PET sinograms were obtained using the SimSET package and were reconstructed with the same protocols as those employed for the clinical studies. The convergence of Brain-VISET was evaluated by studying the behavior throughout iterations of the correlation coefficient, the quotient image histogram and a ROI analysis comparing simulated with real studies. The realism of generated maps was also evaluated. Our findings show that Brain-VISET is able to generate realistic SPECT and PET studies and that four iterations is a suitable number of iterations to guarantee a good agreement between simulated and real studies.

  13. GATE simulation of a new design of pinhole SPECT system for small animal brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun Ozsahin, D.; Bläckberg, L.; El Fakhri, G.; Sabet, H.

    2017-01-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging has gained an increased interest over the past decade since it is an excellent tool for developing new drugs and tracers. Therefore, there is a huge effort on the development of cost-effective SPECT detectors with high capabilities. The aim of this study is to simulate the performance characteristics of new designs for a cost effective, stationary SPECT system dedicated to small animal imaging with a focus on mice brain. The conceptual design of this SPECT system platform, Stationary Small Animal SSA-SPECT, is to use many pixelated CsI:TI detector modules with 0.4 mm × 0.4 mm pixels in order to achieve excellent intrinsic detector resolution where each module is backed by a single pinhole collimator with 0.3 mm hole diameter. In this work, we present the simulation results of four variations of the SSA-SPECT platform where the number of detector modules and FOV size is varied while keeping the detector size and collimator hole size constant. Using the NEMA NU-4 protocol, we performed spatial resolution, sensitivity, image quality simulations followed by a Derenzo-like phantom evaluation. The results suggest that all four SSA-SPECT systems can provide better than 0.063% system sensitivity and < 1.5 mm FWHM spatial resolution without resolution recovery or other correction techniques. Specifically, SSA-SPECT-1 showed a system sensitivity of 0.09% in combination with 1.1 mm FWHM spatial resolution.

  14. MRI and brain spect findings in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and normal CT scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Carrilho

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available 26 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy clinically documented by several abnormal interictal surface EEGs with typical unitemporal epileptiform activity and a normal CT scan were studied. Interictal99mTC HMPAO brain SPECT and MRI were performed in all subjects. Abnormalities were shown in 61.5% of MRI (n=16 and 65.4% of SPECT (n=17. Hippocampal atrophy associated to a high signal on T2-weighted MRI slices suggesting mesial temporal sclerosis was the main finding (n=12; 75% of abnormal MRI. MRI correlated well to surface EEG in 50% (n=13. There was also a good correlation between MRI and SPECT in 30.7% (n=8. SPECT and EEG were in agreement in 57.7% (n=l5. MRI, SPECT and EEG were congruent in 26.9% (n=7. These results support the usefulness of interictal brain SPECT and MRI in detecting lateralized abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy. On the other hand, in two cases, interictal SPECT correlated poorly with surface EEG. This functional method should not be used isolately in the detection of temporal lobe foci. MRI is more useful than CT as a neuroimaging technique in temporal lobe epilepsy. It may detect small structural lesions and mesial temporal lobe sclerosis which are not easily seen with traditional CT scanning.

  15. The clinical usefulness of Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in acute measles encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee [School of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    Since the prognosis of measles encephalitis is poor, early diagnosis and proper management are very important to improve clinical outcomes. We compared Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT (SPECT) with MR imaging (MRI) for the detection of acute measles encephalitis. Eleven patients (M : F=4 : 7, age range 18 months-14 yrs) with acute measles encephalitis were enrolled in this studies. All of them underwent both MRI and SPECT. The results of SPECT were scored from 0 (normal) to 3 (most severe defect) according to perfusion state. We compared two image modalities for the detection of brain abnormality in acute measles encephalitis. Seven of 11 patients (63.6%) revealed high signal intensity in the white matter on T2WI of MRI, on the other hand all patients (100%) showed hypoperfusion on SPECT. Severe perfusion deficits above score 2 were located with decreasing frequencies in the frontal lobe (81.8%), temporal lobe (72.7%), occipital lobe (27.3%), basal ganglia (27.3%), and parietal lobe (9.1%). We conclude that SPECT is more useful than MRI for the detection of brain involvement in patients with acute measles encephalitis.

  16. Evaluation of therapeutic effects of radiosurgery using 99 Tcm-MIBI brain SPECT in patients with brain tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yi-xiang; SHI Wei-min; PENG Wu-he

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of radiosurgery on brain tumor using 99Tcm-MIBI brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods : Fifteen normal volunteers and 49patients with brain tumor underwent 99Tcm-MIBI brain SPECT, and the tumor to non-tumor ratio (T/N)was calculated and compared before and after radiosurgery. The patients were regrouped according to different schedules for postoperative reexamination, and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 99Tcm-MIBI SPECT evaluated against that of conventional CT and magnetic resonance imaging. Results: After radiosurgery, the lesions were reduced or even disappeared in 22 cases, and tumor remnants or recurrence were found in 27 cases. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 99Tcm-MIBI brain SPECT were 85.2%, 68. 2% and 77.6%,respectively. The sensitivity of postoperative 99Tcm-MIBI brain SPECT at 5.8 months was 92%, significantly higher than that at 3.1 months (89%, u=2. 2545, P<0. 05), and its accuracy was also higher than those at3. 1 months (u=2. 5927, P<0. 05) and at 9. 4 months (u=2. 1760, P<0. 05). The preoperative T/N ratio averaged 9.5±7. 6, significantly lowered to 2.9±5.1 postoperatively (t=4. 4373, P<0. 001). T/N ratio of recurrence group was remarkably higher than those of tumor remnants group (t=2. 1496, P<0. 05), edema group (t= 9. 2186, P<0. 001) and cicatrization group (t= 6. 3906, P<0. 001). Conclusion: 99Tcm-MIBI brain SPECT is more accurate than CT in distinguishing tumor residuals from benign lesions such as edema and cicatrization. At about 6 months after radiosurgery, 99Tcm-MIBI SPECT can obtain optimal diagnostic effects.

  17. Validation of a method for accurate and highly reproducible quantification of brain dopamine transporter SPECT studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter S; Ziebell, Morten; Skouboe, Glenna

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear medicine brain imaging, it is important to delineate regions of interest (ROIs) so that the outcome is both accurate and reproducible. The purpose of this study was to validate a new time-saving algorithm (DATquan) for accurate and reproducible quantification of the striatal dopamine...... transporter (DAT) with appropriate radioligands and SPECT and without the need for structural brain scanning....

  18. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy: comparison with MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Joon; Ryu, Young Hoon; Jeon, Tae Joo; Kim, Jai Keun; Nam, Ji Eun; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Yoon, Choon Sik; Lee, Jong Doo [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    We evaluated brain perfusion SPECT findings of MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy in correlation with MR imaging in search of specific imaging features. Subjects were five patients (four females and one male; age range, 1 to 25 year) who presented with repeated stroke like episodes, seizures or developmental delay or asymptomatic but had elevated lactic acid in CSF and serum. Conventional non-contrast MR imaging and Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain perfusion SPECT were performed and imaging features were analyzed. MRI demonstrated increased T2 signal intensities in the affected areas of gray and white matters mainly in the parietal (4/5) and occipital lobes (4/5) and in the basal ganglia (1/5), which were not restricted to a specific vascular territory. SPECT demonstrated decreased perfusion in the corresponding regions of MRI lesions. In addition, there were perfusion defects in parietal (1 patient), temporal (2), and frontal (1) lobes and basal ganglia (1) and thalami (2). In a patient with mitochondrial myopathy who had normal MRI, decreased perfusion was noted in left parietal area and bilateral thalami. Tc-99m ECD SPECT imaging in patients with MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy showed hypoperfusion of parieto-occipital cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and temporal cortex, which were not restricted to a specific vascular territory. There were no specific imaging features on SPECT. The significance of abnormal perfusion on SPECT without corresponding MR abnormalities needs to be evaluated further in larger number of patients.

  19. Interictal brain SPECT in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy; SPECT cerebral interictal em pacientes com epilepsia do lobo temporal de dificil controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraus, Maria Emilia Cosenza

    2000-06-01

    The brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is s functional neuroimaging method that can detect localized changes in cerebral blood flow. The temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common epileptic syndrome in adults, and more than 50% are medically refractory. The SPECT can contribute to investigation of epileptogenic focus and is one of the methods of pre-surgical evaluation of these patients. (author)

  20. Registration and display of brain SPECT and MRI using external markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjonen, H; Nikkinen, P; Sipilä, O; Launes, J; Salli, E; Salonen, O; Karp, P; Ylä-Jääski, J; Katila, T; Liewendahl, K

    1996-02-01

    Accurate anatomical localisation of abnormalities observed in brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is difficult, but can be improved by correlating data from SPECT and other tomographic imaging modalities. For this purpose we have developed software to register, analyse and display 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime SPECT and 1.0 T MRI of the brain. For registration of SPECT and MRI data external skin markers containing 99mTc (220 kBq) in 50 microliters of coconut butter were used. The software is coded in the C programming language, and the X Window system and the OSF/Motif standards are used for graphics and definition of the user interface. The registration algorithm follows a noniterative least-squares method using singular value decomposition of a 3 x 3 covariance matrix. After registration, the image slices of both data sets are shown at identical tomographic levels. The registration error in phantom studies was on average 4 mm. In the two-dimensional display mode the orthogonal cross-sections of the data sets are displayed side by side. In the three-dimensional mode MRI data are displayed as a surface-shaded 3 D reconstruction and SPECT data as cut planes. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated in patients with cerebral infarcts, brain tumour, herpes simplex encephalitis and epilepsy.

  1. Registration and display of brain SPECT and MRI using external markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjonen, H. [Medical Engineering Centre, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Stenbaeckinkatu 9, FIN-00290 Helsinki (Finland); Nikkinen, P. [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Sipilae, O. [Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Launes, J. [Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Salli, E. [Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Salonen, O. [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Karp, P. [Medical Engineering Centre, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Stenbaeckinkatu 9, FIN-00290 Helsinki (Finland); Ylae-Jaeaeski, J. [Graphic Arts Laboratory, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Katila, T. [Medical Engineering Centre, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Stenbaeckinkatu 9, FIN-00290 Helsinki (Finland)]|[Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Liewendahl, K. [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-02-01

    Accurate anatomical localisation of abnormalities observed in brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is difficult, but can be improved by correlating data from SPECT and other tomographic imaging modalities. For this purpose we have developed software to register, analyse and display {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime SPECT and 1.0 T MRI of the brain. For registration of SPECT and MRI data external skin markers containing {sup 99m}Tc (220 kBq) in 50 {mu}l of coconut butter were used. The software is coded in the C programming language, and the X Window system and the OSF/Motif standards are used for graphics and definition of the user interface. The registration algorithm follows a noniterative least-squares method using singular value decomposition of a 3 x 3 covariance matrix. After registration, the image slices of both data sets are shown at identical tomographic levels. The registration error in phantom studies was on average 4 mm. In the two-dimensional display mode the orthogonal cross-sections of the data sets are displayed side by side. In the three-dimensional mode MRI data are displayed as a surface-shaded 3 D reconstruction and SPECT data as cut planes. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated in patients with cerebral infarcts, brain tumour, herpes simplex encephalitis and epilepsy. (orig.). With 9 figs.

  2. Follow-up of pain processing recovery after ketamine in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia patients using brain perfusion ECD-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric; Cammilleri, Serge; Colavolpe, Cecile; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille, Cedex 5 (France); Niboyet, Jean [Clinique La Phoceanne, Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Marseille (France)

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the follow-up of pain processing recovery in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia (FM) could be objectively evaluated with brain perfusion ethyl cysteinate dimer single photon computerized tomography (ECD-SPECT) after administration of ketamine. We enrolled 17 hyperalgesic FM women patients (48.5 {+-} 11 years, range 25-63). After treatment with subcutaneous ketamine, 11 patients were considered as 'good responders', with a decrease in pain intensity, evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), greater than 50%. On the other hand, six patients were considered as 'poor responders'. A voxel-based analysis of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was conducted (p{sub voxel} < 0.001uc), in the two subgroups of patients, before and after treatment, in comparison to a group of ten healthy subjects, matched for age and gender. In comparison to baseline brain SPECT, midbrain rCBF showed a greater increase after ketamine in the responder group than in the nonresponder group (p{sub cluster} = 0.016c). In agreement with the clinical response, the change in midbrain rCBF after ketamine was highly correlated with the reduction of VAS pain score (r = 0.7182; p = 0.0041). This prospective study suggests that blockade of facilitatory descending modulation of pain with ketamine can be evaluated in the periaqueductal grey with brain perfusion SPECT. (orig.)

  3. The Performance of Ictal Brain SPECT Localizing for Epileptogenic Zone in Neocortical Epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Sik; Lee, Dong Soo; Hyun, In Young; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Sang Kun; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    The epileptogenic zones should be localized precisely before surgical resection of these zones in intractable epilepsy. The localization is more difficult in patients with neocortical epilepsy than in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. This study aimed at evaluation of the usefulness of ictal brain perfusion SPECT for the localization of epileptogenic zones in neocortical epilepsy. We compared the performance of ictal SPECT with MRI referring to ictal scalp electroencephalography (sEEG). Ictal {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT were done in twenty-one patients. Ictal EEG were also obtained during video monitoring. MRI were reviewed. According to the ictal sEEG and semiology, 8 patients were frontal lobe epilepsy, 7 patients were lateral temporal lobe epilepsy, 2 patients were parietal lobe epilepsy, and 4 patients were occipital lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT showed hyperperfusion in 14 patients(67%) in the zones which were suspected to be epileptogenic according to ictal EEG and semiology. MRI found morphologic abnormalities in 9 patients(43%). Among the 12 patients, in whom no epileptogenic zones were revealed by MR1, ictal SPECT found zones of hyperperfusion concordant with ictal sEEG in 9 patients(75%). However, no zones of hyperperfusion were found in 4 among 9 patients who were found to have cerebromalacia, abnormal calcification and migration anomaly in MRI. We thought that ictal SPECT was useful for localization of epileptogenic zones in neocortical epilepsy and especially in patients with negative findings in MRI.

  4. Pre and post betahistine therapy 99m Tc - HMPAO brain spect studies in patients with vertigo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna B

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertebro basilar insufficiency (VBI is a well known cause of vertigo. Brain Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT is an important diagnostic tool to detect and to quantitate the perfusion abnormalities in different areas of the brain. Effect of an antivertigo drug Betahistine on improving the hypoperfusion in different areas of the brain in vertigo patients was studied using brain SPECT. Betahistine at a dose of 16 mg three times daily was shown to improve perfusion in the hypoperfused areas of the brain resulting in relief from symptoms of vertigo. The cerebellar region, which is the most important area involved in vertigo patients with vascular pathology, showed almost complete normalisation of perfusion following Betahistine therapy.

  5. Brain SPECT in childhood; Temp cerebrale chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquart, F.; Saliba, E.; Prunier, C.; Baulieu, F.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D.; Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Unite Inserm 316, 37 - Tours (France)

    2001-04-01

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  6. The role of Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT in the psychiatric disability evaluation of patients with chronic traumatic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young [Nuclear Medicne, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Sun Woo; Ghi, Lek Sung; Song, Chang June [College of Medicine, Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    We studied whether brain perfusion SPECT is useful in the psychiatric disability evaluation of patients with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty-nine patients (M:F=58:11, age 39 {+-} 14 years) who underwent Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT, brain MRI and neuropsychological (NP) tests during hospitalization in psychiatric wards for the psychiatric disability evaluation were included; the severity of injury was mild in 31, moderate in 17 and severe in 21. SPECT, MRI, NP tests were performed 6 {approx} 61 months (mean 23 months) post-injury. Diagnostic accuracy of SPECT and MRI to show hypoperfusion or abnormal signal intensity in patients with cognitive impairment represented by NP test results were compared. Forty-two patients were considered to have cognitive impairment on NP tests and 27 not. Brain SPECT showed 71% sensitivity and 85% specificity, while brain MRI showed 62% sensitivity and 93% specificity (p>0.05, McNemar test). SPECT found more cortical lesions and MRI was superior in detecting white matter lesions. sensitivity and specificity of 31 mild TBI patients were 45%, 90% for SPECT and 27%, 100% for MRI (p>0.05, McNemar test). Among 41 patients with normal brain MRI, SEPCT showed 63% sensitivity (50% for mild TBI) and 88% specificity (85% for malingerers). Brain SPECT has a supplementary role to neuropsychological tests in the psychiatric disability evaluation of chronic TBI patients by detecting more cortical lesions than MRI.

  7. The study of low level laser irradiation therapy on brain infarction with SPECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Xuechang; Jia Shaowei; Zleng Xiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Effect of rCBF and brain function on ILIB treating brain infarction will be investigated by SPECT brain perfusion imaging. Method: 3 1 patients with brain infarction, 17 patients were treated by ILIB on standard pharmaceutial treatment. SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed before and after ILIB therapy with comparison of oneself. They were quantified with BFCR% model effect during ILIB in 14 patients were observed. Result: ILIB 30 rnme SPECT showed the improvement of rCBF and cerebral function in 14 patients with brain infarction, and in 17 patients locus were prominence than mirror regions att er ILIB therapy, both are higher singnitficant difference ( t=4.4052, P<0.0001 ), but mirror regions were not singnificant difference before and after ILIB (t=1.6995, P>0.05). BFCR% quantitative results of locus were higher mirror regions, and higher singnificant difference (t=4.5278 p<0.0001 )。 Conclusion: ILIB can improve the rCBF and cerebral function of patients with brain infarction, and provoke function of brain cells. Some new evidence was provided for ILIB treatment of cerebral ischemia

  8. Dynamic SPECT of the brain using a lipophilic technetium-99m complex, PnAO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, S; Andersen, A R; Vorstrup, S;

    1985-01-01

    The lipophilic 99mTc-labeled oxime propylene amine oxime (PnAO) should, according to recent reports behave like 133Xe in the human brain. This study compares SPECT images of the two tracers in six subjects: four stroke cases, one transitory ischemic attack case and one normal subject. Technetium-99...

  9. Transient hyperperfusion after extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery on brain perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Oh, Chang Wan; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We designed this study to investigate the transient relative hyperperfusion and its clinical implication after STA (superficial temporal artery) to MCA (middle cerebral artery) bypass surgery in patients with ischemic cerebral stroke. In 25 patients, comprising of 11 moyamoya disease (MMD) and 14 atherosclerotic disease (ASD), STA-MCA anastomosis was performed to distal cortical branches of middle cerebral artery for revascularization. 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT was performed before, 3 days and then 10 days after bypass surgery. Each image was spatially normalized into the standard space and changes of brain perfusion in the entire internal carotid artery (ICA) territory were evaluated using standardized ROIs. In the overall analysis including all patients, the surgery effectively increased ICA territory perfusion on the 3rd and 10th day after bypass surgery in comparison with the preoperative one (p<0.01 and p=0.03). The 3rd day perfusion was significantly higher than the 10th day one (p<0.01), demonstrating transient relative hyperperfusion on the 3rd day compared with the 10th day. In MMD group, such transient increase of perfusion was most severe in the vicinity of the anastomosis site, and more definite than the ASD group. Three patients, 2 ASD and one MMD, showed temporary neurological deterioration (dysphasia or dysarthria) beginning within 3 days after surgery and resolving completely within 2 weeks after onset, without hemorrhage, infarction or other serious defects on CT scan. Their neurological changes correlated well with the focal perfusion changes confirmed by SPECT images on the 3rd and 10th postoperative day. Transient relative hyperperfusion was observed on postoperative 3rd day compared with the 10th day following STA-MCA bypass surgery. In some patients, such transient increase of focal perfusion seems to provoke temporary neurological deterioration.

  10. Semi-automatic Epileptic Hot Spot Detection in ECD brain SPECT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Laszlo; Zuhayra, Maaz; Henze, Eberhard

    A method is proposed to process ECD brain SPECT images representing epileptic hot spots inside the brain. For validation 35 ictal —interictal patient image data were processed. The images were registered by a normalized mutual information method, then the separation of the suspicious and normal brain areas were performed by two threshold-based segmentations. Normalization between the images was performed by local normal brain mean values. Based on the validation made by two medical physicians, minimal human intervention in the segmentation parameters was necessary to detect all epileptic spots and minimize the number of false spots inside the brain.

  11. Neuropsychological functions and rCBF SPECT in Parkinson's disease patients considered candidates for deep brain stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschali, Anna; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Vassilakos, Paulos [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Patras (Greece); Messinis, Lambros; Lyros, Epameinondas; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurology, Neuropsychology Section, Patras (Greece); Constantoyannis, Costas; Kefalopoulou, Zinovia [University of Patras Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Patras (Greece)

    2009-11-15

    In the present study, we examined relationships between neuropsychological functions and brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed at presurgical evaluation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Twenty advanced non-demented PD patients, candidates for DBS surgery, underwent perfusion brain SPECT study and neuropsychological assessment prior to surgery (range: 30-50 days). Patients were further assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) scale. During all assessments patients were ''on'' standard medication. NeuroGam software, which permits voxel by voxel analysis, was used to compare the brain perfusion of PD patients with a normal database adjusted for sex and age. Neuropsychological scores were compared to age, education and sex-adjusted normative databases. Our results indicated that the distribution of rCBF showed significant differences when compared to an age- and sex-adjusted normative database. We found impaired blood flow in 17 (85%) of our patients in the left prefrontal lobe, in 14 (70%) in the right prefrontal lobe and in 11 (55%) in the left frontal and right parietal lobes. Neuropsychological testing revealed that 18 (90%) of our patients had significant impairments in measures of executive functions (set-shifting) and 15 (75%) in response inhibition. Furthermore, we found significant correlations between measures of visual attention, executive functions and the right frontal lobe region. The presence of widespread blood flow reduction was observed mainly in the frontal lobes of dementia-free patients with advanced PD. Furthermore, performance on specific cognitive measures was highly related to perfusion brain SPECT findings. (orig.)

  12. Normal cerebral perfusion of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT. Evaluation by an anatomical standardization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Ryuta; Koyama, Masamichi; Ito, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Seiro; Sato, Kazunori; Ono, Shuichi; Goto, Ryoi; Sato, Tachio; Fukuda, Hiroshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Development, Aging and Cancer

    1996-01-01

    A single photon emitter labeled tracer, {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD), has now been used for rCBF studies with SPECT. However, normal distribution pattern of this agent in the brain still remains unclear. Therefore, the specific purpose of this study was to investigate the normal distribution pattern of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT image. Regional cerebral distribution was measured with SPECT and 984{+-}17 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in ten normal subjects. During the SPECT measurement, subjects were placed comfortably in a supine position with their eyes closed. Each SPECT image was anatomically standardized using a computerized brain atlas system of Roland et al. (HBA: Human Brain Atlas) and X-CT image. Anatomically standardized SPECT images were globally normalized to 100 count/voxel. Then, the mean and SD images of brain SPECT were calculated voxel-by-voxel basis. The highest radioactivity was found in the medial aspect of the occipital lobe. The results indicate that the normal distribution pattern of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in the human brain may be not simply reflect the regional cerebral blood flow. (author).

  13. Comparative value of brain perfusion SPECT and [{sup 123}I]MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in distinguishing between dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Shimizu, Soichiro; Hirao, Kentaro; Kanetaka, Hidekazu; Iwamoto, Toshihiko [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Chikamori, Taishiro; Usui, Yasuhiro; Yamashina, Akira [Tokyo Medical University, 2. Department of Internal Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Abe, Kimihiko [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    Both decreased occipital perfusion on brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and reduction in cardiac {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake are characteristic features of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and potentially support the clinical diagnosis of DLB. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of these two methods for differentiation of DLB from Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study population comprised 19 patients with probable DLB and 39 patients with probable AD who underwent both SPECT with N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine and MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. Objective and quantitative measurement of perfusion in the medial occipital lobe, including the cuneus and lingual gyrus, was performed by the use of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections. Medial occipital perfusion was significantly decreased in the DLB group compared with the AD group. The mean heart/mediastinum ratios of MIBG uptake were significantly lower in the DLB group than in the AD group. Although SPECT failed to demonstrate significant hypoperfusion in the medial occipital lobe in five patients with DLB, marked reduction of MIBG uptake was found in all patients with DLB. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that MIBG myocardial scintigraphy enabled more accurate discrimination between DLB and AD than was possible with perfusion SPECT. MIBG myocardial scintigraphy may improve the sensitivity in the detection of DLB. In particular, this method may provide a powerful differential diagnostic tool when it is difficult to distinguish cases of DLB from AD using brain perfusion SPECT. (orig.)

  14. SPECT-CT and PET-CT progress in the research of computer analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of multimodal imaging equipment is milestone in the development of imaging, after the PET-CT, American GE company launched a Discovery 670 NM/CT, CT and SPECT, the organic integration of the formation of SPECT-CT new molecular medical imaging equipment, with SPECT, CT and PET-CT is getting more and more widely attention and application, many of SPECT-CT and PET-CT image analysis computer method arises at the historic moment, getting increasing attention of the clinical and imaging science. The paper carried on the detailed description of the SPECT-CT and PET-CT computer analysis method.

  15. Tc-99m-bicisate (ECD)-brain-SPECT in rapidly progressive dementia; Hirn-SPECT mit Tc-99m-Bicisat (ECD) bei rasch progredientem dementiellen Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marienhagen, J.; Eilles, C. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Weingaertner, U.; Blaha, L. [Bezirkskrankenhaus Mainkofen (Germany). Psychiatrische Klinik; Zerr, I.; Poser, S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie

    1999-07-01

    We present a 61-year-old male patient with progressive dementia. A brain SPECT with Tc-99m-bicisate was performed for confirmation of clinically suspected Alzheimer-dementia. At the time of the SPECT-investigation marked apraxia and aphasia besides severe dementia were present. Electrophysiological as well as anatomical neuroimaging findings showed non-diagnostic alterations. SPECT revealed distinct perfusion defects, which made Alzheimer Dementia unlikely. The further course of the patient was determined by rapidly progressive deterioration with development of akinetic mutism. Thereafter, increased levels of neuron-specific enolase as well as 14-3-3 proteins were found in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF). The patient finally died with signs of cerebral decortication. Due to the clinical course and the CSF-findings the patient's final diagnosis was Creutzfeld-Jakob-disease, nevertheless no autopsy was performed. The presented case report underscores the clinical utility of perfusion brain SPECT in the differential diagnosis of dementias. (orig.) [German] Wir berichten ueber einen 61jaehrigen Patienten mit progredientem dementiellen Syndrom, der unter der Verdachtsdiagnose einer Demenz vom Alzheimer-Typ (DAT) zur Hirn-SPECT-Untersuchung mit TC-99m-Bicisat (ECD) vorgestellt wurde. Zum Untersuchungszeitpunkt bestanden neben dem Vollbild einer Demenz eine ausgepraegte Apraxie und Aphasie bei unspezifischen Veraenderungen im EEG sowie der neuroradiologischen Bildgebung. In der Hirn-SPECT-Untersuchung fanden sich fuer eine DAT untypische ausgedehnte, vorwiegend rechtshemisphaerische Perfusionsstoerungen. Im weiteren Verlauf rasche Progredienz des Krankheitsbildes mit Entwicklung eines akinetischen Mutismus sowie Nachweis erhoehter Werte der neuronspezifischen Enolase und des 14-3-3-Proteins im Liquor. Der Patient verstarb schliesslich unter dem Bild einer Decortication. Aufgrund des klinischen Verlaufs sowie der Liquorbefunde wurde, da eine autoptische Befundsicherung

  16. sup 201 Tl SPECT for evaluation of brain tumors as compared with sup 123 I-IMP SPECT and sup 18 F-FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriuchi, Noboru (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-01-01

    Clinical usefulness of {sup 201}Tl SPECT for evaluation of brain tumors was studied in comparison with {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET. {sup 201}Tl SPECT and {sup 123}IMP SPECT were performed in 73 patients with brain neoplasm (group 1) and 15 patients with non-tumor cerebral diseases (group 2). Among them, 31 patients in group 1 and 5 patients in group 2 received {sup 18}F-FDG PET. SPECT was done with a ring type machine (HEADTOME SET011) and PET with a neuro PET (PCT H1). Forty-eight of 73 (65.8%) patients in group 1 showed increased accumulation of {sup 201}Tl in tumor site, whereas only 9 (12.3%) patients showed increased radioactivity of {sup 123}I-IMP in the lesion. Eighteen of 31 (58.1%) patients with neoplasm demonstrated increased regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRgl) in the lesion. Only two out of 15 (13.3%) patients with non-tumor lesion demonstrated increased accumulation of {sup 201}Tl. None of them showed accumulation of {sup 123}I-IMP or increased rCMRgl. Patients with malignant neoplasm demonstrated higher uptake of {sup 201}Tl in the lesion than those with benign neoplasm or non-tumor lesions. Post-therapeutic patients with glioblastoma or metastatic tumors showed lower {sup 201}Tl uptake than before therapy. Superimposed images of both {sup 201}Tl and {sup 123}I-IMP resemble rCMRgl functional images, suggesting increased {sup 201}Tl radioactivity in viable tumor tissue with decreased radioactivity in surrounding areas. {sup 201}Tl SPECT is useful for diagnosis of brain tumors and evaluation of effectiveness of therapy or evidence of residual tumor tissue. It may differentiate malignant tumors from benign tumors or non-tumor intracranial diseases including radiation injury and detect tumor recurrence earlier. (author).

  17. CT-based attenuation and scatter correction compared with uniform attenuation correction in brain perfusion SPECT imaging for dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Rebecca; Firbank, Michael J.; Lloyd, Jim; O'Brien, John T.

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated if the appearance and diagnostic accuracy of HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT images could be improved by using CT-based attenuation and scatter correction compared with the uniform attenuation correction method. A cohort of subjects who were clinically categorized as Alzheimer’s Disease (n=38 ), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (n=29 ) or healthy normal controls (n=30 ), underwent SPECT imaging with Tc-99m HMPAO and a separate CT scan. The SPECT images were processed using: (a) correction map derived from the subject’s CT scan or (b) the Chang uniform approximation for correction or (c) no attenuation correction. Images were visually inspected. The ratios between key regions of interest known to be affected or spared in each condition were calculated for each correction method, and the differences between these ratios were evaluated. The images produced using the different corrections were noted to be visually different. However, ROI analysis found similar statistically significant differences between control and dementia groups and between AD and DLB groups regardless of the correction map used. We did not identify an improvement in diagnostic accuracy in images which were corrected using CT-based attenuation and scatter correction, compared with those corrected using a uniform correction map.

  18. Brain perfusion SPECT and EEG findings in Rett syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappalainen, R. [Children`s Castle Hospital, Dept. of Child Neurology, Helsinki (Finland); Liewendahl, K.; Nikkinen, P. [Univ. Central Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Laboratory Dept., Helsinki (Finland); Sainio, K.; Riikonen, R.S. [Univ. Central Hospital, Child Neurology, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-01-01

    Thirteen patients (mean age 8.4 + 5.3 years) with Rett syndrome (RS) were studied with EEG and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT. Eleven patients had background abnormalities and 10 patients paroxysmal activity in EEG. Hypoperfusion of varying severity was detected in 11 patients, 7 patients having multiple lesions. Bifrontal hypoperfusion, observed in 6 patients, was the most distinctive finding. Hypoperfusion was observed also in other cortical regions, except for the occipital lobes. There was no correlation between severity of the background abnormality or presence of paroxysmal activity in EEG and grade of hypoperfusion. There was, however, an association between the severity of hypoperfusion and early manifestation of symptoms in patients with RS. Whether this early-onset group of patients represents a different disease entity or only reflects disease variability the basic pathology being the same, is a possibility that deserves further clarification. (au) 37 refs.

  19. Ophthalmoplegic migraine with reversible thalamic ischemia by Tc-99m ethylcysteinate dimer brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Shin, Dong Jin; Kang, Sung Soo [Gachon Medical School, Gil Medical Center, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Two patients presented with ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM) underwent EEG, Brain-MRI, cerebral angiography, and Tc-99m ECD SPECT during an attack. Follow-up SPECT was performed after neurologic symptoms resolved. In both cases, SPECT during an attack of ophthalmoplegia and headache demonstrated a significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the thalamus to the side of ophthalmoplegia, which was normalized on the follow-up SPECT during a symptom free recovery phase (Lesion to Non-lesion thalamic ratio=1.19 to 0.96 and 1.16 to 0.98, respectively). The other roentgenographic and laboratory findings were normal. These findings are suggestive the ischemia in the perforators of PCA results in third nerve palsy because the portion of oculomotor nerve behind the cavernous sinus derives its blood supply from small perforating branches of the basilar and PCA. Matched ictal hypoperfusion of the thalamus to the site of ophthalmoplegic migraine is suggestive of the ischemic neuropathy as an etiology of OM.

  20. A Silicon SPECT System for Molecular Imaging of the Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; Fritz, Mark A; McDonald, Benjamin S; Durko, Heather L; Furenlid, Lars R; Wilson, Donald W; Peterson, Todd E

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the feasibility of using silicon double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs) for SPECT imaging of the activity distribution of iodine-125 using a 300-micrometer thick detector. Based on this experience, we now have developed fully customized silicon DSSDs and associated readout electronics with the intent of developing a multi-pinhole SPECT system. Each DSSD has a 60.4 mm × 60.4 mm active area and is 1 mm thick. The strip pitch is 59 micrometers, and the readout of the 1024 strips on each side gives rise to a detector with over one million pixels. Combining four high-resolution DSSDs into a SPECT system offers an unprecedented space-bandwidth product for the imaging of single-photon emitters. The system consists of two camera heads with two silicon detectors stacked one behind the other in each head. The collimator has a focused pinhole system with cylindrical-shaped pinholes that are laser-drilled in a 250 μm tungsten plate. The unique ability to collect projection data at two magnifications simultaneously allows for multiplexed data at high resolution to be combined with lower magnification data with little or no multiplexing. With the current multi-pinhole collimator design, our SPECT system will be capable of offering high spatial resolution, sensitivity and angular sampling for small field-of-view applications, such as molecular imaging of the mouse brain.

  1. Assessment of SPM in perfusion brain SPECT studies. A numerical simulation study using bootstrap resampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareto, Deborah; Aguiar, Pablo; Pavía, Javier; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Cot, Albert; Falcón, Carles; Benabarre, Antoni; Lomeña, Francisco; Vieta, Eduard; Ros, Domènec

    2008-07-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) has become the technique of choice to statistically evaluate positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain studies. Nevertheless, only a few methodological studies have been carried out to assess the performance of SPM in SPECT. The aim of this paper was to study the performance of SPM in detecting changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in hypo- and hyperperfused areas in brain SPECT studies. The paper seeks to determine the relationship between the group size and the rCBF changes, and the influence of the correction for degradations. The assessment was carried out using simulated brain SPECT studies. Projections were obtained with Monte Carlo techniques, and a fan-beam collimator was considered in the simulation process. Reconstruction was performed by using the ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm with and without compensation for attenuation, scattering, and spatial variant collimator response. Significance probability maps were obtained with SPM2 by using a one-tailed two-sample t-test. A bootstrap resampling approach was used to determine the sample size for SPM to detect the between-group differences. Our findings show that the correction for degradations results in a diminution of the sample size, which is more significant for small regions and low-activation factors. Differences in sample size were found between hypo- and hyperperfusion. These differences were larger for small regions and low-activation factors, and when no corrections were included in the reconstruction algorithm.

  2. Brain perfusion SPECT and FDG PET findings in a patient with ballism associated with hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Kyun; Kim, Sang Jin [Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Ballism is a very rare presentation in association with hyperthyroidism. We describe a 22-year-old lady with episodes of recurrent ballism and hyperthyroidism. A 22-year-old lady was admitted to Neurology department because of sudden development of vigorous involuntary movement and dysarthria. She was diagnosed as hyperthyroidism at the age 12 and treated irregularly. She arrived at the emergency room because of sudden onset of involuntary movement. Computed tomography (CT) scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain was normal. Serum levels of thyroid hormone were increased (Free T4 3.15 ng/dl; normal range 0.93-1.71 ng/dl), whereas thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was undetectable. The thyroid gland was diffusely enlarged and exophthalmos was found. She had been given antithyroid medication from local clinic but medicated irregularly. Technetium thyroid scan reveals diffusely enlarged thyroid with increased radioactivity. Radioiodine uptake in 24 hours was 71 %. Brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD reveals asymmetrical perfusion pattern in basal ganglia. Brain PET using F-18 FDG reveals increased metabolism at both caudate nucleus and putamen. She was treated with radioiodine and involuntary movement was improved. There is only few report on ballism associated with hyperthyroidism and no report on functional brain imaging. Brain perfusion SPECT and FDG PET may give useful information about functional status of brain in patients with ballism associated with hyperthyroidism in case of normal anatomical finding on CT/MRI.

  3. PET/SPECT imaging : From carotid vulnerability to brain viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Luijckx, Gert-Jan; Tio, Rene A.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Current key issues in ischemic stroke are related to carotid plaque vulnerability, brain viability, and timing of intervention. The treatment of ischemic stroke has evolved into urgent active interventions, as 'time is brain'. Functional imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET)

  4. Automated Analysis of {sup 123}I-beta-CIT SPECT Images with Statistical Probabilistic Anatomical Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Hoyoung; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Yu Kyung; Jeon, Bumseok; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Population-based statistical probabilistic anatomical maps have been used to generate probabilistic volumes of interest for analyzing perfusion and metabolic brain imaging. We investigated the feasibility of automated analysis for dopamine transporter images using this technique and evaluated striatal binding potentials in Parkinson's disease and Wilson's disease. We analyzed 2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4-{sup 123}I-iodophenyl)tropane ({sup 123}I-beta-CIT) SPECT images acquired from 26 people with Parkinson's disease (M:F=11:15,mean age=49±12 years), 9 people with Wilson's disease (M: F=6:3, mean age=26±11 years) and 17 normal controls (M:F=5:12, mean age=39±16 years). A SPECT template was created using striatal statistical probabilistic map images. All images were spatially normalized onto the template, and probability-weighted regional counts in striatal structures were estimated. The binding potential was calculated using the ratio of specific and nonspecific binding activities at equilibrium. Voxel-based comparisons between groups were also performed using statistical parametric mapping. Qualitative assessment showed that spatial normalizations of the SPECT images were successful for all images. The striatal binding potentials of participants with Parkinson's disease and Wilson's disease were significantly lower than those of normal controls. Statistical parametric mapping analysis found statistically significant differences only in striatal regions in both disease groups compared to controls. We successfully evaluated the regional {sup 123}I-beta-CIT distribution using the SPECT template and probabilistic map data automatically. This procedure allows an objective and quantitative comparison of the binding potential, which in this case showed a significantly decreased binding potential in the striata of patients with Parkinson's disease or Wilson's disease.

  5. Increased cerebral blood flow in MELAS shown by Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, N.J.; Tsay, D.G. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); Liu, R.S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei (Taiwan); Li, J.Y.; Kong, K.W. [Division of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); Kwok, C.G.; Strauss, H.W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, CA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    We report cerebral SPECT studies on two siblings with the syndrome of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT was performed 8, 19 and 30 days after a stroke-like episode in one case and 10 days after a stroke-like episode, 6 h after a partial seizure and as a follow-up study in the other. Increased blood flow was seen in both these patients with stroke-like episodes due to MELAS. The cause of the increased blood flow is uncertain, but it may be related to the decreased pH created by local increase in lactic acid. (orig.)

  6. Clinical correlative evaluation of an iterative method for reconstruction of brain SPECT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobili, Flavio E-mail: fnobili@smartino.ge.it; Vitali, Paolo; Calvini, Piero; Bollati, Francesca; Girtler, Nicola; Delmonte, Marta; Mariani, Giuliano; Rodriguez, Guido

    2001-08-01

    Background: Brain SPECT and PET investigations have showed discrepancies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) when considering data deriving from deeply located structures, such as the mesial temporal lobe. These discrepancies could be due to a variety of factors, including substantial differences in gamma-cameras and underlying technology. Mesial temporal structures are deeply located within the brain and the commonly used Filtered Back-Projection (FBP) technique does not fully take into account either the physical parameters of gamma-cameras or geometry of collimators. In order to overcome these limitations, alternative reconstruction methods have been proposed, such as the iterative method of the Conjugate Gradients with modified matrix (CG). However, the clinical applications of these methods have so far been only anecdotal. The present study was planned to compare perfusional SPECT data as derived from the conventional FBP method and from the iterative CG method, which takes into account the geometrical and physical characteristics of the gamma-camera, by a correlative approach with neuropsychology. Methods: Correlations were compared between perfusion of the hippocampal region, as achieved by both the FBP and the CG reconstruction methods, and a short-memory test (Selective Reminding Test, SRT), specifically addressing one of its function. A brain-dedicated camera (CERASPECT) was used for SPECT studies with {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropylene-amine-oxime in 23 consecutive patients (mean age: 74.2{+-}6.5) with mild (Mini-Mental Status Examination score {>=}15, mean 20.3{+-}3), probable AD. Counts from a hippocampal region in each hemisphere were referred to the average thalamic counts. Results: Hippocampal perfusion significantly correlated with the MMSE score with similar statistical significance (p<0.01) between the two reconstruction methods. Correlation between hippocampal perfusion and the SRT score was better with the CG method (r=0.50 for both hemispheres, p<0

  7. Brain MRI and SPECT in the diagnosis of early neurological involvement in Wilson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piga, Mario; Satta, Loredana; Serra, Alessandra; Loi, Gianluigi [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Murru, Alessandra; Demelia, Luigi [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Gastroenterology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Sias, Alessandro [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Radiology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Marrosu, Francesco [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Neurology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    To evaluate the impact of brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in early detection of central nervous system abnormalities in patients affected by Wilson's disease (WD) with or without neurological involvement. Out of 25 consecutive WD patients, 13 showed hepatic involvement, ten hepatic and neurological manifestations, and twp hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric symptoms, including mainly movement disorders, major depression, and psychosis. Twenty-four healthy, age-gender matched subjects served as controls. All patients underwent brain MRI and {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT before starting specific therapy. Voxel-by-voxel analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping to compare differences in {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain uptake between the two groups. Brain MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in seven patients (28%), six of whom were affected by hepatic and neurological forms. Brain perfusion SPECT showed pathological data in 19 patients (76%), revealing diffuse or focal hypoperfusion in superior frontal (Brodmann area (BA) 6), prefrontal (BA 9), parietal (BA 40), and occipital (BA 18, BA 39) cortices in temporal gyri (BA 37, BA 21) and in caudatus and putamen. Moreover, hepatic involvement was detected in nine subjects; eight presented both hepatic and neurological signs, while two exhibited WD-correlated hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric alterations. All but one patient with abnormal MRI matched with abnormal ECD SPECT. Pathologic MRI findings were obtained in six out of ten patients with hepatic and neurological involvement while abnormal ECD SPECT was revealed in eight patients. Both patients with hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric involvement displayed abnormal ECD SPECT and one displayed an altered MRI. These findings suggest that ECD SPECT might be useful in detecting early brain damage in WD, not only in the perspective of assessing and treating motor impairment but also in evaluating

  8. Brain SPECT guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in treatment resistant major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shailesh; Chadda, Rakesh K; Kumar, Nand; Bal, C S

    2016-06-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a potential treatment in treatment resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). However, there is no consensus about the exact site of stimulation for rTMS. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) offers a potential technique in deciding the site of stimulation. The present study was conducted to assess the difference in outcome of brain SPECT assisted rTMS versus standard protocol of twenty sessions of high frequency rTMS as add on treatment in 20 patients with treatment resistant MDD, given over a period of 4 weeks. Thirteen subjects (group I) received high frequency rTMS over an area of hypoperfusion in the prefrontal cortex, as identified on SPECT, whereas 7 subjects (group II) were administered rTMS in the left dorsoslateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) area. Improvement was monitored using standardized instruments. Patients in the group I showed a significantly better response compared to those in the group II. In group I, 46% of the subjects were responders on MADRS, 38% on BDI and 77% on CGI. The parallel figures of responders in Group II were 0% on MADRS, 14% on BDI and 43% on CGI. There were no remitters in the study. No significant untoward side effects were noticed. The study had limitations of a small sample size and non-controlled design, and all the subjects were also receiving the standard antidepressant therapy. Administration of rTMS over brain SPECT specified area of hypoperfusion may have a better clinical outcome compared to the standard protocol.

  9. Evolution of technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT and brain mapping in a patient presenting with echolalia and palilalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, R A; Saerens, J; De Deyn, P P; Verslegers, W; Marien, P; Vandevivere, J

    1991-08-01

    A 78-yr-old woman presented with transient echolalia and palilalia. She had suffered from Parkinson's disease for 2 yr. Routine laboratory examination showed hypotonic hyponatremia, but was otherwise unremarkable. Brain mapping revealed a bifrontal delta focus, more pronounced on the right. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain with technetium-99m labeled d,l hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO), performed during the acute episode showed relative frontoparietal hypoactivity. Brain mapping performed after disappearance of the echolalia and palilalia, which persisted only for 1 day, was normal. By contrast, SPECT findings persisted for more than 3 wk. Features of particular interest in the presented patient are the extensive defects seen on brain SPECT despite the absence of morphologic lesions, the congruent electrophysiologic changes and their temporal relationship with the clinical evolution.

  10. In vivo quantification by SPECT of [{sup 123}I] ADAM bound to serotonin transporters in the brains of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, X.-X. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Hwang, J.-J. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, J.-F. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chi-Mei Foundation Medical Center, Yungkang City 710, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-C. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: jcchen@ym.edu.tw; Chou, Y.-T. [Institute of Physiology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Tu, K.-Y. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mackey Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan 104 (China); Wey, S.-P. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan 333 (China); Ting Gann [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Tao- Yuan 335, Taiwan (China)

    2004-11-01

    Background: A novel radioiodine ligand [{sup 123}I] ADAM (2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine) has been suggested as a promising serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging agent for the central nervous system. In this study, the biodistribution of SERTs in the rabbit brain was investigated using [{sup 123}I] ADAM and mapping images of the same animal produced by both single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and microautoradiography. A semiquantification method was adopted to deduce the optimum time for SPECT imaging, whereas the input for a simple fully quantitative tracer kinetic model was provided from arterial blood sampling data. Methods: SPECT imaging was performed on female rabbits postinjection of 185 MBq [{sup 123}I] ADAM. The time-activity curve obtained from the SPECT images was used to quantify the SERTs, for which the binding potential was calculated from the kinetic modeling of [{sup 123}I] ADAM. The kinetic data were analyzed by the nonlinear least squares method. The effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) on rabbits were also evaluated. After scanning, the same animal was sacrificed and the brain was removed for microautoradiography. Regions-of-interest were analyzed using both SPECT and microautoradiography images. The SPECT images were coregistered manually with the corresponding microautoradiography images for comparative study. Results: During the time interval 90-100 min postinjection, the peak specific binding levels in different brain regions were compared and the brain stem was shown to have the highest activity. The target-to-background ratio was 1.89{+-}0.02. Similar studies with fluoxetine and PCA showed a background level for SERT occupation. Microautoradiography demonstrated a higher level of anatomical details of the [{sup 123}I] ADAM distribution than that obtained by SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain. Conclusion: SPECT imaging of the rabbit brain with

  11. Serial cerebral hemodynamic change after extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery: evaluated by acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT(acz-SPECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Il Ki; Kim, Jae Seung; Ahn, Jae Sung; Im, Ki Chun; Kim, Euy Nyong; Mun, Dae Hyeog [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated serial cerebral hemodynamic changes after EC-IC bypass surgery in symptomatic pts with atherosclerotic occlusion of internal carotid (lCA) or mid-cerebral artery (MCA) using Acz-SPECT. 25 symptomatic pts (M/F 19/6, 53{+-}10 y) with ICA and MCA occlusion (16 uni - and 9 bilateral) prospectively underwent Acz-SPECT using Tc-99m ECD before and 1 week after EC-IC bypass surgery. Of these, 16 underwent additional f/u Acz-SPECT 5 mo later. Cerebral perfusion and perfusion reserve of MCA territory were evaluated visually and SPECT findings were classified into 4 groups: N/N; R/N; N/R; and R/R (perfusion/perfusion reserve: N = normal, R = reduced). For semiquantitative analysis, all SPECT images were normalized to MNI template and mean counts of MCA territory and cerebellum were obtained by AAL. Cerebral perfusion index (PI =C{sub region}/C{sub cere}) and perfusion reserve index (RI = (PI{sub Acz} - PI{sub basal}) /Pl{sub basal}) were calculated. Preop SPECT findings of ipsilateral MCA in 25 pts were R/N (4%), N/R (12%), and R/R (84% ). Early postop SPECT showed improvement of perfusion (26%) and/or reserve (68%) in ipsilateral MCA. Of 16 pts with 5mo f/u SPECT, 6 (38%) showed further improvement of perfusion or reserve. However, 4 (25%) showed aggravation of perfusion and one of these underwent revision surgery. Preop PI (1.1{+-}0.1) and RI (0.11{+-}0.07) of ipsilateral MCA were significantly lower than those of contralateral hemispheres (p<0.05). After surgery, PIs of bilateral MCA did not change at early postop period but improved in ipsilateral MCA at 5mo. Rls of ipsilateral MCA increased significantly (68%) at early postop period (P<0.001) and then did not changed. Cerebral perfusion and perfusion reserve changed with different manner during 5 mo after bypass surgery and perfusion reserve changed more dramatically than perfusion. Acz-SPECT is a feasible method for evaluating cerebral hemodynamic change after EC-IC bypass surgery.

  12. 5-HT radioligands for human brain imaging with PET and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, Louise M; Kornum, Birgitte R; Nutt, David J;

    2013-01-01

    The serotonergic system plays a key modulatory role in the brain and is the target for many drug treatments for brain disorders either through reuptake blockade or via interactions at the 14 subtypes of 5-HT receptors. This review provides the history and current status of radioligands used...... for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging of human brain serotonin (5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT transporter (SERT), and 5-HT synthesis rate. Currently available radioligands for in vivo brain imaging of the 5-HT system in humans include antagonists...... for the 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(2A), and 5-HT(4) receptors, and for SERT. Here we describe the evolution of these radioligands, along with the attempts made to develop radioligands for additional serotonergic targets. We describe the properties needed for a radioligand to become successful and the main...

  13. Differences at brain SPECT between depressed females with and without adult ADHD and healthy controls: etiological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsson Hans

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and mood disorders is common. Alterations of the cerebellum and frontal regions have been reported in neuro-imaging studies of ADHD and major depression. Methods Thirty chronically depressed adult females of whom 16 had scores below, and 14 scores above, cut-offs on the 25-items Wender Utah Retrospective Scale (WURS-25 and the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS were divided into subgroups designated "Depression" and "Depression + ADHD", respectively. Twenty-one of the patients had some audiological symptom, tinnitus and/or hearing impairment. The patients were investigated with other rating scales and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT. Controls for 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were 16 healthy females. SPECT was analyzed by both statistical parametric mapping (SPM2 and the computerized brain atlas (CBA. Discriminant analysis was performed on the volumes of interest generated by the CBA, and on the scores from rating scales with the highest group differences. Results The mean score of a depression rating scale (MADRS-S was significantly lower in the "Depression" subgroup compared to in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup. There was significantly decreased tracer uptake within the bilateral cerebellum at both SPM and CBA in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup compared to in the controls. No decrease of cerebellar tracer uptake was observed in "Depression". Significantly increased tracer uptake was found at SPM within some bilateral frontal regions (Brodmann areas 8, 9, 10, 32 in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup compared to in "Depression". An accuracy of 100% was obtained for the discrimination between the patient groups when thalamic uptake was used in the analysis along with scores from Socialization and Impulsivity scales. Conclusion The findings confirm the previous observation of a cerebellar involvement in ADHD. Higher bilateral frontal 99mTc-HMPAO uptake in

  14. Normal cerebral perfusion of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. Evaluation by an anatomical standardization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Masamichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Ito, Hiroshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Development, Aging and Cancer] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Single photon labeled tracer {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) has been used for rCBF studies by SPECT. However, normal perfusion pattern of this agent still remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate normal {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT image voxel by voxel. Eighteen male subjects without any prior or present history of medical illness participated in this study. All SPECT images were globally normalized to 100 count/voxel. Each subject had an X-ray CT scan at the same day of SPECT measurement. All subjects had normal X-ray CT scans. The standard anatomical structures of the computerized brain atlas of Roland et al. were fitted to X-ray CT images of a subject by linear and non-linear parameters. These parameters were subsequently used to transform SPECT images of the subject. After the anatomical standardization, mean and SD images of eight standardized images were calculated voxel-by-voxel basis. In the mean image, following structures showed relatively higher radioactivity; the putamen, the cerebellum, and the frontal lobe. In addition, the occipital lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, and the putamen showed large degree of SD. Anatomical standardization of SPECT images may be useful as a reference to diagnose and evaluate various brain disorders. (author).

  15. Creation and evaluation of complementary composite three-dimensional image in various brain diseases. An application of three-dimensional brain SPECT image and three-dimensional CT image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Shibata, Iekado; Mito, Toshiaki; Sugo, Nobuo [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop 3D composite images for use in functional and anatomical evaluation of various cerebral pathologies. Imaging studies were performed in normal volunteers, patients with hydrocephalus and patients with brain tumor (meningioma and metastatic tumor) using a three-detector SPECT system (Prism 3000) and helical CT scanner (Xvigor). {sup 123}I-IMP was used in normal volunteers and patients with hydrocephalus, and {sup 201}TLCL in patients with brain tumor. An Application Visualization System-Medical Viewer (AVS-MV) was used on a workstation (Titan 2) to generate 3D images. A new program was developed by synthesizing surface rendering and volume rendering techniques. The clinical effects of shunt operations were successfully evaluated in patients with hydrocephalus by means of translucent 3D images of the deep brain. Changes in the hypoperfusion area around the cerebral ventricle were compared with morphological changes in the cerebral ventricle on CT. In addition to the information concerning the characteristics of brain tumors and surrounding edemas, hemodynamic changes and changeable hypoperfusion areas around the tumors were visualized on 3D composite CT and SPECT images. A new method of generating 3D composite images of CT and SPECT was developed by combining graphic data from different systems on the same workstation. Complementary 3D composite images facilitated quantitative analysis of brain volume and functional analysis in various brain diseases. (author)

  16. A new method for brain functional study using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Kosaka, Noboru; Nishikawa, Junichi; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Iio, Masahiro (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-04-01

    The distribution of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in brain is in proportion to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and can be interpreted as functional mapping. To evaluate local changes in CBF during neuropsychological testing, we developed a new subtraction method using HMPAO and SPECT. With patients resting, 15 mCi of HMPAO was injected and the first acquisition was performed, lasting a total of 10 minutes. Soon after the end of the first scan, patients were requested to undergo Buschke's memory test or to repeat words or numbers (repetition test). During the task, an additional 15 mCi of HMPAO was injected using the same position as in the first scan, and a second acquisition was started. A functional image was made by subtracting the image in the first scan from that in the second. In two patients with transient global amnesia and two normal controls, Buschke's memory test was performed in combination with SPECT. A relative increase in activity was seen in the thalamus, subthalamic area, hippocampus, and some cortial areas, apparently reflecting local functional change induced by the memory task. In two patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease with severe memory loss, no increase was detected in these areas. In one patient with aphasia, the repetition test with SPECT was correlated with the WADA test and dichotic listening test, and good agreement was obtained. In conclusion, our new SPECT technique is useful in detecting alterations in rCBF during mental activity and can be applied to neurophysiological studies. (author).

  17. Quantitative evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow by visual stimulation in {sup 99m}Tc- HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juh, Ra Hyeong; Suh, Tae Suk; Kwark, Chul Eun; Choe, Bo Young; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Chung, Yong An; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visual activation and quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow. Visual activation was known to increase regional cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex in occipital lobe. We evaluated that change in the distribution of '9{sup 9m}Tc-HMPAO (Hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) to reflect in regional cerebral blood flow. The six volunteers were injected with 925 MBq (mean ages: 26.75 years, n=6, 3men, 3women) underwent MRI and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT during a rest state with closed eyes and visual stimulated with 8 Hz LED. We delineate the region of interest and calculated the mean count per voxel in each of the fifteen slices to quantitative analysis. The ROI to whole brain ratio and regional index was calculated pixel to pixel subtraction visual non-activation image from visual activation image and constructed brain map using a statistical parameter map(SPM99). The mean regional cerebral blood flow was increased due to visual stimulation. The increase rate of the mean regional cerebral blood flow which of the activation region in primary visual cortex of occipital lobe was 32.50{+-}5.67%. The significant activation sites using a statistical parameter of brain constructed a rendering image and image fusion with SPECT and MRI. Visual activation was revealed significant increase through quantitative analysis in visual cortex. Activation region was certified in Talairach coordinate and primary visual cortex (Ba17),visual association area (Ba18,19) of Brodmann.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow by visual stimulation in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juh, R. H.; Suh, T. S.; Chung, Y. A. [The Catholic Univ., of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visual activation and quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow. Visual activation was known to increase regional cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex in occipital lobe. We evaluated that change in the distribution of 99mTc-HMPAO (Hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) to reflect in regional cerebral blood flow. The six volunteers were injected with 925 MBq (mean ages: 26.75 years, n=6, 3men, 3women) underwent MRI and 99mTc- HMPAO SPECT during a rest state with closed eyes and visual stimulated with 8 Hz LED. We delineate the region of interest and calculated the mean count per voxel in each of the fifteen slices to quantitative analysis. The ROI to whole brain ratio and regional index was calculated pixel to pixel subtraction visual non-activation image from visual activation image and constructed brain map using a statistical parameter map (SPM99). The mean regional cerebral blood flow was increased due to visual stimulation. The increase rate of the mean regional cerebral blood flow which of the activation region in primary visual cortex of occipital lobe was 32.50{+-}5.67%. The significant activation sites using a statistical parameter of brain constructed a rendering image and image fusion with SPECT and MRI. Visual activation was revealed significant increase through quantitative analysis in visual cortex. Activation region was certified in Talairach coordinate and primary visual cortex (Ba17),visual association area (Ba18,19) of Brodmann.

