WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain regions engaged

  1. Unconscious word processing engages a distributed network of brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Michele T; McCarthy, Gregory

    2007-11-01

    A briefly exposed visual stimulus may not be consciously perceived if it is preceded and followed by a dissimilar visual pattern or mask. Despite the subject's lack of awareness, prior behavioral studies have shown that such masked stimuli, nevertheless, engage domain-specific processes [Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., Cohen, L., Le Bihan, D., Mangin, J.-F., Poline, J.-B., et al. Cerebral mechanisms of word masking and unconscious repetition priming. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 752-758, 2001; Bar, M., & Biederman, I. Subliminal visual priming. Psychological Science, 9, 464-469, 1998; Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., Le Clec'H, G., Koechlin, E., Mueller, M., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., et al. Imaging unconscious semantic priming. Nature, 395, 597-600, 1998; Whalen, P. J., Rauch, S. L., Etcoff, N. L., McInerney, S. C., Lee, M. B., & Jenike, M. A. Masked presentations of emotional facial expressions modulate amygdala activity without explicit knowledge. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 411-418, 1998; Marcel, A. J. Conscious and unconscious perception: Experiments on visual masking and word recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 197-237, 1983]. Masking thus provides a method for identifying language processes that are preattentive and automatic. Functional magnetic resonance imaging used in concert with masking may identify brain regions engaged by these unconscious language processes. In an adaptation design, subjects viewed a continuous stream of masked words and masked nonwords while performing an unrelated detection task, in which they were asked to make a response to a visible colored nonword stimulus (i.e., ampersands in red or blue font). Most trials were masked nonwords and masked words were presented once every 12-15 sec. The task ensured participant engagement, while the masked nonword baseline controlled for perceptual and orthographic processing. Participants were naïve to the purpose of the experiment and testing indicated that they did not consciously perceive either the words

  2. Brain Regions Engaged by Part- and Whole-task Performance in a Video Game: A Model-based Test of the Decomposition Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, John R.; Bothell, Daniel; Fincham, Jon M.; Anderson, Abraham R.; Poole, Ben; Qin, Yulin

    2011-01-01

    Part- and whole-task conditions were created by manipulating the presence of certain components of the Space Fortress video game. A cognitive model was created for two-part games that could be combined into a model that performed the whole game. The model generated predictions both for behavioral patterns and activation patterns in various brain regions. The activation predictions concerned both tonic activation that was constant in these regions during performance of the game and phasic acti...

  3. Rebelling against the brain: public engagement with the 'neurological adolescent'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Suparna; McKinney, Kelly A; Merten, Moritz

    2012-02-01

    The adolescent brain has become a flourishing project for cognitive neuroscience. In the mid 1990s, MRI studies mapped out extended neuro-development in several cortical regions beyond childhood, and during adolescence. In the last ten years, numerous functional MRI studies have suggested that functions associated with these brain regions, such as cognitive control and social cognition undergo a period of development. These changes have been anecdotally and clinically used to account for behavioural changes during adolescence. The interpretation of these data that the "teen brain" is different has gained increasing visibility outside the neuroscience community, among policy makers and in the media, resonating strongly with current cultural conceptions of teenagers in Western societies. In the last two years, a new impetus has been placed on public engagement activities in science and in the popular science genre of the media that specifically attempts to educate children and teenagers about emerging models of the developing brain. In this article, we draw on data from an adolescent focus group and a questionnaire completed by 85 teenage students at a UK school, to show how teens may hold ambivalent and sometimes resistant views of cognitive neuroscience's teen brain model in terms of their own self-understandings. Our findings indicate that new "neuro"-identity formations are more fractured, resisted and incomplete than some of the current social science literature on neuro-subjectivities seem to suggest and that the effects of public policy and popular education initiatives in this domain will be more uneven and complex than currently imagined. PMID:22257745

  4. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: from brain regions to brain networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nomi, Jason S.; Lucina Q. Uddin

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD...

  5. Distinct and Overlapping Brain Areas Engaged during Value-Based, Mathematical, and Emotional Decision Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Wei; Goh, Joshua O. S.

    2016-01-01

    When comparing between the values of different choices, human beings can rely on either more cognitive processes, such as using mathematical computation, or more affective processes, such as using emotion. However, the neural correlates of how these two types of processes operate during value-based decision-making remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the extent to which neural regions engaged during value-based decision-making overlap with those engaged during mathematical and emotional processing in a within-subject manner. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, participants viewed stimuli that always consisted of numbers and emotional faces that depicted two choices. Across tasks, participants decided between the two choices based on the expected value of the numbers, a mathematical result of the numbers, or the emotional face stimuli. We found that all three tasks commonly involved various cortical areas including frontal, parietal, motor, somatosensory, and visual regions. Critically, the mathematical task shared common areas with the value but not emotion task in bilateral striatum. Although the emotion task overlapped with the value task in parietal, motor, and sensory areas, the mathematical task also evoked responses in other areas within these same cortical structures. Minimal areas were uniquely engaged for the value task apart from the other two tasks. The emotion task elicited a more expansive area of neural activity whereas value and mathematical task responses were in more focal regions. Whole-brain spatial correlation analysis showed that valuative processing engaged functional brain responses more similarly to mathematical processing than emotional processing. While decisions on expected value entail both mathematical and emotional processing regions, mathematical processes have a more prominent contribution particularly in subcortical processes. PMID:27375466

  6. Distinct and Overlapping Brain Areas Engaged during Value-Based, Mathematical, and Emotional Decision Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Wei; Goh, Joshua O S

    2016-01-01

    When comparing between the values of different choices, human beings can rely on either more cognitive processes, such as using mathematical computation, or more affective processes, such as using emotion. However, the neural correlates of how these two types of processes operate during value-based decision-making remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the extent to which neural regions engaged during value-based decision-making overlap with those engaged during mathematical and emotional processing in a within-subject manner. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, participants viewed stimuli that always consisted of numbers and emotional faces that depicted two choices. Across tasks, participants decided between the two choices based on the expected value of the numbers, a mathematical result of the numbers, or the emotional face stimuli. We found that all three tasks commonly involved various cortical areas including frontal, parietal, motor, somatosensory, and visual regions. Critically, the mathematical task shared common areas with the value but not emotion task in bilateral striatum. Although the emotion task overlapped with the value task in parietal, motor, and sensory areas, the mathematical task also evoked responses in other areas within these same cortical structures. Minimal areas were uniquely engaged for the value task apart from the other two tasks. The emotion task elicited a more expansive area of neural activity whereas value and mathematical task responses were in more focal regions. Whole-brain spatial correlation analysis showed that valuative processing engaged functional brain responses more similarly to mathematical processing than emotional processing. While decisions on expected value entail both mathematical and emotional processing regions, mathematical processes have a more prominent contribution particularly in subcortical processes. PMID:27375466

  7. Regional Brain Responses in Nulliparous Women to Emotional Infant Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Jessica L.; Nicole Landi; Hedy Kober; Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; W Einar Mencl; Mayes, Linda C.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2012-01-01

    Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infan...

  8. Human capital in European peripheral regions: Brain - Drain and Brain - Gain : policies on brain drain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CSTM,

    2004-01-01

    Policies on brain drain Many policies are related to the problem of brain drain and brain gain. For instance, every policy that makes a region more attractive to live in, will make a region a more attractive place for the highly educated to settle. In theory this can be everything ranging from infra

  9. Widespread Brain Areas Engaged during a Classical Auditory Streaming Task Revealed by Intracranial EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Dykstra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The auditory system must constantly decompose the complex mixture of sound arriving at the ear into perceptually-independent streams constituting accurate representations of individual sources in the acoustic environment. How the brain accomplishes this task is not well understood. The present study combined a classic behavioral paradigm with direct cortical recordings from neurosurgical patients with epilepsy in order to further describe the neural correlates of auditory streaming. Participants listened to sequences of pure tones alternating in frequency and indicated whether they heard one or two “streams.” The intracranial EEG was simultaneously recorded from sub-dural electrodes placed over temporal, frontal, and parietal cortex. Like healthy subjects, patients heard one stream when the frequency separation between tones was small and two when it was large. Robust evoked-potential correlates of frequency separation were observed over widespread brain areas. Waveform morphology was highly variable across individual electrode sites both within and across gross brain regions. Surprisingly, few evoked-potential correlates of perceptual organization were observed after controlling for physical stimulus differences. The results indicate that the cortical areas engaged during the streaming task is more complex and widespread than has been demonstrated by previous work, and that, by-and-large, correlates of bi-stability during streaming are probably located on a spatial scale not assessed – or in a brain area not examined – by the present study.

  10. Regional brain activity correlates of nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jed E; Behm, Frederique M; Salley, Alfred N; Bates, James E; Coleman, R Edward; Hawk, Thomas C; Turkington, Timothy G

    2007-12-01

    Fifteen smokers participated in a study investigating brain correlates of nicotine dependence. Dependence was reduced by having subjects switch to denicotinized cigarettes for 2 weeks while wearing nicotine skin patches. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans assessed regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) after overnight nicotine abstinence on three occasions: (1) at baseline; (2) after 2 weeks of exposure to denicotinized cigarettes+nicotine patches; and (3) 2 weeks after returning to smoking the usual brands of cigarettes. Craving for cigarettes and scores on the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) questionnaire decreased at the second session relative to the first and last sessions. Regional brain metabolic activity (normalized to whole brain values) at session 2 also showed a significant decrease in the right hemisphere anterior cingulate cortex. Exploratory post hoc analyses showed that the change in craving across sessions was negatively correlated with the change in rCMRglc in several structures within the brain reward system, including the ventral striatum, orbitofrontal cortex and pons. The between-session difference in thalamus activity (right hemisphere) was positively correlated with the difference in FTND scores. Correlational analyses also revealed that reported smoking for calming effects was associated with a decrease (at session 2) in thalamus activity (bilaterally) and with an increase in amygdala activity (left hemisphere). Reported smoking to enhance pleasurable relaxation was associated with an increase in metabolic activity of the dorsal striatum (caudate, putamen) at session 2. These findings suggest that reversible changes in regional brain metabolic activity occur in conjunction with alterations in nicotine dependence. The results also highlight the likely role of thalamic gating processes as well as striatal reward and corticolimbic regulatory pathways in the maintenance of cigarette addiction. PMID:17356570

  11. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: From brain regions to brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomi, Jason S; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2015-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD to a more holistic approach to understanding face perception as a process supported by distributed cortical and subcortical brain networks. We summarize evidence for atypical activation patterns within brain networks that may contribute to social deficits characteristic of the disorder. We conclude by pointing to gaps in the literature and future directions that will continue to shed light on aspects of face processing in autism that are still under-examined. In particular, we highlight the need for more developmental studies and studies examining ecologically valid and naturalistic social stimuli. PMID:25829246

  12. MR imaging of regional late brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports, to complement current knowledge on brain development, late regional brain maturation assessed with quantitative MR imaging. Axial and coronal head spin-echo (SE) images were obtained in 60 healthy individuals aged 5--56 years, with a double-echo, flow compensated imaging sequence obtained with a 1.5-T Magnetom spectroscopy and imaging system. T2-weighted images were calculated from the intensity differences in SE images at echo times (TEs) of 15 and 90 msec (TR = 2.5 second). The mean T2 values were determined at 16 sites in each cerebral hemisphere. T2 values of the six frontal subcortical white matter (FSCWM) sites and of the internal capsule (IC) were evaluated. Mean T2 values in the IC decreased until age 10 years, whereas this decrease continued in the FSCWM past age 15 years before reaching a plateau. Differential age-dependent patterns of mean T2 values emerged between the six FSCWM sites. The spread of T2 values varied at different sites independent of the age of the individuals. T2- values have previously been shown to reflect the status of brain development. The authors' data on the six FSCWM sites and the IC extend these findings to specific substructures of the brain. Interindividual variations and technical issues are responsible for the observed spread of data

  13. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain [poster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    The issue of this project is brain drain and brain gain in peripheral European regions. It focuses on the design, implementation and evaluation of actions to reduce brain drain and foster so-called brain gain. The action areas are the Twente region in the Netherlands; the Central Switzerland Cantons

  14. Brain networks engaged in audiovisual integration during speech perception revealed by persistent homology-based network filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejung; Hahm, Jarang; Lee, Hyekyoung; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-05-01

    The human brain naturally integrates audiovisual information to improve speech perception. However, in noisy environments, understanding speech is difficult and may require much effort. Although the brain network is supposed to be engaged in speech perception, it is unclear how speech-related brain regions are connected during natural bimodal audiovisual or unimodal speech perception with counterpart irrelevant noise. To investigate the topological changes of speech-related brain networks at all possible thresholds, we used a persistent homological framework through hierarchical clustering, such as single linkage distance, to analyze the connected component of the functional network during speech perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging. For speech perception, bimodal (audio-visual speech cue) or unimodal speech cues with counterpart irrelevant noise (auditory white-noise or visual gum-chewing) were delivered to 15 subjects. In terms of positive relationship, similar connected components were observed in bimodal and unimodal speech conditions during filtration. However, during speech perception by congruent audiovisual stimuli, the tighter couplings of left anterior temporal gyrus-anterior insula component and right premotor-visual components were observed than auditory or visual speech cue conditions, respectively. Interestingly, visual speech is perceived under white noise by tight negative coupling in the left inferior frontal region-right anterior cingulate, left anterior insula, and bilateral visual regions, including right middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform components. In conclusion, the speech brain network is tightly positively or negatively connected, and can reflect efficient or effortful processes during natural audiovisual integration or lip-reading, respectively, in speech perception. PMID:25495216

  15. Neural Networks: Making Connections about the Brain and about College while Monitoring Student Engagement in Second Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Kristina S

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a neuroscience outreach program developed by college undergraduates and aimed at second graders. Over a period of four weeks, twenty-five Denison students enrolled in a non-majors course on gender and the brain visited twenty-four second grade classrooms to engage a total of 464 students. We had a mission to both promote college awareness and to specifically bring some brain science into the classroom. The desire to engage students with the brain was in part a wish to celebrate brain awareness week and in part a wish to follow a feminist tenet of bridging theory and practice via activism. The college students chose six activities: a brain puzzle, a sock content guessing game, a jelly bean olfaction and taste test, mystery noises, a message transmission game, and a version of tag. During our outreach with the second graders, my students monitored student engagement and compared engagement between male and female second graders. Engagement was high for nearly all activities but girls were more engaged than boys during the brain puzzle and jelly bean activities. Effect sizes measured as Cohen's "d" statistics were small to large (0.2 to 0.93). The other four activities (mystery socks, mystery noises, message transmission and neuron chain tag) showed no difference in engagement between male and female second graders. Our program benefited the Denison students as well, introducing many to community involvement and awakening in them an interest in teaching or working with kids. PMID:23494920

  16. Student Engagement in Public Universities in the Context of University of Raparin Kurdistan Region--Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Paiman Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge this is the first attempt to investigate student engagement in learning within the Kurdistan region in general and at University of Raparin in particular. Student engagement, self-learning, faculty-student interaction and promoting personal responsibility, besides environment of learning are the components for this…

  17. Regional brain responses in nulliparous women to emotional infant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jessica L; Landi, Nicole; Kober, Hedy; Worhunsky, Patrick D; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Mayes, Linda C; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-01-01

    Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infant cries of two distress levels (low and high) and unknown infant faces of varying affect (happy, sad, and neutral) in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Brain activation was subsequently correlated with scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale. Infant cries activated bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri (STG and MTG) and precentral and postcentral gyri. Activation was greater in bilateral temporal cortices for low- relative to high-distress cries. Happy relative to neutral faces activated the ventral striatum, caudate, ventromedial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. Sad versus neutral faces activated the precuneus, cuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, and behavioral activation drive correlated with occipital cortical activations in this contrast. Behavioral inhibition correlated with activation in the right STG for high- and low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Behavioral drive correlated inversely with putamen, caudate, and thalamic activations for the comparison of high-distress cries to pink noise. Reward-responsiveness correlated with activation in the left precentral gyrus during the perception of low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Our findings indicate that infant cry stimuli elicit activations in areas implicated in auditory processing and social cognition. Happy infant faces may be encoded as rewarding, whereas sad faces activate regions associated with empathic processing. Differences in motivational

  18. Regional brain responses in nulliparous women to emotional infant stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Montoya

    Full Text Available Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infant cries of two distress levels (low and high and unknown infant faces of varying affect (happy, sad, and neutral in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Brain activation was subsequently correlated with scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale. Infant cries activated bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri (STG and MTG and precentral and postcentral gyri. Activation was greater in bilateral temporal cortices for low- relative to high-distress cries. Happy relative to neutral faces activated the ventral striatum, caudate, ventromedial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. Sad versus neutral faces activated the precuneus, cuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, and behavioral activation drive correlated with occipital cortical activations in this contrast. Behavioral inhibition correlated with activation in the right STG for high- and low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Behavioral drive correlated inversely with putamen, caudate, and thalamic activations for the comparison of high-distress cries to pink noise. Reward-responsiveness correlated with activation in the left precentral gyrus during the perception of low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Our findings indicate that infant cry stimuli elicit activations in areas implicated in auditory processing and social cognition. Happy infant faces may be encoded as rewarding, whereas sad faces activate regions associated with empathic processing. Differences

  19. Neuronal connectivity, regional differentiation, and brain damage in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidel, Dahlia W.

    1999-01-01

    When circumscribed brain regions are damaged in humans, highly specific iimpairments in language, memory, problem solving, and cognition are observed. Neurosurgery such as "split brain" or hemispherectomy, for example has shown that encompassing regions, the left and right cerebral hemispheres each control human behavior in unique ways. Observations stretching over 100 years of patients with unilateral focal brain damage have revealed, withouth the theoretical benefits of "cognitive neurosci...

  20. Paternal Retrieval Behavior Regulated by Brain Estrogen Synthetase (Aromatase) in Mouse Sires that Engage in Communicative Interactions with Pairmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akther, Shirin; Huang, Zhiqi; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Fakhrul, Azam A. K. M.; Yuhi, Teruko; Lopatina, Olga; Salmina, Alla B.; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Higashida, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Matsuo, Mie; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Parental behaviors involve complex social recognition and memory processes and interactive behavior with children that can greatly facilitate healthy human family life. Fathers play a substantial role in child care in a small but significant number of mammals, including humans. However, the brain mechanism that controls male parental behavior is much less understood than that controlling female parental behavior. Fathers of non-monogamous laboratory ICR mice are an interesting model for examining the factors that influence paternal responsiveness because sires can exhibit maternal-like parental care (retrieval of pups) when separated from their pups along with their pairmates because of olfactory and auditory signals from the dams. Here we tested whether paternal behavior is related to femininity by the aromatization of testosterone. For this purpose, we measured the immunoreactivity of aromatase [cytochrome P450 family 19 (CYP19)], which synthesizes estrogen from androgen, in nine brain regions of the sire. We observed higher levels of aromatase expression in these areas of the sire brain when they engaged in communicative interactions with dams in separate cages. Interestingly, the number of nuclei with aromatase immunoreactivity in sires left together with maternal mates in the home cage after pup-removing was significantly larger than that in sires housed with a whole family. The capacity of sires to retrieve pups was increased following a period of 5 days spent with the pups as a whole family after parturition, whereas the acquisition of this ability was suppressed in sires treated daily with an aromatase inhibitor. The results demonstrate that the dam significantly stimulates aromatase in the male brain and that the presence of the pups has an inhibitory effect on this increase. These results also suggest that brain aromatization regulates the initiation, development, and maintenance of paternal behavior in the ICR male mice. PMID:26696812

  1. Neural Networks: Making Connections about the Brain and about College while Monitoring Student Engagement in Second Graders

    OpenAIRE

    Mead, Kristina S.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a neuroscience outreach program developed by college undergraduates and aimed at second graders. Over a period of four weeks, twenty-five Denison students enrolled in a non-majors course on gender and the brain visited twenty-four second grade classrooms to engage a total of 464 students. We had a mission to both promote college awareness and to specifically bring some brain science into the classroom. The desire to engage students with the brain was in part a wish to c...

  2. Imaging structural co-variance between human brain regions

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Giedd, Jay N.; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Brain structure varies between people in a markedly organized fashion. Communities of brain regions co-vary in their morphological properties. For example, cortical thickness in one region influences the thickness of structurally and functionally connected regions. Such networks of structural co-variance partially recapitulate the functional networks of healthy individuals and the foci of grey matter loss in neurodegenerative disease. This architecture is genetically heritable, is associated ...

  3. U.S. Higher Education Regional Accreditation Commission Standards and the Centrality of Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Valerie O.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Green, Birgit L.; Raymond, Megan; Borchardt, Melody P.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed the research question "How do regional accrediting standards apply to the central role of community engagement in U.S. institutions of higher education?" Using descriptive and qualitative methods, two sources were analyzed: published standards of the 6 regional accrediting commissions in the United States and the…

  4. Attentional Performance is Correlated with the Local Regional Efficiency of Intrinsic Brain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai eXu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention is a crucial brain function for human beings. Using neuropsychological paradigms and task-based functional brain imaging, previous studies have indicated that widely distributed brain regions are engaged in three distinct attention subsystems: alerting, orienting and executive control (EC. Here, we explored the potential contribution of spontaneous brain activity to attention by examining whether resting-state activity could account for individual differences of the attentional performance in normal individuals. The resting-state functional images and behavioral data from attention network test (ANT task were collected in 59 healthy subjects. Graph analysis was conducted to obtain the characteristics of functional brain networks and linear regression analyses were used to explore their relationships with behavioral performances of the three attentional components. We found that there was no significant relationship between the attentional performance and the global measures, while the attentional performance was associated with specific local regional efficiency. These regions related to the scores of alerting, orienting and EC largely overlapped with the regions activated in previous task-related functional imaging studies, and were consistent with the intrinsic dorsal and ventral attention networks (DAN/VAN. In addition, the strong associations between the attentional performance and specific regional efficiency suggested that there was a possible relationship between the DAN/VAN and task performances in the ANT. We concluded that the intrinsic activity of the human brain could reflect the processing efficiency of the attention system. Our findings revealed a robust evidence for the functional significance of the efficiently organized intrinsic brain network for highly productive cognitions and the hypothesized role of the DAN/ VAN at rest.

  5. Regional organisation of brain activity during paradoxical sleep (PS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquet, P; Ruby, P; Schwartz, S; Laureys, S; Albouy, G; Dang-Vu, T; Desseilles, M; Boly, M; Melchior, G; Peigneux, P

    2004-07-01

    Human brain function is regionally organised during paradoxical sleep (PS) in a very different way than during wakefulness or slow wave sleep. The important activity in the pons and in the limbic/paralimbic areas constitutes the key feature of the functional neuroanatomy of PS, together with a relative quiescence of prefrontal and parietal associative cortices. Two questions are still outstanding. What neurocognitive and neurophysiological mechanisms may explain this original organization of brain function during PS? How the pattern of regional brain function may relate to dream content? Although some clues are already available, the experimental answer to both questions is still pending. PMID:15493545

  6. Cocaine disposition in discrete regions of rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, J I; Davis, J M

    1993-05-01

    It has been proposed that various effects of psychoactive drugs on the central nervous system may be related to the capacity of the drug to selectively concentrate in specific regions of the brain. In rat brain, cocaine effects on striatal and nucleus accumbens dopaminergic systems show quantitative differences. However, the disposition of cocaine in various brain regions has not been reported. In the present studies we examined the cocaine concentrations over time in serum and discrete brain regions of the rat after single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. At different time points (5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min) after i.p. injection of cocaine hydrochloride (10 mg kg-1, free base) the rats were decapitated and cocaine in serum and various brain regions was quantitated by a specific gas liquid chromatographic method. There was large inter-individual variability in different rats at each time-point. The disposition pattern of cocaine in rats after i.p. administration was similar to that observed in humans after intranasal administration. Initial absorption rate was rapid and, on average, the peak levels of cocaine were achieved in 10 min. The cocaine levels remained relatively high over the next 50 min indicating continual absorption, and then declined with a rate such that the levels 4 h after cocaine administration were undetectable in most of the animals. The overall changes in cocaine levels in various brain regions paralleled the serum concentrations. The area under the cocaine concentration-time curve (AUC) revealed more than three-fold differences in cocaine accumulation in various brain regions. This unequal disposition of cocaine may be responsible in part for differential biochemical effects in different brain regions. PMID:8499585

  7. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain: project design [poster

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Project design - The action plan consists of two overlapping phases. In the initial analytic phase the specific details of brain gain/ brain drain and their underlying processes in three regions are analyzed. This is not meant as a study project but rather a method to evaluate, design and implement brain drain gain instruments through a thorough analysis of processes. The implementation phase deals with the development, implementation and evaluation of instruments as well as the dissemination...

  8. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met

  9. Automated recognition of brain region mentions in neuroscience literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon French

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to computationally extract mentions of neuroanatomical regions from the literature would assist linking to other entities within and outside of an article. Examples include extracting reports of connectivity or region-specific gene expression. To facilitate text mining of neuroscience literature we have created a corpus of manually annotated brain region mentions. The corpus contains 1,377 abstracts with 18,242 brain region annotations. Interannotator agreement was evaluated for a subset of the documents, and was 90.7% and 96.7% for strict and lenient matching respectively. We observed a large vocabulary of over 6,000 unique brain region terms and 17,000 words. For automatic extraction of brain region mentions we evaluated simple dictionary methods and complex natural language processing techniques. The dictionary methods based on neuroanatomical lexicons recalled 36% of the mentions with 57% precision. The best performance was achieved using a conditional random field (CRF with a rich feature set. Features were based on morphological, lexical, syntactic and contextual information. The CRF recalled 76% of mentions at 81% precision, by counting partial matches recall and precision increase to 86% and 92% respectively. We suspect a large amount of error is due to coordinating conjunctions, previously unseen words and brain regions of less commonly studied organisms. We found context windows, lemmatization and abbreviation expansion to be the most informative techniques. The corpus is freely available at http://www.chibi.ubc.ca/WhiteText/.

  10. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain [poster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Frans H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Project goal - The overall goal of the project is to build a legitimate transnational network to transfer ideas and experiences and implement measures to reduce brain drain and foster brain gain while reinforcing the economical and spatial development of peripheral regions in NWE. This means a highe

  11. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain: project design [poster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    Project design - The action plan consists of two overlapping phases. In the initial analytic phase the specific details of brain gain/ brain drain and their underlying processes in three regions are analyzed. This is not meant as a study project but rather a method to evaluate, design and implement

  12. Histogram analysis with automated extraction of brain-tissue region from whole-brain CT images

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Yamashita, Koji; Yoshiura, Takashi; Hiwatash, Akio; Shirasaka, Takashi; Arimura, Hisao; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether an automated extraction of the brain-tissue region from CT images is useful for the histogram analysis of the brain-tissue region was studied. We used the CT images of 11 patients. We developed an automatic brain-tissue extraction algorithm. We evaluated the similarity index of this automated extraction method relative to manual extraction, and we compared the mean CT number of all extracted pixels and the kurtosis and skewness of the distribution of CT numbers of all ext...

  13. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic reso...

  14. Regional brain morphometry predicts memory rehabilitation outcome after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI commonly include difficulties with memory, attention, and executive dysfunction. These deficits are amenable to cognitive rehabilitation, but optimally selecting rehabilitation programs for individual patients remains a challenge. Recent methods for quantifying regional brain morphometry allow for automated quantification of tissue volumes in numerous distinct brain structures. We hypothesized that such quantitative structural information could help identify individuals more or less likely to benefit from memory rehabilitation. Fifty individuals with TBI of all severities who reported having memory difficulties first underwent structural MRI scanning. They then participated in a 12 session memory rehabilitation program emphasizing internal memory strategies (I-MEMS. Primary outcome measures (HVLT, RBMT were collected at the time of the MRI scan, immediately following therapy, and again at one month post-therapy. Regional brain volumes were used to predict outcome, adjusting for standard predictors (e.g., injury severity, age, education, pretest scores. We identified several brain regions that provided significant predictions of rehabilitation outcome, including the volume of the hippocampus, the lateral prefrontal cortex, the thalamus, and several subregions of the cingulate cortex. The prediction range of regional brain volumes were in some cases nearly equal in magnitude to prediction ranges provided by pretest scores on the outcome variable. We conclude that specific cerebral networks including these regions may contribute to learning during I-MEMS rehabilitation, and suggest that morphometric measures may provide substantial predictive value for rehabilitation outcome in other cognitive interventions as well.

  15. Whole brain and brain regional coexpression network interactions associated with predisposition to alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Vanderlinden

    Full Text Available To identify brain transcriptional networks that may predispose an animal to consume alcohol, we used weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA. Candidate coexpression modules are those with an eigengene expression level that correlates significantly with the level of alcohol consumption across a panel of BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains, and that share a genomic region that regulates the module transcript expression levels (mQTL with a genomic region that regulates alcohol consumption (bQTL. To address a controversy regarding utility of gene expression profiles from whole brain, vs specific brain regions, as indicators of the relationship of gene expression to phenotype, we compared candidate coexpression modules from whole brain gene expression data (gathered with Affymetrix 430 v2 arrays in the Colorado laboratories and from gene expression data from 6 brain regions (nucleus accumbens (NA; prefrontal cortex (PFC; ventral tegmental area (VTA; striatum (ST; hippocampus (HP; cerebellum (CB available from GeneNetwork. The candidate modules were used to construct candidate eigengene networks across brain regions, resulting in three "meta-modules", composed of candidate modules from two or more brain regions (NA, PFC, ST, VTA and whole brain. To mitigate the potential influence of chromosomal location of transcripts and cis-eQTLs in linkage disequilibrium, we calculated a semi-partial correlation of the transcripts in the meta-modules with alcohol consumption conditional on the transcripts' cis-eQTLs. The function of transcripts that retained the correlation with the phenotype after correction for the strong genetic influence, implicates processes of protein metabolism in the ER and Golgi as influencing susceptibility to variation in alcohol consumption. Integration of these data with human GWAS provides further information on the function of polymorphisms associated with alcohol-related traits.

  16. Regional genome transcriptional response of adult mouse brain to hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Aigang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since normal brain function depends upon continuous oxygen delivery and short periods of hypoxia can precondition the brain against subsequent ischemia, this study examined the effects of brief hypoxia on the whole genome transcriptional response in adult mouse brain. Result Pronounced changes of gene expression occurred after 3 hours of hypoxia (8% O2 and after 1 hour of re-oxygenation in all brain regions. The hypoxia-responsive genes were predominantly up-regulated in hindbrain and predominantly down-regulated in forebrain - possibly to support hindbrain survival functions at the expense of forebrain cognitive functions. The up-regulated genes had a significant role in cell survival and involved both shared and unshared signaling pathways among different brain regions. Up-regulation of transcriptional signaling including hypoxia inducible factor, insulin growth factor (IGF, the vitamin D3 receptor/retinoid X nuclear receptor, and glucocorticoid signaling was common to many brain regions. However, many of the hypoxia-regulated target genes were specific for one or a few brain regions. Cerebellum, for example, had 1241 transcripts regulated by hypoxia only in cerebellum but not in hippocampus; and, 642 (54% had at least one hepatic nuclear receptor 4A (HNF4A binding site and 381 had at least two HNF4A binding sites in their promoters. The data point to HNF4A as a major hypoxia-responsive transcription factor in cerebellum in addition to its known role in regulating erythropoietin transcription. The genes unique to hindbrain may play critical roles in survival during hypoxia. Conclusion Differences of forebrain and hindbrain hypoxia-responsive genes may relate to suppression of forebrain cognitive functions and activation of hindbrain survival functions, which may coordinately mediate the neuroprotection afforded by hypoxia preconditioning.

  17. How to engage the right brain hemisphere in aphasics without even singing: evidence for two paths of speech recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eStahl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate as to whether singing helps left-hemispheric stroke patients recover from non-fluent aphasia through stimulation of the right hemisphere. According to recent work, it may not be singing itself that aids speech production in non-fluent aphasic patients, but rhythm and lyric type. However, the long-term effects of melody and rhythm on speech recovery are largely unknown. In the current experiment, we tested 15 patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia who underwent either singing therapy, rhythmic therapy, or standard speech therapy. The experiment controlled for phonatory quality, vocal frequency variability, pitch accuracy, syllable duration, phonetic complexity and other influences, such as the acoustic setting and learning effects induced by the testing itself. The results provide the first evidence that singing and rhythmic speech may be similarly effective in the treatment of non-fluent aphasia. This finding may challenge the view that singing causes a transfer of language function from the left to the right hemisphere. Instead, both singing and rhythmic therapy patients made good progress in the production of common, formulaic phrases—known to be supported by right corticostriatal brain areas. This progress occurred at an early stage of both therapies and was stable over time. Conversely, patients receiving standard therapy made less progress in the production of formulaic phrases. They did, however, improve their production of non-formulaic speech, in contrast to singing and rhythmic therapy patients, who did not. In light of these results, it may be worth considering the combined use of standard therapy and the training of formulaic phrases, whether sung or rhythmically spoken. Standard therapy may engage, in particular, left perilesional brain regions, while training of formulaic phrases may open new ways of tapping into right-hemisphere language resources—even without singing.

  18. A probabilistic approach to delineating functional brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable observer-independent approach to delineating volumes of interest (VOIs) for functional brain regions that are not identifiable on structural MR images. The case is made for the raphe nuclei, a collection of nuclei situated in the brain stem known...... compared with a manual delineation approach. RESULTS: In addition to providing an observer-independent solution, the probabilistic map approach returned a higher specific binding determined in a larger region, ultimately providing better data fitting in kinetic modeling. CONCLUSION: We developed a fast...

  19. STUDY OF REGIONAL STABILITY OF ECD DISTRIBUTION IN NORMAL BRAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培勇; 陈刚; 朱承谟

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate in vivo stability of ethylenedylbis cysteine diethylester ( ECD ) brain SPECT. Methods Each of13 normal volunteers (31.2±11.8 years) has12 dynamic SPECT scans acquired in 60min 1h after an injection of 99mTc-ECD using a triple headed gamma camera equipped with ultra high resolution fan beam collimators. Average counts per pixel were measured from frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital regions, cerebellum, basal ganglia, thalamus and white matter. Regional ECD clearance rates, regional gray-to-white matter (G/W) ratios and the change of the G /W ratio were calculated. Results The average ECD clearance rate was 4.2%/h, ranged from 3.03%/h to 5.41%/h corresponding to white matter and occipital. There was no significant difference between regional ECD clearance rates. Regional G/W ratio was between 1.27 to 1.75. The G /W ratio of temporal lobe was lower than the occipital (P<0.05). The change of regional G /W ratio with time is slow. Cbnclusion Regional ECD distribution is stable in normal brain. ECD clearance from brain is slow and no significant regional difference.

  20. Brain regions involved in dispositional mindfulness during resting state and their relation with well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Mindfulness can be viewed as an important dispositional characteristic that reflects the tendency to be mindful in daily life, which is beneficial for improving individuals' both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. However, no study to date has examined the brain regions involved in individual differences in dispositional mindfulness during the resting state and its relation with hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. To investigate this issue, the present study employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to evaluate the regional homogeneity (ReHo) that measures the local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity in a large sample. We found that dispositional mindfulness was positively associated with the ReHo in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and right insula implicated in emotion processing, body awareness, and self-referential processing, and negatively associated with the ReHo in right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) implicated in response inhibition and attentional control. Furthermore, we found different neural associations with hedonic (i.e., positive and negative affect) and eudaimonic well-being (i.e., the meaningful and purposeful life). Specifically, the ReHo in the IFG predicted eudaimonic well-being whereas the OFC predicted positive affect, both of which were mediated by dispositional mindfulness. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence for linking individual differences in dispositional mindfulness to spontaneous brain activity and demonstrates that dispositional mindfulness engages multiple brain mechanisms that differentially influence hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. PMID:26360907

  1. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  2. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  3. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  4. Cognitive Abilities Independent of IQ Correlate with Regional Brain Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Jung, Rex E.; Colom, Roberto; Haier, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence relating psychometric measures of general intelligence and reasoning to regional brain structure and function assessed with a variety of neuroimaging techniques. Cognitive dimensions independent of general intelligence can also be identified psychometrically and studied for any neuroanatomical correlates. Here we…

  5. Engaging the brain:The impact of natural versus urban scenes using novel EEG methods in an experimental setting

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Jenny; Aspinall, Peter; Mavros, Panos; Coyne, Richard

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundResearchers in environmental psychology have consistently shown the restorative potential of natural – over urban - settings using video/photographic experiments in laboratory settings applying subjectively rated scales. But few studies have employed objective indicators of emotional response. This study investigates the use of electroencephalography (EEG) as a method to understand how the brain engages with natural versus (vs) urban settings – in tandem with subjective preferences....

  6. Engagement in Occupations: a narrative study involving individuals who have a brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lone Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    during a rehabilitation process among persons with acquired injuries; to explore relationships between occupation and engagement; to outline occupational engagement and its centrality in occupational therapy. Earlier research shows that occupational engagement have a positive effect on individual...... gathered from repeated narrative interview and direct observations in combination with fieldnotes. DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS The analysis of data was based on an interpretative hermeneutical tradition. FINDINGS The findings show that all participants have experienced an occupational change. A complexity...... occupational change, engagement, and its relation to occupation. POTENTIAL USE OF OUTCOME Exploring the process of regaining occupations can lead to a more complete understanding of occupational engagement, as well as contributing to the theoretical development of the emerging occupational engagement....

  7. Regional distribution of SGLT activity in rat brain in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Amy S.; Hirayama, Bruce A.; Timbol, Gerald; Liu, Jie; Diez-Sampedro, Ana; Kepe, Vladimir; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Wright, Ernest M.; Barrio, Jorge R.

    2012-01-01

    Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) mRNAs have been detected in many organs of the body, but, apart from kidney and intestine, transporter expression, localization, and functional activity, as well as physiological significance, remain elusive. Using a SGLT-specific molecular imaging probe, α-methyl-4-deoxy-4-[18F]fluoro-d-glucopyranoside (Me-4-FDG) with ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemistry, we mapped in vivo the regional distribution of functional SGLTs in rat brain. Since Me-4-FDG ...

  8. Regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in autistic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisaoka, S.; Harada, M.; Nishitani, H. [Dept. of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan); Mori, K. [Dept. of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    We studied the variations in the concentration of metabolites with brain region and age in autistic individuals and normal controls using multiple analysis of covariance. We examined 55 autistic individuals (2-21 years old, 47 male and eight female) and 51 normal children (3 months-15 years old, 26 boys and 25 girls). Single volumes of interest were placed in the frontal, parietal and temporal region on both sides, the brain stem and cingulate gyrus. The concentration of each metabolite was quantified by the water reference method. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate in the temporal regions (Brodmann's areas 41 and 42) in the autistic individuals were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.05), but concentrations in other regions were not significantly different between the autistic individuals and controls. This suggests low density or dysfunction of neurones in Brodmann's areas 41 and 42 in autistic individual, which might be related to the disturbances of the sensory speech centre (Wernicke's area) in autism. (orig.)