  19. SPECT imaging for brain improvement quantification in a patient with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva-O'Callaghan, Albert; Bardes, Ignasi; Jacas, Carlos; Jubany, Lluis; Lorenzo-Bosquet, Carles; Cuberas-Borrós, Gemma; Vilardell-Tarres, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a rare recessive autosomal disease caused by mutations of the sterol 27-hydroxylase gene (CYP27), which leads to reduced synthesis of bile acids, particularly chenodeoxycholic acid (Cali et al, J Biol Chem. 1991;266:7779-7783; Gallus et al, Neurol Sci. 2006;27:143-149). The disease is characterized by progressive neurologic dysfunction due to accumulation of cholestanol in neurologic tissues (Moghadasian et al, Arch Neurol. 2002;59:527-529; Selva-O'Callaghan et al, Rheumatology. 2007;46:1212-1213). Long-term treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid can arrest or even reverse progression of the disease (Pierre et al, J Inherit Metab Dis. In press).Brain SPECT with 740 MBq of Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate dimmer, using a double-head gamma camera (Siemens E.cam) with high-resolution, low-energy parallel collimators was performed in our patient at onset and 2 years after starting chenodeoxycholic acid treatment. SPECT acquisitions were performed using a 360-degree orbit, 1 image/30 seg/3 degree, and 128 × 128 matrix. Reconstruction was by means of filtered back-projection, Butterworth 5/0.25, without attenuation correction. Pre- and post-SPECT dicom images were reoriented into Talairach space using NeuroGam (Segami Corporation). To visually identify abnormal perfusion regions, volume render brain image was computed, where abnormal perfusion regions were found by comparing with age-matched normal database, and Brodmann areas (BA) were quantified. Pre- versus post-treatment changes were computed by means of relative percentage between counts. Post-treatment SPECT showed better perfusion than pretreatment SPECT with an increase between 5% and 10% in frontal cortex (BA 9, BA 24, BA 32, BA 46, BA 47), parietal cortex (BA 5, BA 31), and temporal cortex (BA 20, BA 22, BA 28, BA 36, BA 37, BA 38), and with an increase of more than 10% in frontal cortex (BA 45) and parietal cortex (BA 23). This case illustrates the benefit of bile acid therapy for

  20. A CLINICAL STUDY FOR EVALUATING EARLY RADIOTHERAPY EFFECT IN PATIENTS WITH BRAIN TUMOR USING 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming; ZHANG Yong-xue; ZHANG Cheng-gang; LAN Sheng-min; WANG Zhong-min; ZHANG Xiu-fu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early radiotherapy effect using 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT in patients with brain tumors. Methods: Twenty-one patients with brain tumors who were treated by radiotherapy were studied. KPS grade, tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT , tumor size on MRI, and ratio of T/N (tumor counts/sec over normal brain tissue counts/sec) were investigated before ,during and after radiotherapy. Results: The average tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT and MRI was 11.34(5.88 cm2, 9.46(5.66 cm2, respectively before radiotherapy. The tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT was not in accordance with to that on MRI (P<0.05). KPS grade, tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT and ratio of T/N had significance differences before, during and after radiotherapy (P<0.05), but the tumor size on MRI imaging had no significance differences before, during and after radiotherapy (P>0.05). The rate of symptom improvement was 80% during radiotherapy and 100% after radiotherapy. The rates of imaging remission based on the brain tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT, MRI and T/N were 75%, 15%, and 80%, respectively during radiotherapy. The agreement rates between imaging remission diagnosed by those three methods and symptom improvement were 70%, 40%, and 60% respectively during radiotherapy. The rates of imaging remission based on the brain tumor sizes on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT, MRI and T/N were 100%, 25%, and 95% respectively after radiotherapy. The agreement rates between imaging remission diagnosed by those three methods and symptoms improvement were 100%, 20%, and 95% respectively after radiotherapy. Conclusion: The tumor size on 99Tcm-HL91 SPECT is a valuable tool for evaluating early radiotherapy effect of brain tumor in process of radiotherapy. T/N is not a feasible method in evaluating radiotherapy effect of brain tumor because it may show elevation unrelated to the curative effect during radiotherapy.

  1. Uptake of SPECT radiopharmaceuticals in neocortical brain cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, B.M. de; Royen, E.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The uptake, retention and uptake antagonism of /sup 201/Tl-DDC, /sup 201/Tl-Cl, /sup 123/I-IMP, /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO and /sup 99m/Tc-O4/sup -/ were compared in rat neocortex cultures. /sup 201/Tl-DDC and /sup 123/I-IP revealed the highest uptake of radioactivity in the cultures. /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO and /sup 123/I-IMP showed the highest retention of radioactivity within the tissue in washout experiments. Blocking of bioelectric activity by tetrodotoxin did not significantly affect the uptake of the radiopharmaceuticals (RPHA). Inhibition of Na K ATPase by ouabain inhibited the uptake of /sup 201/Tl-Cl (77%) and /sup 201/Tl-DDC (27%). Imipramine showed a significantly stronger inhibitory effect on /sup 123/I-IMP uptake in comparison with the effect on other RPHA. /sup 99m/Tc-O4/sup -/ was not concentrated within the cultured tissue. Under the in vitro conditions used in this study, the various RPHA were characterised by distinct differences in their interaction with cortical brain tissue.

  2. In-111-labeled leukocyte brain SPECT imaging. Clinical significance in evaluating acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinuma, Kunihiko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-02-01

    Many experimental studies have demonstrated that leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the progression of ischemic cellular damage or post perfusion brain injury. However, only a few clinical studies have been reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of leukocyte accumulation in the ischemic brain tissue. Seventy six patients (49 men, 27 women; mean age: 65.5{+-}13.9 years) with acute ischemic stroke were studied by leukocyte brain SPECT imaging. A diagnosis included cardioembolism (n=46), atherothrombotic infarction (n=24), TIA (n=3) and lacuna (n=3). Immediately after the CBF study using Tc-99m-ECD (600 MBq), indium-111-labeled autologous leukocytes were injected. A brain scan for leukocytes was performed 48 hours later. The leukocyte-SPECT study was made 11.1{+-}7.7 days after the onset of stroke. Regional accumulation of leukocytes in the ischemic tissue was evaluated both by visual assessment and by measuring the hemispheric asymmetry index for leukocyte (AI-leuko), and was evaluated by comparison with variable factors including age, gender, infarction size, hemorrhagic transformation, timing of study after the onset, type of stroke and functional outcome. Of the 61 patients with acute ischemic stroke within 2 weeks of onset, 28 patients showed the accumulation of leukocytes in the central zone of ischemia. Six of 7 patients with repeated studies showed a reduction in leukocyte accumulation with time after the onset. Factors significantly associated with the higher accumulation of leukocyte included cardioembolic stroke, larger size of infarct, presence of hemorrhagic transformation and significant reduction in flow. In the 61 patients within 2 weeks of onset, the functional outcome was significantly correlated with the accumulation of leukocyte (p<0.001). The accumulation of leukocytes was seen more in patients with embolic stroke, larger infarction, and hemorrhagic transformation. The higher accumulation

  3. Brain imaging with sup 123 I-IMP-SPECT in migraine between attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlake, H.P.; Boettger, I.G.G.; Grotemeyer, K.H.; Husstedt, I.W.

    1989-06-01

    {sup 123}I-IMP-SPECT brain imaging was performed in patients with classic migraine (n = 5) and migraine accompagnee (n = 18) during the headache-free interval. A regional reduction of tracer uptake into brain was observed in all patients with migraine accompagnee, while in patients with classic migraine only one case showed an area of decreased activity. The most marked alteration was found in a patient with persisting neurological symptoms (complicated migraine). In most cases the areas of decreased tracer uptake corresponded to headache localization as well as to topography of neurologic symptoms during migraine attacks. It may be concluded that migraine attacks occur in connection with exacerbations of preexisting changes of cerebral autoregulation due to endogenous or exogenous factors.

  4. Evaluation of the effects of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with brain involvement by Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, S.S.; Kao, C.H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Huang, W.S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Chen, J.J.H. [Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, China Medicine University Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Chang, C.P. [Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua (Taiwan); Wang, J.J. [Department of Medical Research, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-07-01

    Methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPT) was introduced to avoid life-threatening complications in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with brain manifestations; however, the efficacy of MPT in SLE patients with brain involvement is still uncertain and needs to be objectively evaluated. We enrolled 15 female SLE patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations in this study. All patients had normal brain MRI and abnormal brain HMPAO-SPECT findings. Follow-up HMPAO-SPECT studies were conducted 2 weeks after MPT. Serum levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) and anti-ribosomal P antibodies (anti-P) were measured before and after MPT. Before MPT, 7 patients were positive for ACA and 7 patients were positive for anti-P. After MPT, none of the 15 patients demonstrated positive serologic findings or neuropsychiatric manifestations. Based on the follow up brain HMPAO-SPECT images following MPT, 13 patients showed disappearance of the perfusion defects and 2 patients showed partial recovery of rCBF. Brain HMPAO-SPECT imaging is a logical and objective tool for measuring the effects of MPT in SLE patients with brain involvement by determining of changes in rCBF. (orig.)

  5. Cerebrovascular disease in newborn infants: report of three cases with clinical follow-up and brain SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura-Ribeiro, Maria Valeriana L. de; Ciasca, Sylvia Maria; Vale-Cavalcanti, Mariza; Etchebehere, Elba C.S.C.; Camargo, Edwaldo E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    1999-07-01

    The clinical and neurological findings of three neonates with the diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease are reported. The neuropsychological evaluation disclosed impairment of fine motor function, coordination, language, perception and behavioral disturbances. Brain SPECT imaging revealed perfusional deficits in the three cases. (author)

  6. Ictal and interictal 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT of a MELAS case presented with epilepsy-like visual hallucination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cheng-Yu; Hsiao, Heng-Long; Chen, Shang-Chi; Hung, Guang-Uei; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2012-09-01

    A 55-year-old woman was diagnosed with the syndrome of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). She was referred for Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT because of visual hallucinations, which were suspected to be related to epileptic seizures. Ictal SPECT images showed remarkable hyperperfusion in the left occipital cortex, which returned to near-normal status on the interictal SPECT images after treatment with anticonvulsants. It is very rare to see such an ictal SPECT image of epileptic or epilepsy-like disorders, especially in the setting of MELAS syndrome with visual hallucination.

  7. Ligands for SPECT and PET imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors of the heart and brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H. [and others

    1995-06-01

    Interest in the potential use of cerebral SPECT and PET imaging for determination of the density and activity of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors (mAChR) has been stimulated by the changes in these receptors which occur in many neurological diseases. In addition, the important involvement of mAChR in modulating negative inotropic cardiac activity suggests that such receptor ligands may have important applications in evaluation of changes which may occur in cardiac disease. In this paper, the properties of several key muscarinic receptor ligands being developed or which have been used for clinical SPECT and PET are discussed. In addition, the ORNL development of the new iodinated IQNP ligand based on QNB and the results of in vivo biodistribution studies in rats, in vitro competitive binding studies and ex vivo autoradiographic experiments are described. The use of radioiodinated IQNP may offer several advantages in comparison to IQNB because of its easy and high yield preparation and high brain uptake and the potential usefulness of the {open_quotes}partial{close_quotes} subtype selective IONP isomers. We also describe the development of new IQNP-type analogues which offer the opportunity for radiolabeling with positron-emitting radioisotopes (carbon-11, fluorine-18 and bromine-76) for potential use with PET.

  8. Clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Itaru; Doi, Kenji; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Hou, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Koujirou; Matsui, Ritsuo; Sueyoshi, Kouzou; Utsunomiya, Keita; Narabayashi, Isamu [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction (SAC) of brain SPECT in infants to compare the standard reconstruction (STD). The brain SPECT was performed in 31 patients with 19 epilepsy, 5 cerebro-vascular disease, 2 brain tumor, 3 meningitis, 1 hydrocephalus and psychosis (mean age 5.0{+-}4.9 years old). Many patients was necessary to be injected sedatives for restraining body motion after Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) was injected at the convulsion or rest. Brain SPECT data were acquired with triple detector gamma camera (GCA-9300 Toshiba Japan). These data were reconstructed by filtered backprojection after the raw data were corrected by triple energy windows method of scatter correction and Chang filtered method of attenuation correction. The same data was reconstructed by filtered backprojection without these corrections. Both SAC and STD SPECT images were analyzed by the visual interpretation. The uptake ratio of cerebral basal nuclei was calculated by the counts of the thalamus or lenticular nuclei divided by the cortex. All images of SAC method were excellent than that of STD method. The thalamic uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.22{+-}0.09>0.87{+-}0.22 p<0.01). The lenticular nuclear uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.26{+-}0.15>1.02{+-}0.16 p<0.01). Transmission scan is the most suitable method of absorption correction. But the transmission scan is not adequate for examination of children, because this scan needs a lot of time and the infants are exposed by the line source radioisotope. It was concluded that these scatter and absorption corrections were most suitable method for brain SPECT in pediatrics. (author)

  9. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract.

  10. Segmentation of the Striatum from MR Brain Images to Calculate the -TRODAT-1 Binding Ratio in SPECT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Fen Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of regional -TRODAT-1 binding ratio in the striatum regions in SPECT images is essential for differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Defining the region of the striatum in the SPECT image is the first step toward success in the quantification of the TRODAT-1 binding ratio. However, because SPECT images reveal insufficient information regarding the anatomical structure of the brain, correct delineation of the striatum directly from the SPECT image is almost impossible. We present a method integrating the active contour model and the hybrid registration technique to extract regions from MR T1-weighted images and map them into the corresponding SPECT images. Results from three normal subjects suggest that the segmentation accuracy using the proposed method was compatible with the expert decision but has a higher efficiency and reproducibility than manual delineation. The binding ratio derived by this method correlated well (R2 = 0.76 with those values calculated by commercial software, suggesting the feasibility of the proposed method.

  11. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for rTMS response in pharmacoresistant depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richieri, Raphaelle; Lancon, Christophe [Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Marseille (France); La Timone University, EA 3279 - Self-perceived Health Assessment Research Unit, School of Medicine, Marseille (France); Boyer, Laurent [La Timone University, EA 3279 - Self-perceived Health Assessment Research Unit, School of Medicine, Marseille (France); La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Department of Public Health, Marseille (France); Farisse, Jean [Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Marseille (France); Colavolpe, Cecile; Mundler, Olivier [La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Centre Europeen de Recherche en Imagerie Medicale (CERIMED), Marseille (France); Guedj, Eric [La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Centre Europeen de Recherche en Imagerie Medicale (CERIMED), Marseille (France); Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France)

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of whole-brain voxel-based regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) response in patients with pharmacoresistant depression. Thirty-three right-handed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (unipolar or bipolar depression) were included before rTMS. rTMS response was defined as at least 50% reduction in the baseline Beck Depression Inventory scores. The predictive value of {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for rTMS response was studied before treatment by comparing rTMS responders to non-responders at voxel level using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Of the patients, 18 (54.5%) were responders to rTMS and 15 were non-responders (45.5%). There were no statistically significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics (p > 0.10). In comparison to responders, non-responders showed significant hypoperfusions (p < 0.001, uncorrected) in the left medial and bilateral superior frontal cortices (BA10), the left uncus/parahippocampal cortex (BA20/BA35) and the right thalamus. The area under the curve for the combination of SPECT clusters to predict rTMS response was 0.89 (p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the combination of clusters were: 94, 73, 81 and 92%, respectively. This study shows that, in pharmacoresistant depression, pretreatment rCBF of specific brain regions is a strong predictor for response to rTMS in patients with homogeneous demographic/clinical features. (orig.)

  12. Technetium-99m-ECD SPECT in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: a drastic improvement in brain perfusion by antiplatelet therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumaru, Sunao; Yoshikai, Tomonori; Uchino, Akira; Kudo, Sho [Dept. of Radiology, Saga Medical School (Japan); Matsui, Makoto; Kuroda, Yasuo [Dept. of Neurology, Saga Medical School (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    We present a case of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) with repeated transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple cerebral infarcts and ischemic changes in the cerebral white matter. Cerebral angiographies showed no abnormalities. Technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer (Tc-99m-ECD) brain SPECT showed multiple decreased perfusion areas, which were more extensive than the lesions demonstrated on MRI. After treatment with an antiplatelet agent, the patient subsequently recovered from the TIAs. Although no interval changes were observed by MRI after therapy, follow-up Tc-99m-ECD SPECT revealed a marked improvement in brain perfusion. This is the first imaging report of remarkable post-therapy improvement in brain perfusion in APS cases. (orig.)

  13. Impact of extraneous mispositioned events on motion-corrected brain SPECT images of freely moving animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelis, Georgios I., E-mail: georgios.angelis@sydney.edu.au; Ryder, William J.; Bashar, Rezaul; Meikle, Steven R. [Faculty of Health Sciences and Brain and Mind Research Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Fulton, Roger R. [Faculty of Health Sciences and Brain and Mind Research Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Department of Medical Physics, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2145 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain imaging of freely moving small animals would allow a wide range of important neurological processes and behaviors to be studied, which are normally inhibited by anesthetic drugs or precluded due to the animal being restrained. While rigid body motion of the head can be tracked and accounted for in the reconstruction, activity in the torso may confound brain measurements, especially since motion of the torso is more complex (i.e., nonrigid) and not well correlated with that of the head. The authors investigated the impact of mispositioned events and attenuation due to the torso on the accuracy of motion corrected brain images of freely moving mice. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of a realistic voxelized mouse phantom and a dual compartment phantom were performed. Each phantom comprised a target and an extraneous compartment which were able to move independently of each other. Motion correction was performed based on the known motion of the target compartment only. Two SPECT camera geometries were investigated: a rotating single head detector and a stationary full ring detector. The effects of motion, detector geometry, and energy of the emitted photons (hence, attenuation) on bias and noise in reconstructed brain regions were evaluated. Results: The authors observed two main sources of bias: (a) motion-related inconsistencies in the projection data and (b) the mismatch between attenuation and emission. Both effects are caused by the assumption that the orientation of the torso is difficult to track and model, and therefore cannot be conveniently corrected for. The motion induced bias in some regions was up to 12% when no attenuation effects were considered, while it reached 40% when also combined with attenuation related inconsistencies. The detector geometry (i.e., rotating vs full ring) has a big impact on the accuracy of the reconstructed images, with the full ring detector being more

  14. Presentation of regional cerebral blood flow in amphetamine abusers by [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-HMPAO brain SPECT. [Hexamethylpropyleneamine oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, C.H.; Wang, S.J.; Yeh, S.H. (Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1994-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ([sup 99]Tc[sup m]-HMPAO) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the assessment of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in amphetamine abusers. Twenty-one amphetamine abusers were included and [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-HMPAO brain SPECT performed to evaluate rCBF. The drug-using periods ranged from 1 month to several years. The demonstrated neuropsychogenic symptoms and signs of the abusers were from normal presentation to various neurologic complications. The brain SPECT scans were interpreted visually as either normal or abnormal. The degree of abnormality was classified into mild or severe. The results revealed that (a) most SPECT studies in abusers show small defects (95%, 20/21 cases); 71% (15/21) of cases revealed multiple defects over both hemispheres (classified as severe); 24% (5/21) of the cases had focal defects (classified as mild); and only one case (5%, 1/21) demonstrated a normal SPECT finding; (b) the degree of abnormality on SPECT scans was not related to the dose and duration of drug use or the severity of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs. In conclusion, [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-HMPAO brain SPECT is a sensitive but not specific test for neuropsychogenic abnormalities associated with amphetamine abuse. (Author).

  15. Activity optimization method in SPECT: A comparison with ROC analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D(I)AZ Marlén Pérez; RIZO Oscar Díaz; D(I)AZ Adlin López; APARICIO Eric Estévez; D(I)AZ Reinaldo Roque

    2006-01-01

    A discriminant method for optimizing activity in nuclear medicine studies is validated by comparison with ROC performed with a cardiac phantom. Three different lesions (L1, L2 and L3) were placed in the myocardium-wall by pairs for each SPECT. Three activities (84, 37 or 18.5 MBq) of 99mTc were used as background. Linear discriminant analysis was used to select the parameters that characterize image quality among the measured variables in the images [(Background-to-Lesion (B/Li) and Signal-to-Noise (Si/N) ratio s)]. Two clusters with different image quality (P=0.021) were obtained. The ratios B/L1, B/L2 and B/L3are the parameters used to construct the function with 100% of cases correctly classified into the clusters. The value of 37 MBq was the lowest tested activity for which good results for the B/Li ratios were obtained. The result coincides with the applied ROC-analysis (r=0.89).

  16. Perfusion impairments on brain SPECT in patients with infantile autism and nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders: comparison with MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young Hoon; Lee, Jong Doo; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Jeon, Tae Joo; Shin, Yee Jin; Lee, Byung Hee; Shin, Hyung Cheol [College of Medecine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    Neuroimaging findings of autism has been the subjects of continuing investigation. Because previous study had not demonstrated consistent and specific neuroimaging findings of autism and most studies comprised adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in search of common functional and structural abnormalities in pre-school aged autistic children using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI and compared them with age-matched children with nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). 58 children between 3 and 8 years of age infantile autism (n=37) and non-autistic PDD (n=21) were performed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI. Diagnosis of autism and non-autistic PDD was based on the criteria of DSM-IV and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Of the 37 autistic patients, 32 revealed decreased perfusion of cerebellar hemisphere, followed by hypoperfusion of thalami (n=30), parietal cortex (n=16), temporal cortex (n=12). Of those 21 PDD patients, 14 patients showed hypoperfusion of the thalami and 10 patients showed temporal hypoperfusion. However, cerebellar hemispheric (n=8) and parietal (n=1) hypoperfusion was infrequently seen. All autistic and nonautistic PDD patients had normal MRI scan. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion on brain SPECT showed statistically significant correlation with CARS. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion is significantly frequently noted in autistic patients although they had normal MRI and SPECT may be useful and more sensitive modality in reflecting pathophysiology of autism as evidenced by previous MRI and postmortem studies. Thalamic and temporal hypoperfusion can be seen in both autistic and nonautistic patients and further studies are necessary to determine the significance of the thalamic hypoperfusion.

  17. Computer-assisted diagnostic system for neurodegenerative dementia using brain SPECT and 3D-SSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazunari; Kanda, Tomonori; Uemura, Takafumi; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Yoshikawa, Toshiki [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Shimada, Kenichi; Ohkawa, Shingo [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Minoshima, Satoshi [University of Washington, Radiology and Bioengineering, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    To develop a computer-assisted automated diagnostic system to distinguish among Alzheimer disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and other degenerative disorders in patients with mild dementia. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images with injection of N-Isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) were obtained from patients with mild degenerative dementia. First, datasets from 20 patients mild AD, 15 patients with dementia with DLB, and 17 healthy controls were used to develop an automated diagnosing system based on three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). AD- and DLB-specific regional templates were created using 3D-SSP, and critical Z scores in the templates were established. Datasets from 50 AD patients, 8 DLB patients, and 10 patients with non-AD/DLB type degenerative dementia (5 with frontotemporal dementia and 5 with progressive supranuclear palsy) were then used to test the diagnostic accuracy of the optimized automated system in comparison to the diagnostic interpretation of conventional IMP-SPECT images. These comparisons were performed to differentiate AD and DLB from non-AD/DLB and to distinguish AD from DLB. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. The area under the ROC curve (Az) and the accuracy of the automated diagnosis system were 0.89 and 82%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 65%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The mean Az and the accuracy of the visual inspection were 0.84 and 77%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 65%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The mean Az and the accuracy of the combination of visual inspection and this system were 0.96 and 91%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 66%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The system developed in the present study achieved as good discrimination of AD, DLB, and other degenerative disorders in patients with mild

  18. Tracer-specific PET and SPECT templates for automatic co-registration of functional rat brain images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vállez Garcia, David; Schwarz, Adam J; Dierckx, Rudi; Koole, Michel; Doorduin, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Template based spatial co-registration of PET and SPECT data is an important first step in its semi- automatic processing, facilitating VOI- and voxel-based analysis. Although this procedure is standard in human, using corresponding MRI images, these systems are often not accessible for

  19. High-resolution single photon planar and spect imaging of brain and neck employing a system of two co-registered opposed gamma imaging heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2011-12-06

    A compact, mobile, dedicated SPECT brain imager that can be easily moved to the patient to provide in-situ imaging, especially when the patient cannot be moved to the Nuclear Medicine imaging center. As a result of the widespread availability of single photon labeled biomarkers, the SPECT brain imager can be used in many locations, including remote locations away from medical centers. The SPECT imager improves the detection of gamma emission from the patient's head and neck area with a large field of view. Two identical lightweight gamma imaging detector heads are mounted to a rotating gantry and precisely mechanically co-registered to each other at 180 degrees. A unique imaging algorithm combines the co-registered images from the detector heads and provides several SPECT tomographic reconstructions of the imaged object thereby improving the diagnostic quality especially in the case of imaging requiring higher spatial resolution and sensitivity at the same time.

  20. Dependency of energy and spatial distributions of photons on edge of object in brain SPECT

    CERN Document Server

    Deloar, H M; Kudomi, N; Kim, K M; Aoi, T; Iida, H

    2003-01-01

    Accurate mu maps are important for quantitative image reconstruction in SPECT. The Compton scatter energy window (CSW) technique has been proposed to define the outline of objects. In this technique, a lower energy window image is acquired in addition to the main photo-peak energy window. The image of the lower energy window is used to estimate the edge of the scanned object to produce a constant attenuation map. The aim of this study was to investigate the dependency of CSW on the spatial and energy distribution of radioisotope to predict the edges of objects. Two particular cases of brain study were considered, namely uniform distribution and non-uniform distribution using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments with uniform cylindrical phantom and hotspot phantom. The phantoms were filled with water and a radioactive solution of sup 9 sup 9 sup m Tc. For each phantom, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% thresholds of the mean profile were applied to estimate E sub w sub t , the energy window for minimum difference betwee...

  1. Technetium-99m HMPAO brain SPECT in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, G.C.; Pekcanlar, A.; Bekis, R.; Ada, E.; Miral, S.; Emiroglu, N.; Durak, H. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental, neurobehavioral syndrome with an onset in childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of regional perfusion changes in ADHD by means of Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT. Thirteen children with a diagnosis of ADHD and 7 healthy, age-matched controls were included in this study. Hypoperfusion was observed on the right temporal cortex in 9, and on the left temporal cortex in 3 children. The distribution of the lesions showed right lateral temporal cortex involvement in 3, right medial temporal cortex in 9 and left medial temporal cortex in 8 children. Asymmetric perfusion was seen on the caudate nucleus in 4, on the thalamus in 3 and on the frontal cortex in 6 children. There was a significant difference between children with ADHD and controls in right medial temporal cortex: cerebellum and right lateral temporal cortex: cerebellum ratios. Hypoperfusion in the right medial temporal cortex was significantly and inversely correlated with Du Paul teachers' questionnaire rating scale (r=-0.71, p=0.006). It has been postulated that difficulty in self regulating response to stimuli in ADHD is mediated by underfunctioning of the orbital frontal cortex and subsequent connection to the limbic system. Decreased temporal cortex perfusion may dysfunction of the limbic system or the orbito-frontal-limbic axis. (author)

  2. Tc-{sup 99m} ECD brain SPECT in MELAS syndrome: comparison with MR finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Joon; Ryu, Young Hoon; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Jeon, Tae Joo; Kim, Jai Keun; Nam, Ji Eun; Lee, Jong Doo [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Hee [Poondang Cha Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyung Cheol [College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Chonnon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate SPECT findings of MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy and correlate them with MR findings in search of specific imaging features and to assess the role of SPECT in MELAS syndrome. Five patients (four females and one male; age range, 1 to 25 years) who presented with repeated stroke-like episodes or seizures or developmental delay or were asymptomatic but had elevated lactic acid in CSF and serum were evaluated with conventional noncontrast MR imaging and SPECT. MRI demonstrated increased T2 signal intensities in the affected areas of gray and white matters mainly on the parietal (4/5) and occipital lobes (4/5) and in the basal ganglias (1/5), which were not restricted to a specific vascular territory. SPECT demonstrated decreased uptake of Tc-99m ECD on parietal (5/5) and occipital (4/5) and temporal (2/5) and frontal (1/5) lobe and basal ganglia (2/5) and thalami (2/5). In a patient with mitochondrial myopathy who had normal MRI, decreased perfusion is noted on left parietal area and bilateral thalami. Comparison of the numbers of abnormal findings revealed that decreased perfusion seen on SPECT were more numerous than anatomical abnormalities seen on MRI. SPECT may be a sensitive method for pathophysiological study of metabolic disturbances in MELAS. Moreover, in patients with mitochondrial myopathy without clinical encephalopathy, SPECT may play a role in evaluating subclinical encephalopathy even with normal conventional MR findings.

  3. SPECT in psychiatry. SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barocka, A. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Feistel, H. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Ebert, D. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Lungershausen, E. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D[sub 2] and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.)

  4. Usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT in acute onset pediatric CNS diseases. In comparison with CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Teisuke; Chikatsu, Hiroko; Nishiyama, Hiromune; Endo, Hiroko; Kono, Tatsuo; Iimura, Fumitoshi; Kuwashima, Shigeko; Saiki, Natoru; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa [Dokkyo Univ., Mibu, Tochigi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured by {sup 99m}Tc-L, L-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain SPECT in the acute onset type of pediatric central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Thirteen children (7 girls, 6 boys, 4 month-12 years of age) who were diagnosed with 9 cases of viral encephalitis, two cases of febrile convulsion and one each of migraine and metabolic disorder underwent {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT, CT and/or MRI within one week interval. The incidence of abnormal findings in the 13 patients was 96.4% (30/31) on {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT, 17.6% (3/17) on CT and 63.6% (14/22) on MRI. The positive detection rate of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT was statistically (P<0.01 by a {chi}{sup 2} and/or Fisher's exact probability test) higher than those of CT and MRI. And the changes in rCBF were demonstrated. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT is a useful examination for the diagnosis and follow up management in patients with the acute onset type of pediatric CNS diseases. (author)

  5. Vasodilatation and disruption of the blood brain barrier determine hyperfixation with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT in subacute stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, I. H.; Won, K. J.; Lee, H. W. [College of Medicine, Yungnam Univ., Kyungsan (Korea, Republic of); Norihico, Kume; Koheai, Hayasida [National Cardiovascular Center, Osacar (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Hyperfixation characterized by excess tracer activity compared with cerebral blood flow (CBF) using {sup 99m}Tc-d, l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) brain single photon emission tomography (SPECT), has not been measured in terms of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO{sub 2}) oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV). We studied four patients with subacute stroke who showed hot uptake in infarct areas with {sup 99C}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn in the same hot uptake areas in SPECT and PET images. The average counts per pixel of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and the absolute values of CBF, CMRO{sub 2} OEF and DBV with PET were then obtained. The hyperfixation rate with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO is expressed as the surplus rate compared with PET-CBF. PET parameters in the hot uptake area were compared with those of 5 normal controls. OEF and CMRO{sub 2} at the hot uptake areas in the 4 patients were significantly lower than those of normal controls (P<0.01), but CBF and CBV were not significantly different between patients and normal controls (ns). The hyperfixation rate of 4 patients was 0.30{+-}0.15, which correlated well with CBV (r=0.97, y=11.75 + 0.42 ; P<0.05). The hyperfixation rate by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT correlated with CBV in the PET study and reflected Gd-DTPA enhancement by MR imaging. Therefore, {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO hyperfixation in the infarct area might be caused by vascular dilatation and disruption of the blood brain barrier in terms of an increased capillary permeability-surface product.

  6. A Standardized Method for the Construction of Tracer Specific PET and SPECT Rat Brain Templates : Validation and Implementation of a Toolbox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vállez Garcia, David; Casteels, Cindy; Schwarz, Adam J.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Koole, Michel; Doorduin, Janine

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution anatomical image data in preclinical brain PET and SPECT studies is often not available, and inter-modality spatial normalization to an MRI brain template is frequently performed. However, this procedure can be challenging for tracers where substantial anatomical structures present l

  7. A standardized method for the construction of tracer specific PET and SPECT rat brain templates: validation and implementation of a toolbox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vállez Garcia

    Full Text Available High-resolution anatomical image data in preclinical brain PET and SPECT studies is often not available, and inter-modality spatial normalization to an MRI brain template is frequently performed. However, this procedure can be challenging for tracers where substantial anatomical structures present limited tracer uptake. Therefore, we constructed and validated strain- and tracer-specific rat brain templates in Paxinos space to allow intra-modal registration. PET [18F]FDG, [11C]flumazenil, [11C]MeDAS, [11C]PK11195 and [11C]raclopride, and SPECT [99mTc]HMPAO brain scans were acquired from healthy male rats. Tracer-specific templates were constructed by averaging the scans, and by spatial normalization to a widely used MRI-based template. The added value of tracer-specific templates was evaluated by quantification of the residual error between original and realigned voxels after random misalignments of the data set. Additionally, the impact of strain differences, disease uptake patterns (focal and diffuse lesion, and the effect of image and template size on the registration errors were explored. Mean registration errors were 0.70 ± 0.32 mm for [18F]FDG (n = 25, 0.23 ± 0.10mm for [11C]flumazenil (n = 13, 0.88 ± 0.20 mm for [11C]MeDAS (n = 15, 0.64 ± 0.28 mm for [11C]PK11195 (n = 19, 0.34 ± 0.15 mm for [11C]raclopride (n = 6, and 0.40 ± 0.13 mm for [99mTc]HMPAO (n = 15. These values were smallest with tracer-specific templates, when compared to the use of [18F]FDG as reference template (p<0.001. Additionally, registration errors were smallest with strain-specific templates (p<0.05, and when images and templates had the same size (p ≤ 0.001. Moreover, highest registration errors were found for the focal lesion group (p<0.005 and the diffuse lesion group (p = n.s.. In the voxel-based analysis, the reported coordinates of the focal lesion model are consistent with the stereotaxic injection procedure. The use of PET/SPECT strain- and tracer

  8. Topography of cerebral monoamine transporter availability in families with SCA2 mutations: a voxel-wise [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherfler, Christoph; Boesch, Sylvia M.; Seppi, Klaus; Wenning, Gregor K.; Poewe, Werner [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Donnemiller, Eveline; Virgolini, Irene [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Weirich-Schwaiger, Helga [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Biology and Human Genetics, Innsbruck (Austria); Goebel, Georg [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2006-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the monoamine transporter status of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine throughout the brain in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). To this end, nine patients were studied with [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT. Data were compared with ten age-matched healthy control subjects and ten patients with young-onset Parkinson's disease (YOPD), matched for age. Parametric SPECT images of the specific-to-non-displaceable equilibrium partition coefficient (V{sub 3}{sup ''}), which is proportional to the receptor density (B{sub max}), were generated. In order to objectively localise focal changes in {beta}-CIT uptake throughout the brain volume without having to make an a priori hypothesis as to their location, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was applied to SPECT images. Data clusters revealed by SPM, showing significant differences in V{sub 3}{sup ''} values between groups, were transformed onto the individual V{sub 3}{sup ''} image to obtain mean regional uptake values. Both SCA2 and YOPD patients showed significant decreases in striatal [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT uptake when compared with controls. However, in SCA2 patients, additional reductions in caudate/anterior putamen, midbrain and pons [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT uptake were localised with SPM. Voxel-wise analysis of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT revealed more widespread decline of monoamine transporter availability in SCA2 than in YOPD, reflecting differences in the underlying pathology. We suggest that the quantification of midbrain and pons [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT signal is likely to improve the diagnostic accuracy in patients presenting with clinical features of both SCA2 and YOPD at initial investigation. (orig.)

  9. Voxel Based Analysis of Surgical Revascularization for Moyamoya Disease: Pre- and Postoperative SPECT Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Fushimi

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease (MMD is a chronic, progressive, cerebrovascular occlusive disease that causes abnormal enlargement of collateral pathways (moyamoya vessels in the region of the basal ganglia and thalamus. Cerebral revascularization procedures remain the preferred treatment for patients with MMD, improving the compromised cerebral blood flow (CBF. However, voxel based analysis (VBA of revascularization surgery for MMD based on data from pre- and postoperative data has not been established. The latest algorithm called as Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL has been introduced for VBA as the function of statistical parametric mapping (SPM8, and improved registration has been achieved by SPM8 with DARTEL. In this study, VBA was conducted to evaluate pre- and postoperative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images for MMD by SPM8 with DARTEL algorithm, and the results were compared with those from SPM8 without DARTEL (a conventional method. Thirty-two patients with MMD who underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA bypass surgery as the first surgery were included and all patients underwent pre- and postoperative 3D T1-weighted imaging and SPECT. Pre- and postoperative SPECT images were registered to 3D T1-weighted images, then VBA was conducted. Postoperative SPECT showed more statistically increased CBF areas in the bypassed side cerebral hemisphere by using SPM8 with DARTEL (58,989 voxels; P<0.001, and increased ratio of CBF after operation was less than 15%. Meanwhile, postoperative SPECT showed less CBF increased areas by SPM8 without DARTEL. In conclusion, VBA was conducted for patients with MMD, and SPM8 with DARTEL revealed that postoperative SPECT showed statistically significant CBF increases over a relatively large area and with at most 15% increase ratio.

  10. Brain spect in the pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Buchpiguel

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients consists of neurological examination, intensive electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring and anatomical studies (CT and MRI. Functional methods such as PET and SPECT imaging are now used more frequently. We have studied pre-operatively 15 adult epileptic patients (8 female, 7 male using a rotational scintillation camera interfaced to a dedicated computer. The tomographic images were obtained 15 minutes after intravenous injection of 99mTc_HMPAO. All had MRI scanning and intensive EEG monitoring which generally included seizure recording. Five patients had progressive lesions (3 meningiomas, 2 astrocytomas. In 10 patients, neuroradiological studies did not show the presence of progressive lesions (2 normal scans and 8 cases with inactive lesions. Two patients with meningioma showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site while the third patient had a marked hyperperfusion which might correlate with the clinical diagnosis of epilepsia partialis continua. In the astrocytoma patients SPECT scans showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site. Data obtained from the 10 patients without progressive CNS lesions showed: (a in 4, SPECT findings correlated well with the anatomical findings; (b in 5 instances, SPECT was able to disclose additional functional deficits; (c in one case, there was no SPECT correlate of a discrete anatomical lesion. In 5 of these cases with no progressive lesions (n=10 SPECT findings were useful as a complementary tool in determining the clinical or surgical management of these patients. Despite the small number and hete-rogenicity of the present sample, SPECT seems to be an useful tool as part of the clinical workup of epileptic patients who are candidates for epilepsy surgery.

  11. Development and optimization of SPECT gated blood pool cluster analysis for the prediction of CRT outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalonde, Michel, E-mail: mlalonde15@rogers.com; Wassenaar, Richard [Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Wells, R. Glenn; Birnie, David; Ruddy, Terrence D. [Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y 4W7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Phase analysis of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radionuclide angiography (RNA) has been investigated for its potential to predict the outcome of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, phase analysis may be limited in its potential at predicting CRT outcome as valuable information may be lost by assuming that time-activity curves (TAC) follow a simple sinusoidal shape. A new method, cluster analysis, is proposed which directly evaluates the TACs and may lead to a better understanding of dyssynchrony patterns and CRT outcome. Cluster analysis algorithms were developed and optimized to maximize their ability to predict CRT response. Methods: About 49 patients (N = 27 ischemic etiology) received a SPECT RNA scan as well as positron emission tomography (PET) perfusion and viability scans prior to undergoing CRT. A semiautomated algorithm sampled the left ventricle wall to produce 568 TACs from SPECT RNA data. The TACs were then subjected to two different cluster analysis techniques, K-means, and normal average, where several input metrics were also varied to determine the optimal settings for the prediction of CRT outcome. Each TAC was assigned to a cluster group based on the comparison criteria and global and segmental cluster size and scores were used as measures of dyssynchrony and used to predict response to CRT. A repeated random twofold cross-validation technique was used to train and validate the cluster algorithm. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) and compare results to those obtained for SPECT RNA phase analysis and PET scar size analysis methods. Results: Using the normal average cluster analysis approach, the septal wall produced statistically significant results for predicting CRT results in the ischemic population (ROC AUC = 0.73;p < 0.05 vs. equal chance ROC AUC = 0.50) with an optimal operating point of 71% sensitivity and 60% specificity. Cluster

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow in children with autism spectrum disorders: a quantitative 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT study with statistical parametric mapping evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-han; JING Jin; XIU Li-juan; CHENG Mu-hua; WANG Xin; BAO Peng; WANG Qing-xiong

    2011-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which include autism, asperger syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), are devastating neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood resulting in deficits in social interaction, repetitive patterns of behaviors, and restricted interests and activities. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a common technique used to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Several studies have measured rCBF in children with ASD using SPECT, however, findings are discordant. In addition, the majority of subjects used in these studies were autistic. In this study, we aimed to investigate changes in rCBF in children with ASD using SPECT.Methods A Technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (99mTc-ECD) brain SPECT study was performed on an ASD group consisting of 23 children (3 girls and 20 boys; mean age (7.2±3.0) years) who were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-Ⅳ) criteria and an age-matched control group with 8children (1 girl and 7 boys, mean age (5.5±2.4) years). Image data were evaluated with Statistical Parametric Mapping,5th version (SPM5). A Student's t test for unpaired data was used to compare rCBF and asymmetry in the autism and corresponding control group. The covariance analysis, taking age as covariance, was performed between the ASD and control group.Results There was a significant reduction in rCBF in the bilateral frontal lobe (frontal poles, arcula frontal gyrus) and the bilateral basal ganglia in the autism group, and a reduction in the bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal, legumina nucleus and cerebellum in the AS group compared to the control. In addition, asymmetry of hemispheric hypoperfusion in the ASD group was observed. Inner-group comparison analysis revealed that rCBF decreased significantly in the bilateral frontal lobe (42.7%), basal nucleus (24.9%) and temporal lobe (22.8%) in the autism

  13. Implementation of a fully 3D system model for brain SPECT with fan- beam-collimator OSEM reconstruction with 3D total variation regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hongwei; Krol, Andrzej; Lipson, Edward D.; Lu, Yao; Xu, Yuesheng; Lee, Wei; Feiglin, David H.

    2007-03-01

    In order to improve tomographically reconstructed image quality, we have implemented a fully 3D reconstruction, using an ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm for fan-beam collimator (FBC) SPECT, along with a volumetric system model-fan-volume system model (FVSM), a modified attenuation compensation, a 3D depth- and angle-dependent resolution and sensitivity correction, and a 3D total variation (TV) regularization. SPECT data were acquired in a 128x64 matrix, in 120 views with a circular orbit. The numerical Zubal brain phantom was used to simulate a FBC HMPAO Tc-99m brain SPECT scan, and a low noise and scatter-free projection dataset was obtained using the SimSET Monte Carlo package. A SPECT scan for a mini-Defrise phantom and brain HMPAO SPECT scans for five patients were acquired with a triple-head gamma camera (Triad 88) equipped with a low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) FBC. The reconstructed images, obtained using clinical filtered back projection (FBP), OSEM with a line-length system model (LLSM) and 3D TV regularization, and OSEM with FVSM and 3D TV regularization were quantitatively studied. Overall improvement in the image quality has been observed, including better axial and transaxial resolution, better integral uniformity, higher contrast-to-noise ration between the gray matter and the white matter, and better accuracy and lower bias in OSEM-FVSM, compared with OSEM-LLSM and clinical FBP.

  14. Optimized data preprocessing for multivariate analysis applied to 99mTc-ECD SPECT data sets of Alzheimer's patients and asymptomatic controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhof, Dorit; Markiewicz, Pawel J; Platsch, Günther; Declerck, Jerome; Weih, Markus; Kornhuber, Johannes; Kuwert, Torsten; Matthews, Julian C; Herholz, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Multivariate image analysis has shown potential for classification between Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and healthy controls with a high-diagnostic performance. As image analysis of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data critically depends on appropriate data preprocessing, the focus of this work is to investigate the impact of data preprocessing on the outcome of the analysis, and to identify an optimal data preprocessing method. In this work, technetium-99methylcysteinatedimer ((99m)Tc-ECD) SPECT data sets of 28 AD patients and 28 asymptomatic controls were used for the analysis. For a series of different data preprocessing methods, which includes methods for spatial normalization, smoothing, and intensity normalization, multivariate image analysis based on principal component analysis (PCA) and Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) was applied. Bootstrap resampling was used to investigate the robustness of the analysis and the classification accuracy, depending on the data preprocessing method. Depending on the combination of preprocessing methods, significant differences regarding the classification accuracy were observed. For (99m)Tc-ECD SPECT data, the optimal data preprocessing method in terms of robustness and classification accuracy is based on affine registration, smoothing with a Gaussian of 12 mm full width half maximum, and intensity normalization based on the 25% brightest voxels within the whole-brain region.

  15. A Silicon SPECT System for Molecular Imaging of the Mouse Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; Fritz, Mark A; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Durko, Heather L.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Peterson, Todd E.

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the feasibility of using silicon double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs) for SPECT imaging of the activity distribution of iodine-125 using a 300-micrometer thick detector. Based on this experience, we now have developed fully customized silicon DSSDs and associated readout electronics with the intent of developing a multi-pinhole SPECT system. Each DSSD has a 60.4 mm × 60.4 mm active area and is 1 mm thick. The strip pitch is 59 micrometers, and the readout of the 102...

  16. Development of a practical image-based scatter correction method for brain perfusion SPECT: comparison with the TEW method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shidahara, Miho; Kato, Takashi; Kawatsu, Shoji; Yoshimura, Kumiko; Ito, Kengo [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology Research Institute, Department of Brain Science and Molecular Imaging, Obu, Aichi (Japan); Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Iida, Hidehiro [National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Department of Investigative Radiology, Suita (Japan); Kato, Rikio [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Radiology, Obu (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    An image-based scatter correction (IBSC) method was developed to convert scatter-uncorrected into scatter-corrected SPECT images. The purpose of this study was to validate this method by means of phantom simulations and human studies with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tracers, based on comparison with the conventional triple energy window (TEW) method. The IBSC method corrects scatter on the reconstructed image I{sub AC}{sup {mu}}{sup b} with Chang's attenuation correction factor. The scatter component image is estimated by convolving I{sub AC}{sup {mu}}{sup b} with a scatter function followed by multiplication with an image-based scatter fraction function. The IBSC method was evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT human brain perfusion studies obtained from five volunteers. The image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were compared. Using data obtained from the simulations, the image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were found to be nearly identical for both gray and white matter. In human brain images, no significant differences in image contrast were observed between the IBSC and TEW methods. The IBSC method is a simple scatter correction technique feasible for use in clinical routine. (orig.)

  17. Potential language and attentional networks revealed through factor analysis of rCBF data measured with SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, T; Steinberg, B; Christensen, B

    1992-01-01

    We used changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to disclose regions involved in central auditory and language processing in the normal brain. rCBF was quantified with a fast-rotating, single-photon emission computerized tomograph (SPECT) and inhalation of 133Xe. rCBF data were obtained......'s area (left hemisphere), when subjects listened to narrative speech, compared to white noise (baseline). No significant rCBF differences were detected with this test during dichotic stimulation vs. white noise. A more sophisticated statistical method (factor analysis) disclosed patterns of functionally...... intercorrelated regions. The factor analysis reduced the highly intercorrelated rCBF measures from 28 regions of interest to a set of three independent factors. These factors accounted for 77% of the total variation in rCBF values. These three factors appeared to represent statistical analogues of independent...

  18. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in patients with traumatic brain injury: evaluating distribution of hypoperfusion and assessment of cognitive and behavioral impairment in relation to thalamic hypoperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soon Ah; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    We evaluated the distribution of hypoperfusion in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the relationship of thalamic hypoperfusion to severity of cognitive and behavioral sequelae. Tc-99m ECD SPECT and MRI were performed in 103 patients (M/F=81/22, mean age 34.7{+-} 15.4 yrs) from 0.5 to 55 months (mean 10.3 months) after TBI. The patients were divided into three groups showing no abnormalities (G1), focal (G2) and diffuse injury (G3) on MRI. Psychometric tests assessed 11 cognitive or behavioral items. In all patients, we evaluated the distribution of hypoperfused areas in SPECT, and in 57/103 patients, neuropsychological (NP) abnormalities in patients with thalamic hypoperfusion were compared with those of patients without thalamic hypoperfusion. The perfusion dificits were most frequently located in the frontal lobe (G1, 42.3%: G2 34.5%: G3 33.3%), temporal lobe (24{approx}26%) thalami (21{approx}22.4%), parietal and occipital lobe ({<=}10%). Numbers of NP abnormalities in the cases of cortical hypoperfusion with or without concomitant thalamic hypoperfusion were following: the former 4.7{+-}1.5 and the latter 3.2{+-}1.4 in G1, 5.0{+-}1.1 and 4.8{+-}1.2 in G2, 6.8{+-}1.8 and 6.3{+-}1.1 in G3, respectively. This difference according to thalamic hypoperfusion was significant in G1 (p=0.002), but was not significant in G2 or G3. SPECT in patients with TBI had demonstrated hypoperfusion mostly involving the frontal, temporal and thalami. In normal group on MRI, frontal hypoperfusion was more prominent than that of any other group, Furthermore in this group, SPECT could predict severity of NP outcome by concomitant thalamic hypoperfusion with cerebral cortical abnormalities.

  19. Serial {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT for Assessing Perfusion Improvement after DEAS in Moyamoya Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Sang Hyung; Yeo, Jeong Seok; Kwark, Chul Eun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myoung Chul; Cho, Byoung Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    Encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS) is a relatively new surgical procedure for treatment of childhood moyamoya disease. We assessed regional cerebral perfusion in moyamoya patients before (1.3 mo) and after (6.8 mo) EDAS with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. A total of 21 EDAS operations in 17 moyamoya patients was included. Preoperative CT or MRI showed cerebral infarction in 14 patients and carotid angiography showed Suzuki grade 1 to V stenosis in 6%, 9%, 62%, 12% and 12% of the hemispheres respectively. Preoperative SPECT showed regional hypoperfusion in all patients, bilateral frontal and temporal loves being the most frequently involved site. 4 X 4 pixel sized ROIs were applied on the frontotemmporal cortex in 3 slice averaged transverse tomographic images. An index of regional perfusion was measured as; PI (%)=average FT activity/average cerebellar activity X 100 Pre-EDAS ipsilateral PI ranged from 23.7 to 98.4% (mean:74.3 +- 17%) and increased significantly after operation (81.4 +- 17%, p<0.001). Individual post-EDAS PI improved in 15/21 cases, showed no significant change in 5 and was slightly aggravated in 1. The amount of clinical improvement XCI) was graded with a scale of 0 to 4 based on frequency and severity of TIA attacks. When patients were grouped according to pre-EDAS PI, group II (PI 70approx89) showed a significantly higher CI (3.3) compared to group I (PI<70, 1.57) of group III (PI>90, 0.5) (p<0.001). The amount of perfusion improvement (PI) showed significant correlation with CI (r-0.42, p=0.04). PI did not, however, correlate with the amount of neovascularization assessed angiographically in 8 patients. Serial HMPAO SPECT is an useful noninvasive study for assessing perfusion improvement after EDAS in childhood moyamoya patients.

  20. Simulating technetium-99m cerebral perfusion studies with a three-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom. Collimator and filter selection in SPECT neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee-Joung; Yang, Seoung-Oh; Moon, Dae-Hyuk; Lee, Hee-Kyung [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Karp, J.S.; Mozley, P.D.; Kung, H.F.; Alavi, A.

    1996-02-01

    The choice of a collimator and the selection of a filter can affect the quality of clinical SPECT images of the brain. The compromises that 4 different collimators make between spatial resolution and sensitivity were studied by imaging a three-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom. The planar data were acquired with each collimator on a three-headed SPECT system and were reconstructed with both a standard Butterworth filter and a Wiener pre-filter. The reconstructed images were then evaluated by specialists in nuclear medicine and were also quantitatively analyzed with specific regions of interest (ROI) in the brain. All observers preferred the Wiener filter reconstructed images regardless of the collimator used to acquire the planar images. With this filter, the ultrahigh-resolution fan-beam collimator was the most subjectively preferable and quantitatively produced the highest contrast ratios. The findings support suggestions that higher resolution collimators are preferable to higher sensitivity collimators, and indicate that fan-beam collimators are preferable to parallel-hole collimators for clinical SPECT studies of cerebral perfusion. The results also suggest that the Wiener filter enhances the quality of SPECT brain images regardless of which collimator is used to acquire the data. (author).

  1. Application of texture analysis to DAT SPECT imaging: Relationship to clinical assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Rahmim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine transporter (DAT SPECT imaging is increasingly utilized for diagnostic purposes in suspected Parkinsonian syndromes. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate whether assessment of texture in DAT SPECT radiotracer uptake enables enhanced correlations with severity of motor and cognitive symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD, with the long-term goal of enabling clinical utility of DAT SPECT imaging, beyond standard diagnostic tasks, to tracking of progression in PD. Quantitative analysis in routine DAT SPECT imaging, if performed at all, has been restricted to assessment of mean regional uptake. We applied a framework wherein textural features were extracted from the images. Notably, the framework did not require registration to a common template, and worked in the subject-native space. Image analysis included registration of SPECT images onto corresponding MRI images, automatic region-of-interest (ROI extraction on the MRI images, followed by computation of Haralick texture features. We analyzed 141 subjects from the Parkinson's Progressive Marker Initiative (PPMI database, including 85 PD and 56 healthy controls (HC (baseline scans with accompanying 3 T MRI images. We performed univariate and multivariate regression analyses between the quantitative metrics and different clinical measures, namely (i the UPDRS (part III - motor score, disease duration as measured from (ii time of diagnosis (DD-diag. and (iii time of appearance of symptoms (DD-sympt., as well as (iv the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA score. For conventional mean uptake analysis in the putamen, we showed significant correlations with clinical measures only when both HC and PD were included (Pearson correlation r = −0.74, p-value < 0.001. However, this was not significant when applied to PD subjects only (r = −0.19, p-value = 0.084, and no such correlations were observed in the caudate. By contrast, for the PD subjects, significant correlations

  2. Evaluation of the quality of picture in studies of sect brain acquired with various collimators; Evaluacion de la calidad de imagen en estudios de spect cerebral adquiridos con distintos colimadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran Velasco, V.; Prieto Azcarete, E.; Barbes Fernandez, B.; Sancho rodriguez, L.; Ribelles Segura, M. J.; Richter echevarria, J. A.; Arbizu Lostao, J.; Marti-Climent, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    On the practice clinic , the performance of the systems SPECT depends on in large measurement of the quality of image. The goal of East study was evaluate how affect the parameters of reconstruction of studies SPECT of perfusion brain acquired with a collimator of holes parallel (LEHR) and other of holes in fan (Fan-Beam). (Author)

  3. Y-Spect: A Multi-Method Gamma Spectrometry Analysis Program

    OpenAIRE

    P.I.Yazid

    2013-01-01

    To accomplish a more accurate, precise and correct interpretation and analysis of spectrum data collecting from a gamma spectrometry counting system, a fully interactive computer code, named Y-Spect, has been developed by using the Delphi 7.0 programming language. The code combines several popular methods for peak search, i.e.: Mariscotti, Phillips-Marlow, Robertson et al., Routti-Prussin, Black, Sterlinski, Savitzky-Golay and Block et al. Any combinations of those methods can be chosen durin...

  4. Perfusion impairments in children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) on {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT: comparison with MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. H.; Sin, E. J.; Cheon, K. A.; Yoon, M. J.; Lee, J. D. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, T. J. [Pochon CHA University College of Medicine, Pochon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study aimed to reveal that severe disturbance of attachment relationship with primary care-giver can affect functional and anatomical brain development by measuring cerebral perfusion on {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT and correlative MRI. We included 18 children aged 31 to 76 months who met the diagnostic criteria of RAD as defined in DSM-IV and ICD-10 and SSP and CARS. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT was performed using CERASPECT. MRI was performed in all patients. SPECT data were visually assessed. 15 of 18 children had abnormal perfusion on SPECT, revealing decreased perfusion of Lt.thalamus (7/15) and Rt.thalamus (3/15), and bilateral thalami (5/15). Perfusion of basal ganglia was decreased in 8 children. Decreased perfusion of Lt. parietal area was seen in 2. Whereas, all patients had normal MR findings. Perfusion abnormalities involving thalamus, BG in most children with RAD were found in this study. These results suggest that brain development of infant could be impeded by severe pathologic care and early nurturing environment would be important for normal development.

  5. Scatter correction in planar imaging and SPECT by constrained factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, J.; Younes, R.B.; Bellaton, B.; Bidet, R. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Jean Minjoz, 25 - Besancon (France). Lab. de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire); Hannequin, P. (Centre d' Imagerie Nucleaire, 74 -Annecy (France))

    1990-11-01

    A new approach to Compton scatter correction based on factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS) is presented in this study. The innovation is the use of a constrained photopeak factor. This novel algorithm is evaluated both on planar imaging and SPECT data using Monte Carlo simulations and real phantoms. A comparison with the modified method of Jaszczak is also presented. Different parameters are significantly improved with the authors' recombination method in SPECT studies; particularly after attenuation compensation by the iterative method of Chang. Compared with the subtraction method the contrast is increased by 1.5 for planar Monte Carlo simulations and the scatter fraction is reduced four times with the recombination method. (author).

  6. SPECT imaging with the serotonin transporter radiotracer [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT in nonhuman primate brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosgrove, Kelly P., E-mail: kelly.cosgrove@yale.ed [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Staley, Julie K.; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Bois, Frederic [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Plisson, Christophe [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S. [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Seibyl, John P. [Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Goodman, Mark M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Tamagnan, Gilles D. [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: Serotonin dysfunction has been linked to a variety of psychiatric diseases; however, an adequate SPECT radioligand to probe the serotonin transporter system has not been successfully developed. The purpose of this study was to characterize and determine the in vivo selectivity of iodine-123-labeled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane, [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT, in nonhuman primate brain. Methods: Two ovariohysterectomized female baboons participated in nine studies (one bolus and eight bolus to constant infusion at a ratio of 9.0 h) to evaluate [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT. To evaluate the selectivity of [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT, the serotonin transporter blockers fenfluramine (1.5, 2.5 mg/kg) and citalopram (5 mg/kg), the dopamine transporter blocker methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg) and the norepinephrine transporter blocker nisoxetine (1 mg/kg) were given at 8 h post-radiotracer injection. Results: In the bolus to constant infusion studies, equilibrium was established by 4-8 h. [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT was 93% and 90% protein bound in the two baboons and there was no detection of lipophilic radiolabeled metabolites entering the brain. In the high-density serotonin transporter regions (diencephalon and brainstem), fenfluramine and citalopram resulted in 35-71% and 129-151% displacement, respectively, whereas methylphenidate and nisoxetine did not produce significant changes (<10%). Conclusion: These findings suggest that [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT is a favorable compound for in vivo SPECT imaging of serotonin transporters with negligible binding to norepinephrine and dopamine transporters.

  7. Y-Spect: A Multi-Method Gamma Spectrometry Analysis Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.I. Yazid

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To accomplish a more accurate, precise and correct interpretation and analysis of spectrum data collecting from a gamma spectrometry counting system, a fully interactive computer code, named Y-Spect, has been developed by using the Delphi 7.0 programming language. The code combines several popular methods for peak search, i.e.: Mariscotti, Phillips-Marlow, Robertson et al., Routti-Prussin, Black, Sterlinski, Savitzky-Golay and Block et al. Any combinations of those methods can be chosen during a peak searching process, which can be performed in automatic or manual mode. Moving Window Average- and Savitzky-Golay-methods are available for spectrum data smoothing. Peak fitting is done by using a non-linear least square method of Levenberg-Marquardt for either a pure Gaussian peak shape or one with an additional Right/Left Tail function. Other than standard features, such as: peak identification and determination of: continuum, region of interest (ROI, and peak area, etc., Y-Spect has also a special feature which can predict the existence of escape- and/or sum peaks that belong to a certain radioisotope. Aside from displaying the complete spectrum graph, including: singlet or multiplet ROIs and peak identifications, Y-Spect can also display the first- or second-derivative of the spectrum data. Data evaluation is given as: isotope names, peak energy, Net-Count(-Rate, etc. Y-Spect is provided with a complete ENDF/B-VII.0 gamma-ray library file that contains of 16089 gamma energy lines from 1420 different radioisotopes. Other general specifications are: maximum number of: spectrum's channels = 16*1024; ROIs = 2*1024; ROI’s width = 2*1024 channels; Overlapping peaks (multiplet = 20; Identified isotopes = 3*1024, and Isotope library's energy lines = 16*1024

  8. Estudio sobre las alteraciones de la perfusión cerebral valorado mediante SPECT cerebral, en pacientes usuarios de drogas de abuso Study of brain perfusion anomalies assessed with cerebral SPECT in drug abuse patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez Raimondo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El abuso de sustancias psicotóxicas representa un gran problema de Salud Pública en los diferentes distritos estatales. Este trabajo pretende determinar cuáles son los efectos nocivos de estas sustancias sobre el parénquima cerebral de los pacientes en los que se ha demostrado un consumo activo de drogas prohibidas. Para ello se empleó la técnica de SPECT cerebral con ECD - 99mTc aplicada a aquellos pacientes adictos, a los cuales previamente se les realizó una encuesta para conocer el tipo de droga, el tiempo y la duración de su adicción. Como resultado se detectó que el mayor número de defectos de perfusión corticales, es decir, déficits funcionales, se localizaron en la corteza órbito-frontal y en los lóbulos temporales, lo cual explicaría los importantes trastornos de conducta y personalidad que manifiestan estos pacientes. Se demostró con este método que el SPECT cerebral es un excelente método para detectar las zonas afectadas por estas drogas psicoadictivas, su extensión y la evolución y posible respuesta al tratamiento.Psychoactive drug abuse is a major public health problem in many districts. This study seeks to determine the harmful effects of such drugs on the brain parenchyma of patients known to abuse illegal drugs. Brain scans were obtained using 99 M Tc- ECD SPECT from drug addicts that had been previously surveyed to ascertain the type of drug, the timing and duration of their addiction SPECT findings showed a larger number of cortical perfusion defects, that is to say functional defects located in the orbital-frontal cortex and in the temporal lobes that may explain the significant behavior and personality disorders these patients display. Cerebral SPECT showed to be an excellent method to detect areas affected by psychoactive drugs, their extent, likely evolution and response to treatment.

  9. Role of brain perfusion SPECT with 99mTc HMPAO in the assessment of response to drug therapy in patients with autoimmune vasculitis: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberatore Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of vasculitis in the brain remains a quite difficult achievement. To the best of our knowledge, there is no imaging method reported in literature which is capable of reaching to a diagnosis of vasculitis with very high sensitivity. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether perfusion brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT can be usefully employed in monitoring the treatment of vasculitis, allowing treating only potentially responder patients and avoiding the side effects on patients who do not respond. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients (two males and 18 females suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; n = 5, Behcet′s disease (BD; n = 5, undifferentiated vasculitis (UV; n = 5, and Sjogren′s syndrome (SS; n = 5 were included in the study. All patients underwent a wide neurological anamnestic investigation, a complete objective neurological examination and SPECT of the brain with 99mTc-hexamethyl-propylene-aminoxime (HMPAO. The brain SPECT was then repeated after appropriate medical treatment. The neurological and neuropsychiatric follow-up was performed at 6 months after the start of the treatment. Results: Overall, the differences between the scintigraphic results obtained after and before the medical treatment indicated a statistically significant increase of the cerebral perfusion (CP. In 19 out of 200 regions of interest (ROI studied, the difference between pre- and post treatment percentages had negative sign, indicating a worsening of CP. This latter event has occurred six times (five in the same patients in the UV, 10 times (eight in the same patients in the SLE, never in BD, and three times (two in the same patient in the SS. Conclusion: The reported results seem to indicate the possibility of identifying, by the means of a brain SPECT, responder and nonresponder (unchanged or worsened CP patients, affected by autoimmune vasculitis, to the therapy.

  10. Applications of cerebral SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, C., E-mail: claire.mcarthur@nhs.net [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Jampana, R.; Patterson, J.; Hadley, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide three-dimensional functional images of the brain following the injection of one of a series of radiopharmaceuticals that crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes according to cerebral perfusion, neurotransmitter, or cell density. Applications include differentiating between the dementias, evaluating cerebrovascular disease, preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci, diagnosing movement disorders, and evaluation of intracerebral tumours, while also proving a useful research tool. Unlike positronemission tomography (PET), SPECT imaging is widely available and can be performed in any department that has access to a rotating gamma camera. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the utility of cerebral SPECT and increase awareness of its role in the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  11. Cerebral perfusion and automated individual analysis using SPECT among an obsessive-compulsive population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Timóteo da Rocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To make individual assessments using automated quantification methodology in order to screen for perfusion abnormalities in cerebral SPECT examinations among a sample of subjects with OCD. METHODS: Statistical parametric mapping (SPM was used to compare 26 brain SPECT images from patients with OCD individually with an image bank of 32 normal subjects, using the statistical threshold of p < 0.05 (corrected for multiple comparisons at the level of individual voxels or clusters. The maps were analyzed, and regions presenting voxels that remained above this threshold were sought. RESULTS: Six patients from a sample of 26 OCD images showed abnormalities at cluster or voxel level, considering the criteria described above, which represented 23.07%. However, seven images from the normal group of 32 were also indicated as cases of perfusional abnormality, representing 21.8% of the sample. CONCLUSION: The automated quantification method was not considered to be a useful tool for clinical practice, for analyses complementary to visual inspection.

  12. Effects of dextromethorphan on MDMA-induced serotonergic aberration in the brains of non-human primates using [123I]-ADAM/SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Liu, Tsung-Ta; Weng, Shao-Ju; Chen, Chien-Fu F.; Huang, Yuahn-Sieh; Chueh, Sheau-Huei; Liao, Mei-Hsiu; Chang, Kang-Wei; Sung, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Te-Hung; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Cheng, Cheng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a common recreational drug, is known to cause serotonergic neurotoxicity in the brain. Dextromethorphan (DM) is a widely used antitussive reported to exert anti-inflammatory effect in vivo. In this study, we examined the long-term effect of MDMA on the primate serotonergic system and the protective property of DM against MDMA-induced serotonergic abnormality using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Nine monkeys (Macaca cyclopis) were divided into three groups, namely control, MDMA and co-treatment (MDMA/DM). [123I]-ADAM was used as the radioligand for serotonin transporters (SERT) in SPECT scans. SERT levels of the brain were evaluated and presented as the uptake ratios (URs) of [123I]-ADAM in several regions of interest of the brain including midbrain, thalamus and striatum. We found that the URs of [123I]-ADAM were significantly lower in the brains of MDMA than control group, indicating lower brain SERT levels in the MDMA-treated monkeys. This MDMA-induced decrease in brain SERT levels could persist for over four years. However, the loss of brain SERT levels was not observed in co-treatment group. These results suggest that DM may exert a protective effect against MDMA-induced serotonergic toxicity in the brains of the non-human primate. PMID:27941910

  13. A change in thalamic function in patients of chronic pain. A functional brain study with SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Mitsuru; Doi, Nagafumi; Isse, Kunihiro [Tokyo Metropolitan Ebara General Hospital (Japan)] [and others

    1999-02-01

    The cerebral blood flow was measured by SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD as tracer in order to make chronic pain clear physiopathologically. Subjects were 7 cases of central pain (4 cases of thalamus and 3 cases of putamen) and 3 cases of postherpetic neuralgia, who were treated by ECT and had good response in the Tokyo Metropolitan Ebara General Hospital. Reduction of cerebral blood flow in the thalamus was recognized at opposite side of pain (the side with cerebrovascular diseases) in central pain; at both sides in postherpetic neuralgia. In both groups, pain and allodynia disappeared by ECT, and the thalamic cerebral blood flow at opposite side became to be normal. These results suggest that chronic pain was related to decrease thalamic activity at opposite side physiopathologically. (K.H.)

  14. 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT imaging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the changes of regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndromes (AIDS), 99mTc-ECDbrain SPECT imaging was performed in 5 patients with AIDS and 16 sex and agematched normal controls, and the rCBF percentages compared to the cerebellum werecalculated using a semi-quantitative processing software. Hypoperfusions in the rightand left frontal, temporal, porietal lobe, basal ganglia and left thalamus were seen in1 patient with dementia. Hypoperfusions in the right and left frontal and temporallobe were seen in 4 asymptomatic patients. The rCBF in the right and left frontal.temporal, porietal lobe, basal ganglia and thalamus, front and pons were decreasedsignificantly in patients with AIDS than those of the control subjects (p <0.005). Itis concluded that there exists reduced cortico-subcortical rCBF in AIDS patients.``

  15. Brain perfusion SPECT of patients with anorexia nervosa. Evaluation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM96)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Nakajoh, Masayuki; Tsuchimochi, Shinsaku; Tani, Atsushi; Umanodan, Tomokazu [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Naruo, Tetsuro; Nozoe, Shinichi

    2001-02-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) has two subtypes; restricting type (AN-R) and binge-eating/purging type (AN-BP). It is suggested that AN-R is different from AN-BP on psychopathological aspects. We compared regional cerebral blood flows of 7 female patients with AN-R, 7 female patients with AN-BP and 7 age-matched normal volunteers (NV) using Tc99m-HMPAO SPECT processed by SPM96. There were significant decreased perfusions in the anterior cingulate gyrus in AN-R when compared with those of AN-BP and NV. These results suggest that the mechanism of outbreak of AN-R may be different from that of AN-BP. (author)

  16. Semiquantitative analysis of SPECT images using 99Tc(m) -HMPAO in the treatment of brain perfusion after the attenuation correction by the Chang method and the application of the Butterworth filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, P; Junik, R; Krzyminiewski, R; Gembicki, M; Sowiński, J

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize the parameters for semiquantitative analysis with regard to the average number of counts per pixel in tomographic projections. The analysed studies were divided into three groups, proportionally, to average the counts per pixel. The analysis of results proved the dependence (Pmatrix order of interpolation filter proved increasing of contrast with decreasing size of the matrix. In conclusion, according to the average number of counts per pixel in a projection the parameters of image reconstruction, particularly the cut-off frequency fc of the Butterworth filter, should be changed. Additionally, an attenuation correction with coefficient c=0.12 cm-1 and interpolation with matrix size equal 7x7 should be applied.

  17. The utility of segmental analysis in cardiac I-123 MIBG SPECT in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soo Hyun; Yoon, Joon Kee; Yoon, Jung Han; Lee, Su Jin; Jo, Kyung Soo; Lee, Dong Hyun; An, Young Sil [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Cardiac images using I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) are widely used to evaluate cardiac sympathetic denervation in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of segmental analysis on cardiac MIBG SPECT in PD patients. In total, 36 patients with PD (n = 26) or essential tremor (ET, n = 10) who underwent MIBG cardiac SPECT were enrolled. The heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratios of MIBG uptake were acquired on planar images. For the segmental analysis of SPECT images, we evaluated the summed defect score (SDS) using a 17-segment model. The diagnostic abilities of H/M ratios and segmental parameters on MIBG SPECT were assessed by ROC curve analysis. The H/M ratios were significantly lower in PD than in ET patients (p < 0.05). On segmental analysis, SDS was significantly higher in PD patients than in the ET group (7.04 ± 4.09 vs. 2.90 ± 2.80; p = 0.006). The defect score of the anteroseptal region showed a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.002). The ROC analysis suggested only SDS (AUC = 0.785, p = 0.0003) and defect scores in the anteroseptal (AUC = 0.800, p < 0.0001) and inferior (AUC = 0.667, p = 0.013) regions showed significant diagnostic ability to differentiate PD from ET. Segmental parameters from cardiac MIBG SPECT images can provide additional information to differentiate PD from ET patients. Beyond H/M ratios from planar images, we recommend an MIBG SPECT study to evaluate sympathetic denervation in PD.

  18. The change of cerebral blood flow after heart transplantation in congestive heart failure: a voxel-based and automatic VOl analysis of Tc-99m ECD SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, I. K.; Kim, J. J.; Lee, C. H.; Lim, K. C.; Moon, D. H.; Rhu, J. S.; Kim, J. S. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the change of global and regional cerebral blood flow after heart transplantation (HT) in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. Twenty-one patients with CHF who underwent HT (45{+-}12 yrs, M/F=19/2) and 10 healthy volunteers (39{+-}13 yrs, M/F = 7/3) were prospectively included. All patients underwent echocardiography and radionuclide angiography including brain and aorta with brain SPECT which was performed after iv bolus injection of Tc-99m ECD (740MBq) before (175{+-}253 days) and after (129{+-}82 days) HT. Patients were divided into two groups according to the interval between HT and postoperative SPECT [early follow-up (f/u): <6 mo, n=14; late f/u: >6 mo, n=7]. Global CBF (gCBF) of bilateral hemispheres were calculated by Patlak graphical analysis. Absolute rCBF map was obtained from brain SPECT by Lassen's correction algorithm. Age-corrected voxel-based analysis using SPM2 and automatic VOl analysis were performed to assess the rCBF change. Cardiac ejection fraction of all patients improved after HT (20.8%{yields}64.0%). gCBF was reduced compared to normal before HT (35.7{+-}3.9 vs. 49.1{+-}3.0 ml/100g/min; p<0.001) and improved postoperatively (46.6{+-}5.4, p<0.001). The preoperative gCBFs of early and late f/u group were not different (34.6{+-}3.2 vs. 38.0{+-}4.4, p=0.149) but postoperative gCBF (43.9{+-}3.7) of late f/u group was higher than those (52.0{+-}4.0) of early f/u group (p<0.001). On voxel-based analysis, preoperative rCBF was reduced in entire brain but most severely in bilateral superior and inferior frontal cortex, supplementary motor area, precuneus and anterior cingulum, compared to normals (uncorrected p<0.001). After HT, rCBF of these areas improved more significantly in late f/u group than in early f/u group but still lower than normals. Global CBF was significantly reduced in CHF patients and improved after HT. rCBFs of the frontal cortex, precuneus and cingulum were most severely reduced and slowly improved after

  19. Iodine-123 labeled derivatives of methylphenidate: potential SPECT radiopharmaceuticals for brain dopamine transporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, D.; Gatley, S.J.; Chen, R.; Ding, Y.-S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Since dl-threo-[{sup 11}C]methylphenidate (Ritalin) and especially the more active enantiomer, d-threo-[{sup 11}C]methylphenidate, have favorable properties for PET studies, we prepared two radioiodinated analogs of methylphenidate, p-[{sup 123}I]iodomethylphenidate and m-[{sup 123}I]iodo-p-hydroxymethylphenidate with a view to evaluating them as potential SPECT tracers. To prepare p-[{sup 123}I]iodomethylphenidate, the p-tributyltin derivative was prepared from the previously reported p-bromomethylphenidate and reacted under acidic conditions with I-123 iodide plus chloramine-T at room temperature for 90 seconds. The predomimant radioactive product was obtained in 85% radiochemical yield and > 10 Ci/{mu}mol specific radioactivity after HPLC purification. It had the same HPLC retention time as a spectroscopically characterized non-radioactive p-iodomethylphenidate standard prepared via nitration of methylphenidate and diazotization, after protection of the secondary amino group by benzoylation. A second radioiodinated methylphenidate derivative, m-[{sup 123}I]iodop-hydroxymethylphenidate was prepared in 80% radiochemical yield by direct iodination of the known p-hydroxymethylphenidate. In this case the non-radioactive standard was prepared by iodination of p-hydroxyritalinic acid using I{sub 2} and iodic acid, followed by esterification. (author).

  20. SPECT myocardial perfusion versus fractional flow reserve for evaluation of functional ischemia: A meta analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tao; Yang, Lin-feng [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No, 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province, China. 250031 (China); Zhai, Ji-liang [Department of Medical Imaging, The Branch of TaiAn Central Hospital, Middle of Changcheng Road, Shandong Province, China. 271000 (China); Li, Jiang [Department of Medical Imaging, Affiliated Hospital of Taishan Medical University, No, 706, Taishan Road, Shandong Province, China. 271000 (China); Wang, Qi-meng [Department of Medical Imaging, Taishan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No, 216, Yingxuan Street, Shandong Province, China. 271000. (China); Zhang, Rui-jie; Wang, Sen; Peng, Zhao-hui [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No, 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province, China. 250031 (China); Li, Min, E-mail: liminyingxiang@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No, 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province, China. 250031 (China); Sun, Gang, E-mail: cjr.sungang@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No, 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province, China. 250031 (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The present meta-analysis illustrates the accuracy of myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) to diagnose functional stenotic coronary artery disease (CAD) with fractional flow reserve (FFR) as standard reference. Methods: All investigators screened and selected studies that compared MPS with FFR in symptomatic patients with suspected CAD. Patients and study characteristics were independently extracted by two investigators; differences were resolved by consensus. Results: 13 articles, including 1,017 patients, 699 vessels were included in the study. No significant publication bias was detected (P = 0.65). At the patient level, the summary sensitivity and specificity were 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70–83%) and 77% (95%CI, 67–84%) for MPS. Vessel-level pooled sensitivity was 66% (95%CI, 57–74%) and specificity was 81% (95%CI, 70–89%). The overall diagnostic performance of MPS was moderate. [The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curve was 0.83]. No study influenced the pooled results larger than 0.03. Conclusions: The accuracy between FFR and MPS SPECT was moderate.

  1. Assessment of vascularization within hydroxyapatite ocular implant by bone scintigraphy: compartive analysis of planar and SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee; Park, Soon Ah [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    Complete fibrovascular ingrowth within the hydroxyapatite ocular implant is necessary for peg drilling which is performed to prevent infection and to provide motility to the ocular prosthesis. We compared planar bone scintigraphy and SPECT for the evaluation of the vascularization within hydroxyapatite ocular implants. Seventeen patients (M:F=12:5, mean age: 50.4{+-}17.5 years) who had received a coralline hydroxyapatite ocular implant after enucleation surgery were enrolled. Patients underwent Tc-99m MDP planar bone and SPECT imaging by dual head gamma camera after their implant surgery (interval: 197{+-}81 days). Uptake on planar and SPECT images was graded visually as less than (grade 1), equal to (grade 2), and greater than (grade 3) nasal bridge activity. Quantitative ratio of implanted to non-implanted intraorbital activity was also measured. Vascularization within hydroxyapatite implants was confirmed by slit lamp examination and ocular movement. All but three patients were considered to be vascularized within hydroxyapatite implants. In visual analysis of planar image and SPECT, grade 1 was noted in 9/18 (50%) and 6/18 (33%), respectively. Grade 2 pattern 7/18 (39%) and 4/18 (22%), and grade 3 pattern was 2/18 (11%) and 8/18 (44%) respectively. When grade 2 or 3 was considered to be positive for vascularization, the sensitivity of planar and SPECT imaging were 60% (9/15) and 80% (12/15), respectively. In 3 patients with incomplete vascularization, both planar and SPECT showed grade 1 uptake. The orbital activity ratios on planar imaging were not significantly different between complete and incomplete vascularization (1.96{+-}9.87 vs 1.17{+-}0.08 , p>0.05), however, it was significantly higher on SPECT in patients with complete vascularization (8.44{+-}5.45 vs 2.20{+-}0.87, p<0.05). In the assessment of fibrovascular ingrowth within ocular implants by Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy, SPECT image appears to be more effective than planar scintigraphy.

  2. Comparison of two neural network classifiers in the differential diagnosis of essential tremor and Parkinson's disease by {sup 123}I-FP-CIT brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palumbo, Barbara [University of Perugia, Nuclear Medicine Section, Department of Surgical, Radiological and Odontostomatological Sciences, Ospedale S. Maria della Misericordia, Perugia (Italy); Fravolini, Mario Luca [University of Perugia, Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Perugia (Italy); Nuvoli, Susanna; Spanu, Angela; Madeddu, Giuseppe [University of Sassari, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sassari (Italy); Paulus, Kai Stephan [University of Sassari, Department of Neurology, Sassari (Italy); Schillaci, Orazio [University Tor Vergata, Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Rome (Italy); IRCSS Neuromed, Pozzilli (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    To contribute to the differentiation of Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET), we compared two different artificial neural network classifiers using {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT data, a probabilistic neural network (PNN) and a classification tree (ClT). {sup 123}I-FP-CIT brain SPECT with semiquantitative analysis was performed in 216 patients: 89 with ET, 64 with PD with a Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) score of {<=}2 (early PD), and 63 with PD with a H and Y score of {>=}2.5 (advanced PD). For each of the 1,000 experiments carried out, 108 patients were randomly selected as the PNN training set, while the remaining 108 validated the trained PNN, and the percentage of the validation data correctly classified in the three groups of patients was computed. The expected performance of an ''average performance PNN'' was evaluated. In analogy, for ClT 1,000 classification trees with similar structures were generated. For PNN, the probability of correct classification in patients with early PD was 81.9{+-}8.1% (mean{+-}SD), in patients with advanced PD 78.9{+-}8.1%, and in ET patients 96.6{+-}2.6%. For ClT, the first decision rule gave a mean value for the putamen of 5.99, which resulted in a probability of correct classification of 93.5{+-}3.4%. This means that patients with putamen values >5.99 were classified as having ET, while patients with putamen values <5.99 were classified as having PD. Furthermore, if the caudate nucleus value was higher than 6.97 patients were classified as having early PD (probability 69.8{+-}5.3%), and if the value was <6.97 patients were classified as having advanced PD (probability 88.1%{+-}8.8%). These results confirm that PNN achieved valid classification results. Furthermore, ClT provided reliable cut-off values able to differentiate ET and PD of different severities. (orig.)

  3. Effect of cyclosporin A administration on the biodistribution and multipinhole {mu}SPECT imaging of [{sup 123}I]R91150 in rodent brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanckaert, P.; Burvenich, I.; Bruyne, S. de; Moerman, L.; Wyffels, L.; Vos, F. de [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Gent (Belgium); Staelens, S. [Ghent University - IBBT, MEDISIP, Faculty of Engineering, Gent (Belgium)

    2009-03-15

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an efflux protein found amongst other locations in the blood-brain barrier. It is important to investigate the effect of Pgp modulation on clinically used brain tracers, because brain uptake of the tracer can be altered by blocking of the Pgp efflux transporter. The function of Pgp can be blocked with cyclosporin A. We investigated the effect of cyclosporin A administration on the biodistribution of [{sup 123}I]R91150 in rodents, and the effect of Pgp blocking on the quality of multipinhole {mu}SPECT imaging with [{sup 123}I]R91150. The influence of increasing doses of cyclosporin A on the brain uptake of [{sup 123}I]R91150 was investigated in NMRI mice. A biodistribution study with [{sup 123}I]R91150 was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats pretreated with cyclosporin A and not pretreated. Brain uptake of [{sup 123}I]R91150 after cyclosporin A injection was compared to the brain uptake in untreated animals, and a displacement study with ketanserin was performed in both groups. A multipinhole {mu}SPECT brain imaging study was also performed using a Milabs U-SPECT-II camera in male Sprague-Dawley rats. To exclude the effect of possible metabolites, a metabolite study was also performed. At the highest cyclosporin A dose (50 mg/kg), a sevenfold increase in brain radioactivity concentration was observed in NMRI mice. Also, a dose-response relationship was established between the dose of cyclosporin A and the brain uptake of [{sup 123}I]R91150 in mice. Compared to the control group, a five-fold increase in [{sup 123}I]R91150 radioactivity concentration was observed in the brain of Sprague-Dawley rats after cyclosporin A treatment (50 mg/kg). Radioactivity concentration in the frontal cortex increased from 0.24{+-}0.0092 to 1.58{+-}0.097% injected dose per gram of tissue after treatment with cyclosporin A (at the 1-h time-point). Blood radioactivity concentrations did not increase to the same extent. The cortical activity was displaced by

  4. Comparison of region-of-interest analysis and human observers in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease using [99mTc]TRODAT-1 and SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Paul D.; Newberg, Andrew; Plössl, Karl; Mozley, P. David

    2006-02-01

    This study determined the relative accuracy of diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) using SPECT imaging data, comparing a semi-quantitative region-of-interest (ROI) approach and human observers. A set of patients with PD and normal healthy control subjects were studied using the dopamine transporter tracer [99mTc]TRODAT-1 and SPECT. The sample comprised 81 patients (mean age ± SD, 63.4 ± 10.4 years; age range, 39.0-84.2 years) and 94 healthy controls (mean age ± SD, 61.8 ± 11.0 years; age range, 40.9-83.3 years). A standardized template containing six ROIs was transposed onto subregions of the brain, and the ratio of striatal to background ROI values was used as a semi-quantitative outcome measure. All images were used in a human observer study, with four experienced investigators. The data from the observer and ROI studies were analysed using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, where the area under the ROC curve (AUC) indicated the diagnostic accuracy. ROI analysis and human observers gave similar diagnostic performance (mean observer AUC = 0.89, best ROI AUC = 0.90). This suggested that the human observers are visually acquiring similar information from the images that are contained in the semi-quantitative striatal uptake.

  5. An ultrahigh resolution SPECT system for I-125 mouse brain imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, L.J. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States)], E-mail: ljmeng@umich.edu; Fu, G. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States); Roy, E.J.; Suppe, B. [Department of Pathology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States); Chen, C.T. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents some initial experimental results obtained with a dual-head prototype single photon emission microscope system (SPEM) that is dedicated to mouse brain studies using I-125 labeled radiotracers. In particular, this system will be used for in vivo tacking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain. This system is based on the use of the intensified electron multiplying charge-coupled device (I-EMCCD) camera that offers the combination of an excellent intrinsic spatial resolution, a good signal-to-noise ratio, a large active area and a reasonable detection efficiency over an energy range between 27-140 keV. In this study, the dual-head SPEM system was evaluated using both resolution phantoms and a mouse with locally injected T cells labeled with I-125. It was demonstrated that for a relatively concentrated source object, the current dual-head SPEM system is capable of visualizing the tiny amount of radioactivity ({approx}12 nCi) carried by a very small number (<1000) of T cells. The current SPEM system design allows four or six camera heads to be installed in a stationary system configuration that offers a doubled or tripled sensitivity at a spatial resolution similar to that obtained with the dual-head system. This development would provide a powerful tool for in vivo and non-invasive tracking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain and potentially for other rodent brain imaging studies.

  6. An ultrahigh resolution SPECT system for I-125 mouse brain imaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, L. J.; Fu, G.; Roy, E. J.; Suppe, B.; Chen, C. T.

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents some initial experimental results obtained with a dual-head prototype single photon emission microscope system (SPEM) that is dedicated to mouse brain studies using I-125 labeled radiotracers. In particular, this system will be used for in vivo tacking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain. This system is based on the use of the intensified electron multiplying charge-coupled device (I-EMCCD) camera that offers the combination of an excellent intrinsic spatial resolution, a good signal-to-noise ratio, a large active area and a reasonable detection efficiency over an energy range between 27-140 keV. In this study, the dual-head SPEM system was evaluated using both resolution phantoms and a mouse with locally injected T cells labeled with I-125. It was demonstrated that for a relatively concentrated source object, the current dual-head SPEM system is capable of visualizing the tiny amount of radioactivity (˜12 nCi) carried by a very small number (<1000) of T cells. The current SPEM system design allows four or six camera heads to be installed in a stationary system configuration that offers a doubled or tripled sensitivity at a spatial resolution similar to that obtained with the dual-head system. This development would provide a powerful tool for in vivo and non-invasive tracking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain and potentially for other rodent brain imaging studies.

  7. THETA AND ALPHA EEG FREQUENCY INTERPLAY IN SUBJECTS WITH MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT: EVIDENCE FROM EEG, MRI AND SPECT BRAIN MODIFICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Vito Moretti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: reduction of regional cerebral perfusion in hippocampus as well as temporo-parietal and medial temporal cortex atrophy are associated to mild cognitive impairment (MCI due to Alzheimer disease (AD. Methods: 74 adult subjects with MCI underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, electroencephalogram (EEG recording and high resolution 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Among the patients, a subset of 27 subjects underwent also perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and hippocampal atrophy evaluation. Alpha3/alpha2 power ratio as well as cortical thickness was computed for each subject. Three MCI groups were detected according to increasing tertile values of alpha3/alpha2 power ratio and difference of cortical thickness among the groups estimated. Results: higher alpha3/alpha2 power ratio group had wider cortical thinning than other groups, mapped to the Supramarginal and Precuneus bilaterally. Subjects with higher alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio showed a constant trend to a lower perfusion than lower alpha3/alpha2 group. Moreover, this group correlates with both a bigger hippocampal atrophy and an increase of theta frequency power.Conclusion: Higher EEG alpha3/alpha2 power ratio was associated with temporo-parietal cortical thinning, hippocampal atrophy and reduction of regional cerebral perfusion in medial temporal cortex. In this group an increase of theta frequency power was detected inMCI subjects. The combination of higher EEG alpha3/alpha2 power ratio, cortical thickness measure and regional cerebral perfusion reveals a complex interplay between EEG cerebral rhythms, structural and functional brain modifications.

  8. 2 year follow-up of childhood moyamoya after encephalo-arterio-myo-synangiosis (EDAMS): evaluation with acetazolamide brain SPECT (Acz-SPECT) and MR angiography (MRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Ra, Young Shin; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Ryu, Jin Sook; Lee, Hee Kyung [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Longterm F/U evaluation of cerebrovascular hemodynamic changes after EDAMS is important because childhood moyamoya disease has a progressive nature and EDAMS is an indirect revascularization method. We evaluated cerebro-vascular hemodynamic changes of moyamoya pts during 2 yr after EDAMS with Acz-SPECT and correlated with MRA finding. 23 operated cerebral hemispheres of the 21 childhood moyamoya pts (M/F: 10/11, mean age 8{+-}3 yrs) were evaluated with Acz-SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and MRA within 1 mo before, 1 yr ( 6 {+-}3 mo) and 2 yr (21 {+-}7 mo) after EDAMS. 10 pts also underwent frontal encephalo-galeo-synangiosis. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebrovascular reserve (rCVR) of 8 cortical regions in each hemisphere (2 anterior cerebral artery (ACA), 4 mid-cerebral artery (MCA), and 2 posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territories) were scored as 5 grade scale (0=perfusion defect to 4=normal). Perfusion index (PI) was defined as the sum scores of rCBF and rCVR in each territory. Arterial stenosis and transdural collaterals were also evaluated. The changes of PIs in each territory and the changes of cerebral arterial stenosis with collateral formation at 1 and 2 yr F/U were correlated. Pre-operative stages of moyamoya disease were Suzuki type 1 in 1, 2 in 6, 3 in 7, and 4 in 9 cases. Mean PIs of each territory were summarized in the table. PIs of operated (MCA and ACA) territories were improved in 14, unchanged in 7, and aggravated in 2 cases at 1 yr F/U. PIs of PCA territory were improved in 4, unchanged in 16, and aggravated in 3 cases. At 2 yr F/U, PIs of operated territories were unchanged in 10 and improved in 12 cases including 2 with aggravation and 5 with no change at 1 yr F/U, but newly aggravated in 2 cases. Pis of PCA territory were improved in 5 or unchanged in 15, but further or newly aggravated in 3 cases. The arterial stenosis was progressed in 9 cases (5 MCA, 3 PCA, and/or 3 ACA). In these cases, PIs were aggravated in 3(2 operated and

  9. Imaging lung function in mice using SPECT/CT and per-voxel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian N Jobse

    Full Text Available Chronic lung disease is a major worldwide health concern but better tools are required to understand the underlying pathologies. Ventilation/perfusion (V/Q single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT with per-voxel analysis allows for non-invasive measurement of regional lung function. A clinically adapted V/Q methodology was used in healthy mice to investigate V/Q relationships. Twelve week-old mice were imaged to describe normal lung function while 36 week-old mice were imaged to determine how age affects V/Q. Mice were ventilated with Technegas™ and injected with (99mTc-macroaggregated albumin to trace ventilation and perfusion, respectively. For both processes, SPECT and CT images were acquired, co-registered, and quantitatively analyzed. On a per-voxel basis, ventilation and perfusion were moderately correlated (R = 0.58±0.03 in 12 week old animals and a mean log(V/Q ratio of -0.07±0.01 and standard deviation of 0.36±0.02 were found, defining the extent of V/Q matching. In contrast, 36 week old animals had significantly increased levels of V/Q mismatching throughout the periphery of the lung. Measures of V/Q were consistent across healthy animals and differences were observed with age demonstrating the capability of this technique in quantifying lung function. Per-voxel analysis and the ability to non-invasively assess lung function will aid in the investigation of chronic lung disease models and drug efficacy studies.

  10. [Complex partial status epilepticus with recurrent episodes of complex visual hallucinations: study by using 123I-IMP-SPECT, brain MRI and EEG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Masahide; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    We report a 72-year-old woman with complex partial status epilepticus who showed recurrent episodes of complex visual hallucinations (CVH). Brain diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images revealed gyriform cortical hyperintensity in the right parietal, occipital and temporal lobes, and brain magnetic resonance angiograhy revealed a hyperintensity in the right dilated middle cerebral artery during ictal period. Ictal N-isopropyl-p-(iodine-123)-iodoamphetamine single photon emission computed tomography (123I-IMP-SPECT) with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) 14 days after the onset of the first CVH revealed hyperperfusion in the right latero-inferior occipito-temporal region with relation to motion. CVH spontaneously subsided 17 days after the onset of the first CVH. CVH recurred one year after the first CVH. Ictal 123I-IMP-SPECT with 3D-SSP revealed marked hyperperfusion in the right lateral parietal region probably with relation to face and figure hallucinations. Ictal scalp EEGs revealed rhythmic polyspikes at 12 Hz with high amplitude (100-200 μV) in bilateral posterior occipital and temporal region with the right side dominance for 20 seconds and more in several occasions. Interictal 123I-IMP-SPECT with 3D-SSP 28 days after recurrence of CVH revealed marked hypoperfusion in the right lateral parietal region, and recovery of hypoperfusion in the right latero-inferior occipito-temporal region. These findings suggest that ictal CVH might be induced by the spread of epileptic discharges from the right parieto-occipito-temporal region with the old brain contusion (epileptogenic region) to the right latero-inferior occipito-temporal region and the right lateral parietal region (symptomatogenic regions).

  11. Receptor binding characterization of the benzodiazepine radioligand sup 125 I-Ro16-0154: Potential probe for SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.W.; Woods, S.W.; Zoghbi, S.; Baldwin, R.M.; Innis, R.B. (Yale Univ., West Haven, CT (USA)); McBride, B.J. (Medi-Physics, Inc., Emeryville, CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The binding of an iodinated benzodiazepine (BZ) radioligand has been characterized, particularly in regard to its potential use as a neuroreceptor brain imaging agent with SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography). Ro16-0154 is an iodine-containing BZ antagonist and a close analog of Ro15-1788. In tissue homogenates prepared from human and monkey brain, the binding of {sup 125}I-labeled Ro16-0154 was saturable, of high affinity, and had high ratios of specific to non-specific binding. Physiological concentrations of NaCl enhanced specific binding approximately 15% compared to buffer without this salt. Kinetic studies of association and dissociation demonstrated a temperature dependent decrease in affinity with increasing temperature. Drug displacement studies confirmed that {sup 125}I-Ro16-0154 binds to the central type BZ receptor: binding is virtually identical to that of {sup 3}H-Ro15-1788 except that {sup 125}I-Ro16-0154 shows an almost 10 fold higher affinity at 37{degree}C. These in vitro results suggest that {sup 123}I-labeled Ro16-0154 shows promise as a selective, high affinity SPECT probe of the brain's BZ receptor.

  12. Parieto-occipital hypoaccumulation of {sup 123}I-IMP in the brain SPECT associated with maternal inheritance of diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Atsumi, Yoshihito; Hosokawa, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Akira; Asahina, Takayuki; Matsuoka, Kempei [Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Hata, Takashi; Taniyama, Matsuo

    1997-07-01

    To determine the latent effect of diabetes inheritance on central nervous system, thirty diabetic patients were examined (14 male, 16 female). Seventeen patients had a mother with diabetes, and the other thirteen had non-diabetic mothers. They were previously determined to not have the 3243 mitochondrial tRNA mutation in peripheral leukocytes. Patients were tested for parieto-occipital hypoaccumulation of {sup 123}I-IMP of brain SPECT, a characteristic neurofinding of mitochondrial diabetes mellitus due to the 3243 tRNA mutation. Seven (41.2%) out of 17 subjects with material inheritance had the parieto-occipital abnormality, whereas one (7.7%) out of 13 subjects with non-maternal inheritance had the abnormality. Seventeen (94.4%) out of 18 patients diabetes due to mitochondrial tRNA mutation at position 3243 showed the abnormality. Our results suggest that the material inheritance of diabetes is associated with the hypoaccumulation of {sup 123}I-IMP of brain SPECT. We speculate that, because the patients with maternal inheritance might have subclinical mitochondrial dysfunction due to unknown mitochondrial DNA abnormalities, the mitochondrial DNA abnormality might cause their subclinical brain damage in the parieto-occipital area. (author)

  13. sup 123 I-iodoamphetamine SPECT brain imaging in alternating hemiplegia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zupanc, M.L.; Dobkin, J.A.; Perlman, S.B. (Univ. of Wisconsin Hospitals, Madison (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is an unusual disorder characterized by early onset (occurring before 18 months of age); repeated attacks of hemiplegia involving both sides of the body; other paroxysmal phenomena, such as tonic stiffening, dystonic posturing, choreoathetoid movements, ocular motor abnormalities, and autonomic disturbances, in association with bouts of hemiplegia or occurring independently; and evidence of mental or neurologic deficits. A girl was examined because of left hemiplegia at the age of 16 months. The patient had begun exhibiting episodes of alternating hemiplegia at approximately 4 months of age. They consisted of tonic stiffening and dystonia of the right or left extremities, lasting from 30 min to several hours and followed by residual hemiparesis. They were invariably accompanied by ocular motor abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and angiography all were normal. Single proton emission computed tomography brain images during an acute episode of right hemiplegia demonstrated hypoperfusion of the left cerebral hemisphere. Following improvement of the hemiplegia, the patient was re-evaluated. The uptake of the radiotracer in the left hemisphere was increased. The scan did not demonstrate significant asymmetry in cerebral perfusion.

  14. Impact of right-ventricular apical pacing on the optimal left-ventricular lead positions measured by phase analysis of SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Guang-Uei [Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua (China); China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, Taichung (China); Huang, Jin-Long [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Cardiovascular Center, Taichung (China); School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, and Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Taipei (China); Chung-Shan Medical University, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Taichung (China); Lin, Wan-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Chung [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung (China); Wang, Kuo-Yang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Cardiovascular Center, Taichung (China); Chung-Shan Medical University, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Taichung (China); Chen, Shih-Ann [School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, and Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Taipei (China); Lloyd, Michael S.; Chen, Ji [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The use of SPECT phase analysis to optimize left-ventricular (LV) lead positions for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) was performed at baseline, but CRT works as simultaneous right ventricular (RV) and LV pacing. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of RV apical (RVA) pacing on optimal LV lead positions measured by SPECT phase analysis. This study prospectively enrolled 46 patients. Two SPECT myocardial perfusion scans were acquired under sinus rhythm with complete left bundle branch block and RVA pacing, respectively, following a single injection of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi. LV dyssynchrony parameters and optimal LV lead positions were measured by the phase analysis technique and then compared between the two scans. The LV dyssynchrony parameters were significantly larger with RVA pacing than with sinus rhythm (p ∝0.01). In 39 of the 46 patients, the optimal LV lead positions were the same between RVA pacing and sinus rhythm (kappa = 0.861). In 6 of the remaining 7 patients, the optimal LV lead positions were along the same radial direction, but RVA pacing shifted the optimal LV lead positions toward the base. The optimal LV lead positions measured by SPECT phase analysis were consistent, no matter whether the SPECT images were acquired under sinus rhythm or RVA pacing. In some patients, RVA pacing shifted the optimal LV lead positions toward the base. This study supports the use of baseline SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging to optimize LV lead positions to increase CRT efficacy. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of radioiodinated 5-iodo-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine as a ligand for SPECT investigations of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, Hideo; Ogawa, Mikako; Ueda, Masashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences] [and others

    2002-05-01

    5-Iodo-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (5IA), an A-85380 analog iodinated at the 5-position of the pyridine ring, was evaluated as a radiopharmaceutical for investigating brain nicotinic acethylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). [{sup 123/125}I]5IA was synthesized by the iododestannylation reaction under no-carrier-added conditions and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with high radiochemical yield (50%), high radiochemical purity (>98%), and high specific radioactivity (>55 GBq/{mu}mol). The binding affinity of 5IA for brain nAChRs was measured in terms of displacement of [{sup 3}H]cytisine and [{sup 125}I]5IA from binding sites in rat cortical membranes. The binding data revealed that the affinity of 5IA was the same as that of A-85380 and more than seven fold higher than that of (-)-nicotine, and that 5IA bound selectively to the {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChR subtype. Biodistribution studies in rats indicated that the brain uptake of [{sup 125}I]5IA was rapid and profound. Regional cerebral distribution studies in rats demonstrated that the accumulation of [{sup 125}I]5IA was consistent with the density of high affinity nAChRs with highest uptake observed in the nAChR-rich thalamus, moderate uptake in the cortex and lowest uptake in the cerebellum. Administration of the nAChR agonists and (-)-cytisine (-)-nicotine reduced the uptake of [{sup 125}I]5IA in all regions studied with most pronounced reduction in the thalamus, and resulted in similar levels of radioactivity throughout the brain. [{sup 125}I]5IA binding sites were shown to be saturable with unlabeled 5IA. Behavioral studies in mice demonstrated that 5IA did not show signs of behavioral toxicity. Furthermore, SPECT studies with [{sup 123}I]5IA in the common marmoset demonstrated appropriate brain uptake and regional localization for a high-affinity nAChR imaging radiopharmaceutical. These results suggested that [{sup 123}I]5IA is a

  16. 99mTc-bicisate (neurolite) SPECT brain imaging and cognitive impairment in dementia of the Alzheimer type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G; Walovitch, R C; Andersen, A R

    1994-01-01

    of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and to examine the interreader agreement for visual reading of images in a multicenter SPECT study. Images for a total of 86 subjects were available for the blinded read. The images for 28 subjects were rated as noninterpretable due to technical inadequacies. Images for 58 subjects (45...

  17. SPECT in epilepsies; SPECT bei Epilepsien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, H. [Neurologische Klinik, Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Zentrum Epilepsie Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Registration of regional cerebral blood flow provides important new data for the investigation of pathophysiological processes in epilepsies. Further to the registration of perfusions, receptor studies are employed for the differentiation of localisation in focal epilepsies. For ultimative issues interictal registrations are supplemented by ictal recordings during the epileptic seizure. The combination of SPECT and electrophysiological registration can contribute to analysis of propagation of focal epileptic activity. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Messung der regionalen Hirndurchblutung liefert wichtige neue Erkenntnis zur Untersuchung pathophysiologischer Ablaeufe bei Epilepsien. Ergaenzend zur Registrierung der Perfusion koennen Rezeptor-Studien zur Differenzierung der Lokalisation fokaler Epilepsien beitragen. Interiktale Registrierungen werden fuer letztere Fragestellung durch iktuale Messungen waehrend des epileptischen Anfalls ergaenzt. Die Kombination von SPECT und elektrophysiologischen Registrierungen kann zur Analyse der Propagation fokaler epileptischer Aktivitaet beitragen. (orig.)

  18. PET and SPECT in neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Otte, Andreas (ed.) [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology

    2014-07-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  19. Experimental determination of the weighting factor for the energy window subtraction-based downscatter correction for I-123 in brain SPECT studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nijs, Robin; Holm, Søren; Thomsen, Gerda;

    2010-01-01

    were investigated in this study. Energy windows with a width of 32 keV were centered at 159 keV and 200 keV. The weighting factor was measured both with an I-123 point source and in a dopamine transporter brain SPECT study in 10 human subjects (5 healthy subjects and 5 patients) by minimizing......Correction for downscatter in I-123 SPECT can be performed by the subtraction of a secondary energy window from the main window, as in the triple-energy window method. This is potentially noise sensitive. For studies with limited amount of counts (e.g. dynamic studies), a broad subtraction window...... with identical width is preferred. This secondary window needs to be weighted with a factor higher than one, due to a broad backscatter peak from high-energy photons appearing at 172 keV. Spatial dependency and the numerical value of this weighting factor and the image contrast improvement of this correction...

  20. Detection of misery perfusion in the cerebral hemisphere with chronic unilateral major cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease using crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion: comparison of brain SPECT and PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Yoshiyasu; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Saito, Hideo; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Ogasawara, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogawa, Akira [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Cyclotron Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Terasaki, Kazunori [Iwate Medical University, Cyclotron Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Yoshida, Kenji; Beppu, Takaaki; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Fujiwara, Shunrou [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Tsushima, Eiki [Hirosaki University, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    In patients with unilateral internal carotid or middle cerebral artery (ICA or MCA) occlusive disease, the degree of crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion that is evident within a few months after the onset of stroke may reflect cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in the affected cerebral hemisphere relative to that in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the ratio of blood flow asymmetry in the cerebellar hemisphere to blood flow asymmetry in the cerebral hemisphere on positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) correlates with oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) asymmetry in the cerebral hemisphere on PET in patients with chronic unilateral ICA or MCA occlusive disease and whether this blood flow ratio on SPECT detects misery perfusion in the affected cerebral hemisphere in such patients. Brain blood flow and OEF were assessed using {sup 15}O-PET and N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) SPECT, respectively. All images were anatomically standardized using SPM2. A region of interest (ROI) was automatically placed in the bilateral MCA territories and in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres using a three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template, and affected-to-contralateral asymmetry in the MCA territory or contralateral-to-affected asymmetry in the cerebellar hemisphere was calculated. Sixty-three patients with reduced blood flow in the affected cerebral hemisphere on {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT were enrolled in this study. A significant correlation was observed between MCA ROI asymmetry of PET OEF and the ratio of cerebellar hemisphere asymmetry of blood flow to MCA ROI asymmetry of blood flow on PET (r = 0.381, p = 0.0019) or SPECT (r = 0.459, p = 0.0001). The correlation coefficient was higher when reanalyzed in a subgroup of 43 patients undergoing a PET study within 3 months after the last ischemic event (r = 0.541, p = 0.0001 for PET; r = 0.609, p < 0

  1. CT-Based Attenuation Correction in I-123-Ioflupane SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Catharina; Seese, Anita; Schwarzenböck, Sarah; Steinhoff, Karen; Umland-Seidler, Bert; Krause, Bernd J.; Brenner, Winfried; Sabri, Osama

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Attenuation correction (AC) based on low-dose computed tomography (CT) could be more accurate in brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) than the widely used Chang method, and, therefore, has the potential to improve both semi-quantitative analysis and visual image interpretation. The present study evaluated CT-based AC for dopamine transporter SPECT with I-123-ioflupane. Materials and methods Sixty-two consecutive patients in whom I-123-ioflupane SPECT including low-dose CT had been performed were recruited retrospectively at 3 centres. For each patient, 3 different SPECT images were reconstructed: without AC, with Chang AC and with CT-based AC. Distribution volume ratio (DVR) images were obtained by scaling voxel intensities using the whole brain without striata as reference. For assessing the impact of AC on semi-quantitative analysis, specific-to-background ratios (SBR) in caudate and putamen were obtained by fully automated SPM8-based region of interest (ROI) analysis and tested for their diagnostic power using receiver-operator-characteristic (ROC) analysis. For assessing the impact of AC on visual image reading, screenshots of stereotactically normalized DVR images presented in randomized order were interpreted independently by two raters at each centre. Results CT-based AC resulted in intermediate SBRs about half way between no AC and Chang. Maximum area under the ROC curve was achieved by the putamen SBR, with negligible impact of AC (0.924, 0.935 and 0.938 for no, CT-based and Chang AC). Diagnostic accuracy of visual interpretation also did not depend on AC. Conclusions The impact of CT-based versus Chang AC on the interpretation of I-123-ioflupane SPECT is negligible. Therefore, CT-based AC cannot be recommended for routine use in clinical patient care, not least because of the additional radiation exposure. PMID:25268228

  2. CT-based attenuation correction in I-123-ioflupane SPECT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Lange

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Attenuation correction (AC based on low-dose computed tomography (CT could be more accurate in brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT than the widely used Chang method, and, therefore, has the potential to improve both semi-quantitative analysis and visual image interpretation. The present study evaluated CT-based AC for dopamine transporter SPECT with I-123-ioflupane. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two consecutive patients in whom I-123-ioflupane SPECT including low-dose CT had been performed were recruited retrospectively at 3 centres. For each patient, 3 different SPECT images were reconstructed: without AC, with Chang AC and with CT-based AC. Distribution volume ratio (DVR images were obtained by scaling voxel intensities using the whole brain without striata as reference. For assessing the impact of AC on semi-quantitative analysis, specific-to-background ratios (SBR in caudate and putamen were obtained by fully automated SPM8-based region of interest (ROI analysis and tested for their diagnostic power using receiver-operator-characteristic (ROC analysis. For assessing the impact of AC on visual image reading, screenshots of stereotactically normalized DVR images presented in randomized order were interpreted independently by two raters at each centre. RESULTS: CT-based AC resulted in intermediate SBRs about half way between no AC and Chang. Maximum area under the ROC curve was achieved by the putamen SBR, with negligible impact of AC (0.924, 0.935 and 0.938 for no, CT-based and Chang AC. Diagnostic accuracy of visual interpretation also did not depend on AC. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of CT-based versus Chang AC on the interpretation of I-123-ioflupane SPECT is negligible. Therefore, CT-based AC cannot be recommended for routine use in clinical patient care, not least because of the additional radiation exposure.

  3. Dopamine D2-receptor imaging with [sup 123]I-iodobenzamide SPECT in migraine patients abusing ergotamine: does ergotamine cross the blood brain barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeff, N.P.; Visser, W.H.; Ferrari, M.D.; Saxena, P.R.; Royen, E.A. van (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-10-01

    Two migraine patients were studied by in vivo SPECT using the dopamine D2-receptor specific radioligand [sup 123]I-3-iodo-6-methoxybenzamide ([sup 123]I-IBZM) during ergotamine abuse and after withdrawal. Results were compared with 15 healthy controls. Striatum/cerebellum and striatum/occipital cortex ratios of count rate density were calculated as a semiquantitative measurement for striatal dopamine D2-receptor binding potential. No differences were found in striatal uptake of [sup 123]I-IBZM between healthy controls and the patients when on or off ergotamine. Preliminary evidence suggests that ergotamine may not occupy striatal dopamine D2-receptors to a large extent and thus may not cross the blood brain barrier in large quantities. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  4. SPECT Imaging of Epilepsy: An Overview and Comparison with F-18 FDG PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhee Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy surgery is highly effective in treating refractory epilepsy, but requires accurate presurgical localization of the epileptogenic focus. Briefly, localization of the region of seizure onset traditionally dependents on seizure semiology, scalp EEG recordings and correlation with anatomical imaging modalities such as MRI. The introduction of noninvasive functional neuroimaging methods, including single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and positron emission tomography (PET has dramatically changed the method for presurgical epilepsy evaluation. These imaging modalities have become powerful tools for the investigation of brain function and are an essential part of the evaluation of epileptic patients. Of these methods, SPECT has the practical capacity to image blood flow functional changes that occur during seizures in the routine clinical setting. In this review we present the basic principles of epilepsy SPECT and PET imaging. We discuss the properties of the SPECT tracers to be used for this purpose and imaging acquisition protocols as well as the diagnostic performance of SPECT in addition to SPECT image analysis methods. This is followed by a discussion and comparison to F-18 FDG PET acquisition and imaging analysis methods.

  5. Assessment of Hyperperfusion by Brain Perfusion SPECT in Transient Neurological Deterioration after Superficial Temporal Artery-Middle Cerebral Artery Anastomosis Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Won; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Sang Mi; Eo, Jae Sun; Oh, Chang Wan; Lee, Won Woo; Paeng, Jin Chul; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Transient neurological deterioration (TND) is one of the complications after extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery, and it has been assumed to be caused by postoperative transient hyperperfusion. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between TND and preoperative and postoperative cerebral perfusion status on brain perfusion SPECT following superficial temporal artery.middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis surgery. A total of 60 STA-MCA anastomosis surgeries of 56 patients (mean age: 50{+-}16 yrs; M:F=29:27; atherosclerotic disease: 33, moyamoya disease: 27) which were done between September 2003 and July 2006 were enrolled. The resting cerebral perfusion and cerebral vascular reserve (CVR) after acetazolamide challenge were measured before and 10 days after surgery using 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT. Moreover, the cerebral perfusion was measured on the third postoperative day. With the use of the statistical parametric mapping and probabilistic brain atlas, the counts for the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory were calculated for each image, and statistical analyses were performed. In 6 of 60 cases (10%), TND occurred after surgery. In all patients, the preoperative cerebral perfusion of affected MCA territory was significantly lower than that of contralateral side (p=0.002). The cerebral perfusion on the third and tenth day after surgery was significantly higher than preoperative cerebral perfusion (p=0.001, p=0.02). In TND patients, basal cerebral perfusion and CVR on preoperative SPECT were significantly lower than those of non-TND patients (p=0.01, p=0.05). Further, the increases in cerebral perfusion on the third day after surgery were significant higher than those in other patients (p=0.008). In patients with TND, the cerebral perfusion ratio of affected side to contralateral side on third postoperative day was significantly higher than that of other patients (p=0.002). However, there was no significant difference of

  6. Therapeutic Effects of Tongxinluo Capsule(通心络胶囊) on Patients with Acute Small Cerebral Infarction and Its Influence on SPECT Brain Perfusion Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周盛年; 周国钰; 刘黎青

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of Tongxinluo capsule (TXL, 通心络胶囊) on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with 99mTc-ECD single photon emission computed tomography ( SPECT) brain perfusion imaging, and to observe the therapeutic effects of TXL on acute small cerebral infarction (ASCI).Methods: Thirty-four patients with ASCI were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups: the control group ( n = 17) was treated with the conventional treatment, i.e. 1.0g of Citicoline added into 300 mi normal saline for intravenous dripping daily for 2 weeks and 0.8 g of Piracetam taken three times a day orally for 4 weeks, and the treatment group ( n = 17)was treated additionally with 4 TXL capsules three times a day for 4 weeks besides the conventional treatment. The 99mTc-ECD SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed before and after treatment to observe the change of rCBF, and the neurological deficit was evaluated by Edinburgh-Scandinavia stroke scale (SSS) scores and Barthel index (BI) at the same time. Results: After treatment, the rCBF in the treatment group was significantly improved ( P<0.01), while that in the control group remained unchanged, with the comparison of the rCBF in the two groups after treatment showing significant difference (P<0.01). In addition, the SSS score was significantly lower and BI significantly higher in the treatment group than those in the control group respectively after treatment. Conclusion: TXL could effectively improve rCBF and lessen the neurological deficit symptoms in patients with ASCI.

  7. The diagnostic value of 11C-methionine PET in hyperparathyroidism with negative 99mTc-MIBI SPECT: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Leilei; Liu, Jun; Kan, Ying; Yang, Jigang; Wang, Xufu

    2017-05-01

    Background 99mTc-sestamibi (MIBI) parathyroid SPECT is generally regarded as the best preoperative localizing method in patients with hyperparathyroidism (HPT). However, 99mTc-MIBI SPECT is false negative in approximately 25% of adenomas. 11C-methionine positron emission tomography (PET) has been used in HPT with negative 99mTc-MIBI SPECT scan results. Purpose To systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis of published data on the performance of 11C-methionine PET in patients with HPT with negative 99mTc-MIBI SPECT. Material and Methods A comprehensive review of the literature was performed. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of 11C-methionine PET in patients with HPT and a negative 99mTc-MIBI SPECT was calculated on a per-patient basis using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) methodology. Results Nine studies that met all inclusion and exclusion criteria were included into our meta-analysis, comprising a total sample size of 137 patients. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of 11C-methionine PET in patients with HPT with negative or inconclusive 99mTc-MIBI SPECT scans was 86% and 86%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.87. Conclusion By merit of the high overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, 11C-methionine PET can potentially complement the diagnostic workup of patients with HPT and negative or inconclusive 99mTc-MIBI SPECT. 11C-methionine PET appears to be a promising diagnostic modality in complicated cases with HPT.