  9. Regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in autistic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the variations in the concentration of metabolites with brain region and age in autistic individuals and normal controls using multiple analysis of covariance. We examined 55 autistic individuals (2-21 years old, 47 male and eight female) and 51 normal children (3 months-15 years old, 26 boys and 25 girls). Single volumes of interest were placed in the frontal, parietal and temporal region on both sides, the brain stem and cingulate gyrus. The concentration of each metabolite was quantified by the water reference method. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate in the temporal regions (Brodmann's areas 41 and 42) in the autistic individuals were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.05), but concentrations in other regions were not significantly different between the autistic individuals and controls. This suggests low density or dysfunction of neurones in Brodmann's areas 41 and 42 in autistic individual, which might be related to the disturbances of the sensory speech centre (Wernicke's area) in autism. (orig.)

  10. Health surveillance of personnel engaged in decontamination of depleted uranium contaminated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the NATO actions against Serbia and Montenegro, 112 locations were highly contaminated with depleted uranium-112 locations in Kosovo, 7 in the south of Serbia and 1 in Montenegro. Contaminated regions were marked, isolated and some of them decontaminated. In this paper we present the health surveillance protocol created for personnel engaged in decontamination of contaminated regions of Pljackovica and Bratoselce. They were examined and selected before decontamination and only healthy professionals (36 and 28) were engaged. Examination included: general clinical assessment, complete blood count with differential white blood cells; biochemical analysis of blood and urine, specifically renal and liver functions tests, cytogenetic tests (chromosomal aberration and micronucleus test), and laser fluorometry of 24-h urine sample and gamma spectrometry of the same if the levels were elevated. After the decontamination in the first group no clinical or biochemical changes were found, but in 3 of 36 were found unstable chromosomal aberrations. In the second group, in 3 of 28 were found unstable chromosomal aberrations and in 3 of them laser fluorometry analysis showed elevated levels of uranium (>3 μg/l in two, and >5 μg/l in one of them). Gamma spectrometry showed that it was not depleted, but naturally occurring uranium. Additionally performed analysis showed they were from the same village which is in the zone of highly elevated uranium level in ground and water. Three months later no chromosomal changes were found. (authors)

  11. Health surveillance of personnel engaged in decontamination of depleted uranium contaminated regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurovic, B. [Military Medical Academy, Radiological Protection Dept., Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia); Spasic-Jokic, V. [ESLA Accelerator Installation, Lab. of Physics, VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia); Fortuna, D.; Milenkovic, M. [NBH Military Educational Center, Krusevac, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia)

    2006-07-01

    After the NATO actions against Serbia and Montenegro, 112 locations were highly contaminated with depleted uranium-112 locations in Kosovo, 7 in the south of Serbia and 1 in Montenegro. Contaminated regions were marked, isolated and some of them decontaminated. In this paper we present the health surveillance protocol created for personnel engaged in decontamination of contaminated regions of Pljackovica and Bratoselce. They were examined and selected before decontamination and only healthy professionals (36 and 28) were engaged. Examination included: general clinical assessment, complete blood count with differential white blood cells; biochemical analysis of blood and urine, specifically renal and liver functions tests, cytogenetic tests (chromosomal aberration and micronucleus test), and laser fluorometry of 24-h urine sample and gamma spectrometry of the same if the levels were elevated. After the decontamination in the first group no clinical or biochemical changes were found, but in 3 of 36 were found unstable chromosomal aberrations. In the second group, in 3 of 28 were found unstable chromosomal aberrations and in 3 of them laser fluorometry analysis showed elevated levels of uranium (>3 {mu}g/l in two, and >5 {mu}g/l in one of them). Gamma spectrometry showed that it was not depleted, but naturally occurring uranium. Additionally performed analysis showed they were from the same village which is in the zone of highly elevated uranium level in ground and water. Three months later no chromosomal changes were found. (authors)

  12. University – Business Partnerships And The Relatively Limited Regional Engagement, In European Context. The Case Of Business Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Maria Serbanica (Pantelica)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the efforts undertaken at European level to promote university – business partnerships, placing the analysis under the framework of third mission and regional engagement of universities. The study brings into focus the role of partnerships in achieving the targets of European Modernisation Agenda for Universities and highlights its general and specific objectives. At the same time, the study presents an analysis of business interactions engaged in by the first twenty of th...

  13. Voluntary exercise may engage proteasome function to benefit the brain after trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Zsofia; Ying, Zhe; Radak, Zsolt; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Brain trauma is associated with long-term decrements in synaptic plasticity and cognitive function, which likely reside on the acute effects of the injury on protein structure and function. Based on the action of proteasome on protein synthesis and degradation we have examined the effects of brain injury on proteasome level/activity and the potential of exercise to interact with the effects of the injury. Exercise has a healing ability but its action on proteasome function is not understood. ...

  14. The Mechanosensory Lateral Line System Mediates Activation of Socially-Relevant Brain Regions during Territorial Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Julie M.; Maruska, Karen P.

    2016-01-01

    Animals use multiple senses during social interactions and must integrate this information in the brain to make context-dependent behavioral decisions. For fishes, the largest group of vertebrates, the mechanosensory lateral line system provides crucial hydrodynamic information for survival behaviors, but little is known about its function in social communication. Our previous work using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, provided the first empirical evidence that fish use their lateral line system to detect water movements from conspecifics for mutual assessment and behavioral choices. It is unknown, however, where this socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the brain to elicit adaptive behavioral responses. To examine for the first time in any fish species which brain regions receive contextual mechanosensory information, we quantified expression of the immediate early gene cfos as a proxy for neural activation in sensory and socially-relevant brain nuclei from lateral line-intact and -ablated fish following territorial interactions. Our in situ hybridization results indicate that in addition to known lateral line processing regions, socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the ATn (ventromedial hypothalamus homolog), Dl (putative hippocampus homolog), and Vs (putative medial extended amygdala homolog). In addition, we identified a functional network within the conserved social decision-making network (SDMN) whose co-activity corresponds with mutual assessment and behavioral choice. Lateral line-intact and –ablated fight winners had different patterns of co-activity of these function networks and group identity could be determined solely by activation patterns, indicating the importance of mechanoreception to co-activity of the SDMN. These data show for the first time that the mechanosensory lateral line system provides relevant information to conserved decision-making centers of the brain during

  15. The Mechanosensory Lateral Line System Mediates Activation of Socially-Relevant Brain Regions during Territorial Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Julie M; Maruska, Karen P

    2016-01-01

    Animals use multiple senses during social interactions and must integrate this information in the brain to make context-dependent behavioral decisions. For fishes, the largest group of vertebrates, the mechanosensory lateral line system provides crucial hydrodynamic information for survival behaviors, but little is known about its function in social communication. Our previous work using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, provided the first empirical evidence that fish use their lateral line system to detect water movements from conspecifics for mutual assessment and behavioral choices. It is unknown, however, where this socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the brain to elicit adaptive behavioral responses. To examine for the first time in any fish species which brain regions receive contextual mechanosensory information, we quantified expression of the immediate early gene cfos as a proxy for neural activation in sensory and socially-relevant brain nuclei from lateral line-intact and -ablated fish following territorial interactions. Our in situ hybridization results indicate that in addition to known lateral line processing regions, socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the ATn (ventromedial hypothalamus homolog), Dl (putative hippocampus homolog), and Vs (putative medial extended amygdala homolog). In addition, we identified a functional network within the conserved social decision-making network (SDMN) whose co-activity corresponds with mutual assessment and behavioral choice. Lateral line-intact and -ablated fight winners had different patterns of co-activity of these function networks and group identity could be determined solely by activation patterns, indicating the importance of mechanoreception to co-activity of the SDMN. These data show for the first time that the mechanosensory lateral line system provides relevant information to conserved decision-making centers of the brain during territorial

  16. Human Brains Engaged in Rat Brains: Student-driven Neuroanatomy Research in an Introductory Biology Lab Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Stephanie M; Adedokun, Omolola A; Weaver, Gabriela C; Bartlett, Edward L

    2011-01-01

    Inquiry-based laboratory instruction has been shown to actively engage students in the content and skills being taught. These courses are further intended to teach students not only what is known, but also the process by which investigators come to know it. We sought to take this approach one step further and incorporate novel research questions into an inquiry-based laboratory model early in the undergraduate course of study. In this research-based introductory laboratory course, first-year students acquired basic lab skills not just for their own sake, but rather within the context of a research question of a member of the faculty. Student projects investigated potential neuroanatomical changes in animal models of dyslexia and aging and included measurements of neuron numbers and levels and distribution of neuronal proteins. Students played an active role in designing and implementing an experimental plan, explored data analysis techniques, and reflected on the results that they obtained in scholarly forms such as research papers and a departmental poster session. Student feedback on this approach has been extremely positive, and the data collected were research quality preliminary data that are being actively pursued for further study. Based on our encouraging experiences, we conclude that designing an introductory course around novel research, including some assessments modeled after scholarly practices, provides motivation and excitement for the students, instills good scientific habits, and can potentially benefit departmental research. PMID:23626490

  17. Segmentation of brain parenchymal regions into gray matter and white matter with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very difficult and time consuming for neuroradiologists to estimate the degree of cerebral atrophy based on the volume of cortical regions etc. Our purpose of this study was to develop an automated segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted MR images. Our proposed method consisted of extraction of a brain parenchymal region based on a brain model matching and segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions based on a fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm. We applied our proposed method to MR images of the whole brains obtained from 9 cases, including 4 clinically AD cases and 5 control cases. The mean volume percentage of a cortical region (41.7%) to a brain parenchymal region in AD patients was smaller than that (45.2%) in the control subjects (p=0.000462). (author)

  18. Gender and environmental effects on regional brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression after experimental traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Li, Y; Kline, A E; Dixon, C E; Zafonte, R D; Wagner, A K

    2005-01-01

    Alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression have been reported in multiple brain regions acutely after traumatic brain injury, however neither injury nor post-injury environmental enrichment has been shown to affect hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression in male rats chronically post-injury. Studies have demonstrated hormone-related neuroprotection for female rats after traumatic brain injury, and estrogen and exercise both influence brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Despite recent studies suggesting that exposure post-traumatic brain injury to environmental enrichment improves cognitive recovery in male rats, we have shown that environmental enrichment mediated improvements with spatial learning are gender specific and only positively affect males. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gender and environmental enrichment on chronic post-injury cortical and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein expression. Sprague-Dawley male and cycling female rats were placed into environmental enrichment or standard housing after controlled cortical impact or sham surgery. Four weeks post-surgery, hippocampal and frontal cortex brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression were examined using Western blot. Results revealed significant increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the frontal cortex ipsilateral to injury for males (P=0.03). Environmental enrichment did not augment this effect. Neither environmental enrichment nor injury significantly affected cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression for females. In the hippocampus ipsilateral to injury brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression for both males and females was half (49% and 51% respectively) of that observed in shams housed in the standard environment. For injured males, there was a trend in this region for environmental enrichment to restore brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels to sham values

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow in psychiatry: The resting and activated brains of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of regional brain functioning in schizophrenia has been based on behavioral techniques. Although results are sometimes inconsistent, the behavioral observations suggest left hemispheric dysfunction and left hemispheric overreaction. Recent developments in neuroimaging technology make possible major refinements in assessing regional brain function. Both anatomical and physiological information now be used to study regional brain development in psychiatric disorders. This chapter describes the application of one method - the xenon-133 technique for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) - in studying the resting and activated brains of schizoprenic patients

  20. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Differences in various mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters in different brain regions in different age groups. This dataset is associated with the following...

  1. Brain activation regions in schizophrenia patients performing the game piece memory task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daxing Wu; Huifang Yin; Lirong Yan; Changlian Tan; Dewen Hu; Shuqiao Yao

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Go, a traditional Chinese chess-like game, requires many unknown functions of the brain including attention, imaging, problem solving and processing of spatial working memory. To date, it remains uncertain whether the intellectual activities required to play Go are related to the frontal lobe.OBJECTIVE: To investigate various patterns of brain region activity while schizophrenic patients and normal subjects engaged in memorizing piece placement in the Chinese game of Go. Spatial working memory was measured in order to validate whether the prefrontal lobe participates in this memory process.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Non-randomized, concurrent control trial was performed at Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, between May and December 2004.PARTICIPANTS: A total of nine Chinese schizophrenic patients with no brain or bodily diseases and not undergoing electroshock treatment, who were in accordance with the DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, as well as thirteen healthy staffs and students with matched age, sex, and education were included. Patients and control subjects had no neurological disorders or mental retardation. In addition, all participants were right-handed.METHODS: The cognitive task for functional magnetic resonance imaging was a block design experiment. Both groups were asked to remember the placement of pieces in the Chinese game of Go on a computer screen. A brain activation map was analyzed in SPM99.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brain responses were compared with regard to activation region size, volume, and asymmetry indices.RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the reaction time was significantly delayed in schizophrenics performing the working memory task (P < 0.05). When performing the tasks, normal subjects showed significant activation of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal lobe with left dominance; the asymmetry indices were: frontal lobe, +0.32; temporal lobe, -0.58; parietal lobe, 0.41 ; and occipital lobe, -0.34. On

  2. Regional research priorities in brain and nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, Vijayalakshmi; Dang, Hoang-Minh; Goya, Rodolfo G; Mansour, Hader; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Russell, Vivienne Ann; Xin, Yu

    2015-11-19

    The characteristics of neurological, psychiatric, developmental and substance-use disorders in low- and middle-income countries are unique and the burden that they have will be different from country to country. Many of the differences are explained by the wide variation in population demographics and size, poverty, conflict, culture, land area and quality, and genetics. Neurological, psychiatric, developmental and substance-use disorders that result from, or are worsened by, a lack of adequate nutrition and infectious disease still afflict much of sub-Saharan Africa, although disorders related to increasing longevity, such as stroke, are on the rise. In the Middle East and North Africa, major depressive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder are a primary concern because of the conflict-ridden environment. Consanguinity is a serious concern that leads to the high prevalence of recessive disorders in the Middle East and North Africa and possibly other regions. The burden of these disorders in Latin American and Asian countries largely surrounds stroke and vascular disease, dementia and lifestyle factors that are influenced by genetics. Although much knowledge has been gained over the past 10 years, the epidemiology of the conditions in low- and middle-income countries still needs more research. Prevention and treatments could be better informed with more longitudinal studies of risk factors. Challenges and opportunities for ameliorating nervous-system disorders can benefit from both local and regional research collaborations. The lack of resources and infrastructure for health-care and related research, both in terms of personnel and equipment, along with the stigma associated with the physical or behavioural manifestations of some disorders have hampered progress in understanding the disease burden and improving brain health. Individual countries, and regions within countries, have specific needs in terms of research priorities. PMID:26580328

  3. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation activates specific regions in rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive ther...

  4. Brain region-specificity of palmitic acid-induced abnormalities associated with Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Melrose Joseph; Balu Deebika; Patil Sachin; Chan Christina

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease mostly affecting the basal forebrain, cortex and hippocampus whereas the cerebellum is relatively spared. The reason behind this region-specific brain damage in AD is not well understood. Here, we report our data suggesting "differential free fatty acid metabolism in the different brain areas" as a potentially important factor in causing the region-specific damage observed in AD brain. Findings The astrog...

  5. Data mining a functional neuroimaging database for functional segregation in brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Balslev, Daniela; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    We describe a specialized neuroinformatic data mining technique in connection with a meta-analytic functional neuroimaging database: We mine for functional segregation within brain regions by identifying journal articles that report brain activations within the regions and clustering the abstract...

  6. Carnosine reverses the aging-induced down regulation of brain regional serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Ghosh, Tushar K; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the role of carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide biomolecule, on brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) serotonergic system during aging. Results showed an aging-induced brain region specific significant (a) increase in Trp (except cerebral cortex) and their 5-HIAA steady state level with an increase in their 5-HIAA accumulation and declination, (b) decrease in their both 5-HT steady state level and 5-HT accumulation (except cerebral cortex). A significant decrease in brain regional 5-HT/Trp ratio (except cerebral cortex) and increase in 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio were also observed during aging. Carnosine at lower dosages (0.5-1.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) didn't produce any significant response in any of the brain regions, but higher dosages (2.0-2.5μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) showed a significant response on those aging-induced brain regional serotonergic parameters. The treatment with carnosine (2.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days), attenuated these brain regional aging-induced serotonergic parameters and restored towards their basal levels that observed in 4 months young control rats. These results suggest that carnosine attenuates and restores the aging-induced brain regional down regulation of serotonergic system towards that observed in young rats' brain regions. PMID:26364584

  7. Developmental logics: Brain science, child welfare, and the ethics of engagement in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Kathryn E

    2015-10-01

    This article explores the unintended consequences of the ways scholars and activists take up the science of child development to critique the Japanese child welfare system. Since World War II, Japan has depended on a system of child welfare institutions (baby homes and children's homes) to care for state wards. Opponents of institutional care advocate instead for family foster care and adoption, and cite international research on the developmental harms of institutionalizing newborns and young children during the "critical period" of the first few years. The "critical period" is understood as the time during which the caregiving a child receives shapes neurological development and later capacity to build interpersonal relationships. These discourses appear to press compellingly for system reform, the proof resting on seemingly objective knowledge about child development. However, scientific evidence of harm is often mobilized in tandem with arguments that the welfare system is rooted in Japanese culture, suggesting durability and resistance to change. Further, reform efforts that use universalizing child science as "proof" of the need for change are prone to slip into deterministic language that pathologizes the experiences of people who grew up in the system. This article explores the reasons why deterministic models of child development, rather than more open-ended models like neuroplasticity, dominate activist rhetorics. It proposes a concept, "ethics of engagement," to advocate for attention to multiple scales and domains through which interpersonal ties are experienced and embodied over time. Finally, it suggests the possibility of child welfare reform movements that take seriously the need for caring and transformative relationships throughout life, beyond the first "critical years," that do not require deterministic logics of permanent delay or damage. PMID:25530189

  8. Training of verbal creativity modulates brain activity in regions associated with language- and memory-related demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Andreas; Benedek, Mathias; Koschutnig, Karl; Pirker, Eva; Berger, Elisabeth; Meister, Sabrina; Neubauer, Aljoscha C; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2015-10-01

    This functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study was designed to investigate changes in functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation as a result of a computerized, 3-week verbal creativity training. The training was composed of various verbal divergent thinking exercises requiring participants to train approximately 20 min per day. Fifty-three participants were tested three times (psychometric tests and fMRI assessment) with an intertest-interval of 4 weeks each. Participants were randomly assigned to two different training groups, which received the training time-delayed: The first training group was trained between the first and the second test, while the second group accomplished the training between the second and the third test session. At the behavioral level, only one training group showed improvements in different facets of verbal creativity right after the training. Yet, functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation were strikingly similar across both training groups. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses (along with supplementary region of interest analyses) revealed that the training was associated with activity changes in well-known creativity-related brain regions such as the left inferior parietal cortex and the left middle temporal gyrus, which have been shown as being particularly sensitive to the originality facet of creativity in previous research. Taken together, this study demonstrates that continuous engagement in a specific complex cognitive task like divergent thinking is associated with reliable changes of activity patterns in relevant brain areas, suggesting more effective search, retrieval, and integration from internal memory representations as a result of the training. PMID:26178653

  9. Engaging Storm Spotters and Community College Students in Regional Responses to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S. A.; Buhr, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    Resiliency to natural hazards includes climate literacy. With a record number of billion dollar weather disasters in 2011, each one enhanced by a warmer atmosphere, our nation needs new strategies to respond, mitigate, communicate and adapt to the impacts of climate change. We know that actions we take today matter, but finding ways to mobilize our citizenry remains largely elusive. One way to galvanize a meaningful response to climate change could involve National Weather Service (NWS) storm spotters and Community College students. Dedicated storm spotters represent decades of NOAA NWS efforts to engage and enlist public participation in community safety. Why not leverage this wealth of human capital to cultivate a similar mitigation and stewardship response? The Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison conducted a pilot project with NWS storm spotters in the spring of 2011 via a web seminar on climate change, climate mitigation and emerging applications to access weather and climate data with mobile devices. Nineteen storm spotters participated and eleven provided feedback via a follow-up survey. A third of the respondents indicated that they had taken actions to minimize their carbon footprint; a majority (90%) indicated their likelihood to take action in the near future and more than two-thirds said they wanted to learn more about climate mitigation and sustainability. One attendee commented "Thank-you for putting together this web seminar. As a weather spotter, I found the information helpful, even humbling, to know climate change is already happening." CIMSS is also collaborating with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) and Madison Area Technical College (MATC) on a climate education project where community college students take an on-line climate change course followed by the opportunity to apply for a summer internship. Through this program, two students

  10. Mapping Individual Brain Networks Using Statistical Similarity in Regional Morphology from MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-zhen Kong

    Full Text Available Representing brain morphology as a network has the advantage that the regional morphology of 'isolated' structures can be described statistically based on graph theory. However, very few studies have investigated brain morphology from the holistic perspective of complex networks, particularly in individual brains. We proposed a new network framework for individual brain morphology. Technically, in the new network, nodes are defined as regions based on a brain atlas, and edges are estimated using our newly-developed inter-regional relation measure based on regional morphological distributions. This implementation allows nodes in the brain network to be functionally/anatomically homogeneous but different with respect to shape and size. We first demonstrated the new network framework in a healthy sample. Thereafter, we studied the graph-theoretical properties of the networks obtained and compared the results with previous morphological, anatomical, and functional networks. The robustness of the method was assessed via measurement of the reliability of the network metrics using a test-retest dataset. Finally, to illustrate potential applications, the networks were used to measure age-related changes in commonly used network metrics. Results suggest that the proposed method could provide a concise description of brain organization at a network level and be used to investigate interindividual variability in brain morphology from the perspective of complex networks. Furthermore, the method could open a new window into modeling the complexly distributed brain and facilitate the emerging field of human connectomics.

  11. Brain region specific mitophagy capacity could contribute to selective neuronal vulnerability in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabel Claus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD is histologically well defined by its characteristic degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Remarkably, divergent PD-related mutations can generate comparable brain region specific pathologies. This indicates that some intrinsic region-specificity respecting differential neuron vulnerability exists, which codetermines the disease progression. To gain insight into the pathomechanism of PD, we investigated protein expression and protein oxidation patterns of three different brain regions in a PD mouse model, the PINK1 knockout mice (PINK1-KO, in comparison to wild type control mice. The dysfunction of PINK1 presumably affects mitochondrial turnover by disturbing mitochondrial autophagic pathways. The three brain regions investigated are the midbrain, which is the location of substantia nigra; striatum, the major efferent region of substantia nigra; and cerebral cortex, which is more distal to PD pathology. In all three regions, mitochondrial proteins responsible for energy metabolism and membrane potential were significantly altered in the PINK1-KO mice, but with very different region specific accents in terms of up/down-regulations. This suggests that disturbed mitophagy presumably induced by PINK1 knockout has heterogeneous impacts on different brain regions. Specifically, the midbrain tissue seems to be most severely hit by defective mitochondrial turnover, whereas cortex and striatum could compensate for mitophagy nonfunction by feedback stimulation of other catabolic programs. In addition, cerebral cortex tissues showed the mildest level of protein oxidation in both PINK1-KO and wild type mice, indicating either a better oxidative protection or less reactive oxygen species (ROS pressure in this brain region. Ultra-structural histological examination in normal mouse brain revealed higher incidences of mitophagy vacuoles in cerebral cortex than in striatum and substantia

  12. The Effects of Cocaine on Regional Brain Glucose Metabolism Is Attenuated in Dopamine Transporter Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; MICHAELIDES, MICHAEL; Benveniste, Helene; WANG, GENE JACK; Volkow, Nora D.

    2008-01-01

    Cocaine’s ability to block the dopamine transporter (DAT) is crucial for its reinforcing effects. However the brain functional consequences of DAT blockade by cocaine are less clear since they are confounded by its concomitant blockade of norepinephrine and serotonin transporters. To separate the dopaminergic from the non-dopaminergic effects of cocaine on brain function we compared the regional brain metabolic responses to cocaine between dopamine transporter deficient (DAT−/−) mice with tha...

  13. Modulation of Intercellular Calcium Signaling by Melatonin, in Avian and Mammalian Astrocytes, is Brain Region Specific

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Jennifer L.; Earnest, Barbara J.; Tjalkens, Ronald B.; Cassone, Vincent M.; Zoran, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    Calcium waves among glial cells impact many central nervous system functions, including neural integration and brain metabolism. Here, we have characterized the modulatory effects of melatonin, a pineal neurohormone that mediates circadian and seasonal processes, on glial calcium waves derived from different brain regions and species. Diencephalic and telencephalic astrocytes, from both chick and mouse brains, expressed melatonin receptor proteins. Further, using the calcium-sensitive dye Flu...

  14. Gender and brain regions specific differences in brain derived neurotrophic factor protein levels of depressed individuals who died through suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayley, Shawn; Du, Lisheng; Litteljohn, Darcy; Palkovits, Miklós; Faludi, Gábor; Merali, Zul; Poulter, Michael O; Anisman, Hymie

    2015-07-23

    Considerable evidence supports the view that depressive illness and suicidal behaviour stem from perturbations of neuroplasticity. Presently, we assessed whether depressed individuals who died by suicide displayed brain region-specific changes in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and whether such effects varied by gender. Using postmortem samples from non-psychiatric controls and depressed individuals who died by suicide, BDNF protein levels were assessed within the hippocampus and frontopolar prefrontal cortex using Western blot. As expected, BDNF levels were reduced within the frontopolar prefrontal cortex among female depressed suicides; however, males showed no such effect. Contrastingly, within the hippocampus, depressed male but not female suicides displayed significant reductions of BDNF protein levels. Although the mechanisms driving the gender and brain region specific BDNF changes are unclear, our data do support the notion that complex alterations of neuroplasticity may be fundamentally involved in the illness. PMID:26033186

  15. Measuring musical engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Currently little is known about the brain dynamics and expressive movements that support musical engagement. We hypothesize that repetitive expressive gestures play an important role in inviting musical engagement in listeners, and that these movements can reveal the feelings experienced by the listener. Furthermore, we hypothesize that brain dynamics supporting these expressive movements play a key role in musical engagement. We trained expert and non-expert participants to communicate the f...

  16. Intra- and interhemispheric connectivity between face-selective regions in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Andrews, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have revealed a number of regions in the human brain that respond to faces. However, the way these regions interact is a matter of current debate. The aim of this study was to use functional MRI to define face-selective regions in the human brain and then determine how these regions interact in a large population of subjects (n = 72). We found consistent face selectivity in the core face regions of the occipital and temporal lobes: the fusiform face area (FFA), occipital ...

  17. MOTIVATIONS AND OUTCOMES OF ENGAGING IN REGIONAL CLUSTERS IN THE ICT SECTOR: A DUAL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Lockett, N J; Jack, S L; Larty, J

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of recent empirical-based research into the experiences of entrepreneurs and intermediaries engaged in cluster building activities in the information and communication technologies (ICT) sector in Northwest England. The research takes a dual perspective by interviewing both entrepreneurs and intermediaries from a range of agencies and Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). Previous work with high-tech firms has shown that it is through social relations, interac...

  18. Trace element concentration differences in regions of human brain by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have shown that there is a potential relationship between the levels of trace elements in cerebral tissues and neurological disorders. However, there are few publications available on the elemental composition of these tissues as well as for different regions of the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate trace element differences in various regions of the human brain from an elderly population of normal individuals. Brain samples from 31 individuals of both genders, aged 51-95 years were provided by the Brain Bank of the Brazilian Aging Study Group of the Sao Paulo University, Medical School. The tissues from the regions of the hippocampus, cerebellum and frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital cortex were dissected using a titanium knife, ground, freeze-dried and then analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Samples and element standards were irradiated with a neutron flux at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for Br, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn determinations. One-way ANOVA test (p < 0.05) was used to compare the results which showed significant differences for several elements among the brain regions. Most of our brain analysis results agreed with the literature data. The results were also submitted for brain region classification by cluster analysis. (author)

  19. Directional Connectivity between Frontal and Posterior Brain Regions Is Altered with Increasing Concentrations of Propofol

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimow, Anu; Silfverhuth, Minna; Långsjö, Jaakko; Kaskinoro, Kimmo; Georgiadis, Stefanos; Jääskeläinen, Satu; Scheinin, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies using electroencephalography (EEG) suggest that alteration of coherent activity between the anterior and posterior brain regions might be used as a neurophysiologic correlate of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. One way to assess causal relationships between brain regions is given by renormalized partial directed coherence (rPDC). Importantly, directional connectivity is evaluated in the frequency domain by taking into account the whole multichannel EEG, as opposed to time do...

  20. Pubertal hormones modulate the addition of new cells to sexually dimorphic brain regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Eman I.; Zehr, Julia L.; Schulz, Kalynn M.; Lorenz, Betty H.; Doncarlos, Lydia L.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    New cells, including neurons, arise in several brain regions during puberty in rats. Sex differences in pubertal addition of cells coincide with adult sexual dimorphisms: for each region, the sex that gains more cells during puberty has a larger volume in adulthood. Removing gonadal hormones before puberty eliminates these sex differences, indicating that gonadal steroids direct the addition of new cells during puberty to maintain and accentuate sexual dimorphisms in the adult brain.

  1. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to investigate regional brain distribution kinetics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhout, Joost; Ploeger, Bart; Smeets, Jean; Danhof, Meindert; de Lange, Elizabeth C M

    2012-09-01

    One of the major challenges in the development of central nervous system (CNS)-targeted drugs is predicting CNS exposure in human from preclinical data. In this study, we present a methodology to investigate brain disposition in rats using a physiologically based modeling approach aiming at improving the prediction of human brain exposure. We specifically focused on quantifying regional diffusion and fluid flow processes within the brain. Acetaminophen was used as a test compound as it is not subjected to active transport processes. Microdialysis probes were implanted in striatum, for sampling brain extracellular fluid (ECF) concentrations, and in lateral ventricle (LV) and cisterna magna (CM), for sampling cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations. Serial blood samples were taken in parallel. These data, in addition to physiological parameters from literature, were used to develop a physiologically based model to describe the regional brain pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen. The concentration-time profiles of brain ECF, CSF(LV), and CSF(CM) indicate a rapid equilibrium with plasma. However, brain ECF concentrations are on average fourfold higher than CSF concentrations, with average brain-to-plasma AUC(0-240) ratios of 121%, 28%, and 35% for brain ECF, CSF(LV), and CSF(CM), respectively. It is concluded that for acetaminophen, a model compound for passive transport into, within, and out of the brain, differences exist between the brain ECF and the CSF pharmacokinetics. The physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling approach is important, as it allowed the prediction of human brain ECF exposure on the basis of human CSF concentrations. PMID:22588644

  2. Regional Distribution of Copper, Zinc and Iron in Brain of Wistar Rat Model for Non-Wilsonian Brain Copper Toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amit; Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    In previous studies, we have reported first in vivo evidence of copper deposition in the choroid plexus, cognitive impairments, astrocytes swelling (Alzheimer type II cells) and astrogliosis (increase in number of astrocytes), and degenerated neurons coupled with significant increase in the hippocampus copper and zinc content in copper-intoxicated Wistar rats. Nonetheless, hippocampus iron levels were not affected by chronic copper-intoxication. Notwithstanding information on distribution of copper, zinc and iron status in different regions of brain due to chronic copper exposure remains fragmentary. In continuation with our previous study, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneally injected copper lactate (0.15 mg Cu/100 g body weight) daily for 90 days on copper, zinc and iron levels in different regions of the brain using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Copper-intoxicated group showed significantly increased cortex, cerebellum and striatum copper content (76, 46.8 and 80.7 % increase, respectively) compared to control group. However, non-significant changes were observed for the zinc and iron content in cortex, cerebellum and striatum due to chronic copper exposure. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that chronic copper toxicity causes differential copper buildup in cortex, cerebellum and striatum region of central nervous system of male Wistar rats; signifying the critical requirement to discretely evaluate the effect of copper neurotoxicity in different brain regions, and ensuing neuropathological and cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:26855494

  3. Longitudinal regional brain volume loss in schizophrenia: Relationship to antipsychotic medication and change in social function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Joyce Y.; Huhtaniska, Sanna; Miettunen, Jouko; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Nikkinen, Juha; Moilanen, Jani; Haapea, Marianne; Mäki, Pirjo; Jones, Peter B.; Veijola, Juha; Isohanni, Matti; Murray, Graham K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Progressive brain volume loss in schizophrenia has been reported in previous studies but its cause and regional distribution remains unclear. We investigated progressive regional brain reductions in schizophrenia and correlations with potential mediators. Method Participants were drawn from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. A total of 33 schizophrenia individuals and 71 controls were MRI scanned at baseline (mean age = 34.7, SD = 0.77) and at follow-up (mean age = 43.4, SD = 0.44). Regional brain change differences and associations with clinical mediators were examined using FSL voxelwise SIENA. Results Schizophrenia cases exhibited greater progressive brain reductions than controls, mainly in the frontal and temporal lobes. The degree of periventricular brain volume reductions were predicted by antipsychotic medication exposure at the fourth ventricular edge and by the number of days in hospital between the scans (a proxy measure of relapse duration) at the thalamic ventricular border. Decline in social and occupational functioning was associated with right supramarginal gyrus reduction. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the possibility that antipsychotic medication exposure and time spent in relapse partially explain progressive brain reductions in schizophrenia. However, residual confounding could also account for the findings and caution must be applied before drawing causal inferences from associations demonstrated in observational studies of modest size. Less progressive brain volume loss in schizophrenia may indicate better preserved social and occupational functions. PMID:26189075

  4. Brain region-specificity of palmitic acid-induced abnormalities associated with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melrose Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease mostly affecting the basal forebrain, cortex and hippocampus whereas the cerebellum is relatively spared. The reason behind this region-specific brain damage in AD is not well understood. Here, we report our data suggesting "differential free fatty acid metabolism in the different brain areas" as a potentially important factor in causing the region-specific damage observed in AD brain. Findings The astroglia from two different rat brain regions, cortex (region affected in AD and cerebellum (unaffected region, were treated with 0.2 mM of palmitic acid. The conditioned media were then transferred to the cortical neurons to study the possible effects on the two main, AD-associated protein abnormalities, viz. BACE1 upregulation and hyperphosphorylation of tau. The conditioned media from palmitic-acid treated cortical astroglia, but not the cerebellar astroglia, significantly elevated levels of phosphorylated tau and BACE1 in cortical neurons as compared to controls (47 ± 7% and 45 ± 4%, respectively. Conclusion The present data provide an experimental explanation for the region-specific damage observed in AD brain; higher fatty acid-metabolizing capacity of cortical astroglia as compared to cerebellar astroglia, may play a causal role in increasing vulnerability of cortex in AD, while sparing cerebellum.

  5. Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity in internet gaming addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guangheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Internet gaming addiction (IGA, as a subtype of internet addiction disorder, is rapidly becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. The neurobiological underpinnings of IGA should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity of IGA. This study investigated the brain functions in IGA patients with resting-state fMRI. Methods Fifteen IGA subjects and fourteen healthy controls participated in this study. Regional homogeneity (ReHo measures were used to detect the abnormal functional integrations. Results Comparing to the healthy controls, IGA subjects show enhanced ReHo in brainstem, inferior parietal lobule, left posterior cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus. All of these regions are thought related with sensory-motor coordination. In addition, IGA subjects show decreased ReHo in temporal, occipital and parietal brain regions. These regions are thought responsible for visual and auditory functions. Conclusions Our results suggest that long-time online game playing enhanced the brain synchronization in sensory-motor coordination related brain regions and decreased the excitability in visual and auditory related brain regions.

  6. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  7. Regional habit of coca chewing: Brain perfusion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was made of brain perfusion findings obtained using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 99Tcm-HMPAO (hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) in a study involving, on the one hand, cocaine dependent, HIV negative volunteers with different degrees of addiction (group G-II) and coca leaf chewers (group G-III) and, on the other, an abstinent control group (G-I). Urinary concentrations, determined by immunoassay, of benzolmethylecgonines (bmecg) - cocaine metabolites - were correlated with brain perfusion results. The maximum age of the subjects was 44 years. The results of neuropsychomotor examinations were normal for all of them. The number of persons in the different groups was as follows: three in G-I (control); seven in G-II (moderate and heavy cocaine users); and ten in G-III (continuous or intermittent coca leaf chewers). Cerebral SPECT readings were obtained with 30 mCi of 99Tcm-MPAO, after the appropriate quality checks on the instruments and radiochemicals. In G-I there were no perfusion irregularities and the urinary concentration were negative. In G-II (6/7) patchy asymmetric hypoperfusion was observed, with bmecg values of up to 17,000 ng/mL. In G-III (7/10) there appeared asymmetric areas of moderate hypoperfusion with left predominance and bmecg values above those of G-I, reaching 1000 ng/mL. Hypoperfused basal ganglions were observed in some G-II cases and, to a lesser extent, in G-III. The greats (in terms of number and dimensions) perfusion irregularities, with the highest bmecg values and the greatest probability of morbidity, occurred among the cocaine addicts (G-II). Among the coca leaf chewers (G-III), moderate spotted hypoperfusion was observed, also with left predominance and with moderate bmecg values. The study should be broadened in order to substantiate the findings. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Scaffolding of Fyn Kinase to the NMDA Receptor Determines Brain Region Sensitivity to Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Yaka, Rami; Phamluong, Khanhky; Ron, Dorit

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) abuse is a major societal problem. Although ethanol is a structurally simple, diffusible molecule, its sites of action are surprisingly selective, and the molecular mechanisms underlying specificity in ethanol actions are not understood. The NMDA receptor channel is one of the main targets for ethanol in the brain. We report here that the brain region-specific compartmentalization of Fyn kinase determines NMDA receptor sensitivity to ethanol. We demonstrate that, in the hipp...

  9. Metabolic abnormalities in lobar and subcortical brain regions of abstinent polysubstance users: Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Abé, C.; Mon, A.; Hoefer, ME; Durazzo, TC; Pennington, DL; Schmidt, TP; Meyerhoff, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to explore neurometabolic and associated cognitive characteristics of patients with polysubstance use (PSU) in comparison with patients with predominant alcohol use using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods: Brain metabolite concentrations were examined in lobar and subcortical brain regions of three age-matched groups: 1-monthabstinent alcohol-dependent PSU, 1-month-abstinent individuals dependent on alcohol alone (ALC) and light drinking controls (...

  10. Brain regional differences in CB1 receptor adaptation and regulation of transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Lazenka, M.F.; Selley, D.E.; Sim-Selley, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) are expressed throughout the brain and mediate the central effects of cannabinoids, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of marijuana. Repeated THC administration produces tolerance to cannabinoid-mediated effects, although the magnitude of tolerance varies by effect. Consistent with this observation, CB1R desensitization and downregulation, as well induction of immediate early genes (IEGs), varies by brain region. Zif268...

  11. Age- and brain-region-specific effects of dietary vitamin K on myelin sulfatides

    OpenAIRE

    Crivello, Natalia A.; Casseus, Sherley L.; Peterson, James W.; Smith, Donald E.; Sarah L. Booth

    2010-01-01

    Dysregulation of myelin sulfatides is a risk factor for cognitive decline with age. Vitamin K is present in high concentrations in the brain and has been implicated in the regulation of sulfatide metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the age-related interrelation between dietary vitamin K and sulfatides in myelin fractions isolated from the brain regions of Fischer 344 male rats fed one of two dietary forms of vitamin K: phylloquinone or its hydrogenated form, dihydrophylloquinone for ...