  8. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khmelinskii, A.; Groen, H. C.; De Jong, M.; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality, po

  9. Segmentation and Visual Analysis of Whole-Body Mouse Skeleton microSPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Khmelinskii (Artem); H.C. Groen (Harald); M. Baiker (Martin); M. de Jong (Marion); B.P.F. Lelieveldt (Boudewijn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-

  10. Cost-effectiveness of exercise {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT in patients with chest pain assessed by decision-tree analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Momiyama, Yukihiko; Ohsuzu, Fumitaka; Kusano, Shoichi [National Defense Medical Coll., Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan); Ichihara, Kiyoshi

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of exercise {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT in outpatients with angina-like chest pain, we developed a decision-tree model which comprises three 1000-patients groups, i.e., a coronary arteriography (CAG) group, a follow-up group, and a SPECT group, and total cost and cardiac events, including cardiac deaths, were calculated. Variables used for the decision-tree analysis were obtained from references and the data available at out hospital. The sensitivity and specificity of {sup 201}Tl SPECT for diagnosing angina pectoris, and its prevalence were assumed to be 95%, 85%, and 33%, respectively. The mean costs were 84.9 x 10{sup 4} yen/patient in the CAG group, 30.2 x 10{sup 4} yen/patient in the follow-up group, and 71.0 x 10{sup 4} yen/patient in the SPECT group. The numbers of cardiac events and cardiac deaths were 56 and 15, respectively in the CAG group, 264 and 81 in the follow-up group, and 65 and 17 in the SPECT group. SPECT increases cardiac events and cardiac deaths by 0.9% and 0.2%, but it reduces the number of CAG studies by 50.3%, and saves 13.8 x 10{sup 4} yen/patient, as compared to the CAG group. In conclusion, the exercise {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT strategy for patients with chest pain has the potential to reduce health care costs in Japan. (author)

  11. Establishment study of the in vivo imaging analysis with small animal imaging modalities (micro-PET and micro-SPECT/CT) for bio-drug development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Beomsu; Park, Sanghyeon; Park, Jeonghoon; Jo, Sungkee; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Seolwha; Lee, Yunjong; Choi, Daeseong

    2011-01-15

    In this study, we established the image acquisition and analysis procedures of micro-PET, SPECT/CT using the experimental animal (mouse) for the development of imaging assessment method for the bio-drug. We examined the micro-SPECT/CT, PET imaging study using the Siemens Inveon micro-multimodality system (SPECT/CT) and micro-PET with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP, DMSA, and {sup 18}F-FDG. SPECT imaging studies using 3 types of pinhole collimators. 5-MWB collimator was used for SPECT image study. To study whole-body distribution, {sup 99m}Tc-MDP SPECT image study was performed. We obtained the fine distribution image. And the CT images was obtained to provide the anatomical information. And then these two types images are fused. To study specific organ uptake, we examined {sup 99}mTc-DMSA SPECT/CT imaging study. We also performed the PET image study using U87MG tumor bearing mice and {sup 18}F-FDG. The overnight fasting, warming and anesthesia with 2% isoflurane pretreatment enhance the tumor image through reducing the background uptake including brown fat, harderian gland and skeletal muscles. Also we got the governmental approval for use of x-ray generator for CT and radioisotopes as sealed and open source. We prepared the draft of process procedure for the experimental animal imaging facility. These research results can be utilized as a basic image study protocols and data for the image assessment of drugs including biological drug.

  12. 4D-SPECT/CT in orthopaedics: a new method of combined quantitative volumetric 3D analysis of SPECT/CT tracer uptake and component position measurements in patients after total knee arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasch, Helmut; Falkowski, Anna L.; Forrer, Flavio [Kantonsspital Baselland, Institute for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bruderholz (Switzerland); Henckel, Johann [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Hirschmann, Michael T. [Kantonsspital Baselland, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Bruderholz (Switzerland)

    2013-09-15

    The purpose was to evaluate the intra- and inter-observer reliability of combined quantitative 3D-volumetric single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT analysis including size, intensity and localisation of tracer uptake regions and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) position. Tc-99m-HDP-SPECT/CT of 100 knees after TKA were prospectively analysed. The anatomical areas represented by a previously validated localisation scheme were 3D-volumetrically analysed. The maximum intensity was recorded for each anatomical area. Ratios between the respective value and the mid-shaft of the femur as the reference were calculated. Femoral and tibial TKA position (varus-valgus, flexion-extension, internal rotation- external rotation) were determined on 3D-CT. Two consultant radiologists/nuclear medicine physicians interpreted the SPECT/CTs twice with a 2-week interval. The inter- and intra-observer reliability was determined (ICCs). Kappa values were calculated for the area with the highest tracer uptake between the observers. The measurements of tracer uptake intensity showed excellent inter- and intra-observer reliabilities for all regions (tibia, femur and patella). Only the tibial shaft area showed ICCs <0.89. The kappa values were almost perfect (0.856, p < 0.001; 95 % CI 0.778, 0.922). For measurements of the TKA position, there was strong agreement within and between the readings of the two observers; the ICCs for the orientation of TKA components for inter- and intra-observer reliability were nearly perfect (ICCs >0.84). This combined 3D-volumetric standardised method of analysing the location, size and the intensity of SPECT/CT tracer uptake regions (''hotspots'') and the determination of the TKA position was highly reliable and represents a novel promising approach to biomechanics. (orig.)

  13. omniSpect: an open MATLAB-based tool for visualization and analysis of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, R Mitchell; Galhena, Asiri S; Gamage, Chaminda M; Bennett, Rachel V; Wang, May D; Fernández, Facundo M

    2013-04-01

    We present omniSpect, an open source web- and MATLAB-based software tool for both desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) that performs computationally intensive functions on a remote server. These functions include converting data from a variety of file formats into a common format easily manipulated in MATLAB, transforming time-series mass spectra into mass spectrometry images based on a probe spatial raster path, and multivariate analysis. OmniSpect provides an extensible suite of tools to meet the computational requirements needed for visualizing open and proprietary format MSI data.

  14. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmelinskii, Artem; Groen, Harald C; Baiker, Martin; de Jong, Marion; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality, postural and positioning variability). The goal of this study was to provide a method to align and compare side-by-side multiple whole-body skeleton SPECT datasets in a common reference, thus eliminating acquisition variability that exists between the subjects in cross-sectional and multi-modal studies. Six whole-body SPECT/CT datasets of BALB/c mice injected with bone targeting tracers (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) and (99m)Tc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-HDP) were used to evaluate the proposed method. An articulated version of the MOBY whole-body mouse atlas was used as a common reference. Its individual bones were registered one-by-one to the skeleton extracted from the acquired SPECT data following an anatomical hierarchical tree. Sequential registration was used while constraining the local degrees of freedom (DoFs) of each bone in accordance to the type of joint and its range of motion. The Articulated Planar Reformation (APR) algorithm was applied to the segmented data for side-by-side change visualization and comparison of data. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed algorithm, bone segmentations of extracted skeletons from the correspondent CT datasets were used. Euclidean point to surface distances between each dataset and the MOBY atlas were calculated. The obtained results indicate that after registration, the mean Euclidean distance decreased from 11.5±12.1 to 2.6±2.1 voxels. The proposed approach yielded satisfactory segmentation results with minimal user intervention. It proved to be robust for "incomplete" data (large chunks of skeleton missing) and for an intuitive exploration and comparison of multi-modal SPECT/CT cross

  15. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Khmelinskii

    Full Text Available Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality, postural and positioning variability. The goal of this study was to provide a method to align and compare side-by-side multiple whole-body skeleton SPECT datasets in a common reference, thus eliminating acquisition variability that exists between the subjects in cross-sectional and multi-modal studies. Six whole-body SPECT/CT datasets of BALB/c mice injected with bone targeting tracers (99mTc-methylene diphosphonate ((99mTc-MDP and (99mTc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate ((99mTc-HDP were used to evaluate the proposed method. An articulated version of the MOBY whole-body mouse atlas was used as a common reference. Its individual bones were registered one-by-one to the skeleton extracted from the acquired SPECT data following an anatomical hierarchical tree. Sequential registration was used while constraining the local degrees of freedom (DoFs of each bone in accordance to the type of joint and its range of motion. The Articulated Planar Reformation (APR algorithm was applied to the segmented data for side-by-side change visualization and comparison of data. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed algorithm, bone segmentations of extracted skeletons from the correspondent CT datasets were used. Euclidean point to surface distances between each dataset and the MOBY atlas were calculated. The obtained results indicate that after registration, the mean Euclidean distance decreased from 11.5±12.1 to 2.6±2.1 voxels. The proposed approach yielded satisfactory segmentation results with minimal user intervention. It proved to be robust for "incomplete" data (large chunks of skeleton missing and for an intuitive exploration and comparison of multi-modal SPECT

  16. Differences in resting state regional cerebral blood flow assessed with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT and brain atlas matching between depressed patients with and without tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A; Pagani, M; Jacobsson, H; Lindberg, G; Larsson, S A; Wägner, A; Hällstrom, T

    2002-05-01

    An increased occurrence of major depressive disorder has been reported in tinnitus patients, and of tinnitus in depressive patients. Involvement of several Brodmann areas (BAs) has been reported in tinnitus perception. The aim of this study was to assess the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in depressed patients with and without tinnitus. The rCBF distribution at rest was compared among 45 patients with a lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder, of whom 27 had severe tinnitus, and 26 normal healthy subjects. 99mTc-hexamethylenepropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), using a three-headed gamma camera, was performed and the uptake in 34 functional sub-volumes of the brain bilaterally was assessed by a computerized brain atlas. Decreased rCBF in right frontal lobe BA 45 (Ptinnitus patients compared with non-tinnitus patients. The proportion of tinnitus patients with pronounced rCBF alterations in one or more of the temporal lobe BAs 41+21+22 was increased compared to gender matched controls (Ptinnitus (Ptinnitus patients only in three limbic BAs (Ptinnitus patients only in five BAs subserving auditory perception and processing (Pdepressed patients with and without tinnitus were found in this study. The rCBF alterations were distributed in the cortex and were particularly specific in the auditory cortex. These findings suggest that taking audiological symptoms into account may yield more consistent results between rCBF studies of depression.

  17. Brain perfusion SPECT for therapeutic evaluation of patients with moyamoya disease after surgery%SPECT脑血流灌注显像对烟雾病患者手术疗效的评价意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐; 陈雪红; 冯建中

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨SPECT脑血流灌注显像评估烟雾病(MMD)搭桥手术后rCBF改善情况的价值.方法 回顾性分析13例MMD患者[儿童5例,年龄3~8岁;成人8例,年龄45 ~ 55岁]治疗前后SPECT脑血流灌注显像的影像学资料,以同期因偶发头痛行脑灌注显像的年龄匹配者(儿童、成人各10例)为对照组.以两样本或配对t检验对2组的rCBF及病例组手术前后rCBF进行比较分析.手术后的血流恢复以DSA、MRI随访情况作参照.结果 病例组中SPECT显像目测分析示11/13的患者术后血流灌注减低区较术前有明显改善;与DSA符合率为8/11,与MRI符合率为9/11.对照组和病例组术前rCBF分别为(51.19±1.63)和(38.83±2.22) ml·100 g-1·min-1(t=-18.465,P<0.05);病例组术前、术后的rCBF分别为(38.83±2.22)和(45.03±2.63) ml·100 g-1·min-1(t=-11.707,P<0.05);病例组术后与对照组rCBF差异有统计学意义[(51.19±1.63) ml· 100 g-1·min-1;t=-8.313,P<0.05];对照组中儿童和成人的rCBF分别为(51.81±1.82)和(50.55±1.18) ml· 100 g-1·min-1,两者间差异无统计学意义(t=0.081,P>0.05).结论 SPECT脑血流灌注显像能够较好地反映MMD手术前后缺血脑组织的血流量变化,对MMD搭桥手术治疗的疗效评价具有一定价值.%Objective To investigate the value of SPECT imaging in the evaluation of rCBF improvement after bypass surgery in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD).Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted in 13 patients with MMD (5 children aged 3-8 years and 8 adults aged 45-55 years).The SPECT cerebral perfusion imaging data before and after operation were analyzed.Age matched subjects who underwent cerebral perfusion imaging for accidental headache (10 children,10 adults) were taken as control group.Two-sample t test or paired t test was used to compare rCBF of different groups.The brain DSA and MRI results during follow-up were taken as the reference of perfusion improvement.Results Based on visual judgment

  18. Spect in epilepsy; SPECT bei Anfallsleiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feistel, H. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik und Neurologische Klinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Weis, M. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik und Neurologische Klinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Michalik, K. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik und Neurologische Klinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Schueler, P. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik und Neurologische Klinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Platsch, G. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik und Neurologische Klinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Stefan, H. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik und Neurologische Klinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Wolf, F. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik und Neurologische Klinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany it is assumed that about 80 000 patients suffer from a focal form of epilepsy which can not be sufficiently controlled with medication. As potential candidates for surgery, these patients undergo stepwise monitoring procedure in which the epileptic focus is located by means of increasingly invasive methods. In Erlangen the periictal SPECT is performed, whereby the perfusion tracer is injected after onset (ictal SPECT), immediately after cessation of the seizure (postictal scan) or between the seizures (interictal scan). To administer the tracer strongly in ictal or postictal state a close functional cooperation between the neurology and nuclear medicine department must be arranged. Injection inside the monitoring unit must be attuned to federal antiradiation precaution law. In temporal lobe epilepsy, different injection-times demonstrate a large area of hyperperfusion after ictal onset, which refines in the first two postictal minutes to the generating focus together with a decreased parietal blood flow pattern. Later, the entire temporal lobe epilepsy an early tracer injection within 40 seconds has to be achieved, otherwise an ictal propagation into distant brain areas, possibly contralateral, may occur. Extratemporal epilepsy is often linked to trauma or congenital malformations, and is difficult to categorize. In difficult cases with equivocal results, efforts can be undertaken by means of receptor scintigraphy with, for example, iomazenil, to localize the focus as a cold lesion caused by neuronal loss. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland leiden nach vorsichtigen Schaetzungen ca. 80 000 Patienten an einer fokalen Epilepsieform, die mit Medikamenten nur unzureichend kontrolliert werden kann. Als potentielle Kandidaten fuer einen epilepsiechirurgischen Eingriff werden sie einem intensiven Monitoringverfahren unterzogen, in dem stufenweise nach dem Grad der Invasivitaet gesteigert, verschiedene Moeglichkeiten zu

  19. Comparison of two I-123 labeled SPECT probes, for the dopamine transporter in non-human primate brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandelman, M.S.; Scanley, B.E.; Al-Tikrite, M.S. [Yale Univ., West Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    A comparative SPECT evaluation of the regional uptake of 28-carboisopropoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (IP-CIT) and 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ({beta}-CIT) was performed to assess the improved specificity of IP-CIT over {beta}-CIT for the dopamine (DE) transporter, as shown previously by in vitro studies (n=10), ranging from 7 to 10 hours with 6.9 to 15 mCi injected dose, were completed in 3 baboons. Peripheral metabolism of the two ligands were similar The SPECT images utilized ROIs over striatum (which reflect DA transporters), midbrain (previously shown for {beta}-CIT to reflect primarily serotonin transporters), and the occipital lobe (a region of non-specific uptake). The time to peak specific striatal uptake (striatal minus occipital activity) was similar for IP-CIT and {beta}-CIT (377{plus_minus}60 and 410{plus_minus}60 min, respectively); whereas midbrain peak activity occurred at a significantly earlier time for IP-CIT (21{plus_minus}4 min) as compared to {beta}-CIT (60{plus_minus}17 min). At time of peak specific striatal activity, striatal to occipital ratios were 2.7+0.6 for IP-CIT and 7.6{plus_minus}0.7 for {beta}-CIT, and at time of peak midbrain activity, midbrain to occipital ratios were 1.1{plus_minus}0.1 for IP-CIT, and 1.7{plus_minus}0.2 for {beta}-CIT. At peak specific striatal time, normalized regional uptake values ({mu}Ci/cc per {mu}Ci injected dose per g body mass) for the striatum were 4.9{plus_minus}1.1 IP-CIT and 5.2{plus_minus}0.7 {beta}-CIT, whereas for the occipital lobe normalized regional uptake values were 1.9{plus_minus}0.4 IP-CIT and 0.7{plus_minus}0.2 for {beta}-CIT. Similar regional kinetics in the striatum were observed, as both ligands demonstrate comparable peak striatal uptake and time to peak.

  20. Comparison between a dual-head and a brain-dedicated SPECT system in the measurement of the loss of dopamine transporters with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varrone, Andrea [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Sansone, Valeria; Pappata, Sabina; Salvatore, Marco [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Pellecchia, Maria T.; Salvatore, Elena; de Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Barone, Paolo [University Federico II, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Amboni, Marianna [University Federico II, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy); IDC-Hermitage, Capodimonte, Napoli (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    Dual-head SPECT systems are used by many clinical departments for [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT imaging, while triple-head or brain-dedicated systems with better imaging performance are more commonly used by research institutions. There are limited data comparing the capability of the two types of system to measure dopamine transporter (DAT) loss in vivo. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of a dual-head and a brain-dedicated SPECT system to estimate the degree of DAT loss in different movement disorders with variable nigrostriatal impairment, with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. Four patients with essential tremor, 24 with Parkinson's disease (PD), six with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 and six controls were studied with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. SPECT scans were performed on a dual-head (E.CAM - Siemens) and subsequently on a brain-dedicated system (Ceraspect - DSI). Striatal DAT outcome measures on the E.CAM and the Ceraspect were strongly correlated and the putamen-to-caudate ratios were almost identical. Although the measured values were lower by 52 {+-} 25% in caudate and by 51 {+-} 31% in putamen on the E.CAM (p < 0.0001), the average striatal DAT decrease in each patient group compared with controls was similar for both systems. In PD patients, similar correlations (p < 0.05) were found between motor UPDRS or Hoehn and Yahr stage and striatal DAT density. Despite underestimation of striatal DAT outcome measures, the E.CAM showed similar capability as the Ceraspect in measuring the degree of nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit and assessing the correlation between DAT outcome measures and clinical variables of PD severity and stage. (orig.)

  1. Development and evaluation of Monte Carlo-based SPECT reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, J.

    2009-01-01

    Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) is one of the most applied molecular imaging techniques to diagnose human diseases, e.g., of the heart, the brain or in oncology. For example, cardiac SPECT imaging plays a central role in diagnosing coronary heart diseases by providing clinicians w

  2. Effect of acupuncture on regional cerebral blood flow at acupoints GV 20, GV. 26, LI, 4. ST. 36, SP. 6 evaluated by Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Chun; Bom, Hee Seung; Kang, Hwa Jeong; Kim, Seong Min; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Kim, Ji Yeul [College of Medicine, Dongshin Univ., Naju (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Soo Gi [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of acupuncture on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at acupoints suggested by oriental medicine to be related to the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. Rest/acupuncture-stimulation Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT using a same-dose subtraction method was performed on 54 normal volunteers (34 males, 20 females, age range from 18 to 62 years) using six paradigms: acupuncture at acupoints GV. 20, GV. 26, LI. 4, ST. 36 and SP. 6. In the control study, needle location was chosen on a non-meridian focus 1 cm posterior to the right fibular head. All images were spatially normalized, and the differences between rest and acupuncture stimulation were statistically analyzed using SPM for Windows. Acupuncture applied at acupoint GV. 20 increased rCBF in both the anterior frontal lobes, the right frontotemporal lobes, and the left anterior temporal lobe and the left cerebellar hemisphere. Acupuncture at GV. 26 increased rCBF in the left prefrontal cortex. Acupuncture at LI. 4 increased rCBF in the left prefrontal and both the inferior frontal lobes, and the left anterior temporal lobe and the left cerebellar hemisphere. Acupuncture at ST. 36 increased rCBF in the left anterior temporal lobe, the right inferior frontal lobes, and the left cerebellum. Acupuncture at SP 6 increased rCBF in the left inferior frontal and anterior temporal lobes. In the control stimulation, no significant rCBF increase was observed. The results demonstrated a correlation between stimuation at each acupoint with increase in rCBF to the corresponding brain areas.

  3. Application of SPECT to psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi [National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous, and Muscular Disorders, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Brain perfusion SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) was applied to psychiatric diseases with aid of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for analysis of data. To evaluate influence of aging on brain perfusion, noninvasive measurements of cerebral blood flow using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD were performed in 53 normal volunteers, age 18 to 87 years old. Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) was 43.9{+-}5.0 ml/100 g/min and showed weak negative correlation with aging (r=0.451). Perisylvian cerebral cortices and medial frontal areas including anterior cingulate gyri showed greater negative correlation than other areas. These findings suggest the necessity of age-matched control regional CBF (rCBF) data to investigate rCBF abnormality in patients. Four drug-naive schizophrenic patients showed flow decrease in bilateral frontal and superior temporal areas and a left infero-posterior temporal area. Haloperidol administration induced flow decrease in bilateral frontal and left parietal areas, while flow increase in bilateral striatal and right hippocampal areas. Ten aged depressive patients showed flow decrease in bilateral frontal and left temporo-parietal areas. Even after remission patients showed flow decrease in the left frontal area as compared with normal subjects. Remission induced flow increase in the right frontal, right parietal, and right orbitofrontal areas compared with depression. These results suggest that CBF measurements using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD were useful for objective evaluation of regional abnormality in brain function in psychiatric diseases. (author)

  4. Evaluation of neuro-Behcet disease with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. Comparison with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Yoshirou; Oshima, Motoo; Sasaki, Yasushi [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the brain perfusion of neuro-Behcet disease using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO. In total, nine patients (7 men and 2 women) were evaluated. Seven were in the chronic phase, one was acute and the other was subacute. The results of perfusion study were compared with the MRI findings. The findings of chronic-phase neuro-Behcet disease were as follows: {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO showed hypoperfusion of the cerebellum in 3, brain stem in 5, and cerebral cortex in 4 patients. Moreover, asymmetry of the basal ganglia and thalamus was seen in 4 cases with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO. MRI showed atrophy of the cerebellum in 4, brain stem in 5 and cerebral cortex in 2 patients. One acute patient showed a perfusion defect with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO that was consistent with the vasculitis shown with MRI. In the remaining subacute patient, perfusion defect was demonstrated with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO, consistent with the infarction shown with MRI. It is concluded that brain perfusion scintigraphy is useful to evaluate the brain blood flow of neuro-Behcet disease. (author)

  5. A novel computer-assisted image analysis of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT images improves the diagnostic accuracy of parkinsonian disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, Georg [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck (Austria); Seppi, Klaus; Wenning, Gregor K.; Poewe, Werner; Scherfler, Christoph [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Donnemiller, Eveline; Warwitz, Boris; Virgolini, Irene [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2011-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop an observer-independent algorithm for the correct classification of dopamine transporter SPECT images as Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy parkinson variant (MSA-P), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or normal. A total of 60 subjects with clinically probable PD (n = 15), MSA-P (n = 15) and PSP (n = 15), and 15 age-matched healthy volunteers, were studied with the dopamine transporter ligand [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT. Parametric images of the specific-to-nondisplaceable equilibrium partition coefficient (BP{sub ND}) were generated. Following a voxel-wise ANOVA, cut-off values were calculated from the voxel values of the resulting six post-hoc t-test maps. The percentages of the volume of an individual BP{sub ND} image remaining below and above the cut-off values were determined. The higher percentage of image volume from all six cut-off matrices was used to classify an individual's image. For validation, the algorithm was compared to a conventional region of interest analysis. The predictive diagnostic accuracy of the algorithm in the correct assignment of a [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT image was 83.3% and increased to 93.3% on merging the MSA-P and PSP groups. In contrast the multinomial logistic regression of mean region of interest values of the caudate, putamen and midbrain revealed a diagnostic accuracy of 71.7%. In contrast to a rater-driven approach, this novel method was superior in classifying [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT-SPECT images as one of four diagnostic entities. In combination with the investigator-driven visual assessment of SPECT images, this clinical decision support tool would help to improve the diagnostic yield of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT in patients presenting with parkinsonism at their initial visit. (orig.)

  6. SPECT in psychiatry; Die Bedeutung der Hirn-SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, S. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Psychiatrie, Wien (Austria); Gruenwald, F. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Danos, P. [Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik, Bonn (Germany); Walter, H. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Psychiatrie, Wien (Austria); Klemm, E. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Bruecke, T. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Neurologie, Wien (Austria); Podreka, I. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Neurologie, Wien (Austria); Biersack, H.J. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1994-10-01

    In the last fifteen years different attempts have been undertaken to understand the biological basis of major psychiatric disorders. One important tool to determine patterns of brain dysfunction is single emission computed tomography (SPECT). Whereas SPECT investigations are already a valuable diagnostic instrument for the diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DAT) there have not been consistent findings that can be referred to as specific for any other particular psychiatric diagnostic entity. Nevertheless, SPECT studies have been able to demonstrate evidence of brain dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in which other methods showed no clear abnormality of brain function. Our manuscript reviews the data which are currently available in the literature and stresses the need for further studies, especially for prediction and monitoring psychiatric treatment modalities. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den vergangenen 15 Jahren wurde durch verschiedene methodologische Ansaetze versucht, die biologischen Ursachen psychiatrischer Erkrankungen naeher zu erforschen. Als eine bedeutende Methode hat sich dabei die Single-Photonen-Emissions-Computertomographie (SPECT) herausgestellt. Waehrend die SPECT-Untersuchungen bereits Eingang in die Routinediagnostik bei Demenzen vom Alzheimer-Typ gefunden haben, konnten fuer weitere psychiatrische Erkrankungen noch keine eindeutigen Befunde etabliert werden. Mit der SPECT-Methode ist es jedoch gelungen, funktionelle Veraenderungen des Gehirns von psychiatrischen Erkrankungen darzustellen, wie z.B. Schizophrenie, Depression, Angsterkrankungen bzw. Substanzmissbrauch. In Forschungsprotokollen wird durch die SPECT-Methode versucht, abzuklaeren, inwieweit es moeglich ist, innerhalb der Erkrankungsentitaeten psychiatrischer Erkrankungen oder auch diese uebergreifend eine Subklassifizierung zu finden und evtl. Gehirnsysteme ausfindig zu machen, die mit einer spezifischen

  7. Differentiation of Parkinson's Disease and Essential Tremor on I-123 IPT(I-123-N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-cholorophenyl) tropane) Brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Moon Sun [Kwandong University College of Medicine, Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Tae Hyun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sung Min [Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jai Yong; Ryu, Won Gee; Lee, Jae Hoon; Ryu, Young Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    The study was to assess I-123-N-(3-iodopropen-2-yl)-2[beta]-carbomethoxy-3[beta]-(4-cholorophenyl) tropane (IPT) SPECT in differential diagnosis among early stage of Parkinson's disease(PD) and essential tremor(ET) and normal control(NL) groups quantitatively. I-123 IPT brain SPECT of 50 NL, 20 early PD, 30 advanced PD, and 20 ET were performed at 20 minutes and 2 hours. Specific/nonspecific binding of striatum was calculated by using right and left striatal specific to occipital non-specific uptake ratio (striatum-OCC/OCC). Mean value of specific/nonspecific binding ratio was significantly different between advanced PD group and NL group. However, significant overlap of striatal specific/nonspecific binding ratio was observed between PD group and ET group. Bilateral striatal specific/nonspecific binding ratios were decreased in advanced PD. Lateralized differences in the striatal uptake of I-123 IPT correlated with asymmetry in clinical findings in PD group. I-123 IPT SPECT may be a useful method for the diagnosis of PD and objective evaluation of progress of clinical stages. Care should be made in the differential diagnosis of early stage of PD and other motor disturbances mimicking PD such as ET in view of significant overlap in striatal I-123 specific/nonspecific binding ratio.

  8. The effect of non-uniform attenuation compensation on myocardial SPECT defect analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manglos, S.H.; Thomas, F.D.; Hellwig, B.J. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1993-07-01

    In SPECT myocardial imaging, the measurement of defect size helps to evaluate the existence and severity of suspected cardiovascular disease. To determine whether non-uniform attenuation and its compensation alter the apparent defect size, and thus potentially impact clinical evaluations, phantom studies were performed with defects in a ''myocardium''. Non-uniform attenuation compensation was performed with weighted backprojection and a cone-beam CT attenuation map. Polar maps with defects were compared to maps without defects but otherwise identically acquired and processed. Attenuation compensation generally altered the defect size by no more than 10%, except that (i) a truncated attenuation map altered the size of some defects, and (ii) the size was increased when the polar map with a defect was more attenuated than the defect-free polar map (simulating the comparison of a large patient to a smaller one). This increase was removed by attenuation, which also produced much more circularly symmetric polar maps. (Author).

  9. SPECT/CT analysis of splenic function in genistein-treated malaria-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Young Ran; Kang, Sung-A; Ryu, Jeongeun; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Mun Ki; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-11-01

    Spleen traps malaria-infected red blood cells, thereby leading to splenomegaly. Splenomegaly induces impairment in splenic function, i.e., rupture. Therefore, splenomegaly inhibition is required to protect the spleen. In our previous study, genistein was found to have an influence on malaria-induced splenomegaly. However, the effect of genistein in malaria-induced splenomegaly, especially on the function of spleen, has not been fully investigated. In this study, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining images show that genistein partially prevents malaria-induced architectural disruption of spleen. In addition, genistein decreases transgenic Plasmodium parasites accumulation in the spleen. Genistein treatment can protect splenic function from impairment caused by malaria infection. To examine the functions of malaria-infected spleen, we employed single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) technology. Red blood cells are specifically radiolabeled with Technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)TcO4(-)) and trapped inside the spleen. The standardized uptake values (SUVs) in the spleen of infected mice are higher than those of naive and genistein-treated mice. However, genistein reduces the malaria-induced trapping capacity of spleen for heat-damaged radiolabeled RBCs, while exhibiting a protective effect against malaria. Considering these results, we suggested that genistein could be effectively used in combination therapy for malaria-induced splenic impairment.

  10. SPECT in Focal Epilepsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick Duncan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain perfusion changes during seizures were first observed in the 1930s. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT was developed in the 1970s, and tracers suitable for the imaging of regional cerebral perfusion (rCP became available in the 1980s. The method was first used to study rCP in the interictal phase, and this showed areas of low perfusion in a proportion of cases, mainly in patients with temporal lobe epilepsies. However, the trapping paradigm of tracers such as hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO provided a practicable method of studying changes in rCP during seizures, and a literature was established in the late 1980s and early 1990s showing a typical sequence of changes during and after seizures of mesial temporal lobe origin; the ictal phase was associated with large increases in perfusion throughout the temporal lobe, with first the lateral, then the mesial temporal lobe becoming hypoperfused in the postictal phase. Activation and inhibition of other structures, such as the basal ganglia and frontal cortex, were also seen. Studies of seizures originating elsewhere in the brain have shown a variety of patterns of change, according to the structures involved. These changes have been used practically to aid the process of localisation of the epileptogenic zone so that epilepsy surgery can be planned.

  11. SPECT and PET in Eating Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Audenaert, Kurt; Busatto, Geraldo F.; Buchpiguel, Carlos; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; den Boer, Johan A

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging techniques like PET and SPECT have been applied for investigation of brain function in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Regional abnormalities have been detected in cerebral blood flow, glucose metabolism, the availability of several neurotransmitter receptors (serotonin 1A and 2A, dopa

  12. Evaluation of three analysis methods for (99m)Tc MDP SPECT scintigraphy in the diagnosis of unilateral condylar hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushinek, H; Tabib, R; Fleissig, Y; Klein, M; Tshori, S

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and utility of the mean region of interest (ROI) and mean and maximum volume of interest (VOI) analysis methods for (99m)Tc MDP SPECT scintigraphy in the diagnosis of active unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH). Inactive UCH (n=43) and active UCH (n=8) patients, and patients without condylar hyperplasia (controls, n=41) were analyzed. Inter-observer agreement was good for all methods. Condylar uptake was not normally distributed, with a longer right tail in UCH patients compared to control patients. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the ROI method was slightly superior to both VOI methods for the diagnosis of active UCH (area under the curve=0.866, 0.811, and 0.817, and J=0.642, 0.596, and 0.573, respectively). The 'traditional' 55% cut-off value proved optimal for ROI and mean VOI methods, but a cut-off of 56.125% was optimal for maximum VOI. Sensitivity was 88% for all three methods using these cut-off values, while specificity was 77%, 65%, and 70% for mean ROI, mean VOI, and maximum VOI, respectively. These results indicate that corrective surgery for negative scan patients can be performed without delay, with an error rate of only 3%, but not in positive scan patients.

  13. Dual Channel Pulse Coupled Neural Network Algorithm for Fusion of Multimodality Brain Images with Quality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha SRINIVASAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the review of medical imaging techniques, an important fact that emerged is that radiologists and physicians still are in a need of high-resolution medical images with complementary information from different modalities to ensure efficient analysis. This requirement should have been sorted out using fusion techniques with the fused image being used in image-guided surgery, image-guided radiotherapy and non-invasive diagnosis. Aim: This paper focuses on Dual Channel Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN Algorithm for fusion of multimodality brain images and the fused image is further analyzed using subjective (human perception and objective (statistical measures for the quality analysis. Material and Methods: The modalities used in fusion are CT, MRI with subtypes T1/T2/PD/GAD, PET and SPECT, since the information from each modality is complementary to one another. The objective measures selected for evaluation of fused image were: Information Entropy (IE - image quality, Mutual Information (MI – deviation in fused to the source images and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR – noise level, for analysis. Eight sets of brain images with different modalities (T2 with T1, T2 with CT, PD with T2, PD with GAD, T2 with GAD, T2 with SPECT-Tc, T2 with SPECT-Ti, T2 with PET are chosen for experimental purpose and the proposed technique is compared with existing fusion methods such as the Average method, the Contrast pyramid, the Shift Invariant Discrete Wavelet Transform (SIDWT with Harr and the Morphological pyramid, using the selected measures to ascertain relative performance. Results: The IE value and SNR value of the fused image derived from dual channel PCNN is higher than other fusion methods, shows that the quality is better with less noise. Conclusion: The fused image resulting from the proposed method retains the contrast, shape and texture as in source images without false information or information loss.

  14. Regional cerebral hemodynamics during re-build up phenomenon. Analysis by using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazumata, Ken; Kuroda, Satoshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Abe, Hiroshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine; Mitsumori, Kenji

    1994-12-01

    The re-build up phenomenon is the characteristic EEG finding following hyperventilation in childhood moyamoya disease. This study evaluated the role of cerebral blood flow (CBF) associated with this phenomenon using single photon emission CT (SPECT) with Tc-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (Tc-99m HMPAO). The subjects were each two adult and pediatric patients. Tc-99m HMPAO (10 mCi) was injected immediately after 4-min hyperventilation. After the initial scanning, an additional 20 mCi of Tc-99m HMPAO was iv injected for the second scanning. Xe-133 SPECT was also performed for the evaluation of resting CBF. The re-build up phenomenon was observed preoperatively in one patient, which originated from the bilateral parieto-occipital area one min after hyperventilation and extended to the entire hemisphere 30 sec later. SPECT did not reveal severe ischemia in the entire hemisphere after hyperventilation, but revealed a marked CBF decrease in the bilateral parieto-occipital lobe. The patient underwent bilateral STA-MCA anastomosis combined with encephalo-duro-arterio-myo-synangiosis. Postoperative examination revealed no evidence of build-up phenomenon on EEG or abnormal perfusion reserve on Xe-133 SPECT. Nor was marked CBF decrease observed after hyperventilation on Tc-99m SPECT. These findings suggest that regional CBF decrease may play a critical role in the appearance of the re-build up phenomenon on EEG, as well as hypoxic hypoxia after hyperventilation. (N.K.).

  15. Indeterminate lesions on planar bone scintigraphy in lung cancer patients: SPECT, CT or SPECT-CT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Punit; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Harmandeep; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Malhotra, Arun [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Julka, Pramod Kumar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiation Oncology, New Delhi (India); Thulkar, Sanjay [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India)

    2012-07-15

    The objective of the present study was to compare the role of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT) and SPECT-CT of selected volume in lung cancer patients with indeterminate lesions on planar bone scintigraphy (BS). The data of 50 lung cancer patients (53 {+-} 10.3 years; range 30-75; male/female 38/12) with 65 indeterminate lesions on planar BS (January 2010 to November 2010) were retrospectively evaluated. All of them underwent SPECT-CT of a selected volume. SPECT, CT and SPECT-CT images were independently evaluated by two experienced readers (experience in musculoskeletal imaging, including CT: 5 and 7 years) in separate sessions. A scoring scale of 1 to 5 was used, in which 1 is definitely metastatic, 2 is probably metastatic, 3 is indeterminate, 4 is probably benign and 5 is definitely benign. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each modality, taking a score {<=}2 as metastatic. With receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated for each modality and compared. Clinical and imaging follow-up and/or histopathology were taken as reference standard. For both readers SPECT was inferior to CT (P = 0.004, P = 0.022) and SPECT-CT (P = 0.003, P = 0.037). However, no significant difference was found between CT and SPECT-CT for reader 1 (P = 0.847) and reader 2 (P = 0.592). The findings were similar for lytic as well as sclerotic lesions. Moderate inter-observer agreement was seen for SPECT images ({kappa} = 0.426), while almost perfect agreement was seen for CT ({kappa} = 0.834) and SPECT-CT ({kappa} = 0.971). CT alone and SPECT-CT are better than SPECT for accurate characterisation of indeterminate lesions on planar BS in lung cancer patients. CT alone is not inferior to SPECT-CT for this purpose and might be preferred because of shorter acquisition time and wider availability. (orig.)

  16. Reduction in camera-specific variability in [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT outcome measures by image reconstruction optimized for multisite settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchert, Ralph; Kluge, Andreas; Tossici-Bolt, Livia;

    2016-01-01

    reconstruction algorithm for its ability to reduce camera-specific intersubject variability in [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT. The secondary aim was to evaluate binding in whole brain (excluding striatum) as a reference for quantitative analysis. METHODS: Of 73 healthy subjects from the European Normal Control Database...

  17. Experimental determination of the weighting factor for the energy window subtraction-based downscatter correction for I-123 in brain SPECT studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nijs, Robin; Holm, Søren; Thomsen, Gerda;

    2010-01-01

    Correction for downscatter in I-123 SPECT can be performed by the subtraction of a secondary energy window from the main window, as in the triple-energy window method. This is potentially noise sensitive. For studies with limited amount of counts (e.g. dynamic studies), a broad subtraction window...

  18. Statistical voxel-wise analysis of ictal SPECT reveals pattern of abnormal perfusion in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy Análise estatística baseada em voxel do SPECT ictal revela um padrão de alteração perfusional em pacientes com epilepsia de lobo temporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Juarez Amorim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pattern of perfusion abnormalities in ictal and interictal brain perfusion SPECT images (BSI from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. METHOD: It was acquired interictal and ictal BSI from 24 patients with refractory TLE. BSIs were analyzed by visual inspection and statistical parametric mapping (SPM2. Statistical analysis compared the patients group to a control group of 50 volunteers. The images from patients with left-TLE were left-right flipped. RESULTS: It was not observed significant perfusional differences in interictal scans with SPM. Ictal BSI in SPM analysis revealed hyperperfusion within ipsilateral temporal lobe (epileptogenic focus and also contralateral parieto-occipital region, ipsilateral posterior cingulate gyrus, occipital lobes and ipsilateral basal ganglia. Ictal BSI also showed areas of hypoperfusion. CONCLUSION: In a group analysis of ictal BSI of patients with TLE, voxel-wise analysis detects a network of distant regions of perfusional alteration which may play active role in seizure genesis and propagation.OBJETIVO: Investigar o padrão de anormalidades perfusionais no SPECT de perfusão cerebral (SPC ictal e interictal na epilepsia de lobo temporal (ELT. MÉTODO: Foram realizados SPCs ictal e interictal de 24 pacientes com ELT que foram analisados visualmente e com o statistical parametric mapping (SPM2. A análise estatística comparou o grupo de pacientes versus um grupo controle de 50 voluntários. RESULTADOS: Na análise do SPM não foram observadas diferenças significativas no grupo de SPC interictal. No grupo de SPC ictal o SPM revelou hiperperfusão no lobo temporal ipsilateral (foco epileptogênico e também na região parieto-occipital contralateral, porção posterior do cíngulo ipsilateral, lobos occipitais e núcleos da base ipsilateral. O SPC ictal também mostrou áreas de hipoperfusão. CONCLUSÃO: Em uma análise de grupo do SPC ictal de pacientes com ELT, a an

  19. Value of semiquantitative analysis for clinical reporting of 123I-2-β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)nortropane SPECT studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderlund, Therese A; Dickson, John C; Prvulovich, Elizabeth;

    2013-01-01

    Clinical (123)I-2-β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)nortropane ((123)I-FP-CIT) SPECT studies are commonly performed and reported using visual evaluation of tracer binding, an inherently subjective method. Increased objectivity can potentially be obtained using semiquantitative...... analysis. In this study, we assessed whether semiquantitative analysis of (123)I-FP-CIT tracer binding created more reproducible clinical reporting. A secondary aim was to determine in what form semiquantitative data should be provided to the reporter....

  20. PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Gent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-04-01

    Addresses a variety of aspects of neurotransmission in the brain. Details the latest results in probe development. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT of Neurobiological Systems combines the expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the development of novel probes and techniques for the investigation of neurobiological systems has achieved international recognition. Various aspects of neurotransmission in the brain are discussed, such as visualization and quantification of (more than 20 different) neuroreceptors, neuroinflammatory markers, transporters, and enzymes as well as neurotransmitter synthesis, ?-amyloid deposition, cerebral blood flow, and the metabolic rate of glucose. The latest results in probe development are also detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by radiochemists and nuclear medicine specialists to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to anyone in the field of clinical or preclinical neuroscience, from the radiochemist and radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested neurobiologist and general practitioner. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences. Other volumes focus on PET and SPECT in psychiatry and PET and SPECT in neurology''.

  1. A new automated method for analysis of gated-SPECT images based on a three-dimensional heart shaped model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomsky, Milan; Richter, Jens; Johansson, Lena

    2005-01-01

    A new automated method for quantification of left ventricular function from gated-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images has been developed. The method for quantification of cardiac function (CAFU) is based on a heart shaped model and the active shape algorithm. The model...

  2. Evaluation of renal allograft dysfunction employing dynamic SPECT with {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 and graph plot analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akahira, Hideaki [Oyokyo Kidney Research Inst., Hirosaki, Aomori (Japan). Hirosaki Hospital

    1996-11-01

    To estimate renal blood flow and tubular function in transplanted kidneys, we applied the 4 compartments model and the graphic analysis method to {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 dynamic SPECT and calculated some parameters, i.e. K1 (renal influx rate constant), K3 (tubular transporting rate constant), Vd12 (intrarenal distribution volume), and others. Twenty-three renal transplant recipients were examined and divided into following 3 groups according to their serum creatinine levels (SCr); Group I: less than 13 mg/dl (1.1{+-}0.3, n=7), Group II: 1.4-2.5 mg/dl (1.8{+-}0.3, n=11), and Group III more than 2.6 mg/dl (3.9{+-}0.9, n=5). The K3 value became lower in the order of Group I>II>III, and well correlated with blood urea nitrogen (BUN, r=-0.95, p<0.001) and creatinine clearance (Ccr, r=0.78, p<0.001). The K1 value reduced markedly in Group III despite of no difference between Group I and II. Although the K1 value also correlated with SCr, BUN and Ccr, correlation coefficients were smaller than those with the K3. Effective renal plasma flow derived from K1 and K3 showed a good correlation with the tubular extraction rate by Bubeck`s method. From these results and clinical conditions including histopathological findings, it is suggested that K1, K3 and Vd12 are useful parameters of renal central arterial blood flow, renal peripheral arteriolar blood flow and renal {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 uptake function, respectively. (author)

  3. Evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Brodmann areas in Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease using automated 3-D voxel based analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valotassiou, V; Tsougos, I; Tzavara, C; Georgoulias, P [Nuclear Medicine Dpt, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa (Greece); Papatriantafyllou, J; Karageorgiou, C [Neurology Dpt, General Hospital ' G. Gennimatas' , Athens (Greece); Sifakis, N; Zerva, C [Nuclear Medicine Dpt, ' Alexandra' University Hospital, Athens (Greece)], E-mail: vanvalot@yahoo.gr

    2009-05-15

    Introduction. Brain perfusion studies with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been applied in demented patients to provide better discrimination between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim. To assess the perfusion of specific Brodmann (Br) areas of the brain cortex in FTD and AD patients, using NeuroGam processing program to provide 3D voxel-by-voxel cerebral SPECT analysis. Material and methods. We studied 34 consecutive patients. We used the established criteria for the diagnosis of dementia and the specific established criteria for the diagnosis of FTD and AD. All the patients had a neuropsychological evaluation with a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination (MMSE).Twenty-six patients (16 males, 10 females, mean age 68.76{+-}6.51 years, education 11.81{+-}4.25 years, MMSE 16.69{+-}9.89) received the diagnosis of FTD and 8 patients (all females, mean age 71.25{+-}10.48 years, education 10{+-}4.6 years, MMSE 12.5{+-}3.89) the diagnosis of AD. All the patients underwent a brain SPECT. We applied the NeuroGam Software for the evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Br areas in the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Results. Statistically significant hypoperfusion in FTD compared to AD patients, was found in the following Br areas: 11L (p<0.0001), 11R, 20L, 20R, 32L, 38L, 38R, 44L (p<0.001), 32R, 36L, 36R, 45L, 45R, 47R (p<0.01), 9L, 21L, 39R, 44R, 46R, 47L (p<0.05). On the contrary, AD patients presented significant (p<0.05) hypoperfusion in 7R and 39R Br areas. Conclusion. NeuroGam processing program of brain perfusion SPECT could result in enhanced accuracy for the differential diagnosis between AD and FTD patients.

  4. Tracer accumulation in radiation necrosis of the brain after thallium-201 SPECT and [{sup 11}C]methionine PET. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Yoshiyasu; Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Oda, Junro [Osaka City General Hospital (Japan); Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Ochi, Hironobu

    2001-08-01

    A 69-year-old woman was treated by local irradiation for a malignant lymphoma of the left parotid gland. Three years after the radiation therapy, magnetic resonance imaging revealed heterogeneously enhanced masses in the left temporal lobe and left cerebellum. Thallium-201 chloride single photon emission computed tomography (Tl-SPECT) revealed high uptake and [{sup 11}C]methionine positron emission tomography (Met-PET) revealed moderate uptake in both masses. Stereotactic biopsy was performed. The histological diagnosis was radiation necrosis. She was treated with steroids. Neurosurgeons should be aware of the difficulty in differentiating tumor recurrence from radiation necrosis even with Tl-SPECT and Met-PET, and the importance of obtaining a histological diagnosis for radiation necrosis. (author)

  5. Comparison of {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET and {sup 111}In-DTPAOC (Octreoscan) SPECT in patients with neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmann, I.; Henze, M.; Engelbrecht, S.; Haufe, S.; Haberkorn, U. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Eisenhut, M.; Runz, A.; Schaefer, M. [German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Department of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Heidelberg (Germany); Schilling, T. [University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine I, Endocrinology, Heidelberg (Germany); Herrmann, T. [University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine IV, Gastroenterology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) can be imaged with scintigraphy using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. The aim of our study was to compare the value of {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET and {sup 111}In-DTPAOC SPECT (Octreoscan) in the detection of NET manifestations. Twenty-seven NET patients were prospectively examined. {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET and {sup 111}In-DTPAOC SPECT were performed using standard techniques. Treatment was not applied in between. Mean and maximum standardised uptake values (SUVs) were calculated for PET findings. Tumour/non-tumour ratios were calculated for SPECT findings. Findings were compared by a region-by-region analysis and verified with histopathology, CT and MRI within 21 days. SUVs of positive lesions on {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET ranged from 0.7 to 29.3 (mean SUV) and from 0.9 to 34.4 (maximum SUV). Tumour/non-tumour ratios on {sup 111}In-DTPAOC SPECT ranged from 1.8 to 7.3. In imaging lung and skeletal manifestations, {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET was more efficient than {sup 111}In-DTPAOC SPECT. All discrepant lung findings and 77.8% of discrepant osseous findings were verified as true positive PET interpretations. In regional comparison of liver and brain, {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET and {sup 111}In-DTPAOC SPECT were identical. In lymph nodes, the pancreas and the gastro-intestinal system, different values of the two techniques were not indicated in regional analyses. In a single patient, surgical interventions were changed on the basis of {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET findings. {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET is superior to {sup 111}In-DTPAOC SPECT in the detection of NET manifestations in the lung and skeleton and similar for the detection of NET manifestations in the liver and brain. {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET is advantageous in guiding the clinical management. (orig.)

  6. Multimodal imaging analysis of single-photon emission computed tomography and magnetic resonance tomography for improving diagnosis of Parkinson's disease; Multimodale SPECT- und MRT-Bilddatenanalyse zur Verbesserung der Diagnostik des idiopathischen Parkinson-Syndroms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, H.; Georgi, P. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Mueller, U.; Waechter, T.; Murai, T. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Neuropsychologische Forschung, Leipzig (Germany); Slomka, P. [Universitaet West-Ontario, London (Canada). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Dannenberg, C.; Kahn, T. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2000-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a degeneration of nigrostriated dopaminergic neurons, which can be imaged with {sup 123}I-labeled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl) tropane ([{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, the quality of the region of interest (ROI) technique used for quantitative analysis of SPECT data is compromised by limited anatomical information in the images. We investigated whether the diagnosis of PD can be improved by combining the use of SPECT images with morphological image data from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT). We examined 27 patients (8 men, 19 women; aged 55{+-}13 years) with PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage 2.1{+-}0.8) by high-resolution [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT (185-200 MBq, Ceraspect camera). SPECT images were analyzed both by a unimodal technique (ROIs defined directly within the SPECT studies) and a multimodal technique (ROIs defined within individual MRI/CT studies and transferred to the corresponding interactively coregistered SPECT studies). [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT binding ratios (cerebellum as reference), which were obtained for heads of caudate nuclei (CA), putamina (PU), and global striatal structures were compared with clinical parameters. Differences between contra- and ipsilateral (related to symptom dominance) striatal [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT binding ratios proved to be larger in the multimodal ROI technique than in the unimodal approach (e.g., for PU: 1.2*** vs. 0.7**). Binding ratios obtained by the unimodal ROI technique were significantly correlated with those of the multimodal technique (e.g., for CA: y=0.97x+2.8; r=0.70; P<0.001). Concerning the correlations between SPECT data and clinical parameters, the significance levels in the multimodal ROI technique exceeded those of the unimodal technique, for example, for the correlation between CA and the UPDRS{sub com} subscore (r=-0.49* vs. -0.32). These results show that the

  7. PET and SPECT imaging in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Amy K; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians have gained increasing access to positron emission tomography (PET and PET/CT) imaging facilities, allowing them to use this powerful molecular imaging technique for clinical and research applications. SPECT is currently being used more in Europe than in the United States and has been shown to be useful in veterinary oncology and in the evaluation of orthopedic diseases. SPECT brain perfusion and receptor imaging is used to investigate behavioral disorders in animals that have interesting similarities to human psychiatric disorders. This article provides an overview of the potential applications of PET and SPECT. The use of commercially available and investigational PET radiopharmaceuticals in the management of veterinary disease has been discussed. To date, most of the work in this field has utilized the commercially available PET tracer, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose for oncologic imaging. Normal biodistribution studies in several companion animal species (cats, dogs, and birds) have been published to assist in lesion detection and interpretation for veterinary radiologists and clinicians. Studies evaluating other (18)F-labeled tracers for research applications are underway at several institutions and companion animal models of human diseases are being increasingly recognized for their value in biomarker and therapy development. Although PET and SPECT technologies are in their infancy for clinical veterinary medicine, increasing access to and interest in these applications and other molecular imaging techniques has led to a greater knowledge and collective body of expertise for veterinarians worldwide. Initiation and fostering of physician-veterinarian collaborations are key components to the forward movement of this field.

  8. Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of {sup 111}In-pentetreotide SPECT and {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT: A lesion-by-lesion analysis in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnebeek, S. van; Vanbilloen, B.; Baete, K.; Terwinghe, C.; Koole, M.; Mortelmans, L. [KU Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven and Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Mottaghy, F.M. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Clement, P.M. [KU Leuven, Medical Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven and Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Bogaerts, K. [KU Leuven and UHasselt, Department of Public Health and Primary Care (I-BioStat), Leuven (Belgium); Haustermans, K. [KU Leuven, Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven and Department of Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Nackaerts, K. [University Hospitals Leuven, Pulmonology, Leuven (Belgium); Cutsem, E. van; Verslype, C. [KU Leuven, Division of Digestive Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven and Department of Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Verbruggen, A. [KU Leuven, Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Leuven (Belgium); Deroose, C.M. [KU Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven and Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-03-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of {sup 111}In-pentetreotide-scintigraphy with {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in patients with metastatic-neuroendocrine tumour (NET) scheduled for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Incremental lesions (ILs) were defined as lesions observed on only one modality. Fifty-three metastatic-NET-patients underwent {sup 111}In-pentetreotide-scintigraphy (24 h post-injection; planar+single-photon emission CT (SPECT) abdomen) and whole-body {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT. SPECT and PET were compared in a lesion-by-lesion and organ-by-organ analysis, determining the total lesions and ILs for both modalities. Significantly more lesions were detected on {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT versus {sup 111}In-pentetreotide-scintigraphy. More specifically, we observed 1,098 lesions on PET/CT (range: 1-105; median: 15) versus 660 on SPECT (range: 0-73, median: 9) (p<0.0001), with 439 PET-ILs (42/53 patients) and one SPECT-IL (1/53 patients). The sensitivity for PET/CT was 99.9 % (95 % CI, 99.3-100.0), for SPECT 60.0 % (95 % CI, 48.5-70.2). The organ-by-organ analysis showed that the PET-ILs were most frequently visualized in liver and skeleton. Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT is superior for the detection of NET-metastases compared to {sup 111}In-pentetreotide SPECT. (orig.)

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow in various pediatric neurological patients using /sup 123/I-IMP SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Tohru; Naganuma, Yoshihiro; Hongou, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Miyako; Yamatani, Miwa; Okada, Toshio

    1988-03-01

    The recent development of a new radiopharmaceutical /sup 123/I-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine (IMP), which is taken up by the brain from the blood flow, has offered a possibility of constructing scintigraphy maps of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using single photon emission CT. We used this mehtod in various pediatric neurological diseases. Six patients with cerebro-vascular disorders (moya-moya disease 2, infarction 3 and HHE syndrome 1), 6 patients with infectious diseases of CNS (acute encephalitis 4, septic meningitis 1 and SSPE 1) and a miscellaneous group of six patients were studied. The rCBF abnormalities in cerebro-vascular diseases were more extensive and frequent than x-ray CT abnormalities. Repeated studies of IMP-SPECT revealed usefulness for the understanding of changeable hemodynamic pathophysiology and for the judgment of theraptic effectiveness and prognosis. The rCBF decrease in infectious diseases tended to be more diffuse and slight than that in cerebro-vascular diseases. In almost all patients, the area of rCBF decrease coincided with the area of EEG slowing evaluated by EEG topographic analysis. Brain imaging using /sup 123/I-IMP SPECT may reveal functional abnormalities as well as organic lesions. /sup 123/I-IMP SPECT has introduced a new era for the useful application of nuclear medicine to the investigation of pediatric neurological diseases.

  10. Decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral thalami and medulla oblongata determined by an easy Z-score (eZIS) analysis of (99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT images in a case of MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuichi; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshikura, Nobuaki; Asano, Takahiko; Hatano, Taku; Tatsumi, Shinsui; Satoh, Katsuya; Kimura, Akio; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Mari; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2015-11-15

    We report a case of autopsy-verified MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) in a 46-year-old patient with a 16-month history of abnormal behavior, progressive dementia, insomnia, and speech disturbances without family history. Neurological examination revealed progressive dementia, frontal signs, insomnia, speech disturbance, gait disturbance and bilaterally exaggerated tendon reflexes. Both brain MRI and cerebrospinal fluid examinations, including 14-3-3 protein, yielded normal results. An easy Z-score (eZIS) analysis for (99m)Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer-single photon emission computed tomography ((99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT) revealed decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral thalami and medulla oblongata. PRNP gene analysis revealed methionine homozygosity at codon 129 without mutation. Neuropathological examinations revealed severe neuronal loss, gliosis, and hypertrophic astrocytosis in the medial thalamus and inferior olivary nucleus. A slight depletion of Purkinje cells was observed. PrP immunostaining showed no obvious PrP deposits in the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, or brainstem; however, mild synaptic-type PrP deposits with some smaller plaque-like structures were only partially observed in the localized region of the frontal lobe with the spongiform change. Western blot analyses of protease-resistant PrP showed a type 2 pattern. In conclusion, eZIS analysis of (99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT images is useful for detecting both thalamic and medullary lesions. This is the first case of medullary lesions detected in a live patient with MM2-thalamic-type sCJD using SPECT.

  11. Quantification of rat brain SPECT with 123I-ioflupane: evaluation of different reconstruction methods and image degradation compensations using Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roé-Vellvé, N.; Pino, F.; Falcon, C.; Cot, A.; Gispert, J. D.; Marin, C.; Pavía, J.; Ros, D.

    2014-08-01

    SPECT studies with 123I-ioflupane facilitate the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The effect on quantification of image degradations has been extensively evaluated in human studies but their impact on studies of experimental PD models is still unclear. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of compensating for the degrading phenomena on the quantification of small animal SPECT studies using 123I-ioflupane. This assessment enabled us to evaluate the feasibility of quantitatively detecting small pathological changes using different reconstruction methods and levels of compensation for the image degrading phenomena. Monte Carlo simulated studies of a rat phantom were reconstructed and quantified. Compensations for point spread function (PSF), scattering, attenuation and partial volume effect were progressively included in the quantification protocol. A linear relationship was found between calculated and simulated specific uptake ratio (SUR) in all cases. In order to significantly distinguish disease stages, noise-reduction during the reconstruction process was the most relevant factor, followed by PSF compensation. The smallest detectable SUR interval was determined by biological variability rather than by image degradations or coregistration errors. The quantification methods that gave the best results allowed us to distinguish PD stages with SUR values that are as close as 0.5 using groups of six rats to represent each stage.

  12. The value of brain blood perfusion SPECT imaging in evaluation of the curative effect of hyperbaric oxygen in patients with ischemic brain injury%脑SPECT显像对高压氧治疗脑外伤后脑缺血疗效判断的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玉新; 李春梅; 刘琳; 黄彩英

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨SPECT脑血流灌注显像对高压氧(HBO)治疗脑外伤继发脑缺血患者疗效判断的价值.方法 将65例脑外伤继发脑缺血患者按随机数字表法分为HBO治疗组和常规治疗组,在治疗前后分别进行脑血流灌注SPECT显像,应用计算机感兴趣区(ROI)技术,在横断面图像上采用局部镜像比值(Ra)法判断脑缺血病灶,Ra≤0.9视为异常.对治疗前后的脑血流灌注减低区Ra值进行比较.数据间的比较行t检验.结果 HBO治疗组治疗前后局部脑血流(Rcbf)减低区Ra值分别为0.58±0.11和0.82±0.12(t=7.327,P<0.01),常规治疗组治疗前后rCBF减低区R且值分别为0.61±0.13和0.73±0.12(t=2.153,P=0.038);HBO治疗组和常规治疗组缺血灶rCBF增加值分别为0.24±0.08和0.12±0.06(t=2.571,P=0.015).结论 SPECT脑血流灌注显像可灵敏地反映HBO治疗脑外伤后脑缺血前后rCBF变化,可用于HBO治疗疗效的评价.%Objective Brain blood flow SPECT perfusion can detect changes in brain blood flow. The obiective of this study was to explore the clinical value of SPECT perfusion imaging in brain ischemic injury due to tmumatic at before and after hyperbaric oxygen (HBO)treatment.Methods Sixty-five cases of secondary ischemic brain injury patients were randomly divided into two groups.One was with HBO treat-ment group and the other was with conventional treatment.All had brain perfusion SPECT at before and after treatment.Computer region of interest(ROI)technology was applied in the cross-sectional images using lo-cat mirror ratio(Ra)method to determine cerebral ischemic lesions.The t-test was used to analyze the quantitative data.It would be considered as abnormal if the brain perfusion SPECT reduce Ra≤0.9 aftertreatment.Results In HBO treatment group.regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF)before and after treat-ment to reduce the district Ra values were 0.58±0.1l and 0.82±0.12(t=7.327,P<0.01).In con-ventional treatment group.Rcbf before and after treatment

  13. {sup 125}I-iomazenil binding shows stress- and/or diazepam-induced reductions in mouse brain. Supporting data for {sup 123}I-iomazenil SPECT study of anxiety disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Odano, Ikuo [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Fujita, Shozo; Ohkubo, Masaki

    1997-08-01

    Effects of repeated swim stress on the binding of {sup 125}I-iomazenil were examined in the brains of diazepam-treated and non-treated mice. The mice were orally administered diazepam or vehicle (0.5% ethylene glycol) and subjected to daily swim stress (at 20degC for 10 min) for seven consecutive days. The distribution and the amount of {sup 125}I-iomazenil binding were analyzed autoradiographically after in vivo and in vitro binding experiments. Repeated swim stress decreased the in vivo binding in the hippocampus (p<0.05) and cerebral cortex (p<0.05) of vehicle-treated mice but caused no significant changes in diazepam-treated mice. Subchronic treatment with diazepam decreased the in vivo binding approximately 50% in all brain regions examined (p<0.01). The in vitro experiment, however, revealed no significant changes except in the hippocampus, where a small but significant decrease in the binding was observed after subchronic treatment with diazepam (p<0.01). The stress- or diazepam-induced reductions seem to represent alterations in the in vivo environment related to {sup 125}I-iomazenil binding. These results suggest that we can investigate the pathophysiology of stress and anxiety with {sup 123}I-iomazenil SPECT. Care must be taken concerning the effects of benzodiazepines. (author)

  14. 肺癌患者SPECT/CT同机融合显像肋骨单发病灶影像分析%SPECT/CT fusion imaging analysis of costal single hot spots in patients with lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包贺菊; 陈刚; 陈燕燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the imaging features and clinical significance of solitary costal hot spots in patient with lung cancer on SPECT/CT fusion imaging and the value of low-dose CT for diagnosis.Methods SPECT/CT scan was performed on 68 patients with lung cancer and costal single hot spots using whole body bone imaging.The sites of lesions were classified into four types:junction between costal cartilage and rib,frontal rib,lateral rib,posterior rib.The shapes of lesions were classified into two forms:punctiform and strip shapes,and were analyzed and classified.The differences of the diagnosis of whole body bone imaging and SPECT/CT scan were analyzed.Results Punctiform spots were mainly due to costal fractures(36/68,52.94%).The majority of spots in strip shape were costal metastases (21/23,91.30%).The lesions of junction between costal cartilage and rib were punctiform shape and benign.Hot spots in posterior ribs were mainly costal metastases (18/22,81.82%).Sensitivity of diagnosis of the metastatic bone tumor with whole body bone imaging and SPECT/CT in single hot spot of spine and rib was 69.23% (18/26) and 92.31%(24/26),specificity 59.52%(25/42) and 85.71%(36/42),accuracy 63.24%(43/68) and 88.24% (60/68),positive predictive value 51.43% (18/35) and 80.00% (24/30),negative predictive value 75.76% (25/33) and 94.74% (36/38).SPECT/CT scan had differences with whole body bone imaging in sensitivity (P < 0.05),SPECT/CT scan had significant differences with whole body bone imaging in coincidence and specificity (P < 0.01).Conclusions Useful imaging features can be obtained from SPECT/CT fusion imaging with single costal hot spots,being helpful to differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions.SPECT/CT fusion imaging may improve the accuracy to diagnose the rib disease.%目的 分析肺癌患者SPECT/CT同机融合显像肋骨单发病灶的特征和临床诊断之间的相互关系,并评价定位CT在诊断中的作用.方法

  15. A review on the clinical uses of SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, Giuliano; Bruselli, Laura [University of Pisa Medical School, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Kuwert, Torsten [Friedrich-Alexander-University, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Kim, Edmund E. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Nuclear Medicine Service, Houston, TX (United States); Flotats, Albert [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Hospital de Sant Pau, Nuclear Medicine Department, Barcelona (Spain); Israel, Ora [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Vienna (Austria); Watanabe, Naoyuki [International Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Vienna (Austria); Gunma Prefectural College of Health Sciences, Department of Radiological Technology, Gunma (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    In the era when positron emission tomography (PET) seems to constitute the most advanced application of nuclear medicine imaging, still the conventional procedure of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is far from being obsolete, especially if combined with computed tomography (CT). In fact, this dual modality imaging technique (SPECT/CT) lends itself to a wide variety of useful diagnostic applications whose clinical impact is in most instances already well established, while the evidence is growing for newer applications. The increasing availability of new hybrid SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity to shorten acquisition time and to provide accurate attenuation correction and fusion imaging. In this review we analyse and discuss the capabilities of SPECT/CT for improving sensitivity and specificity in the imaging of both oncological and non-oncological diseases. The main advantages of SPECT/CT are represented by better attenuation correction, increased specificity, and accurate depiction of the localization of disease and of possible involvement of adjacent tissues. Endocrine and neuroendocrine tumours are accurately localized and characterized by SPECT/CT, as also are solitary pulmonary nodules and lung cancers, brain tumours, lymphoma, prostate cancer, malignant and benign bone lesions, and infection. Furthermore, hybrid SPECT/CT imaging is especially suited to support the increasing applications of minimally invasive surgery, as well as to precisely define the diagnostic and prognostic profile of cardiovascular patients. Finally, the applications of SPECT/CT to other clinical disorders or malignant tumours is currently under extensive investigation, with encouraging results in terms of diagnostic accuracy. (orig.)

  16. Quantification of perfusion and risk stratification by myocardial perfusion SPECT; Quantifizierung der Perfusion und Risikostratifizierung durch die Myokardperfusions-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Bernd [Ueberoertliche Gemeinschaft (GbR) fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin (DIRANUK), Bielefeld (Germany); Klinikum Bielefeld-Mitte (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Schaefer, W.M. [Kliniken Maria Hilf GmbH, Krankenhaus St. Franziskus, Moenchengladbach (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2010-06-15

    Myocardial perfusion SPECT detects flow-limiting coronary artery disease with high sensitivity and specificity, enables semiquantification of severity and extensiveness of myocardial ischemia, and furthermore enables reliable assessment of future cardiac events independently of other clinical and diagnostic parameters. A normal myocardial perfusion SPECT is associated with a favorable prognosis and warrants restrictive patient management. Cardiac risk increases in relation to the severity of perfusion abnormalities. Differentiated analysis of quantitative parameters derived from myocardial perfusion SPECT provides effective risk stratification of patients with a large variety of risk factors. (orig.)

  17. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsia; SPECT und PET in der Diagnostik von Epilepsien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landvogt, C. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2007-09-15

    In preoperative localisation of epileptogenic foci, nuclear medicine diagnostics plays a crucial role. FDG-PET is used as first line diagnostics. In case of inconsistent MRI, EEG and FDG-PET findings, {sup 11}C-Flumazenil-PET or ictal and interictal perfusion-SPECT should be performed. Other than FDG, Flumazenil can help to identify the extend of the region, which should be resected. To enhance sensitivity and specificity, further data analysis using voxelbased statistical analyses or SISCOM (substraction ictal SPECT coregistered MRI) should be performed.

  18. Statistical parametric mapping of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT cerebral perfusion in the normal elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turlakow, A.; Scott, A.M.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Sonkila, C.; Wardill, T.D.; Crowley, K.; Abbott, D.; Egan, G.F.; McKay, W.J.; Hughes, A. [Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Centre for PET Neurology and Clinical Neuropsychology

    1998-06-01

    Full text: The clinical value of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT cerebral blood flow studies in cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders has been well described. Currently, interpretation of these studies relies on qualitative or semi- quantitative techniques. The aim of our study is to generate statistical measures of regional cerebral perfusion in the normal elderly using statistical parametric mapping (Friston et al, Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London, UK) in order to facilitate the objective analysis of cerebral blood flow studies in patient groups. A cohort of 20 healthy, elderly volunteers, aged 68 to 81 years, was prospectively selected on the basis of normal physical examination and neuropsychological testing. Subjects with risk factors, or a history of cognitive impairment were excluded from our study group. All volunteers underwent SPECT cerebral blood flow imaging, 30 minutes following the administration of 370 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO, on a Trionix Triad XLT triple-headed scanner (Trionix Research Laboratory Twinsburg, OH) using high resolution, fan-beam collimators resulting in a system resolution of 10 mm full width at half-maximum (FWHM). The SPECT cerebral blood flow studies were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software specifically developed for the routine statistical analysis of functional neuroimaging data. The SPECT images were coregistered with each individual`s T1-weighted MR volume brain scan and spatially normalized to standardised Talairach space. Using SPM, these data were analyzed for differences in interhemispheric regional cerebral blood flow. Significant asymmetry of cerebral perfusion was detected in the pre-central gyrus at the 95th percentile. In conclusion, the interpretation of cerebral blood flow studies in the elderly should take into account the statistically significant asymmetry in interhemispheric pre-central cortical blood flow. In the future, clinical studies will be compared to statistical data sets in age

  19. Cerebral fat embolism studied with MRI and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, E. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)); Namer, I.J. (Inst. of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Louis Pasteur Univ., Strasbourg (France)); Saribas, O. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)); Aras, T. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine Ankara (Turkey)); Tan, E. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)); Bekdik, C. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine Ankara (Turkey)); Zileli, T. (Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey))

    1993-03-01

    In a patient with fat embolism to the brain CT showed no abnormality. MRI performed after recovery from coma, when the patient had aphasia and quadriparesis, demonstrated multiple high signal abnormalities in the white matter on both T1- and T2-weighted images. HMPAO-SPECT showed left-sided hypoperfusion which resolved in parallel with clinical improvement 1 month later. (orig.)

  20. /sup 123/I-amphetamine-SPECT in the diagnosis of neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Kreiten, K.; Hartmann, A.; Friedrich, G.; Linck, H.A.; Winkler, C.

    1985-03-01

    In contrast to conventional brain scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, SPECT with /sup 123/I-IMP enables visualization of the brain tissue itself. The relevance of this imaging technique was evaluated in 54 patients with cerebral disorders. SPECT of the brain was performed with a rotating gamma camera. In 6 of 24 epileptic patients, SPECT revealed foci consistent with EEG-findings which were, however, not detected by CCT. In 4 of 25 patients with cerebrovascular disease, hypoperfused areas were detected by SPECT despite negative results obtained with CCT. In 50% (10/20) of the patients with cerebrovascular disease, SPECT showed a greater functional extent of the lesions than CCT. In 3 patients with migraine and normal CCT, regional perfusion disturbancers were found. SPECT with /sup 123/I-labeled amphetamines, therefore, enables diagnosis of functional perfusion disorders and metabolic disturbances that are not revealed by CCT. In addition, SPECT can be used to exactly demonstrate the functional extent of lesions detected by CCT.

  1. Proceedings of clinical SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    It has been five years since the last in-depth American College of Nuclear Physicians/Society of Nuclear Medicine Symposium on the subject of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was held. Because this subject was nominated as the single most desired topic we have selected SPECT imaging as the basis for this year's program. The objectives of this symposium are to survey the progress of SPECT clinical applications that have taken place over the last five years and to provide practical and timely guidelines to users of SPECT so that this exciting imaging modality can be fully integrated into the evaluation of pathologic processes. The first half was devoted to a consideration of technical factors important in SPECT acquisition and the second half was devoted to those organ systems about which sufficient clinical SPECT imaging data are available. With respect to the technical aspect of the program we have selected the key areas which demand awareness and attention in order to make SPECT operational in clinical practice. These include selection of equipment, details of uniformity correction, utilization of phantoms for equipment acceptance and quality assurance, the major aspect of algorithms, an understanding of filtered back projection and appropriate choice of filters and an awareness of the most commonly generated artifacts and how to recognize them. With respect to the acquisition and interpretation of organ images, the faculty will present information on the major aspects of hepatic, brain, cardiac, skeletal, and immunologic imaging techniques. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  2. Left ventricular dyssynchrony assessed by two three-dimensional imaging modalities: phase analysis of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT and tri-plane tissue Doppler imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajmone Marsan, Nina [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Albinusdreef 2, ZA, Leiden (Netherlands); Policlinico S. Matteo, Department of Cardiology, Pavia (Italy); Henneman, Maureen M.; Ypenburg, Claudia; Bleeker, Gabe B.; Bax, Jeroen J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Albinusdreef 2, ZA, Leiden (Netherlands); Chen, Ji; Garcia, Ernest V. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Dibbets, Petra; Stokkel, Marcel P. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands); Ghio, Stefano; Tavazzi, Luigi [Policlinico S. Matteo, Department of Cardiology, Pavia (Italy); Wall, Ernst E. van der [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Albinusdreef 2, ZA, Leiden (Netherlands); The Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    To compare left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony assessment by phase analysis from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (GMPS) with LV dyssynchrony assessment by tri-plane tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Baseline LV dyssynchrony assessed with standard deviation (SD) of time-to-peak systolic velocity of 12 LV segments (Ts-SD) with TDI has proven to be a powerful predictor of response to CRT. Information on LV dyssynchrony can also be provided by GMPS with phase analysis of regional LV maximal count changes throughout the cardiac cycle. Forty heart failure patients, referred for evaluation of potential eligibility for CRT, underwent both 3D echocardiography, with tri-plane TDI, and resting GMPS. From tri-plane TDI, Ts-SD was used as a validated parameter of LV dyssynchrony and compared with different indices (histogram bandwidth, phase SD, histogram skewness and kurtosis) derived from phase analysis of GMPS. Histogram bandwidth and phase SD showed good correlation with Ts-SD (r=0.77 and r=0.74, p<0.0001, respectively). Patients with substantial LV dyssynchrony assessed with tri-plane TDI (Ts-SD {>=}33 ms) had also significantly higher values of histogram bandwidth and phase SD. The results of this study support the use of phase analysis by GMPS to evaluate LV dyssynchrony. Histogram bandwidth and phase SD showed the best correlation with Ts-SD assessed with tri-plane TDI and appeared the most optimal variables for assessment of LV dyssynchrony with GMPS. (orig.)

  3. Multilayer motif analysis of brain networks

    CERN Document Server

    Battiston, Federico; Chavez, Mario; Latora, Vito

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade network science has shed new light on the anatomical connectivity and on correlations in the activity of different areas of the human brain. The study of brain networks has made possible in fact to detect the central areas of a neural system, and to identify its building blocks by looking at overabundant small subgraphs, known as motifs. However, network analysis of the brain has so far mainly focused on structural and functional networks as separate entities. The recently developed mathematical framework of multi-layer networks allows to perform a multiplex analysis of the human brain where the structural and functional layers are considered at the same time. In this work we describe how to classify subgraphs in multiplex networks, and we extend motif analysis to networks with many layers. We then extract multi-layer motifs in brain networks of healthy subjects by considering networks with two layers, respectively obtained from diffusion and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results i...

  4. Usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage due to Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C. W.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kwark, C. E.; Lee, D. S.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M. C.; Han, D. H.; Koh, C. S. [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    We evaluated the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT in 21 Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm and in 3 patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm. SPECT study could detect the bilaterally hypoperfused cases in 10 patients(48%), but CT/MRI showed the bilateral abnormalities in only 3 patients(14%). The number of abnormal lesions were 56 in SPECT and 25 in CT/MRI. The lesions found in SPECT were well correlated with the neurological signs of the patients such as aphasia or hemiplegia. SPECT study during Matas test was helpful in evaluating the risk for carotid artery occlusion therapy. We thought that {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT is helpful in evaluating the functional changes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  5. Evaluation of SPECT imaging using myocardial phantoms in Akita prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Kiyohiko [Akita Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Watarai, Jiro; Miura, Mamoru

    1998-09-01

    Evaluation of SPECT imaging using myocardial phantom in Akita Prefecture. The Society of Nuclear Medicine for Circulation disease in Akita was established in July, 1997. To improve myocardial spect imaging in Akita Prefecture, we first visually evaluated two acrlic defect (2 cm{phi} x 1 cm thickness aqcliel and 1 cm{phi} x 1 cm thickness) images of long axis and short axis of myocardial phantoms, using 14 SPECT Cameras. These defect images of myocardial phantom were evaluated by four cardiologists and twelve radiologists between August and December, 1996. Secondly, we measured the FWHM of four line sources (anterior, lateral, inferior, and septum positions in the short axis of myocardial phantom) using quantitative analysis by myocardial phantom between April and July, 1997. The results were reported at the 4th and 5th meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine for Circulation Disease in Akita. In conclusion, about 70% of myocardial spect images were of good or normal quality, whereas about 30% of the images were evaluated as of bad quality. To improve the myocardial spect images, we recognized that the basic performance of the SPECT cameras need be investigated. (author)

  6. Does percutaneous nephrolithotomy and its outcomes have an impact on renal function? Quantitative analysis using SPECT-CT DMSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fentes, Daniel; Cortés, Julia; Gude, Francisco; García, Camilo; Ruibal, Alvaro; Aguiar, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    To assess the functional effects of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and its outcomes in the operated kidney, we prospectively studied 30 consecutive cases undergoing PCNL. Kidney function was evaluated preoperatively and 3 months after surgery with serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and with (99m)Tc-DMSA SPECT-CT scans to determine the differential renal function (DRF). PCNL effects in the operated kidney DRF were considered globally (DRFPLANAR, DRFSPECT) and in the region of percutaneous access (DRFACCESS). PCNL functional impact was also assessed depending on its outcomes, namely success (stone-free status) and the development of perioperative complications. PCNL has rendered 73 % of the cases completely stone free with a 33 % complication rate. After PCNL, serum creatinine and GFR did not change significantly, whereas DRFPLANAR and DRFSPECT dropped 1.2 % (p = 0.014) and 1.0 % (p = 0.041), respectively. The highest decrease was observed in DRFACCESS (1.8 %, p = 0.012). Stone-free status after PCNL did not show any impact on kidney function. Conversely, cases that suffered from a complication showed impairment in serum creatinine (0.1 mg/dL, p = 0.028), in GFR (11.1 mL/min, p = 0.036) as well as in DRFPLANAR (2.7 %, p = 0.018), DRFSPECT (2.2 %, p = 0.023) and DRFACCESS (2.7 %, p = 0.049). We conclude that PCNL has a minimal impact on global kidney function, which is mainly located in the region of percutaneous access. The advent of perioperative complications increased PCNL functional damage, whereas the stone-free status did not show any meaningful effect.

  7. Progression of dopamine transporter decline in patients with the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy: a voxel-based analysis of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocker, Michael; Seppi, Klaus; Wenning, Gregor K.; Poewe, Werner; Scherfler, Christoph [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Donnemiller, Eveline; Virgolini, Irene [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-06-15

    We characterized the progression of dopamine transporter (DAT) decline in the striatum and extrastriatal regions including the midbrain and pons of patients with the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) and compared longitudinally collected SPECT results with those in a cohort of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Eight patients with MSA-P (age 60.4 {+-} 7.7 years, disease duration 2.4 {+-} 1 years, UPDRS-III motor score 39.7 {+-} 4.7), and 11 patients with PD (age 61.2 {+-} 6.4 years, disease duration 2.4 {+-} 1.1 years, UPDRS-III motor score 18.9 {+-} 7.6) underwent a baseline and follow-up [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT investigation within a time period of 1.3 years. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and a repetitive ANOVA design were used to objectively localize the decline in DAT availability without having to make an a priori hypothesis as to its location. SPM localized significant reductions in [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT uptake in the dorsal brainstem of MSA-P patients compared to PD patients (p < 0.001) at baseline. Additional reductions in the DAT signal were localized in the caudate and anterior putamen of patients with MSA-P patients compared to PD patients at the follow-up examination (p < 0.001). Relative decline in tracer binding was evident in the caudate and anterior putamen of MSA-P patients compared to PD patients in the longitudinal analysis (p < 0.05), whereas no significant relative signal alteration was observed in the brainstem. In contrast to PD, the relatively higher rate of signal reduction in the caudate and anterior putamen is consistent with the faster disease progression reported in MSA-P. At baseline, the tracer uptake in the brainstem was already at very low levels in the MSA-P patients compared to that in healthy control subjects and did not progress any further, suggesting that the degeneration of monoaminergic neurons is almost complete early in the disease course. (orig.)

  8. Development of a high-resolution detection module for the INSERT SPECT/MRI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busca, Paolo; Fiorini, Carlo; Butt, Arslan D; Occhipinti, Michele; Quaglia, Riccardo; Trigilio, Paolo [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Via Golgi 40, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Nemeth, Gabor; Major, Peter; Bukki, Tamas; Nagy, Kalman [Mediso Medical Imaging Systems, Alsotorokvesz 14, H-1022 Budapest (Hungary); Piemonte, Claudio; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Via Sommarive, 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Rieger, Jan [MRI.TOOLS GmbH, Robert-Roessle-Str. 10, 13125 Berlin (Germany); Niendorf, Thoralf [MRI.TOOLS GmbH, Robert-Roessle-Str. 10, 13125 Berlin (Germany); Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.UniversityF.F.), Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    A new multi-modality imaging tool is under development in the framework of the INSERT (Integrated SPECT/MRI for Enhanced Stratification in Radio-chemo Therapy) project, supported by the European Community. The final goal is to develop a custom SPECT apparatus that can be used as an insert for commercially available MRI systems. INSERT is expected to offer more effective and earlier diagnosis with potentially better outcome in survival for the treatment of brain tumors, primarily glioma. Two SPECT prototypes are being developed, one dedicated to preclinical imaging (7 and 9.4 T), the second one dedicated to clinical imaging (3 T).

  9. Stress-induced myocardial ischemia is associated with early post-stress left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony as assessed by phase analysis of {sup 201}Tl gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Shen, Thau-Yun [Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Changhua (China); Chang, Ming-Che [Changhua Christian Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); Hung, Guang-Uei [Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, Taichung (China); Chen, Wan-Chen [Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); Kao, Chia-Hung [China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, Taichung (China); Chen, Ji [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    In {sup 201}Tl SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) data are acquired shortly after the stress injection to assess early post-stress left ventricle (LV) function. The purpose of this study was to use {sup 201}Tl SPECT MPI to investigate whether stress-induced myocardial ischemia is associated with LV mechanical dyssynchrony. Enrolled in the study were 75 patients who were referred for dipyridamole stress and rest {sup 201}Tl gated SPECT MPI. The early post-stress scan was started 5 min after injection, and followed by the rest scan 4 h later. The patients were divided into three groups: ischemia group (N = 25, summed stress score, SSS, {>=}5, summed rest score, SRS, <5), infarct group (N = 16, SSS {>=}5, SRS {>=}5) and normal group (N = 34, SSS <5, SRS <5). LV dyssynchrony parameters were calculated by phase analysis, and compared between the stress and rest images. In the ischemia group, LV dyssynchrony was significantly larger during stress than during rest. On the contrary, LV dyssynchrony during stress was significantly smaller than during rest in the normal and infarct groups. LV dyssynchrony during rest was significantly larger in the infarct group than in the normal and ischemia groups. There were no significant differences in LV dyssynchrony during rest between the normal and ischemia groups. Stress-induced myocardial ischemia caused dyssynchronous contraction in the ischemic region, leading to a deterioration in LV synchrony. Normal myocardium had more synchronous contraction during stress. The different dyssynchrony pattern between ischemic and normal myocardium early post-stress may aid the diagnosis of coronary artery disease using {sup 201}Tl gated SPECT MPI. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of cognitive function and regional cerebral blood flow in Parkinson's disease by {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takayuki; Morohoshi, Toshio; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Fukui, Toshiya; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugita, Koujiro [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-06-01

    Several studies have found that the uptake of a radioisotope is reduced in the frontal or parietooccipital lobe on SPECT scans of patients with Parkinson's disease accompanied by cognitive impairment. The present study investigated the relationship between the results of SPECT imaging and those of cognitive function tests in patients with Parkinson's disease accompanied by cognitive impairment. Thirty patients with Parkinson's disease served as subjects, including 9 men and 21 women with an average of 66.1 years. Patients underwent {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT and various cognitive function tests (Japanese alphabet pick-up test, Stroop test, Hasegawa's dementia screening scale, Raven color matrix, and course cube-combination test). Next, three neurologists with no knowledge of the patient's clinical symptoms were asked to analyze the reduced uptake on SPECT scans as follows: frontal lobe, parietooccipital lobe, frontal and parietooccipital lobes, diffused reduction, and no reduced uptake. The results of SPECT imaging and each cognitive function test were compared. Reduced uptake in the frontal and parietooccipital lobes and diffused reduction correlated with decreases in cognitive function. Cognitive impairment is not notable when cortical blood flow is partially reduced, but is notable when cortical blood flow is widely reduced. (author)

  11. Left ventricular dyssynchrony assessed by two three-dimensional imaging modalities: phase analysis of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT and tri-plane tissue Doppler imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Henneman, Maureen M.; Chen, Ji; Ypenburg, Claudia; Dibbets, Petra; Ghio, Stefano; Bleeker, Gabe B.; Stokkel, Marcel P.; van der Wall, Ernst E.; Tavazzi, Luigi; Garcia, Ernest V.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To compare left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony assessment by phase analysis from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (GMPS) with LV dyssynchrony assessment by tri-plane tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Baseline LV dyssynchrony assessed with standard deviation (SD) of time-to-peak systolic velocity of 12 LV segments (Ts-SD) with TDI has proven to be a powerful predictor of response to CRT. Information on LV dyssynchrony can also be provided by GMPS with phase analysis of regional LV maximal count changes throughout the cardiac cycle. Methods Forty heart failure patients, referred for evaluation of potential eligibility for CRT, underwent both 3D echocardiography, with tri-plane TDI, and resting GMPS. From tri-plane TDI, Ts-SD was used as a validated parameter of LV dyssynchrony and compared with different indices (histogram bandwidth, phase SD, histogram skewness and kurtosis) derived from phase analysis of GMPS. Results Histogram bandwidth and phase SD showed good correlation with Ts-SD (r=0.77 and r=0.74, p<0.0001, respectively). Patients with substantial LV dyssynchrony assessed with tri-plane TDI (Ts-SD ≥33 ms) had also significantly higher values of histogram bandwidth and phase SD. Conclusions The results of this study support the use of phase analysis by GMPS to evaluate LV dyssynchrony. Histogram bandwidth and phase SD showed the best correlation with Ts-SD assessed with tri-plane TDI and appeared the most optimal variables for assessment of LV dyssynchrony with GMPS. PMID:17874098

  12. Radiopharmaceuticals for SPECT cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, V. I.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Zelchan, R. V.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Larionova, L. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Choynzonov, E. L.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the efficacy of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 199Tl and 99mTc-MIBI in the detection of breast, laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. A total of 220 patients were included into the study: 120 patients with breast lesions (100 patients with breast cancer and 20 patients with benign breast tumors) and 100 patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal diseases (80 patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer and 20 patients with benign laryngeal/hypopharyngeal lesions). No abnormal 199Tl uptake was seen in all patients with benign breast and laryngeal lesions, indicating a 100% specificity of 199Tl SPECT. In the breast cancer patients, the increased 199Tl uptake in the breast was visualized in 94.8% patients, 99mTc-MIBI—in 93.4% patients. The increased 199Tl uptake in axillary lymph nodes was detected in 60% patients, and 99mTc-MIBI—in 93.1% patients. In patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer, the sensitivity of SPECT with 199Tl and 99mTc-MIBI was 95%. The 199Tl SPECT sensitivity in identification of regional lymph node metastases in the patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer was 75% and the 99mTc-MIBI SPECT sensitivity was 17%. The data obtained showed that SPECT with 199Tl and 99mTc-MIBI can be used as one of the additional imaging methods in detection of tumors.

  13. Reliability evaluation of I-123 ADAM SPECT imaging using SPM software and AAL ROI methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bang-Hung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Sung-Yi [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Imaging Medical, St.Martin De Porres Hospital, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Su, Tung-Ping; Chou, Yuan-Hwa [Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chia-Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jyh-Cheng, E-mail: jcchen@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-21

    The level of serotonin was regulated by serotonin transporter (SERT), which is a decisive protein in regulation of serotonin neurotransmission system. Many psychiatric disorders and therapies were also related to concentration of cerebral serotonin. I-123 ADAM was the novel radiopharmaceutical to image SERT in brain. The aim of this study was to measure reliability of SERT densities of healthy volunteers by automated anatomical labeling (AAL) method. Furthermore, we also used statistic parametric mapping (SPM) on a voxel by voxel analysis to find difference of cortex between test and retest of I-123 ADAM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Twenty-one healthy volunteers were scanned twice with SPECT at 4 h after intravenous administration of 185 MBq of {sup 123}I-ADAM. The image matrix size was 128x128 and pixel size was 3.9 mm. All images were obtained through filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Region of interest (ROI) definition was performed based on the AAL brain template in PMOD version 2.95 software package. ROI demarcations were placed on midbrain, pons, striatum, and cerebellum. All images were spatially normalized to the SPECT MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute) templates supplied with SPM2. And each image was transformed into standard stereotactic space, which was matched to the Talairach and Tournoux atlas. Then differences across scans were statistically estimated on a voxel by voxel analysis using paired t-test (population main effect: 2 cond's, 1 scan/cond.), which was applied to compare concentration of SERT between the test and retest cerebral scans. The average of specific uptake ratio (SUR: target/cerebellum-1) of {sup 123}I-ADAM binding to SERT in midbrain was 1.78{+-}0.27, pons was 1.21{+-}0.53, and striatum was 0.79{+-}0.13. The cronbach's {alpha} of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.92. Besides, there was also no significant statistical finding in cerebral area using SPM2

  14. Reliability evaluation of I-123 ADAM SPECT imaging using SPM software and AAL ROI methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bang-Hung; Tsai, Sung-Yi; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Su, Tung-Ping; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Chen, Chia-Chieh; Chen, Jyh-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    The level of serotonin was regulated by serotonin transporter (SERT), which is a decisive protein in regulation of serotonin neurotransmission system. Many psychiatric disorders and therapies were also related to concentration of cerebral serotonin. I-123 ADAM was the novel radiopharmaceutical to image SERT in brain. The aim of this study was to measure reliability of SERT densities of healthy volunteers by automated anatomical labeling (AAL) method. Furthermore, we also used statistic parametric mapping (SPM) on a voxel by voxel analysis to find difference of cortex between test and retest of I-123 ADAM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images.Twenty-one healthy volunteers were scanned twice with SPECT at 4 h after intravenous administration of 185 MBq of 123I-ADAM. The image matrix size was 128×128 and pixel size was 3.9 mm. All images were obtained through filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Region of interest (ROI) definition was performed based on the AAL brain template in PMOD version 2.95 software package. ROI demarcations were placed on midbrain, pons, striatum, and cerebellum. All images were spatially normalized to the SPECT MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute) templates supplied with SPM2. And each image was transformed into standard stereotactic space, which was matched to the Talairach and Tournoux atlas. Then differences across scans were statistically estimated on a voxel by voxel analysis using paired t-test (population main effect: 2 cond's, 1 scan/cond.), which was applied to compare concentration of SERT between the test and retest cerebral scans.The average of specific uptake ratio (SUR: target/cerebellum-1) of 123I-ADAM binding to SERT in midbrain was 1.78±0.27, pons was 1.21±0.53, and striatum was 0.79±0.13. The cronbach's α of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.92. Besides, there was also no significant statistical finding in cerebral area using SPM2 analysis. This finding might help us

  15. SPECT imaging of cardiac reporter gene expression in living rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; LAN Xiaoli; ZHANG Liang; WU Tao; JIANG Rifeng; ZHANG Yongxue

    2009-01-01

    This work is to demonstrate feasibility of imaging the expression of herpes simplex virus 1-thymidine ki-nase (HSV1-tk) reporter gene in rabbits myocardium by using the reporter probe 131I-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-β-D- arabi-nofuranosyl-5-iodouracil (131I-FIAU) and SPECT. Rabbits of the study group received intramyocardial injection of Ad5-tk and control group received aseptic saline injection. Two sets of experiments were performed on the study group. Rabbits of the 1st set were injected with 131I-FIAU 600 μCi at Day 2 after intramyocardial transfection of Ad5-tk in 1×109, 5×108, 1×108, 5×107 and 1×107 pfu, and heart SPECT imaging was done at different hours. Rabbits of the 2nd were transferred various titers of Ad5-tk (1×109, 5×108, 1×108, 5×107, 1×107 pfu) to determine the threshold and optimal viral titer needed for detection of gene expression. Two days later, 131I-FIAU was injected and heart SPECT imaging was performed at 6, 24 and 48 h, before killing them for gamma counting of the hearts. Reverse tran-scription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to verify the transferred HSV1-tk gene expression. Semi-quantitative analysis derived of region of interest (ROI) of SPECT images and RT-PCR images was performed and the relationship of SPECT images with ex vivo gamma counting and mRNA level were evaluated. SPECT images conformed 131I-FIAU accumulation in rabbits injected with Ad5-tk in the anterolateral wall. The optimal images qual-ity was obtained at 24~48 h for different viral titers. The highest radioactivity in the focal myocardium was seen at 6 h, and then declined with time. The threshold was 5×107 pfu of virus titer. The result could be set better in 1~5×108 pfu by SPECT analysis and gamma counting. ROI-derived semi-quantitative study on SPECT images correlated well with ex vivo gamma counting and mRNA levels from RT-PCR analysis. The HSV1-tk/131I-FIAU reporter gene/reporter probe system is feasible for cardiac SPECT reporter gene imaging

  16. Identification by [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT of anterior cingulate hypoperfusion in progressive supranuclear palsy, in comparison with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varrone, Andrea [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Stockholm (Sweden); Pagani, Marco; Salmaso, Dario [National Research Council, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome and Padua (Italy); Salvatore, Elena; Amboni, Marianna; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Barone, Paolo [University Federico II, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Sansone, Valeria; Pappata, Sabina; Salvatore, Marco [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Endocrinological and Metabolic Sciences, Genoa (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is an akinetic-rigid syndrome that can be difficult to differentiate from Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly at an early stage. [{sup 99m}Tc]ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT could represent a widely available tool to assist in the differential diagnosis. In this study we used voxel-based analysis and Computerised Brain Atlas (CBA)-based principal component analysis (PCA) of [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT data to test whether: (1) specific patterns of rCBF abnormalities can differentiate PSP from controls and PD; (2) networks of dysfunctional brain regions can be found in PSP vs controls and PD. Nine PD patients, 16 PSP patients and ten controls were studied with [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT using a brain-dedicated device (Ceraspect). Voxel-based analysis was performed with statistical parametric mapping. PCA was applied to volume of interest data after spatial normalisation to CBA. The voxel-based analysis showed hypoperfusion of the anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortex in PSP compared with controls and PD. In PSP patients the rCBF impairment extended to the pre-supplementary motor area and prefrontal cortex, areas involved in executive function and motor networks. Compared with PSP patients, PD patients showed a mild rCBF decrease in associative visual areas which could be related to the known impairment of visuospatial function. The PCA identified three principal components differentiating PSP patients from controls and/or PD patients that included groups of cortical and subcortical brain regions with relatively decreased (cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex and caudate) or increased (parietal cortex) rCBF, representing distinct functional networks in PSP. Anterior cingulate hypoperfusion seems to be an early, distinct brain abnormality in PSP as compared with PD. (orig.)

  17. A multiresolution restoration method for cardiac SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquiz, Juan Manuel

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is affected by photon attenuation and image blurring due to Compton scatter and geometric detector response. Attenuation correction is important to increase diagnostic accuracy of cardiac SPECT. However, in attenuation-corrected scans, scattered photons from radioactivity in the liver could produce a spillover of counts into the inferior myocardial wall. In the clinical setting, blurring effects could be compensated by restoration with Wiener and Metz filters. Inconveniences of these procedures are that the Wiener filter depends upon the power spectra of the object image and noise, which are unknown, while Metz parameters have to be optimized by trial and error. This research develops an alternative restoration procedure based on a multiresolution denoising and regularization algorithm. It was hypothesized that this representation leads to a more straightforward and automatic restoration than conventional filters. The main objective of the research was the development and assessment of the multiresolution algorithm for compensating the liver spillover artifact. The multiresolution algorithm decomposes original SPECT projections into a set of sub-band frequency images. This allows a simple denoising and regularization procedure by discarding high frequency channels and performing inversion only in low and intermediate frequencies. The method was assessed in bull's eye polar maps and short- axis attenuation-corrected reconstructions of a realistic cardiac-chest phantom with a custom-made liver insert and different 99mTc liver-to-heart activity ratios. Inferior myocardial defects were simulated in some experiments. The cardiac phantom in free air was considered as the gold standard reference. Quantitative analysis was performed by calculating contrast of short- axis slices and the normalized chi-square measure, defect size and mean and standard deviation of polar map counts. The performance of the multiresolution

  18. Analysis of Dynamic Brain Imaging Data

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, P

    1998-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques for probing brain function, including functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, intrinsic and extrinsic contrast optical imaging, and magnetoencephalography, generate large data sets with complex content. In this paper we develop appropriate techniques of analysis and visualization of such imaging data, in order to separate the signal from the noise, as well as to characterize the signal. The techniques developed fall into the general category of multivariate time series analysis, and in particular we extensively use the multitaper framework of spectral analysis. We develop specific protocols for the analysis of fMRI, optical imaging and MEG data, and illustrate the techniques by applications to real data sets generated by these imaging modalities. In general, the analysis protocols involve two distinct stages: `noise' characterization and suppression, and `signal' characterization and visualization. An important general conclusion of our study is the utility of a frequency-based repres...

  19. Molecular imaging agents for SPECT (and SPECT/CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanasegaran, Gopinath [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Ballinger, James R. [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    The development of hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) cameras has increased the diagnostic value of many existing single photon radiopharmaceuticals. Precise anatomical localization of lesions greatly increases diagnostic confidence in bone imaging of the extremities, infection imaging, sentinel lymph node localization, and imaging in other areas. Accurate anatomical localization is particularly important prior to surgery, especially involving the parathyroid glands and sentinel lymph node procedures. SPECT/CT plays a role in characterization of lesions, particularly in bone scintigraphy and radioiodine imaging of metastatic thyroid cancer. In the development of novel tracers, SPECT/CT is particularly important in monitoring response to therapies that do not result in an early change in lesion size. Preclinical SPECT/CT devices, which actually have spatial resolution superior to PET/CT devices, have become essential in characterization of the biodistribution and tissue kinetics of novel tracers, allowing coregistration of serial studies within the same animals, which serves both to reduce biological variability and reduce the number of animals required. In conclusion, SPECT/CT increases the utility of existing radiopharmaceuticals and plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of novel tracers. (orig.)

  20. SPECT/CT融合图像与全身骨显像对骨转移瘤诊断的价值分析%The Diagnosis Value Analysis of SPECT/CT Fusion Images and Whole Body Bone Imaging for Bone Metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 孟宪平; 陈则君; 靳激扬

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the comparison of SPECT/CT fusion image and whole body bone imaging(whole-body ipads scintigraphy, WBBS) in bone metastasis value.Methods retrospective analysis of 80 cases of suspected tumor bone metastatic disease underwent whole-body bone imaging and SPECT/CT fault image fusion in our hospital, all the results are confirmed by pathology and further follow-up and otherwise. Calculate and compare the two results of cases and lesions diagnosed degree of sensitivity, specific percentage, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, the correct diagnosis.Results 80 patients, 61 cases of bone metastases, 19 cases were benign, 258 lesions, the bone metastases, 202 benign lesions is 56. The sensitivity of WBBS for diagnosis of patients and lesions were 82% and 89.1%, the specificity was 42.1% and 31.7% respectively, the positive predictive value were 82% and 84.7%, and negative predictive values were 42.1% and 40.6%, the percentage of correct diagnosis was 72.5% and 78.1%. The sensitivity of SPECT/CT for diagnosis of patients and lesions were 98.4% and 98%, the specificity was 52.6% and 76.8% respectively, the positive predictive value were 87% and 93.8%, and negative predictive values were 90.9% and 91.5%, the percentage of correct diagnosis was 87.5% and 83.4%.Both sets of data after the χ2 test, P<0.05. Conclusion In the diagnosis of bone metastasis, SPECT/CT fusion image is more obvious than WBBS has diagnostic value.%目的:探讨SPECT/CT融合图像与全身骨显像(whole-body bone scintigraphy,WBBS)对骨转移瘤的价值比较。方法回顾性分析我院80例可疑肿瘤骨转移性病变患者行WBBS及SPECT/CT断层图像融合,所有结果都通过病理或进一步随访等方式确诊。分别计算并比较两种结果对病例及病灶诊断的灵敏度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值、正确诊断百分率。结果80例患者骨转移61例,19例为良性病例,258

  1. NP-59 SPECT/CT Imaging in Stage 1 Hypertensive and Atypical Primary Aldosteronism: A 5-Year Retrospective Analysis of Clinicolaboratory and Imaging Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We retrospectively analyzed all primary aldosteronism (PA patients undergoing NP-59 SPECT/CT imaging with regard to their clinicolaboratory and imaging features, investigation, and outcomes. Material and Methods. 11 PA patients who presented to our hospital for NP-59 SPECT/CT imaging between April 2007 and March 2012 and managed here were analyzed. Results. Among 11 PA patients, eight (73% had stage 1 hypertension, three (27% stage 2 hypertension, four (36% normal plasma aldosterone concentration, nine (82% nonsuppressed plasma renin activity (PRA, six (55% normal aldosterone-renin-ratio (ARR, eight (73% serum potassium ≧3 mEq/L, seven (64% subclinical presentation, seven (64% negative confirmatory testing, and four (36% inconclusive results on CT scan and seven (64% on planar NP-59 scan. All 11 (100% patients had positive results on NP-59 SPECT/CT scan. Two (18% met typical triad and nine (82% atypical triad. Among nine atypical PA patients, three (33% had clinical presentation, six (67% subclinical presentation, six (67% negative confirmatory testing, and four (44% inconclusive results on CT scan and six (67% on planar NP-59 scan. All patients had improved outcomes. Significant differences between typical and atypical PA existed in PRA and ARR. Conclusions. NP-59 SPECT/CT may provide diagnostic potential in stage 1 hypertensive and atypical PA.

  2. A new method to evaluate ischemic heart disease. Combined use of rest thallium-201 myocardial SPECT and Tc-99m exercise tetrofosmin first pass and myocardial SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong-ih; Goto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Yoshitaka; Fujiwara, Go [Nishiyodo Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Okada, Tomoya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    1999-06-01

    We developed a new diagnostic method for simultaneously evaluating myocardial ischemia, myocardial viability and ventricular function in less than 90 minutes by combined use of rest thallium-201 (Tl) SPECT and exercise Tc-99m tetrofosmin (TF) first pass and SPECT. The subjects were 9 healthy controls, 19 angina pectoris patients, and 19 old myocardial infarction patients, in all of whom coronary angiography had been performed. Rest Tl myocardial SPECT was performed first, and was followed by exercise TF myocardial SPECT. We also performed first pass radionuclide angiography by TF during maximum exercise on a bicycle ergometer to assess the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The total examination time was less than 90 minutes. SPECT diagnosis was performed by semi-quantitative analysis. LVEF below 55% was regarded as abnormal. In the patients with angina pectoris, analysis according to the coronary artery showed that the diagnostic accuracy of SPECT was 85.0% for ischemia in the region of the left anterior descending branch (LAD), 87.5% for the left circumflex branch (LCX) and 77.8% for the right coronary artery (RCA). The accuracy of diagnosis for angina pectoris was 82.1%, as determined by SPECT alone, and rose to 89,3% when the LVEF levels were also taken into consideration. In the patients with old myocardial infarction, the diagnostic accuracy of SPECT was 84.2% for the LAD, 92.3% for the LCX and 85.0% for the RCA. Analysis by patients showed that the accuracy of diagnosis for myocardial infarction was 85.7%, as determined by SPECT alone. The diagnostic accuracy, however, rose to 89.3% when the LVEF levels also were taken into consideration. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that this combined diagnostic method was highly reliable for evaluating ischemic heart disease within a short time. (author)

  3. Transient Crossed Aphasia: A Case Study with SPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Ferro

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old right-handed man developed “crossed” anomie aphasia, neglect and inaccurate reaching of his left arm in both hemispaces due to a right parietal haemorrhage. Aphasia cleared in a few days. SPECT failed to demonstrate crossed left hemispheric diaschisis. This report emphasizes the importance of evaluating patients in the acute stage and of coupling “static” and “functional” imaging methods when studying brain-behavior relationships.

  4. Evaluation of renal allograft dysfunction using {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA dynamic SPECT. Analysis with two compartment model and graph plot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akahira, Hideaki; Takekawa, Shoichi; Nigawara, Kazuo; Funyu, Tomihisa [Oyokyo Kidney Research Inst., Hirosaki, Aomori (Japan). Hirosaki Hospital

    1996-12-01

    To estimate renal blood flow and glomerular function in transplanted kidneys, we applied the 2 compartment model and the graphic analysis method to {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA dynamic SPECT and calculated some parameters, i.e. K1 (renal influx rate constant), K3 (glomerular filtration rate constant), Vdl (function phase distribution volume), and others. Twenty-three renal transplant recipients were examined and divided into following 3 groups according to their serum creatinine levels (SCr); Group I; less than 1.3 mg/dl (1.1{+-}0.3, n=7), Group II: 1.4-2.5 mg/dl (1.8{+-}0.3, n=7), and Group III more than 2.6 mg/dl (4.8{+-}2.9, n=5). The K3 value became lower in the order of Group I>II>III, and well correlated with blood urea nitrogen (BUN, r=<0.91, P<0.001) and creatinine clearance (Ccr, r=0.87, P<0.001). The K1 value reduced markedly in Group III despite or no difference between Group I and II. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) derived from K1 and K3 showed a correlation with those by Tauxe`s method. From these results and clinical conditions including histopathological findings, it is suggested that K1, K3 and Vdl are useful paraments of renal central arterial blood flow, renal peripheral arteriolar blood flow and renal {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA uptake function, respectively. (author)

  5. Molecular imaging of angiogenesis with SPECT.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, I.; Boerman, O.C.

    2010-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and position emission tomography (PET) are the two main imaging modalities in nuclear medicine. SPECT imaging is more widely available than PET imaging and the radionuclides used for SPECT are easier to prepare and usually have a longer half-life th

  6. SPECT检测精神分裂症病人的局部脑血流研究%A Study of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow of Schizophrenics By 99mTc- ECD Brain SPECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洪波; 何小林; 殷青云; 余金龙; 钟潇琦

    2004-01-01

    Objective This study was to investigate the characteristic of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with schizophrenia and the relationship among rCBF ratio, symptoms and efficacy. Methods The rCBF of 17 schizophrenics were measured with SPECT before and after treatment. The psychiatric symptoms of all patients were assessed with PANSS. The results were compared with 11 normal controls. Results Before treatment, the baseline rCBF of right frontal and temporal lobes were lower in schizophrenics than that of in controls. After treatment, rCBF of these two regions in schizophrenics were significantly improved. No significant correlation was found between rCBF in different brain regions and psychopathologic symptoms and efficacy as well. Conclusion The function of the right frontal and temporal lobes decreased in schizophrenia, but there was no significant correlation between rCBF and psychopathological symptoms and efficacy.%目的了解精神分裂症病人的局部脑血流特征,探讨局部脑血流与精神病临床症状和疗效的关系.方法采用PANSS量表评定患者的精神症状,应用99m TC-ECD-SPECT技术,对17例从未接受过抗精神病药物治疗的精神分裂症病人,在接受治疗前与治疗后测量局部脑血流,并与11例正常对照组比较.结果治疗前病例组右侧额叶与右侧颞叶rCBF低于对照组(各P<0.05),治疗后右侧额叶与右侧颞叶rCBF较治疗前明显增加(各P<0.05);治疗前不同脑区rCBF与精神病理症状(含单个症状评分和因子分)和疗效均无显著性相关.结论结果提示精神分裂病人存在右侧额叶与右侧颞叶局部脑功能减退,但未发现局部脑血流与精神病理症状和疗效有关.

  7. Brain perfusion asymmetry in patients with oral somatic delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Katagiri, Ayano; Watanabe, Motoko; Takenoshita, Miho; Sakuma, Tomomi; Sako, Emi; Sato, Yusuke; Toriihara, Akira; Uezato, Akihito; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Nishikawa, Toru; Motomura, Haruhiko; Toyofuku, Akira

    2013-06-01

    Oral cenesthopathy is a somatic delusion or hallucination involving the oral area and is categorized as a delusional disorder, somatic type. The pathophysiology of this intractable condition remains obscure. In this study, we clarified the pathophysiology of oral cenesthopathy by evaluating regional brain perfusion. We performed single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using (99m)Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer in 16 subjects (cenesthopathy:control = 8:8). The SPECT images were visually assessed qualitatively, and quantitative analyses were also performed using a three-dimensional stereotactic region-of-interest template. The visual assessment revealed a right > left perfusion asymmetry in broad areas of the brain among the patients. The quantitative analysis confirmed that the regional cerebral blood flow values on the right side were significantly larger than those on the left side for most areas of the brain in the patients. A comparison of the R/(R + L) ratios in both groups confirmed the significant brain perfusion asymmetry between the two sides in the callosomarginal, precentral, and temporal regions in the patients. Qualitative evaluation of the SPECT images revealed right > left brain perfusion asymmetry in broad regions of the brain. Moreover, the quantitative analyses confirmed the perfusion asymmetry between the two sides in the frontal and temporal areas. Those may provide the key for elucidation of the pathophysiology of oral cenesthopathy.

  8. Organ volume estimation using SPECT

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. In order to improve single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantitation, attenuation correction was performed according to Chang's algorithm. The dual-window method was used for scatter subtraction. We used a Monte Carlo simulation of the SPECT system to accurately determine the scatter multiplier factor k. Volume estimation using SPECT was performed by summing up the volume elements (voxels) lying within the contour of the object, determined by a fixed threshold and the gray level histogram (GLH) method. Thyroid phantom and patient studies were performed and the influence of 1) fixed thresholding, 2) automatic thresholding, 3) attenuation, 4) scatter, and 5) reconstruction filter were investigated. This study shows that accurate volume estimation of the thyroid gland is feasible when accurate corrections are perform...

  9. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings using N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine ([sup 123]I-IMP) in schizophrenia and atypical psychosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, Hidemichi (Aichi Medical Univ., Nagakute (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    Sixteen schizophrenic patients, 16 atypical psychosis patients, and 16 healthy volunteers were subjected to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain using N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine ([sup 123]I-IMP). The basal ganglia region was in particular examined not only in transverse sections, but in coronal sections. Schizophrenics showed significantly decreased uptake rates in the bilateral frontal regions and increased uptakes in the bilateral basal ganglia. On the other hand, atypical psychotics had a reduced uptake rate only in the right thalamic region, compared to the controls. The increased uptake rates in the basal ganglia were associated with auditory hallucination, but gender difference, duration of illness and dose of neuroleptics had no influence on these SPECT findings. The results suggest that schizophrenics might have some lesions in the frontal area of the brain, whereas atypical psychotics might have no lesion in the frontal region but dysfunction in the right thalamic region. Subsequently, using only SPECT findings, all the cases were divided by cluster analysis into 4 groups and a residue group. Schizophrenics distributed mainly in the 2 groups that have lesion in the frontal regions. Atypical psychotics distributed principally in the other 2 groups that have alterations in the bilateral thalamic region. The present study suggests that schizophrenia and atypical psychosis might have different etiologies. (author).

  10. Dynamic analysis of the human brain with complex cerebral sulci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jung-Ge; Huang, Bo-Wun; Ou, Yi-Wen; Yen, Ke-Tien; Wu, Yi-Te

    2016-07-03

    The brain is one of the most vulnerable organs inside the human body. Head accidents often appear in daily life and are easy to cause different level of brain damage inside the skull. Once the brain suffered intense locomotive impact, external injuries, falls, or other accidents, it will result in different degrees of concussion. This study employs finite element analysis to compare the dynamic characteristics between the geometric models of an assumed simple brain tissue and a brain tissue with complex cerebral sulci. It is aimed to understand the free vibration of the internal brain tissue and then to protect the brain from injury caused by external influences. Reverse engineering method is used for a Classic 5-Part Brain (C18) model produced by 3B Scientific Corporation. 3D optical scanner is employed to scan the human brain structure model with complex cerebral sulci and imported into 3D graphics software to construct a solid brain model to simulate the real complex brain tissue. Obtaining the normal mode analysis by inputting the material properties of the true human brain into finite element analysis software, and then to compare the simplified and the complex of brain models.

  11. Analysis of brain patterns using temporal measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgopoulos, Apostolos

    2015-08-11

    A set of brain data representing a time series of neurophysiologic activity acquired by spatially distributed sensors arranged to detect neural signaling of a brain (such as by the use of magnetoencephalography) is obtained. The set of brain data is processed to obtain a dynamic brain model based on a set of statistically-independent temporal measures, such as partial cross correlations, among groupings of different time series within the set of brain data. The dynamic brain model represents interactions between neural populations of the brain occurring close in time, such as with zero lag, for example. The dynamic brain model can be analyzed to obtain the neurophysiologic assessment of the brain. Data processing techniques may be used to assess structural or neurochemical brain pathologies.

  12. A preliminary study of SPECT-MRI fusion imaging by different machine in patients with moyamoya disease%SPECT-MRI异机融合图像在烟雾病中的应用价值初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林悦; 弓健; 郭斌; 唐勇进; 尚靖杰; 徐浩

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析烟雾病(MMD)的单光子发射计算机断层成像(SPECT)、磁共振成像(MRI)图像及SPECT-MRI异机融合图像,探讨SPECT-MRI异机融合图像在烟雾病中的应用价值.方法:回顾性分析符合烟雾病诊断标准的5例MMD患者的99m Tc-ECD脑血流灌注SPECT显像及头颅MRI检查并影像资料,总结其SPECT-MRI影像的特征性表现.结果:SPECT显示额、颞、顶、枕叶放射性稀疏缺损区,脑血流灌注减少;MRI可清晰显示MMD患者的脑实质损害表现(脑梗死、脑出血、脑软化及脑萎缩);SPECT-MRI融合图像显示3例SPECT显示脑血流灌注减低区和MRI显示脑实质损害区是同一部位,SPECT-MRI二者病灶显示匹配;2例SPECT显示脑血流灌注减低区,而相应区域的MRI显示脑实质正常,SPECT-MRI二者病灶显示不匹配.结论:SPECT-MRI融合图像能直观显示烟雾病患者脑实质解剖上的损害及脑血流灌注情况.%Aim:The images of SPECT,MRI,and the SPECT-MRI fusion imaging of Moyamoya dis-ease (MMD)were analyzed and the values of SPECT-MRI fusion imaging in MMD were investigated. Methods:Five cases of patients with MMD were reviewed,which were in accordance with the diagnostic standard.The images of SPECT and MRI and their characteristics of SPECT-MRI fusion imaging wene analyzed.Results:SPECT can show radioactive sparseness areas in frontal lobe,temporal lobe,parietal lobe,occipital lobe.These areas indicate a reduction of cerebral perfusion;MRI can show the lesions clearly in brain parenchymal,such as the cerebral infarction,hemorrhage,encephalomalacia,brain atro-phy.SPECT-MRI fusion imaging shows that the regions of cerebral blood flow perfusion defect in SPECT are the same with the regions of brain damage showed in MRI in three patients,and these lesions match. However,the regions of cerebral blood flow perfusion defect showed in SPECT are normal in MRI, SPECT-MRI shows that these lesions do not match.Conclusion:SPECT-MRI fusion imaging can show

  13. MRI and N-isopropyl(I-123)p-iodoamphetamine SPECT findings in cases of moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, Yuji; Kato, Terumi; Ohta, Yoshio (Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine); Caner, B.E.