  12. A brain-region-based meta-analysis method utilizing the Apriori algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Zhendong; Nie, Yaoxin; Zhou, Qian; Zhu, Linlin; Wei, Jieyao

    2016-01-01

    Background Brain network connectivity modeling is a crucial method for studying the brain’s cognitive functions. Meta-analyses can unearth reliable results from individual studies. Meta-analytic connectivity modeling is a connectivity analysis method based on regions of interest (ROIs) which showed that meta-analyses could be used to discover brain network connectivity. Results In this paper, we propose a new meta-analysis method that can be used to find network connectivity models based on t...

  13. Patterns of regional brain hypometabolism associated with knowledge of semantic features and categories in alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahn, R.; Garrard, P.; Talazko, J.;

    2006-01-01

    The study of semantic memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has raised important questions about the representation of conceptual knowledge in the human brain. It is still unknown whether semantic memory impairments are caused by localized damage to specialized regions or by diffuse...... and nonliving concepts, as well as visual feature knowledge of living objects, and against distributed accounts of semantic memory that view visual and functional features of living and nonliving objects as distributed across a common set of brain areas....

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy in senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relationship between the reduction of cerebal blood flow and brain atrophy in SDAT, these were measured in 13 cases of senile dementia of Alzheimer type, and compared to 15 cases of multi-infarct Dementia, 39 cases of lacunar infarction without dementia (non-demented CVD group) and 69 cases of aged normal control. Brain atrophy was evaluated by two-dimensional method on CT film by digitizer and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by 133Xe inhalation method. The degree of brain atrophy in SDAT was almost similar of that of MID. But it was more severe than that of non-demented group. MID showed the lowest rCBF among these groups. SDAT showed significantly lower rCBF than that of aged control, but rCBF in SDAT was equal to that of lacunar stroke without dementia. Focal reduction of cerebral blood flow in bilateral fronto-parietal and left occipital regions were observed in SDAT. Verbal intelligence score (Hasegawa's score) correlated with rCBF and brain atrophy index in MID, and a tendency of correlation between rCBF and brain atrophy in MID was also observed. However, there was no correlation among those indices in SDAT. These findings suggest that the loss of brain substance dose not correspond to the reduction of rCBF in SDAT and simultaneous measurement of rCBF and brain atrophy was useful to differ SDAT from MID. (author)

  15. Health system regionalization in Canada's provincial and territorial health systems: do citizen governance boards represent, engage, and empower?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessie, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Regionalization of the health care system, through the creation of sub-provincial service-delivery regions and governance authorities (i.e., regional health authorities, RHAs), has been a key part of Canadian health reform initiatives of the past two decades. Increased public participation in health care planning and service delivery is one of the explicit goals of regionalization. Based on a reanalysis of data from a 2001 survey of health system governors from 134 RHAs throughout Canada, this study explores the overall demographic composition of the citizen governance boards, as well as their responses to various opinion and attitude questions. To enable consideration of the extent to which these sites may support public deliberation and community development, overall responses are examined, as are responses within two subtypes of governors: system-experienced citizen governors and lay citizen governors--governors with or without previous health-system employment experience, respectively. The findings suggest that attention needs to be paid to these citizen governance boards if they are truly meant to be sites of citizen engagement in health policy and governance. PMID:19927411

  16. Functional photoacoustic imaging to observe regional brain activation induced by cocaine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-09-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was used to detect small animal brain activation in response to drug abuse. Cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution was injected into the blood stream of Sprague Dawley rats through tail veins. The rat brain functional change in response to the injection of drug was then monitored by the PAM technique. Images in the coronal view of the rat brain at the locations of 1.2 and 3.4 mm posterior to bregma were obtained. The resulted photoacoustic (PA) images showed the regional changes in the blood volume. Additionally, the regional changes in blood oxygenation were also presented. The results demonstrated that PA imaging is capable of monitoring regional hemodynamic changes induced by drug abuse.

  17. Circuit-wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Brain Region-Specific Gene Networks Regulating Depression Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Cates, Hannah M; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Lorsch, Zachary S; Walker, Deena M; Wang, Junshi; Huang, Xiaojie; Schlüter, Oliver M; Maze, Ian; Peña, Catherine J; Heller, Elizabeth A; Issler, Orna; Wang, Minghui; Song, Won-Min; Stein, Jason L; Liu, Xiaochuan; Doyle, Marie A; Scobie, Kimberly N; Sun, Hao Sheng; Neve, Rachael L; Geschwind, Daniel; Dong, Yan; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a complex, heterogeneous disorder and a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Most previous research has focused on individual brain regions and genes contributing to depression. However, emerging evidence in humans and animal models suggests that dysregulated circuit function and gene expression across multiple brain regions drive depressive phenotypes. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on four brain regions from control animals and those susceptible or resilient to chronic social defeat stress at multiple time points. We employed an integrative network biology approach to identify transcriptional networks and key driver genes that regulate susceptibility to depressive-like symptoms. Further, we validated in vivo several key drivers and their associated transcriptional networks that regulate depression susceptibility and confirmed their functional significance at the levels of gene transcription, synaptic regulation, and behavior. Our study reveals novel transcriptional networks that control stress susceptibility and offers fundamentally new leads for antidepressant drug discovery. PMID:27181059

  18. Identification of a set of genes showing regionally enriched expression in the mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Marco A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pleiades Promoter Project aims to improve gene therapy by designing human mini-promoters ( Results We have utilized LongSAGE to identify regionally enriched transcripts in the adult mouse brain. As supplemental strategies, we also performed a meta-analysis of published literature and inspected the Allen Brain Atlas in situ hybridization data. From a set of approximately 30,000 mouse genes, 237 were identified as showing specific or enriched expression in 30 target regions of the mouse brain. GO term over-representation among these genes revealed co-involvement in various aspects of central nervous system development and physiology. Conclusion Using a multi-faceted expression validation approach, we have identified mouse genes whose human orthologs are good candidates for design of mini-promoters. These mouse genes represent molecular markers in several discrete brain regions/cell-types, which could potentially provide a mechanistic explanation of unique functions performed by each region. This set of markers may also serve as a resource for further studies of gene regulatory elements influencing brain expression.

  19. Sodium tungstate induced neurological alterations in rat brain regions and their response to antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Sherry; Pant, Satish C; Kushwaha, Pramod; Bhargava, Rakesh; Flora, Swaran J S

    2015-08-01

    Tungsten, recognized recently as an environmental contaminant, is being used in arms and ammunitions as substitute to depleted uranium. We studied the effects of sodium tungstate on oxidative stress, few selected neurological variables like acetylcholinesterase, biogenic amines in rat brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) and their prevention following co-administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), naringenin and quercetin. Animals were sub-chronically exposed to sodium tungstate (100 ppm in drinking water) and orally co-supplemented with different antioxidants (0.30 mM) for three months. Sodium tungstate significantly decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase, dopamine, nor-epinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels while it increased monoamine oxidase activity in different brain regions. Tungstate exposure produced a significant increase in biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress while, neurological alterations were more pronounced in the cerebral cortex compared to other regions. Co-administration of NAC and flavonoids with sodium tungstate significantly restored glutathione, prevented changes in the brain biogenic amines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TBARS levels in the different brain regions. The protection was more prominent in the animals co-administered with NAC. We can thus conclude that sodium tungstate induced brain oxidative stress and the alterations in some neurological variables can effectively be reduced by co-supplementation of NAC. PMID:25983264

  20. Regional apparent diffusion coefficient values in 3rd trimester fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Chen [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine), Tel Aviv (Israel); Sheba Medical Center, Diagnostic Imaging, 52621, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Weisz, Boaz; Lipitz, Shlomo; Katorza, Eldad [Tel Aviv University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine), Tel Aviv (Israel); Yaniv, Gal; Bergman, Dafi [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine), Tel Aviv (Israel); Biegon, Anat [Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the developing fetus can be used in the diagnosis and prognosis of prenatal brain pathologies. To this end, we measured regional ADC in a relatively large cohort of normal fetal brains in utero. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in 48 non-sedated 3rd trimester fetuses with normal structural MR imaging results. ADC was measured in white matter (frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes), basal ganglia, thalamus, pons, and cerebellum. Regional ADC values were compared by one-way ANOVA with gestational age as covariate. Regression analysis was used to examine gestational age-related changes in regional ADC. Four other cases of CMV infection were also examined. Median gestational age was 32 weeks (range, 26-33 weeks). There was a highly significant effect of region on ADC, whereby ADC values were highest in white matter, with significantly lower values in basal ganglia and cerebellum and the lowest values in thalamus and pons. ADC did not significantly change with gestational age in any of the regions tested. In the four cases with fetal CMV infection, ADC value was associated with a global decrease. ADC values in normal fetal brain are relatively stable during the third trimester, show consistent regional variation, and can make an important contribution to the early diagnosis and possibly prognosis of fetal brain pathologies. (orig.)

  1. Cortical region of interest definition on SPECT brain images using X-ray CT registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a method for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) analysis based on individual registration of anatomical (CT) and functional (133Xe regional cerebral blood flow) images and on the definition of three-dimensional functional regions of interest. Registration of CT and SPECT is performed through adjustment of CT-defined cortex limits to the SPECT image. Regions are defined by sectioning a cortical ribbon on the CT images, copied over the SPECT images and pooled through slices to give 3D cortical regions of interest. The proposed method shows good intra- and interobserver reproducibility (regional intraclass correlation coefficient ≅0.98), and good accuracy in terms of repositioning (≅3.5 mm) as compared to the SPECT image resolution (14 mm). The method should be particularly useful for analysing SPECT studies when variations in brain anatomy (normal or abnormal) must be accounted for. (orig.)

  2. Turkey's role as a regional and global player and its power capacity: Turkey's engagement with other emerging states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Gürzel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey's role as a regional power has increased since Justice and Development Party (AKP came to power. AKP leadership not only aspired to become a regional power but also a global player. Turkey has, therefore, assumed different roles: the "natural leader" of the region; a historical "big brother;" and the "protector" of the Muslim minorities. Turkey has also assumed a "mediator" and a "facilitator" role by trying to negotiate a deal with an emerging power such as Brazil in order to attempt to resolve the controversial Iranian nuclear issue. By making use of recent developments, Turkey tried to solidify its long desired role as a "rising power" by increasing its influence in its neighborhood and engaging with other emerging powers. The concept "regional power" is a context-based notion. In other words, the location and geography are contesting and disputed approaches. Notwithstanding the fact that concepts such as "region" and "power" are social constructed reality, this paper analyzes the notion of 'regional power' as a subcategory of 'power'. In this context, this paper will make use of Stefan Schim's criteria while analyzing Turkey's power capacity in the region. Schim posits that the "regional power" needs to have a "role definition," and it should possess material power (hard power. It should also have economic as well as diplomatic and organizational capacity. Its power whether it is 'soft power' (attraction of ones idea's and or the ability to set the political agenda in a way that shapes the preferences of other actors or 'hard power' (material power that can be measured-economic and military power needs to be acknowledged by other actors in the region. It should also be accepted by great powers and emerging powers that are determinant in the international system. dditionally, the regional power (and/ or global power needs to have leverage, thus its power projection needs to yield results. Kalevi Holsti's role theory will be used as

  3. Regional Brain Activation during Meditation Shows Time and Practice Effects: An Exploratory FMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baron Short

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Meditation involves attentional regulation and may lead to increased activity in brain regions associated with attention such as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether DLPFC and ACC were activated during meditation. Subjects who meditate were recruited and scanned on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Subjects meditated for four sessions of 12 min and performed four sessions of a 6 min control task. Individual and group t-maps were generated of overall meditation response versus control response and late meditation response versus early meditation response for each subject and time courses were plotted. For the overall group (n = 13, and using an overall brain analysis, there were no statistically significant regional activations of interest using conservative thresholds. A region of interest analysis of the entire group time courses of DLPFC and ACC were statistically more active throughout meditation in comparison to the control task. Moreover, dividing the cohort into short (n = 8 and long-term (n = 5 practitioners (>10 years revealed that the time courses of long-term practitioners had significantly more consistent and sustained activation in the DLPFC and the ACC during meditation versus control in comparison to short-term practitioners. The regional brain activations in the more practised subjects may correlate with better sustained attention and attentional error monitoring. In summary, brain regions associated with attention vary over the time of a meditation session and may differ between long- and short-term meditation practitioners.

  4. Regional differences in actomyosin contraction shape the primary vesicles in the embryonic chicken brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early embryo, the brain initially forms as a relatively straight, cylindrical epithelial tube composed of neural stem cells. The brain tube then divides into three primary vesicles (forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain), as well as a series of bulges (rhombomeres) in the hindbrain. The boundaries between these subdivisions have been well studied as regions of differential gene expression, but the morphogenetic mechanisms that generate these constrictions are not well understood. Here, we show that regional variations in actomyosin-based contractility play a major role in vesicle formation in the embryonic chicken brain. In particular, boundaries did not form in brains exposed to the nonmuscle myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin, whereas increasing contractile force using calyculin or ATP deepened boundaries considerably. Tissue staining showed that contraction likely occurs at the inner part of the wall, as F-actin and phosphorylated myosin are concentrated at the apical side. However, relatively little actin and myosin was found in rhombomere boundaries. To determine the specific physical mechanisms that drive vesicle formation, we developed a finite-element model for the brain tube. Regional apical contraction was simulated in the model, with contractile anisotropy and strength estimated from contractile protein distributions and measurements of cell shapes. The model shows that a combination of circumferential contraction in the boundary regions and relatively isotropic contraction between boundaries can generate realistic morphologies for the primary vesicles. In contrast, rhombomere formation likely involves longitudinal contraction between boundaries. Further simulations suggest that these different mechanisms are dictated by regional differences in initial morphology and the need to withstand cerebrospinal fluid pressure. This study provides a new understanding of early brain morphogenesis. (paper)

  5. Role of Prion Replication in the Strain-dependent Brain Regional Distribution of Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping Ping; Morales, Rodrigo; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Moreno-Gonzalez, Ines; Khan, Uffaf; Soto, Claudio

    2016-06-10

    One intriguing feature of prion diseases is their strain variation. Prion strains are differentiated by the clinical consequences they generate in the host, their biochemical properties, and their potential to infect other animal species. The selective targeting of these agents to specific brain structures have been extensively used to characterize prion strains. However, the molecular basis dictating strain-specific neurotropism are still elusive. In this study, isolated brain structures from animals infected with four hamster prion strains (HY, DY, 139H, and SSLOW) were analyzed for their content of protease-resistant PrP(Sc) Our data show that these strains have different profiles of PrP deposition along the brain. These patterns of accumulation, which were independent of regional PrP(C) production, were not reproduced by in vitro replication when different brain regions were used as substrate for the misfolding-amplification reaction. On the contrary, our results show that in vitro replication efficiency depended exclusively on the amount of PrP(C) present in each part of the brain. Our results suggest that the variable regional distribution of PrP(Sc) in distinct strains is not determined by differences on prion formation, but on other factors or cellular pathways. Our findings may contribute to understand the molecular mechanisms of prion pathogenesis and strain diversity. PMID:27056328

  6. Normative data for subcortical regional volumes over the lifetime of the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Olivier; Mouiha, Abderazzak; Dieumegarde, Louis; Duchesne, Simon

    2016-08-15

    Normative data for volumetric estimates of brain structures are necessary to adequately assess brain volume alterations in individuals with suspected neurological or psychiatric conditions. Although many studies have described age and sex effects in healthy individuals for brain morphometry assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, proper normative values allowing to quantify potential brain abnormalities are needed. We developed norms for volumetric estimates of subcortical brain regions based on cross-sectional magnetic resonance scans from 2790 healthy individuals aged 18 to 94years using 23 samples provided by 21 independent research groups. The segmentation was conducted using FreeSurfer, a widely used and freely available automated segmentation software. Models predicting subcortical regional volumes of each hemisphere were produced including age, sex, estimated total intracranial volume (eTIV), scanner manufacturer, magnetic field strength, and interactions as predictors. The mean explained variance by the models was 48%. For most regions, age, sex and eTIV predicted most of the explained variance while manufacturer, magnetic field strength and interactions predicted a limited amount. Estimates of the expected volumes of an individual based on its characteristics and the scanner characteristics can be obtained using derived formulas. For a new individual, significance test for volume abnormality, effect size and estimated percentage of the normative population with a smaller volume can be obtained. Normative values were validated in independent samples of healthy adults and in adults with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:27165761

  7. Sonographic evaluation of overall and regional vascularization of fetal brain: a preliminary methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oberto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the vascularization of fetal brain in normal and abnormal canditions by three-dimensional sonography associated to Power Doppler (3DPD, with application of Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL that allows to derive vascularization and flow indexes. In this connction, we propose a new method of standardization of the setting and the acquisition mode, choosing in different fetuses and at different gestational ages the same anatomical volumes, corresponding to five spherical regions of interest. In particular, tu study the overall vascularization of the fetal brain, we use a sphere with a diameter corresponding to the bi-parietal distance. To evaluate the regional vascularization, we identify four sampling spherical sites, two in each hemisphere. This standard technical approach according to correct morphological criteria allows to exclude from the analysis vascular territories external to the brain.

  8. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Wang, G.J.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Jayne, M.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3 {+-} 3, post 6 {+-} 3; p < 0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3 {+-} 2, post 3 {+-} 3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p < 0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p < 0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r = -0.62, p < 0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

  9. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3 ± 3, post 6 ± 3; p < 0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3 ± 2, post 3 ± 3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p < 0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p < 0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r = -0.62, p < 0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

  10. Adaptive integration of local region information to detect fine-scale brain activity patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, the spatial resolution of fMRI data is continuously growing. This pro- vides us the possibility to detect the fine-scale patterns of brain activities. The es- tablished univariate and multivariate methods to analyze fMRI data mostly focus on detecting the activation blobs without considering the distributed fine-scale pat- terns within the blobs. To improve the sensitivity of the activation detection, in this paper, multivariate statistical method and univariate statistical method are com- bined to discover the fine-grained activity patterns. For one voxel in the brain, a local homogenous region is constructed. Then, time courses from the local ho- mogenous region are integrated with multivariate statistical method. Univariate statistical method is finally used to construct the interests of statistic for that voxel. The approach has explicitly taken into account the structures of both activity pat- terns and existing noise of local brain regions. Therefore, it could highlight the fine-scale activity patterns of the local regions. Experiments with simulated and real fMRI data demonstrate that the proposed method dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection of fine-scale brain activity patterns which contain the subtle information about experimental conditions.

  11. Comparison of Regional Brain Perfusion Levels in Chronically Smoking and Non-Smoking Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. Durazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with numerous abnormalities in brain neurobiology, but few studies specifically investigated the chronic effects of smoking (compared to the acute effects of smoking, nicotine administration, or nicotine withdrawal on cerebral perfusion (i.e., blood flow. Predominately middle-aged male (47 ± 11 years of age smokers (n = 34 and non-smokers (n = 27 were compared on regional cortical perfusion measured by continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance studies at 4 Tesla. Smokers showed significantly lower perfusion than non-smokers in the bilateral medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, bilateral superior temporal gyri, left posterior cingulate, right isthmus of cingulate, and right supramarginal gyrus. Greater lifetime duration of smoking (adjusted for age was related to lower perfusion in multiple brain regions. The results indicated smokers showed significant perfusion deficits in anterior cortical regions implicated in the development, progression, and maintenance of all addictive disorders. Smokers concurrently demonstrated reduced blood flow in posterior brain regions that show morphological and metabolic aberrations as well as elevated beta amyloid deposition demonstrated by those with early stage Alzheimer disease. The findings provide additional novel evidence of the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on the human brain.

  12. Age-and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bio­-energetic parameters in five brain regions [brainstem (BS), frontal cortex (FC), cereb...

  13. Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Joensson, Morten; Biermann-Ruben, Katja;

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the workings of the brain are mainly intrinsically generated recurrent neuronal activity, with sensory inputs as modifiers of such activity in both sensory and higher order modality non-specific regions. This is supported by the demonstration of recurrent neuronal activi...

  14. Delineation of separate brain regions used for scientific versus engineering modes of thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Clair C.

    1994-08-01

    Powerful, latent abilities for extreme sophistication in abstract rationalization as potential biological adaptive behavioral responses were installed entirely through accident and inadvertence by biological evolution in the Homo sapiens sapiens species of brain. These potentials were never used, either in precursor species as factors in evolutionary increase in hominid brain mass, nor in less sophisticated forms within social environments characterized by Hss tribal brain population densities. Those latent abilities for unnatural biological adaptive behavior were forced to become manifest in various ways by growths in sophistication of communication interactions engendered by large growths in brain population densities brought on by developments in agriculture at the onset of the Holocene. It is proposed that differences probably exist between regions of the Hss brain involved in utilitarian, engineering types of problem conceptualization-solving versus regions of the brain involved in nonutilitarian, artistic-scientific types of problem conceptualization-solving. Populations isolated on separate continents from diffusive contact and influence on cultural developments, and selected for comparison of developments during equivalent stages of technological and social sophistication in matching 4000 year periods, show, at the ends of those periods, marked differences in aesthetic attributes expressed in cosmogonies, music, and writing (nonutilitarian thinking related to science and art). On the other hand the two cultures show virtually identical developments in three major stages of metallurgical technologies (utilitarian thinking related to engineering). Such archaeological data suggest that utilitarian modes of thought may utilize combinations of neuronal circuits in brain regions that are conserved among tribal populations territorially separated from each other for tens of thousands of years. Such conservation may not be true for neuronal circuits involved in

  15. Regional distribution of potassium, calcium, and six trace elements in normal human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight elements (i.e. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb) were measured in 50 different regions of 12 normal human brains by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The dry weight concentrations of K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb were consistently higher for gray than for white matter areas. The K, Zn and Se concentrations for the regions of mixed composition and, to some extent, also the Rb concentrations, were intermediate between the gray and white matter values, and they tended to decrease with decreasing neuron density. The mean dry weight concentrations of K, Ca, Zn, Se, and Rb in the various brain regions were highly correlated with the mean wet-to-dry weight ratios of these regions. For Mn, Fe, and Cu, however, such a correlation was not observed, and these elements exhibited elevated levels in several structures of the basal ganglia. For K, Fe, and Se the concentrations seemed to change with age. A hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that the structures clustered into two large groups, one comprising gray and mixed matter regions, the other white and mixed matter areas. Brain structures involved in the same physiological function or morphologically similar regions often conglomerated in a single subcluster

  16. Region-specific maturation of cerebral cortex in human fetal brain: diffusion tensor imaging and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical analysis in different cortical regions in fetal brains at different gestational age (GA) were performed. DTI was performed on 50 freshly aborted fetal brains with GA ranging from 12 to 42 weeks to compare age-related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in different cerebral cortical regions that include frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes at the level of thalami. GFAP immunostaining was performed and the percentage of GFAP-positive areas was quantified. The cortical FA values in the frontal lobe peaked at around 26 weeks of GA, occipital and temporal lobes at around 20 weeks, and parietal lobe at around 23 weeks. A significant, but modest, positive correlation (r=0.31, p=0.02) was observed between cortical FA values and percentage area of GFAP expression in cortical region around the time period during which the migrational events are at its peak, i.e., GA ≤ 28 weeks for frontal cortical region and GA≤22 weeks for rest of the lobes. The DTI-derived FA quantification with its GFAP immunohistologic correlation in cortical regions of the various lobes of the cerebral hemispheres supports region-specific migrational and maturational events in human fetal brain. (orig.)

  17. Region-specific maturation of cerebral cortex in human fetal brain: diffusion tensor imaging and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Saksena, Sona [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lucknow, UP (India); Husain, Nuzhat; Srivastava, Savita [CSM Medical University, Department of Pathology, Lucknow (India); Rathore, Ram K.S.; Sarma, Manoj K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Kanpur (India); Malik, Gyanendra K. [CSM Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Lucknow (India); Das, Vinita [CSM Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lucknow (India); Pradhan, Mandakini [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Genetics, Lucknow (India); Pandey, Chandra M. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Biostatistics, Lucknow (India); Narayana, Ponnada A. [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-09-15

    In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical analysis in different cortical regions in fetal brains at different gestational age (GA) were performed. DTI was performed on 50 freshly aborted fetal brains with GA ranging from 12 to 42 weeks to compare age-related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in different cerebral cortical regions that include frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes at the level of thalami. GFAP immunostaining was performed and the percentage of GFAP-positive areas was quantified. The cortical FA values in the frontal lobe peaked at around 26 weeks of GA, occipital and temporal lobes at around 20 weeks, and parietal lobe at around 23 weeks. A significant, but modest, positive correlation (r=0.31, p=0.02) was observed between cortical FA values and percentage area of GFAP expression in cortical region around the time period during which the migrational events are at its peak, i.e., GA {<=} 28 weeks for frontal cortical region and GA{<=}22 weeks for rest of the lobes. The DTI-derived FA quantification with its GFAP immunohistologic correlation in cortical regions of the various lobes of the cerebral hemispheres supports region-specific migrational and maturational events in human fetal brain. (orig.)

  18. Brain regions essential for improved lexical access in an aged aphasic patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djundja Daniela

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between functional recovery after brain injury and concomitant neuroplastic changes is emphasized in recent research. In the present study we aimed to delineate brain regions essential for language performance in aphasia using functional magnetic resonance imaging and acquisition in a temporal sparse sampling procedure, which allows monitoring of overt verbal responses during scanning. Case presentation An 80-year old patient with chronic aphasia (2 years post-onset was investigated before and after intensive language training using an overt picture naming task. Differential brain activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus for correct word retrieval and errors was found. Improved language performance following therapy was mirrored by increased fronto-thalamic activation while stability in more general measures of attention/concentration and working memory was assured. Three healthy age-matched control subjects did not show behavioral changes or increased activation when tested repeatedly within the same 2-week time interval. Conclusion The results bear significance in that the changes in brain activation reported can unequivocally be attributed to the short-term training program and a language domain-specific plasticity process. Moreover, it further challenges the claim of a limited recovery potential in chronic aphasia, even at very old age. Delineation of brain regions essential for performance on a single case basis might have major implications for treatment using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

  19. Regional brain activation associated with addiction of computer games in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, O. J.; Ko, Y. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, M. J.; Lee, J. D. [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Excessive computer game (CG) playing may cause not only behavioral addiction, but also potential negative effects on developing brain. It is necessary to reveal how brain is affected by excessive use of CG playing and behavioral addiction of it. By using PET, we address the issue seeking to identifying patterns of regional brain activation associated with behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG playing by adolescents. 6 normal control and 8 adolescents who were met by the criteria of behavioral addiction on the survey as addiction groups with an addiction of CG playing were participated. Initial screening survey which is the adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling was done. PET were performed twice in each participants both during resting state and after 20 min playing of CG. Psychological test including Youth Self Report (YSR), memory and attention test and vocabulary item from KWAIS were performed. Scores of the vocabulary item from KWAIS and social competence from YSR were significantly lower in the addiction group. On PET, addiction group showed higher resting metabolism on inferior frontal, premotor, prefrontal and superior temporal area. Adolescents with addiction of CG revealed different patterns of regional brain activation comparing to control groups. These suggest behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents.

  20. Regional brain activation associated with addiction of computer games in adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excessive computer game (CG) playing may cause not only behavioral addiction, but also potential negative effects on developing brain. It is necessary to reveal how brain is affected by excessive use of CG playing and behavioral addiction of it. By using PET, we address the issue seeking to identifying patterns of regional brain activation associated with behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG playing by adolescents. 6 normal control and 8 adolescents who were met by the criteria of behavioral addiction on the survey as addiction groups with an addiction of CG playing were participated. Initial screening survey which is the adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling was done. PET were performed twice in each participants both during resting state and after 20 min playing of CG. Psychological test including Youth Self Report (YSR), memory and attention test and vocabulary item from KWAIS were performed. Scores of the vocabulary item from KWAIS and social competence from YSR were significantly lower in the addiction group. On PET, addiction group showed higher resting metabolism on inferior frontal, premotor, prefrontal and superior temporal area. Adolescents with addiction of CG revealed different patterns of regional brain activation comparing to control groups. These suggest behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents

  1. Sharing self-related information is associated with intrinsic functional connectivity of cortical midline brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshi, Dar; Mamerow, Loreen; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Morawetz, Carmen; Margulies, Daniel S; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are social animals and they vary in the degree to which they share information about themselves with others. Although brain networks involved in self-related cognition have been identified, especially via the use of resting-state experiments, the neural circuitry underlying individual differences in the sharing of self-related information is currently unknown. Therefore, we investigated the intrinsic functional organization of the brain with respect to participants' degree of self-related information sharing using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and self-reported social media use. We conducted seed-based correlation analyses in cortical midline regions previously shown in meta-analyses to be involved in self-referential cognition: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), central precuneus (CP), and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (CACC). We examined whether and how functional connectivity between these regions and the rest of the brain was associated with participants' degree of self-related information sharing. Analyses revealed associations between the MPFC and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the CP with the right DLPFC, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and left anterior temporal pole. These findings extend our present knowledge of functional brain connectivity, specifically demonstrating how the brain's intrinsic functional organization relates to individual differences in the sharing of self-related information. PMID:26948055

  2. Regional Variations in Brain Gyrification Are Associated with General Cognitive Ability in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Michael D; Kippenhan, J Shane; Dickinson, Dwight; Carrasco, Jessica; Mattay, Venkata S; Weinberger, Daniel R; Berman, Karen F

    2016-05-23

    Searching for a neurobiological understanding of human intellectual capabilities has long occupied those very capabilities. Brain gyrification, or folding of the cortex, is as highly evolved and variable a characteristic in humans as is intelligence. Indeed, gyrification scales with brain size, and relationships between brain size and intelligence have been demonstrated in humans [1-3]. However, gyrification shows a large degree of variability that is independent from brain size [4-6], suggesting that the former may independently contribute to cognitive abilities and thus supporting a direct investigation of this parameter in the context of intelligence. Moreover, uncovering the regional pattern of such an association could offer insights into evolutionary and neural mechanisms. We tested for this brain-behavior relationship in two separate, independently collected, large cohorts-440 healthy adults and 662 healthy children-using high-resolution structural neuroimaging and comprehensive neuropsychometric batteries. In both samples, general cognitive ability was significantly associated (pFDR distribution that was nearly identical in both samples (Dice similarity coefficient = 0.80). This neuroanatomical pattern is consistent with an existing, well-known proposal, the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory of intelligence [7], and is also consistent with research in comparative evolutionary biology showing rapid neocortical expansion of these regions in humans relative to other species. These data provide a framework for understanding the neurobiology of human cognitive abilities and suggest a potential neurocellular association. PMID:27133866

  3. Evidence from cyclostomes for complex regionalization of the ancestral vertebrate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Fumiaki; Pascual-Anaya, Juan; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Aota, Shin-ichi; Adachi, Noritaka; Takagi, Wataru; Hirai, Tamami; Sato, Noboru; Murakami, Yasunori; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-03-01

    The vertebrate brain is highly complex, but its evolutionary origin remains elusive. Because of the absence of certain developmental domains generally marked by the expression of regulatory genes, the embryonic brain of the lamprey, a jawless vertebrate, had been regarded as representing a less complex, ancestral state of the vertebrate brain. Specifically, the absence of a Hedgehog- and Nkx2.1-positive domain in the lamprey subpallium was thought to be similar to mouse mutants in which the suppression of Nkx2-1 leads to a loss of the medial ganglionic eminence. Here we show that the brain of the inshore hagfish (Eptatretus burgeri), another cyclostome group, develops domains equivalent to the medial ganglionic eminence and rhombic lip, resembling the gnathostome brain. Moreover, further investigation of lamprey larvae revealed that these domains are also present, ruling out the possibility of convergent evolution between hagfish and gnathostomes. Thus, brain regionalization as seen in crown gnathostomes is not an evolutionary innovation of this group, but dates back to the latest vertebrate ancestor before the divergence of cyclostomes and gnathostomes more than 500 million years ago. PMID:26878236

  4. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induces an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete rat brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some upper brainstem cholinergic neurons (pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei are involved in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep and project rostrally to the thalamus and caudally to the medulla oblongata. A previous report showed that 96 h of REM sleep deprivation in rats induced an increase in the activity of brainstem acetylcholinesterase (Achase, the enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine (Ach in the synaptic cleft. There was no change in the enzyme's activity in the whole brain and cerebrum. The components of the cholinergic synaptic endings (for example, Achase are not uniformly distributed throughout the discrete regions of the brain. In order to detect possible regional changes we measured Achase activity in several discrete rat brain regions (medulla oblongata, pons, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex after 96 h of REM sleep deprivation. Naive adult male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flower-pot technique, while control rats were left in their home cages. Total, membrane-bound and soluble Achase activities (nmol of thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 were assayed photometrically. The results (mean ± SD obtained showed a statistically significant (Student t-test increase in total Achase activity in the pons (control: 147.8 ± 12.8, REM sleep-deprived: 169.3 ± 17.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.025 and thalamus (control: 167.4 ± 29.0, REM sleep-deprived: 191.9 ± 15.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05. Increases in membrane-bound Achase activity in the pons (control: 171.0 ± 14.7, REM sleep-deprived: 189.5 ± 19.5, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 and soluble enzyme activity in the medulla oblongata (control: 147.6 ± 16.3, REM sleep-deprived: 163.8 ± 8.3, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 were also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the enzyme's activity in the other brain regions assayed. The present findings show that the increase in Achase activity

  5. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes through Integrated Study of Alzheimer’s Disease Affected Brain Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in older adults that damages the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The identification of differentially expressed genes and related pathways among affected brain regions can provide more information on the mechanisms of AD. In the past decade, several studies have reported many genes that are associated with AD. This wealth of information has become difficult to follow and interpret as most of the results are conflicting. In that case, it is worth doing an integrated study of multiple datasets that helps to increase the total number of samples and the statistical power in detecting biomarkers. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of five different brain region datasets and introduce new genes that warrant further investigation. Methods The aim of our study is to apply a novel combinatorial optimisation based meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes that are associated to AD across brain regions. In this study, microarray gene expression data from 161 samples (74 non-demented controls, 87 AD) from the Entorhinal Cortex (EC), Hippocampus (HIP), Middle temporal gyrus (MTG), Posterior cingulate cortex (PC), Superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and visual cortex (VCX) brain regions were integrated and analysed using our method. The results are then compared to two popular meta-analysis methods, RankProd and GeneMeta, and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets. Results We find genes related with AD that are consistent with existing studies, and new candidate genes not previously related with AD. Our study confirms the up-regualtion of INFAR2 and PTMA along with the down regulation of GPHN, RAB2A, PSMD14 and FGF. Novel genes PSMB2, WNK1, RPL15, SEMA4C, RWDD2A and LARGE are found to be differentially expressed across all brain regions. Further investigation on these genes may provide new insights into the development of AD

  6. Repeated verum but not placebo acupuncture normalizes connectivity in brain regions dysregulated in chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Egorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture, an ancient East Asian therapy, is aimed at rectifying the imbalance within the body caused by disease. Studies evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture with neuroimaging tend to concentrate on brain regions within the pain matrix, associated with acute pain. We, however, focused on the effect of repeated acupuncture treatment specifically on brain regions known to support functions dysregulated in chronic pain disorders. Transition to chronic pain is associated with increased attention to pain, emotional rumination, nociceptive memory and avoidance learning, resulting in brain connectivity changes, specifically affecting the periaqueductal gray (PAG, medial frontal cortex (MFC and bilateral hippocampus (Hpc. We demonstrate that the PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in patients with chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis indeed correlates with clinical severity scores and further show that verum acupuncture-induced improvement in pain scores (compared to sham is related to the modulation of PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in the predicted direction. This study shows that repeated verum acupuncture might act by restoring the balance in the connectivity of the key pain brain regions, altering pain-related attention and memory.

  7. Repeated verum but not placebo acupuncture normalizes connectivity in brain regions dysregulated in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Natalia; Gollub, Randy L; Kong, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture, an ancient East Asian therapy, is aimed at rectifying the imbalance within the body caused by disease. Studies evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture with neuroimaging tend to concentrate on brain regions within the pain matrix, associated with acute pain. We, however, focused on the effect of repeated acupuncture treatment specifically on brain regions known to support functions dysregulated in chronic pain disorders. Transition to chronic pain is associated with increased attention to pain, emotional rumination, nociceptive memory and avoidance learning, resulting in brain connectivity changes, specifically affecting the periaqueductal gray (PAG), medial frontal cortex (MFC) and bilateral hippocampus (Hpc). We demonstrate that the PAG-MFC and PAG-Hpc connectivity in patients with chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis indeed correlates with clinical severity scores and further show that verum acupuncture-induced improvement in pain scores (compared to sham) is related to the modulation of PAG-MFC and PAG-Hpc connectivity in the predicted direction. This study shows that repeated verum acupuncture might act by restoring the balance in the connectivity of the key pain brain regions, altering pain-related attention and memory. PMID:26594625

  8. Aberrant Global and Regional Topological Organization of the Fractional Anisotropy-weighted Brain Structural Networks in Major Depressive Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Huai Chen; Zhi-Jian Yao; Jiao-Long Qin; Rui Yan; Ling-Ling Hua; Qing Lu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Most previous neuroimaging studies have focused on the structural and functional abnormalities of local brain regions in major depressive disorder (MDD).Moreover,the exactly topological organization of networks underlying MDD remains unclear.This study examined the aberrant global and regional topological patterns of the brain white matter networks in MDD patients.Methods:The diffusion tensor imaging data were obtained from 27 patients with MDD and 40 healthy controls.The brain fractional anisotropy-weighted structural networks were constructed,and the global network and regional nodal metrics of the networks were explored by the complex network theory.Results:Compared with the healthy controls,the brain structural network of MDD patients showed an intact small-world topology,but significantly abnormal global network topological organization and regional nodal characteristic of the network in MDD were found.Our findings also indicated that the brain structural networks in MDD patients become a less strongly integrated network with a reduced central role of some key brain regions.Conclusions:All these resulted in a less optimal topological organization of networks underlying MDD patients,including an impaired capability of local information processing,reduced centrality of some brain regions and limited capacity to integrate information across different regions.Thus,these global network and regional node-level aberrations might contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of MDD from the view of the brain network.

  9. Brain region distribution and patterns of bioaccumulative perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in east greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the comparative accumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in eight brain regions of polar bears (Ursus maritimus, n = 19) collected in 2006 from Scoresby Sound, East Greenland. The PFAAs studied were perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs, C(6) -C(15) chain lengths) and sulfonates (C(4) , C(6) , C(8) , and C(10) chain lengths) as well as selected precursors including perfluorooctane sulfonamide. On a wet-weight basis, blood-brain barrier transport of PFAAs occurred for all brain regions, although inner regions of the brain closer to incoming blood flow (pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus) contained consistently higher PFAA concentrations compared to outer brain regions (cerebellum, striatum, and frontal, occipital, and temporal cortices). For pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus, the most concentrated PFAAs were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), ranging from 47 to 58 ng/g wet weight, and perfluorotridecanoic acid, ranging from 43 to 49 ng/g wet weight. However, PFOS and the longer-chain PFCAs (C(10) -C(15) ) were significantly (p  0.05) different among brain regions. The burden of the sum of PFCAs, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide in the brain (average mass, 392 g) was estimated to be 46 µg. The present study demonstrates that both PFCAs and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates cross the blood-brain barrier in polar bears and that wet-weight concentrations are brain region-specific. PMID:23280712

  10. Regional alterations of brain biogenic amines in young rats following chronic lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubas, T.C.; Stevenson, A.; Singhal, R.L.; Hrdina, P.D.

    1978-02-01

    An examination was made of neurochemical changes that occur in discrete brain regions of rats that have been chronically exposed to low levels of lead from birth, in order to provide further information on the involvement of brain biogenic amines in lead-induced neurotoxicity. Results indicate a relationship between exposure to lead and alterations in the brain levels of various putative neurotransmitters. However, changes in the functional activity of the neurotransmitter may not be adequately reflected in the change of its steady-state levels or may occur even in the absence of any changes in the actual concentrations. Lead may influence central neurotransmitter function by affecting one or several of the processes involved in the synthesis, release and/or disposition of biogenic amines.

  11. Gene expression profiles in rat brain disclose CNS signature genes and regional patterns of functional specialisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breilid Harald

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian brain is divided into distinct regions with structural and neurophysiological differences. As a result, gene expression is likely to vary between regions in relation to their cellular composition and neuronal function. In order to improve our knowledge and understanding of regional patterns of gene expression in the CNS, we have generated a global map of gene expression in selected regions of the adult rat brain (frontomedial-, temporal- and occipital cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum; both right and left sides as well as in three major non-neural tissues (spleen, liver and kidney using the Applied Biosystems Rat Genome Survey Microarray. Results By unsupervised hierarchical clustering, we found that the transcriptome within a region was highly conserved among individual rats and that there were no systematic differences between the two hemispheres (right versus left side. Further, we identified distinct sets of genes showing significant regional enrichment. Functional annotation of each of these gene sets clearly reflected several important physiological features of the region in question, including synaptic transmission within the cortex, neurogenesis in hippocampus and G-protein-mediated signalling in striatum. In addition, we were able to reveal potentially new regional features, such as mRNA transcription- and neurogenesis-annotated activities in cerebellum and differential use of glutamate signalling between regions. Finally, we determined a set of 'CNS-signature' genes that uncover characteristics of several common neuronal processes in the CNS, with marked over-representation of specific features of synaptic transmission, ion transport and cell communication, as well as numerous novel unclassified genes. Conclusion We have generated a global map of gene expression in the rat brain and used this to determine functional processes and pathways that have a regional preference or ubiquitous

  12. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-li Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception.

  13. Creatine target engagement with brain bioenergetics: a dose-ranging phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of adolescent females with SSRI-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Douglas G; Forrest, Lauren N; Shi, Xianfeng; Sung, Young-Hoon; Hellem, Tracy L; Huber, Rebekah S; Renshaw, Perry F

    2016-08-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) often begins during adolescence and is projected to become the leading cause of global disease burden by the year 2030. Yet, approximately 40 % of depressed adolescents fail to respond to standard antidepressant treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Converging evidence suggests that depression is related to brain mitochondrial dysfunction. Our previous studies of MDD in adult and adolescent females suggest that augmentation of SSRI pharmacotherapy with creatine monohydrate (CM) may improve MDD outcomes. Neuroimaging with phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) can measure the high-energy phosphorus metabolites in vivo that reflect mitochondrial function. These include phosphocreatine (PCr), a substrate for the creatine kinase reaction that produces adenosine triphosphate. As part of the National Institute of Mental Health's experimental medicine initiative, we conducted a placebo-controlled dose-ranging study of adjunctive CM for adolescent females with SSRI-resistant MDD. Participants were randomized to receive placebo or CM 2, 4 or 10 g daily for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-treatment (31)P-MRS scans were used to measure frontal lobe PCr, to assess CM's target engagement with cerebral energy metabolism. Mean frontal lobe PCr increased by 4.6, 4.1 and 9.1 % in the 2, 4 and 10 g groups, respectively; in the placebo group, PCr fell by 0.7 %. There was no group difference in adverse events, weight gain or serum creatinine. Regression analysis of PCr and depression scores across the entire sample showed that frontal lobe PCr was inversely correlated with depression scores (p = 0.02). These results suggest that CM achieves target engagement with brain bioenergetics and that the target is correlated with a clinical signal. Further study of CM as a treatment for adolescent females with SSRI-resistant MDD is warranted. PMID:26907087

  14. Creatine target engagement with brain bioenergetics: a dose-ranging phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of adolescent females with SSRI-resistant depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Douglas G.; Forrest, Lauren N.; Shi, Xianfeng; Sung, Young-Hoon; Hellem, Tracy L.; Huber, Rebekah S.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) often begins during adolescence and is projected to become the leading cause of global disease burden by the year 2030. Yet, approximately 40 % of depressed adolescents fail to respond to standard antidepressant treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Converging evidence suggests that depression is related to brain mitochondrial dysfunction. Our previous studies of MDD in adult and adolescent females suggest that augmentation of SSRI pharmacotherapy with creatine monohydrate (CM) may improve MDD outcomes. Neuroimaging with phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) can measure the high-energy phosphorus metabolites in vivo that reflect mitochondrial function. These include phosphocreatine (PCr), a substrate for the creatine kinase reaction that produces adenosine triphosphate. As part of the National Institute of Mental Health’s experimental medicine initiative, we conducted a placebo-controlled doseranging study of adjunctive CM for adolescent females with SSRI-resistant MDD. Participants were randomized to receive placebo or CM 2, 4 or 10 g daily for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-treatment 31P-MRS scans were used to measure frontal lobe PCr, to assess CM’s target engagement with cerebral energy metabolism. Mean frontal lobe PCr increased by 4.6, 4.1 and 9.1 % in the 2, 4 and 10 g groups, respectively; in the placebo group, PCr fell by 0.7 %. There was no group difference in adverse events, weight gain or serum creatinine. Regression analysis of PCr and depression scores across the entire sample showed that frontal lobe PCr was inversely correlated with depression scores (p = 0.02). These results suggest that CM achieves target engagement with brain bioenergetics and that the target is correlated with a clinical signal. Further study of CM as a treatment for adolescent females with SSRI-resistant MDD is warranted. PMID:26907087

  15. Empathic control through coordinated interaction of amygdala, theory of mind and extended pain matrix brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Emile G; Jacoby, Nir; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-07-01

    Brain regions in the "pain matrix", can be activated by observing or reading about others in physical pain. In previous research, we found that reading stories about others' emotional suffering, by contrast, recruits a different group of brain regions mostly associated with thinking about others' minds. In the current study, we examined the neural circuits responsible for deliberately regulating empathic responses to others' pain and suffering. In Study 1, a sample of college-aged participants (n=18) read stories about physically painful and emotionally distressing events during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while either actively empathizing with the main character or trying to remain objective. In Study 2, the same experiment was performed with professional social workers, who are chronically exposed to human suffering (n=21). Across both studies activity in the amygdala was associated with empathic regulation towards others' emotional pain, but not their physical pain. In addition, psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis and Granger causal modeling (GCM) showed that amygdala activity while reading about others' emotional pain was preceded by and positively coupled with activity in the theory of mind brain regions, and followed by and negatively coupled with activity in regions associated with physical pain and bodily sensations. Previous work has shown that the amygdala is critically involved in the deliberate control of self-focused distress - the current results extend the central importance of amygdala activity to the control of other-focused empathy, but only when considering others' emotional pain. PMID:25913703

  16. Teneurin-1 is expressed in interconnected regions of the developing brain and is processed in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leachman Nathaniel T

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teneurins are a unique family of transmembrane proteins conserved from C. elegans and D. melanogaster to mammals. In vertebrates there are four paralogs (teneurin-1 to -4, all of which are expressed prominently in the developing central nervous system. Results Analysis of teneurin-1 expression in the developing chick brain by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry defined a unique, distinct expression pattern in interconnected regions of the brain. Moreover we found complementary patterns of teneurin-1 and-2 expression in many parts of the brain, including the retina, optic tectum, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum as well as in brain nuclei involved in processing of sensory information. Based on these expression patterns, we suspect a role for teneurins in neuronal connectivity. In contrast to the cell-surface staining of the antibody against the extracellular domain, an antibody recognizing the intracellular domain revealed nuclear staining in subpopulations of neurons and in undifferentiated mesenchyme. Western blot analysis of brain lysates showed the presence of N-terminal fragments of teneurin-1 containing the intracellular domain indicating that proteolytic processing occurs. Finally, the teneurin-1 intracellular domain was found to contain a nuclear localization signal, which is required for nuclear localization in transfected cells. Conclusion Teneurin-1 and -2 are expressed by distinct interconnected populations of neurons in the developing central nervous system. Our data support the hypothesis that teneurins can be proteolytically processed leading to the release of the intracellular domain and its translocation to the nucleus.

  17. Teneurin-1 is expressed in interconnected regions of the developing brain and is processed in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzelmann, Daniela; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth; Leachman, Nathaniel T; Tucker, Richard P

    2008-01-01

    Background Teneurins are a unique family of transmembrane proteins conserved from C. elegans and D. melanogaster to mammals. In vertebrates there are four paralogs (teneurin-1 to -4), all of which are expressed prominently in the developing central nervous system. Results Analysis of teneurin-1 expression in the developing chick brain by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry defined a unique, distinct expression pattern in interconnected regions of the brain. Moreover we found complementary patterns of teneurin-1 and-2 expression in many parts of the brain, including the retina, optic tectum, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum as well as in brain nuclei involved in processing of sensory information. Based on these expression patterns, we suspect a role for teneurins in neuronal connectivity. In contrast to the cell-surface staining of the antibody against the extracellular domain, an antibody recognizing the intracellular domain revealed nuclear staining in subpopulations of neurons and in undifferentiated mesenchyme. Western blot analysis of brain lysates showed the presence of N-terminal fragments of teneurin-1 containing the intracellular domain indicating that proteolytic processing occurs. Finally, the teneurin-1 intracellular domain was found to contain a nuclear localization signal, which is required for nuclear localization in transfected cells. Conclusion Teneurin-1 and -2 are expressed by distinct interconnected populations of neurons in the developing central nervous system. Our data support the hypothesis that teneurins can be proteolytically processed leading to the release of the intracellular domain and its translocation to the nucleus. PMID:18366734

  18. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwath A Meda

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and

  19. Witnessing hateful people in pain modulates brain activity in regions associated with physical pain and reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GlennRyanFox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available How does witnessing a hateful person in pain compare to witnessing a likable person in pain? The current study compared the brain bases for how we perceive likable people in pain with those of viewing hateful people in pain. While social bonds are built through sharing the plight and pain of others in the name of empathy, viewing a hateful person in pain also has many potential ramifications. In this functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI study, Caucasian Jewish male participants viewed videos of (1 disliked, hateful, anti-Semitic individuals, and (2 liked, non-hateful, tolerant individuals in pain. The results showed that, compared with viewing liked people, viewing hateful people in pain elicited increased responses in regions associated with observation of physical pain (the insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the somatosensory cortex, reward processing (the striatum, and frontal regions associated with emotion regulation. Functional connectivity analyses revealed connections between seed regions in the left anterior cingulate cortex and right insular cortex with reward regions, the amygdala, and frontal regions associated with emotion regulation. These data indicate that regions of the brain active while viewing someone in pain may be more active in response to the danger or threat posed by witnessing the pain of a hateful individual more so than the desire to empathize with a likable person’s pain.

  20. Regional differences of [18F]-FDG uptake within the brain during fatiguing muscle contractions

    OpenAIRE

    Kindred, John H.; Kalliokoski, Kari K.; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Rudroff, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Many studies have shown that a position task is more difficult than a force task although both are performed at a similar net muscle force. Thus, the time to task failure is consistently shown to be briefer during the position task. The contributions of the central nervous system to these two types of fatiguing contractions are not completely understood. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine differences in regional brain activity between force and position task...

  1. Regional differences of [18F]-FDG uptake within the brain during fatiguing muscle contractions.

    OpenAIRE

    Kindred, John H.; Kalliokoski, Kari K.; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Rudroff, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Many studies have shown that a position task is more difficult than a force task although both are performed at a similar net muscle force. Thus, the time to task failure is consistently shown to be briefer during the position task. The contributions of the central nervous system to these two types of fatiguing contractions are not completely understood. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine differences in regional brain activity between force and position tas...

  2. Seasonal and Regional Differences in Gene Expression in the Brain of a Hibernating Mammal

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Christine; Hampton, Marshall; Andrews, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian hibernation presents a unique opportunity to study naturally occurring neuroprotection. Hibernating ground squirrels undergo rapid and extreme physiological changes in body temperature, oxygen consumption, and heart rate without suffering neurological damage from ischemia and reperfusion injury. Different brain regions show markedly different activity during the torpor/arousal cycle: the cerebral cortex shows activity only during the periodic returns to normothermia, while the hypot...

  3. Effects of delayed treatment with nebracetam on neurotransmitters in brain regions after microsphere embolism in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Takeo, Satoshi; Hayashi, Hideki; Miyake, Keiko; Takagi, Kaori; Tadokoro, Mina; Takagi, Norio; Oshikawa, Sayuri

    1997-01-01

    The effects of delayed treatment with nebracetam, a novel nootropic drug, on neurotransmitters of brain regions were examined in rats with microsphere embolism-induced cerebral ischaemia.Cerebral ischaemia was induced by administration of 900 microspheres (48 μm) into the internal carotid artery. The rats with stroke-like symptoms were treated p.o. with 30 mg kg−1 nebracetam twice daily. The levels of acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their metabolites in ...

  4. Sex differences in synaptic plasticity in stress-responsive brain regions following chronic variable stress

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho-Netto, Eduardo F.; Myers, Brent; Jones, Kenneth; Solomon, Matia B.; Herman, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Increased stress responsiveness is implicated in the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Additionally, stress-related affective disorders have a higher incidence in women than men. Chronic stress in rodents produces numerous neuromorphological changes in a variety of limbic brain regions. Here, we examined the sex-dependent differences in presynaptic innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), prefrontal co...

  5. Effects of physical exercise on central nervous system functions: a review of brain region specific adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Julie A; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    Pathologies of central nervous system (CNS) functions are involved in prevalent conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and Parkinson’s disease. Notable pathologies include dysfunctions of circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, central stress responses, and movement mediated by the basal ganglia. Although evidence suggests exercise may benefit these conditions, the neurobiological mechanisms of exercise in specific brain regions involved in these important ...

  6. Aging-induced changes in brain regional serotonin receptor binding: Effect of Carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S; Poddar, M K

    2016-04-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT) has its own specific receptors in both pre- and post-synapse. In the present study the role of carnosine on aging-induced changes of [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding in different brain regions in a rat model was studied. The results showed that during aging (18 and 24 months) the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding was reduced in hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD but in cerebral cortex the [(3)H]-5-HT binding was increased with the increase of its only Bmax. The aging-induced changes in [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with carnosine (2.0 μg/kg/day, intrathecally, for 21 consecutive days) attenuated in (a) 24-month-aged rats irrespective of the brain regions with the attenuation of its Bmax except hypothalamus where both Bmax and KD were significantly attenuated, (b) hippocampus and hypothalamus of 18-month-aged rats with the attenuation of its Bmax, and restored toward the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding that observed in 4-month-young rats. The decrease in pons-medullary [(3)H]-5-HT binding including its Bmax of 18-month-aged rats was promoted with carnosine without any significant change in its cerebral cortex. The [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with the same dosages of carnosine in 4-month-young rats (a) increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus with the increase in their only Bmax whereas (b) decreased in hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD. These results suggest that carnosine treatment may (a) play a preventive role in aging-induced brain region-specific changes in serotonergic activity (b) not be worthy in 4-month-young rats in relation to the brain regional serotonergic activity. PMID:26808776

  7. Gene co-expression analysis identifies brain regions and cell types involved in migraine pathophysiology: a GWAS-based study using the Allen Human Brain Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eising, Else; Huisman, Sjoerd M H; Mahfouz, Ahmed; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S; Anttila, Verneri; Winsvold, Bendik S; Kurth, Tobias; Ikram, M Arfan; Freilinger, Tobias; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boomsma, Dorret I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta R; Zwart, John-Anker; Quaye, Lydia; Strachan, David P; Kubisch, Christian; Dichgans, Martin; Davey Smith, George; Stefansson, Kari; Palotie, Aarno; Chasman, Daniel I; Ferrari, Michel D; Terwindt, Gisela M; de Vries, Boukje; Nyholt, Dale R; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Reinders, Marcel J T

    2016-04-01

    Migraine is a common disabling neurovascular brain disorder typically characterised by attacks of severe headache and associated with autonomic and neurological symptoms. Migraine is caused by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over a dozen genetic loci associated with migraine. Here, we integrated migraine GWAS data with high-resolution spatial gene expression data of normal adult brains from the Allen Human Brain Atlas to identify specific brain regions and molecular pathways that are possibly involved in migraine pathophysiology. To this end, we used two complementary methods. In GWAS data from 23,285 migraine cases and 95,425 controls, we first studied modules of co-expressed genes that were calculated based on human brain expression data for enrichment of genes that showed association with migraine. Enrichment of a migraine GWAS signal was found for five modules that suggest involvement in migraine pathophysiology of: (i) neurotransmission, protein catabolism and mitochondria in the cortex; (ii) transcription regulation in the cortex and cerebellum; and (iii) oligodendrocytes and mitochondria in subcortical areas. Second, we used the high-confidence genes from the migraine GWAS as a basis to construct local migraine-related co-expression gene networks. Signatures of all brain regions and pathways that were prominent in the first method also surfaced in the second method, thus providing support that these brain regions and pathways are indeed involved in migraine pathophysiology. PMID:26899160

  8. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24±4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor

  9. High permeability cores to optimize the stimulation of deeply located brain regions using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient stimulation of deeply located brain regions with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) poses many challenges, arising from the fact that the induced field decays rapidly and becomes less focal with depth. We propose a new method to improve the efficiency of TMS of deep brain regions that combines high permeability cores, to increase focality and field intensity, with a coil specifically designed to induce a field that decays slowly with increasing depth. The performance of the proposed design was investigated using the finite element method to determine the total electric field induced by this coil/core arrangement on a realistically shaped homogeneous head model. The calculations show that the inclusion of the cores increases the field's magnitude by as much as 25% while also decreasing the field's decay with depth along specific directions. The focality, as measured by the area where the field's norm is greater than 1/√2 of its maximum value, is also improved by as much as 15% with some core arrangements. The coil's inductance is not significantly increased by the cores. These results show that the presence of the cores might make this specially designed coil even more suited for the effective stimulation of deep brain regions.

  10. Hindbrain regional growth in preterm newborns and its impairment in relation to brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hosung; Gano, Dawn; Ho, Mai-Lan; Guo, Xiaoyue M; Unzueta, Alisa; Hess, Christopher; Ferriero, Donna M; Xu, Duan; Barkovich, A James

    2016-02-01

    Premature birth globally affects about 11.1% of all newborns and is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disability in surviving infants. Histology has suggested that hindbrain subdivisions grow differentially, especially in the third trimester. Prematurity-related brain injuries occurring in this period may selectively affect more rapidly developing areas of hindbrain, thus accompanying region-specific impairments in growth and ultimately neurodevelopmental deficits. The current study aimed to quantify regional growth of the cerebellum and the brainstem in preterm neonates (n = 65 with individually multiple scans). We probed associations of the regional volumes with severity of brain injury. In neonates with no imaging evidence of injury, our analysis using a mixed-effect linear model showed faster growth in the pons and the lateral convexity of anterior/posterior cerebellar lobes. Different patterns of growth impairment were found in relation to early cerebral intraventricular hemorrhage and cerebellar hemorrhage (P explaining different mechanisms through which neurogenesis is disrupted. The pattern of cerebellar growth identified in our study agreed excellently with details of cerebellar morphogenesis in perinatal development, which has only been observed in histological data. Our proposed analytic framework may provide predictive imaging biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcome, enabling early identification and treatment of high-risk patients. Hum Brain Mapp 37:678-688, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26589992

  11. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24{+-}4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor.

  12. Quantitation of normal metabolite concentrations in six brain regions by in-vivoH-MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Aquino, Domenico; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Erbetta, Alessandra

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the concentrations of brain metabolites visible to in-vivo(1)H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) at 1.5 T in a sample of 28 normal subjects. Quantitation was attempted for inositol compounds, choline units, total creatine and N-acetyl moieties, using open-source software. Six brain regions were considered: frontal and parietal white matter, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, pons and cerebellum. Absolute concentrations were derived using tissue water as an internal reference and using an external reference; metabolite signal intensity ratios with respect to creatine were also calculated. The inter-individual variability was smaller for absolute concentrations (internal reference) as compared to that for signal intensity ratios. Significant regional variability in concentration was found for all metabolites, indicating that separate normative values are needed for different brain regions. The values obtained in this study can be used as reference in future studies, provided the same methodology is followed; it is confirmed that despite unsuccessful attempts in the past, smaller coefficients of variation can indeed be obtained through absolute quantification. PMID:20927223

  13. Altered relationships between rCBF in different brain regions of never-treated schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of this study was to investigate the relations between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of different brain regions in acute schizophrenia and following neuroleptic treatment. Methods: Twenty-two never-treated, acute schizophrenic patients were examined with HMPAO brain SPECT and assessed psychopathologically, and reexamined following neuroleptic treatment (over 96.8 days) and psychopathological remission. rCBF was determined by region/cerebellar count quotients obtained from 98 irregular regions of interest (ROIs), summed up to 11 ROIs on each hemisphere. In acute schizophrenics, interregional rCBF correlations of each ROI to every other ROI were compared to the interregional correlations following neuroleptic treatment and to those of controls. Results: All significant correlations of rCBF ratios of different brain regions were exclusively positive in controls and patients. In controls, all ROIs of one hemisphere except the mesial temporal ROI correlated significantly to its contralateral ROI. Each hemisphere showed significant frontal-temporal correlations, as well as cortical-subcortical and some cortico-limbic. In contrast, in acute schizophrenics nearly every ROI correlated significantly with every other ROI, without a grouping or relation of the rCBF of certain ROIs as in controls. After neuroleptic treatment and clinical improvement, this diffuse pattern of correlations remained. Conclusions: These results indicate differences in the neuronal interplay between regions in schizophrenic and healthy subjects. In nevertreated schizophrenics, diffuse interregional rCBF correlations can be seen as a sign of change and dysfunction of the systems regulating specificity and diversity of the neuronal functions. Neuroleptic therapy and psychopathologic remission showed no normalizing effect on interregional correlations. (orig.)

  14. Selective normalisation of regional brain bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate in the mucopolysaccharidosis 1 (Hurler) mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Jennifer T; Lehmann, Rebecca J; Derrick-Roberts, Ainslie L K; Fuller, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) is a glycerophospholipid highly enriched in the lysosomal network and elevated in lysosomal diseases. To correct this elevation, BMP synthesis was manipulated by dietary fatty acid supplementation and the impact on subregional brain BMP and pathology assessed in the mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis 1 (Hurler syndrome (HS)). There was widespread elevation of BMP in HS mice across all six sub-regions - brain stem, cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and the sub-cortex - with 22:6/22:6 the most abundant species. Linoleic acid normalised total BMP in all regions except the cortex and cerebellum, although there were differences in fatty acid species; the major finding a decrease in 22:6- and a concomitant increase in 22:5-containing species. A battery of behaviour assessments showed that in the water cross maze both HS and wild type mice performed less well on the linoleic acid diet, and that both HS and wild type mice on the linoleic acid diet performed similarly and better in the exploratory open field test. This may be a consequence of differential subregional BMP composition in the brain. The effects of high fat and docosahexaenoic/eicosapentaenoic acid enriched diets were generally unremarkable. Although major pathologies were not completely abrogated, much of the neurobehavioural testing was confounded by skeletal pathology that did not resolve. This is the first detailed characterisation of subregional brain BMP species informing on the ability to manipulate this phospholipid in the brain, and as such, may hold promise as an adjunct therapy not only for HS but also for other lysosomal diseases. PMID:26710715

  15. Stability of whole brain and regional network topology within and between resting and cognitive states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna K Rzucidlo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Graph-theory based analyses of resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data have been used to map the network organization of the brain. While numerous analyses of resting state brain organization exist, many questions remain unexplored. The present study examines the stability of findings based on this approach over repeated resting state and working memory state sessions within the same individuals. This allows assessment of stability of network topology within the same state for both rest and working memory, and between rest and working memory as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: fMRI scans were performed on five participants while at rest and while performing the 2-back working memory task five times each, with task state alternating while they were in the scanner. Voxel-based whole brain network analyses were performed on the resulting data along with analyses of functional connectivity in regions associated with resting state and working memory. Network topology was fairly stable across repeated sessions of the same task, but varied significantly between rest and working memory. In the whole brain analysis, local efficiency, Eloc, differed significantly between rest and working memory. Analyses of network statistics for the precuneus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex revealed significant differences in degree as a function of task state for both regions and in local efficiency for the precuneus. Conversely, no significant differences were observed across repeated sessions of the same state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that network topology is fairly stable within individuals across time for the same state, but also fluid between states. Whole brain voxel-based network analyses may prove to be a valuable tool for exploring how functional connectivity changes in response to task demands.

  16. Regional brain shrinkage and change in cognitive performance over two years: The bidirectional influences of the brain and cognitive reserve factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ninni; Ghisletta, Paolo; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Yuan, Peng; Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali

    2016-02-01

    We examined relationships between regional brain shrinkage and changes in cognitive performance, while taking into account the influence of chronological age, vascular risk, Apolipoprotein E variant and socioeconomic status. Regional brain volumes and cognitive performance were assessed in 167 healthy adults (age 19-79 at baseline), 90 of whom returned for the follow-up after two years. Brain volumes were measured in six regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (Hc), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC), and cognitive performance was evaluated in three domains: episodic memory (EM), fluid intelligence (Gf), and vocabulary (V). Average volume loss was observed in Hc, PhG and CbH, but reliable individual differences were noted in all examined ROIs. Average positive change was observed in EM and V performance but not in Gf scores, yet only the last evidenced individual differences in change. We observed reciprocal influences among neuroanatomical and cognitive variables. Larger brain volumes at baseline predicted greater individual gains in Gf, but differences in LPFC volume change were in part explained by baseline level of cognitive performance. In one region (PFw), individual change in volume was coupled with change in Gf. Larger initial brain volumes did not predict slower shrinkage. The results underscore the complex role of brain maintenance and cognitive reserve in adult development. PMID:26584866

  17. Effects of maternal separation, early handling, and gonadal sex on regional metabolic capacity of the preweanling rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Spivey, Jaclyn M.; Padilla, Eimeira; Shumake, Jason D.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to assess the effects of mother-infant separation on regional metabolic capacity in the preweanling rat brain. Mother-infant separation is generally known to be stressful for rat pups. Holtzman adolescent rats show a depressive-like behavioral phenotype after maternal separation during the preweanling period. However, information is lacking on the effects of maternal separation on the brains of rat pups. We addressed this issue by mapping the brains of preweanling Holt...

  18. Biogenic Amines in Microdissected Brain Regions of Drosophila melanogaster Measured with Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography – Electrochemical Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kuklinski, Nicholas J.; Berglund, E. Carina; Engelbrektsson, Johan; Ewing, Andrew G.

    2010-01-01

    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography with electrochemical detection has been used to quantify biogenic amines in microdissected Drosophila melanogaster brains and brain regions. The effects of pigment from the relatively large fly eyes on the separation have been examined to find that the red pigment from the compound eye masks much of the signal from biogenic amines. The brains of white mutant flies, which have characteristically low pigment in the eyes, have a significantly simplified sep...

  19. Blood-borne donor mast cell precursors migrate to mast cell-rich brain regions in the adult mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Nautiyal, Katherine M.; Liu, Charles; Dong, Xin; Silver, Rae

    2011-01-01

    Mast cells are hematopoietic immune cells located throughout the body, including within the brain. Reconstitution of mast cell deficient KitW-sh/W-sh mice has proven valuable in determining peripheral mast cell function. Here we study the brain mast cell population using a novel method of blood transfusion for reconstitution. We show that blood transfusion results in mast cells of donor origin in the WT mouse, including in the brain and are restricted to regions bearing host mast cells. In co...

  20. Mercury distribution and speciation in different brain regions of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicokinetics of mercury (Hg) in key species of Arctic ecosystem are poorly understood. We sampled five brain regions (frontal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord) from beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) harvested in 2006, 2008, and 2010 from the eastern Beaufort Sea, Canada, and measured total Hg (HgT) and total selenium (SeT) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mercury analyzer or cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, and the chemical forms using a high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS. At least 14% of the beluga whales had HgT concentrations higher than the levels of observable adverse effect (6.0 mg kg−1 wet weight (ww)) in primates. The concentrations of HgT differed between brain regions; median concentrations (mg kg−1 ww) were 2.34 (0.06 to 22.6, 81) (range, n) in temporal lobe, 1.84 (0.12 to 21.9, 77) in frontal lobe, 1.84 (0.05 to 16.9, 83) in cerebellum, 1.25 (0.02 to 11.1, 77) in spinal cord and 1.32 (0.13 to 15.2, 39) in brain stem. Total Hg concentrations in the cerebellum increased with age (p −1 ww) was positively associated with HgT concentration, and the percent MeHg (4 to 109%) decreased exponentially with increasing HgT concentration in the spinal cord, cerebellum, frontal lobe and temporal lobe. There was a positive association between SeT and HgT in all brain regions (p < 0.05) suggesting that Se may play a role in the detoxification of Hg in the brain. The concentration of HgT in the cerebellum was significantly associated with HgT in other organs. Therefore, HgT concentrations in organs that are frequently sampled in bio-monitoring studies could be used to estimate HgT concentrations in the cerebellum, which is the target organ of MeHg toxicity. - Highlights: • Mercury concentrations were highest in the temporal lobe of beluga whales. • Selenium and mercury concentrations were strongly correlated. • Total mercury concentrations in the cerebellum increased with age

  1. Mercury distribution and speciation in different brain regions of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Sonja K; Stern, Gary A; Wang, Feiyue; Lemes, Marcos; Chan, Hing Man

    2013-07-01

    The toxicokinetics of mercury (Hg) in key species of Arctic ecosystem are poorly understood. We sampled five brain regions (frontal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord) from beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) harvested in 2006, 2008, and 2010 from the eastern Beaufort Sea, Canada, and measured total Hg (HgT) and total selenium (SeT) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mercury analyzer or cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, and the chemical forms using a high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS. At least 14% of the beluga whales had HgT concentrations higher than the levels of observable adverse effect (6.0 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww)) in primates. The concentrations of HgT differed between brain regions; median concentrations (mgkg(-1) ww) were 2.34 (0.06 to 22.6, 81) (range, n) in temporal lobe, 1.84 (0.12 to 21.9, 77) in frontal lobe, 1.84 (0.05 to 16.9, 83) in cerebellum, 1.25 (0.02 to 11.1, 77) in spinal cord and 1.32 (0.13 to 15.2, 39) in brain stem. Total Hg concentrations in the cerebellum increased with age (p<0.05). Between 35 and 45% of HgT was water-soluble, of which, 32 to 41% was methyl mercury (MeHg) and 59 to 68% was labile inorganic Hg. The concentration of MeHg (range: 0.03 to 1.05 mg kg(-1) ww) was positively associated with HgT concentration, and the percent MeHg (4 to 109%) decreased exponentially with increasing HgT concentration in the spinal cord, cerebellum, frontal lobe and temporal lobe. There was a positive association between SeT and HgT in all brain regions (p<0.05) suggesting that Se may play a role in the detoxification of Hg in the brain. The concentration of HgT in the cerebellum was significantly associated with HgT in other organs. Therefore, HgT concentrations in organs that are frequently sampled in bio-monitoring studies could be used to estimate HgT concentrations in the cerebellum, which is the target organ of MeHg toxicity. PMID:23624002

  2. Genome-wide coexpression of steroid receptors in the mouse brain: Identifying signaling pathways and functionally coordinated regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Ahmed; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; Grefhorst, Aldo; van Weert, Lisa T C M; Mol, Isabel M; Sips, Hetty C M; van den Heuvel, José K; Datson, Nicole A; Visser, Jenny A; Reinders, Marcel J T; Meijer, Onno C

    2016-03-01

    Steroid receptors are pleiotropic transcription factors that coordinate adaptation to different physiological states. An important target organ is the brain, but even though their effects are well studied in specific regions, brain-wide steroid receptor targets and mediators remain largely unknown due to the complexity of the brain. Here, we tested the idea that novel aspects of steroid action can be identified through spatial correlation of steroid receptors with genome-wide mRNA expression across different regions in the mouse brain. First, we observed significant coexpression of six nuclear receptors (NRs) [androgen receptor (Ar), estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1), estrogen receptor beta (Esr2), glucocorticoid receptor (Gr), mineralocorticoid receptor (Mr), and progesterone receptor (Pgr)] with sets of steroid target genes that were identified in single brain regions. These coexpression relationships were also present in distinct other brain regions, suggestive of as yet unidentified coordinate regulation of brain regions by, for example, glucocorticoids and estrogens. Second, coexpression of a set of 62 known NR coregulators and the six steroid receptors in 12 nonoverlapping mouse brain regions revealed selective downstream pathways, such as Pak6 as a mediator for the effects of Ar and Gr on dopaminergic transmission. Third, Magel2 and Irs4 were identified and validated as strongly responsive targets to the estrogen diethylstilbestrol in the mouse hypothalamus. The brain- and genome-wide correlations of mRNA expression levels of six steroid receptors that we provide constitute a rich resource for further predictions and understanding of brain modulation by steroid hormones. PMID:26811448

  3. Variants in the DYX2 locus are associated with altered brain activation in reading-related brain regions in subjects with reading disability

    OpenAIRE

    Cope, Natalie; Eicher, John D.; Meng, Haiying; Gibson, Christopher J.; Hager, Karl; Lacadie, Cheryl; Fulbright, Robert K.; Constable, R. Todd; Page, Grier P.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Reading disability (RD) is a complex genetic disorder with unknown etiology. Genes on chromosome 6p22, including DCDC2, KIAA0319, and TTRAP, have been identified as RD associated genes. Imaging studies have shown both functional and structural differences between brains of individuals with and without RD. There are limited association studies performed between RD genes, specifically genes on 6p22, and regional brain activation during reading tasks. Using fourteen variants in DCDC2, KIAA0319, ...

  4. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishigaki, Takeo [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo [Department of Radiology, First Kamiida General Hospital (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean{+-}standard deviation 2.3{+-}1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (p<0.01). In the subjects under 60 years, women showed higher values in right frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (p<0.01); however, in the subjects over 60 years, no region showed difference between men and women. The knowledge obtained in this study may be helpful to understand the developmental and aging mechanisms of normal brain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference. (orig.)

  5. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean±standard deviation 2.3±1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (p<0.01). In the subjects under 60 years, women showed higher values in right frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (p<0.01); however, in the subjects over 60 years, no region showed difference between men and women. The knowledge obtained in this study may be helpful to understand the developmental and aging mechanisms of normal brain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference. (orig.)

  6. Regional Differences in Brain Volume Predict the Acquisition of Skill in a Complex Real-Time Strategy Videogame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Boot, Walter R.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also…

  7. Regional differences in gene expression and promoter usage in aged human brains

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, Luba M.

    2013-02-19

    To characterize the promoterome of caudate and putamen regions (striatum), frontal and temporal cortices, and hippocampi from aged human brains, we used high-throughput cap analysis of gene expression to profile the transcription start sites and to quantify the differences in gene expression across the 5 brain regions. We also analyzed the extent to which methylation influenced the observed expression profiles. We sequenced more than 71 million cap analysis of gene expression tags corresponding to 70,202 promoter regions and 16,888 genes. More than 7000 transcripts were differentially expressed, mainly because of differential alternative promoter usage. Unexpectedly, 7% of differentially expressed genes were neurodevelopmental transcription factors. Functional pathway analysis on the differentially expressed genes revealed an overrepresentation of several signaling pathways (e.g., fibroblast growth factor and wnt signaling) in hippocampus and striatum. We also found that although 73% of methylation signals mapped within genes, the influence of methylation on the expression profile was small. Our study underscores alternative promoter usage as an important mechanism for determining the regional differences in gene expression at old age.

  8. Seasonal and regional differences in gene expression in the brain of a hibernating mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Schwartz

    Full Text Available Mammalian hibernation presents a unique opportunity to study naturally occurring neuroprotection. Hibernating ground squirrels undergo rapid and extreme physiological changes in body temperature, oxygen consumption, and heart rate without suffering neurological damage from ischemia and reperfusion injury. Different brain regions show markedly different activity during the torpor/arousal cycle: the cerebral cortex shows activity only during the periodic returns to normothermia, while the hypothalamus is active over the entire temperature range. Therefore, region-specific neuroprotective strategies must exist to permit this compartmentalized spectrum of activity. In this study, we use the Illumina HiSeq platform to compare the transcriptomes of these two brain regions at four collection points across the hibernation season: April Active, October Active, Torpor, and IBA. In the cerebral cortex, 1,085 genes were found to be differentially expressed across collection points, while 1,063 genes were differentially expressed in the hypothalamus. Comparison of these transcripts indicates that the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus implement very different strategies during hibernation, showing less than 20% of these differentially expressed genes in common. The cerebral cortex transcriptome shows evidence of remodeling and plasticity during hibernation, including transcripts for the presynaptic cytomatrix proteins bassoon and piccolo, and extracellular matrix components, including laminins and collagens. Conversely, the hypothalamic transcriptome displays upregulation of transcripts involved in damage response signaling and protein turnover during hibernation, including the DNA damage repair gene RAD50 and ubiquitin E3 ligases UBR1 and UBR5. Additionally, the hypothalamus transcriptome also provides evidence of potential mechanisms underlying the hibernation phenotype, including feeding and satiety signaling, seasonal timing mechanisms, and fuel

  9. Age-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow and brain volume in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the xenon-133 inhalation method, we studied the age-related decline in regional cerebral blood flow, calculated as the initial slope index (ISI), in neurologically normal subjects without any risk factors for cerebral arteriosclerosis (154 men and 123 women), ranging in age from 19 to 88 years. The decline in the ISI was rapid in younger age groups and gradual in older age groups. The ISI was higher in women than in men older than 40 years. Using computed tomography, we studied the age-related decline in brain volume index (BVI; 100% X brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in neurologically normal subjects without any risk factors for cerebral arteriosclerosis (92 men and 49 women), ranging in age from 37 to 86 years. The decline in the BVI was gradual in younger age groups and rapid in older age groups. The BVI was higher in women than in men older than 60 years

  10. Do spotty high intensity regions found in basal ganglia on MRI T2-weighted brain images of elderly subjects indicate gliosis? Comparison of brain MRI T2-weighted images of elderly subjects and necropsy brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spotty high intensity regions are frequently found on the MRI T2-weighted brain images (T2WI) of elderly people. High intensity regions with a diameter of 3 mm or less have been considered as expanded perivascular space with no pathological implications on radiological diagnosis. However, its morphometrical basis is not clear. We examined the character of the spotty regions using brain MRI of brain screening subjects, and studied morphometrically arteriolosclerosis and perivascular tissue damage using necropsy brains of subjects aged 65 years and over. The size, number and location of the spotty high intensity regions were examined using the brain MRI of 109 T2WI which is used for brain screening at Kanazawa Medical University Hospital. The frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, hippocampus, midbrain and basal ganglia were sampled from 15 subjects aged 65 years and over, and the tissue sections were processed for HE stain, Elastica van Gieson stain and immunostaining with GFAP. We took photographs of brain arterioli and surrounding parenchyma with a digital telescope camera and the degree of arterioscleosis and tissue damage were assessed by measurements with an image analyzer. Spotty high intensity regions on T2WI with a diameter of 3 mm or less were observed in 95.5% subjects aged 65 years and over. 69.4% spotty region was observed in basal ganglia. There was a significant correlation between age and size. In morphometrical examination, at the basal ganglia, the density of GFAP-positive astrocytes in the perivascular tissue had a significant positive correlation with the proportional thickness of the adventitia, which is an index of arteriosclerosis, and a significant negative correlation with the size of the perivascular space. The results suggested that the spotty regions in the brain MRI of elderly people do not represent dilatations of the perivascular space, but is mild brain damage caused by arteriosclerosis. (author)

  11. Assessment of regional glucose metabolism in aging brain and dementia with positron-emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.; Ferris, S.; Christman, D.; Fowler, J.; MacGregor, R.; Farkas, T.; Greenberg, J.; Dann, R.; Wolf, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper explores the alterations in regional glucose metabolism that occur in elderly subjects and those with senile dementia compared to normal young volunteers. Results showed a tendency for the frontal regions to have a lower metabolic rate in patients with dementia although this did not reach the level of significance when compared to the elderly control subjects. The changes in glucose metabolism were symmetrical in both the left and right hemispheres. There was a lack of correlation between the mean cortical metabolic rates for glucose and the global mental function in the patients with senile dementia. This is at variance with most of the regional cerebral blood flow data that has been collected. This may be partly related to the use of substrates other than glucose by the brain in elderly and demented subjects. (PSB)

  12. Domain General and Domain Preferential Brain Regions Associated with Different Types of Task Switching: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chobok; Cilles, Sara E.; Johnson, Nathan F.; Gold, Brian T.