    1993-07-01

    Six patients with moyamoya disease underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and in 4 of 6 cases, MRI findings were compared with N-isopropyl(I-123)p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain scans to determine if there was a correlation between the morphology, as seen on MRI, and cerebral perfusion and/or metabolic changes detected by IMP-SPECT. MRI clearly revealed abnormalities secondary to moyamoya disease: nonvisualization of a signal void flow sign in the arteries, moyamoya vessels, and cerebral atrophy. All the perfusion abnormalities of the cortex, except a small one, observed on MR images were also detected on IMP-SPECT images, but small white matter abnormalities demonstrated on MR images could not be revealed by IMP-SPECT. Interestingly, in 2 patients, 2 additional cortical defects that were not observed on MR images were revealed by IMP-SPECT. Moreover, 3 areas with perfusion defects were larger on the IMP-SPECT scans than on the MR images. The cortical defects observed on the IMP-SPECT images but not on the MR images may reflect mild ischemia and/or certain metabolic abnormalities that lead to low tracer accumulation. Overall, IMP-SPECT and MRI may play complementary roles in the evaluation of this disease. (author).

  14. Cerebral infarction on 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Hu, Shuang; Wang, Haitao; Kuang, Anren

    2013-11-01

    A 70-year-old man with lung cancer underwent whole-body MDP bone scintigraphy to evaluate bone metastases that showed marked tracer uptake in the right side of the head, suggestive of skull metastasis. SPECT/CT imaging was performed for further evaluation. The SPECT images demonstrated increased MDP activity in the region of the brain perfused by the right middle cerebral artery. On CT images, there was a large hypoattenuation area corresponding to elevated MDP accumulation. At the same day, magnetic resonance angiography of the brain revealed occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery.

  15. European multicentre database of healthy controls for [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT (ENC-DAT): age-related effects, gender differences and evaluation of different methods of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, R5:02, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, Ozlem L. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Knudsen, Gitte M. [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Koulibaly, Pierre Malick [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, Mont-Godinne Medical Center, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Municipal Hospital of Karlsruhe Inc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) is an established diagnostic tool in parkinsonism and dementia. Although qualitative assessment criteria are available, DAT quantification is important for research and for completion of a diagnostic evaluation. One critical aspect of quantification is the availability of normative data, considering possible age and gender effects on DAT availability. The aim of the European Normal Control Database of DaTSCAN (ENC-DAT) study was to generate a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls. SPECT data from 139 healthy controls (74 men, 65 women; age range 20 - 83 years, mean 53 years) acquired in 13 different centres were included. Images were reconstructed using the ordered-subset expectation-maximization algorithm without correction (NOACSC), with attenuation correction (AC), and with both attenuation and scatter correction using the triple-energy window method (ACSC). Region-of-interest analysis was performed using the BRASS software (caudate and putamen), and the Southampton method (striatum). The outcome measure was the specific binding ratio (SBR). A significant effect of age on SBR was found for all data. Gender had a significant effect on SBR in the caudate and putamen for the NOACSC and AC data, and only in the left caudate for the ACSC data (BRASS method). Significant effects of age and gender on striatal SBR were observed for all data analysed with the Southampton method. Overall, there was a significant age-related decline in SBR of between 4 % and 6.7 % per decade. This study provides a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls across a wide age range and with balanced gender representation. Higher DAT availability was found in women than in men. An average age-related decline in DAT availability of 5.5 % per decade was found for both genders, in agreement with previous reports. The data collected in this study may serve as a reference

  16. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-09-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  17. SPECT og PET i neurobiologien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, O.B.; Lassen, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) are isotopic methods in which the distribution is registered of radiolabelled tracers given in such small amounts that they are without effect on the organism or the organism's disposal of them. Thus, a series...

  18. Comparison of blood flow and distribution of benzodiazepine receptors in focal epilepsy: Preliminary results of a SPECT study. Vergleich von Blutfluss und Benzodiazepin-Rezeptorverteilung bei fokaler Epilepsie: Vorlaeufige Ergebnisse einer SPECT-Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartenstein, P.; Schober, O.; Lottes, G.; Boettger, I. (Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin); Ludolph, A. (Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie); Beer, H.F. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Wuerenlingen (Switzerland))

    1989-10-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-SPECT and SPECT with the {sup 123}I-labelled benzodiazepine (Bz) receptor ligand Ro 16-0154 were performed in 10 patients suffering from partial epilepsy, without cerebral lesion in MRT or CT.2 h p.i. of Ro 16-0154 the distribution of activity correlated with the known distribution of Bz-receptors in the human brain. Perfusion and receptor-binding were found decreased in 7 patients of each study in the suspicious brain-area. {sup 123}I-labelled Ro 16-0154 is suitable for Bz-receptor mapping by SPECT. The decrease of Bz-receptor binding in epileptic foci, as described in PET-studies, was also detected by SPECT in 7 of 10 patients. (orig.).

  19. Targeted multi-pinhole SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branderhorst, Woutjan; Blezer, Erwin L.A. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vastenhouw, Brendan; Have, Frans van der; Beekman, Freek J. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht (Netherlands); Molecular Imaging Laboratories BV, Utrecht (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Section of Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Bleeker, Wim K. [Genmab BV, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with focused multi-pinhole collimation geometries allows scanning modes in which large amounts of photons can be collected from specific volumes of interest. Here we present new tools that improve targeted imaging of specific organs and tumours, and validate the effects of improved targeting of the pinhole focus. A SPECT system with 75 pinholes and stationary detectors was used (U-SPECT-II). An XYZ stage automatically translates the animal bed with a specific sequence in order to scan a selected volume of interest. Prior to stepping the animal through the collimator, integrated webcams acquire images of the animal. Using sliders, the user designates the desired volume to be scanned (e.g. a xenograft or specific organ) on these optical images. Optionally projections of an atlas are overlaid semiautomatically to locate specific organs. In order to assess the effects of more targeted imaging, scans of a resolution phantom and a mouse myocardial phantom, as well as in vivo mouse cardiac and tumour scans, were acquired with increased levels of targeting. Differences were evaluated in terms of count yield, hot rod visibility and contrast-to-noise ratio. By restricting focused SPECT scans to a 1.13-ml resolution phantom, count yield was increased by a factor 3.6, and visibility of small structures was significantly enhanced. At equal noise levels, the small-lesion contrast measured in the myocardial phantom was increased by 42%. Noise in in vivo images of a tumour and the mouse heart was significantly reduced. Targeted pinhole SPECT improves images and can be used to shorten scan times. Scan planning with optical cameras provides an effective tool to exploit this principle without the necessity for additional X-ray CT imaging. (orig.)

  20. A network analysis of developing brain cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, V. N.; Boeff, D. V.; Evans, C. D.; Crowe, D. A.; Amirikian, B.; Georgopoulos, A.; Georgopoulos, A. P.

    2012-08-01

    We recorded electrical activity from four developing embryonic brain cultures (4-40 days in vitro) using multielectrode arrays (MEAs) with 60 embedded electrodes. Data were filtered for local field potentials (LFPs) and downsampled to 1 ms to yield a matrix of time series consisting of 60 electrode × 60 000 time samples per electrode per day per MEA. Each electrode time series was rendered stationary and nonautocorrelated by applying an ARIMA (25, 1, 1) model and taking the residuals (i.e. innovations). Two kinds of analyses were then performed. First, a pairwise crosscorrelation (CC) analysis (±25 1 ms lags) revealed systematic changes in CC with lag, day in vitro (DIV), and inter-electrode distance. Specifically, (i) positive CCs were 1.76× more prevalent and 1.44× stronger (absolute value) than negative ones, and (ii) the strength of CC increased with DIV and decreased with lag and inter-electrode distance. Second, a network equilibrium analysis was based on the instantaneous (1 ms resolution) logratio of the number of electrodes that were above or below their mean, called simultaneous departure from equilibrium, SDE. This measure possesses a major computational advantage over the pairwise crosscorrelation approach because it is very simple and fast to calculate, an important factor for the analysis of large networks. The results obtained with SDE covaried highly with CC over DIV, which further validates the usefulness of this measure as a computationally effective tool for large scale network analysis.

  1. Usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-SPECT in evaluation of bacterial meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Kentaro; Ando, Hiroshi; Sueyoshi, Keiko; Matsuyuki, Makado; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Ono, Eiichiro; Katsuragi, Makoto [St. Maria Hospital, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT was performed to detect the periodical changes of blood flow distribution in 6 infants (average age 5.5 months) with bacterial meningitis and was compared with findings by CT and MRI imaging, by DQ (developmental quotient) and by neurological examinations. SPECT was done with Shimadzu HEADTOME SET 70 for 20 min at 5 min after intravenous administration of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO (111 MBq) at the stage of 16-26 days (SPECT I) after hospitalization, of 39-105 days (II) and/or of 138-197 days (III). The region of interest was set in both cerebellar hemispheres to calculate the mean pixel count c1 and in other 16 areas for the count c2. SPECT image was evaluated together with c2/c1 ratios. Head CT was performed at hospitalization or at the period around the SPECT I, and head MRI, at 39-183 days. At 3-5 months after crisis, evaluation was done for DQ and neurological signs. Periodical brain SPECT was found useful for the precise evaluation of bacterial meningitis and for prediction of its prognosis. (K.H.)

  2. Reduction in camera-specific variability in [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT outcome measures by image reconstruction optimized for multisite settings: impact on age-dependence of the specific binding ratio in the ENC-DAT database of healthy controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchert, Ralph; Lange, Catharina [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Kluge, Andreas; Bronzel, Marcus [ABX-CRO advanced pharmaceutical services Forschungsgesellschaft m.b.H., Dresden (Germany); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Dickson, John [University College London Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, L. Oezlem Atay [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Svarer, Claus [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Koulibaly, Pierre-Malick [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Clinical Neurology Unit, Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Tatsch, Klaus [Municipal Hospital of Karlsruhe Inc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); Borght, Thierry vander [CHU Namur, IREC, Nuclear Medicine Division, Universite catholique de Louvain, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Iida, Hidehiro [National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center - Research Institute, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    Quantitative estimates of dopamine transporter availability, determined with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT, depend on the SPECT equipment, including both hardware and (reconstruction) software, which limits their use in multicentre research and clinical routine. This study tested a dedicated reconstruction algorithm for its ability to reduce camera-specific intersubject variability in [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT. The secondary aim was to evaluate binding in whole brain (excluding striatum) as a reference for quantitative analysis. Of 73 healthy subjects from the European Normal Control Database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT recruited at six centres, 70 aged between 20 and 82 years were included. SPECT images were reconstructed using the QSPECT software package which provides fully automated detection of the outer contour of the head, camera-specific correction for scatter and septal penetration by transmission-dependent convolution subtraction, iterative OSEM reconstruction including attenuation correction, and camera-specific ''to kBq/ml'' calibration. LINK and HERMES reconstruction were used for head-to-head comparison. The specific striatal [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding ratio (SBR) was computed using the Southampton method with binding in the whole brain, occipital cortex or cerebellum as the reference. The correlation between SBR and age was used as the primary quality measure. The fraction of SBR variability explained by age was highest (1) with QSPECT, independently of the reference region, and (2) with whole brain as the reference, independently of the reconstruction algorithm. QSPECT reconstruction appears to be useful for reduction of camera-specific intersubject variability of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in multisite and single-site multicamera settings. Whole brain excluding striatal binding as the reference provides more stable quantitative estimates than occipital or cerebellar binding. (orig.)

  3. Are there adaptive changes in the human brain of patients with Parkinson's disease treated with long-term deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus? A 4-year follow-up study with regional cerebral blood flow SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sestini, Stelvio; Castagnoli, Antonio [Ospedale Misericordia e Dolce, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Prato (Italy); Pupi, Alberto [University of Florence, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Florence (Italy); Ammannati, Franco; Silvia, Ramat; Sorbi, Sandro [University of Florence, Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, Florence (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    The aim of this follow-up study was to assess persistent motor and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) treated with high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Ten PD patients with STN-DBS underwent three rCBF SPECT studies at rest, once preoperatively in the off-drug condition (T{sub 0}), and twice postoperatively in the off-drug/off-stimulation conditions at 5 {+-} 2 (T{sub 1}) and 42 {+-} 7 months (T{sub 2}). Patients were assessed using the UPDRS, H and Y and S and E scales. SPM was used to investigate baseline rCBF changes from the preoperative condition to the postoperative conditions and the relationship between rCBF and UPDRS scores used as covariate of interest. Parkinsonian patients showed a clinical improvement which was significant only on follow-up at 42 months. The main effect of treatment from T{sub 0} to T{sub 1} was to produce baseline rCBF increases in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), premotor cortex and somatosensory association cortex. From T{sub 1} to T{sub 2} a further baseline rCBF increase was detected in the pre-SMA (p < 0.0001). A correlation was detected between the slight improvement in motor scores and the rCBF increase in the pre-SMA (p < 0.0001), which is known to play a crucial role in clinical progression. Our study suggests the presence of adaptive functional changes in the human brain of PD patients treated with long-term STN-DBS. Such adaptive processes seem to occur in the pre-SMA and to play only a slightly beneficial role in terms of functional compensation of motor impairment. (orig.)

  4. The usefulness of myocardial SPECT for the preoperative cardiac risk evaluation in noncardiac surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Won Jon; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    We investigated whether myocardial SPECT had additional usefulness to clinical, functional or surgical indices for the preoperative evaluation of cardiac risks in noncardiac surgery. 118 patients ( M: F=66: 52, 62.7{+-}10.5 years) were studied retrospectively. Eighteen underwent vascular surgeries and 100 nonvascular surgeries. Rest Tl-201/ stress Tc-99m-MIBI SPECT was performed before operation and cardiac events (hard event: cardiac death and myocardial infarction; soft event: ischemic ECG change, congestive heat failure and unstable angina) were surveyed through perioperative periods (14.6{+-}5.6 days). Clinical risk indices, functional capacity, surgery procedures and SPECT findings were tested for their predictive values of perioperative cardiac events. Peri-operative cardiac events occurred in 25 patients (3 hard events and 22 soft events). Clinical risk indices, surgical procedure risks and SPECT findings but functional capacity were predictive of cardiac events. Reversible perfusion decrease was a better predictor than persistent decrease. Multivariate analysis sorted out surgical procedure risk (p=0.0018) and SPECT findings (p=0.0001) as significant risk factors. SPECT could re-stratify perioperative cardiac risks in patients ranked with surgical procedures. We conclude that myocardial SPECT provides additional predictive value to surgical type risks as well as clinical indexes or functional capacity for the prediction of preoperative cardiac events in noncardiac surgery.

  5. SPECT abnormalities with unilateral arm dystonia in a young mentally retarded apprentice cook: contralateral thalamo-cortical dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Fukutake, Toshio; Arai, Kimihito; Kikkawa, Yuriko; Hattori, Takamichi

    2003-06-01

    We report a young, mentally retarded apprentice cook with a 2-month history of right upper extremity dystonia, for whom diazepam therapy was efficacious. We evaluated brain perfusion by single photon emission tomography (SPECT) before and after diazepam treatment. The abnormal hyperperfusion in the left thalamus and hypoperfusion in the left frontal cortex were normalized on the second SPECT under the successful diazepam treatment. These findings were indicative of functional changes in the left thalamus and left frontal cortex.

  6. Interictal SPECT of rCBF is of clinical utility in the preoperative evaluation of patients with partial epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A.R.; Hansen, B.A.; Hogenhaven, H;

    1996-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy were studied preoperatively by interictal rCBF measurements using 99mTc-HMPAO and a dedicated brain SPECT camera (Tomomatic 64). Follow-up of seizure outcome, using the 'Engel score', was at least 3 years. The data were analyzed in a blind...... patients ictal SPECT of rCBF was additionally performed. In 2 cases it added further information to the patient evaluation...

  7. Interictal SPECT of rCBF is of clinical utility in the preoperative evaluation of patients with partial epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A R; Hansen, B A; Høgenhaven, H;

    1996-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy were studied preoperatively by interictal rCBF measurements using 99mTc-HMPAO and a dedicated brain SPECT camera (Tomomatic 64). Follow-up of seizure outcome, using the "Engel score", was at least 3 years. The data were analyzed in a blind...... patients ictal SPECT of rCBF was additionally performed. In 2 cases it added further information to the patient evaluation....

  8. Evaluation of Multiple System Atrophy and Early Parkinson's Disease Using {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, So Won; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Bom Sahn; Kim, Ji Sun; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    We investigated quantification of dopaminergic transporter (DAT) and serotonergic transporter (SERT) on {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT for differentiating between multiple systemic atrophy (MSA) and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). N.fluoropropyl-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-4-[{sup 123}I]-iodophenylnortropane SPECT ({sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT) was performed in 8 patients with MSA (mean age: 64.0{+-}4.5yrs, m:f=6:2), 13 with early IPD (mean age: 65.5{+-}5.3yrs, m:f=9:4), and 12 healthy controls (mean age: 63.3{+-}5.7yrs, m:f=8:4). Standard regions of interests (ROIs) of striatum to evaluate DAT, and hypothalamus and midbrain for SERT were drawn on standard template images and applied to each image taken 4 hours after radiotracer injection. Striatal specific binding for DAT and hypothalamic and midbrain specific binding for SERT were calculated using region/reference ratio based on the transient equilibrium method. Group differences were tested using ANOVA with the postHoc analysis. DAT in the whole striatum and striatal subregions were significantly decreased in both patient groups with MSA and early IPD, compared with healthy control (p<0.05 in all). In early IPD, a significant increase in the uptake ratio in anterior and posterior putamen and a trend of increase in caudate to putamen ratio was observed. In MSA, the decrease of DAT was accompanied with no difference in the striatal uptake pattern compared with healthy controls. Regarding the brain regions where {sup 123}I-FP-CIT binding was predominant by SERT, MSA patients showed a decrease in the binding of {sup 123}I-FP-CIT in the pons compared with controls as well as early IPD patients (MSA: 0.22{+-}0.1 healthy controls: 0.33{+-}0.19, IPD: 0.29{+-}0.19), however, it did not reach the statistical significance. In this study, the differential patterns in the reduction of DAT in the striatum and the reduction of pontine {sup 123}I- FP-CIT binding predominant by SERT could be observed in MSA patients on {sup 123

  9. Improvement of tomographic reconstruction in bone SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuenemann, M.; Sahlmann, C.O.; Siefker, U.; Luig, H.; Meller, J. [Abteilungen fuer Nuklearmedizin, Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany); Heidrich, G. [Abteilungen fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Georg-August-Univ., Goettingen (Germany); Werner, C.; Brunner, E. [Abteilungen fuer Medizinische Statistik, Georg-August-Univ., Goettingen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Aim: the comparison between iterative reconstruction and filtered backprojection in the reconstruction of bone SPECT in the diagnosis of skeletal metastases. Patients, methods: 47 consecutive patients (vertebral segments: n = 435), with suspected malignancy of the vertebral column, were examined by bone scintigraphy and MRI (maximal interval between the two procedures {+-} 5 weeks). The SPECT-data were reconstructed with an iterative algorithm (ISA) and with filtered backprojection. We defined semiquantitative criteria in order to assess the quality of the tomograms. Conventional reconstruction was performed both by a Wiener-filter and a low-pass-filter. Iterative reconstruction was performed by the ISA algorithm. The clinical evaluation of the different reconstruction algorithms was performed by MRI as the gold-standard. Results: sensitivity (%): 87.3 (ISA), 86.4 (low-pass), 79.7 (Wiener); specificity (%): 95.3 (ISA), 95 (low-pass), 85.4 (Wiener). The sensitivity of iterative reconstructed SPECT and low-pass reconstructed SPECT was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the sensitivity of SPECT reconstructed by the Wiener-filter. The specificity of iterative reconstruction ISA and low-pass-filter reconstructed SPECT were significantly higher compared with the SPECT data reconstructed by the Wiener-filter. ISA was significantly superior to the Wiener-SPECT relating to all criteria of quality. Iterative reconstruction was significantly superior to the low-pass-SPECT relating to 2 of 3 criteria. In addition the Wiener-SPECT was significantly inferior to the low-pass-SPECT regarding to 2 of 3 criteria. Conclusion: in our series the iterative algorithm ISA was the method of choice in the reconstruction of bone SPECT data. In comparison with conventional algorithms ISA offers a significantly higher quality of the tomograms and yields a high diagnostic accuracy. (orig.)

  10. A novel statistical analysis method to improve the detection of hepatic foci of {sup 111}In-octreotide in SPECT/CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnander, Tobias [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wikberg, E. [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Svensson, J. [Department of Oncology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gjertsson, P. [Department of Clinical Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wängberg, B. [Department of Surgery, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Båth, M.; Bernhardt, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-01-19

    Low uptake ratios, high noise, poor resolution, and low contrast all combine to make the detection of neuroendocrine liver tumours by {sup 111}In-octreotide single photon emission tomography (SPECT) imaging a challenge. The aim of this study was to develop a segmentation analysis method that could improve the accuracy of hepatic neuroendocrine tumour detection. Our novel segmentation was benchmarked by a retrospective analysis of patients categorized as either {sup 111}In-octreotide positive ({sup 111}In-octreotide(+)) or {sup 111}In-octreotide negative ({sup 111}In-octreotide(−)) for liver tumours. Following a 3-year follow-up period, involving multiple imaging modalities, we further segregated {sup 111}In-octreotide-negative patients into two groups: one with no confirmed liver tumours ({sup 111}In-octreotide(−)/radtech(−)) and the other, now diagnosed with liver tumours ({sup 111}In-octreotide(−)/radtech(+)). We retrospectively applied our segmentation analysis to see if it could have detected these previously missed tumours using {sup 111}In-octreotide. Our methodology subdivided the liver and determined normalized numbers of uptake foci (nNUF), at various threshold values, using a connected-component labelling algorithm. Plots of nNUF against the threshold index (ThI) were generated. ThI was defined as follows: ThI = (c{sub max} − c{sub thr})/c{sub max}, where c{sub max} is the maximal threshold value for obtaining at least one, two voxel sized, uptake focus; c{sub thr} is the voxel threshold value. The maximal divergence between the nNUF values for {sup 111}In-octreotide(−)/radtech(−), and {sup 111}In-octreotide(+) livers, was used as the optimal nNUF value for tumour detection. We also corrected for any influence of the mean activity concentration on ThI. The nNUF versus ThI method (nNUFTI) was then used to reanalyze the {sup 111}In-octreotide(−)/radtech(−) and {sup 111}In-octreotide(−)/radtech(+) groups. Of a total of 53 {sup 111}In

  11. Analysis of a human brain transcriptome map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Jonathan R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide transcriptome maps can provide tools to identify candidate genes that are over-expressed or silenced in certain disease tissue and increase our understanding of the structure and organization of the genome. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from the public dbEST and proprietary Incyte LifeSeq databases were used to derive a transcript map in conjunction with the working draft assembly of the human genome sequence. Results Examination of ESTs derived from brain tissues (excluding brain tumor tissues suggests that these genes are distributed on chromosomes in a non-random fashion. Some regions on the genome are dense with brain-enriched genes while some regions lack brain-enriched genes, suggesting a significant correlation between distribution of genes along the chromosome and tissue type. ESTs from brain tumor tissues have also been mapped to the human genome working draft. We reveal that some regions enriched in brain genes show a significant decrease in gene expression in brain tumors, and, conversely that some regions lacking in brain genes show an increased level of gene expression in brain tumors. Conclusions This report demonstrates a novel approach for tissue specific transcriptome mapping using EST-based quantitative assessment.

  12. Proteomic analysis of normal murine brain parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraslia, Vasiliki K; Kouskoukis, Alexandros; Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Margaritis, Lukas H; Tsangaris, George Th

    2013-01-01

    Murine brain is an excellent tool for studying protein expression and brain function in mammals. Although mice are an extensively used model to recapitulate various pathological conditions, the proteome of the normal mouse brain has not been yet reported. In the present study, we identified the total proteins of different parts of the brain of CB7BL/6 mice, a widely used strain, by applying proteomic methodologies. The adult mouse brain was dissected anatomically into the following regions: frontal cortex, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, midbrain, cerebellum, hypothalamus and medulla. Total protein extracts of these regions were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry, following in-gel digestion with trypsin. Protein identification was carried out by peptide mass fingerprint. Thus, 515 different single-gene products were identified in total, 54 expressed specifically in the olfactory bulb, 62 in the hippocampus, 36 in the frontal cortex, five in the cerebellum, nine in the midbrain, eight in the hypothamamus and 10 in the medulla. The majority of the proteins were enzymes, structural proteins and transporters. Moreover, the distribution of these molecules appears to exhibit direct correlation with the function of the brain regions where they were expressed. This study leads to the complete characterization of the normal mouse brain proteome as well as the protein expression profile of the different brain regions. These results will aid in addressing unmet scientific needs regarding physiological and pathological brain functions.

  13. The feasibility of using CT-guided ROI for semiquantifying striatal dopamine transporter availability in a hybrid SPECT/CT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chien-Chin; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lin, Wei-Che; Tang, Shu-Wen; Wang, Pei-Wen; Huang, Yung-Cheng; Chiu, Nan-Tsing

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid SPECT/CT system provides accurate coregistration of functional and morphological images. CT-guided region of interest (ROI) for semiquantifying striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability may be a feasible method. We therefore assessed the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of manual SPECT and CT-guided ROI methods and compared their semiquantitative data with data from MRI-guided ROIs. We enrolled twenty-eight patients who underwent Tc-99m TRODAT-1 brain SPECT/CT and brain MRI. ROIs of the striatal, caudate, putamen, and occipital cortex were manually delineated on the SPECT, CT, and MRI. ROIs from CT and MRI were transferred to the coregistered SPECT for semiquantification. The striatal, caudate, and putamen nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND) were calculated. Using CT-guided ROIs had higher intra- and interobserver concordance correlation coefficients, closer Bland-Altman biases to zero, and narrower limits of agreement than using manual SPECT ROIs. The correlation coefficients of striatal, caudate, and putamen BPND were good between manual SPECT and MRI-guided ROI methods and even better between CT-guided and MRI-guided ROI methods. Conclusively, CT-guided ROI delineation for semiquantifying striatal DAT availability in a hybrid SPECT/CT system is highly reproducible, and the semiquantitative data correlate well with data from MRI-guided ROIs.

  14. The Feasibility of Using CT-Guided ROI for Semiquantifying Striatal Dopamine Transporter Availability in a Hybrid SPECT/CT System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chin Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid SPECT/CT system provides accurate coregistration of functional and morphological images. CT-guided region of interest (ROI for semiquantifying striatal dopamine transporter (DAT availability may be a feasible method. We therefore assessed the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of manual SPECT and CT-guided ROI methods and compared their semiquantitative data with data from MRI-guided ROIs. We enrolled twenty-eight patients who underwent Tc-99m TRODAT-1 brain SPECT/CT and brain MRI. ROIs of the striatal, caudate, putamen, and occipital cortex were manually delineated on the SPECT, CT, and MRI. ROIs from CT and MRI were transferred to the coregistered SPECT for semiquantification. The striatal, caudate, and putamen nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND were calculated. Using CT-guided ROIs had higher intra- and interobserver concordance correlation coefficients, closer Bland-Altman biases to zero, and narrower limits of agreement than using manual SPECT ROIs. The correlation coefficients of striatal, caudate, and putamen BPND were good between manual SPECT and MRI-guided ROI methods and even better between CT-guided and MRI-guided ROI methods. Conclusively, CT-guided ROI delineation for semiquantifying striatal DAT availability in a hybrid SPECT/CT system is highly reproducible, and the semiquantitative data correlate well with data from MRI-guided ROIs.

  15. SPECT of aged backache patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shigehiko; Nishikimi, Junzo; Mizuno, Naokado; Watanabe, Kentaro; Kondo, Masaki; Ozaki, Satoshi; Urasaki, Tetsuya; Muro, Toshiyuki [Prefectural Tajimi Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP was performed on 53 middle-aged or elderly patients (male 20, female, 33; age range, 40-80 years old) with lumbago, i.e., 25 patients with lumbar spondylosis, 15 with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis, 4 with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, 3 with compression fracture, 3 with pulurent spondylitis, 2 with spondylous osteoporosis, and 1 with spinal osteodesmosis. {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP (740 MBq) was intravenously injected and regular SPECT was performed at 3 hours. Gamma camera was performed for about 10 seconds with 5deg intervals, and 36 steps (180deg) of collection was completed after about 6 minutes. The radioisotope accumulation, the presence or absence of sthenia, and its site were evaluated. Forty-seven (88.7%) patients showed excessive accumulation, i.e., 40 (75.5%) in peripheral vertebral osteophyte, 31 (58.5%) in vertebral articulations, and 10 (18.9%) in whole vertebral body. Significantly increased bilateral excessive accumulation was admitted in the vertebral articulations of sliding disc in degenerative spondylolisthesis. SPECT is considered useful in understanding the pathophysiology of degenerative lumber diseases. (S.Y.).

  16. Physiological imaging with PET and SPECT in Dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagust, W.J. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Neurology Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1989-10-01

    Dementia is a medical problem of increasingly obvious importance. The most common cause of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for at least 50% of all cases of dementia, with multi-infarct dementia the next most common cause of the syndrome. While the accuracy of diagnosis of AD may range from 80 to 90%, there is currently no laboratory test to confirm the diagnosis. Functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) offer diagnostic advantages since brain function is unequivocally disturbed in all dementing illnesses. Both PET and SPECT have been utilized in the study of dementia. While both techniques rely on principles of emission tomography to produce three dimensional maps of injected radiotracers, the differences between positron and single photon emission have important consequences for the practical applications of the two procedures. This briefly reviews the technical differences between PET and SPECT, and discusses how both techniques have been used in our laboratory to elucidate the pathophysiology of dementia. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  17. SPECT/CT in neuroendocrine cancers; SPECT/CT bei neuroendokrinen Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miederer, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Castrop, C.; Scheidhauer, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Buck, A.K. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik

    2011-03-15

    The accuracy of functional SPECT imaging has been significantly improved by addition of CT. This is especially relevant for functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors using highly specific radiopharmaceuticals. Parathyroid adenomas can be detected by {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT/CT with very high sensitivity and specificity, playing an important role especially when minimally invasive techniques are used for surgical resection. With SPECT/CT, extra-adrenal manifestations of pheochromocytomas and tumors of the adrenal cortex can be detected with high accuracy. Because of the availability of PET radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC, the clinical relevance of {sup 111}In-Octreotide SPECT for detection of neuroendocrine cancers has been recently reduced. Because of the better availability, SPECT and SPECT/CT still represent standard tools for imaging neuroendocrine cancers. SPECT/CT represents the superior imaging modality for monitoring radiopeptide based therapies, which are now increasingly used for treatment of neuroendocrine cancers. (orig.)

  18. Diagnostic value of SPECT in bone scintigraphy; Bedeutung der SPECT bei der Knochenszintigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratz, S.; Becker, W. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2000-05-01

    Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) reflects the realization of its ability to remove unwanted activity from bone structures with greater contrast. Especially in the spine SPECT improves the diagnostic accuracy compared with planar bone scintigraphy, because smaller structures of single vertebral bodies can be diagnosed with better anatomic resolution due to SPECT with consequently higher sensitivities and specificities. With SPECT, alterations of the lateral part of the vertebral body, pars interacticularis and smaller facet joints can be correctly diagnosed as spondylarthrotic degenerative alterations. In patients with suspected spine malignancies SPECT did not demonstrate to be a reliable instrument for diagnosing malignancy. We recommend to perform SPECT in case of patients with back pain and suspected spine pathologies seen on planar bone scans, since a correct diagnosis of especially benign spondylarthrotic spine lesions is possible with SPECT. With SPECT, a reduction of radiological examinations of 23% should be possible. (orig.) [German] Die Single-Photonenemissionscomputertomographie (SPECT) erlaubt bei der Knochenszintigraphie eine ueberlagerungsfreie Darstellung von Knochenstrukturen mit hoher Kontrastgenauigkeit. Insbesondere bei Wirbelsaeulenerkrankungen ermoeglicht SPECT einen deutlichen diagnostischen Zugewinn gegenueber planaren Aufnahmen, da kleinere Strukturen einzelner Wirbelkoerper aufgrund des hohen anatomischen Aufloesungsvermoegens mit SPECT sehr sensitiv und spezifisch dargestellt werden. Veraenderungen, die sich auf den lateralen Anteil des Wirbelkoerpers, die Pars interarticularis und die kleinen Facettengelenke projizieren, koennen mit SPECT als spondylarthrotisch degenerative Laesionen eingestuft werden. Zwingende SPECT-szintigraphische Kriterien, die eine Laesion als eindeutig maligne nachweisen, gibt es dagegen nicht. Wir denken, dass SPECT bei allen Patienten mit Rueckenschmerzen und planarszintigraphisch suspekten

  19. Artifact suppression and analysis of brain activities with electroencephalography signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Rashed-Al-Mahfuz; Md. Rabiul Islam; Keikichi Hirose; Md. Khademul Islam Molla

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interface is a communication system that connects the brain with computer (or other devices) but is not dependent on the normal output of the brain (i.e., peripheral nerve and muscle). Electro-oculogram is a dominant artifact which has a significant negative influence on further analysis of real electroencephalography data. This paper presented a data adaptive technique for artifact suppression and brain wave extraction from electroencephalography signals to detect regional brain activities. Empirical mode decomposition based adaptive thresholding approach was employed here to suppress the electro-oculogram artifact. Fractional Gaussian noise was used to determine the threshold level derived from the analysis data without any training. The purified electroencephalography signal was composed of the brain waves also called rhythmic components which represent the brain activities. The rhythmic components were extracted from each electroencephalography channel using adaptive wiener filter with the original scale. The regional brain activities were mapped on the basis of the spatial distribution of rhythmic components, and the results showed that different regions of the brain are activated in response to different stimuli. This research analyzed the activities of a single rhythmic component, alpha with respect to different motor imaginations. The experimental results showed that the proposed method is very efficient in artifact suppression and identifying individual motor imagery based on the activities of alpha component.

  20. Use of fuzzy edge single-photon emission computed tomography analysis in definite Alzheimer's disease - a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusina Robert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Definite Alzheimer's disease (AD requires neuropathological confirmation. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT may enhance diagnostic accuracy, but due to restricted sensitivity and specificity, the role of SPECT is largely limited with regard to this purpose. Methods We propose a new method of SPECT data analysis. The method is based on a combination of parietal lobe selection (as regions-of-interest (ROI, 3D fuzzy edge detection, and 3D watershed transformation. We applied the algorithm to three-dimensional SPECT images of human brains and compared the number of watershed regions inside the ROI between AD patients and controls. The Student's two-sample t-test was used for testing domain number equity in both groups. Results AD patients had a significantly reduced number of watershed regions compared to controls (p Conclusions Our non-invasive, relatively low-cost, and easy method can contribute to a more precise diagnosis of AD.

  1. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Jann [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); The Faroese National Hospital, Department of Medicine, Torshavn (Faroe Islands); Gutte, Henrik [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Copenhagen, Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Faculty of Health Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-05-15

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar technique for diagnosing PE. SPECT has been shown to have fewer indeterminate results and a higher diagnostic value. The latest improvement is the combination of a low-dose CT scan with a V/P SPECT scan in a hybrid tomograph. In a study comparing CTPA, planar scintigraphy and SPECT alone, SPECT/CT had the best diagnostic accuracy for PE. In addition, recent developments in the CTPA technique have made it possible to image the pulmonary arteries of the lungs in one breath-hold. This development is based on the change from a single-detector to multidetector CT technology with an increase in volume coverage per rotation and faster rotation. Furthermore, the dual energy CT technique is a promising modality that can provide functional imaging in combination with anatomical information. Newer high-end CT scanners and SPECT systems are able to visualize smaller subsegmental emboli. However, consensus is lacking regarding the clinical impact and treatment. In the present review, SPECT and SPECT in combination with low-dose CT, CTPA and dual energy CT are discussed in the context of diagnosing PE. (orig.)

  2. Clinical applications of SPECT-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Biersack, Hans-Juergen (eds.) [University Hospital Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2014-06-01

    Covers the full spectrum of clinical applications of SPECT/CT in diagnosis of benign and malignant diseases. Includes chapters on the use of SPECT/CT for dosimetry and for therapy planning. Completely up to date. Many helpful illustrations. SPECT/CT cameras have considerably improved diagnostic accuracy in recent years. Such cameras allow direct correlation of anatomic and functional information, resulting in better localization and definition of scintigraphic findings. In addition to this anatomic referencing, CT coregistration provides superior quantification of radiotracer uptake based on the attenuation correction capabilities of CT. Useful applications of SPECT/CT have been identified not only in oncology but also in other specialties such as orthopedics and cardiology. This book covers the full spectrum of clinical applications of SPECT/CT in diagnosis and therapy planning of benign and malignant diseases. Opening chapters discuss the technology and physics of SPECT/CT and its use for dosimetry. The role of SPECT/CT in the imaging of a range of pathologic conditions is then addressed in detail. Applications covered include, among others, imaging of the thyroid, bone, and lungs, imaging of neuroendocrine tumors, cardiac scintigraphy, and sentinel node scintigraphy. Individual chapters are also devoted to therapy planning in selective internal radiation therapy of liver tumors and bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT. Readers will find this book to be an essential and up-to-date source of information on this invaluable hybrid imaging technique.

  3. Global cognitive impairment should be taken into account in SPECT-neuropsychology correlations: the example of verbal memory in very mild Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, G.; Brugnolo, A.; Girtler, N.; Nobili, F. [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Endocrinological and Metabolic Sciences, Genoa (Italy); Morbelli, S.; Piccardo, A. [University of Genoa, Section of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Calvini, P. [University of Genoa, INFN and Department of Physics, Genoa (Italy); Dougall, N.J.; Ebmeier, K.P. [University of Edinburgh, Division of Psychiatry, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Baron, J.C. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Stroke Unit, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-01

    To examine the impact of severity of global cognitive impairment on SPECT-neuropsychology correlations, we correlated a verbal memory test with brain perfusion in patients with very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), taking into account the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score as an index of global cognitive impairment. Twenty-nine outpatients (mean age 78.2{+-}5.5 years) affected by very mild, probable AD underwent brain SPECT with {sup 99m}Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer and a word list learning test. SPM99 was used for voxel-based correlation analysis after normalisation to mean cerebellar counts (height threshold: p<0.01). In a first analysis, only age and years of education were inserted as nuisance covariates, while in a second analysis the MMSE score was inserted as well. In the first analysis, two clusters of significant correlation were found in both hemispheres, mainly including regions of the right hemisphere, such as the inferior parietal lobule, the middle temporal gyrus and the posterior cingulate. Significant correlation in the left hemisphere was observed in the lingual lobule, the parietal precuneus and the posterior cingulate. After taking into consideration the MMSE, the largest cluster of correlation was found in the left hemisphere, including the parietal gyrus angularis, the posterior cingulate and the middle temporal gyrus. (orig.)

  4. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jann; Borgwardt, Henrik Gutte

    2014-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar...... technique for diagnosing PE. SPECT has been shown to have fewer indeterminate results and a higher diagnostic value. The latest improvement is the combination of a low-dose CT scan with a V/P SPECT scan in a hybrid tomograph. In a study comparing CTPA, planar scintigraphy and SPECT alone, SPECT/CT had...... the best diagnostic accuracy for PE. In addition, recent developments in the CTPA technique have made it possible to image the pulmonary arteries of the lungs in one breath-hold. This development is based on the change from a single-detector to multidetector CT technology with an increase in volume...

  5. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis demonstrated by SPECT in hemiplegic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Nara, Takahiro; Nozaki, Hidetsugu; Fukushima, Kiyomi (Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)); Imai, Masayuki; Kumagai, Koumei; Maekawa, Kihei

    1991-01-01

    Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in twenty five children with hemiplegia were studied using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-I-123-iodoamphetamine. Seven of twenty-five patients had cerebral palsy, and the others were impaired by acquired brain injury between ten months and fourteen years of age. CCD was demonstrated in five patients (20%), who were impaired by acquired brain injury after seven years of age. CCD could never be detected in patients with cerebral palsy. Ipsilateral cerebellar diaschisis was also demonstrated in two patients with cerebral palsy and three with early acquired brain injury before three years of age. It is suggested that diaschisis presents itself as a different form in a contralateral and ipsilateral cerebellum before three years of age from a form which presents after seven years of age. (author).

  6. Drug development in Alzheimer’s disease: the contribution of PET and SPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Denis Herwig Declercq

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials aiming to develop disease-altering drugs for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, a neurodegenerative disorder with devastating consequences, are failing at an alarming rate. Poorly defined inclusion- and outcome criteria, due to a limited amount of objective biomarkers, is one of the major concerns. Non-invasive molecular imaging techniques, positron emission tomography and single photon emission (computed tomography (PET and SPE(CT, allow visualization and quantification of a wide variety of (pathophysiological processes and allow early (differential diagnosis in many disorders. PET and SPECT have the ability to provide biomarkers that permit spatial assessment of pathophysiological molecular changes and therefore objectively evaluate and follow up therapeutic response, especially in the brain. A number of specific PET/SPECT biomarkers used in support of emerging clinical therapies in AD are discussed in this review.

  7. Functional imaging studies of cognition using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT: empirical validation using the n-back working memory paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Catherine; Ribaupierre, Anik de [University of Geneva, Center for Interdisciplinary Gerontology, Geneva (Switzerland); Chicherio, Christian [Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Center for Lifespan Psychology, Berlin (Germany); Terraneo, Luc [Geneva University Hospitals, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Magistretti, Pierre [EPFL, Brain Mind Institute, Lausanne (Switzerland); Slosman, Daniel [Clinique Generale-Beaulieu, Nuclear Medicine Institute, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    Functional activation protocols are widely applied for the study of brain-cognition relations. Only few take advantage of the intrinsic characteristics of SPECT, particularly those allowing cognitive assessment outside of the camera, in settings close to the standard clinical or laboratory ones. The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility of a split-dose activation protocol with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO using low irradiation dose. A two-scans protocol was applied to 12 healthy young volunteers using 270 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO per scan, with each image associated to a particular experimental condition of the verbal n-back working memory task (0-back, 2-back). Subtraction method was used to identify regional brain activity related to the task. Voxel-wise statistical analysis showed left lateralized activity associated with the 2-back task, compared to the 0-back task. Activated regions, mainly prefrontal and parietal, were similar to those observed in previous fMRI and {sup 15}O-PET studies. The results support the use of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT for the investigation of brain-cognition relations and demonstrate the feasibility of optimal quality images despite low radiopharmaceutical doses. The findings also acknowledge the use of HMPAO as a radioligand to capture neuro-energetic modulations linked to cognitive activity. They encourage extending the application of the described activation protocol to clinical populations. (orig.)

  8. Use of functional brain imaging in the evaluation of exposure to mycotoxins and toxins encountered in Desert Storm/Desert Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Theodore R; Rea, William J

    2003-07-01

    In this retrospective analysis the authors compared brain scintigrams, performed using triple-head single-photon emission computed tomography (tripleSPECT), of subjects who were judged clinically impaired from exposure to toxins during the Desert Storm/Desert Shield military action, and of subjects exposed to mycotoxins, with those of normal controls. The scintigrams for both exposed groups exhibited similar patterns of abnormalities, which were consistent with neurotoxic impairment. The authors conclude that further study is needed to determine whether mycotoxin exposure may be a cause of abnormalities seen in tripleSPECT images.

  9. Semi-quantitative analysis of post-transarterial radioembolization {sup 90}Y Microsphere position emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) images in advance liver malignancy: Comparison with {sup 99m}Tc macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Seung Hong; Kim, Sung Eun; Cho, Jae Hyuk; Park, Ju Kyung; Kim, Yun Hwan; Choe, Jae Gol [Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Jae Seon; Park, So Yeon; Lee, Eun Sub [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between pretreatment planning technetium-99m ({sup 99}mTc) macroaggregated albumin (MAA) SPECT images and posttreatment transarterial radioembolization (TARE) yttirum-90 ({sup 90}Y) PET/CT images by comparing the ratios of tumor-to-normal liver counts. Fifty-two patients with advanced hepatic malignancy who underwent {sup 90}Y microsphere radioembolization from January 2010 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients had undergone {sup 99}mTc MAA intraarterial injection SPECT for a pretreatment evaluation of microsphere distribution and therapy planning. After the administration of {sup 90}Y microspheres, the patients underwent posttreatment {sup 90}Y PET/CT within 24 h. For semiquantitative analysis, the tumor-to-normal uptake ratios in {sup 90}Y PET/CT (TNR-yp) and {sup 99}mTc MAA SPECT (TNR-ms) as well as the tumor volumes measured in angiographic CT were obtained and analyzed. The relationship of TNR-yp and TNR-ms was evaluated by Spearman's rank correlation and Wilcoxon's matched pairs test. In a total of 79 lesions of 52 patients, the distribution of microspheres was well demonstrated in both the SPECT and PET/CT images. A good correlation was observed of between TNR-ms and TNR-yp (rho value = 0.648, p < 0.001). The TNR-yp (median 2.78, interquartile range 2.43) tend to show significantly higher values than TNR-ms (median 2.49, interquartile range of 1.55) (p = 0.012). The TNR-yp showed weak correlation with tumor volume (rho = 0.230, p = 0.041). The 99mTc MAA SPECT showed a good correlation with {sup 90}Y PET/CT in TNR values, suggesting that {sup 99}mTc MAA can be used as an adequate pretreatment evaluation method. However, the {sup 99}mTc MAA SPECT image consistently shows lower TNR values compared to 90Y PET/CT, which means the possibility of underestimation of tumorous uptake in the partition dosimetry model using {sup 99}mTc MAA SPECT. Considering that

  10. Technological value of SPECT/CT fusion imaging for the diagnosis of lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z G; Zhang, G X; Hao, S H; Zhang, W W; Zhang, T; Zhang, Z P; Wu, R X

    2015-11-24

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical value of diagnosing and locating lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) fusion imaging with 99mTc labeled red blood cells ((99m)Tc-RBC). Fifty-six patients with suspected lower GI bleeding received a preoperative intravenous injection of (99m)Tc-RBC and each underwent planar, SPECT/CT imaging of the lower abdominal region. The location and path of lower GI bleeding were diagnosed by contrastive analysis of planar and SPECT/CT fusion imaging. Among the 56 patients selected, there were abnormalities in concentrated radionuclide activity with planar imaging in 50 patients and in SPECT/CT fusion imaging in 52 patients. Moreover, bleeding points that were coincident with the surgical results were evident with planar imaging in 31 patients and with SPECT/CT fusion imaging in 48 patients. The diagnostic sensitivity of planar imaging and SPECT/CT fusion imaging were 89.3% (50/56) and 92.9% (52/56), respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (χ(2) = 0.11, P > 0.05). The corresponding positional accuracy values were 73.8% (31/42) and 92.3% (48/52), and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2) = 4.63, P CT fusion imaging is an effective, simple, and accurate method that can be used for diagnosing and locating lower GI bleeding.

  11. Molecular imaging of angiogenesis with SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Boerman, Otto C. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and position emission tomography (PET) are the two main imaging modalities in nuclear medicine. SPECT imaging is more widely available than PET imaging and the radionuclides used for SPECT are easier to prepare and usually have a longer half-life than those used for PET. In addition, SPECT is a less expensive technique than PET. Commonly used gamma emitters are: {sup 99m}Tc (E{sub max} 141 keV, T{sub 1/2} 6.02 h), {sup 123}I (E{sub max} 529 keV, T{sub 1/2} 13.0 h) and {sup 111}In (E{sub max} 245 keV, T{sub 1/2} 67.2 h). Compared to clinical SPECT, PET has a higher spatial resolution and the possibility to more accurately estimate the in vivo concentration of a tracer. In preclinical imaging, the situation is quite different. The resolution of microSPECT cameras (<0.5 mm) is higher than that of microPET cameras (>1.5 mm). In this report, studies on new radiolabelled tracers for SPECT imaging of angiogenesis in tumours are reviewed. (orig.)

  12. Results and present status of the spectrometer aSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala Guardia, Fidel; Borg, Michael; Glueck, Ferenc; Heil, Werner; Konrad, Gertrud; Munoz Horta, Raquel; Sobolev, Yury [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Angerer, Heinz; Konorov, Igor; Petzoldt, Gerd; Simson, Martin; Wirth, Hans-Friedrich; Zimmer, Oliver [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Baessler, Stefan [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States); Eberhardt, Klaus [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the aSPECT spectrometer is a precise measurement of the proton recoil spectrum in free neutron decay. For kinematic reasons, the shape of the proton spectrum depends on the angular correlation coefficient between the momenta of the electron antineutrino and the electron, a. An accurate measurement of the angular correlation coefficient a is of great interest in order to test the unitarity of the Cabibbo Kobayashi Maskawa Matrix (CKM-Matrix). A first test beam time was performed during 2005/06 at the beam line MEPHISTO at the neutron research reactor FRM-II in Garching. Results of the data analysis as well as the present status of the aSPECT spectrometer are presented in this talk.

  13. Imaging the neurobiological substrate of atypical depression by SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, Dario [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Nardo, Davide [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome (Italy); Jonsson, Cathrine; Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, Hans [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Gardner, Ann [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    Neurobiological abnormalities underlying atypical depression have previously been suggested. The purpose of this study was to explore differences at functional brain imaging between depressed patients with and without atypical features and healthy controls. Twenty-three out-patients with chronic depressive disorder recruited from a service for patients with audiological symptoms were investigated. Eleven fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression (mood reactivity and at least two of the following: weight gain, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis and interpersonal rejection sensitivity). Twenty-three healthy subjects served as controls. Voxel-based analysis was applied to explore differences in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO uptake between groups. Patients in the atypical group had a higher prevalence of bilateral hearing impairment and higher depression and somatic distress ratings at the time of SPECT. Significantly higher tracer uptake was found bilaterally in the atypical group as compared with the non-atypicals in the sensorimotor (Brodmann areas, BA1-3) and premotor cortex in the superior frontal gyri (BA6), in the middle frontal cortex (BA8), in the parietal associative cortex (BA5, BA7) and in the inferior parietal lobule (BA40). Significantly lower tracer distribution was found in the right hemisphere in the non-atypicals compared with the controls in BA6, BA8, BA44, BA45 and BA46 in the frontal cortex, in the orbito-frontal cortex (BA11, BA47), in the postcentral parietal cortex (BA2) and in the multimodal association parietal cortex (BA40). The differences found between atypical and non-atypical depressed patients suggest different neurobiological substrates in these patient groups. The putative links with the clinical features of atypical depression are discussed. These findings encourage the use of functional neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  14. Mapping of brain function with positron emission tomography for pathophysiological analysis of neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nariai, Tadashi [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). Graduate School

    2001-02-01

    The role of PET is discussed mainly through author's clinical experience in patients with brain lesions from the view of mapping of brain function. Procedure for PET concept in clinical practice is summarized. PET using tracers like [{sup 15}O]water and [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose for mapping of the function has been used in combination with MRI, MEG (magnetoencephalography), SPECT and other imaging means for morphological identification. Actual those images before and after surgery are presented in cases of epilepsy, moyamoya disease, stegnosis of cervical artery, arteriovenous malformation and oligodendroglioma. Images of [{sup 11}C]flumazenil in epilepsies are also presented to show the neurological dysfunctions. PET evaluation of neurological functions is concluded to become more important in parallel with the advancement of therapeutics. (K.H.)

  15. SPECT Myocardial Blood Flow Quantitation Concludes Equivocal Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Studies to Increase Diagnostic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Ching; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ing-Jou; Ku, Chi-Tai; Chen, Yen-Kung; Hsu, Bailing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, myocardial blood flow quantitation with dynamic SPECT/CT has been reported to enhance the detection of coronary artery disease in human. This advance has created important clinical applications to coronary artery disease diagnosis and management for areas where myocardial perfusion PET tracers are not available. We present 2 clinical cases that undergone a combined test of 1-day rest/dipyridamole-stress dynamic SPECT and ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT scans using an integrated imaging protocol and demonstrate that flow parameters are capable to conclude equivocal myocardial perfusion SPECT studies, therefore increasing diagnostic benefits to add value in making clinical decisions.

  16. Brain perfusion correlates of cognitive and nigrostriatal functions in de novo Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobili, Flavio; Arnaldi, Dario; Campus, Claudio; Ferrara, Michela; Brugnolo, Andrea; Dessi, Barbara; Girtler, Nicola; Rodriguez, Guido [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurosciences, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); De Carli, Fabrizio [National Research Council, Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, Genoa (Italy); Morbelli, Silvia; Sambuceti, Gianmario [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Abruzzese, Giovanni [University Hospital San. Martino, Clinical Neurology, Department of Neurosciences, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Subtle cognitive impairment is recognized in the first stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), including executive, memory and visuospatial dysfunction, but its pathophysiological basis is still debated. Twenty-six consecutive, drug-naive, de novo PD patients underwent an extended neuropsychological battery, dopamine transporter (DAT) and brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We previously reported that nigrocaudate impairment correlates with executive functions, and nigroputaminal impairment with visuospatial abilities. Here perfusion SPECT was first compared between the PD group and age-matched controls (CTR). Then, perfusion SPECT was correlated with both DAT SPECT and four neuropsychological factors by means of voxel-based analysis (SPM8) with a height threshold of p < 0.005 at peak level and p < 0.05 false discovery rate-corrected at cluster level. Both perfusion and DAT SPECT images were flipped in order to have the more affected hemisphere (MAH), defined clinically, on the same side. Significant hypoperfusion was found in an occipital area of the MAH in PD patients as compared to CTR. Executive functions directly correlated with brain perfusion in bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus in the less affected hemisphere (LAH), while verbal memory directly correlated with perfusion in the precuneus, inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal gyrus in the LAH. Furthermore, positive correlation was highlighted between nigrocaudate and nigroputaminal impairment and brain perfusion in the precuneus, posterior cingulate and parahippocampal gyri of the LAH. These data support the evidence showing an early involvement of the cholinergic system in the early cognitive dysfunction and point to a more relevant role of parietal lobes and posterior cingulate in executive functions in PD. (orig.)

  17. Graph theory analysis of complex brain networks: new concepts in brain mapping applied to neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Michael G; Ypma, Rolf J F; Romero-Garcia, Rafael; Price, Stephen J; Suckling, John

    2016-06-01

    Neuroanatomy has entered a new era, culminating in the search for the connectome, otherwise known as the brain's wiring diagram. While this approach has led to landmark discoveries in neuroscience, potential neurosurgical applications and collaborations have been lagging. In this article, the authors describe the ideas and concepts behind the connectome and its analysis with graph theory. Following this they then describe how to form a connectome using resting state functional MRI data as an example. Next they highlight selected insights into healthy brain function that have been derived from connectome analysis and illustrate how studies into normal development, cognitive function, and the effects of synthetic lesioning can be relevant to neurosurgery. Finally, they provide a précis of early applications of the connectome and related techniques to traumatic brain injury, functional neurosurgery, and neurooncology.

  18. Infants' brain responses to speech suggest analysis by synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Patricia K; Ramírez, Rey R; Bosseler, Alexis; Lin, Jo-Fu Lotus; Imada, Toshiaki

    2014-08-01

    Historic theories of speech perception (Motor Theory and Analysis by Synthesis) invoked listeners' knowledge of speech production to explain speech perception. Neuroimaging data show that adult listeners activate motor brain areas during speech perception. In two experiments using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we investigated motor brain activation, as well as auditory brain activation, during discrimination of native and nonnative syllables in infants at two ages that straddle the developmental transition from language-universal to language-specific speech perception. Adults are also tested in Exp. 1. MEG data revealed that 7-mo-old infants activate auditory (superior temporal) as well as motor brain areas (Broca's area, cerebellum) in response to speech, and equivalently for native and nonnative syllables. However, in 11- and 12-mo-old infants, native speech activates auditory brain areas to a greater degree than nonnative, whereas nonnative speech activates motor brain areas to a greater degree than native speech. This double dissociation in 11- to 12-mo-old infants matches the pattern of results obtained in adult listeners. Our infant data are consistent with Analysis by Synthesis: auditory analysis of speech is coupled with synthesis of the motor plans necessary to produce the speech signal. The findings have implications for: (i) perception-action theories of speech perception, (ii) the impact of "motherese" on early language learning, and (iii) the "social-gating" hypothesis and humans' development of social understanding.

  19. Machine learning models for the differential diagnosis of vascular parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas-Fernandez, I.; Benitez-Rivero, S.; Jesus, S.; Caceres-Redondo, M.T.; Martin-Rodriguez, J.F.; Carrillo, F. [Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Unidad de Trastornos del Movimiento, Servicio de Neurologia y Neurofisiologia Clinica, Seville (Spain); Garcia-Gomez, F.J.; Marin-Oyaga, V.A.; Lojo, J.A. [Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, UDIM, Seville (Spain); Garcia-Solis, D. [Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, UDIM, Seville (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Seville (Spain); Mir, P. [Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Unidad de Trastornos del Movimiento, Servicio de Neurologia y Neurofisiologia Clinica, Seville (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Seville (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    The study's objective was to develop diagnostic predictive models using data from two commonly used [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT assessment methods: region-of-interest (ROI) analysis and whole-brain voxel-based analysis. We included retrospectively 80 patients with vascular parkinsonism (VP) and 164 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who underwent [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT. Nuclear-medicine specialists evaluated the scans and calculated bilateral caudate and putamen [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT uptake and asymmetry indices using BRASS software. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to compare the radioligand uptake between the two diseases at the voxel level. Quantitative data from these two methods, together with potential confounding factors for dopamine transporter availability (sex, age, disease duration and severity), were used to build predictive models following a tenfold cross-validation scheme. The performance of logistic regression (LR), linear discriminant analysis and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms for ROI data, and their penalized versions for SPM data (penalized LR, penalized discriminant analysis and SVM), were assessed. Significant differences were found in the ROI analysis after covariate correction between VP and PD patients in [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT uptake in the more affected side of the putamen and the ipsilateral caudate. Age, disease duration and severity were also found to be informative in feeding the statistical model. SPM localized significant reductions in [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT uptake in PD with respect to VP in two specular clusters comprising areas corresponding to the left and right striatum. The diagnostic predictive accuracy of the LR model using ROI data was 90.3 % and of the SVM model using SPM data was 90.4 %. The predictive models built with ROI data and SPM data from [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT provide great discrimination accuracy between VP and PD. External validation of these methods is necessary to confirm their

  20. In vivo SPECT reporter gene imaging of regulatory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sharif-Paghaleh

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs were identified several years ago and are key in controlling autoimmune diseases and limiting immune responses to foreign antigens, including alloantigens. In vivo imaging techniques including intravital microscopy as well as whole body imaging using bioluminescence probes have contributed to the understanding of in vivo Treg function, their mechanisms of action and target cells. Imaging of the human sodium/iodide symporter via Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT has been used to image various cell types in vivo. It has several advantages over the aforementioned imaging techniques including high sensitivity, it allows non-invasive whole body studies of viable cell migration and localisation of cells over time and lastly it may offer the possibility to be translated to the clinic. This study addresses whether SPECT/CT imaging can be used to visualise the migratory pattern of Tregs in vivo. Treg lines derived from CD4(+CD25(+FoxP3(+ cells were retrovirally transduced with a construct encoding for the human Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS and the fluorescent protein mCherry and stimulated with autologous DCs. NIS expressing self-specific Tregs were specifically radiolabelled in vitro with Technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99mTcO(4(- and exposure of these cells to radioactivity did not affect cell viability, phenotype or function. In addition adoptively transferred Treg-NIS cells were imaged in vivo in C57BL/6 (BL/6 mice by SPECT/CT using (99mTcO(4(-. After 24 hours NIS expressing Tregs were observed in the spleen and their localisation was further confirmed by organ biodistribution studies and flow cytometry analysis. The data presented here suggests that SPECT/CT imaging can be utilised in preclinical imaging studies of adoptively transferred Tregs without affecting Treg function and viability thereby allowing longitudinal studies within disease models.