    2011-01-01

    One of our highest evolved functions as human beings is our capacity to switch between multiple tasks effectively. A body of research has identified a distributed frontoparietal network of brain regions which contribute to task switching. However, relatively less is known about whether some brain regions may contribute to switching in a domain-general manner while others may be more preferential for different kinds of switching. To explore this issue, we conducted three meta-analyses focusing...

  13. Anorexia nervosa is linked to reduced brain structure in reward and somatosensory regions : a meta-analysis of VBM studies

    OpenAIRE

    Titova, Olga E.; Hjorth, Olof C; Schiöth, Helgi B.; Brooks, Samantha J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Structural imaging studies demonstrate brain tissue abnormalities in eating disorders, yet a quantitative analysis has not been done. METHODS In global and regional meta-analyses of 9 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies, with a total of 228 eating disorder participants (currently ill with anorexia nervosa), and 240 age-matched healthy controls, we compare brain volumes using global and regional analyses. RESULTS Anorexia nervosa (AN) patients have global reductions in gray (effec...

  14. Brain region-specific expression of MeCP2 isoforms correlates with DNA methylation within Mecp2 regulatory elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl O Olson

    Full Text Available MeCP2 is a critical epigenetic regulator in brain and its abnormal expression or compromised function leads to a spectrum of neurological disorders including Rett Syndrome and autism. Altered expression of the two MeCP2 isoforms, MeCP2E1 and MeCP2E2 has been implicated in neurological complications. However, expression, regulation and functions of the two isoforms are largely uncharacterized. Previously, we showed the role of MeCP2E1 in neuronal maturation and reported MeCP2E1 as the major protein isoform in the adult mouse brain, embryonic neurons and astrocytes. Recently, we showed that DNA methylation at the regulatory elements (REs within the Mecp2 promoter and intron 1 impact the expression of Mecp2 isoforms in differentiating neural stem cells. This current study is aimed for a comparative analysis of temporal, regional and cell type-specific expression of MeCP2 isoforms in the developing and adult mouse brain. MeCP2E2 displayed a later expression onset than MeCP2E1 during mouse brain development. In the adult female and male brain hippocampus, both MeCP2 isoforms were detected in neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, MeCP2E1 expression was relatively uniform in different brain regions (olfactory bulb, striatum, cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, brainstem and cerebellum, whereas MeCP2E2 showed differential enrichment in these brain regions. Both MeCP2 isoforms showed relatively similar distribution in these brain regions, except for cerebellum. Lastly, a preferential correlation was observed between DNA methylation at specific CpG dinucleotides within the REs and Mecp2 isoform-specific expression in these brain regions. Taken together, we show that MeCP2 isoforms display differential expression patterns during brain development and in adult mouse brain regions. DNA methylation patterns at the Mecp2 REs may impact this differential expression of Mecp2/MeCP2 isoforms in brain regions. Our results significantly contribute

  15. MRI-based simulation of treatment plans for ion radiotherapy in the brain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test the potential of MRI-based treatment plan simulation for ion radiotherapy in the brain region. Materials and methods: A classification-based tissue segmentation method based on discriminant analysis was employed to derive so-called pseudo CT numbers from MR images of three patients with lesions in the head region undergoing ion radiotherapy. Treatment plans for ions, and for comparison purposes also for photons, were subsequently optimized and simulated using both MRI-based pseudo CT and a standard X-ray-based reference CT. Results: Pseudo CTs revealed mean absolute errors in CT number in the range of 141–165 HU. While soft tissue was in good agreement with reference CT values, large deviations appeared at air cavities and bones as well as at interfaces of different tissue types. In simulations of ion treatment plans, pseudo CT optimizations showed small underdosages of target volumes with deviations in the PTV mean dose of 0.4–2.0% in comparison to reference CT optimizations. In contrast, the PTV mean dose in photon treatment plans differed by no more than 0.2%. Conclusions: The main challenge in deriving pseudo CT numbers from MRI was the correct assignment of air and compact bone. In this study, the impact of deviations on simulations of ion and photon treatment plans in the brain region was small, however for more complicated morphologies a further improvement of the classification method including MR imaging of compact bone is required

  16. Regional variation in expression of acetylcholinesterase mRNA in adult rat brain analyzed by in situ hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, P; Rao, R; Koenigsberger, C; Brimijoin, S

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the molecular basis of regional variation in expression of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7), steady-state levels of AChE activity and mRNA were examined. Relative AChE activity in Triton extracts from six areas of the rat brain varied as follows: cortex < cerebellum < medulla < pons-midbrain < thalamus < striatum. In contralateral samples from the same brains, AChE mRNA was assessed by Northern blotting with random-primed 32P-labeled cDNA. The regional abundance of...

  17. Alterations in the level of OFQ/N-IR in rat brain regions by cocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Lutfy, Kabirullah; Lam, Hoa; Narayanan, Shridhar

    2008-01-01

    We have previously shown that administration of orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N), the endogenous ligand of the opioid receptor-like (ORL-1) receptor, into the lateral ventricles or VTA blocked cocaine sensitization. In the present study, we determined the effect of acute and chronic cocaine treatment on the level of endogenous OFQ/N in rat brain regions. Male Sprague Dawley rats were tested for motor activity in response to saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg) injection once daily for three consecutive...

  18. Dopamine system of rat brain regions at early periods following supralethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studying the main indices that characterize the neurochemical system of biosynthesis and degradation of a dopamine neuromediator, tyrosine hydroxylase-dopamine-monoamine oxidase, in different brain regions 5-6 min, 1 and 18 h after whole-body irradiation with highenergy electrons (100 Gy) the authors have revealed a 25-40% inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase and monoamine oxidase activity, and a 40% increase in the dopamine content of basal ganglia of the orain that control behaviour reactions of the oreganism. The neurochemical disturbances revealed are involved in the mechanisms of early transient incapacity after irradiation with suprahigh doses

  19. Brain-Region-Specific Organoids Using Mini-bioreactors for Modeling ZIKV Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xuyu; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Song, Mingxi M; Hadiono, Christopher; Ogden, Sarah C; Hammack, Christy; Yao, Bing; Hamersky, Gregory R; Jacob, Fadi; Zhong, Chun; Yoon, Ki-Jun; Jeang, William; Lin, Li; Li, Yujing; Thakor, Jai; Berg, Daniel A; Zhang, Ce; Kang, Eunchai; Chickering, Michael; Nauen, David; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Wen, Zhexing; Christian, Kimberly M; Shi, Pei-Yong; Maher, Brady J; Wu, Hao; Jin, Peng; Tang, Hengli; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li

    2016-05-19

    Cerebral organoids, three-dimensional cultures that model organogenesis, provide a new platform to investigate human brain development. High cost, variability, and tissue heterogeneity limit their broad applications. Here, we developed a miniaturized spinning bioreactor (SpinΩ) to generate forebrain-specific organoids from human iPSCs. These organoids recapitulate key features of human cortical development, including progenitor zone organization, neurogenesis, gene expression, and, notably, a distinct human-specific outer radial glia cell layer. We also developed protocols for midbrain and hypothalamic organoids. Finally, we employed the forebrain organoid platform to model Zika virus (ZIKV) exposure. Quantitative analyses revealed preferential, productive infection of neural progenitors with either African or Asian ZIKV strains. ZIKV infection leads to increased cell death and reduced proliferation, resulting in decreased neuronal cell-layer volume resembling microcephaly. Together, our brain-region-specific organoids and SpinΩ provide an accessible and versatile platform for modeling human brain development and disease and for compound testing, including potential ZIKV antiviral drugs. PMID:27118425

  20. Ultra-slow frequency bands reflecting potential coherence between neocortical brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Wang, Y-T; Wang, Y; Jung, T P; Huang, M; Cheng, C K; Mandell, A J

    2015-03-19

    Recent studies of electromagnetic ultra-slow waves (⩽0.1Hz) have suggested that they play a role in the integration of otherwise disassociated brain regions supporting vital functions (Ackermann and Borbely, 1997; Picchioni et al., 2010; Knyazev, 2012; Le Bon et al., 2012). We emphasize this spectral domain in probing sensor coherence issues raised by these studies using Hilbert phase coherences in the human MEG. In addition, we ask: will temporal-spatial phase coherence in regional brain oscillations obtained from the ultraslow spectral bands of multi-channel magnetoencephalograms (MEG) differentiate resting, "task-free" MEG records of normal control and schizophrenic subjects? The goal of the study is a comparison of the relative persistence of intra-regional phase locking values (PLVs), among 10, region-defined, sensors in examined in the resting multichannel, MEG records as a function of spectral frequency bands and diagnostic category. The following comparison of Hilbert-transform-engendered relative phases of each designated spectral band was made using their pair-wise PLVs. This indicated the proportion of shared cycle time in which the phase relations between the index location and reference leads were maintained. Leave one out, bootstrapping of the PLVs via a support vector machine (SVM), classified clinical status with 97.3% accuracy. It was generally the case that spectral bands ⩽1.0Hz generated the highest values of the PLVs and discriminated best between control and patient populations. We conclude that PLV analysis of the oscillatory patterns of MEG recordings in the ultraslow frequency bands suggest their functional significance in intra-regional signal coherence and provide a higher rate of classification of patients and normal subjects than the other spectral domains examined. PMID:25592429

  1. Graded perturbations of metabolism in multiple regions of human brain in Alzheimer's disease: Snapshot of a pervasive metabolic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingshu; Begley, Paul; Church, Stephanie J.; Patassini, Stefano; Hollywood, Katherine A.; Jüllig, Mia; Curtis, Maurice A.; Waldvogel, Henry J.; Faull, Richard L.M.; Unwin, Richard D.; Cooper, Garth J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder that displays pathological characteristics including senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Metabolic defects are also present in AD-brain: for example, signs of deficient cerebral glucose uptake may occur decades before onset of cognitive dysfunction and tissue damage. There have been few systematic studies of the metabolite content of AD human brain, possibly due to scarcity of high-quality brain tissue and/or lack of reliable experimental methodologies. Here we sought to: 1) elucidate the molecular basis of metabolic defects in human AD-brain; and 2) identify endogenous metabolites that might guide new approaches for therapeutic intervention, diagnosis or monitoring of AD. Brains were obtained from nine cases with confirmed clinical/neuropathological AD and nine controls matched for age, sex and post-mortem delay. Metabolite levels were measured in post-mortem tissue from seven regions: three that undergo severe neuronal damage (hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and middle-temporal gyrus); three less severely affected (cingulate gyrus, sensory cortex and motor cortex); and one (cerebellum) that is relatively spared. We report a total of 55 metabolites that were altered in at least one AD-brain region, with different regions showing alterations in between 16 and 33 metabolites. Overall, we detected prominent global alterations in metabolites from several pathways involved in glucose clearance/utilization, the urea cycle, and amino-acid metabolism. The finding that potentially toxigenic molecular perturbations are widespread throughout all brain regions including the cerebellum is consistent with a global brain disease process rather than a localized effect of AD on regional brain metabolism. PMID:26957286

  2. Graded perturbations of metabolism in multiple regions of human brain in Alzheimer's disease: Snapshot of a pervasive metabolic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingshu; Begley, Paul; Church, Stephanie J; Patassini, Stefano; Hollywood, Katherine A; Jüllig, Mia; Curtis, Maurice A; Waldvogel, Henry J; Faull, Richard L M; Unwin, Richard D; Cooper, Garth J S

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder that displays pathological characteristics including senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Metabolic defects are also present in AD-brain: for example, signs of deficient cerebral glucose uptake may occur decades before onset of cognitive dysfunction and tissue damage. There have been few systematic studies of the metabolite content of AD human brain, possibly due to scarcity of high-quality brain tissue and/or lack of reliable experimental methodologies. Here we sought to: 1) elucidate the molecular basis of metabolic defects in human AD-brain; and 2) identify endogenous metabolites that might guide new approaches for therapeutic intervention, diagnosis or monitoring of AD. Brains were obtained from nine cases with confirmed clinical/neuropathological AD and nine controls matched for age, sex and post-mortem delay. Metabolite levels were measured in post-mortem tissue from seven regions: three that undergo severe neuronal damage (hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and middle-temporal gyrus); three less severely affected (cingulate gyrus, sensory cortex and motor cortex); and one (cerebellum) that is relatively spared. We report a total of 55 metabolites that were altered in at least one AD-brain region, with different regions showing alterations in between 16 and 33 metabolites. Overall, we detected prominent global alterations in metabolites from several pathways involved in glucose clearance/utilization, the urea cycle, and amino-acid metabolism. The finding that potentially toxigenic molecular perturbations are widespread throughout all brain regions including the cerebellum is consistent with a global brain disease process rather than a localized effect of AD on regional brain metabolism. PMID:26957286

  3. Automatic segmentation of meningioma from non-contrasted brain MRI integrating fuzzy clustering and region growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Chun-Chih

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has become important in brain tumor diagnosis. Using this modality, physicians can locate specific pathologies by analyzing differences in tissue character presented in different types of MR images. This paper uses an algorithm integrating fuzzy-c-mean (FCM and region growing techniques for automated tumor image segmentation from patients with menigioma. Only non-contrasted T1 and T2 -weighted MR images are included in the analysis. The study's aims are to correctly locate tumors in the images, and to detect those situated in the midline position of the brain. Methods The study used non-contrasted T1- and T2-weighted MR images from 29 patients with menigioma. After FCM clustering, 32 groups of images from each patient group were put through the region-growing procedure for pixels aggregation. Later, using knowledge-based information, the system selected tumor-containing images from these groups and merged them into one tumor image. An alternative semi-supervised method was added at this stage for comparison with the automatic method. Finally, the tumor image was optimized by a morphology operator. Results from automatic segmentation were compared to the "ground truth" (GT on a pixel level. Overall data were then evaluated using a quantified system. Results The quantified parameters, including the "percent match" (PM and "correlation ratio" (CR, suggested a high match between GT and the present study's system, as well as a fair level of correspondence. The results were compatible with those from other related studies. The system successfully detected all of the tumors situated at the midline of brain. Six cases failed in the automatic group. One also failed in the semi-supervised alternative. The remaining five cases presented noticeable edema inside the brain. In the 23 successful cases, the PM and CR values in the two groups were highly related. Conclusions Results indicated

  4. Notch receptor expression in neurogenic regions of the adult zebrafish brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Oliveira-Carlos

    Full Text Available The adult zebrash brain has a remarkable constitutive neurogenic capacity. The regulation and maintenance of its adult neurogenic niches are poorly understood. In mammals, Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance both in embryonic and adult CNS. To better understand how Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance during adult neurogenesis in zebrafish we analysed Notch receptor expression in five neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish brain. Combining proliferation and glial markers we identified several subsets of Notch receptor expressing cells. We found that 90 [Formula: see text] of proliferating radial glia express notch1a, notch1b and notch3. In contrast, the proliferating non-glial populations of the dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus rarely express notch3 and about half express notch1a/1b. In the non-proliferating radial glia notch3 is the predominant receptor throughout the brain. In the ventral telencephalon and in the mitotic area of the optic tectum, where cells have neuroepithelial properties, notch1a/1b/3 are expressed in most proliferating cells. However, in the cerebellar niche, although progenitors also have neuroepithelial properties, only notch1a/1b are expressed in a high number of PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. In this region notch3 expression is mostly in Bergmann glia and at low levels in few PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. Additionally, we found that in the proliferation zone of the ventral telencephalon, Notch receptors display an apical high to basal low gradient of expression. Notch receptors are also expressed in subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells. We suggest that the partial regional heterogeneity observed for Notch expression in progenitor cells might be related to the cellular diversity present in each of these neurogenic niches.

  5. Brain region and activity-dependent properties of M for calibrated fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Christina Y; Herman, Peter; Coman, Daniel; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Wang, Helen; Juchem, Christoph; Rothman, Douglas L; de Graaf, Robin A; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2016-01-15

    Calibrated fMRI extracts changes in oxidative energy demanded by neural activity based on hemodynamic and metabolic dependencies of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response. This procedure requires the parameter M, which is determined from the dynamic range of the BOLD signal between deoxyhemoglobin (paramagnetic) and oxyhemoglobin (diamagnetic). Since it is unclear if the range of M-values in human calibrated fMRI is due to regional/state differences, we conducted a 9.4T study to measure M-values across brain regions in deep (α-chloralose) and light (medetomidine) anesthetized rats, as verified by electrophysiology. Because BOLD signal is captured differentially by gradient-echo (R2*) and spin-echo (R2) relaxation rates, we measured M-values by the product of the fMRI echo time and R2' (i.e., the reversible magnetic susceptibility component), which is given by the absolute difference between R2* and R2. While R2' mapping was shown to be dependent on the k-space sampling method used, at nominal spatial resolutions achieved at high magnetic field of 9.4T the M-values were quite homogenous across cortical gray matter. However cortical M-values varied in relation to neural activity between brain states. The findings from this study could improve precision of future calibrated fMRI studies by focusing on the global uniformity of M-values in gray matter across different resting activity levels. PMID:26529646

  6. Interactions of early adversity with stress-related gene polymorphisms impact regional brain structure in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Labus, Jennifer; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Bonyadi, Mariam; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Bradesi, Sylvie; Chang, Lin; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-04-01

    Early adverse life events (EALs) have been associated with regional thinning of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), a brain region implicated in the development of disorders of mood and affect, and often comorbid functional pain disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Regional neuroinflammation related to chronic stress system activation has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying these neuroplastic changes. However, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in these changes is poorly understood. The current study aimed to evaluate the interactions of EALs and candidate gene polymorphisms in influencing thickness of the sgACC. 210 female subjects (137 healthy controls; 73 IBS) were genotyped for stress and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms. Genetic variation with EALs, and diagnosis on sgACC thickness was examined, while controlling for race, age, and total brain volume. Compared to HCs, IBS had significantly reduced sgACC thickness (p = 0.03). Regardless of disease group (IBS vs. HC), thinning of the left sgACC was associated with a significant gene-gene environment interaction between the IL-1β genotype, the NR3C1 haplotype, and a history of EALs (p = 0.05). Reduced sgACC thickness in women with the minor IL-1β allele, was associated with EAL total scores regardless of NR3C1 haplotype status (p = 0.02). In subjects homozygous for the major IL-1β allele, reduced sgACC with increasing levels of EALs was seen only with the less common NR3C1 haplotype (p = 0.02). These findings support an interaction between polymorphisms related to stress and inflammation and early adverse life events in modulating a key region of the emotion arousal circuit. PMID:25630611

  7. Differential brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in limbic brain regions following social defeat or territorial aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stacie L; Stanek, Lisa M; Ressler, Kerry J; Huhman, Kim L

    2011-12-01

    Syrian hamsters readily form dominant-subordinate relationships under laboratory conditions. Winning or losing in agonistic encounters can have striking, long-term effects on social behavior, but the mechanisms underlying this experience-induced behavioral plasticity are unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may at least in part mediate this plasticity. Male hamsters were paired for 15-min using a resident-intruder model, and individuals were identified as winners or losers on the basis of their behavior. BDNF was examined with in situ hybridization 2 hr after treatment during the consolidation period of emotional learning. Losing animals had significantly more BDNF mRNA in the basolateral (BLA) and medial (MeA) nuclei of the amygdala when compared with winning animals as well as novel cage and home cage controls. Interestingly, winning animals had significantly more BDNF mRNA in the dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus than did losing animals, novel, and home cage controls. No conflict-related changes in BDNF mRNA were observed in several other regions including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central amygdala. Next, we demonstrated that K252a, a Trk receptor antagonist, significantly reduced the acquisition of conditioned defeat when administered within the BLA. These data support a model in which BDNF-mediated plasticity within the BLA supports learning of submission or subordinate social status in losing animals, whereas BDNF-mediated plasticity within the hippocampus may instantiate aspects of winning such as control of a territory in dominant animals. PMID:22122152

  8. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  9. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Samantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM, corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN and 21 women (HC was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. Conclusions In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  10. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  11. Cytochrome p450 mRNA expression in the rodent brain: species-, sex-, and region-dependent differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamou, Marianna; Wu, Xianai; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Lein, Pamela J

    2014-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes play a critical role in the activation and detoxication of many neurotoxic chemicals. Although research has largely focused on P450-mediated metabolism in the liver, emerging evidence suggests that brain P450s influence neurotoxicity by modulating local metabolite levels. As a first step toward better understanding the relative role of brain P450s in determining neurotoxic outcome, we characterized mRNA expression of specific P450 isoforms in the rodent brain. Adult mice (male and female) and rats (male) were treated with vehicle, phenobarbital, or dexamethasone. Transcripts for CYP2B, CYP3A, CYP1A2, and the orphan CYP4X1 and CYP2S1 were quantified in the liver, hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum by quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction. These P450s were all detected in the liver with the exception of CYP4X1, which was detected in rat but not mouse liver. P450 expression profiles in the brain varied regionally. With the exception of the hippocampus, there were no sex differences in regional brain P450 expression profiles in mice; however, there were marked species differences. In the liver, phenobarbital induced CYP2B expression in both species. Dexamethasone induced hepatic CYP2B and CYP3A in mice but not rats. In contrast, brain P450s did not respond to these classic hepatic P450 inducers. Our findings demonstrate that P450 mRNA expression in the brain varies by region, regional brain P450 profiles vary between species, and their induction varies from that of hepatic P450s. These novel data will be useful for designing mechanistic studies to examine the relative role of P450-mediated brain metabolism in neurotoxicity. PMID:24255117

  12. Mercury distribution and speciation in different brain regions of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, Sonja K., E-mail: ostertag@unbc.ca [Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, V2N 4Z9 (Canada); Stern, Gary A., E-mail: Gary.Stern@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Wang, Feiyue, E-mail: feiyue.wang@ad.umanitoba.ca [Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Lemes, Marcos, E-mail: Marcos.lemes@ad.umanitoba.ca [Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Chan, Hing Man, E-mail: laurie.chan@uottawa.ca [Center for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, 1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The toxicokinetics of mercury (Hg) in key species of Arctic ecosystem are poorly understood. We sampled five brain regions (frontal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord) from beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) harvested in 2006, 2008, and 2010 from the eastern Beaufort Sea, Canada, and measured total Hg (HgT) and total selenium (SeT) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mercury analyzer or cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, and the chemical forms using a high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS. At least 14% of the beluga whales had HgT concentrations higher than the levels of observable adverse effect (6.0 mg kg{sup −1} wet weight (ww)) in primates. The concentrations of HgT differed between brain regions; median concentrations (mg kg{sup −1} ww) were 2.34 (0.06 to 22.6, 81) (range, n) in temporal lobe, 1.84 (0.12 to 21.9, 77) in frontal lobe, 1.84 (0.05 to 16.9, 83) in cerebellum, 1.25 (0.02 to 11.1, 77) in spinal cord and 1.32 (0.13 to 15.2, 39) in brain stem. Total Hg concentrations in the cerebellum increased with age (p < 0.05). Between 35 and 45% of HgT was water-soluble, of which, 32 to 41% was methyl mercury (MeHg) and 59 to 68% was labile inorganic Hg. The concentration of MeHg (range: 0.03 to 1.05 mg kg{sup −1} ww) was positively associated with HgT concentration, and the percent MeHg (4 to 109%) decreased exponentially with increasing HgT concentration in the spinal cord, cerebellum, frontal lobe and temporal lobe. There was a positive association between SeT and HgT in all brain regions (p < 0.05) suggesting that Se may play a role in the detoxification of Hg in the brain. The concentration of HgT in the cerebellum was significantly associated with HgT in other organs. Therefore, HgT concentrations in organs that are frequently sampled in bio-monitoring studies could be used to estimate HgT concentrations in the cerebellum, which is the target organ of MeHg toxicity. - Highlights:

  13. Automatic Region-Based Brain Classification of MRI-T1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Rubiyah

    2016-01-01

    Image segmentation of medical images is a challenging problem with several still not totally solved issues, such as noise interference and image artifacts. Region-based and histogram-based segmentation methods have been widely used in image segmentation. Problems arise when we use these methods, such as the selection of a suitable threshold value for the histogram-based method and the over-segmentation followed by the time-consuming merge processing in the region-based algorithm. To provide an efficient approach that not only produce better results, but also maintain low computational complexity, a new region dividing based technique is developed for image segmentation, which combines the advantages of both regions-based and histogram-based methods. The proposed method is applied to the challenging applications: Gray matter (GM), White matter (WM) and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) segmentation in brain MR Images. The method is evaluated on both simulated and real data, and compared with other segmentation techniques. The obtained results have demonstrated its improved performance and robustness. PMID:27096925

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  15. Regional Variation in Brain White Matter Diffusion Index Changes following Chemoradiotherapy: A Prospective Study Using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Christopher H.; Mohammad Nazem-Zadeh; Oliver E Lee; Schipper, Matthew J; Tsien, Christina I.; Theodore S Lawrence; Yue Cao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is little known about how brain white matter structures differ in their response to radiation, which may have implications for radiation-induced neurocognitive impairment. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine regional variation in white matter changes following chemoradiotherapy. Methods Fourteen patients receiving two or three weeks of whole-brain radiation therapy (RT) ± chemotherapy underwent DTI pre-RT, at end-RT, and one month post-RT. Three diffusion indices w...

  16. Quality control parameters on a large dataset of regionally dissected human control brains for whole genome expression studies

    OpenAIRE

    Trabzuni, Daniah; Ryten, Mina; Walker, Robert; Smith, Colin; Imran, Sabaena; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Weale, Michael E; Hardy, John

    2011-01-01

    We are building an open-access database of regional human brain expression designed to allow the genome-wide assessment of genetic variability on expression. Array and RNA sequencing technologies make assessment of genome-wide expression possible. Human brain tissue is a challenging source for this work because it can only be obtained several and variable hours post-mortem and after varying agonal states. These variables alter RNA integrity in a complex manner. In this report, we assess the e...

  17. Quantitation of normal metabolite concentrations in six brain regions by in-vivo 1H-MR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Minati, Ludovico; Aquino, Domenico; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Erbetta, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concentrations of brain metabolites visible to in-vivo 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 1.5 T in a sample of 28 normal subjects. Quantitation was attempted for inositol compounds, choline units, total creatine and N-acetyl moieties, using open-source software. Six brain regions were considered: frontal and parietal white matter, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, pons and cerebellum. Absolute concentrations were derived using tissue water as an internal refe...

  18. Region-specific changes in gene expression in rat brain after chronic treatment with levetiracetam or phenytoin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Bjørnar; Taubøll, Erik; Shaw, Renee; Gjerstad, Leif; Dingledine, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Summary Purpose It is commonly assumed that antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) act similarly in the various parts of the brain as long as their molecular targets are present. A few experimental studies on metabolic effects of vigabatrin, levetiracetam, valproate, and lamotrigine have shown that these drugs may act differently in different brain regions. We examined effects of chronic treatment with levetiracetam or phenytoin on mRNA levels to detect regional drug effects in a broad, nonbiased manner. Methods mRNA levels were monitored in three brain regions with oligonucleotide-based microarrays. Results Levetiracetam (150 mg/kg for 90 days) changed the expression of 65 genes in pons/medulla oblongata, two in hippocampus, and one in frontal cortex. Phenytoin (75 mg/kg), in contrast, changed the expression of only three genes in pons/medulla oblongata, but 64 genes in hippocampus, and 327 genes in frontal cortex. Very little overlap between regions or drug treatments was observed with respect to effects on gene expression. Discussion We conclude that chronic treatment with levetiracetam or phenytoin causes region-specific and highly differential effects on gene expression in the brain. Regional effects on gene expression could reflect regional differences in molecular targets of AEDs, and they could influence the clinical profiles of AEDs. PMID:20345932

  19. Brain regions associated with Anhedonia in healthy adults: a PET correlation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Young Chul; Chun, Ji Won; Kim, Jae Jin; Park, Hae Jeong; Lee, Jong Doo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Jeong Ho [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    Anhedonia has been proposed to be the result of a basic neurophysiologic dysfunction and a vulnerability marker that precede and contribute to the liability of developing schizophrenia. We hypothesized that anhedonia, as a construct reflecting the decreased capacity to experience pleasure, should be associated with decreased positive hedonic affect trait. This study examined the relationship between anhedonia and positive hedonic affect trait and searched for the brain regions which correlate with anhedonia in normal subjects. Using {sup 18}F-FDG PET scan, we investigated the brain activity of twenty one subjects during resting state. Questionnaires were administrated after the scan in order to assess the self-rated individual differences in physical/social anhedonia and positive/negative affect traits. Negative correlation between physical anhedonia score and positive affect trait score was significant (Pearson coefficient=-0.440, {rho} <0.05). The subjects' physical and social anhedonia scores showed positive correlation with metabolic rates in the cerebellum and negative correlation with metabolic rates in the inferior temporal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. In addition, the positive affect trait score positively correlated with various areas, most prominent with the inferior temporal gyrus. These results suggest that neural substrates, such as the inferior temporal gyrus and prefrontal-cerebellar circuit, which dysfunction has been proposed to be involved with the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia, may also play a significant role in the liability of affective deficits like anhedonia.

  20. Evaluation of brain metabolite in patients with complex regional pain syndrome by MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently brain imaging studies have shown that patients with chronic pain have an altered cortical processing of nociceptive inputs. We evaluated brain metabolites in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) using MR spectroscopy. Absolute concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline (Cho) were measured in anterior cingulate (ACC) and prefrontal cortices (PFC) of patients and volunteers as matched control. Psychological aspects of patients were also evaluated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale, in addition to the intensity of pain by visual analog scale. In the ACC, CRPS patients had a significant decrease of NAA and a significant increase of Cho compared to the control. Furthermore, patients with anxiety scored by HAD scale had reduced NAA concentration in ACC compared to the patients without anxiety. In the PFC, there was a reduction of NAA in the patients compared with that in control. No correlation was observed between intensity of pain and these metabolites. These results suggest that metabolite changes in ACC and PFC could reflect the pathogenesis of CRPS. (author)

  1. Changes in myelinisation of neurons in different brain regions in progesterone-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đelić Dijana J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of progesterone on myelin of the brain in adult male Wistar rats was investigated by labelling the myelin of neurons in 5 mm thick brain sections with Nile blue stain. The following nuclei were analysed hypothalamic nucleus arcuatus (ARC and nucleus paraventricularis (NPV claustrum (CL, nuclei of the corticomedial part of amygdala: nucleus medialis (NM, nucleus corticalis (NCO and nucleus centralis (NCE and in the basolateral part of amygdala, nucleus basolateralis (NBL, nucleus basomedialis (NBM and nucleus lateralis posterior (NLP. In control male rats sacrificed at 62 days of age a great number of neurons labelled with Nile blue for myelin were detected by stereological analysis.They were observed in; ARC and NPV, in the corticomedial amygdaloid nuclei (NM, NCE NCO as well as in the basolateral nuclei (NBL, NBM and NLP. In CL there was a smaller number of neurons with labelled myelin than in the other investigated regions. In comparison to the controls, the number of neurons labelled with Nile blue for myelin in progesterone treated male rats was significantly reduced in ARC of hypothalamus and in NCO of amygdala. A significant increase was observed in NPV of hypothalamus, and in NM, NCE NBL and NBM of amygdala. On the other hand, in CL the number of neurons labelled with Nile blue for myelin was not changed.

  2. Biogenic amines, amino acids and regional blood flow in rat brain after prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damage to nerve cells after prenatal irradiation could affect their later ability to function normally. The concentration of several biogenic amines and amino acids was therefore determined at different times after prenatal irradiation with 0.95 Gy on day 10, 12 or 15 of pregnancy. The offspring was sacrified 0.5, 1, 3 and 6 months after birth and the following structures were dissected: Cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and medulla. Biogenic amines isolated by HPLC and detected electrochemically were: Dopamine, DOPA, DOPAC, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin and hydroxyindolacetate. Amino acids converted to their dansyl derivatives and separated by HPLC were: Aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, gamma aminobutyrate and taurine. Many neurotransmitters were found increased in brain after prenatal irradiation, particularly on day 12 and 15 p.c. Marked changes were found for serotonin in several brain structures and for dopamin in striatum. An increase was also found in glutamate, glutamine and GABA. Studies on regional blood flow using injection of labelled 15 μ microspheres did not reveal significant alterations after prenatal irradiation. (orig.)

  3. Region-specific changes in brain diffusivity in fetal isolated mild ventriculomegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaniv, Gal [Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, The Institute for Research in Military Medicine, The Faculty of Medicine, Jerusalem (Israel); Sheba Medical Center, The Dr. Pinchas Bornstein Talpiot Medical Leadership Program, Tel Aviv (Israel); Katorza, Eldad [Sheba Medical Center, Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bercovitz, Ronen; Bergman, Dafi; Greenberg, Gahl; Hoffmann, Chen [Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Biegon, Anat [Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate the impact of symmetric and asymmetric isolated mild ventriculomegaly (IMVM, atrial width 10-15 mm) on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in fetal brain areas. Sixty-seven sequential fetal head magnetic resonance imaging scans (feMRI) of VM cases performed between 2009 and 2014 were compared to 38 normal feMRI scans matched for gestational age (controls). Ultrasound- and MRI-proven IMVM cases were divided into asymmetrical (AVM, ≥2 mm difference in atrial width), symmetrical (SVM, <2 mm difference in atrial width), and asymmetrical IMVM with one normal-sized ventricle (AV1norm). ADC values were significantly elevated in the basal ganglia (BG) of the SVM and AV1norm groups compared to controls (p < 0.004 and p < 0.013, respectively). High diffusivity was constantly detected in the BG ipsilateral to the enlarged atria relative to the normal-sized atria in the AV1norm group (p < 0.03). Frontal lobe ADC values were significantly reduced in the AVM and SVM groups (p < 0.003 and p < 0.003 vs. controls). Temporal lobe ADC values were significantly reduced in the AVM group (p < 0.001 vs. controls). Isolated mild ventriculomegaly is associated with distinct ADC value changes in different brain regions. This phenomenon could reflect the pathophysiology associated with different IMVM patterns. (orig.)

  4. Region-specific changes in brain diffusivity in fetal isolated mild ventriculomegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the impact of symmetric and asymmetric isolated mild ventriculomegaly (IMVM, atrial width 10-15 mm) on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in fetal brain areas. Sixty-seven sequential fetal head magnetic resonance imaging scans (feMRI) of VM cases performed between 2009 and 2014 were compared to 38 normal feMRI scans matched for gestational age (controls). Ultrasound- and MRI-proven IMVM cases were divided into asymmetrical (AVM, ≥2 mm difference in atrial width), symmetrical (SVM, <2 mm difference in atrial width), and asymmetrical IMVM with one normal-sized ventricle (AV1norm). ADC values were significantly elevated in the basal ganglia (BG) of the SVM and AV1norm groups compared to controls (p < 0.004 and p < 0.013, respectively). High diffusivity was constantly detected in the BG ipsilateral to the enlarged atria relative to the normal-sized atria in the AV1norm group (p < 0.03). Frontal lobe ADC values were significantly reduced in the AVM and SVM groups (p < 0.003 and p < 0.003 vs. controls). Temporal lobe ADC values were significantly reduced in the AVM group (p < 0.001 vs. controls). Isolated mild ventriculomegaly is associated with distinct ADC value changes in different brain regions. This phenomenon could reflect the pathophysiology associated with different IMVM patterns. (orig.)

  5. Direct profiling of myelinated and demyelinated regions in mouse brain by imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Ruben; Dumont, Debora; van Brussel, Leen; van de Plas, Babs; Daniels, Ruth; Noben, Jean-Paul; Verhaert, Peter; van der Gucht, Estel; Robben, Johan; Clerens, Stefan; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2007-02-01

    One of the newly developed imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) technologies utilizes matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry to map proteins in thin tissue sections. In this study, we evaluated the power of MALDI IMS as we developed it in our (Bruker) MALDI TOF (Reflex IV) and TOF-TOF (Ultraflex II) systems to study myelin patterns in the mouse central nervous system under normal and pathological conditions. MALDI IMS was applied to assess myelin basic protein (MBP) isoform-specific profiles in different regions throughout the mouse brain. The distribution of ions of m/z 14,144 and 18,447 displayed a striking resemblance with white matter histology and were identified as MBP isoform 8 and 5, respectively. In addition, we demonstrated a significant reduction of the MBP-8 peak intensity upon MALDI IMS analysis of focal ethidium bromide-induced demyelinated brain areas. Our MS images were validated by immunohistochemistry using MBP antibodies. This study underscores the potential of MALDI IMS to study the contribution of MBP to demyelinating diseases.

  6. Situating Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    can participate in the world. We experience a new participatory culture on the go. These developments offer new possibilities for civic engagement in participatory land use planning: to engage people where they are. This dissertation coins the notion of situated engagement, which seeks to ’situate......’ civic engagement activities in those spatial contexts that are at stake in land use planning. This approach enables engagement activities to be better integrated with people’s everyday lived experiences through connecting to the places that are personally meaningful and relevant to them. A ’research...... through design’ approach is applied across four participatory design experiments to explore how to design for situated engagement in land use planning. A notion of a situated engagement infrastructure made up of mobile, stationary, ubiquitous, and remote systems frames the design experiments suggesting a...

  7. Resting-state, functional MRI on regional homogeneity changes of brain in the heavy smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the mechanism of self-awareness in the heavy smokers (HS) by using regional homogeneity (ReHo) combined with resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). Methods: Thirty HS and 31 healthy non-smokers (NS) matched for age and sex underwent a 3.0 T resting-state fMRI. The data were post-processed by SPM 5 and then the ReHo values were calculated by REST software. The ReHo values between the two groups were compared by two-sample t-test. The brain map with significant difference of ReHo value was obtained. Results: Compared with that in NS group, the regions with decreased ReHo value included the bilateral precuneus, superior frontal gyrus,medial prefrontal cortex, right angular gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus, cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus in HS group. The regions of increased ReHo value included the bilateral insula, parahippocampal gyrus, white matter of parietal lobe, pons, left inferior parietal lobule, lingual gyrus, thalamus, inferior orbital gyrus, white matter of temporal-frontal lobe, and cerebellum. The difference was more obvious in the left hemisphere. Conclusions: In HS, abnormal ReHo on a resting state which reflects network of smoking addiction. This method may be helpful in understanding the mechanism of self-awareness in HS. (authors)

  8. Acute treatment with fluvoxamine elevates rat brain serotonin synthesis in some terminal regions: An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: A considerable body of evidence indicates the involvement of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. Methods: The acute effect of fluvoxamine, on 5-HT synthesis rates was investigated in rat brain regions, using α-14C-methyl-L-tryptophan as a tracer. Fluvoxamine (25 mg/kg) and saline (control) were injected intraperitoneally, one hour before the injection of the tracer (30 μCi). Results: There was no significant effect of fluvoxamine on plasma free tryptophan. After Benjamini–Hochberg False Discovery Rate correction, a significant decrease in the 5-HT synthesis rate in the fluvoxamine treated rats, was found in the raphe magnus (− 32%), but not in the median (− 14%) and dorsal (− 3%) raphe nuclei. In the regions with serotonergic axon terminals, significant increases in synthesis rates were observed in the dorsal (+ 41%) and ventral (+ 43%) hippocampus, visual (+ 38%), auditory (+ 65%) and parietal (+ 37%) cortex, and the substantia nigra pars compacta (+ 56%). There were no significant changes in the 5-HT synthesis rates in the median (+ 11%) and lateral (+ 24%) part of the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens (+ 5%), VTA (+ 16%) or frontal cortex (+ 6%). Conclusions: The data show that the acute administration of fluvoxamine affects 5-HT synthesis rates in a regionally specific pattern, with a general elevation of the synthesis in the terminal regions and a reduction in some cell body structures. The reasons for the regional specific effect of fluvoxamine on 5-HT synthesis are unclear, but may be mediated by the presynaptic serotonergic autoreceptors.

  9. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Masahiko; Shutara, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Kazumi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Nagata, Ken

    1998-07-01

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6{+-}3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  10. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6±3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  11. Altered relationships between rCBF in different brain regions of never-treated schizophrenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, O.; Schreckenberger, M.; Cremerius, U.; Dickmann, C.; Schulz, G.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Erkwoh, R.; Owega, A.; Sass, H. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Psychiatry

    1997-09-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the relations between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of different brain regions in acute schizophrenia and following neuroleptic treatment. Methods: Twenty-two never-treated, acute schizophrenic patients were examined with HMPAO brain SPECT and assessed psychopathologically, and reexamined following neuroleptic treatment (over 96.8 days) and psychopathological remission. rCBF was determined by region/cerebellar count quotients obtained from 98 irregular regions of interest (ROIs), summed up to 11 ROIs on each hemisphere. In acute schizophrenics, interregional rCBF correlations of each ROI to every other ROI were compared to the interregional correlations following neuroleptic treatment and to those of controls. Results: All significant correlations of rCBF ratios of different brain regions were exclusively positive in controls and patients. In controls, all ROIs of one hemisphere except the mesial temporal ROI correlated significantly to its contralateral ROI. Each hemisphere showed significant frontal-temporal correlations, as well as cortical-subcortical and some cortico-limbic. In contrast, in acute schizophrenics nearly every ROI correlated significantly with every other ROI, without a grouping or relation of the rCBF of certain ROIs as in controls. After neuroleptic treatment and clinical improvement, this diffuse pattern of correlations remained. Conclusions: These results indicate differences in the neuronal interplay between regions in schizophrenic and healthy subjects. In nevertreated schizophrenics, diffuse interregional rCBF correlations can be seen as a sign of change and dysfunction of the systems regulating specificity and diversity of the neuronal functions. Neuroleptic therapy and psychopathologic remission showed no normalizing effect on interregional correlations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, die Beziehungen zwischen den rCBF-Werten von verschiedenen Hirnregionen bei noch nie

  12. Directional connectivity between frontal and posterior brain regions is altered with increasing concentrations of propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimow, Anu; Silfverhuth, Minna; Långsjö, Jaakko; Kaskinoro, Kimmo; Georgiadis, Stefanos; Jääskeläinen, Satu; Scheinin, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies using electroencephalography (EEG) suggest that alteration of coherent activity between the anterior and posterior brain regions might be used as a neurophysiologic correlate of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. One way to assess causal relationships between brain regions is given by renormalized partial directed coherence (rPDC). Importantly, directional connectivity is evaluated in the frequency domain by taking into account the whole multichannel EEG, as opposed to time domain or two channel approaches. rPDC was applied here in order to investigate propofol induced changes in causal connectivity between four states of consciousness: awake (AWA), deep sedation (SED), loss (LOC) and return of consciousness (ROC) by gathering full 10/20 system human EEG data in ten healthy male subjects. The target-controlled drug infusion was started at low rate with subsequent gradual stepwise increases at 10 min intervals in order to carefully approach LOC (defined as loss of motor responsiveness to a verbal stimulus). The direction of the causal EEG-network connections clearly changed from AWA to SED and LOC. Propofol induced a decrease (p = 0.002-0.004) in occipital-to-frontal rPDC of 8-16 Hz EEG activity and an increase (p = 0.001-0.040) in frontal-to-occipital rPDC of 10-20 Hz activity on both sides of the brain during SED and LOC. In addition, frontal-to-parietal rPDC within 1-12 Hz increased in the left hemisphere at LOC compared to AWA (p = 0.003). However, no significant changes were detected between the SED and the LOC states. The observed decrease in back-to-front EEG connectivity appears compatible with impaired information flow from the posterior sensory and association cortices to the executive prefrontal areas, possibly related to decreased ability to perceive the surrounding world during sedation. The observed increase in the opposite (front-to-back) connectivity suggests a propofol concentration dependent association and is not directly related

  13. Directional connectivity between frontal and posterior brain regions is altered with increasing concentrations of propofol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Maksimow

    Full Text Available Recent studies using electroencephalography (EEG suggest that alteration of coherent activity between the anterior and posterior brain regions might be used as a neurophysiologic correlate of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. One way to assess causal relationships between brain regions is given by renormalized partial directed coherence (rPDC. Importantly, directional connectivity is evaluated in the frequency domain by taking into account the whole multichannel EEG, as opposed to time domain or two channel approaches. rPDC was applied here in order to investigate propofol induced changes in causal connectivity between four states of consciousness: awake (AWA, deep sedation (SED, loss (LOC and return of consciousness (ROC by gathering full 10/20 system human EEG data in ten healthy male subjects. The target-controlled drug infusion was started at low rate with subsequent gradual stepwise increases at 10 min intervals in order to carefully approach LOC (defined as loss of motor responsiveness to a verbal stimulus. The direction of the causal EEG-network connections clearly changed from AWA to SED and LOC. Propofol induced a decrease (p = 0.002-0.004 in occipital-to-frontal rPDC of 8-16 Hz EEG activity and an increase (p = 0.001-0.040 in frontal-to-occipital rPDC of 10-20 Hz activity on both sides of the brain during SED and LOC. In addition, frontal-to-parietal rPDC within 1-12 Hz increased in the left hemisphere at LOC compared to AWA (p = 0.003. However, no significant changes were detected between the SED and the LOC states. The observed decrease in back-to-front EEG connectivity appears compatible with impaired information flow from the posterior sensory and association cortices to the executive prefrontal areas, possibly related to decreased ability to perceive the surrounding world during sedation. The observed increase in the opposite (front-to-back connectivity suggests a propofol concentration dependent association and is not directly

  14. Protein carbonylation after traumatic brain injury: cell specificity, regional susceptibility, and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Rachel C; Buonora, John E; Jacobowitz, David M; Mueller, Gregory P

    2015-01-01

    Protein carbonylation is a well-documented and quantifiable consequence of oxidative stress in several neuropathologies, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer׳s disease, and Parkinson׳s disease. Although oxidative stress is a hallmark of traumatic brain injury (TBI), little work has explored the specific neural regions and cell types in which protein carbonylation occurs. Furthermore, the effect of gender on protein carbonylation after TBI has not been studied. The present investigation was designed to determine the regional and cell specificity of TBI-induced protein carbonylation and how this response to injury is affected by gender. Immunohistochemistry was used to visualize protein carbonylation in the brains of adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) as an injury model of TBI. Cell-specific markers were used to colocalize the presence of carbonylated proteins in specific cell types, including astrocytes, neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Results also indicated that the injury lesion site, ventral portion of the dorsal third ventricle, and ventricular lining above the median eminence showed dramatic increases in protein carbonylation after injury. Specifically, astrocytes and limited regions of ependymal cells adjacent to the dorsal third ventricle and the median eminence were most susceptible to postinjury protein carbonylation. However, these patterns of differential susceptibility to protein carbonylation were gender dependent, with males showing significantly greater protein carbonylation at sites distant from the lesion. Proteomic analyses were also conducted and determined that the proteins most affected by carbonylation in response to TBI include glial fibrillary acidic protein, dihydropyrimidase-related protein 2, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A. Many other proteins, however, were not carbonylated by CCI. These findings indicate that there is both regional

  15. Analysis of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Using 99mTc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in Senile Dementia of Alzheimer Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT studies were performed in 11 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 7 patients with psychological depression and 12 normal controls. Changes of regional cerebral blood flow was semiquantitatively analyzed and the results were as follows. 1) In 11 patients with Alzheimer's disease, significant reduction of regional cerebral blood flow was found In both temporoparietal areas. 2) Relative perfusion between cerebral hemispheres was rather symmetrical in patient with Alzheimer's disease. 3) All patients with depression showed normal SPECT findings. As for conclusion, 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT seemed to be a valuable method for clinical assessment and management of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Turkey's role as a regional and global player and its power capacity: Turkey's engagement with other emerging states

    OpenAIRE

    Aylin Gürzel

    2014-01-01

    Turkey's role as a regional power has increased since Justice and Development Party (AKP) came to power. AKP leadership not only aspired to become a regional power but also a global player. Turkey has, therefore, assumed different roles: the "natural leader" of the region; a historical "big brother;" and the "protector" of the Muslim minorities. Turkey has also assumed a "mediator" and a "facilitator" role by trying to negotiate a deal with an emerging power such as Brazil in order to attempt...

  17. Sedation and Regional Anesthesia for Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To present the conscious sedation and the regional anesthesia technique, consisting of scalp block and superficial cervical plexus block, used in our institution for patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. The study included 26 consecutive patients. A standardized anesthesia protocol was used and clinical data were collected prospectively. Results. Conscious sedation and regional anesthesia were used in all cases. The dexmedetomidine loading dose was 1 μg kg−1 and mean infusion rate was 0.26 μg kg−1 h−1 (0.21 [mean total dexmedetomidine dose: 154.68 μg (64.65]. Propofol was used to facilitate regional anesthesia. Mean propofol dose was 1.68 mg kg (0.84 [mean total propofol dose: 117.72 mg (59.11]. Scalp block and superficial cervical plexus block were used for regional anesthesia. Anesthesia related complications were minor. Postoperative pain was evaluated; mean visual analog scale pain scores were 0 at the postoperative 1st and 6th hours and 4 at the 12th and 24th hours. Values are mean (standard deviation. Conclusions. Dexmedetomidine sedation along with scalp block and SCPB provides good surgical conditions and pain relief and does not interfere with neurophysiologic testing during DBS for PD. During DBS the SCPB may be beneficial for patients with osteoarthritic cervical pain. This trial is registered with Clinical Trials Identifier NCT01789385.

  18. Individual Differences in Reward and Somatosensory-Motor Brain Regions Correlate with Adiposity in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapuano, Kristina M; Huckins, Jeremy F; Sargent, James D; Heatherton, Todd F; Kelley, William M

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of adolescent obesity has increased dramatically over the past three decades, and research has documented that the number of television shows viewed during childhood is associated with greater risk for obesity. In particular, considerable evidence suggests that exposure to food marketing promotes eating habits that contribute to obesity. The present study examines neural responses to dynamic food commercials in overweight and healthy-weight adolescents using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Compared with non-food commercials, food commercials more strongly engaged regions involved in attention and saliency detection (occipital lobe, precuneus, superior temporal gyri, and right insula) and in processing rewards [left and right nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)]. Activity in the left OFC and right insula further correlated with subjects' percent body fat at the time of the scan. Interestingly, this reward-related activity to food commercials was accompanied by the additional recruitment of mouth-specific somatosensory-motor cortices-a finding that suggests the intriguing possibility that higher-adiposity adolescents mentally simulate eating behaviors and offers a potential neural mechanism for the formation and reinforcement of unhealthy eating habits that may hamper an individual's ability lose weight later in life. PMID:25994961

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play a role in ... obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons working together form a ...

  20. Regional brain hematocrit in stroke by single photon emission computed tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nineteen studies on 18 subjects were performed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the head after the successive intravenous administration of a plasma label (/sup 99m/Tc-human serum albumin [HSA]) and /sup 99m/Tc-labeled autologous red blood cells (RBC). Two sets of cerebral tomographic sections were generated: for cerebral /sup 99m/Tc-HSA alone and for combined /sup 99m/Tc-HSA and /sup 99m/Tc-RBC. By relating counts in regions of interest from the cerebral tomograms to counts from blood samples obtained during each tomographic acquisition, regional cerebral haematocrit (Hct) was calculated by the application of a simple formula. Results show 1) lower cerebral Hct than venous Hct (ratio of HCT brain/Hct venous 0.65-0.90) in all subjects, and 2) comparison between right and left hemisphere Hct in 3/3 normal subjects, 6/6 patients with transient ischaemic attacks and 3/8 patients with stroke showed no significant difference. However, in 3/8 patients with stroke (most recent strokes) significant differences were found, the higher Hct value corresponding to the affected side

  1. Brain metabolite changes in subcortical regions after exposure to cuprizone for 6 weeks: potential implications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gen; Xuan, Yinghua; Dai, Zhuozhi; Shen, Zhiwei; Zhang, Guishan; Xu, Haiyun; Wu, Renhua

    2015-01-01

    Cuprizone is a copper chelating agent able to selectively damage the white matter in the mouse brain. Recent studies have reported behavioral abnormalities relevant to some of schizophrenia symptoms. While associating white matter damage to the behavioral abnormalities, these previous studies did not rule out the possible impairment in neuronal functions in cuprizone-exposed mice. The aim of this study was to examine brain metabolites of the cuprizone-exposed mice by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). The examined brain regions were the caudoputamen, midbrain, and thalamus; these subcortical regions showed different susceptibilities to cuprizone in terms of demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss in previous studies. Young C57BL/6 mice were fed a standard rodent chow without or with cuprizone (0.2 %) for 6 weeks. At the end, open-field and Y-maze tests were performed to measure the emotional and cognitive behaviors of the animals, followed by (1)H-MRS procedure to evaluate the brain metabolites. Cuprizone-exposure increased anxiety levels and impaired spatial working memory. The same treatment increased T2 signal intensity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and caudoputamen, but not in the thalamus. Cuprizone-exposure decreased the concentrations of NAA and NAA+NAAG in caudoputamen, but not in thalamus and midbrain. It decreased levels of Cr+PCr, GPC+PCh and myo-inositol in all the three brain regions. These results provided neurochemical evidence for the impairment in neuronal functions by cuprizone treatment. PMID:25347963

  2. Types of traumatic brain injury and regional cerebral blood flow assessed by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relationship between focal and diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), rCBF changes in the first 24 hours post-trauma were studied in 12 severe head trauma patients using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mtechnetium-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO). Patients were classified as focal or diffuse TBI based on x-ray computed tomographic (X-CT) findings and neurological signs. In six patients with focal damage, SPECT demonstrated: 1) perfusion defect (focal severe ischemia) in the brain region larger than the brain contusion by X-CT, 2) hypoperfusion (focal CBF reduction) in the brain region without abnormality by X-CT, and 3) localized hyperperfusion (focal CBF increase) in the surgically decompressed brain after decompressive craniectomy. Focal damage may be associated with a heterogeneous CBF change by causing various focal CBF derangements. In six patients with diffuse damage, SPECT revealed hypoperfusion in only one patient. Diffuse damage may be associated with a homogeneous CBF change by rarely causing focal CBF derangements. The type of TBI, focal or diffuse, determines the type of CBF change, heterogeneous or homogeneous, in the acute severe head trauma patient. (author)

  3. Brain tissue- and region-specific abnormalities on volumetric MRI scans in 21 patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS is a heterogeneous human disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and characterized by the primary findings of obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and learning and behavioural problems. BBS mouse models have a neuroanatomical phenotype consisting of third and lateral ventriculomegaly, thinning of the cerebral cortex, and reduction in the size of the corpus striatum and hippocampus. These abnormalities raise the question of whether humans with BBS have a characteristic morphologic brain phenotype. Further, although behavioral, developmental, neurological and motor defects have been noted in patients with BBS, to date, there are limited reports of brain findings in BBS. The present study represents the largest systematic evaluation for the presence of structural brain malformations and/or progressive changes, which may contribute to these functional problems. Methods A case-control study of 21 patients, most aged 13-35 years, except for 2 patients aged 4 and 8 years, who were diagnosed with BBS by clinical criteria and genetic analysis of known BBS genes, and were evaluated by qualitative and volumetric brain MRI scans. Healthy controls were matched 3:1 by age, sex and race. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS language with SAS STAT procedures. Results All 21 patients with BBS were found to have statistically significant region- and tissue-specific patterns of brain abnormalities. There was 1 normal intracranial volume; 2 reduced white matter in all regions of the brain, but most in the occipital region; 3 preserved gray matter volume, with increased cerebral cortex volume in only the occipital lobe; 4 reduced gray matter in the subcortical regions of the brain, including the caudate, putamen and thalamus, but not in the cerebellum; and 5 increased cerebrospinal fluid volume. Conclusions There are distinct and characteristic abnormalities in tissue- and region- specific volumes

  4. Gamma knife radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations located in eloquent regions of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javalkar Vijayakumar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective treatment strategy for selected group of patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs. Aim : The aim of this study was to evaluate the obliteration rates, complications, and patient outcomes after Gamma knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs located in eloquent regions of the brain with an emphasis on neurological morbidity. Materials and Methods : Between 2000 and December 2005, 37 patients with AVMs in eloquent locations (sensory, motor, speech, visual cortex, basal ganglia, and brain stem underwent stereotactic radiosurgery. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of these patients to asses the outcomes. Of the 37 patients, only two patients had prior embolization. Three underwent prospective staged volume radiosurgery. Two patients needed redo-radiosurgery for residual AVM. Mean target volume was 9.1 cc. Three lesions had nidus volume more than 20 cc. Average marginal dose was 18.75 Gy. The median duration of follow-up was 23 months (range, 6-60 months. 15 patients had follow-up of more than 36 months. Results : A total of 15 patients had follow-up of more than 36 months, thus available for evaluation of angiographic obliteration rates. Complete angiographic obliteration was documented in seven patients (46.7%. Four patients experienced hemorrhage during the latency period. One patient who had subsequent hemorrhage on follow-up developed worsening of neurological deficit. One patient developed significant sensory symptoms which resolved after steroids. No additional clinical deterioration related to treatment was noted in rest of the patients. Conclusions : AVMs located in eloquent and in deep locations can be treated safely with stereotactic radiosurgery with acceptable obliteration rates and minimal morbidity.

  5. Long-term global and regional brain volume changes following severe traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal study with clinical correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidaros, Annette; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller; Liptrot, Matthew George;

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in neurodegenerative changes that progress for months, perhaps even years post-injury. However, there is little information on the spatial distribution and the clinical significance of this late atrophy. In 24 patients who had sustained severe TBI we acquired ......, inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculus, corpus callosum and corona radiata. This indicates that the long-term atrophy is attributable to consequences of traumatic axonal injury. Despite progressive atrophy, remarkable clinical improvement occurred in most patients....

  6. Engaging Regions in Globalization: The Rise of the Economic Relationship between the San Francisco Bay Area and China

    OpenAIRE

    Volberding, Peter

    2011-01-01

    International economic policy is primarily perceived to be a product of national governments. However, while traditionally nation-centric policy formations still take precedence in international economic matters, the past decade has witnessed the remarkable growth of regional actors in policy creation. The first part of this paper analyzes the ascent of regional actors in the San Francisco Bay Area and its growing economic partnership with China. Organizations such as the Bay Area Council...

  7. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals region specific metabolic responses to SIV infection in the macaque brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Chan-Gyu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS studies of HIV-infected humans have demonstrated significant metabolic abnormalities that vary by brain region, but the causes are poorly understood. Metabolic changes in the frontal cortex, basal ganglia and white matter in 18 SIV-infected macaques were investigated using MRS during the first month of infection. Results Changes in the N-acetylaspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, myo-inositol (MI, creatine (Cr and glutamine/glutamate (Glx resonances were quantified both in absolute terms and relative to the creatine resonance. Most abnormalities were observed at the time of peak viremia, 2 weeks post infection (wpi. At that time point, significant decreases in NAA and NAA/Cr, reflecting neuronal injury, were observed only in the frontal cortex. Cr was significantly elevated only in the white matter. Changes in Cho and Cho/Cr were similar across the brain regions, increasing at 2 wpi, and falling below baseline levels at 4 wpi. MI and MI/Cr levels were increased across all brain regions. Conclusion These data best support the hypothesis that different brain regions have variable intrinsic vulnerabilities to neuronal injury caused by the AIDS virus.

  8. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Rajtmajer, Sarah M.; Reka Albert; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Frank Gerard Hillary

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs) that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity). Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g. choice of seed-region, anatomical landma...

  9. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Rajtmajer, Sarah M.; Roy, Arnab; Albert, Reka; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Hillary, Frank G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs) that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity). Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g., choice of seed-region, anatomical landm...

  10. Brain regions involved in processing facial identity and expression are differentially selective for surface and edge information

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Richard J; Young, Andrew W; Andrews, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Although different brain regions are widely considered to be involved in the recognition of facial identity and expression, it remains unclear how these regions process different properties of the visual image. Here, we ask how surface-based reflectance information and edge-based shape cues contribute to the perception and neural representation of facial identity and expression. Contrast-reversal was used to generate images in which normal contrast relationships across the surface of the imag...

  11. 1,3-Dinitrobenzene Induces Age- and Region-Specific Oxidation to Mitochondria-Related Proteins in Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Kubik, Laura L.; Landis, Rory W.; Remmer, Henriette; Bergin, Ingrid L; Philbert, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Regions of the brain with high energy requirements are especially sensitive to perturbations in mitochondrial function. Hence, neurotoxicant exposures that target mitochondria in regions of high energy demand have the potential to accelerate mitochondrial damage inherently occurring during the aging process. 1,3-Dinitrobenzene (DNB) is a model neurotoxicant that selectively targets mitochondria in brainstem nuclei innervated by the eighth cranial nerve. This study investigates the role of age...

  12. Heterogeneity in expression of functional ionotropic glutamate and GABA receptors in astrocytes across brain regions: insights from the thalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Höft, Simon; Griemsmann, Stephanie; Seifert, Gerald; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes may express ionotropic glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, which allow them to sense and to respond to neuronal activity. However, so far the properties of astrocytes have been studied only in a few brain regions. Here, we provide the first detailed receptor analysis of astrocytes in the murine ventrobasal thalamus and compare the properties with those in other regions. To improve voltage-clamp control and avoid indirect effects during drug applications, freshly...

  13. Measuring the effects of aging and sex on regional brain stiffness with MR elastography in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arani, Arvin; Murphy, Matthew C; Glaser, Kevin J; Manduca, Armando; Lake, David S; Kruse, Scott A; Jack, Clifford R; Ehman, Richard L; Huston, John

    2015-05-01

    Changes in tissue composition and cellular architecture have been associated with neurological disease, and these in turn can affect biomechanical properties. Natural biological factors such as aging and an individual's sex also affect underlying tissue biomechanics in different brain regions. Understanding the normal changes is necessary before determining the efficacy of stiffness imaging for neurological disease diagnosis and therapy monitoring. The objective of this study was to evaluate global and regional changes in brain stiffness as a function of age and sex, using improved MRE acquisition and processing that have been shown to provide median stiffness values that are typically reproducible to within 1% in global measurements and within 2% for regional measurements. Furthermore, this is the first study to report the effects of age and sex over the entire cerebrum volume and over the full frontal, occipital, parietal, temporal, deep gray matter/white matter (insula, deep gray nuclei and white matter tracts), and cerebellum volumes. In 45 volunteers, we observed a significant linear correlation between age and brain stiffness in the cerebrum (Psensory-motor regions (P=.32) of the brain, and a weak linear trend was observed in the deep gray matter/white matter (P=.075). A multiple linear regression model predicted an annual decline of 0.011 ± 0.002 kPa in cerebrum stiffness with a theoretical median age value (76 years old) of 2.56 ± 0.08 kPa. Sexual dimorphism was observed in the temporal (P=.03) and occipital (P=.001) lobes of the brain, but no significant difference was observed in any of the other brain regions (P>.20 for all other regions). The model predicted female occipital and temporal lobes to be 0.23 kPa and 0.09 kPa stiffer than males of the same age, respectively. This study confirms that as the brain ages, there is softening; however, the changes are dependent on region. In addition, stiffness effects due to sex exist in the occipital and

  14. Examination of the regional distribution of minor and trace elements in normal human brain by PIXE and chemometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used to measure two minor and six trace elements, i.e. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb, in up to 50 different structures (regions) of brains from Belgian individuals without neurological disorders. The data matrix with the mean dry-weight elemental concentrations and mean wet-to-dry weight ratio (means over 18 brains) for the various structures was subjected to two chemometric techniques, i.e., VARIMAX rotated absolute principal component analysis (APCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis. Three components were identified by APCA: Components 1 and 3 represented aqueous fractions of the brain (respectively the intracellular and extracellular fluid), whereas component 2 apparently represented the solid brain fraction. The elements K, Cu, Zn, Se, and Rb were predominantly attributed to component 1, Ca to component 3, and Fe to component 2. In the hierarchical cluster analysis seven different agglomerative cluster strategies were compared. The dendrograms obtained from the furthest neighbor and Ward's error sum strategy were virtually identical, and they consisted of two large clusters with 30 and 16 structures, respectively. The first cluster included all gray matter structures, while the second comprised all white matter. Furthermore, structures involved in the same physiological function or morphologically similar regions often conglomerated in one subcluster. This strongly suggests that there is some relationship between the trace element profile of a brain structure and its function. (orig.)

  15. Region specific optimization of continuous linear attenuation coefficients based on UTE (RESOLUTE): application to PET/MR brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladefoged, Claes N.; Benoit, Didier; Law, Ian; Holm, Søren; Kjær, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Hansen, Adam E.; Andersen, Flemming L.

    2015-10-01

    The reconstruction of PET brain data in a PET/MR hybrid scanner is challenging in the absence of transmission sources, where MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The main challenge of MR-AC is to separate bone and air, as neither have a signal in traditional MR images, and to assign the correct linear attenuation coefficient to bone. The ultra-short echo time (UTE) MR sequence was proposed as a basis for MR-AC as this sequence shows a small signal in bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new clinically feasible MR-AC method with patient specific continuous-valued linear attenuation coefficients in bone that provides accurate reconstructed PET image data. A total of 164 [18F]FDG PET/MR patients were included in this study, of which 10 were used for training. MR-AC was based on either standard CT (reference), UTE or our method (RESOLUTE). The reconstructed PET images were evaluated in the whole brain, as well as regionally in the brain using a ROI-based analysis. Our method segments air, brain, cerebral spinal fluid, and soft tissue voxels on the unprocessed UTE TE images, and uses a mapping of R2* values to CT Hounsfield Units (HU) to measure the density in bone voxels. The average error of our method in the brain was 0.1% and less than 1.2% in any region of the brain. On average 95% of the brain was within  ±10% of PETCT, compared to 72% when using UTE. The proposed method is clinically feasible, reducing both the global and local errors on the reconstructed PET images, as well as limiting the number and extent of the outliers.

  16. Atlas of regional anatomy of the brain using MRI. With functional correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume provides a unique review of the essential topographical anatomy of the brain from an MRI perspective, correlating high-quality anatomical plates with the corresponding high-resolution MRI images. The book includes a historical review of brain mapping and an analysis of the essential reference planes used for the study of the human brain. Subsequent chapters provide a detailed review of the sulcal and the gyral anatomy of the human cortex, guiding the reader through an interpretation of the individual brain atlas provided by high-resolution MRI. The relationship between brain structure and function is approached in a topographical fashion with analysis of the necessary imaging methodology and displayed anatomy. The central, perisylvian, mesial temporal and occipital areas receive special attention. Imaging of the core brain structures is included. An extensive coronal atlas concludes the book. (orig.)

  17. Macro-to-micro cortical vascular imaging underlies regional differences in ischemic brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziennis, Suzan; Qin, Jia; Shi, Lei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-05-01

    The ability to non-invasively monitor and quantify hemodynamic responses down to the capillary level is important for improved diagnosis, treatment and management of neurovascular disorders, including stroke. We developed an integrated multi-functional imaging system, in which synchronized dual wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging (DWLS) was used as a guiding tool for optical microangiography (OMAG) to test whether detailed vascular responses to experimental stroke in male mice can be evaluated with wide range sensitivity from arteries and veins down to the capillary level. DWLS enabled rapid identification of cerebral blood flow (CBF), prediction of infarct area and hemoglobin oxygenation over the whole mouse brain and was used to guide the OMAG system to hone in on depth information regarding blood volume, blood flow velocity and direction, vascular architecture, vessel diameter and capillary density pertaining to defined regions of CBF in response to ischemia. OMAG-DWLS is a novel imaging platform technology to simultaneously evaluate multiple vascular responses to ischemic injury, which can be useful in improving our understanding of vascular responses under pathologic and physiological conditions, and ultimately facilitating clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapeutic interventions of neurovascular diseases.

  18. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Cortical and Subcortical Regions in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jie; Jia, Xiuqin; Li, Huizhuo; Qin, Jiawei; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The present study aimed to explore the changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) at rest in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Twenty-four PD patients and 22 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study. ALFF was measured on the whole brain of all participants. A two-sample t-test was then performed to detect the group differences with age, gender, education level, head motion, and gray matter volume as covariates. Results. It was showed that PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the left thalamus/caudate and right insula/inferior prefrontal gyrus, whereas they had increased ALFF in the right medial prefrontal cortex (BA 8/6) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10). Conclusions. Our results indicated that significant alterations of ALFF in the subcortical regions and prefrontal cortex have been detected in PD patients, independent of age, gender, education, head motion, and structural atrophy. The current findings further provide insights into the biological mechanism of the disease.

  19. Regional distribution of methionine adenosyltransferase in rat brain as measured by a rapid radiochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) in the CNS of the rat was studied by use of a rapid, sensitive and specific radiochemical method. The S-adenosyl-[methyl-14C]L-methionine ([14C]SAM) generated by adenosyl transfer from ATP to [methyl-14C]L-methionine is quantitated by use of a SAM-consuming transmethylation reaction. Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), prepared from rat liver, transfers the methyl-14C group of SAM to 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The 14C-labelled methylation products, vanillic acid and isovanillic acid, are separated from unreacted methionine by solvent extraction and quantitated by liquid scintillation counting. Compared to other methods of MAT determination, which include separation of generated SAM from methionine by ion-exchange chromatography, the assay described exhibited the same high degree of specificity and sensitivity but proved to be less time consuming. MAT activity was found to be uniformly distributed between various brain regions and the pituitary gland of adult male rats. In the pineal gland the enzyme activity was about tenfold higher. (author)

  20. Long-term occupational stress is associated with regional reductions in brain tissue volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Blix

    Full Text Available There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM and white matter (WM volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen - structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous data on chronic psychosocial stress, and indicate a morphological involvement of the frontostriatal circuits. The present findings of morphological changes in these regions confirm our previous conclusion that symptoms from occupational stress merit careful investigations and targeted treatment.

  1. CLINICAL STUDY OF ISCHEMIC PENUMBRA REGION IN BRAIN ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY MAPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qingrui; Liu Mingshun; Gu Lanjie; Mei Fengjun

    2000-01-01

    Department of Neurology, Fourth Affiliated Hospital. Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang ABSTRACT OBJETIVE To study features and clinical usage of ischemic penumbra region(IPR) in brain electrical activity mapping(BEAM).BACKGROUND To explore the functional improvement index of IPR untraumaticly. METH0DS 69 patients with acute cerebral infarction were divided into two groups according to different therapeutic time window--early treatment group( 32 cases, treatment in 12 hours)and contral group (37 cases, treatment in 12-72 hours).They were analysed in BEAM pre-and post-treatment Results: BEAM showed that the power of infarcted core was decreased and IPR became smaller in slow waves significantly after treatment in early treatment group and this change was in good agreement with improvement of clinical functions and SPECT DISCUSSION The key to treat acute cerebral infarction was to improve functions of IPR as 8oos as possible, BEAM could show the location and size of IPR. CONCLUSION BEAM was one of important index in evaluating the function of IPR.

  2. Incidence of pituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: A prospective study from a regional neurosurgical centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyed Alireza; Tan, Chin Lik; Menon, David K; Simpson, Helen L; Hutchinson, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may develop pituitary dysfunction. Although, there is now increasing awareness of and investigations into such post-traumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP), the exact prevalence and incidence remain uncertain. Here, we aim to identify the incidence of PTHP in a selected population of TBI patients deemed at risk of PTHP at a regional neurosurgical centre in the UK. A total of 105 patients have been assessed in two cohorts: (i) 58 patients in serial cohort and (ii) 47 patients in cross-sectional late cohort. We found that in serial cohort, 10.3% (6/58) of TBI patients had abnormalities of the pituitary-adrenal axis in the acute phase (Day 0-7 post injury). In comparison, in cross-sectional late cohort, 21.3% (10/47) of the patients developed dysfunction in at least one of their pituitary axes at 6 months or more post-TBI, with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism being the most common. Twenty-two patients from these two cohorts had their growth hormone assessment at 12 months or more post-TBI and 9.1% (2/22) were found to have growth hormone deficiency. Our results suggest that PTHP is a common condition amongst sufferers of TBI, and appropriate measures should be taken to detect and manage it. PMID:26610235

  3. The Stressed Female Brain: Neuronal activity in the prelimbic but not infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex suppresses learning after acute stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Y. Maeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Women are nearly twice as likely as men to suffer from anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, indicating that many females are especially vulnerable to stressful life experience. A profound sex difference in the response to stress is also observed in laboratory animals. Acute exposure to an uncontrollable stressful event disrupts associative learning during classical eyeblink conditioning in female rats but enhances this same type of learning process in males. These sex differences in response to stress are dependent on neuronal activity in similar but also different brain regions. Neuronal activity in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA is necessary in both males and females. However, neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC during the stressor is necessary to modify learning in females but not in males. The mPFC is often divided into its prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subregions, which differ both in structure and function. Through its connections to the BLA, we hypothesized that neuronal activity within the PL, but not IL, during the stressor is necessary to suppress learning in females. To test this hypothesis, either the PL or IL of adult female rats was bilaterally inactivated with GABAA agonist muscimol during acute inescapable swim stress. 24h later, all subjects were trained with classical eyeblink conditioning. Though stressed, females without neuronal activity in the PL learned well. In contrast, females with IL inactivation during the stressor did not learn well, behaving similar to stressed vehicle-treated females. These data suggest that exposure to a stressful event critically engages the PL, but not IL, to disrupt associative learning in females. Together with previous studies, these data indicate that the PL communicates with the BLA to suppress learning after a stressful experience in females. This circuit may be similarly engaged in women who become cognitively impaired after stressful

  4. Quantitative evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow by visual stimulation in 99mTc- HMPAO brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visual activation and quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow. Visual activation was known to increase regional cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex in occipital lobe. We evaluated that change in the distribution of '99mTc-HMPAO (Hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) to reflect in regional cerebral blood flow. The six volunteers were injected with 925 MBq (mean ages: 26.75 years, n=6, 3men, 3women) underwent MRI and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT during a rest state with closed eyes and visual stimulated with 8 Hz LED. We delineate the region of interest and calculated the mean count per voxel in each of the fifteen slices to quantitative analysis. The ROI to whole brain ratio and regional index was calculated pixel to pixel subtraction visual non-activation image from visual activation image and constructed brain map using a statistical parameter map(SPM99). The mean regional cerebral blood flow was increased due to visual stimulation. The increase rate of the mean regional cerebral blood flow which of the activation region in primary visual cortex of occipital lobe was 32.50±5.67%. The significant activation sites using a statistical parameter of brain constructed a rendering image and image fusion with SPECT and MRI. Visual activation was revealed significant increase through quantitative analysis in visual cortex. Activation region was certified in Talairach coordinate and primary visual cortex (Ba17),visual association area (Ba18,19) of Brodmann

  5. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtmajer, Sarah M; Roy, Arnab; Albert, Reka; Molenaar, Peter C M; Hillary, Frank G

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs) that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity). Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g., choice of seed-region, anatomical landmarks). These approaches are limiting especially when functional connectivity may evolve over time in areas that are finer than known anatomical landmarks or in areas outside predetermined seeded regions. An ideal method would permit investigators to study network plasticity due to learning, maturation effects, or clinical recovery via multiple time point data that can be compared to one another in the same ROI while also preserving the voxel-level data in those ROIs at each time point. Data-driven approaches (e.g., whole-brain voxelwise approaches) ameliorate concerns regarding investigator bias, but the fundamental problem of comparing the results between distinct data sets remains. In this paper we propose an approach, aggregate-initialized label propagation (AILP), which allows for data at separate time points to be compared for examining developmental processes resulting in network change (plasticity). To do so, we use a whole-brain modularity approach to parcellate the brain into anatomically constrained functional modules at separate time points and then apply the AILP algorithm to form a consensus set of ROIs for examining change over time. To demonstrate its utility, we make use of a known dataset of individuals with traumatic brain injury sampled at two time points during the first year of recovery and show how the AILP procedure can be applied to select regions of interest to be used in a graph theoretical analysis of plasticity. PMID:26283928

  6. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtmajer, Sarah M.; Roy, Arnab; Albert, Reka; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Hillary, Frank G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs) that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity). Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g., choice of seed-region, anatomical landmarks). These approaches are limiting especially when functional connectivity may evolve over time in areas that are finer than known anatomical landmarks or in areas outside predetermined seeded regions. An ideal method would permit investigators to study network plasticity due to learning, maturation effects, or clinical recovery via multiple time point data that can be compared to one another in the same ROI while also preserving the voxel-level data in those ROIs at each time point. Data-driven approaches (e.g., whole-brain voxelwise approaches) ameliorate concerns regarding investigator bias, but the fundamental problem of comparing the results between distinct data sets remains. In this paper we propose an approach, aggregate-initialized label propagation (AILP), which allows for data at separate time points to be compared for examining developmental processes resulting in network change (plasticity). To do so, we use a whole-brain modularity approach to parcellate the brain into anatomically constrained functional modules at separate time points and then apply the AILP algorithm to form a consensus set of ROIs for examining change over time. To demonstrate its utility, we make use of a known dataset of individuals with traumatic brain injury sampled at two time points during the first year of recovery and show how the AILP procedure can be applied to select regions of interest to be used in a graph theoretical analysis of plasticity. PMID:26283928

  7. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Rajtmajer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity. Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g. choice of seed-region, anatomical landmarks. These approaches are limiting especially when functional connectivity may evolve over time in areas that are finer than known anatomical landmarks or in areas outside predetermined seeded regions. An ideal method would permit investigators to study network plasticity due to learning, maturation effects, or clinical recovery via multiple time point data that can be compared to one another in the same ROI while also preserving the voxel-level data in those ROIs at each time point. Data-driven approaches (e.g., whole-brain voxelwise approaches ameliorate concerns regarding investigator bias, but the fundamental problem of comparing the results between distinct data sets remains. In this paper we propose an approach, aggregate-initialized label propagation (AILP, which allows for data at separate time points to be compared for examining developmental processes resulting in network change (plasticity. To do so, we use a whole-brain modularity approach to parcellate the brain into anatomically constrained functional modules at separate time points and then apply the AILP algorithm to form a consensus set of ROIs for examining change over time. To demonstrate its utility, we make use of a known dataset of individuals with traumatic brain injury sampled at two time points during the first year of recovery and show how the AILP procedure can be applied to select regions of interest to be used in a graph theoretical analysis of plasticity.