  1. Planar and SPECT ventilation/perfusion imaging and computed tomography for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature, and cost and dose comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.J., E-mail: jimphillips@nhs.net [Nuclear Medicine, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, NHS Grampian, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen AB25 2ZN (United Kingdom); Straiton, J. [Radiology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, NHS Grampian, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen AB25 2ZN (United Kingdom); Staff, R.T. [Nuclear Medicine, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, NHS Grampian, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen AB25 2ZN (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Diagnosing acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is an indication for scintillation V/Q imaging (planar and SPECT) and/or CTPA. This study reviews, compares and aggregates the published diagnostic performance of each modality and assesses the short-term consequences in terms of diagnostic outcomes, monetary cost, and radiation burden. We performed a formal literature review of available data and aggregated the finding using a summary receiver operating characteristic. A decision tree approach was used to estimate cost and dose per correct diagnosis. The review found 19 studies, which comprised 27 data sets (6393 examinations, from 5923 patients). The results showed that planar V/Q was significantly inferior to both V/Q SPECT and CTPA with no difference between the latter two. CTPA represents best value; £129 per correct diagnosis compared to £243 (SPECT) and £226 (planar). In terms of radiation burden V/Q SPECT was the most effective with a dose of 2.12 mSv per correct diagnosis compared with 3.46 mSv (planar) and 4.96 (CTPA) mSv. These findings show no performance difference between V/Q SPECT and CTPA; planar V/Q is inferior. CTPA is clearly the most cost effective technique. V/Q SPECT should be considered in situations where radiation dose is of concern or CTPA is inappropriate.

  2. Ictal SPECT in Sturge-Weber syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    O. Bilgin; Vollmar, C.; Peraud, A.; la Fougere, C.; Beleza, P; Noachtar, S.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a patient with right-sided Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), in whom earlier functional hemispherectomy failed. Subtraction of ictal and interictal single-photon-emission-computed-tomography (SPECT) superimposed on individual MRI showed a right fronto-orbital hyperperfusion, with a left-sided EEG seizure pattern. Ictal SPECT supported our assumption that right frontal originated seizure pattern propagated to left hemisphere via the remaining right frontal bridge. Right orbito-frontal ...

  3. Computational Analysis of LDDMM for Brain Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can eCeritoglu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One goal of computational anatomy is to develop tools to accurately segment brain structures in healthy and diseased subjects. In this paper, we examine the performance and complexity of such segmentation in the framework of the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM registration method with reference to atlases and parameters. First we report the application of a multi-atlas segmentation approach to define basal ganglia structures in healthy and diseased kids’ brains. The segmentation accuracy of the multi-atlas approach is compared with the single atlas LDDMM implementation and two state-of-the-art segmentation algorithms – Freesurfer and FSL – by computing the overlap errors between automatic and manual segmentations of the six basal ganglia nuclei in healthy subjects as well as subjects with diseases including ADHD and Autism. The high accuracy of multi-atlas segmentation is obtained at the cost of increasing the computational complexity because of the calculations necessary between the atlases and a subject. Second, we examine the effect of parameters on total LDDMM computation time and segmentation accuracy for basal ganglia structures. Single atlas LDDMM method is used to automatically segment the structures in a population of 16 subjects using different sets of parameters. The results show that a cascade approach and using fewer time steps can reduce computational complexity as much as five times while maintaining reliable segmentations.

  4. Brain hemisphere dominance and vocational preference: a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Pearson, L Carolyn; Burgin, John S; Murray, Gerald C; Elrod, Lisa Marie

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in split-brain theory add support to the concept of specialization within brain hemispheres. Holland's vocational personality theory may overlap with Human Information Processing (HIP) characteristics. Holland's six RIASEC codes were developed to identify vocational personality characteristics, and HIP scales were designed to measure hemispheric laterality. Relationships between the two scales were evaluated through canonical correlation with some significant results, however not all Holland scale scores correlated with left, right, or integrated hemispheric preference. Additional findings related to participants self-perception of music and math ability were also correlated. Findings on this added analysis revealed a high correlation between perception of musical ability and right brain function but not between mathematical concept and left brain alone. Implications regarding vocational choice and work are discussed.

  5. Impact of Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) in the Diagnosis of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Vicenty, Irma L; Santiago-Sánchez, Michelaldemar; Vélez-Miró, Iván; Motta-Valencia, Keryl

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as damage to the brain resulting from an external force. TBI, a global leading cause of death and disability, is associated with serious social, economic, and health problems. In cases of mild-to-moderate brain damage, conventional anatomical imaging modalities may or may not detect the cascade of metabolic changes that have occurred or are occurring at the intracellular level. Functional nuclear medicine imaging and neurophysiological parameters can be used to characterize brain damage, as the former provides direct visualization of brain function, even in the absence of overt behavioral manifestations or anatomical findings. We report the case of a 30-year-old Hispanic male veteran who, after 2 traumatic brain injury events, developed cognitive and neuropsychological problems with no clear etiology in the presence of negative computed tomography (CT) findings.

  6. Accuracy of bone SPECT/CT for identifying hardware loosening in patients who underwent lumbar fusion with pedicle screws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudyana, Hendrah; Maes, Alex [AZ Groeninge, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); University Hospital Leuven, Department of Morphology and Medical Imaging, Leuven (Belgium); Vandenberghe, Thierry; Fidlers, Luc [AZ Groeninge, Department of Neurosurgery, Kortrijk (Belgium); Sathekge, Mike [University of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Nicolai, Daniel [AZ Groeninge, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Wiele, Christophe van de [AZ Groeninge, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); University Ghent, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of bone SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography)/CT (computed tomography) in diagnosing loosening of fixation material in patients with recurrent or persistent back pain that underwent lumbar arthrodesis with pedicle screws using surgery and clinical follow-up as gold standard A total of 48 patients (median age 49 years, range 21-81 years; 17 men) who had undergone lumbar spinal arthrodesis were included in this retrospective analysis. SPECT/CT results were compared to the gold standard of surgical evaluation or clinical follow-up. Positive SPECT/CT results were considered true positives if findings were confirmed by surgery or if clinical and other examinations were completely consistent with the positive SPECT/CT finding. They were considered false positives if surgical evaluation did not find any loose pedicle screws or if symptoms subsided with non-surgical therapy. Negative SPECT/CT scans were considered true negatives if symptoms either improved without surgical intervention or remained stable over a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. Negative SPECT/CT scans were determined to be false negatives if surgery was still required and loosening of material was found. The median length of time from primary surgery to bone SPECT/CT referral was 29.5 months (range 12-192 months). Median follow-up was 18 months (range 6-57) for subjects who did not undergo surgery. Thirteen of the 48 patients were found to be positive for loosening on bone SPECT/CT. Surgical evaluation (8 patients) and clinical follow-up (5 patients) showed that bone SPECT/CT correctly predicted loosening in 9 of 13 patients, while it falsely diagnosed loosening in 4 patients. Of 35 negative bone SPECT/CT scans, 12 were surgically confirmed. In 18 patients, bone SPECT/CT revealed lesions that could provide an alternative explanation for the symptoms of pain (active facet degeneration in 14 patients, and disc and sacroiliac

  7. Assessment of poststress left ventricular ejection fraction by gated SPECT: comparison with equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acampa, Wanda; Liuzzi, Raffaele; De Luca, Serena; Capasso, Enza; Luongo, Luca; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, National Council of Research, Naples (Italy); Caprio, Maria Grazia [University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, National Council of Research, Naples (Italy); SDN Foundation, Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, Naples (Italy); Nicolai, Emanuele [SDN Foundation, Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, Naples (Italy); Petretta, Mario [University Federico II, Department of Clinical Medicine, Cardiovascular and Immunological Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    We compared left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction obtained by gated SPECT with that obtained by equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography in a large cohort of patients. Within 1 week, 514 subjects with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent same-day stress-rest {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi gated SPECT and radionuclide angiocardiography. For both studies, data were acquired 30 min after completion of exercise and after 3 h rest. In the overall study population, a good correlation between ejection fraction measured by gated SPECT and by radionuclide angiocardiography was observed at rest (r=0.82, p<0.0001) and after stress (r=0.83, p<0.0001). In Bland-Altman analysis, the mean differences in ejection fraction (radionuclide angiocardiography minus gated SPECT) were -0.6% at rest and 1.7% after stress. In subjects with normal perfusion (n=362), a good correlation between ejection fraction measured by gated SPECT and by radionuclide angiocardiography was observed at rest (r=0.72, p<0.0001) and after stress (r=0.70, p<0.0001) and the mean differences in ejection fraction were -0.9% at rest and 1.4% after stress. Also in patients with abnormal perfusion (n=152), a good correlation between the two techniques was observed both at rest (r=0.89, p<0.0001) and after stress (r=0.90, p<0.0001) and the mean differences in ejection fraction were 0.1% at rest and 2.5% after stress. In a large study population, a good agreement was observed in the evaluation of LV ejection fraction between gated SPECT and radionuclide angiocardiography. However, in patients with perfusion abnormalities, a slight underestimation in poststress LV ejection fraction was observed using gated SPECT as compared to equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography. (orig.)

  8. SPECT/CT diagnostics for skeletal infections; SPECT/CT-Infektdiagnostik am Skelett

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaeser, B.; Spanjol, M.; Krause, T. [Inselspital Bern, Universitaetsklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-07-15

    Skeletal infections are often a diagnostic and clinical challenge. Nuclear imaging modalities used in the diagnostic workup of acute and chronic skeletal infections include three-phase bone scintigraphy and scintigraphy with labelled leucocytes. The introduction of hybrid technologies, such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) has dramatically changed nuclear medical imaging of infections. In general SPECT/CT leads to a considerably more accurate diagnosis than planar or SPECT imaging. Given the integrated acquisition of metabolic, functional and morphological information, SPECT/CT has increased in particular the specificity of three-phase skeletal scanning and scintigraphy with labeled leucocytes. (orig.) [German] Knoecherne Infekte stellen nicht selten eine diagnostische und klinische Herausforderung dar. Nuklearmedizinische Standardverfahren fuer die Diagnostik akuter und chronischer Knocheninfekte sind die Mehrphasenskelettszintigraphie und die Infektszintigraphie mit markierten Leukozyten. Die Einfuehrung von Hybridtechnologien wie der SPECT/CT hat die nuklearmedizinische Infektbildgebung tiefgreifend veraendert. Die SPECT/CT erlaubt bei der Frage nach Knocheninfekten insgesamt eine wesentlich genauere Beurteilung als planare Aufnahmen und SPECT. Die integrierte Akquisition von metabolischer, funktioneller und topographisch-morphologischer Information mit SPECT/CT steigerte insbesondere die Spezifitaet der Mehrphasenskelettszintigraphie und der Infektszintigraphie mit markierten Leukozyten. (orig.)

  9. 脑SPECT引导低剂量放疗治疗难治性外伤性癫(癎)初探%Preliminary study of low-dose radiation therapy guided by the brain SPECT for refractory post-traumatic epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 窦烨; 于雷

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨脑SPECT(单光子发射计算机断层扫描)对难治性外伤性癫(癎)的定位价值和经其引导低剂量放疗的疗效.方法 分析2004-07-2008-07收治的26例难治性外伤性癫(癎)患者,利用发作期及间期脑SPECT对比确定致(癎)灶后经三维适形NOVALS放射治疗,治疗后口服抗癫(癎)药物至少1 a,随访4~8 a.结果 满意(Engel Ⅰ)7例,显著改善(Engel Ⅱ)14例,良好(Engel Ⅲ)3例,无效(Engel Ⅳ)2例,无加重,总有效率88.5%,优良率76.9%.结论 利用发作期及间期脑SPECT对比引导低剂量放疗是治疗外伤性癫(癎)的有效方法.

  10. Quantitative assessment of regional myocardial blood flow with thallium-201 and SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, H; Eberl, S

    1998-01-01

    Thallium-201 has been used extensively as a myocardial perfusion agent and to assess myocardial viability. Unlike other 99mTc-labeled agents such as 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-tetrofosmine, the regional concentration of 201Tl varies with time, and its kinetics make it a potential candidate for estimating absolute physiologic parameters with kinetic model analysis. This article outlines a strategy for quantitative assessment of regional myocardial blood flow in man using 201Tl and dynamic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Quantitatively accurate SPECT images that are proportional to the true radioactivity distribution are prerequisites for model-based kinetic analysis. Our technique for quantitative SPECT includes ordered-subset maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) reconstruction with transmission data-based attenuation correction and transmission-dependent convolution subtraction scatter correction. A three-compartment model was found to reproduce the observed regional time-activity curves well, and dog experiments demonstrated that influx rate constant (K1) values estimated from the dynamic SPECT data correlated well with absolute myocardial blood flow determined by in vitro microspheres for a physiologically wide range of flows. Several possible strategies for simplifying the study procedures, without compromising accuracy, are also presented, which should make absolute quantitation of regional myocardial blood flow feasible using 201Tl and a conventional SPECT camera in a clinical setting.

  11. Clinical evaluation of stress thallium spect in ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Osamu; Kimura, Nazuna; Soeki; Takeshi; Takeichi, Naoki; Shinohara, Hisanori; Tamura, Yoshiyuki; Fukuda, Nobuo [Zentsuji National Hospital, Kagawa (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    Thallium SPECT was performed in patients with significant coronary artery stenosis, 67 cases were after maximal exercise and 74 cases were during coronary vasodilation induced by ATP (adenosine triphosphate) infusion. In patients suspected of angina pectoris, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) were 88%, 78% and 82% for exercise SPECT, and 100%, 72% and 84% for ATP SPECT studies, respectively. In patients with old myocardial infarction, these were 73%, 100% and 88% for exercise SPECT and 71%, 100% and 81% for ATP SPECT. These were 75%, 49% and 60% for treadmill exercise test in the patient group including both angina and myocardial infarction. For detection of diseased vessels, the diagnostic accuracy for left anterior descending artery and right coronary artery lesions was almost equal for ATP and exercise SPECT study, but ATP SPECT study was more sensitive than exercise SPECT study in detection of left circumflex artery lesions. ATP as well as exercise SPECT studies occasionally gave false positive results in patients with single-vessel disease. ATP as well as exercise SPECT studies underestimated the severity of multi-vessel disease. In general, the results of ATP SPECT imaging were highly concordant with the results of exercise SPECT imaging. ATP stress thallium SPECT imaging provided a safe and highly accurate diagnostic tool for detection of CAD. (author)

  12. SPECT/CT - Technical aspects and optimization possibilities; SPECT/CT - Technische Aspekte und Optimierungsmoeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, W. [Klinikum Passau, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Passau (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    In contrast to positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), the currently available single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) systems are very heterogeneous. On the side of the gamma cameras, dual-head systems are established, which are not very different from one manufacturer to the other. For the CT component, there are low dose tubes on the one side and flat detector-based cone beam CT and multislice-CT on the other. The CT image data can be used for anatomic correlation of suspicious findings as well as for attenuation correction of SPECT data. Attenuation correction enables on the one hand enhancement of SPECT image quality and on the other hand quantification of the radioactivity concentration becomes possible. Modern iterative reconstruction algorithms allow scatter correction and attenuation correction of SPECT data using the density values from CT. It still has to be shown to what extent attenuation-corrected whole body SPECT/CT studies will be able to improve the sensitivity of scintigraphy studies. As SPECT/CT primarily aims at morphologic correlation and not detection of additional lesions, an attempt should be made to balance the necessary anatomic information and the additional radiation exposure. Besides SPECT-guided CT all technical possibilities for dose reduction should be exhausted. (orig.) [German] Im Gegensatz zur Positronenemissionstomographie/Computertomographie (PET/CT) sind die auf dem Markt angebotenen Single-photon-emission-computed-tomography/CT(SPECT/CT)-Systeme sehr heterogen. Auf der Seite der Gammakameras sind Zweikopfsysteme etabliert, die sich bei den verschiedenen Wettbewerbern nur unwesentlich unterscheiden. Hingegen reicht bei der CT-Komponente die Palette von der einfachen Niedrigdosisroentgenroehre ueber die flachdetektorbasierte Cone-beam-CT-Technologie bis hin zum Mehrzeilenspiral-CT. Die CT-Bilddaten werden dabei zum einen zur anatomischen Korrelation funktionell auffaelliger

  13. Improved Benefit of SPECT/CT Compared to SPECT Alone for the Accurate Localization of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca G. Bural

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the clinical utility of SPECT/ CT in subjects with endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors compared to SPECT alone. Material and Methods: 48 subjects (31 women;17 men; mean age 54±11 with clinical suspicion or diagnosis of endocrine and neuroendocrine tumor had 50 SPECT/CT scans (32 Tc-99m MIBI, 5 post treatment I-131, 8 In-111 Pentetreotide, and 5 I-123 MIBG. SPECT alone findings were compared to SPECT/CT and to pathology or radiological follow up. Results: From the 32 Tc-99m MIBI scans, SPECT accurately localized the lesion in 22 positive subjects while SPECT/CT did in 31 subjects. Parathyroid lesions not seen on SPECT alone were smaller than 10 mm. In five post treatment I-131 scans, SPECT alone neither characterized, nor localized any lesions accurately. SPECT/CT revealed 3 benign etiologies, a metastatic lymph node, and one equivocal lesion. In 8 In-111 Pentetreotide scans, SPECT alone could not localize primary or metastatic lesions in 6 subjects all of which were localized with SPECT/CT. In five I-123 MIBG scans, SPECT alone could not detect a 1.1 cm adrenal lesion or correctly characterize normal physiologic adrenal uptake in consecutive scans of the same patient with prior history of adrenelectomy, all of which were correctly localized and characterized with SPECT/CT. Conclusion: SPECT/CT is superior to SPECT alone in the assessment of endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors. It is better in lesion localization and lesion characterization leading to a decrease in the number of equivocal findings. SPECT/CT should be included in the clinical work up of all patients with diagnosis or suspicion of endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors. (MIRT 2012;21:91-96

  14. Connectomic analysis of brain networks: novel techniques and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Cazemier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain networks, localized or brain-wide, exist only at the cellular level, i.e. between specific pre- and postsynaptic neurons, which are connected through functionally diverse synapses located at specific points of their cell membranes. Connectomics is the emerging subfield of neuroanatomy explicitly aimed at elucidating the wiring of brain networks with cellular resolution and a quantified accuracy. Such data are indispensable for realistic modeling of brain circuitry and function. A connectomic analysis, therefore, needs to identify and measure the soma, dendrites, axonal path and branching patterns together with the synapses and gap junctions of the neurons involved in any given brain circuit or network. However, because of the submicron caliber, 3D complexity and high packing density of most such structures, as well as the fact that axons frequently extend over long distances to make synapses in remote brain regions, creating connectomic maps is technically challenging and requires multi-scale approaches, Such approaches involve the combination of the most sensitive cell labeling and analysis methods available, as well as the development of new ones able to resolve individual cells and synapses with increasing high-throughput. In this review, we provide an overview of recently introduced high-resolution methods, which researchers wanting to enter the field of connectomics may consider. It includes several molecular labeling tools, some of which specifically label synapses, and covers a number of novel imaging tools such as brain clearing protocols and microscopy approaches. Apart from describing the tools, we also provide an assessment of their qualities. The criteria we use assess the qualities that tools need in order to contribute to deciphering the key levels of circuit organization. We conclude with a brief future outlook for neuroanatomic research, computational methods and network modeling, where we also point out several outstanding

  15. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, Catherine [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Hustinx, Roland [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Oncologique, CHU de Liege, Liege (Belgium)

    2014-05-15

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  16. Applications of SPECT imaging of dopaminergic neurotransmission in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugaya, Akira; Fujita, Masahiro; Innis, R.B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Medicine

    2000-02-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers selective for pre- and post-synaptic targets have allowed measurements of several aspects of dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission. In this article, we will first review our DA transporter imaging in Parkinson's disease. We have developed the in vivo dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT ((1R)-2{beta}-Carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane). This method showed that patients with Parkinson's disease have markedly reduced DAT levels in striatum, which correlated with disease severity and disease progression. Second, we applied DA imaging techniques in patients with schizophrenia. Using amphetamine as a releaser of DA, we observed the enhanced DA release, which was measured by imaging D2 receptors with [{sup 123}I]IBZM (iodobenzamide), in schizophrenics. Further we developed the measurement of basal synaptic DA levels by AMPT (alpha-methyl-paratyrosine)-induced unmasking of D2 receptors. Finally, we expanded our techniques to the measurement of extrastriatal DA receptors using [{sup 123}I]epidepride. The findings suggest that SPECT is a useful technique to measure DA transmission in human brain and may further our understanding of the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. (author)

  17. Comparison of SPECT/CT and MRI in diagnosing symptomatic lesions in ankle and foot pain patients: diagnostic performance and relation to lesion type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunggyun Ha

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of SPECT/CT and MRI in patients with ankle and foot pain, with regard to the lesion types.Fifty consecutive patients with ankle and foot pain, who underwent 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT and MRI, were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Symptomatic lesions were determined based on clinical examination and response to treatment. On MRI and SPECT/CT, detected lesions were classified as bone, ligament/tendon, and joint lesions. Uptake on SPECT/CT was assessed using a 4-grade system. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of SPECT/CT and MRI were evaluated in all detected lesions and each lesion type. Diagnostic value of uptake grade was analyzed using receiver-operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis, and diagnostic performance was compared using Chi-square or McNemar tests.In overall lesions, the sensitivity, PPV and NPV of SPECT/CT for symptomatic lesions were 93%, 56%, 91%, and they were 98%, 48%, 95% for MRI. There was no significant difference between SPECT/CT and MRI. However, the specificity of SPECT/CT was significantly higher than that of MRI (48% versus 24%, P = 0.016. Uptake grade on SPECT/CT was significantly higher in symptomatic lesions (P < 0.001, and its area under curve on ROC analysis was 0.787. In the analysis of each lesion type, the specificity of SPECT/CT was poor in joint lesions compared with other lesion types and MRI (P < 0.001, respectively. MRI exhibited lower specificity than SPECT/CT in bone lesions (P = 0.004 and ligament/tendon lesions (P < 0.001.SPECT/CT has MRI-comparable diagnostic performance for symptomatic lesions in ankle and foot pain patients. SPECT/CT and MRI exhibit different diagnostic specificity in different lesion types. SPECT/CT may be used as a complementary imaging method to MRI for enhancing diagnostic specificity.

  18. Neuroradiological findings in primary progressive aphasia: CT, MRI and cerebral perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnatamby, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Addenbrooke`s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Antoun, N.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Addenbrooke`s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Freer, C.E.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Addenbrooke`s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Miles, K.A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke`s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hodges, J.R. [Dept. of Neurology, Addenbrooke`s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is defined as progressive decline in language for 2 or more years with preservation of activities of daily living and general cognitive functions. Whereas the clinical features of this syndrome have been well documented, the neuroradiological findings have not been studied systematically. We studied 13 patients with PPA retrospectively: 10 underwent CT, 12 MRI and 12 cerebral perfusion studies using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT. CT and MR images were scored for focal atrophy by two independent assessors. Initial qualitative assessment of SPECT images was confirmed by quantitative analysis. CY was normal in 5 patients. Focal atrophy, affecting predominantly the left temporal lobe, was seen in 4 of 10 patients on CT, and 10 of 12 on MRI. Atrophy was localised primarily to the superior and middle temporal gyri on MRI. All 12 patients who underwent SPECT had unilateral temporal lobe perfusion defects, in 2 patients of whom MRI was normal. CT is relatively insensitive to focal abnormalities in PPA; MRI and SPECT are the imaging modalities of choice. MRI allows accurate, specific localisation of atrophy with the temporal neocortex. SPECT may reveal a functional decrease in cerebral perfusion prior to establishment of structural change. (orig.)

  19. Utility of Quantitative 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT for 90yttrium-Labelled Microsphere Treatment Planning: Calculating Vascularized Hepatic Volume and Dosimetric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Garin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of SPECT/CT for volume measurements and to report a case illustrating the major impact of SPECT/CT in calculating the vascularized liver volume and dosimetry prior to injecting radiolabelled yttrium-90 microspheres (Therasphere. Materials and Methods. This was a phantom study, involving volume measurements carried out by two operators using SPECT and SPECT/CT images. The percentage of error for each method was calculated, and interobserver reproducibility was evaluated. A treatment using Therasphere was planned in a patient with three hepatic arteries, and the quantitative analysis of SPECT/CT for this patient is provided. Results. SPECT/CT volume measurements proved to be accurate (mean error <6% for volumes ≥16 cm3 and reproductive (interobserver agreement = 0.9. In the case report, 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT identified a large liver volume, not previously identified with angiography, which was shown to be vascularized after selective MAA injection into an arterial branch, resulting in a large modification in the activity of Therasphere used. Conclusions. MAA SPECT/CT is accurate for vascularized liver volume measurements, providing a valuable contribution to the therapeutic planning of patients with complex hepatic vascularization.

  20. Monitoring CBF in clinical routine by dynamic single photon emission tomography (SPECT) of inhaled xenon-133

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, H; Christensen, J; Skyhøj Olsen, T

    1986-01-01

    A very simple and low-cost brain dedicated, rapidly rotating Single Photon Emission Tomograph SPECT is described. Its use in following patients with ischemic stroke is illustrated by two middle cerebral artery occlusion cases, one with persistent occlusion and low CBF in MCA territory, and one wi...... with early lysis of the occlusion having high CBF (massive luxury perfusion) for some weeks. Evidence of this kind may be essential in the evaluation of therapeutic measures in ischemic stroke....

  1. 可乐定联合剥夺睡眠诱发癫(癎)发作的SPECT脑血流灌注显像研究%The study of ictal brain SPECT during seizures induced by clonidine and sleep-deprivation in patients with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓慧; 陈雪红; 王正江; 柳江燕; 冯建中; 叶江; 赵莉

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨可乐定加剥夺睡眠诱发癫(癎)发作,获取发作期SPECT显像结果的可行性及临床价值.方法 选择临床确诊的癫(癎)患者52例,口服可乐定并剥夺睡眠以诱发癫(癎)(简称可乐定组),在视频脑电图(VEEG)监测下,当患者出现临床发作和(或)VEEG出现典型癫(癎)波时,30 s内静脉注射99Tcm-双半胱乙酯(ECD),30 min后行脑血流灌注断层显像.同时,选择同等条件下癫(癎)患者47例作为对照,通过单纯剥夺睡眠以诱发癫(癎)(简称剥夺睡眠组).应用SPSS 10.0统计软件对2组患者癫(癎)诱发率进行x2检验.结果 可乐定组的52例癫(癎)患者中,39例(75.0%)口服可乐定后1~2 h出现了VEEG异常,其中亚临床发作(仅出现典型癫(癎)波)92.3%(36/39),临床发作7.7%(3/39).发作期SPECT定位阳性率为94.9%(37/39),均表现为高血流灌注灶.剥夺睡眠组的47例患者中,诱发率为38.3%(18/47),其中亚临床发作77.8%(14/18),临床发作22.2%(4/18).2组诱发率差异有统计学意义(x2=13.614,P<0.01);2组临床发作率差异无统计学意义(x2=1.253,P>0.05).结论 可乐定联合剥夺睡眠对癫(癎)的诱发率明显高于单纯剥夺睡眠,前者可在有限的时间内诱发癫(癎),以亚临床发作为主,故可作为进行发作期SPECT脑显像安全、有效的诱发方法.%Objective To evaluate the feasibility and clinical value of combined clonidine and sleep-deprivation induced seizures for ictal brain SPECT imaging in patients with epilepsy. Methods Fiftytwo epilepsy patients were given oral clonidine plus sleep-deprivation to induce seizures with video-electroencephalogram (VEEG) monitoring. Forty-seven patients were selected as control group, whose seizures were induced by sleep-deprivation only. 99Tcm-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) was injected within 30 s since a clinical sign and/or a typical EEG discharge of epilepsy was recognized. Brain SPECT was performed 30 min after 99TcmECD injection. X2-test was

  2. Image Restoration Using Functional and Anatomical Information Fusion with Application to SPECT-MRI Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benameur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Image restoration is usually viewed as an ill-posed problem in image processing, since there is no unique solution associated with it. The quality of restored image closely depends on the constraints imposed of the characteristics of the solution. In this paper, we propose an original extension of the NAS-RIF restoration technique by using information fusion as prior information with application in SPECT medical imaging. That extension allows the restoration process to be constrained by efficiently incorporating, within the NAS-RIF method, a regularization term which stabilizes the inverse solution. Our restoration method is constrained by anatomical information extracted from a high resolution anatomical procedure such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. This structural anatomy-based regularization term uses the result of an unsupervised Markovian segmentation obtained after a preliminary registration step between the MRI and SPECT data volumes from each patient. This method was successfully tested on 30 pairs of brain MRI and SPECT acquisitions from different subjects and on Hoffman and Jaszczak SPECT phantoms. The experiments demonstrated that the method performs better, in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, than a classical supervised restoration approach using a Metz filter.

  3. Delayed reflow of an ischemic infarct after spontaneous thrombolysis studied by CBF tomography using SPECT and Tc-99m HMPAO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Companioni, J M; Lassen, N A; Tfelt-Hansen, P

    1991-01-01

    A patient with a large ischemic infarct in the left middle cerebral artery territory was studied six times in the acute/subacute phase by cerebral blood flow (CBF) tomography using Tc-99m-HMPAO. The SPECT instrument used was a brain dedicated highly sensitive four-camera system (TOMOMATIC 232) th...... of the occlusion with flows reaching levels above that of the opposite non-affected side ("Luxury Perfusion"). The delayed reflow implies, that SPECT may not constitute a reliable tool for evaluating the success or failure of thrombolytic treatment in ischemic stroke....

  4. [{sup 123}I]-IMP SPECT findings in spinocerebellar ataxia type 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Nakabayashi, Haruo; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Masayuki [Jikei Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kashiwa Hospital; Nakajima, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    To study the dynamics of metabolic function in the cerebellar hemispheres, vermis and brain stem of patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6), we used single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I] iodoamphetamine (IMP) to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in six Japanese patients with SCA6 and nine normal control subjects. All patients with SCA6 were found to have expanded CAG repeats (from 22 to 24 repeats). The SPECT data were also analyzed semiquantitatively. The rCBF in the cerebellar hemisphere, vermis and brain stem was not significantly lower in patients with SCA6 than in normal controls. However, the ratio of the cerebellar hemisphere to occipital lobe (C/O ratio) was significantly lower in patients. The ratio of the vermis and brain stem to occipital lobe (V/O, P/O ratio) were not significantly lower in patients. The C/O, V/O and P/O ratio were especially sensitive indexes for regional cerebral function in patients with SCA6. Results of this study suggest that the functional decrease in SCA6 may begin in the cerebellar hemispheres. IMP SPECT was useful for evaluating rCBF in patients with SCA6. (author)

  5. Bayesian reconstruction strategy of fluorescence-mediated tomography using an integrated SPECT-CT-OT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liji; Peter, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    Following the assembly of a triple-modality SPECT-CT-OT small animal imaging system providing intrinsically co-registered projection data of all three submodalities and under the assumption and investigation of dual-labeled probes consisting of both fluorophores and radionuclides, a novel multi-modal reconstruction strategy is presented in this paper aimed at improving fluorescence-mediated tomography (FMT). The following reconstruction procedure is proposed: firstly, standard x-ray CT image reconstruction is performed employing the FDK algorithm. Secondly, standard SPECT image reconstruction is performed using OSEM. Thirdly, from the reconstructed CT volume data the surface boundary of the imaged object is extracted for finite element definition. Finally, the reconstructed SPECT data are used as a priori information within a Bayesian reconstruction framework for optical (FMT) reconstruction. We provide results of this multi-modal approach using phantom experimental data and illustrate that this strategy does suppress artifacts and facilitates quantitative analysis for optical imaging studies.

  6. Iodine-123 IMP SPECT before and after by-pass surgery in a patient with occlusion of left anterior and middle cerebral arteries with basal abnormal telangiectasis (unilateral Moyamoya disease)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Norinari; Machida, Kikuo; Takishima, Teruo; Kaizu, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Eiichi

    1987-09-01

    A case of left anterior and middle cerebral arterial occlusion with angiographic features similar to Moyamoya disease was reported. IMP SPECT of the patient revealed the success of by-pass surgery clearly. The patient complained of transient right hemiparesis with aphasia 4 times. The cerebral arteriography disclosed occlusions of left anterior and middle cerebral arteries at their proximal portions. Right internal carotid and its branches were normal. I-123 IMP SPECT study showed hypoperfusion in left temporal lobe, basal ganglia with incomplete reperfusion on the delayed (4 hours after injection) SPECT images. After the superficial temporal-middle cerebral artery anastomosis, I-123 IMP SPECT showed improvement of the brain blood flow. I-123 IMP SPECT was very useful in detecting the ischemic areas and evaluating the revascularizing surgery in this case.

  7. Determination of Three-Dimensional Left Ventricle Motion to Analyze Ventricular Dyssyncrony in SPECT Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Sá Rebelo, Marina; Aarre, Ann Kirstine Hummelgaard; Clemmesen, Karen-Louise;

    2010-01-01

    A method to compute three-dimension (3D) left ventricle (LV) motion and its color coded visualization scheme for the qualitative analysis in SPECT images is proposed. It is used to investigate some aspects of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT). The method was applied to 3D gated-SPECT images...... sets from normal subjects and patients with severe Idiopathic Heart Failure, before and after CRT. Color coded visualization maps representing the LV regional motion showed significant difference between patients and normal subjects. Moreover, they indicated a difference between the two groups...

  8. Evaluation of CLINDE as potent translocator protein (18 kDa) SPECT radiotracer reflecting the degree of neuroinflammation in a rat model of microglial activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlicot, Nicolas; Duval, Stephanie; Guilloteau, Denis; Chalon, Sylvie [Inserm, U930, Tours (France); Universite Francois Rabelais, Tours (France); CHRU de Tours, Tours (France); Katsifis, Andrew; Mattner, Filomena [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Sydney (Australia); Garreau, Lucette; Vergote, Jackie; Bodard, Sylvie [Inserm, U930, Tours (France); Universite Francois Rabelais, Tours (France)

    2008-12-15

    The translocator protein (TSPO; 18 kDa), the new name of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is localised in mitochondria of glial cells and expressed in very low concentrations in normal brain. Their expression rises after microglial activation following brain injury. Accordingly, TSPO are potential targets to evaluate neuroinflammatory changes in a variety of CNS disorders. To date, only a few effective tools are available to explore TSPO by SPECT. We characterised here 6-chloro-2-(4'iodophenyl)-3-(N,N-diethyl)-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide or CLINDE in a rat model with different stages of excitotoxic lesion. Excitotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by unilateral intrastriatal injection of different amounts of quinolinic acid (75, 150 or 300 nmol). Six days later, two groups of rats (n = 5-6/group) were i.v. injected with [{sup 125}I]-CLINDE (0.4 MBq); one group being pre-injected with PK11195 (5 mg/kg). Brains were removed 30 min after tracer injection and the radioactivity of cerebral areas measured. Complementary ex vivo autoradiography, in vitro autoradiography ([{sup 3}H]-PK11195) and immunohistochemical studies (OX-42) were performed on brain sections. In the control group, [{sup 125}I]-CLINDE binding was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in lesioned than that in intact side. This binding disappeared in rats pre-treated with PK11195 (p<0.001), showing specific binding of CLINDE to TSPO. Ex vivo and in vitro autoradiographic studies and immunohistochemistry were consistent with this, revealing a spatial correspondence between radioactivity signal and activated microglia. Regression analysis yielded a positive relation between the ligand binding and the degree of neuroinflammation. These results demonstrate that CLINDE is suitable for TSPO in vivo SPECT imaging to explore their involvement in neurodegenerative disorders associated with microglial activation. (orig.)

  9. An empirical EEG analysis in brain death diagnosis for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Cao, Jianting; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Yue; Gu, Fanji; Zhu, Guoxian; Hong, Zhen; Wang, Bin; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2008-09-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) is often used in the confirmatory test for brain death diagnosis in clinical practice. Because EEG recording and monitoring is relatively safe for the patients in deep coma, it is believed to be valuable for either reducing the risk of brain death diagnosis (while comparing other tests such as the apnea) or preventing mistaken diagnosis. The objective of this paper is to study several statistical methods for quantitative EEG analysis in order to help bedside or ambulatory monitoring or diagnosis. We apply signal processing and quantitative statistical analysis for the EEG recordings of 32 adult patients. For EEG signal processing, independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to separate the independent source components, followed by Fourier and time-frequency analysis. For quantitative EEG analysis, we apply several statistical complexity measures to the EEG signals and evaluate the differences between two groups of patients: the subjects in deep coma, and the subjects who were categorized as brain death. We report statistically significant differences of quantitative statistics with real-life EEG recordings in such a clinical study, and we also present interpretation and discussions on the preliminary experimental results.

  10. SPECT/CT and tumour imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abikhzer, Gad [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Keidar, Zohar [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa (Israel)

    2014-05-15

    Scintigraphic techniques are sensitive imaging modalities in the diagnosis and follow-up of cancer patients providing the functional and metabolic activity characteristics of the tumour. Hybrid SPECT/CT improves the diagnostic accuracy of these well-established imaging techniques by precise anatomical localization and characterization of morphological findings, differentiation between foci of physiological and pathological tracer uptake, resulting in a significant impact on patient management and more definitive interpretations. The use of SPECT/CT has been studied in a variety of applications in tumour imaging which are reviewed in this article. By combining functional and anatomical information in a single imaging session, SPECT/CT has become a one-stop cancer imaging modality. (orig.)

  11. UNC-Emory Infant Atlases for Macaque Brain Image Analysis: Postnatal Brain Development through 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yundi; Budin, Francois; Yapuncich, Eva; Rumple, Ashley; Young, Jeffrey T.; Payne, Christa; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hu, Xiaoping; Godfrey, Jodi; Howell, Brittany; Sanchez, Mar M.; Styner, Martin A.

    2017-01-01

    Computational anatomical atlases have shown to be of immense value in neuroimaging as they provide age appropriate reference spaces alongside ancillary anatomical information for automated analysis such as subcortical structural definitions, cortical parcellations or white fiber tract regions. Standard workflows in neuroimaging necessitate such atlases to be appropriately selected for the subject population of interest. This is especially of importance in early postnatal brain development, where rapid changes in brain shape and appearance render neuroimaging workflows sensitive to the appropriate atlas choice. We present here a set of novel computation atlases for structural MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging as crucial resource for the analysis of MRI data from non-human primate rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) data in early postnatal brain development. Forty socially-housed infant macaques were scanned longitudinally at ages 2 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months in order to create cross-sectional structural and DTI atlases via unbiased atlas building at each of these ages. Probabilistic spatial prior definitions for the major tissue classes were trained on each atlas with expert manual segmentations. In this article we present the development and use of these atlases with publicly available tools, as well as the atlases themselves, which are publicly disseminated to the scientific community. PMID:28119564

  12. Myocardial Perfusion Spect Imaging in Dextrocardia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Özdemir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The myocardial perfusion scintigraphy acquisition and analysis present some technical differences in the rare dextrocardia cases. Here we report a case of a 38 year-old woman with dextrocardia who had been applied myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Presented case showed that the thoracic and abdominal organs had a mirror image with situs inversus totalis type dextrocardia. The incidence of coronary heart disease and life span of people with situs inversus totalis are the same as the normal population. So we may apply myocardial perfusion scintigraphy to this patient group. The current case is presented in order to remind the special applications of myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in patients with dextrocardia.

  13. 发作间期PET显像与发作期SPECT显像在癫痫灶定位中的应用%Associated application studies of epileptic interictal PET and ictal SPECT brain imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金陵; 李家敏; 李树生; 孙爱君; 刘健; 苏富勇

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨发作间期PET显像与发作期SPECT显像在癫痫灶定位中的的特点和相关性.方法对54例癫痫患者行发作间期PET和发作期SPECT 2次检查,对结果进行对比分析.结果54例发作间期PET显像示低代谢者中33例(61.1%)表现为单叶局限性低代谢,21例(38.9%)表现为多个病灶或弥漫性改变.发作期SPECT显像50例可见高灌注灶,高灌注中37例(74%)为单叶局限性高灌注,13例(26%)为多个病灶,未见弥漫性高灌注.2项检查比较,46例(85.2%)2项检查结果相符合,其中32例(69.6%)显示为颞叶病灶.发作间期PET示多病灶及弥漫性改变者于发作期SPECT显像时有9例 (42.9%)转化为单叶局限性病灶,7例(33.3%)排除了部分低代谢病灶.结论癫痫灶灌注与代谢改变具有明显的相关性.发作间期PET显像定位癫痫灶解剖结构显示较为清晰,发作期SPECT显像替代发作期PET检查可提高定位特异性.2项检查联合应用可排除非致痫性病变和发作过程中痫性电活动的泛化,具有较好的互补性.

  14. Corrections in clinical Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nijs, Robin

    assumed weight factor of one for energy windows with equal width is slightly too low, due the presence of a backscatter peak in the energy spectrum coming from high-energy photons. The effect on the contrast was tested in 10 subjects and revealed a 20% increase in the specific binding ratio...... a detrimental effect of the extra-uterine environment on brain development. Paper II describes a method to correct for downscatter in low count Iodine-123 SPECT with a broad energy window above the normal imaging window. Both spatial dependency and weight factors were measured. As expected, the implicitly...... be performed by the subtraction of an energy window, a method was developed to perform scatter and downscatter correction simultaneously. A phantom study has been performed, where the in paper II described downscatter correction was extended with scatter correction. This new combined correction was compared...

  15. Brain Network Analysis from High-Resolution EEG Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Babiloni, Fabio

    lattice and a random structure. Such a model has been designated as "small-world" network in analogy with the concept of the small-world phenomenon observed more than 30 years ago in social systems. In a similar way, many types of functional brain networks have been analyzed according to this mathematical approach. In particular, several studies based on different imaging techniques (fMRI, MEG and EEG) have found that the estimated functional networks showed small-world characteristics. In the functional brain connectivity context, these properties have been demonstrated to reflect an optimal architecture for the information processing and propagation among the involved cerebral structures. However, the performance of cognitive and motor tasks as well as the presence of neural diseases has been demonstrated to affect such a small-world topology, as revealed by the significant changes of L and C. Moreover, some functional brain networks have been mostly found to be very unlike the random graphs in their degree-distribution, which gives information about the allocation of the functional links within the connectivity pattern. It was demonstrated that the degree distributions of these networks follow a power-law trend. For this reason those networks are called "scale-free". They still exhibit the small-world phenomenon but tend to contain few nodes that act as highly connected "hubs". Scale-free networks are known to show resistance to failure, facility of synchronization and fast signal processing. Hence, it would be important to see whether the scaling properties of the functional brain networks are altered under various pathologies or experimental tasks. The present Chapter proposes a theoretical graph approach in order to evaluate the functional connectivity patterns obtained from high-resolution EEG signals. In this way, the "Brain Network Analysis" (in analogy with the Social Network Analysis that has emerged as a key technique in modern sociology) represents an

  16. Defect of {sup 18}F-FDG Uptake Observed in Infarcted Myocardium Showing Reverse Redistribution on Rest / 24-Hour Delayed {sup 201}Tl Myocardial SPECT after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Young; Paeng, Jin Chul; Oh, So Won; Kim, Ji Yeong; Chung, Woo Young [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Reverse redistribution is frequently observed after revascularization in acute myocardial infarction, and usually regarded as a predictor of viable myocardium on stress/rest and 2- to 4-hour redistribution {sup 201}Tl SPECT. However, there is not enough report of reverse redistribution in case of 24-hour delayed SPECT, which is commonly used for viability assessment. In this report, a case of reverse redistribution on rest and 24-hour delayed {sup 201}Tl SPECT is reported with use of automatic segmental quantitative analysis. The myocardium of reverse redistribution was dysfunctional on gated SPECT, and diagnosed as non-viable on {sup 18}F-FDG PET.

  17. Assessment of the impact of application of singlephoton emission computed tomography and SPECT-CT on lesion categorisation in bone scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garba H. Yunusa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess initial experience with the use of a new single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT in the evaluation of lesions.Methods: The folder number, radiopharmaceutical used and type of scan of patients examined with a new Siemens T6 SPECT-CT between 02 April 2016 and 31 December 2013 were retrieved. The number of 99mTc-MDP bone scans was sufficient for a detailed analysis. The scans were re-processed and reported by the observer before he was given any clinical information. Whole body planar, whole body planar plus SPECT and whole body planar plus SPECT-CT images were assessed successively in three separate sessions at least 2 weeks apart. At each session, the certainties of detection, localisation and categorisation of each lesion were recorded.Results: A total of 539 lesions were seen on the whole body, SPECT and computed tomography (CT images in 133 patients. The whole body images showed no lesions in 3 patients and 378 lesions in 130 patients. SPECT detected 122 additional lesions in 79 patients. Thirty-nine (12.2% lesions were seen only on CT in 32 (24.1% patients. For the 261 lesions seen on the planar images in the SPECT field of view, lesion detection was definite in 233 (89.3%, localisation definite in 151 (57.9% and categorisation definite in 123 (47.1% lesions. On the SPECT, definite lesion detection, localisation and categorisation were recorded, respectively, for 259 (99.2%, 228 (87.4% and 176 (67.4% of the 261 lesions. Lesion detection, localisation and categorisation certainties were definite for 100%, 99.1% and 94.7% of the SPECT-CT lesions, respectively.Conclusion: SPECT markedly improves lesion detection and localisation, and CT enhances lesion categorisation.

  18. Perfusion impairments on brian SPECT in patients with developmental language disorder: comparison with MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Y. H. [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, E. J.; Kim, J. K.; Yoon, P. H.; Jeon, T. J.; Jeon, J. D.; Lee, J. D. [College of Medicine, Inje Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Development language disorder (DLD) is diagnosed when there is a failure of normal language development in a child with normal nonverbal intelligence. Because previous study had not demonstrated consistent and specific neuroimaging findings of DLD, we performed a retrospective review in search of common functional and structural abnormalties in pre-school aged DLD children using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI and compared them with age-matched children with infantile autism (AD). 50 children between 4 and 9 years of age with DLD (n=24) infantile autism (n=26) were performed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI. Diagnosis of DLD and infantile autism was based on the criteria of DSM-IV and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Of the 24 DLD patients, 10 revealed decreased perfusion of the thalami, followed by hypoperfusion of cerebellar hemisphere (n=9), frontal cortex (n=5), temporal cortex (n=5), parietal cortex (n=1). Of those 26 AD patients, 18 revealed hypoperfusion of the cerebellar hemisphere, followed by hypoperfusion of the thalami (n=16), parietal cortex (n=10), temporal cortex (n=4). Frontal hypoperfusion was significantly frequently seen in DLD, whereas, cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion was frequently seen in AD.All AD and DLD patients had normal MRI scan. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion on brain SPECT showed statistically significant correlation with CARS. SPECT may be useful and more sensitive modality in reflecting pathophysiology of DLD and AD as evidenced by previous MRI and postmortem studies although they had normal MRI. And further studies are necessary to determine the significant of the thalamic hypoperfusion.

  19. Dopamine transporter density of the basal ganglia assessed with I-123 IPT SPECT in methamphetamine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Ryung; Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kewm, Do Hun [National Bugok Mental Hospital, Changryung (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-10-15

    Functional imaging of dopamine transporter (DAT) defines integrity of the dopaminergic system, and DAT is the target site of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Functional imaging the DAT may be a sensitive and selective indicator of neurotoxic change by the drug. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical implications of qualitative/quantitative analyses of dopamine transporter imaging in methamphetamine abusers. Six detoxified methamphetamine abusers (abuser group) and 4 volunteers (control group) were enrolled in this study. Brain MRI was performed in all of abuser group. Abuser group underwent psychiatric and depression assessment using brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD), respectively. All of the subjects underwent I-123 IPT SPECT (IPT SPECT). IPT SPECT image was analysed with visual qualitative method and quantitative method using basal ganglia dopamine transporter (DAT) specific/non-specific binding ratio (SBR). Comparison of DAT SBR between abuser and control groups was performed. We also performed correlation tests between psychiatric and depression assessment results and DAT SBR in abuser group. All of abuser group showed normal MRI finding, but had residual psychiatric and depressive symptoms, and psychiatric and depressive symptom scores were exactly correlated (r=1.0, {rho} =0.005) each other. Five of them showed abnormal finding on qualitative visual I-123 IPT SPECT. Abuser group had lower basal ganglia DAT SBR than that of control (2.38 {+-} 0.20 vs 3.04 {+-} 0.27, {rho} =0.000). Psychiatric and depressive symptoms were negatively well correlated with basal ganglia DAT SBR (r=-0.908, {rho} =0.012, r=-0.924, {rho} =0.009) This results suggest that dopamine transporter imaging using I-123 IPT SPECT may be used to evaluate dopaminergic system of the basal ganglia and the clinical status in methamphetamine abusers.

  20. Characterization of electromagnetic fields in the aSPECT spectrometer and reduction of systematic errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala Guardia, Fidel

    2011-10-15

    The aSPECT spectrometer has been designed to measure, with high precision, the recoil proton spectrum of the free neutron decay. From this spectrum, the electron antineutrino angular correlation coefficient a can be extracted with high accuracy. The goal of the experiment is to determine the coefficient a with a total relative error smaller than 0.3%, well below the current literature value of 5%. First measurements with the aSPECT spectrometer were performed in the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz in Munich. However, time-dependent background instabilities prevented us from reporting a new value of a. The contents of this thesis are based on the latest measurements performed with the aSPECT spectrometer at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France. In these measurements, background instabilities were considerably reduced. Furthermore, diverse modifications intended to minimize systematic errors and to achieve a more reliable setup were successfully performed. Unfortunately, saturation effects of the detector electronics turned out to be too high to determine a meaningful result. However, this and other systematics were identified and decreased, or even eliminated, for future aSPECT beamtimes. The central part of this work is focused on the analysis and improvement of systematic errors related to the aSPECT electromagnetic fields. This work yielded in many improvements, particularly in the reduction of the systematic effects due to electric fields. The systematics related to the aSPECT magnetic field were also minimized and determined down to a level which permits to improve the present literature value of a. Furthermore, a custom NMR-magnetometer was developed and improved during this thesis, which will lead to reduction of magnetic field-related uncertainties down to a negligible level to determine a with a total relative error of at least 0.3%.

  1. Quantification of cerebral blood flow and its clinical usefulness. Application of SPECT to psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Uema, Takeshi; Kogure, Daisuke; Takano, Harumasa; Terada, Tomo [National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    Brain perfusion SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) was applied to psychiatric diseases with aid of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for analysis of data. To evaluate influence of aging on brain perfusion, noninvasive measurements of cerebral blood flow using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD were performed in 53 normal volunteers, aged 18 to 87 years old. Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) was 43.9{+-}5.0 ml/100 g/min and showed weak negative correlation with aging (r=-0.451). Perisylvian cerebral cortices and medial frontal areas including anterior cingulate gyri showed greater negative correlation than other areas. These findings suggest the necessity of age-matched control regional CBF (rCBF) data to investigate rCBF abnormality in patients. Four drug-naive schizophrenic patients showed flow decrease in bilateral frontal and superior temporal areas and a left infero-posterior temporal area. Haloperidol administration induced flow decrease in bilateral frontal and left parietal areas, while flow increase in bilateral striatal and right hippocampal areas. Ten aged depressive patients showed flow decrease in bilateral frontal and left temporo-parietal areas. Even after remission patients showed flow decrease in the left frontal area as compared with normal subjects. Remission induced flow increase in the right frontal, right parietal, and right orbitofrontal areas compared with depression. These results suggest that CBF measurements using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD are useful for objective evaluation of regional abnormality in brain function in psychiatric diseases. (author)

  2. The Proton Spectrum in Neutron Beta Decay: First Results with the aSPECT spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeßler, S.; Angerer, H.; Ayala Guardia, F.; Borg, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Glück, F.; Heil, W.; Konorov, I.; Konrad, G.; Luquero Llopis, N.; Muñoz Horta, R.; Orlowski, M.; Petzoldt, G.; Rich, D.; Simson, M.; Sobolev, Y.; Wirth, H. F.; Zimmer, O.

    2006-11-01

    First measurements with the aSPECT spectrometer have been performed in a beam time at the beam line MEPHISTO of the neutron research reactor FRM-II. In this paper we give a short description of the spectrometer. The data analysis is still underway.

  3. Analysis of large brain MRI databases for investigating the relationships between brain, cognitive, and genetic polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazoyer, B

    2006-07-01

    A major challenge for the years to come is the understanding of the brain-behaviour relationships, and in particular the investigation and quantification of the impact of genetic polymorphism on these relationships. In this framework, a promising experimental approach, which we will refer to as neuro-epidemiologic imaging, consists in acquiring multimodal (brain images, psychometric an d sociological data, genotypes) data in large (several hundreds or thousands ) cohorts of subjects. Processing of such large databases requires on first place the conception and implementation of automated 'pipelines', including image registration, spatial normalisation tissue segmentation, and multivariate statistical analysis. Given the number of images and data to be processed, such pipelines must be both fully automated and robust enough to be able to handle multi-center MRI data, e.g. having inhomogeneous characteristics in terms of resolution and contrast. This approach will be illustrated using two databases collected in aged healthy subjects, searching for the impact of genetic and environmental on two markers of brain aging, namely white matter hyper-signals, and grey matter atrophy. (author)

  4. Nonlinear microscopy, infrared, and Raman microspectroscopy for brain tumor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tobias; Bergner, Norbert; Bielecki, Christiane; Krafft, Christoph; Akimov, Denis; Romeike, Bernd F. M.; Reichart, Rupert; Kalff, Rolf; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

    2011-02-01

    Contemporary brain tumor research focuses on two challenges: First, tumor typing and grading by analyzing excised tissue is of utmost importance for choosing a therapy. Second, for prognostication the tumor has to be removed as completely as possible. Nowadays, histopathology of excised tissue using haematoxylin-eosine staining is the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis of surgical pathology specimens. However, it is neither applicable in vivo, nor does it allow for precise tumor typing in those cases when only nonrepresentative specimens are procured. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy allow for very precise cancer analysis due to their molecular specificity, while nonlinear microscopy is a suitable tool for rapid imaging of large tissue sections. Here, unstained samples from the brain of a domestic pig have been investigated by a multimodal nonlinear imaging approach combining coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, second harmonic generation, and two photon excited fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, a brain tumor specimen was additionally analyzed by linear Raman and Fourier transform infrared imaging for a detailed assessment of the tissue types that is required for classification and to validate the multimodal imaging approach. Hence label-free vibrational microspectroscopic imaging is a promising tool for fast and precise in vivo diagnostics of brain tumors.

  5. Quantitative analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging for hepatic encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syh, Hon-Wei; Chu, Wei-Kom; Ong, Chin-Sing

    1992-06-01

    High intensity lesions around ventricles have recently been observed in T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance images for patients suffering hepatic encephalopathy. The exact etiology that causes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gray scale changes has not been totally understood. The objective of our study was to investigate, through quantitative means, (1) the amount of changes to brain white matter due to the disease process, and (2) the extent and distribution of these high intensity lesions, since it is believed that the abnormality may not be entirely limited to the white matter only. Eleven patients with proven haptic encephalopathy and three normal persons without any evidence of liver abnormality constituted our current data base. Trans-axial, sagittal, and coronal brain MRI were obtained on a 1.5 Tesla scanner. All processing was carried out on a microcomputer-based image analysis system in an off-line manner. Histograms were decomposed into regular brain tissues and lesions. Gray scale ranges coded as lesion were then brought back to original images to identify distribution of abnormality. Our results indicated the disease process involved pallidus, mesencephalon, and subthalamic regions.

  6. Meta-analysis of functional brain imaging in specific phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipser, Jonathan C; Singh, Leesha; Stein, Dan J

    2013-07-01

    Although specific phobia is a prevalent anxiety disorder, evidence regarding its underlying functional neuroanatomy is inconsistent. A meta-analysis was undertaken to identify brain regions that were consistently responsive to phobic stimuli, and to characterize changes in brain activation following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). We searched the PubMed, SCOPUS and PsycINFO databases to identify positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies comparing brain activation in specific phobia patients and healthy controls. Two raters independently extracted study data from all the eligible studies, and pooled coordinates from these studies using activation likelihood estimation, a quantitative meta-analytic technique. Resulting statistical parametric maps were compared between patients and healthy controls, in response to phobic versus fear-evoking stimuli, and before and after therapy. Thirteen studies were included, comprising 327 participants. Regions that were consistently activated in response to phobic stimuli included the left insula, amygdala, and globus pallidus. Compared to healthy controls, phobic subjects had increased activation in response to phobic stimuli in the left amygdala/globus pallidus, left insula, right thalamus (pulvinar), and cerebellum. Following exposure-based therapy widespread deactivation was observed in the right frontal cortex, limbic cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum, with increased activation detected in the thalamus. Exposure to phobia-specific stimuli elicits brain activation that is consistent with current understandings of the neuroanatomy of fear conditioning and extinction. There is evidence that the effects of CBT in specific phobia may be mediated through the same underlying neurocircuitry.