  8. A cross-sectional MRI study of brain regional atrophy and clinical characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Applying a cross-sectional design, we set out to further characterize the significance of extrahippocampal brain atrophy in a large sample of \\'sporadic\\' mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE+HS). By evaluating the influence of epilepsy chronicity on structural atrophy, this work represents an important step towards the characterization of MRI-based volumetric measurements as genetic endophenotypes for this condition. METHODS: Using an automated brain segmentation technique, MRI-based volume measurements of several brain regions were compared between 75 patients with \\'sporadic\\' MTLE+HS and 50 healthy controls. Applying linear regression models, we examined the relationship between structural atrophy and important clinical features of MTLE+HS, including disease duration, lifetime number of partial and generalized seizures, and history of initial precipitating insults (IPIs). RESULTS: Significant volume loss was detected in ipsilateral hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and cerebral white matter (WM). In addition, contralateral hippocampal and bilateral cerebellar grey matter (GM) volume loss was observed in left MTLE+HS patients. Hippocampal, amygdalar, and cerebral WM volume loss correlated with duration of epilepsy. This correlation was stronger in patients with prior IPIs history. Further, cerebral WM, cerebellar GM, and contralateral hippocampal volume loss correlated with lifetime number of generalized seizures. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that multiple brain regions beyond the hippocampus are involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE+HS. IPIs are an important factor influencing the rate of regional atrophy but our results also support a role for processes related to epilepsy chronicity. The consequence of epilepsy chronicity on candidate brain regions has important implications on their application as genetic endophenotypes.

  9. Blueberries and strawberries activate neuronal housekeeping in critical brain regions of stress-induced young rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysfunctional autophagy, where accumulation of damaged or complex cellular components in neurons in response to sublethal cell stress has been implicated in an array of brain disorders. This phenomenon plays a pivotal role in aging, because of the increased vulnerability of the aging brain to incre...

  10. Regional difference of radiosensitivity of neural cells in the fetal brain of mice on day 13 of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnant Slc: ICR mice were exposed to a single whole-body X-irradiation at a dose of 12.5 R or 25 R on day 13 of gestation. After irradiation, fetuses were obtained from mothers at 1- or 3-hour intervals and coronal histological sections were made. Pyknotic cells were counted in the ventricular zone of brain mantle, hippocampal anlage and olfactory bulb. In the 25 R group, peak incidences of pyknotic cells in brain mantle, hippocampal anlage and olfactory bulb were 13.2 %, 6.9 % and 2.2 %, respectively. In the 12.5 R group, these were 6.0 %, 3.2 % and 1.7 %, respectively. This result indicates that neural cells in the ventricular zone of brain mantle are the most radiosensitive among the cerebral regions examined in day-13 mouse fetuses. (author)

  11. Influence of Punica granatum L. on region specific responses in rat brain during Alloxan-Induced diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushil Kumar Middha; Talambedu Usha; Tekupalli RaviKiran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Punica granatum peel methanolic extract (PGPE) on cerebral cortex (CC) and Hippocampus (HC) brain antioxidant defense system and markers of lipid and protein oxidation in alloxan induced diabetic rats.Methods:Oral administration of PGPE (75 and 150 mg of kg body weight) for 45 days resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose levels. Results: Supplementation of diabetic rats with PGPE showed increased activities of SOD and GPx with concomitant decrease in MDA and PC content. Region-specific changes were more evident in the HC when compared to CC. Conclusions: The present study indicated that PGPE can ameliorate brain oxidative stress in alloxan induced diabetic rats by up regulating antioxidant defense mechanism by attenuating lipid and protein oxidation. PGPE thus may be used as a potential therapeutic agent in preventing diabetic complications in the brain.

  12. The Effects of Dietary Fat and Iron Interaction on Brain Regional Iron Contents and Stereotypical Behaviors in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lumei; Byrd, Aria; Plummer, Justin; Erikson, Keith M.; Harrison, Scott H.; Han, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Adequate brain iron levels are essential for enzyme activities, myelination, and neurotransmitter synthesis in the brain. Although systemic iron deficiency has been found in genetically or dietary-induced obese subjects, the effects of obesity-associated iron dysregulation in brain regions have not been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary fat and iron interaction on brain regional iron contents and regional-associated behavior patterns in a mouse model. Thirty C57BL/6J male weanling mice were randomly assigned to six dietary treatment groups (n = 5) with varying fat (control/high) and iron (control/high/low) contents. The stereotypical behaviors were measured during the 24th week. Blood, liver, and brain tissues were collected at the end of the 24th week. Brains were dissected into the hippocampus, midbrain, striatum, and thalamus regions. Iron contents and ferritin heavy chain (FtH) protein and mRNA expressions in these regions were measured. Correlations between stereotypical behaviors and brain regional iron contents were analyzed at the 5% significance level. Results showed that high-fat diet altered the stereotypical behaviors such as inactivity and total distance traveled (P iron contents and FtH protein and mRNA expressions in a regional-specific manner: (1) high-fat diet significantly decreased the brain iron content in the striatum (P iron content and sleeping in midbrain (P iron also decreased brain iron content and FtH protein expression in a regionally specific manner. The effect of interaction between dietary fat and iron was observed in brain iron content and behaviors. All these findings will lay foundations to further explore the links among obesity, behaviors, and brain iron alteration. PMID:27493939

  13. Development of an MRI rating scale for multiple brain regions: comparison with volumetrics and with voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to devise a rating method for key frontal and temporal brain regions validated against quantitative volumetric methods and applicable to a range of dementia syndromes. Four standardised coronal MR images from 36 subjects encompassing controls and cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were used. After initial pilot studies, 15 regions produced good intra- and inter-rater reliability. We then validated the ratings against manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared ratings across the subject groups. Validation against both manual volumetry (for both frontal and temporal lobes), and against whole brain VBM, showed good correlation with visual ratings for the majority of the brain regions. Comparison of rating scores across disease groups showed involvement of the anterior fusiform gyrus, anterior hippocampus and temporal pole in semantic dementia, while anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal regions were involved in behavioural variant FTD. This simple visual rating can be used as an alternative to highly technical methods of quantification, and may be superior when dealing with single cases or small groups. (orig.)

  14. Intra-Amniotic LPS Induced Region-Specific Changes in Presynaptic Bouton Densities in the Ovine Fetal Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Strackx

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Chorioamnionitis has been associated with increased risk for fetal brain damage. Although, it is now accepted that synaptic dysfunction might be responsible for functional deficits, synaptic densities/numbers after a fetal inflammatory challenge have not been studied in different regions yet. Therefore, we tested in this study the hypothesis that LPS-induced chorioamnionitis caused profound changes in synaptic densities in different regions of the fetal sheep brain. Material and Methods. Chorioamnionitis was induced by a 10 mg intra-amniotic LPS injection at two different exposure intervals. The fetal brain was studied at 125 days of gestation (term = 150 days either 2 (LPS2D group or 14 days (LPS14D group after LPS or saline injection (control group. Synaptophysin immunohistochemistry was used to quantify the presynaptic density in layers 2-3 and 5-6 of the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, entorhinal cortex, and piriforme cortex, in the nucleus caudatus and putamen and in CA1/2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Results. There was a significant reduction in presynaptic bouton densities in layers 2-3 and 5-6 of the motor cortex and in layers 2-3 of the entorhinal and the somatosensory cortex, in the nucleus caudate and putamen and the CA1/2 and CA3 of the hippocampus in the LPS2D compared to control animals. Only in the motor cortex and putamen, the presynaptic density was significantly decreased in the LPS14 D compared to the control group. No changes were found in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the piriforme cortex. Conclusion. We demonstrated that LPS-induced chorioamnionitis caused a decreased density in presynaptic boutons in different areas in the fetal brain. These synaptic changes seemed to be region-specific, with some regions being more affected than others, and seemed to be transient in some regions.

  15. Sustained spatial attention to vibrotactile stimulation in the flutter range: relevant brain regions and their interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Goltz

    Full Text Available The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study was designed to get a better understanding of the brain regions involved in sustained spatial attention to tactile events and to ascertain to what extent their activation was correlated. We presented continuous 20 Hz vibrotactile stimuli (range of flutter concurrently to the left and right index fingers of healthy human volunteers. An arrow cue instructed subjects in a trial-by-trial fashion to attend to the left or right index finger and to detect rare target events that were embedded in the vibrotactile stimulation streams. We found blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD attentional modulation in primary somatosensory cortex (SI, mainly covering Brodmann area 1, 2, and 3b, as well as in secondary somatosensory cortex (SII, contralateral to the to-be-attended hand. Furthermore, attention to the right (dominant hand resulted in additional BOLD modulation in left posterior insula. All of the effects were caused by an increased activation when attention was paid to the contralateral hand, except for the effects in left SI and insula. In left SI, the effect was related to a mixture of both a slight increase in activation when attention was paid to the contralateral hand as well as a slight decrease in activation when attention was paid to the ipsilateral hand (i.e., the tactile distraction condition. In contrast, the effect in left posterior insula was exclusively driven by a relative decrease in activation in the tactile distraction condition, which points to an active inhibition when tactile information is irrelevant. Finally, correlation analyses indicate a linear relationship between attention effects in intrahemispheric somatosensory cortices, since attentional modulation in SI and SII were interrelated within one hemisphere but not across hemispheres. All in all, our results provide a basis for future research on sustained attention to continuous vibrotactile stimulation in the range

  16. High-fat diet-induced brain region-specific phenotypic spectrum of CNS resident microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baufeld, Caroline; Osterloh, Anja; Prokop, Stefan; Miller, Kelly R; Heppner, Frank L

    2016-09-01

    Diets high in fat (HFD) are known to cause an immune response in the periphery as well as the central nervous system. In peripheral adipose tissue, this immune response is primarily mediated by macrophages that are recruited to the tissue. Similarly, reactivity of microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, has been shown to occur in the hypothalamus of mice fed a high-fat diet. To characterize the nature of the microglial response to diets high in fat in a temporal fashion, we studied the phenotypic spectrum of hypothalamic microglia of mice fed high-fat diet for 3 days and 8 weeks by assessing their tissue reaction and inflammatory signature. While we observed a significant increase in Iba1+ myeloid cells and a reaction of GFAP+ astrocytes in the hypothalamus after 8 weeks of HFD feeding, we found the hypothalamic myeloid cell reaction to be limited to endogenous microglia and not mediated by infiltrating myeloid cells. Moreover, obese humans were found to present with signs of hypothalamic gliosis and exacerbated microglia dystrophy, suggesting a targeted microglia response to diet in humans as well. Notably, the glial reaction occurring in the mouse hypothalamus was not accompanied by an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, but rather by an anti-inflammatory reaction. Gene expression analyses of isolated microglia not only confirmed this observation, but also revealed a downregulation of microglia genes important for sensing signals in the microenvironment. Finally, we demonstrate that long-term exposure of microglia to HFD in vivo does not impair the cell's ability to respond to additional stimuli, like lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, our findings support the notion that microglia react to diets high in fat in a region-specific manner in rodents as well as in humans; however, this response changes over time as it is not exclusively pro-inflammatory nor does exposure to HFD prime microglia in the hypothalamus. PMID:27393312

  17. A novel lead design enables selective deep brain stimulation of neural populations in the subthalamic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Kees J.; Verhagen, Rens; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Bour, Lo J.; Heida, Ciska; Veltink, Peter H.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. The clinical effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease are sensitive to the location of the DBS lead within the STN. New high density (HD) lead designs have been created which are hypothesized to provide additional degrees of freedom in shaping the stimulating electric field. The objective of this study is to compare the performances of a new HD lead with a conventional cylindrical contact (CC) lead. Approach. A computational model, consisting of a finite element electric field model combined with multi-compartment neuron and axon models representing different neural populations in the subthalamic region, was used to evaluate the two leads. We compared ring-mode and steering-mode stimulation with the HD lead to single contact stimulation with the CC lead. These stimulation modes were tested for the lead: (1) positioned in the centroid of the STN, (2) shifted 1 mm towards the internal capsule (IC), and (3) shifted 2 mm towards the IC. Under these conditions, we quantified the number of STN neurons that were activated without activating IC fibers, which are known to cause side-effects. Main results. The modeling results show that the HD lead is able to mimic the stimulation effect of the CC lead. Additionally, in steering-mode stimulation there was a significant increase of activated STN neurons compared to the CC mode. Significance. From the model simulations we conclude that the HD lead in steering-mode with optimized stimulation parameter selection can stimulate more STN cells. Next, the clinical impact of the increased number of activated STN cells should be tested and balanced across the increased complexity of identifying the optimized stimulation parameter settings for the HD lead.

  18. Patterns of regional brain activation associated with different forms of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilardi, M; Ghez, C; Dhawan, V; Moeller, J; Mentis, M; Nakamura, T; Antonini, A; Eidelberg, D

    2000-07-14

    To examine the variations in regional cerebral blood flow during execution and learning of reaching movements, we employed a family of kinematically and dynamically controlled motor tasks in which cognitive, mnemonic and executive features of performance were differentiated and characterized quantitatively. During 15O-labeled water positron emission tomography (PET) scans, twelve right-handed subjects moved their dominant hand on a digitizing tablet from a central location to equidistant targets displayed with a cursor on a computer screen in synchrony with a tone. In the preceding week, all subjects practiced three motor tasks: 1) movements to a predictable sequence of targets; 2) learning of new visuomotor transformations in which screen cursor motion was rotated by 30 degrees -60 degrees; 3) learning new target sequences by trial and error, by using previously acquired routines in a task placing heavy load on spatial working memory. The control condition was observing screen and audio displays. Subtraction images were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping to identify significant brain activation foci. Execution of predictable sequences was characterized by a modest decrease in movement time and spatial error. The underlying pattern of activation involved primary motor and sensory areas, cerebellum, basal ganglia. Adaptation to a rotated reference frame, a form of procedural learning, was associated with decrease in the imposed directional bias. This task was associated with activation in the right posterior parietal cortex. New sequences were learned explicitly. Significant activation was found in dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In this study, we have introduced a series of flexible motor tasks with similar kinematic characteristics and different spatial attributes. These tasks can be used to assess specific aspects of motor learning with imaging in health and disease. PMID:10882792

  19. Amplitude of Sensorimotor Mu Rhythm Is Correlated with BOLD from Multiple Brain Regions: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Siyang; Liu, Yuelu; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    The mu rhythm is a field oscillation in the ∼10Hz range over the sensorimotor cortex. For decades, the suppression of mu (event-related desynchronization) has been used to index movement planning, execution, and imagery. Recent work reports that non-motor processes, such as spatial attention and movement observation, also desynchronize mu, raising the possibility that the mu rhythm is associated with the activity of multiple brain regions and systems. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by recording simultaneous resting-state EEG-fMRI from healthy subjects. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to extract the mu components. The amplitude (power) fluctuations of mu were estimated as a time series using a moving-window approach, which, after convolving with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF), was correlated with blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals from the entire brain. Two main results were found. First, mu power was negatively correlated with BOLD from areas of the sensorimotor network, the attention control network, the putative mirror neuron system, and the network thought to support theory of mind. Second, mu power was positively correlated with BOLD from areas of the salience network, including anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that sensorimotor mu rhythm is associated with multiple brain regions and systems. They also suggest that caution should be exercised when attempting to interpret mu modulation in terms of a single brain network. PMID:27499736

  20. Parcellation of the Healthy Neonatal Brain into 107 Regions Using Atlas Propagation through Intermediate Time Points in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesa, Manuel; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair G.; Anblagan, Devasuda; Telford, Emma J.; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A.; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I.; Bastin, Mark E.; Boardman, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39+5 weeks, range 37+2–41+6). An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO) was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database), with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33) constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization (SyGN) method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modeling brain growth during development. PMID:27242423

  1. Parcellation of the healthy neonatal brain into 107 regions using atlas propagation through intermediate time points in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eBlesa Cabez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39+5 weeks, range 37+2-41+6. An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database, with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33 constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modelling brain growth during development.

  2. Engaging scientists and policy stakeholders using a land use modelling and regional scenario exercise: an input to the development of sustainability indicators for European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrov, Laura Oana; Shahumyan, Harutyun; Williams, Brendan;

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the current global recession, key concerns include rising unemployment, intensified population flows and increased landscape degradation. The development of solutions to real world environmental and land use management problems is becoming increasingly urgent and requires that...... scientists and stakeholders exchange more actively knowledge and experience. Within Europe, Ireland is experiencing one of the severest recessions. It has undergone substantial changes over the past three decades: recession in the 1980s, boom in the 1990s and economic collapse at the end of the 2000s....... Scientists and stakeholders analysed four land uses using a scenarios approach supported by the urban and regional MOLAND model. Future simulated land use scenarios were produced, framed by land use and regional planning policies; also relevant indicators were selected to provide immediate support to the...

  3. Climate change adaptation planning for the Skeena region of British Columbia, Canada: A combined biophysical modelling, social science, and community engagement approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, J. R.; Kaplan, J. O.; Matthews, R.; Sydneysmith, R.; Tesluk, J.; Piggot, G.; Robinson, D. C.; Brinkman, D.; Marmorek, D.; Cohen, S.; McPherson, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Skeena region of British Columbia, Canada is among the world's most important commercial forest production areas, a key transportation corridor, and provides critical habitat for salmon and other wildlife. Climate change compounds threats to the region from other local environmental and social challenges. To aid local communities in adaptive planning for future climate change impacts, our project combined biophysical modelling, social science, and community engagement in a participatory approach to build regional capacity to prepare and respond to climate change. The sociological aspect of our study interviewed local leaders and resource managers (both First Nations and settlers groups in three communities) to examine how perceptions of environmental and socioeconomic issues have changed in the recent past, and the values placed on diverse natural resources at the present. The three communities differed in their perception of the relative value and condition of community resources, such as small business, natural resource trade, education and local government. However, all three communities regarded salmon as their most important and threatened resource. The most important future drivers of change in the study region were perceived to be: "aboriginal rights, title and treaty settlements", "availability of natural resources", "natural resource policies", and the "global economy". Climate change, as a potential driver of change in the region, was perceived as less important than other socio-economic factors; even though climate records for the region already demonstrate warmer winters, decreased snowfall, and decreased spring precipitation over the last half century. The natural science component of our project applies a regional-scale dynamic vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) to simulate the potential future of forest ecosystems, with a focus on how climate change and management strategy interact to influence forest productivity, disturbance frequency, species

  4. Synapsin I (protein I) in different brain regions in senile dementia of Alzheimer type and in multiinfarct dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synapsin I (Protein I), a neuron-specfic phosphoprotein enriched in presynaptic nerve terminals, has been used as a quantitative marker for the density of nerve terminals in five brain regions (caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, mesencephalon and putamen) from patients who had suffered from Alzheimer disease/senile dementia of Alzheimer type (AD/SDAT), from patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID), and from agematched controls. Samples were obtained at autopsy. Lower levels of Synapsin I were observed in the hippocampus of patients with AD/SDAT but not with MID. There were no significant differences in Synapsin I levels between patients and controls in any of the other four brain regions examined. (Author)

  5. The willingness of farmers to engage with bioenergy and woody biomass production: A regional case study from Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we explore the willingness of Cumbrian farmers to switch land use from food production to biomass production in a landscape where food production is both heavily subsidised and the area is a centre for tourism. This is against a policy background of a switch of subsidies from food production to environmental benefits, increased concerns about emissions from farming and an increased demand for renewable energy. We identified an awareness of new markets for renewable energy, alongside increasing volatility of other crops (against a background of increasing demand for food). From this, our conclusions are that the main short-term opportunities for increasing biomass production in this region are through intensifying management of existing woodlands. In the medium term, as the financial case for biomass crops becomes more certain, we can envisage a ‘tipping point’ which would favour a switch from marginal agricultural land to biomass. - Highlights: ► Profit motive not driving force. ► Reluctance to change farming methods. ► Logs and chipped wood options.

  6. Sleep deprivation disturbed regional brain activity in healthy subjects: evidence from a functional magnetic resonance-imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang L; Chen Y; Yao Y; Pan Y; Sun Y

    2016-01-01

    Li Wang, Yin Chen, Ying Yao, Yu Pan, Yi Sun Department of Neurology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) to explore regional brain activities in healthy subjects after sleep deprivation (SD).Materials and methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight females, eight males) underwent the session twice: once was after normal sleep...

  7. Critical appraisal of cerebral blood flow measured from brain stem and cerebellar regions after 133 Xe inhalation in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Validity of regional blood flow (rCBF) measurements recorded over the human posterior fossa after 133Xe inhalation was tested. Recording of counts from both brain stem and cerebellum (BSC) was reproducible and contamination by counts derived from surrounding anatomical structures was low and no greater than that found over hemispheres. BSC flow values showed significant correlation with the state of awareness as judged by clinical and EEG evaluation

  8. Structural and functional hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression in motor- and memory-related brain regions

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Michael Stoppel; Stefan Vielhaber; Cindy Eckart; Judith Machts; Jörn Kaufmann; Hans-Jochen Heinze; Katja Kollewe; Susanne Petri; Reinhard Dengler; Jens-Max Hopf; Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) multiple motor and extra-motor regions display structural and functional alterations. However, their temporal dynamics during disease-progression are unknown. To address this question we employed a longitudinal design assessing motor- and novelty-related brain activity in two fMRI sessions separated by a 3-month interval. In each session, patients and controls executed a Go/NoGo-task, in which additional presentation of n...

  9. Regional Brain Glucose Hypometabolism in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Possible Link to Mild Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Nugent, Scott; Tremblay, Sébastien; Fortier, Mélanie; Imbeault, Hélène; Duval, Julie; Cunnane, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglu) is altered in normal weight young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who exhibit mild insulin resistance. Materials and methods Seven women with PCOS were compared to eleven healthy female controls of similar age, education and body mass index. Regional brain glucose uptake was quantified using FDG with dynamic positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and its potential relationship with i...

  10. The Relationship of Neurogenesis and Growth of Brain Regions to Song Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirn, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Song learning, maintenance and production require coordinated activity across multiple auditory, sensory-motor, and neuromuscular structures. Telencephalic components of the sensory-motor circuitry are unique to avian species that engage in song learning. The song system shows protracted development that begins prior to hatching but continues well…

  11. Induction of brain region-specific forms of obesity by agouti.

    OpenAIRE

    Kas, M. J. H.; Tiesjema, B; Dijk, G. van; Garner, KM; Barsh, GS; ter Brake, O; Verhaagen, J.; Adan, RAH

    2004-01-01

    Disruption of melanocortin ( MC) signaling, such as by ectopic Agouti overexpression, leads to an obesity syndrome with hyperphagia, obesity, and accelerated body weight gain during high-fat diet. To investigate where in the brain disruption of MC signaling results in obesity, long-term Agouti expression was induced after local injections of recombinant adeno-associated viral particles in selected brain nuclei of adult rats. Agouti expression in the paraventricular nucleus, a hypothalamic reg...

  12. Developmental and Regional Patterns of GAP-43 Immunoreactivity in a Metamorphosing Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Andrea Megela; Tanyu, Leslie H.; Horowitz, Seth S.; Chapman, Judith A.; Brown, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    Growth-associated protein-43 is typically expressed at high levels in the nervous system during development. In adult animals, its expression is lower, but still observable in brain areas showing structural or functional plasticity. We examined patterns of GAP-43 immunoreactivity in the brain of the bullfrog, an animal whose nervous system undergoes considerable reorganization across metamorphic development and retains a strong capacity for plasticity in adulthood. Immunolabeling was mostly d...

  13. Collaborative engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Robert L.; Reames, Joseph M.

    2004-09-01

    A need exists for United States military forces to perform collaborative engagement operations between unmanned systems. This capability has the potential to contribute significant tactical synergy to the Joint Force operating in the battlespace of the future. Collaborative engagements potentially offer force conservation, perform timely acquisition and dissemination of essential combat information, and can eliminate high value and time critical targets. Collaborative engagements can also add considerably to force survivability by reducing soldier and equipment exposure during critical operations. This paper will address a multiphase U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC) Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL) program to assess information requirements, Joint Architecure for Unmanned Systems (JAUS), on-going Science and Technology initiatives, and conduct simulation based experiments to identify and resolve technical risks required to conduct collaborative engagements using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGV). The schedule outlines an initial effort to expand, update and exercise JAUS, provide early feedback to support user development of Concept of Operations (CONOPs) and Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTPs), and develop a Multiple Unified Simulation Environment (MUSE) system with JAUS interfaces necessary to support an unmanned system of systems collaboartive engagement.

  14. Neuron-enriched gene expression patterns are regionally anti-correlated with oligodendrocyte-enriched patterns in the adult mouse and human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell PatrickChengTan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An important goal in neuroscience is to understand gene expression patterns in the brain. The recent availability of comprehensive and detailed expression atlases for mouse and human creates opportunities to discover global patterns and perform cross-species comparisons. Recently we reported that the major source of variation in gene transcript expression in the adult normal mouse brain can be parsimoniously explained as reflecting regional variation in glia-to-neuron ratios, and is correlated with degree of connectivity and location in the brain along the anterior-posterior axis. Here we extend this investigation to two gene expression assays of adult normal human brains that consisted of over 300 brain region samples, and perform comparative analyses of brain-wide expression patterns to the mouse. We performed principal components analysis (PCA on the regional gene expression of the adult human brain to identify the expression pattern that has the largest variance. As in the mouse, we observed that the first principal component is composed of two anti-correlated patterns enriched in oligodendrocyte and neuron markers respectively. However, we also observed interesting discordant patterns between the two species. For example, a few mouse neuron markers show expression patterns that are more correlated with the human oligodendrocyte-enriched pattern and vice-versa. In conclusion, our work provides insights into human brain function and evolution by probing global relationships between regional cell type marker expression patterns in the human and mouse brain.

  15. Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Opitz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure–function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

  16. Aluminium-induced oxidative DNA damage recognition and cell-cycle disruption in different regions of rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to reveal the effects of chronic aluminium exposure (10 mg/kg/b.wt, intragastrically for 12 weeks) on the oxidative DNA damage and its implication on the expression of p53 and other cell-cycle regulatory proteins in male Wister rats. Chronic aluminium exposure resulted in increased formation of 8-hydoxydeoxyguanosine in the mitochondrial DNA isolated from different regions of rat brain. The agarose gel electrophoresis revealed the DNA fragmentation pattern in aluminium-treated rat brain regions. Increased expression of p53 demonstrated that aluminium induces DNA damage. Western blot and mRNA expression analysis demonstrated increased expression of cyclin D1, suggesting disruption of cell cycle. The immunohistochemical studies showed nuclear localization of p53; however, the localization of cyclin D1 was both cytoplasmic and nuclear in aluminium-treated rat brain regions. Thus, the findings of the present study reveal that aluminium-induced oxidative damage to DNA may be involved in the neurodegeneration via increase in p53 expression and activation of cell cycle.

  17. Quantitation of normal metabolite concentrations in six brain regions by in-vivo 1 H-MR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minati Ludovico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the concentrations of brain metabolites visible to in-vivo 1 H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS at 1.5 T in a sample of 28 normal subjects. Quantitation was attempted for inositol compounds, choline units, total creatine and N-acetyl moieties, using open-source software. Six brain regions were considered: frontal and parietal white matter, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, pons and cerebellum. Absolute concentrations were derived using tissue water as an internal reference and using an external reference; metabolite signal intensity ratios with respect to creatine were also calculated. The inter-individual variability was smaller for absolute concentrations (internal reference as compared to that for signal intensity ratios. Significant regional variability in concentration was found for all metabolites, indicating that separate normative values are needed for different brain regions. The values obtained in this study can be used as reference in future studies, provided the same methodology is followed; it is confirmed that despite unsuccessful attempts in the past, smaller coefficients of variation can indeed be obtained through absolute quantification.

  18. Quantitation of normal metabolite concentrations in six brain regions by in-vivo 1H-MR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Aquino, Domenico; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Erbetta, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concentrations of brain metabolites visible to in-vivo 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 1.5 T in a sample of 28 normal subjects. Quantitation was attempted for inositol compounds, choline units, total creatine and N-acetyl moieties, using open-source software. Six brain regions were considered: frontal and parietal white matter, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, pons and cerebellum. Absolute concentrations were derived using tissue water as an internal reference and using an external reference; metabolite signal intensity ratios with respect to creatine were also calculated. The inter-individual variability was smaller for absolute concentrations (internal reference) as compared to that for signal intensity ratios. Significant regional variability in concentration was found for all metabolites, indicating that separate normative values are needed for different brain regions. The values obtained in this study can be used as reference in future studies, provided the same methodology is followed; it is confirmed that despite unsuccessful attempts in the past, smaller coefficients of variation can indeed be obtained through absolute quantification. PMID:20927223

  19. Effect of prolonged exposure to diesel engine exhaust on proinflammatory markers in different regions of the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kate

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The etiology and progression of neurodegenerative disorders depends on the interactions between a variety of factors including: aging, environmental exposures, and genetic susceptibility factors. Enhancement of proinflammatory events appears to be a common link in different neurological impairments, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. Studies have shown a link between exposure to particulate matter (PM, present in air pollution, and enhancement of central nervous system proinflammatory markers. In the present study, the association between exposure to air pollution (AP, derived from a specific source (diesel engine, and neuroinflammation was investigated. To elucidate whether specific regions of the brain are more susceptible to exposure to diesel-derived AP, various loci of the brain were separately analyzed. Rats were exposed for 6 hrs a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks to diesel engine exhaust (DEE using a nose-only exposure chamber. The day after the final exposure, the brain was dissected into the following regions: cerebellum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and tubercles, and the striatum. Results Baseline levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α were dependent on the region analyzed and increased in the striatum after exposure to DEE. In addition, baseline level of activation of the transcription factors (NF-κB and (AP-1 was also region dependent but the levels were not significantly altered after exposure to DEE. A similar, though not significant, trend was seen with the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and TNF Receptor-subtype I (TNF-RI. Conclusions Our results indicate that different brain regions may be uniquely responsive to changes induced by exposure to DEE. This study once more underscores the role of neuroinflammation in response to ambient air pollution

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ... mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons ...

  1. Vocal parameters that indicate threat level correlate with FOS immunolabeling in social and vocal control brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jesse M S; Riters, Lauren V

    2012-01-01

    Transmitting information via communicative signals is integral to interacting with conspecifics, and some species achieve this task by varying vocalizations to reflect context. Although signal variation is critical to social interactions, the underlying neural control has not been studied. In response to a predator, black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilla) produce mobbing calls (chick-a-dee calls) with various parameters, some of which convey information about the threat stimulus. We predicted that vocal parameters indicative of threat would be associated with distinct patterns of neuronal activity within brain areas involved in social behavior and those involved in the sensorimotor control of vocal production. To test this prediction, we measured the syntax and structural aspects of chick-a-dee call production in response to a hawk model and assessed the protein product of the immediate early gene FOS in brain regions implicated in context-specific vocal and social behavior. These regions include the medial preoptic area (POM) and lateral septum (LS), as well as regions involved in vocal motor control, including the dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex and the HVC. We found correlations linking call rate (previously demonstrated to reflect threat) to labeling in the POM and LS. Labeling in the HVC correlated with the number of D notes per call, which may also signal threat level. Labeling in the call control region dorsomedial nucleus was associated with the structure of D notes and the overall number of notes, but not call rate or type of notes produced. These results suggest that the POM and LS may influence attributes of vocalizations produced in response to predators and that the brain region implicated in song control, the HVC, also influences call production. Because variation in chick-a-dee call rate indicates predator threat, we speculate that these areas could integrate with motor control regions to imbue mobbing signals with additional

  2. Application of machine learning methods to describe the effects of conjugated equine estrogens therapy on region-specific brain volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, Ramon; Espeland, Mark A.; Goveas, Joseph S; Davatzikos, Christos; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Maldjian, Joseph A.; Brunner, Robert L.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Johnson, Karen C.; Mysiw, W. Jerry; Wagner, Benjamin; Susan M. Resnick

    2011-01-01

    Use of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) has been linked to smaller regional brain volumes in women aged ≥65 years, however it is unknown whether this results in a broad-based characteristic pattern of effects. Structural MRI was used to assess regional volumes of normal tissue and ischemic lesions among 513 women who had been enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of CEE therapy for an average of 6.6 years, beginning at ages 65-80 years. A multivariate pattern analysis, based on a machine l...

  3. Comparison of [3H]nicotine and [3H]acetylcholine binding in mouse brain: regional distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a continuing study of nicotine binding sites, the authors determined the relative amount of nicotine binding and acetylcholine binding in various brain regions of C57/BL and of DBA mice. Although midbrain showed the highest and cerebellum the lowest binding for both [3H]nicotine and [3H]acetylcholine, the ratio of nicotine to acetylcholine binding showed a three-fold regional variation. Acetylcholine inhibition of [3H]nicotine binding indicated that a portion of nicotine binding was not inhibited by acetylcholine. These results indicate important differences between the binding of (+/-)-[3H]nicotine and that of [3H]acetylcholine

  4. Acute and chronic glucocorticoid treatments regulate astrocyte-enriched mRNAs in multiple brain regions in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BradleyS.Carter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have primarily interpreted gene expression regulation by glucocorticoids in the brain in terms of impact on neurons; however, less is known about the corresponding impact of glucocorticoids on glia and specifically astrocytes in vivo. Recent microarray experiments have identified glucocorticoid-sensitive mRNAs in primary astrocyte cell culture, including a number of mRNAs that have reported astrocyte-enriched expression patterns relative to other brain cell types. Here, we have tested whether elevations of glucocorticoids regulate a subset of these mRNAs in vivo following acute and chronic corticosterone exposure in adult mice. Acute corticosterone exposure was achieved by a single injection of 10 mg/kg corticosterone, and tissue samples were harvested two hours post-injection. Chronic corticosterone exposure was achieved by administering 10 mg/mL corticosterone via drinking water for two weeks. Gene expression was then assessed in two brain regions associated with glucocorticoid action (prefrontal cortex and hippocampus by qPCR and by in situ hybridization. The majority of measured mRNAs regulated by glucocorticoids in astrocytes in vitro were similarly regulated by acute and/or chronic glucocorticoid exposure in vivo. In addition, the expression levels for mRNAs regulated in at least one corticosterone exposure condition (acute/chronic demonstrated moderate positive correlation between the two conditions by brain region. In situ hybridization analyses suggest that select mRNAs are regulated by chronic corticosterone exposure specifically in astroctyes based on (1 similar general expression patterns between corticosterone-treated and vehicle-treated animals and (2 similar expression patterns to the pan-astrocyte marker Aldh1l1. Our findings demonstrate that glucocorticoids regulate astrocyte-enriched mRNAs in vivo and suggest that glucocorticoids regulate gene expression in the brain in a cell type-dependent fashion.

  5. The Brain Never Stops

    OpenAIRE

    Sadaghiani, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    Your brain is doing a lot of work when you are engaged in activities such as sports, playing a game, or watching a movie. Your brain is also a master of associating one thought with another and making your mind wander. But what does your brain do when you are not engaged in particular thoughts or actions? Interestingly, similar to the heart that always keeps beating, the brain never stops its activity. For example, your brain is highly active even when you are fast asleep. In fact, brain cell...

  6. Redox proteomic profiling of neuroketal-adducted proteins in human brain: Regional vulnerability at middle age increases in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Mayelín; de Oliveira, Eliandre; Odena, María Antonia; Portero, Manuel; Pamplona, Reinald; Ferrer, Isidro

    2016-06-01

    Protein lipoxidation was assessed in the parietal cortex (PC), frontal cortex (FC), and cingulate gyrus (CG) in middle-aged and old-aged individuals with no clinical manifestations of cognitive impairment, in order to increase understanding of regional brain vulnerability to oxidative damage during aging. Twenty-five lipoxidized proteins were identified in all the three regions although with regional specificities, by using redox proteomics to detect target proteins of neuroketals (NKT) adduction. The number of cases with NKT-adducted proteins was higher in old-aged individuals but most oxidized proteins were already present in middle-aged individuals. Differences in vulnerability to oxidation were dependent on the sub-cellular localization, secondary structure, and external exposition of certain amino acids. Lipoxidized proteins included those involved in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, proteostasis, neurotransmission and O2/CO2, and heme metabolism. Total NKT and soluble oligomer levels were estimated employing slot-blot, and these were compared between age groups. Oligomers increased with age in PC and FC; NKT significantly increased with age in FC, whereas total NKT and oligomer levels were not modified in CG, thus highlighting differences in brain regional vulnerability with age. Oligomers significantly correlated with NKT levels in the three cortical regions, suggesting that protein NKT adduction parallels soluble oligomer formation. PMID:26968793

  7. Regional differences in distribution volume of I-123 IMP in the human brain. Effect on CBF calculated by ARG method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods of quantitating cerebral blood flow (CBF) with iodine-123-labeled N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) and a two-compartment model had been proposed; one is the table look-up (TLU) method and the other is the autoradiographic (ARG) method. The TLU method provides values of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) values and distribution volume of I-123 IMP (Vd) independently. In the ARG method, a fixed Vd is applied for the entire brain to calculate CBF. Our purpose was to evaluate regional differences in Vd in the human brain, or possible effects of regional differences in Vd on CBF calculated by the ARG method. In the present study, two SPECT scans were acquired from each of eight normal subjects (aged 44.0±16.7) at 40 min and 180 min of mid-scan-time after intravenous 1 min infusion of 111 MBq IMP. A single arterial blood sampling was performed 10 min after the IMP infusion. All images were anatomically normalized and analyzed with SPM99 and Matlab. We generated CBF and Vd images for each subject by the TLU method and evaluated differences in Vd among brain structures. We subsequently generated another set of CBF images by the ARG method and examined differences between CBF calculated by the TLU method and that by the ARG method. Significant main effects of subject and brain structure in Vd were observed (two-way ANOVA). Vd values were higher in the deep gray matter than in the cerebral cortical regions. Among the cerebral cortical regions, no significant difference in Vd was observed. In spite of the significant differences in Vd among the brain structures, the voxel-by-voxel analyses as well as the ROI analyses revealed no statistically significant difference between CBF calculated by the TLU method and that by the ARG method. Although regional differences in Vd were observed, the present results support the assumption that a fixed Vd does not cause significant error in the calculation of CBF by the ARG method. (author)

  8. Molecular fingerprinting reflects different histotypes and brain region in low grade gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    still point to an active involvement of TGF-beta signaling pathway in the PA development and pick out some hitherto unreported genes worthy of further investigation for the mixed glial-neuronal tumours. The identification of a brain region-specific gene signature suggests that LGGs, with similar pathological features but located at different sites, may be distinguishable on the basis of cancer genetics. Molecular fingerprinting seems to be able to better sub-classify such morphologically heterogeneous tumours and it is remarkable that mixed glial-neuronal tumours are strikingly separated from PAs

  9. Brain metabolites in the hippocampus-amygdala region and cerebellum in autism: an {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, H.; Harada, M.; Hisaoka, S.; Nishitani, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Tokushima, Tokushima City (Japan); Mori, K. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Tokushima (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Histological abnormalities of the brain in autism have been investigated extensively. We studied metabolites in the hippocampusamygdala (HA) region and cerebellum. We examined the right HA region and left cerebellar hemisphere of 27 autistic patients 2-18 years old, 21 boys and 6 girls and 10 normal children 6-14 years old, 4 boys and 6 girls, using the STEAM sequence. This sequence was used to minimise the influence of relaxation times. The N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) concentration was significantly lower (P=0.042) in autistic patients than in normal children (9.37 and 10.95 mM, respectively). There was no significant difference in other metabolites. The correlation coefficient (r value) of NAA between the HA region and cerebellum was 0.616. The decreased NAA concentration may be due to neuronal hypofunction or immature neurons. The NAA concentration in the HA region and cerebellum may be related, because of neuronal circuits or networks. (orig.)