  7. Evaluation of the redistribution in [sup 123]I-IMP SPECT in cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Masahiro; Shibasaki, Takashi; Horikoshi, Satoru; Ohye, Chihiro; Suzuki, Hideki (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-06-01

    We evaluated the correlation between redistribution on IMP SPECT and the regional oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) on PET. Ten lesions that had shown the redistribution phenomenon on IMP SPECT in five patients were selected. In four patient, IMP SPECT was performed within 2 months of the onset of cerebrovascular attack. In one patient, the examination was performed 3 years after the onset. The interval between IMP SPECT and PET was 45 days, except in one patient who was in the chronic phase. The ten lesions were classified into two groups according to rOEF values as follows: Group 1, rOEF[>=]50% and Group 2, rOEF<50%. In group 1, all lesions did not show low density on final X-ray CT. By contrast, in group 2, three lesions did not show low density on the X-ray CT and the other two lesions did. Redistribution rate (RD rate) was defined as follows, RD rate= [l brace](B-A) /B- (B'-A') /B'[r brace] / (B-A) /Bx100 (%) where, A, B, A' and B' are count rate in each of the regions of interest (ROIs). Region of interest (ROI) A was positioned in the lesion on the early image of SPECT that showed redistribution on the delayed image and ROI B was in the opposite side or occipital lobe (normal brain). On the delayed image, ROI A' and B' were positioned at the same place as A and B. ROIs on PET were positioned in the lesion corresponding to ROI A and B on SPECT. In group 1, all RD rates increased more than 70%. By contrast, in group 2, most RD rates were not more than 70%. In group 1, the A'/B' ratio increased more than A/B and was always greater than 90%. It is suggested that the presence of the redistribution phenomenon on IMP SPECT dose not always show the tissue viability. But quantification of the phenomenon by calculating A'/B' or RD rate is useful in evaluating tissue viability of the lesions and in predicting the final outcome of the area. (author).

  8. Single photon emission computed tomography of the brain with a rotating gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Knopp, R.; Winkler, C.; Wappenschmidt, J.

    1981-08-01

    In 471 patients SPECT of the brain was performed in addition to conventional serial brain scintigraphy using a rotating gamma camera (GAMMATOME T 9000). 23 patients had tumorous lesions, 26 had vascular lesions, and 422 patients revealed normal brain findings. 5 of the 23 patients with tumorous lesion and 5 of the 12 patients with vascular lesion (anamnesis shorter than 4 weeks) showed positive SPECT results but false negative conventional brain scans. Specificity could be improved up to 98% (412 out of 422 patients) using SPECT and conventional scintigraphy.

  9. Performance evaluation of D-SPECT: a novel SPECT system for nuclear cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Kjell; Kacperski, Krzysztof; van Gramberg, Dean; Hutton, Brian F.

    2009-05-01

    D-SPECT (Spectrum Dynamics, Israel) is a novel SPECT system for cardiac perfusion studies. Based on CZT detectors, region-centric scanning, high-sensitivity collimators and resolution recovery, it offers potential advantages over conventional systems. A series of measurements were made on a β-version D-SPECT system in order to evaluate its performance in terms of energy resolution, scatter fraction, sensitivity, count rate capability and resolution. Corresponding measurements were also done on a conventional SPECT system (CS) for comparison. The energy resolution of the D-SPECT system at 140 keV was 5.5% (CS: 9.25%), the scatter fraction 30% (CS: 34%), the planar sensitivity 398 s-1 MBq-1 per head (99mTc, 10 cm) (CS: 72 s-1 MBq-1), and the tomographic sensitivity in the heart region was in the range 647-1107 s-1 MBq-1 (CS: 141 s-1 MBq-1). The count rate increased linearly with increasing activity up to 1.44 M s-1. The intrinsic resolution was equal to the pixel size, 2.46 mm (CS: 3.8 mm). The average reconstructed resolution using the standard clinical filter was 12.5 mm (CS: 13.7 mm). The D-SPECT has superior sensitivity to that of a conventional system with similar spatial resolution. It also has excellent energy resolution and count rate characteristics, which should prove useful in dynamic and dual radionuclide studies.

  10. Performance evaluation of D-SPECT: a novel SPECT system for nuclear cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Kjell; Kacperski, Krzysztof; van Gramberg, Dean; Hutton, Brian F

    2009-05-07

    D-SPECT (Spectrum Dynamics, Israel) is a novel SPECT system for cardiac perfusion studies. Based on CZT detectors, region-centric scanning, high-sensitivity collimators and resolution recovery, it offers potential advantages over conventional systems. A series of measurements were made on a beta-version D-SPECT system in order to evaluate its performance in terms of energy resolution, scatter fraction, sensitivity, count rate capability and resolution. Corresponding measurements were also done on a conventional SPECT system (CS) for comparison. The energy resolution of the D-SPECT system at 140 keV was 5.5% (CS: 9.25%), the scatter fraction 30% (CS: 34%), the planar sensitivity 398 s(-1) MBq(-1) per head ((99m)Tc, 10 cm) (CS: 72 s(-1) MBq(-1)), and the tomographic sensitivity in the heart region was in the range 647-1107 s(-1) MBq(-1) (CS: 141 s(-1) MBq(-1)). The count rate increased linearly with increasing activity up to 1.44 M s(-1). The intrinsic resolution was equal to the pixel size, 2.46 mm (CS: 3.8 mm). The average reconstructed resolution using the standard clinical filter was 12.5 mm (CS: 13.7 mm). The D-SPECT has superior sensitivity to that of a conventional system with similar spatial resolution. It also has excellent energy resolution and count rate characteristics, which should prove useful in dynamic and dual radionuclide studies.

  11. Application of combined brain SPECT and MRI in localizing epilepsy foci%SPECT脑血流灌注显像与MRI对癫痫灶定位诊断的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨自更; 郭勇; 张阳; 蔡冰冰

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the application value of using a combination of rCBF brain SPECT and MRI for the localization of intractable epilepsy. Methods 52 patients with intractable epilepsy were recruited.. Ictal and interictal SPECT, together with MRI, were performed before the suregeries on these patients. Subtraction was performed between Ictal and interictal SPECT images. The areas that changed the most on the difference image were considered to be the epilepsy foci. These results were also compared with the MR images. The diagnosis based on a combination of both SPECT and MRI were then compared with the pathology results after surgery. Results Among the 52 patients there were 41(78.85﹪)positive cases based on the SPECT result (blood perfusion decreased); in these patients the number of episodes was significantly reduced after surgery, some even experienced no episodes after surgery. 38 cases of MRI(73.08﹪)patients with hippocampal sclerosis or lesions. With a combination of MRI and SPECT the total effective rate reached 88.46﹪. Conclusions An evaluation based on both of the two examination methods had a higher positive rate of localizing epileptogenic focus than that based on a single image, which is very helpful to the clinical application of pre-surgery localization and in turn resulted in a better surgery result.%目的:探讨SPECT脑血流灌注显像和MRI综合评价癲痫灶定位的临床价值。方法对52例拟手术的癫痫患者行发作期和发作间期脑血流灌注显像,并做减影处理,发作期与发作间期减影处理后变化最显著部位考虑为致痫灶。同期进行MRI检查

  12. Functional Mechanism of Lung Mosaic CT Attenuation: Assessment with Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Perfusion SPECT-CT Fusion Imaging and Non-Breath-Hold Technegas SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, K.; Yasuhiko, K. (Dept. of Radiology, St. Hill Hospital, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)); Iwanaga, H.; Tokuda, O.; Matsunaga, N. (Dept. of Radiology, Yamaguchi Univ. School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan))

    2009-01-15

    Background: The functional mechanism of lung mosaic computed tomography attenuation (MCA) in pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) and obstructive airway disease (OAD) has not yet been fully clarified. Purpose: To clarify the mechanism of MCA in these diseases by assessing the relationship between regional lung function and CT attenuation change at MCA sites with the use of automated deep-inspiratory breath-hold (DIBrH) perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT fusion images and non-breath-hold Technegas SPECT. Material and Methods: Subjects were 42 PVD patients (31 pulmonary thromboembolism, four primary/two secondary pulmonary hypertension, and five Takayasu arteritis), 12 OAD patients (five acute asthma, four obliterative bronchiolitis, and three bronchiectasis), and 12 normal controls, all of whom had MCA on DIBrH CT. The relationship between regional lung function and CT attenuation change at the lung slices with MCA was assessed using DIBrH perfusion SPECT-CT fusion images and non-breath-hold Technegas SPECT. The severity of perfusion defects with or without MCA was quantified by regions-of-interest analysis. Results: On DIBrH CT and perfusion SPECT, in contrast to no noticeable CT attenuation abnormality and fairly uniform perfusion in controls, 60 MCA and 274 perfusion defects in PVD patients, and 18 MCA and 61 defects in OAD patients were identified, with a total of 77 ventilation defects on Technegas SPECT in all patients. SPECT-CT correlation showed that, throughout the 78 MCA sites of all patients, lung perfusion was persistently decreased at low CT attenuation and preserved at intervening high CT attenuation, while lung ventilation was poorly correlated with CT attenuation change. The radioactivity ratios of reduced perfusion and the intervening preserved perfusion at the 78 perfusion defects with MCA were significantly lower than those at the remaining 257 defects without MCA (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Although further validation is

  13. DPABI: Data Processing & Analysis for (Resting-State) Brain Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao-Gan; Wang, Xin-Di; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Brain imaging efforts are being increasingly devoted to decode the functioning of the human brain. Among neuroimaging techniques, resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) is currently expanding exponentially. Beyond the general neuroimaging analysis packages (e.g., SPM, AFNI and FSL), REST and DPARSF were developed to meet the increasing need of user-friendly toolboxes for R-fMRI data processing. To address recently identified methodological challenges of R-fMRI, we introduce the newly developed toolbox, DPABI, which was evolved from REST and DPARSF. DPABI incorporates recent research advances on head motion control and measurement standardization, thus allowing users to evaluate results using stringent control strategies. DPABI also emphasizes test-retest reliability and quality control of data processing. Furthermore, DPABI provides a user-friendly pipeline analysis toolkit for rat/monkey R-fMRI data analysis to reflect the rapid advances in animal imaging. In addition, DPABI includes preprocessing modules for task-based fMRI, voxel-based morphometry analysis, statistical analysis and results viewing. DPABI is designed to make data analysis require fewer manual operations, be less time-consuming, have a lower skill requirement, a smaller risk of inadvertent mistakes, and be more comparable across studies. We anticipate this open-source toolbox will assist novices and expert users alike and continue to support advancing R-fMRI methodology and its application to clinical translational studies.

  14. Age-related decline in nicotinic receptor availability with [123I]5-IA-85380 SPECT

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Human postmortem studies have reported decreases with age in high affinity nicotine binding in brain. We investigated the effect of age on β2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (β2-nAChR) availability in eight brain regions of living human subjects using the ligand [123I]5-IA-85380 ([123I]5-IA) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Healthy, nonsmokers (N=47) ranging in age from 18-85 were administered [123I]5-IA using a bolus plus constant infusion paradigm and imag...

  15. Assessing brain structural associations with working memory related brain patterns in schizophrenia and healthy controls using linked independent component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Lycke Brandt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ is a psychotic disorder with significant cognitive dysfunction. Abnormal brain activation during cognitive processing has been reported, both in task-positive and task-negative networks. Further, structural cortical and subcortical brain abnormalities have been documented, but little is known about how task-related brain activation is associated with brain anatomy in SZ compared to healthy controls (HC. Utilizing linked independent component analysis (LICA, a data-driven multimodal analysis approach, we investigated structure–function associations in a large sample of SZ (n = 96 and HC (n = 142. We tested for associations between task-positive (fronto-parietal and task-negative (default-mode brain networks derived from fMRI activation during an n-back working memory task, and brain structural measures of surface area, cortical thickness, and gray matter volume, and to what extent these associations differed in SZ compared to HC. A significant association (p < .05, corrected for multiple comparisons was found between a component reflecting the task-positive fronto-parietal network and another component reflecting cortical thickness in fronto-temporal brain regions in SZ, indicating increased activation with increased thickness. Other structure–function associations across, between and within groups were generally moderate and significant at a nominal p-level only, with more numerous and stronger associations in SZ compared to HC. These results indicate a complex pattern of moderate associations between brain activation during cognitive processing and brain morphometry, and extend previous findings of fronto-temporal brain abnormalities in SZ by suggesting a coupling between cortical thickness of these brain regions and working memory-related brain activation.

  16. Methodology for ventilation/perfusion SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajc, Marika; Neilly, Brian; Miniati, Massimo;

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) is the scintigraphic technique of choice for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and many other disorders that affect lung function. Data from recent ventilation studies show that the theoretic advantages of Technegas ov...

  17. SPECT using asymmetric pinholes with truncated projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Jianyu; Meikle, Steven R, E-mail: jianyu.lin@curtin.edu.au [Ramaciotti Imaging Centre, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2011-07-07

    Tomographic systems employing truncated projections have been developed for parallel and fan beam collimation and for cone beam CT but the idea has not been extensively explored in pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this paper, we explore the sampling requirements and system performance of SPECT systems with asymmetric pinhole collimators and truncated projections. We demonstrate that complete 3D sampling can be achieved by using multiple detectors with truncated asymmetric pinholes, offset axially from each other, and a spiral orbit. The use of truncated projections can be exploited in the design of pinhole SPECT systems by moving the pinholes closer to the subject, resulting in increased sensitivity and improved spatial resolution. Truncated and untruncated pinhole systems were evaluated using the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) calculated from the linearized local impulse response as a figure of merit. The CNR for the truncated pinhole system was up to 60% greater than that for the untruncated system at matched resolution for a source voxel near the centre of a uniform phantom and 30% greater at the edge. We conclude that an object can be reconstructed from asymmetric pinholes with truncated projections, which leads to potentially important design considerations and applications in single- and multi-pinhole SPECT.

  18. Pharmacokinetic analysis of 111 in-labeled liposomal Doxorubicin in murine glioblastoma after blood-brain barrier disruption by focused ultrasound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yi Yang

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of targeted and untargeted (111In-doxorubicin liposomes after these have been intravenously administrated to tumor-bearing mice in the presence of blood-brain barrier disruption (BBB-D induced by focused ultrasound (FUS. An intracranial brain tumor model in NOD-scid mice using human brain glioblastoma multiforme (GBM 8401 cells was developed in this study. (111In-labeled human atherosclerotic plaque-specific peptide-1 (AP-1-conjugated liposomes containing doxorubicin (Lipo-Dox; AP-1 Lipo-Dox were used as a microSPECT probe for radioactivity measurements in the GBM-bearing mice. Compared to the control tumors treated with an injection of (111In-AP-1 Lipo-Dox or (111In-Lipo-Dox, the animals receiving the drugs followed by FUS exhibited enhanced accumulation of the drug in the brain tumors (p<0.05. Combining sonication with drugs significantly increased the tumor-to-normal brain doxorubicin ratio of the target tumors compared to the control tumors. The tumor-to-normal brain ratio was highest after the injection of (111In-AP-1 Lipo-Dox with sonication. The (111In-liposomes micro-SPECT/CT should be able to provide important information about the optimum therapeutic window for the chemotherapy of brain tumors using sonication.

  19. Voxel-based texture analysis of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maani, Rouzbeh; Yang, Yee Hong; Kalra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel voxel-based method for texture analysis of brain images. Texture analysis is a powerful quantitative approach for analyzing voxel intensities and their interrelationships, but has been thus far limited to analyzing regions of interest. The proposed method provides a 3D statistical map comparing texture features on a voxel-by-voxel basis. The validity of the method was examined on artificially generated effects as well as on real MRI data in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The artificially generated effects included hyperintense and hypointense signals added to T1-weighted brain MRIs from 30 healthy subjects. The AD dataset included 30 patients with AD and 30 age/sex matched healthy control subjects. The proposed method detected artificial effects with high accuracy and revealed statistically significant differences between the AD and control groups. This paper extends the usage of texture analysis beyond the current region of interest analysis to voxel-by-voxel 3D statistical mapping and provides a hypothesis-free analysis tool to study cerebral pathology in neurological diseases.

  20. A primal analysis system of brain neurons data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Dong-Mei; Gao, Da-Qi; Yuan, Yu-Bo

    2014-01-01

    It is a very challenging work to classify the 86 billions of neurons in the human brain. The most important step is to get the features of these neurons. In this paper, we present a primal system to analyze and extract features from brain neurons. First, we make analysis on the original data of neurons in which one neuron contains six parameters: room type, X, Y, Z coordinate range, total number of leaf nodes, and fuzzy volume of neurons. Then, we extract three important geometry features including rooms type, number of leaf nodes, and fuzzy volume. As application, we employ the feature database to fit the basic procedure of neuron growth. The result shows that the proposed system is effective.

  1. Cerebral perfusion SPECT in transient ischemic attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, D.-L. E-mail: dlyou@mail.kfcc.org.tw; Shieh, F.-Y.; Tzen, K.-Y.; Tsai, M.-F.; Kao, P.-F

    2000-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study is to evaluate the efficacy of cerebral perfusion single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Methods: Thirty-seven patients with TIA were collected for study. All patients had transient focal neurological symptoms or signs with complete recovery within 24 h after onset. The patients underwent cerebral perfusion SPECT between 6 h and 11 days after onset, with 10 cases performed within 24 h (group A), nine cases performed between 1 and 3 days (group B), 11 cases performed between 3 and 5 days (group C), and seven cases performed after more than 5 days (group D). A semi-quantitative method was used for analyzing the SPECT data, and the difference ratios between lesion side and contralateral normal side were calculated on each pair of regions of interest. Results: In total, 78.4% (29/37) of patients had reduced perfusion in the cerebral cortical regions or deep nuclei, and the regions with reduced perfusion corresponded with clinical presentations of the patients. The abnormal rate with reduced perfusion was 90.0% in group A, 77.8% in group B, 72.7% in group C and 71.4% in group D. Cross cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) was present in seven patients, and all of the primary cerebral perfusion defects of these patients were located at the territory of left or right middle cerebral artery. Conclusion: Cerebral perfusion SPECT is a potential tool to detect cerebral perfusion defects and CCD in patients with TIA. Although the perfusion defect may persist more than 5 days after onset, we suggest cerebral perfusion SPECT should be performed as soon as possible.

  2. SPECT/CT imaging in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Gelfand, Michael J.; Sharp, Susan E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-08-15

    SPECT/CT improves localization of single photon-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. To determine the utility of SPECT/CT in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma. 20 SPECT/CT and planar studies were reviewed in 13 children with papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Seven studies used I-123 and 13 used I-131, after elevating TSH by T4 deprivation or intramuscular thyrotropin alfa. Eight children had one study and five children had two to four studies. Studies were performed at initial post-total thyroidectomy evaluation, follow-up and after I-131 treatment doses. SPECT/CT was performed with a diagnostic-quality CT unit in 13 studies and a localization-only CT unit in 7. Stimulated thyroglobulin was measured (except in 2 cases with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies). In 13 studies, neck activity was present but poorly localized on planar imaging; all foci of uptake were precisely localized by SPECT/CT. Two additional foci of neck uptake were found on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT differentiated high neck uptake from facial activity. In six studies (four children), neck uptake was identified as benign by SPECT/CT (three thyroglossal duct remnants, one skin contamination, two by precise anatomical CT localization). In two children, SPECT/CT supported a decision not to treat with I-131. When SPECT/CT was unable to identify focal uptake as benign, stimulated thyroglobulin measurements were valuable. In three of 13 studies with neck uptake, SPECT/CT provided no useful additional information. SPECT/CT precisely localizes neck iodine uptake. In small numbers of patients, treatment is affected. SPECT/CT should be used when available in thyroid carcinoma patients. (orig.)

  3. Increased brain iron deposition is a risk factor for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis: a combined study of quantitative susceptibility mapping and whole brain volume analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Zhang, Mengjie; Long, Miaomiao; Chu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Tong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Yu; Yan, Shuo; Haacke, E Mark; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    To explore the correlation between increased brain iron deposition and brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis and their correlation with clinical biomarkers and neuropsychological test. Forty two patients with haemodialysis and forty one age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this prospective study. 3D whole brain high resolution T1WI and susceptibility weighted imaging were scanned on a 3 T MRI system. The brain volume was analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in patients and to compare with that of healthy controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping was used to measure and compare the susceptibility of different structures between patients and healthy controls. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the brain volume, iron deposition and neuropsychological scores. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to explore the effect of clinical biomarkers on the brain volumes in patients. Compared with healthy controls, patients with haemodialysis showed decreased volume of bilateral putamen and left insular lobe (All P putamen, substantia nigra, red nucleus and dentate nucleus were significantly higher (All P putamen (P putamen (P < 0.05). Our study indicated increased brain iron deposition and dialysis duration was risk factors for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis. The decreased gray matter volume of the left insular lobe was correlated with neurocognitive impairment.

  4. Imaging serotonin transporters using [{sup 123}I]ADAM SPECT in a parkinsonian primate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, K.-H. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, No. 161, Section 6, Min-Chuan E. Road, Neihu 114, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kuohsing91@yahoo.com.tw; Huang, W.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, S.-Y. [Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, C.-Y. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-Y. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Branch of Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shen, L.-H. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyaun, Taiwan (China); Liu, J.-C. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, No. 161, Section 6, Min-Chuan E. Road, Neihu 114, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Fu, Y.-K. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyaun, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: fufrank@iner.gov.tw

    2008-12-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects multiple neurotransmitter systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the serotonin transport system between normal and parkinsonian monkeys using 2-([2-([di-methylamino]methyl)phenyl]thio)-5-[{sup 123}I] iodophenyl-amine([{sup 123}I]ADAM), a serotonin transporters (SERT) radioligand. The brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed on two normal and one parkinsonian monkey. The parkinsonian monkey was induced by bilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the medial forebrain bundle under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. Each monkey underwent two [{sup 99m}Tc] TRODAT-1 (a dopamine transporters imaging agent) and two [{sup 123}I] ADAM brain SPECT scans. After a bolus injection of the radioligand, the SPECT data were acquired over 4 h using a dual-head gamma camera equipped with ultra-high resolution fan-beam collimators. The striatal uptake of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 was 46% lower in the parkinsonian monkey than those of normal monkeys at 210-240 min post-injection. [{sup 123}I]ADAM uptake in the midbrain of the parkinsonian monkey was comparable to those of the controls. The uptakes of [{sup 123}I]ADAM in the striatum, thalamus, and frontal cortex of the parkinsonian monkey, were 31%, 31%, and 23% lower than those of normal monkeys at 210-240 min post-injection, respectively. Our results suggest that [{sup 123}I]ADAM SPECT has potential for evaluating the serotonin transporter changes in human PD.

  5. Clinical results of neurotransmission SPECT in extra-pyramidal diseases; Resultats cliniques de la TEMP de la neurotransmission en pathologie extra-pyramidale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baulieu, J.L.; Prunier, C.; Tranquart, F.; Guilloteau, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire in vitro, INSERM U316, 37 - Tours (France)

    1999-12-01

    We present some methodological aspects and clinical applications of dopamine D2 receptor and transporter SPECT using new radiotracers radiolabeled with iodine 123. The gamma camera quality control and standardisation has to be adapted to the small volume and deep location of striata, where receptors and transporters are present. Phantom containing hollow spheres of different diameters which can be filled with different amounts of {sup 99m}Tc or {sup 123}I. The semi quantitation of receptor and transporter molecular concentration is based on an equilibrium binding model. According to this model, the binding potential (Bmax. Ka) is equal to the ratio between specific binding in the striatum and circulating activity in a reference region of interest in the occipital cortex. By comparing ECD and ILIS SPECT, it has been shown that striatal ILIS binding does not depend on the local perfusion. The clinical applications mainly concern the extra-pyramidal pathology: ILIS and IBZM SPECT are able to differentiate pre- and post-synaptic lesions. In Parkinson disease the nigrostriatal pathway is damaged and D2 receptors are normal or increased, as shown by normal or elevated IBZM or ILIS uptake. In other extra pyramidal degenerative diseases as progressive supra nuclear palsy or multiple system atrophy striatal D2 receptors are damaged as shown by decreased IBZM or ILIS uptake. In our experience, 88 per cent of patients are correctly classified by ILIS SPECT and 86 per cent with IBZM SPECT. Dopamine transporter SPECT with {beta}CIT and PE2I provides an evaluation of the presynaptic neuronal density in the striatum. One can expect an help for the early diagnosis and the evaluation of Parkinson disease. Another potential application of dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT is the evaluation of neuronal loss after hypoxo-ischemia. We conclude that dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT using specific ligands should become a useful diagnosis tool to study a large number of brain

  6. Simultaneous reconstruction and segmentation for dynamic SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Martin; Rossmanith, Carolin; Zhang, Xiaoqun

    2016-10-01

    This work deals with the reconstruction of dynamic images that incorporate characteristic dynamics in certain subregions, as arising for the kinetics of many tracers in emission tomography (SPECT, PET). We make use of a basis function approach for the unknown tracer concentration by assuming that the region of interest can be divided into subregions with spatially constant concentration curves. Applying a regularised variational framework reminiscent of the Chan-Vese model for image segmentation we simultaneously reconstruct both the labelling functions of the subregions as well as the subconcentrations within each region. Our particular focus is on applications in SPECT with the Poisson noise model, resulting in a Kullback-Leibler data fidelity in the variational approach. We present a detailed analysis of the proposed variational model and prove existence of minimisers as well as error estimates. The latter apply to a more general class of problems and generalise existing results in literature since we deal with a nonlinear forward operator and a nonquadratic data fidelity. A computational algorithm based on alternating minimisation and splitting techniques is developed for the solution of the problem and tested on appropriately designed synthetic data sets. For those we compare the results to those of standard EM reconstructions and investigate the effects of Poisson noise in the data.

  7. Clinical value of dipyridamole brain perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Using dipyridamole stress test to evaluate cerebral blood flow reserve in cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Dipyridamole stress tests were performed first, the baseline SPECT images were obtained under similar conditions 2-5 days later. By visual and semiquantitative analysis, the responses of cerebral blood flow to dipyridamole were divided into the following four patterns: A: The dipyridamole SPECT showed an expanded area of hypoperfusion, Asymmetry Index(AI) and Uptake Rate(UR) were all decreased; B: Rest images was normal but new hypoperfused areas appeared on stress test with decreased Al and UR; C: Hypoperfused areas were decreased in size or disappeared after stress test with increased Al and UR; D: No changes showed in cerebral perfusion imaging patterns, and in Al and UR between stress and rest studies. Dipyridarnole brain perfusion imaging may be helpful to the diagnosis of CVD, to the decision the therapeutic plan, and to predicting the therapeutic effect.

  8. Automatic semi-quantification of [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy volunteers using BasGan version 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobili, Flavio; Naseri, Mehrdad; De Carli, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Medicine). Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was acquired by means of dual-head cameras 3 h after [(123)I]FP-CIT administration. Specific to nondisplaceable binding ratios (SBRs) in the basal ganglia were computed using the 'BasGan' software, allowing automatic value extraction...... with partial volume effect correction. Multicentre camera inhomogeneity was taken into account by calibrating values on basal ganglia phantom data. SBR in each caudate nucleus (C) and putamen (P) were the dependent variables in a repeated measures general linear model analysis; age, gender, handedness and body...... mass index (BMI) were the independent variables. RESULTS: SBR values in C and P were significantly associated with age (mean rate decrease with age: 0.0306 per year, or 0.57 % of the general mean; p ...

  9. Analysis and simulation of brain signal data by EEG signal processing technique using MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasikumar Gurumurthy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available EEG is brain signal processing technique that allows gaining the understanding of the complex inner mechanisms of the brain and abnormal brain waves have shown to be associated with particular brain disorders. The analysis of brain waves plays an important role in diagnosis of different brain disorders. MATLAB provides an interactive graphic user interface (GUI allowing users to flexiblyand interactively process their high-density EEG dataset and other brain signal data different techniques such as independent component analysis (ICA and/or time/frequency analysis (TFA, as well as standard averaging methods. We will be showing different brain signals by comparing, analysing and simulating datasets which is already loaded in the MATLAB software to process the EEG signals.

  10. [Recurrence plot analysis of HRV for brain ischemia and asphyxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Qiu, Yihong; Zhu, Yisheng

    2008-02-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is the tiny variability existing in the cycles of the heart beats, which reflects the corresponding balance between sympathetic and vagus nerves. Since the nonlinear characteristic of HRV is confirmed, the Recurrence Plot method, a nonlinear dynamic analysis method based on the complexity, could be used to analyze HRV. The results showed the recurrence plot structures and some quantitative indices (L-Mean, L-Entr) during asphyxia insult vary significantly as compared to those in normal conditions, which offer a new method to monitor brain asphyxia injury.

  11. Prospective study of p-[{sup 123}I]iodo-L-phenylalanine and SPECT for the evaluation of newly diagnosed cerebral lesions: specific confirmation of glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellwig, Dirk; Schaefer, Andrea; Farmakis, Georgios; Grgic, Aleksandar; Kirsch, Carl-Martin [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Ketter, Ralf; Moringlane, Jean R.; Steudel, Wolf-Ingo [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Homburg (Germany); Romeike, Bernd F.M. [Saarland University Medical Center, Institute of Neuropathology, Homburg (Germany); Friedrich-Schiller-University, Department of Neuropathology, Jena (Germany); Samnick, Samuel [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg/Saar (Germany); University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The differentiation between gliomas, metastases and gliotic or inflammatory lesions by imaging techniques remains a challenge. Gliomas frequently exhibit increased uptake of radiolabelled amino acids and are thus amenable to PET or SPECT imaging. Recently, p-[{sup 123}I]iodo-L-phenylalanine (IPA) was validated for the visualization of glioma by SPECT and received orphan drug status. Here we investigated its diagnostic performance for differentiating indeterminate brain lesions. This prospective open study included 67 patients with newly diagnosed brain lesions suspicious for glioma (34 without and 33 with contrast enhancement in the MRI scan). Patients received 250 MBq IPA intravenously after overnight fasting. SPECT images at 30 min and 3 h post-injection were iteratively reconstructed and visually interpreted after image fusion with an MRI brain scan (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence or T1-weighted contrast-enhanced image). Findings were correlated with results of stereotactic or open biopsies or serial imaging. Twenty-seven low-grade (2 WHO I, 25 WHO II) and 24 high-grade gliomas (1 WHO III, 23 WHO IV), 3 metastases originating from lung cancer as well as 13 non-neoplastic lesions were proven. All non-neoplastic lesions and all metastases were negative with IPA SPECT. Forty gliomas were true-positive (TP) and 11 false-negative (FN) findings (8 WHO II, 1 WHO III, 2 WHO IV) occurred. There were no false-positive (FP) findings. For the differentiation of primary brain tumours and non-neoplastic lesions, sensitivity and specificity were 78 and 100%. In 34 lesions without contrast enhancement in MRI, IPA SPECT resulted in 17 TP, 8 true-negative, 9 FN and no FP findings (sensitivity 65%, specificity 100%). In patients with suspected glioma, IPA SPECT shows a high specificity, but especially in low-grade gliomas FN findings may occur. Due to the high positive predictive value a positive finding allows a suspected glioma to be confirmed. (orig.)

  12. Ventricular function following coronary artery bypass grafting: comparison between Gated SPECT and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco [Hospital Pro-Cardiaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear; Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pessoa, Maria Carolina Pinheiro [Pro-Echo Hospital Samaritano, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Paulo Pontes [Centro de Diagnostico por Imagens (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Junior, Amarino Carvalho [Hospital Pro-Cardiaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia; Dohmann, Hans Fernando Rocha [Hospital Pro-Cardiaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia; Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Reis, Adair Gomes dos [Nuclear Diagnosticos, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da [Pro-Echo Hospital Samaritano, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    Background: The assessment of left ventricular function may be impaired by the abnormal interventricular septal motion frequently found after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Studies on the validation of gated SPECT as a tool for the assessment of left ventricular function in this patient group are scarce. Objective: We investigated the agreement and correlation between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-systolic volume (ESV) as obtained using electrocardiogram-gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (gated SPECT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in 20 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: Correlation was measured using Spearman's correlation coefficient ({rho}). Agreement was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis. Results: A good correlation was found between gated SPECT and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients after CABG with regard to left ventricular ejection fraction ({rho} = 0.85; p =0.0001), moderate correlation for end-diastolic volume ({rho} = 0.51; p = 0.02), and non-significant correlation for end-diastolic volume ({rho} = 0.13; p = 0.5). Agreement ranges for LVEF, ESV and EDV were: -20% to 12%; -38 to 54 ml and; -96 to 100 ml, respectively. Conclusion: A reliable correlation was found for left ventricular ejection fraction as obtained by gated SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging in patients undergoing CABG. For ventricular volumes, however, the correlation is not adequate. (author)

  13. TwoSpect: tuning up to search for gravitational waves from Scorpius X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Meadors, Grant David; Riles, Keith

    2015-01-01

    We describe the tuning of the TwoSpect data analysis method to search for continuous gravitational waves from sources such as the Low Mass X-ray Binary, Scorpius X-1. TwoSpect sensitivity is enhanced when the source sky location and period are known. Simulations of the orbital and gravitational-wave parameters of Scorpius X-1 have already been made in the context of a comparison of search algorithms. These simulations are here used to quantify the sensitivity enhancement and parameter estimation abilities of this tuned, directed TwoSpect method. The gravitational wave strain, gravitational wave frequency, and projected semi-major axis of the binary system are recovered and uncertainty estimated, for simulated signals that are detected. Upper limits on gravitational wave strain are set for undetected signals. Applications to future searches in gravitational-wave interferometer data are discussed. Directed TwoSpect searches analyze gravitational-wave data for signals from LMXBs; robust against spin-wandering an...

  14. Myocardial Infarction Area Quantification using High-Resolution SPECT Images in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos de [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Mejia, Jorge [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira de; Lataro, Renata Maria; Frassetto, Sarita Nasbine [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Fazan, Rubens Jr.; Salgado, Hélio Cesar [Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Galvis-Alonso, Orfa Yineth [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Simões, Marcus Vinícius, E-mail: msimoes@fmrp.usp.br [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Imaging techniques enable in vivo sequential assessment of the morphology and function of animal organs in experimental models. We developed a device for high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging based on an adapted pinhole collimator. To determine the accuracy of this system for quantification of myocardial infarct area in rats. Thirteen male Wistar rats (250 g) underwent experimental myocardial infarction by occlusion of the left coronary artery. After 4 weeks, SPECT images were acquired 1.5 hours after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of 99mTc-Sestamibi. The tomographic reconstruction was performed by using specially developed software based on the Maximum Likelihood algorithm. The analysis of the data included the correlation between the area of perfusion defects detected by scintigraphy and extent of myocardial fibrosis assessed by histology. The images showed a high target organ/background ratio with adequate visualization of the left ventricular walls and cavity. All animals presenting infarction areas were correctly identified by the perfusion images. There was no difference of the infarct area as measured by SPECT (21.1 ± 21.2%) and by histology (21.7 ± 22.0%; p=0.45). There was a strong correlation between individual values of the area of infarction measured by these two methods. The developed system presented adequate spatial resolution and high accuracy for the detection and quantification of myocardial infarction areas, consisting in a low cost and versatile option for high-resolution SPECT imaging of small rodents.

  15. Quantitation of myocardial blood flow and myocardial flow reserve with {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi dynamic SPECT/CT to enhance detection of coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Bailing [University of Missouri-Columbia, Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, Columbia, MO (United States); Chen, Fu-Chung; Chen, Chien-Cheng [Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Section of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Changhua (China); Wu, Tao-Cheng [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Section of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei (China); Huang, Wen-Sheng [Changhua Christian Hospital, Department of Medical Research and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); Hou, Po-Nien [Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lukong Town, Changhua Shien (China); Hung, Guang-Uei [Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lukong Town, Changhua Shien (China); Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Taichung (China); China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, Taichung (China)

    2014-12-15

    Conventional dual-head single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT systems capable of fast dynamic SPECT (DySPECT) imaging have a potential for flow quantitation. This study introduced a new method to quantify myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) with DySPECT scan and evaluated the diagnostic performance of detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with perfusion using invasive coronary angiography (CAG) as the reference standard. This study included 21 patients with suspected or known CAD who had received DySPECT, ECG-gated SPECT (GSPECT), and CAG (13 with ≥50 % stenosis in any vessel; non-CAD group: 8 with patent arteries or <50 % stenosis). DySPECT and GSPECT scans were performed on a widely used dual-head SPECT/CT scanner. The DySPECT imaging protocol utilized 12-min multiple back-and-forth gantry rotations during injections of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi (MIBI) tracer at rest or dipyridamole-stress stages. DySPECT images were reconstructed with full physical corrections and converted to the physical unit of becquerels per milliliter. Stress MBF (SMBF), rest MBF (RMBF), and MFR were quantified by a one-tissue compartment flow model using time-activity curves derived from DySPECT images. Perfusion images were processed for GSPECT scan and interpreted to obtain summed stress score (SSS) and summed difference score (SDS). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to evaluate the diagnostic performance of flow and perfusion. Using the criteria of ≥50 % stenosis as positive CAD, areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) of flow assessment were overall significantly greater than those of perfusion. For patient-based analysis, AUCs for MFR, SMBF, SSS, and SDS were 0.91 ± 0.07, 0.86 ± 0.09, 0.64 ± 0.12, and 0.59 ± 0.13. For vessel-based analysis, AUCs for MFR, SMBF, SSS, and SDS were 0.81 ± 0.05, 0.76 ± 0.06, 0.62 ± 0.07, and 0.56 ± 0.08, respectively. The preliminary data suggest that MBF quantitation with a

  16. Clinical studies of brain functional images by motor activation using single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Masahiro [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-09-01

    Thirty participants (10 normal controls; group A, 5 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus without hemiparesis; group B, 10 patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus with hemiparesis; group C, and 5 patients with brain tumors besides the central regions with hemiparesis; group D) were enrolled. The images were performed by means of split-dose method with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD at rest condition (SPECT 1) and during hand grasping (SPECT 2). The activation SPECT were obtained by subtracting SPECT 1 from SPECT 2, and the functional mapping was made by the strict registration of the activation SPECT with 3D MRI. To evaluate the changes of CBF (%{Delta}CBF) of the sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas on the functional mapping, ratio of the average counts of SPECT 1 and SPECT 2 was calculated and statistically compared. The functional activation paradigms caused a significant increase of CBF in the sensorimotor area contra-lateral to the stimulated hand, although the sensorimotor area and the central sulcus in groups B and C were dislocated, compared with hemisphere of non-tumor side. The sensorimotor area ipsi-lateral to the stimulated hand could be detected in almost of all subjects. The supplementary motor area could be detected in all subjects. In group A, the average %{Delta}CBF were up 24.1{+-}4.3% in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area, and 22.3{+-}3.6% in the supplementary motor area, respectively. The average %{Delta}CBF in the contra-lateral sensorimotor area of group D was significantly higher than that of group A. The brain functional mapping by motor activation using SPECT could localize the area of cortical motor function in normal volunteers and patients with brain tumors. The changes of regional CBF by activation SPECT precisely assess the cortical motor function even in patients with brain tumors located near central sulcus. (K.H.)

  17. Geometric calibration for a SPECT system dedicated to breast imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-Wei; WEI Long; CAO Xue-Xiang; WANG Lu; HUANG Xian-Chao; CHAI Pei; YUN Ming-Kai; ZHANG Yu-Bao; ZHANG Long; SHAN Bao-Ci

    2012-01-01

    Geometric calibration is critical to the accurate SPECT reconstruction.In this paper,a geometric calibration method was developed for a dedicated breast SPECT system with a tilted parallel beam (TPB)orbit.The acquisition geometry of the breast SPECT was firstly characterized.And then its projection model was established based on the acquisition geometry.Finally,the calibration results were obtained using a nonlinear optimization method that fitted the measured projections to the model.Monte Carlo data of the breast SPECT were used to verify the calibration method.Simulation results showed that the geometric parameters with reasonable accuracy could be obtained by the proposed method.

  18. Expression of L amino acid transport system 1 and analysis of iodine-123-methyltyrosine tumor uptake in a pancreatic xenotransplantation model using fused high-resolution-micro-SPECT-MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Corinna von Forstner; Maaz Zuhayra; Ole Ammerpohl; Yi Zhao; Sanjay Tiwari; Olav Jansen; Holger Kalthoff; Eberhard Henze; Jan-Hendrik Egberts

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The specificity in discriminating pancreatitis is limited in the positron emission tomography (PET) using Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose.Furthermore,PETisnot widely available compared to the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Since amino acids play a minor role in metabolism of inflammatory cells, the potential of the SPECT tracer, 3-[123I]iodo-L-α-methyltyrosine (123I-IMT), for detecting pancreatic cancer was examined in xenotransplantation models of humanpancreaticcarcinomainmice. METHODS:  123I-IMT was injected to eight mice inoculated with subcutaneous or orthotopic pancreatic tumors. Fused high-resolution-micro-SPECT (Hi-SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging were performed. The gene expression level of L amino acid transport-system 1 (LAT1) was analyzed and correlated with tumor uptake of 123I-IMT. RESULTS: A high uptake of 123I-IMT was detected in all tumor-bearing mice. The median tumor-to-background ratio (T/B) was 12.1 (2.0-13.2) for orthotopic and 8.4 (1.8-11.1) for subcutaneous xenotransplantation, respectively. Accordingly, the LAT1 expression in transplanted Colo357 cells was increased compared to non-malignant controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our mouse model could show a high 123I-IMT uptake in pancreatic cancer. Fused MRI scans facilitate precise evaluation of uptake in the specific regions of interest. Further studies are required to confirm these findings in tumors derived from other human pancreatic cancer cells. Since amino acids play a minor role in the metabolism of inflammatory cells, the potential for application of 123I-IMT to distinguish pancreatic tumor from inflammatory pancreatitis warrants further investigation.

  19. SPECT/CT in pediatric patient management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadel, Helen R. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Pediatric Radiologist and Nuclear Medicine Physician, Division of Nuclear Medicine Department of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid SPECT/CT imaging is becoming the standard of care in pediatric imaging. Indications are mainly for oncologic imaging including mIBG scintigraphy for neuroblastoma and I-123 post surgical imaging of children with thyroid carcinoma, bone scintigraphy for back pain, children referred from sports medicine and neurodevelopmentally delayed children presenting with pain symptoms. The studies provide improved diagnostic accuracy, and oncologic imaging that includes optimized CT as part of the SPECT/CT study may decrease the number of studies and sedation procedures an individual child may need. The studies, however, must be tailored on an individual basis as the addition of the CT study can increase exposure to the child and should only be performed after appropriate justification and with adherence to optimized low dose pediatric protocols. (orig.)

  20. SPECT Molecular Imaging in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common disorder, and the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is clinical and relies on the presence of characteristic motor symptoms. The accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of PD is still limited. Functional neuroimaging using SPECT technique is helpful in patients with first signs of parkinsonism. The changes detected may reflect the disease process itself and/or compensatory responses to the disease, or they may arise in association with disease- and/or treatment-related complications. This paper addresses the value of SPECT in early differential diagnosis of PD and its potential as a sensitive tool to assess the pathophysiology and progression, as well as the therapeutic efficacy of PD.

  1. Silicon Detectors for PET and SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Eric R.

    Silicon detectors use state-of-the-art electronics to take advantage of the semiconductor properties of silicon to produce very high resolution radiation detectors. These detectors have been a fundamental part of high energy, nuclear, and astroparticle physics experiments for decades, and they hold great potential for significant gains in both PET and SPECT applications. Two separate prototype nuclear medicine imaging systems have been developed to explore this potential. Both devices take advantage of the unique properties of high resolution pixelated silicon detectors, designed and developed as part of the CIMA collaboration and built at The Ohio State University. The first prototype is a Compton SPECT imaging system. Compton SPECT, also referred to as electronic collimation, is a fundamentally different approach to single photon imaging from standard gamma cameras. It removes the inherent coupling of spatial resolution and sensitivity in mechanically collimated systems and provides improved performance at higher energies. As a result, Compton SPECT creates opportunities for the development of new radiopharmaceuticals based on higher energy isotopes as well as opportunities to expand the use of current isotopes such as 131I due to the increased resolution and sensitivity. The Compton SPECT prototype consists of a single high resolution silicon detector, configured in a 2D geometry, in coincidence with a standard NaI scintillator detector. Images of point sources have been taken for 99mTc (140 keV), 131I (364keV), and 22Na (511 keV), demonstrating the performance of high resolution silicon detectors in a Compton SPECT system. Filtered back projection image resolutions of 10 mm, 7.5 mm, and 6.7 mm were achieved for the three different sources respectively. The results compare well with typical SPECT resolutions of 5-15 mm and validate the claims of improved performance in Compton SPECT imaging devices at higher source energies. They also support the potential of

  2. Methodology for ventilation/perfusion SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajc, Marika; Neilly, Brian; Miniati, Massimo;

    2010-01-01

    radiolabeled liquid aerosols are not restricted to the presence of obstructive lung disease. Radiolabeled macroaggregated human albumin is the imaging agent of choice for perfusion scintigraphy. An optimal combination of nuclide activities and acquisition times for ventilation and perfusion, collimators......Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) is the scintigraphic technique of choice for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and many other disorders that affect lung function. Data from recent ventilation studies show that the theoretic advantages of Technegas over......, and imaging matrix yields an adequate V/Q SPECT study in approximately 20 minutes of imaging time. The recommended protocol based on the patient remaining in an unchanged position during the initial ventilation study and the perfusion study allows presentation of matching ventilation and perfusion slices...

  3. Cerebral perfusion (HMPAO-SPECT) in patients with depression with cognitive impairment versus those with mild cognitive impairment and dementia of Alzheimer's type: a semiquantitative and automated evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staffen, W.; Bergmann, J.; Schoenauer, U.; Kronbichler, M.; Golaszewski, S.; Ladurner, G. [Paracelsus Medical University, Christian-Doppler-Clinic, Department of Neurology, and Center of Cognitive Research Salzburg, Salzburg (Austria); Zauner, H. [Rehabilitation Center of the Pensionsversicherungsanstalt, Grossgmain (Austria)

    2009-05-15

    Comparative evaluation of regional brain perfusion measured by HMPAO-SPECT of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT) and depression with cognitive impairment (DCI). A total of 736 patients were investigated because of suspected cognitive dysfunction. After exclusion of patients with other forms of dementia than DAT or relevant accompanying disorders, SPECT data from 149 MCI, 131 DAT and 127 DCI patients, and 123 controls without any cognitive impairment, were analysed. Relative cerebral blood flow of 34 anatomical regions was assessed with automated analysis software (BRASS). Calculation of global forebrain perfusion discriminated demented from nondemented patients. Compared to controls DCI patients showed hypoperfusion of the thalamus, lentiform nucleus and medial temporal cortex. MCI patients differed significantly from controls concerning perfusion in both hemispheric temporal and parietal areas, and in the (right hemispheric) posterior part of the cingulate gyrus. MCI and DCI patients differed in the parietal, temporal superior and right hemispheric cingulate gyrus posterior cortices. Global forebrain and regional perfusion was more extensively reduced in DAT patients and discriminated them from controls, and MCI and DCI patients. Frontal perfusion disturbance was only present in DAT patients. Automated analysis of HMPAO-SPECT data from MCI patients showed significant perfusion deficits in regions also involved in DAT patients, but ROC analysis demonstrated only moderate sensitivity and specificity for differentiating DAT patients from controls and DCI patients. Frontal hypoperfusion seems to correspond with conversion from MCI to DAT. Finally, the results in DCI patients again raise the question of depression as an early symptom of neurodegeneration. (orig.)

  4. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI pinhole SPECT in primary hyperparathyroidism: comparison with conventional SPECT, planar scintigraphy and ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlier, Thomas; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Kraeber-Bodere, Francoise; Ansquer, Catherine [Hotel Dieu University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Nantes (France); INSERM CRCNA, Nantes (France); Oudoux, Aurore [Hotel Dieu University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Nantes (France); Mirallie, Eric [Hotel Dieu University Hospital, Surgery Department, Nantes (France); Seret, Alain [University of Liege, Institute of Physics, Experimental Medical Imaging, Liege (Belgium); Daumy, Isabelle [Ultrasonography Center, Nantes (France); Leux, Christophe [Saint Jacques University Hospital, PIMESP, Nantes (France)

    2008-03-15

    A pinhole collimator is routinely used to increase the resolution of scintigraphy. This prospective study was conducted to determine the interest of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the preoperative localisation of parathyroid lesions in primary hyperparathyroidism. All patients underwent a neck ultrasonography (US), {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI planar images and two consecutive SPECT with a parallel (C-SPECT) and a pinhole collimator (P-SPECT). P-SPECT was performed with a tilted detector equipped with a pinhole collimator and reconstructed with a dedicated OSEM algorithm. A diagnostic confidence score (CS) was assigned to each procedure considering intensity and extra-thyroidal location of suspected lesions: 0 = negative, 1 = doubtful, 2 = moderately positive, 3 = positive. The results of these preoperative localisation studies were compared with surgical, pathological and 6-month biological findings. Fifty-one patients cured after surgery were included. Surgery revealed 55 lesions (median weight 0.5 g, 11 in ectopy). Sensitivities of US, planar imaging, C-SPECT and P-SPECT were, respectively, 51, 76, 82 and 87%. Nine glands were only detected by tomography and five glands only by P-SPECT. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI/{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} planar scans and P-SPECT were complementary and, when combined together, showed the highest sensitivity (93%). Compared with planar imaging and C-SPECT, P-SPECT increased CS for 42 and 53% of lesions, respectively, and contributed to markedly reduce the number of uncertain results. A combination of planar {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI/{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy and P-SPECT appears to be a highly accurate preoperative imaging procedure in primary hyperparathyroidism. (orig.)

  5. Accelerated GPU based SPECT Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bert, Julien; Benoit, Didier; Bardiès, Manuel; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-06-07

    Monte Carlo (MC) modelling is widely used in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as it is a reliable technique to simulate very high quality scans. This technique provides very accurate modelling of the radiation transport and particle interactions in a heterogeneous medium. Various MC codes exist for nuclear medicine imaging simulations. Recently, new strategies exploiting the computing capabilities of graphical processing units (GPU) have been proposed. This work aims at evaluating the accuracy of such GPU implementation strategies in comparison to standard MC codes in the context of SPECT imaging. GATE was considered the reference MC toolkit and used to evaluate the performance of newly developed GPU Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation (GGEMS) modules for SPECT imaging. Radioisotopes with different photon energies were used with these various CPU and GPU Geant4-based MC codes in order to assess the best strategy for each configuration. Three different isotopes were considered: (99m) Tc, (111)In and (131)I, using a low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimator, a medium energy general purpose (MEGP) collimator and a high energy general purpose (HEGP) collimator respectively. Point source, uniform source, cylindrical phantom and anthropomorphic phantom acquisitions were simulated using a model of the GE infinia II 3/8" gamma camera. Both simulation platforms yielded a similar system sensitivity and image statistical quality for the various combinations. The overall acceleration factor between GATE and GGEMS platform derived from the same cylindrical phantom acquisition was between 18 and 27 for the different radioisotopes. Besides, a full MC simulation using an anthropomorphic phantom showed the full potential of the GGEMS platform, with a resulting acceleration factor up to 71. The good agreement with reference codes and the acceleration factors obtained support the use of GPU implementation strategies for improving computational

  6. ENVISION, developing SPECT imaging for particle therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Particle therapy is an advanced technique of cancer radiation therapy, using protons or other ions to target the cancerous mass. ENVISION aims at developing medical imaging tools to improve the dose delivery to the patient, to ensure a safer and more effective treatment. The animation illustrates the use of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) for monitoring the dose during treatment. Produced by: CERN KT/Life Sciences and ENVISION Project Management: Manuela Cirilli 3D animation: Jeroen Huijben, Nymus3d

  7. Accelerated GPU based SPECT Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bert, Julien; Benoit, Didier; Bardiès, Manuel; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) modelling is widely used in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as it is a reliable technique to simulate very high quality scans. This technique provides very accurate modelling of the radiation transport and particle interactions in a heterogeneous medium. Various MC codes exist for nuclear medicine imaging simulations. Recently, new strategies exploiting the computing capabilities of graphical processing units (GPU) have been proposed. This work aims at evaluating the accuracy of such GPU implementation strategies in comparison to standard MC codes in the context of SPECT imaging. GATE was considered the reference MC toolkit and used to evaluate the performance of newly developed GPU Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation (GGEMS) modules for SPECT imaging. Radioisotopes with different photon energies were used with these various CPU and GPU Geant4-based MC codes in order to assess the best strategy for each configuration. Three different isotopes were considered: 99m Tc, 111In and 131I, using a low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimator, a medium energy general purpose (MEGP) collimator and a high energy general purpose (HEGP) collimator respectively. Point source, uniform source, cylindrical phantom and anthropomorphic phantom acquisitions were simulated using a model of the GE infinia II 3/8" gamma camera. Both simulation platforms yielded a similar system sensitivity and image statistical quality for the various combinations. The overall acceleration factor between GATE and GGEMS platform derived from the same cylindrical phantom acquisition was between 18 and 27 for the different radioisotopes. Besides, a full MC simulation using an anthropomorphic phantom showed the full potential of the GGEMS platform, with a resulting acceleration factor up to 71. The good agreement with reference codes and the acceleration factors obtained support the use of GPU implementation strategies for improving computational efficiency

  8. Staging of moyamoya disease by perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Hospital; Matsushima, Toshio; Fukui, Masashi

    2001-04-01

    Staging of moyamoya disease, based on angiography and PET have already been established. The authors have established staging of moyamoya disease based on perfusion SPECT, that can be summarized as follows: Stage I, no abnormality is seen at rest or after acetazolamide loading; Stage II, no abnormality is seen at rest, however, a decreased response (blood flow increase rate: <15%) is seen to acetazolamide loading (a, a decreased response is seen only in the frontal lobe; b, a decreased response is seen in regions other than the frontal lobe; and c, a decreased response is seen throughout the cerebrum); Stage III, localized decrease in blood flow (blood flow decrease compared with peripheral tissue: {>=}15%) and marked decrease in response to acetazolamide (blood flow increase rate: <5%) are seen at rest. In Stage III, CT and MRI show no abnormal findings or only mild lesions of the white matter; and Stage IV, multiple decreases in blood flow are seen at rest, and CT and MRI reveal infarctions and severe atrophy at the same sites. The above staging does not require determination of cerebral blood flow, and thus it can be used in children, in whom cerebral blood flow determination is difficult. The authors performed 99m-Tc ECD perfusion SPECT in 25 patients with moyamoya disease for the staging, and compared staging based on angiography with staging based on perfusion SPECT. The results did not show a correlation between the 2 staging methods. A problem inherent in the staging of moyamoya disease based on perfusion SPECT is that the relationship between cerebral blood flow and cerebral radioactivity concentrations may differ depending on the drug used to determine cerebral blood flow. Thus, although the present staging system does not depend on any specific radioactive drug to determine cerebral blood flow, further investigation is necessary to identify a more appropriate drug than those in current use. (K.H.)

  9. Microprobe PIXE analysis and EDX analysis on the brain of patients with Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, S. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Horino, Y.; Mokuno, Y.; Fujii, K.; Kakimi, S.; Mizutani, T.; Matsushima, H.; Ishikawa, A.

    1996-12-31

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer`s disease (senile dementia of Alzheimer`s disease type), we examined aluminium (Al) in the brain (hippocampus) of patients with Alzheimer`s disease using heavy ion (5 MeV Si{sup 3+}) microprobe particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Heavy ion microprobes (3 MeV Si{sup 2+}) have several times higher sensitivity for Al detection than 2 MeV proton microprobes. We also examined Al in the brain of these patients by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). (1) Al was detected in the cell nuclei isolated from the brain of patients with Alzheimer`s disease using 5 MeV Si{sup 3+} microprobe PIXE analysis, and EDX analysis. (2) EDX analysis demonstrated high levels of Al in the nucleolus of nerve cells in frozen sections prepared from the brain of these patients. Our results support the theory that Alzheimer`s disease is caused by accumulation of Al in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  10. Cerebral SPECT under VEEG monitoring combined with semi-quantitative analysis in localization of epileptogenic zone%视频脑电结合半定量分析的脑血流灌注显像定位致痫灶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝科技; 王茜; 刘献增; 邱李恒; 高旭光; 李原

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价一种在视频脑电监测(VEEG)下结合半定量分析的脑血流灌注SPECT显像法用于癫痫致痫灶定位诊断的价值.方法 对81例难治性癫痫患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.脑血流灌注SPECT在VEEG监测下进行,显像前以睡眠剥夺、逐步减少或停服抗癫痫药的方式争取诱发癫痫发作.影像判读采用视觉判断与半定量分析结合的方法.结果 19例同时获得发作期和发作间期显像,62例仅获得发作间期显像.SPECT、VEEG和MRI对病灶的检出率分别为95%、98%和42%,SPECT与VEEG检出率之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但二者均显著高于MRI(x 2=52.913,P<0.001;x2 =59.247,P<0.001).SPECT与VEEG、SPECT与MRI和MRI与VEEG对病灶的定位符合率分别为69%、25%和27%,SPECT与VEEG之间的符合率显著高于SPECT与MRI(x2=26.905,P<0.001)及MRI与VEEG之间的符合率(x2=26.905,P<0.001).SPECT、VEEG和MRI的定位准确性分别为83%、74%和52%;术后随访结果示,疗效达Ⅰ~Ⅱ级患者中,有11例(n=14)其术前SPECT与VEEG定位结果一致.结论 脑SPECT显像法对致痫灶定位具有较高的价值,