  10. Brain metabolites in the hippocampus-amygdala region and cerebellum in autism: an 1H-MR spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histological abnormalities of the brain in autism have been investigated extensively. We studied metabolites in the hippocampusamygdala (HA) region and cerebellum. We examined the right HA region and left cerebellar hemisphere of 27 autistic patients 2-18 years old, 21 boys and 6 girls and 10 normal children 6-14 years old, 4 boys and 6 girls, using the STEAM sequence. This sequence was used to minimise the influence of relaxation times. The N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) concentration was significantly lower (P=0.042) in autistic patients than in normal children (9.37 and 10.95 mM, respectively). There was no significant difference in other metabolites. The correlation coefficient (r value) of NAA between the HA region and cerebellum was 0.616. The decreased NAA concentration may be due to neuronal hypofunction or immature neurons. The NAA concentration in the HA region and cerebellum may be related, because of neuronal circuits or networks. (orig.)

  11. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2-25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions.

  12. Naloxone-precipitated changes in biogenic amines and their metabolites in various brain regions of butorphanol-dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuyama, S; Wakabayashi, H; Hoskins, B; Ho, I K

    1996-06-01

    Influence of a naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) challenge (5 mg/kg, IP) on levels of biogenic amines and their metabolites in various brain regions of rats infused continuously with butorphanol (a mu/delta/kappa mixed opioid receptor agonist; 26 nmol/microliter/h) or morphine (a mu-opioid receptor agonist; 26 nmol/microliter/h) was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED). Naloxone precipitated a withdrawal syndrome and decreased the levels of: dopamine (DA) in the cortex and striatum, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the striatum, homovanilic acid (HVA) in the striatum, limbic, midbrain, and pons/medulla regions in butorphanol-dependent rats. However, the levels of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the regions studied were not affected by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. In addition, naloxone increased the HVA/DA ratio in the cortex, while this ratio was reduced in the limbic, midbrain, and pons/medulla. The reduction of 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was also detected in the limbic area. In the animals rendered dependent on morphine, the results obtained were similar to those of butorphanol-dependent rats except for changes of 5-HIAA levels in some brain regions. These results suggest that an alteration of dopaminergic neuron activity following a reduction of DA and its metabolites in specific brain regions (e.g., striatum, limbic, midbrain, and pons/medulla) play an important role in the expression of the opioid withdrawal syndrome. PMID:8743609

  13. Differential responsiveness of the right parahippocampal region to electrical stimulation in fixed human brains: Implications for historical surgical stimulation studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Nicolas; Persinger, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    If structure dictates function within the living human brain, then the persistence of specific responses to weak electric currents in fixed, deceased brains could reflect "hardwired" properties. Different key structures from the left and right hemispheres of brains that had been fixed for over 20years with ethanol-formalin-acetic acid were stimulated with either 1-Hz, 7-Hz, 10-Hz, 20-Hz, or 30-Hz, sine-wave, square-wave, or pulsed currents while needle-recorded quantitative electroencephalographic responses were obtained. Differential responses occurred only within the right hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. The right hippocampus displayed frequency-independent increases in gamma power relative to the left hemispheric homologue. The parahippocampal region responded exclusively to 7-Hz pulsed currents with wideband (8-30Hz) power. These profiles are consistent with dynamic connections associated with memory and consciousness and may partially explain the interactions resultant of pulse type and hemisphere for experiential elicitations during the golden age of surgical stimulations. The results also indicate that there may be an essential "hardwiring" within the human brain that is maintained for decades when it is fixed appropriately. PMID:27208828

  14. (+)- and (-)-N-allylnormetazocine binding sites in mouse brain: in vitro and in vivo characterization and regional distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, D.R.; Bagley, R.B.; Katzen, J.S.; Martin, B.R.

    1987-06-01

    In vivo and in vitro binding studies, both in whole brain and in selected areas, indicate that non-identical (+)- and (-)-NANM sites exist in the mouse brain, and each exhibits a different regional distribution. The in vivo binding of (+)-/sup 3/H-NANM was found to be saturable at pharmacologically relevant doses, and represents a relatively small (10 - 22%) portion of total brain (+)-/sup 3/H-NANM concentrations. The in vivo binding of (+)-/sup 3/H-NANM was selectively displaced by (+)-NANM and PCP, and more sensitive to haloperidol and (+)-ketocyclazocine than the (-)-/sup 3/H-NANM site. The in vivo binding of (-)-/sup 3/H-NANM was selectively displaced by (-)-NANM, and more sensitive to naloxone and (-) ketocyclazocine than the (+)-/sup 3/H-NANM site, and insensitive to PCP. This study indicates that the investigation of NANM binding sites is possible using in vivo binding techniques, and that each isomer apparently binds, in the mouse brain, to a single class of distinct sites. 32 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Engaging Siblingships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva; Palludan, Charlotte; Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2015-01-01

    young people in contemporary Denmark engage emotionally in sibling relationships. It emerges that siblingships inevitably involve frictions in various forms. In the article, we analyse the impact frictions have on social relations and discuss how such dynamics in sibling relationships both reflect and...

  16. Decreased Regional Homogeneity in Patients With Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jie; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Fuqing; Kuang, Hongmei; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Siyong; He, Laichang; Zeng, Xianjun; Gong, Honghan

    2015-10-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is characterized by structural disconnection and large-scale neural network dysfunction in the resting state. However, little is known concerning the intrinsic changes in local spontaneous brain activity in patients with mTBI. The aim of the current study was to assess regional synchronization in acute mTBI patients. Fifteen acute mTBI patients and 15 sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) were studied. We used the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method to map local connectivity across the whole brain and performed a two-sample t-test between the two groups. Compared with HCs, patients with acute mTBI showed significantly decreased ReHo in the left insula, left precentral/postcentral gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus (p Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores across all acute mTBI patients (p < 0.05, uncorrected). The ReHo method may provide an objective biomarker for evaluating the functional abnormity of mTBI in the acute setting. PMID:26348589

  17. The antioxidant effect of astaxanthin is higher in young mice than aged: a region specific study on brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Akhter, Samiha; Hasan, Ahmed Tasdid; Alam, Tanzir; Nageeb Hasan, S M; Saifullah, A R M; Shohel, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    Astaxanthin is a potential antioxidant which shows neuroprotective property. We aimed to investigate the age-dependent and region-specific antioxidant effects of astaxanthin in mice brain. Animals were divided into 4 groups; treatment young (3 months, n = 6) (AY), treatment old (16 months, n = 6) (AO), placebo young (3 months, n = 6) (PY) and placebo old (16 months, n = 6) (PO) groups. Treatment group was given astaxanthin (2 mg/kg/day, body weight), and placebo group was given 100 μl of 0.9% normal saline orally to the healthy Swiss albino mice for 4 weeks. The level of non-enzymatic oxidative markers namely malondialdehyde (MDA); nitric oxide (NO); advanced protein oxidation product (APOP); glutathione (GSH) and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants i.e.; catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined from the isolated brain regions. Treatment with astaxanthin significantly (p Astaxanthin markedly (p astaxanthin is age-dependent, higher in young in compared to the aged brain. PMID:26116165

  18. Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1 g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at − 80 °C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12 month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure resulted in oxidative

  19. Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions: a Granger causality analysis of autobiographic memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Lou

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the workings of the brain are mainly intrinsically generated recurrent neuronal activity, with sensory inputs as modifiers of such activity in both sensory and higher order modality non-specific regions. This is supported by the demonstration of recurrent neuronal activity in the visual system as a response to visual stimulation. In contrast recurrent activity has never been demonstrated before in higher order modality non-specific regions. Using magneto-encephalography and Granger causality analysis, we tested in a paralimbic network the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance causal recurrent interaction between higher-order, modality non-specific regions. The network includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices together with pulvinar thalami, a network known to be effective in autobiographic memory retrieval and self-awareness. Autobiographic memory retrieval of previous personal judgments of visually presented words was used as stimuli. It is demonstrated that the prestimulus condition is characterized by causal, recurrent oscillations which are maximal in the lower gamma range. When retrieving previous judgments of visually presented adjectives, this activity is dramatically increased during the stimulus task as ascertained by Granger causality analysis. Our results confirm the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance causal interaction between higher order, modality non-specific brain regions, exemplified in a network of autobiographical memory retrieval.

  20. In vivo changes in microglial activation and amyloid deposits in brain regions with hypometabolism in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokokura, Masamichi; Mori, Norio; Yoshihara, Yujiro; Wakuda, Tomoyasu; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Iwata, Yasuhide; Nakamura, Kazuhiko [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu (Japan); Yagi, Shunsuke; Ouchi, Yasuomi [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Laboratory of Human Imaging Research, Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu (Japan); Yoshikawa, Etsuji [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu (Japan); Kikuchi, Mitsuru [Kanazawa University, Department of Psychiatry and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Sugihara, Genichi; Suda, Shiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Suzuki, Katsuaki [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu (Japan); Ueki, Takatoshi [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Amyloid {beta} protein (A{beta}) is known as a pathological substance in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is assumed to coexist with a degree of activated microglia in the brain. However, it remains unclear whether these two events occur in parallel with characteristic hypometabolism in AD in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the in vivo relationship between A{beta} accumulation and neuroinflammation in those specific brain regions in early AD. Eleven nootropic drug-naive AD patients underwent a series of positron emission tomography (PET) measurements with [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195, [{sup 11}C]PIB and [{sup 18}F]FDG and a battery of cognitive tests within the same day. The binding potentials (BPs) of [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195 were directly compared with those of [{sup 11}C]PIB in the brain regions with reduced glucose metabolism. BPs of [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195 and [{sup 11}C]PIB were significantly higher in the parietotemporal regions of AD patients than in ten healthy controls. In AD patients, there was a negative correlation between dementia score and [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195 BPs, but not [{sup 11}C]PIB, in the limbic, precuneus and prefrontal regions. Direct comparisons showed a significant negative correlation between [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195 and [{sup 11}C]PIB BPs in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) (p < 0.05, corrected) that manifested the most severe reduction in [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake. A lack of coupling between microglial activation and amyloid deposits may indicate that A{beta} accumulation shown by [{sup 11}C]PIB is not always the primary cause of microglial activation, but rather the negative correlation present in the PCC suggests that microglia can show higher activation during the production of A{beta} in early AD. (orig.)

  1. Fully automated rodent brain MR image processing pipeline on a Midas server: from acquired images to region-based statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budin, Francois; Hoogstoel, Marion; Reynolds, Patrick; Grauer, Michael; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K; Oguz, Ipek

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of rodent brains enables study of the development and the integrity of the brain under certain conditions (alcohol, drugs etc.). However, these images are difficult to analyze for biomedical researchers with limited image processing experience. In this paper we present an image processing pipeline running on a Midas server, a web-based data storage system. It is composed of the following steps: rigid registration, skull-stripping, average computation, average parcellation, parcellation propagation to individual subjects, and computation of region-based statistics on each image. The pipeline is easy to configure and requires very little image processing knowledge. We present results obtained by processing a data set using this pipeline and demonstrate how this pipeline can be used to find differences between populations. PMID:23964234

  2. Fully automated rodent brain MR image processing pipeline on a Midas server: from acquired images to region-based statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Budin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of rodent brains enables study of the development and the integrity of the brain under certain conditions (alcohol, drugs etc.. However, these images are difficult to analyze for biomedical researchers with limited image processing experience. In this paper we present an image processing pipeline running on a Midas server, a web-based data storage system. It is composed of the following steps: rigid registration, skull-stripping, average computation, average segmentation, segmentation propagation to individual subjects and computation of region-based statistics on each image. The pipeline is easy to configure and requires very little image processing knowledge. We present results obtained by processing a data set using this pipeline and demonstrate how this pipeline can be used to find differences between populations.

  3. Induction of brain region-specific forms of obesity by Agouti

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, M.J.H.; Tiesjema, B; van Dijk, G; Garner, KM; Barsh, GS; Ter Brake, O; Verhaagen, J; Adan, RAH

    2004-01-01

    Disruption of melanocortin ( MC) signaling, such as by ectopic Agouti overexpression, leads to an obesity syndrome with hyperphagia, obesity, and accelerated body weight gain during high-fat diet. To investigate where in the brain disruption of MC signaling results in obesity, long-term Agouti expre

  4. Induction of brain-region-specific forms of obesity by agouti

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Martien J H; Tiesjema, Birgitte; van Dijk, Gertjan; Garner, Keith M; Barsh, Gregory S; ter Brake, Olivier; Verhaagen, Joost; Adan, Roger A H

    2004-01-01

    Disruption of melanocortin (MC) signaling, such as by ectopic Agouti overexpression, leads to an obesity syndrome with hyperphagia, obesity, and accelerated body weight gain during high-fat diet. To investigate where in the brain disruption of MC signaling results in obesity, long-term Agouti expres

  5. Brain region's relative proximity as marker for Alzheimer's disease based on structural MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, incurable neurodegenerative disease and the most common type of dementia. It cannot be prevented, cured or drastically slowed, even though AD research has increased in the past 5-10 years. Instead of focusing on the brain volume or on the single...

  6. Radiotherapy of primary brain tumours in the region of the third ventricle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, M A; Struikmans, H

    1990-01-01

    Patients (n = 18) with a primary brain tumour near the third ventricle and treated by radiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. Four different subgroups of patients, according to the histology (germ cell tumours, astrocytomas, other histologies, no histology) were separately discussed. Third ventr

  7. Hydroalcoholic seed extract of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) alleviates lead-induced oxidative stress in different regions of rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velaga, Manoj Kumar; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Williams, Dale; Rajanna, Sharada; Bettaiya, Rajanna

    2014-06-01

    Lead exposure is known to cause apoptotic neurodegeneration and neurobehavioral abnormalities in developing and adult brain by impairing cognition and memory. Coriandrum sativum is an herb belonging to Umbelliferae and is reported to have a protective effect against lead toxicity. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the protective activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum seed against lead-induced oxidative stress. Male Wistar strain rats (100-120 g) were divided into four groups: control group: 1,000 mg/L of sodium acetate; exposed group: 1,000 mg/L lead acetate for 4 weeks; C. sativum treated 1 (CST1) group: 250 mg/kg body weight/day for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure; C. sativum treated 2 (CST2) group: 500 mg/kg body weight/day for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure. After the exposure and treatment periods, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the whole brain was immediately isolated and separated into four regions: cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and brain stem along with the control group. After sacrifice, blood was immediately collected into heparinized vials and stored at 4 °C. In all the tissues, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products (LPP), and total protein carbonyl content (TPCC) were estimated following standard protocols. An indicator enzyme for lead toxicity namely delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity was determined in the blood. A significant (p<0.05) increase in ROS, LPP, and TPCC levels was observed in exposed rat brain regions, while δ-ALAD showed a decrease indicating lead-induced oxidative stress. Treatment with the hydroalcoholic seed extract of C. sativum resulted in a tissue-specific amelioration of oxidative stress produced by lead. PMID:24793421

  8. The timing and strength of regional brain activation associated with word recognition in children with reading difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh eRezaie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the relative degree and timing of cortical activation across parietal, temporal, and frontal regions during performance of a continuous visual word recognition task in children who experience reading difficulties (N=44, RD and typical readers (N=40, NI. Minimum norm estimates of regional neurophysiological activity were obtained from magnetoencephalographic recordings. Children with RD showed bilaterally reduced neurophysiological activity in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and increased activity in rostral middle frontal and ventral occipitotemporal cortices, bilaterally. The temporal profile of activity in the RD group, featured near-simultaneous activity peaks in temporal, inferior parietal and prefrontal regions, in contrast to a clear temporal progression of activity among these areas in the NI group. These results replicate and extend previous MEG and fMRI results demonstrating atypical, latency-dependent attributes of the brain circuit involved in word reading in children with reading difficulties.

  9. Prenatal binge-like alcohol exposure in the rat results in region-specific deficits in brain growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, S E; Miller, J A; West, J R

    1999-01-01

    Children of women who abuse alcohol during pregnancy may be affected by varying degrees of neurological abnormality, even if they are not diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. The extent of the behavioral deficits of the affected offspring may be a function of several factors, such as the differential vulnerability of the various regions of the brain-to-alcohol insult. In this study, groups of timed-pregnant rats were exposed to different doses of alcohol (EtOH 2.25, EtOH 4.5, EtOH 6.5 g/kg/day) or control conditions (maltose dextrin solution or no treatment) from embryonic day 1 (E1: sperm positive) to E20. On E33 (usually postnatal day 10), all pups were perfused. Their brains were removed, dissected into forebrain, cerebellum, and brainstem, and weighed. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were measured on 4 different days of gestation, but the peak BACs across gestation for the three alcohol-treated groups averaged 142, 294, and 413 mg/dl for the EtOH 2.25, EtOH 4.5, and EtOH 6.5 g/kg groups, respectively. Analysis of the body weight data indicated that pups in the EtOH 6.5 g/kg group had a greater somatic growth deficit than pups from all other groups. Although the whole brain, forebrain, cerebellum, and brainstem weights of pups in the EtOH 6.5 g/kg group were significantly smaller than those in the control groups, within-treatment group analyses indicated that the cerebella of pups in the EtOH 6.5 g/kg group were more severely affected than were their forebrains or brainstems. The analyses of the brain region to body weight ratios revealed again that the cerebellum-to-body-weight ratio of pups in the EtOH 6.5 g/kg group was more severely affected than the forebrain or brainstem to body weight ratios. Collectively, these data lend support to the view that gross regions of the brain are differentially vulnerable to alcohol insult during the first two trimesters equivalent, and suggest that the cerebellum is vulnerable to injury from exposure to high BACs

  10. Association between the Levels of Biogenic Amines and Superoxide Anion Production in Brain Regions of Rats after Subchronic Exposure to TCDD

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, James P.; Masters, Karilane; Sarver, Jeffrey G.; Hassoun, Ezdihar A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of TCDD on the distribution of biogenic amines and production of superoxide anion (SA) in different brain regions of rats have been studied after subchronic exposure. Groups of females Sprague-Dawley rats were administered daily dose of 46 ng TCDD/kg/day (treated groups), or the vehicle used to dissolve TCDD (control group), for 90 days. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the exposure period and their brains were dissected into different regions including, hippocampus (H), cer...

  11. Engaging complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gys M. Loubser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss studies in complexity and its epistemological implications for systematic and practical theology. I argue that engagement with complexity does not necessarily assurea non-reductionist approach. However, if complexity is engaged transversally, it becomes possible to transcend reductionist approaches. Moreover, systematic and practical the ologians can draw on complexity in developing new ways of understanding and, therefore, new ways of describing the focus, epistemic scope and heuristic structures of systematic and practical theology. Firstly, Edgar Morin draws a distinction between restricted and general complexity based on the epistemology drawn upon in studies in complexity. Moving away from foundationalist approaches to epistemology, Morin argues for a paradigm of systems. Secondly,I discuss Kees van Kooten Niekerk�s distinction between epistemology, methodology andontology in studies in complexity and offer an example of a theological argument that drawson complexity. Thirdly, I argue for the importance of transversality in engaging complexity by drawing on the work of Wentzel van Huyssteen and Paul Cilliers. In conclusion, I argue that theologians have to be conscious of the epistemic foundations of each study in complexity, and these studies illuminate the heart of Reformed theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, this article has both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications. When theologians engage studies incomplexity, the epistemological roots of these studies need to be considered seeing thatresearchers in complexity draw on different epistemologies. Drawing on transversality wouldenhance such considerations. Furthermore, Edgar Morin�s and Paul Cilliers� approach tocomplexity will inform practical and theoretical considerations in church polity and unity.

  12. More Engagement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    At the end of 2008, the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office issued "The UK and China: A Framework for Engagement." It is the first such document Britain has issued on its China policy. It was designed to set out a way of thinking about China more widely. Peter Wilson, Political Counselor at the British Embassy in Beijing, recently talked with Beijing Review about the significance of the document for bilateral relations between China and Britain.

  13. Region-selective effects of long-term lithium and carbamazepine administration on cyclic AMP levels in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of lithium and carbamazepine in the treatment of bipolar affective disorder is well established. Althougt a number of biochemical effects have been found, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying their therapeutic actions have not been elucidated nor are the target regions in the brain identified. Taken into account the important role of the cyclic AMP second messenger system in the regulation of neuronal exitability and the indications of its involvement in the pathophysiology of bipolar affective disorder, we have focused on the drug effects on cyclic AMP levels. The objectives of this investigation were to measure the effects on basal cyclic AMP levels, and to locate target regions within the rat brain after long-term administration of lithium and carbamazepine. Drug treatments were carried out for a period of 28 days. After either drug treatment the cyclic AMP level was increased 3-4 times in frontal cortex but unchanged in hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus, amygdala and in cerebellum. In neostratum the cyclic AMP level was decreased to about 30% after treatment with lithium. We suggest the common region-selective effect, observed for both drugs in frontal cortex, to be essential for the therapeutic actions of lithium and carbamazepine. (au)

  14. Deep brain stimulation of nucleus accumbens region in alcoholism affects reward processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Heldmann

    Full Text Available The influence of bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS of the nucleus nucleus (NAcc on the processing of reward in a gambling paradigm was investigated using H(2[(15O]-PET (positron emission tomography in a 38-year-old man treated for severe alcohol addiction. Behavioral data analysis revealed a less risky, more careful choice behavior under active DBS compared to DBS switched off. PET showed win- and loss-related activations in the paracingulate cortex, temporal poles, precuneus and hippocampus under active DBS, brain areas that have been implicated in action monitoring and behavioral control. Except for the temporal pole these activations were not seen when DBS was deactivated. These findings suggest that DBS of the NAcc may act partially by improving behavioral control.

  15. Vulnerability to simple faints is predicted by regional differences in brain anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Beacher, Felix D C C; Gray, Marcus A.; Mathias, Christopher J.; Hugo D. Critchley

    2009-01-01

    Neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS, simple fainting) is a common and typically benign familial condition, which rarely may result in traumatic injury or hypoxic convulsions. NCS is associated with emotional triggers, anxiety states and stress. However, the etiology of NCS, as a psychophysiological process, is poorly understood. We therefore investigated the relationship between NCS and brain anatomy. We studied a non-clinical sample of eighteen individuals with histories characteristic of NCS, and...

  16. Left hemisphere regions are critical for language in the face of early left focal brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R; Levine, Susan C.; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity during category fluency in participants who had sustained pre- or perinatal left h...

  17. Regional Metabolite T2 in the Healthy Rhesus Macaque Brain at 7T

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Songtao; Gonen, Oded; Fleysher, Lazar; Fleysher, Roman; Soher, Brian J.; Pilkenton, Sarah; Lentz, Margaret R.; Ratai, Eva-Maria; González, R. Gilberto

    2008-01-01

    Although the rhesus macaque brain is an excellent model system for the study of neurological diseases and their responses to treatment, its small size requires much higher spatial resolution, motivating use of ultra-high-field (B0) imagers. Their weaker radio-frequency fields, however, dictate longer pulses; hence longer TE localization sequences. Due to the shorter transverse relaxation time (T2) at higher B0s, these longer TEs subject metabolites to T2-weighting, that decrease their quantif...

  18. A common gene expression signature in Huntington’s disease patient brain regions

    OpenAIRE

    Neueder, Andreas; Bates, Gillian P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene expression data provide invaluable insights into disease mechanisms. In Huntington’s disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease caused by a tri-nucleotide repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene, extensive transcriptional dysregulation has been reported. Conventional dysregulation analysis has shown that e.g. in the caudate nucleus of the post mortem HD brain the gene expression level of about a third of all genes was altered. Owing to this large number of dysregulated genes, t...

  19. Sonographic evaluation of overall and regional vascularization of fetal brain: a preliminary methodological study.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Oberto; P. Gaglioti; G. Oggè; E. Olearo; Pace, C.; T. Trodos; G.L. Panattoni

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the vascularization of fetal brain in normal and abnormal canditions by three-dimensional sonography associated to Power Doppler (3DPD), with application of Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL) that allows to derive vascularization and flow indexes. In this connction, we propose a new method of standardization of the setting and the acquisition mode, choosing in different fetuses and at different gestational ag...

  20. Identify Changes of Brain Regional Homogeneity in Bipolar Disorder and Unipolar Depression Using Resting-State fMRI

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Min-Jie; Zhou, Quan; Yang, Kan-Rong; Yang, Xiao-Ling; Fang, Jin; Chen, Wen-Li; Huang, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Background To identify changes in brain activation patterns in bipolar disorder (BD) and unipolar depression (UD) patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Resting-state fMRI scans of 16 healthy controls, 17 BD and 16 UD patients were obtained. T-test of normalized regional homogeneity (ReHo) was performed in a voxel-by-voxel manner. A combined threshold of á = 0.05, minimum cluster volume of V = 10503 mm3 (389 voxels) were used to determine ReHo differences between groups. In UD group, fMRI r...

  1. Altered intrinsic regional spontaneous brain activity in patients with optic neuritis: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Shao Y; Cai FQ; Zhong YL; Huang X; Zhang Y; Hu PH; Pei CG; Zhou FQ; Zeng XJ

    2015-01-01

    Yi Shao,1,* Feng-Qin Cai,2,* Yu-Lin Zhong,1 Xin Huang,1,3 Ying Zhang,1 Pei-Hong Hu,1 Chong-Gang Pei,1 Fu-Qing Zhou,2 Xian-Jun Zeng2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 3Department of Ophthalmology, First People’s Hospital of Jiujiang, Jiujiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To investigate the underlying regional homogeneity (ReHo) in brain...

  2. Loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactivity in mouse brain regions after repeated intermittent administration of esketamine, but not R-ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Han, Mei; Zhang, Ji-Chun; Ren, Qian; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-05-30

    Clinical use of the rapid antidepressant drug ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safer antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine (esketamine), since it is free of psychotomimetic side effects. Repeated, intermittent administration of esketamine (10mg/kg, once per week for 8-weeks), but not R-ketamine, caused loss of parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of mouse brains, regions associated with psychosis. This study suggests that repeated intermittent use of R-ketamine is safer than esketamine in the treatment of depression. PMID:27043274

  3. Understanding, promoting and protecting geodiversity and geoheritage of the Piemonte region (Italy) through innovative techniques and public engagement in Earth Science studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Lozar, Francesca; Perotti, Luigi; Palomba, Mauro; Groppo, Chiara; Natalicchio, Marcello; Ghiraldi, Luca; Beltramo, Riccardo; Lombardo, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The onset of Antropocene demonstrates the importance of considering both 1) geodiversity and 2) geoheritage as parts of the landscape "interfaces" where relationships between natural and socio-economic systems can be studied and interpreted. By definition: 1) is the variety, recognizable in nature ("diversity"), of geological features (rocks, minerals, fossils…), of geomorphological environments (and related forms and processes) and of soil characteristics; 2) is an integral part of the global natural heritage focusing on unique, special and representative sites of geological interests (geosites l.s.). In the Antropocene, both 1) and 2) hold a dynamic character, as the result of actions and interactions of natural and/or human factors. Therefore, geodiversity and geoheritage studies are essential for breaking down geological environments and human territories into their main parts and to understand the variables and mechanisms that control their changes. In this perspective, results of the multidisciplinary project PROGEO-Piemonte ("PROactive management of GEOlogical heritage in the Piemonte Region") are presented here: an innovative approach for assessing geodiversity in order to select areas of high potential value of geoheritage to be enhanced by targeted management actions. Since the geodiversity of Piemonte is materialized by elements of high scientific, educational, tourism, etc. value, the geosites where this geoheritage is preserved have been comprehensively analysed and characterized for encompassing both public and private interests. 9 strategic geothematic areas have been selected in the Piemonte Region to test this approach, and to improve social engagement aimed at protecting and promoting geodiversity ad geoheritage. The investigated areas represent the multifaceted geodiversity of Piemonte; each area is characterized by high potential for scientific studies, enhancement of public understanding of science, recreation activities and for economic

  4. Evaluation of the Oxidative Effect of Long-Term Repetitive Hyperbaric Oxygen Exposures on Different Brain Regions of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Simsek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2 exposure affects both oxidative and antioxidant systems. This effect is positively correlated with the exposure time and duration of the treatment. The present study aims enlightening the relation of HBO2 with oxidative/antioxidant systems when administered in a prolonged and repetitive manner in brain tissues of rats. Sixty rats were divided into 6 study (n=8 for each and 1 control (n=12 group. Rats in the study groups were daily exposed 90-min HBO2 sessions at 2.8 ATA for 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 days. One day after the last session, animals were sacrificed; their whole brain tissue was harvested and dissected into three different regions as the outer grey matter (cortex, the inner white matter and cerebellum. Levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation and activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in these tissues. Malondialdehyde, carbonylated protein and glutathione peroxidase levels were found to be insignificantly increased at different time-points in the cerebral cortex, inner white matter and cerebellum, respectively. These comparable results provide evidence for the safety of HBO treatments and/or successful adaptive mechanisms at least in the brain tissue of rats, even when administered for longer periods.

  5. TMS-EEG: A window into the neurophysiological effects of transcranial electrical stimulation in non-motor brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Aron T; Rogasch, Nigel C; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Hoy, Kate E

    2016-05-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques are able to induce changes in cortical excitability and plasticity through the administration of weak currents to the brain and are currently being used to manipulate a vast array of cognitive processes. Despite the widespread use of tES technologies within both research and remedial settings, their precise neurophysiological mechanisms of action are not well established outside of the motor cortex. The expanding use of tES within non-motor brain regions highlights the growing need for a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of stimulation across a diversity of cortical locations. The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) provides a method of directly probing both local and widespread changes in brain neurophysiology, through the recording of TMS-evoked potentials and cortical oscillations. In this review we explore TMS-EEG as a tool for examining the impact of tES on cortical function and argue that multimodal approaches which combine tES with TMS-EEG could lead to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms which underlie tES-induced cognitive modulation. PMID:26959337

  6. How does transcranial DC stimulation of the primary motor cortex alter regional neuronal activity in the human brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Nicolas; Siebner, Hartwig R; Ward, Nick S; Lee, Lucy; Nitsche, Michael A; Paulus, Walter; Rothwell, John C; Lemon, Roger N; Frackowiak, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor hand area (M1) can produce lasting polarity-specific effects on corticospinal excitability and motor learning in humans. In 16 healthy volunteers, O positron emission tomography (PET) of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at rest and during finger movements was used to map lasting changes in regional synaptic activity following 10 min of tDCS (+/-1 mA). Bipolar tDCS was given through electrodes placed over the left M1 and right frontopolar cortex. Eight subjects received anodal or cathodal tDCS of the left M1, respectively. When compared to sham tDCS, anodal and cathodal tDCS induced widespread increases and decreases in rCBF in cortical and subcortical areas. These changes in rCBF were of the same magnitude as task-related rCBF changes during finger movements and remained stable throughout the 50-min period of PET scanning. Relative increases in rCBF after real tDCS compared to sham tDCS were found in the left M1, right frontal pole, right primary sensorimotor cortex and posterior brain regions irrespective of polarity. With the exception of some posterior and ventral areas, anodal tDCS increased rCBF in many cortical and subcortical regions compared to cathodal tDCS. Only the left dorsal premotor cortex demonstrated an increase in movement related activity after cathodal tDCS, however, modest compared with the relatively strong movement-independent effects of tDCS. Otherwise, movement related activity was unaffected by tDCS. Our results indicate that tDCS is an effective means of provoking sustained and widespread changes in regional neuronal activity. The extensive spatial and temporal effects of tDCS need to be taken into account when tDCS is used to modify brain function. PMID:16045502

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow in various types of brain tumor. Effect of the space-occupying lesion on blood flow in brain tissue close to and remote from tumor site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, K; Skyhøj Olsen, T; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 23 patients with brain tumors using the 133Xe intra-carotid injection method and a 254 channel gamma camera. The glioblastomas (4) and astrocytomas (4) all showed hyperemia in the tumor and tumor-near region. This was also seen in several...

  8. Development of an automated method for the detection of chronic lacunar infarct regions in brain MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of our study is to develop an algorithm that would enable the automated detection of lacunar infarct on T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Automated identification of the lacunar infarct regions is not only useful in assisting radiologists to detect lacunar infarcts as a computer-aided detection (CAD) system but is also beneficial in preventing the occurrence of cerebral apoplexy in high-risk patients. The lacunar infarct regions are classified into the following two types for detection: ''isolated lacunar infarct regions'' and ''lacunar infarct regions adjacent to hyperintensive structures.'' The detection of isolated lacunar infarct regions was based on the multiple-phase binarization (MPB) method. Moreover, to detect lacunar infarct regions adjacent to hyperintensive structures, we used a morphological opening processing and a subtraction technique between images produced using two types of circular structuring elements. Thereafter, candidate regions were selected based on three features -area, circularity, and gravity center. Two methods were applied to the detected candidates for eliminating false positives (FPs). The first method involved eliminating FPs that occurred along the periphery of the brain using the region-growing technique. The second method, the multi-circular regions difference method (MCRDM), was based on the comparison between the mean pixel values in a series of double circles on a T1-weighted image. A training dataset comprising 20 lacunar infarct cases was used to adjust the parameters. In addition, 673 MR images from 80 cases were used for testing the performance of our method; the sensitivity and specificity were 90.1% and 30.0% with 1.7 FPs per image, respectively. The results indicated that our CAD system for the automatic detection of lacunar infarct on MR images was effective. (author)

  9. Regional variation in brain white matter diffusion index changes following chemoradiotherapy: a prospective study using tract-based spatial statistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H Chapman

    Full Text Available There is little known about how brain white matter structures differ in their response to radiation, which may have implications for radiation-induced neurocognitive impairment. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine regional variation in white matter changes following chemoradiotherapy.Fourteen patients receiving two or three weeks of whole-brain radiation therapy (RT ± chemotherapy underwent DTI pre-RT, at end-RT, and one month post-RT. Three diffusion indices were measured: fractional anisotropy (FA, radial diffusivity (RD, and axial diffusivity (AD. We determined significant individual voxel changes of diffusion indices using tract-based spatial statistics, and mean changes of the indices within fourteen white matter structures of interest.Voxels of significant FA decreases and RD increases were seen in all structures (p<0.05, with the largest changes (20-50% in the fornix, cingula, and corpus callosum. There were highly significant between-structure differences in pre-RT to end-RT mean FA changes (p<0.001. The inferior cingula had a mean FA decrease from pre-RT to end-RT significantly greater than 11 of the 13 other structures (p<0.00385.Brain white matter structures varied greatly in their response to chemoradiotherapy as measured by DTI changes. Changes in FA and RD related to white matter demyelination were prominent in the cingula and fornix, structures relevant to radiation-induced neurocognitive impairment. Future research should evaluate DTI as a predictive biomarker of brain chemoradiotherapy adverse effects.

  10. Modeling of region-specific fMRI BOLD neurovascular response functions in rat brain reveals residual differences that correlate with the differences in regional evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawela, Christopher P; Hudetz, Anthony G; Ward, B Douglas; Schulte, Marie L; Li, Rupeng; Kao, Dennis S; Mauck, Matthew C; Cho, Younghoon R; Neitz, Jay; Hyde, James S

    2008-06-01

    The response of the rat visual system to flashes of blue light has been studied by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The BOLD temporal response is dependent on the number of flashes presented and demonstrates a refractory period that depends on flash frequency. Activated brain regions included the primary and secondary visual cortex, superior colliculus (SC), dorsal lateral geniculate (DLG), and lateral posterior nucleus (LP), which were found to exhibit differing temporal responses. To explain these differences, the BOLD neurovascular response function was modeled. A second-order differential equation was developed and solved numerically to arrive at region-specific response functions. Included in the model are the light input from the diode (duty cycle), a refractory period, a transient response following onset and cessation of stimulus, and a slow adjustment to changes in the average level of the signal. Constants in the differential equation were evaluated for each region by fitting the model to the experimental BOLD response from a single flash, and the equation was then solved for multiple flashes. The simulation mimics the major features of the data; however, remaining differences in the frequency dependence of the response between the cortical and subcortical regions were unexplained. We hypothesized that these discrepancies were due to regional-specific differences in neuronal response to flash frequency. To test this hypothesis, cortical visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded using the same stimulation protocol as the fMRI. Cortical VEPs were more suppressed than subcortical VEPs as flash frequency increased, supporting our hypothesis. This is the first report that regional differences in neuronal activation to the same stimulus lead to differential BOLD activation. PMID:18406628

  11. Netrin-5 is highly expressed in neurogenic regions of the adult brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru eYamagishi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian netrin family proteins are involved in targeting of axons, neuronal migration, and angiogenesis and act as repulsive and attractive guidance molecules. Netrin-5 is a new member of the netrin family with homology to the C345C domain of netrin-1. Unlike other netrin proteins, murine netrin-5 consists of two EGF motifs of the laminin V domain (LE and the C345C domain, but lacks the N-terminal laminin VI domain and one of the three LE motifs. We generated a specific antibody against netrin-5 to investigate its expression pattern in the rodent adult brain. Strong netrin-5 expression was observed in the olfactory bulb, rostral migrate stream (RMS, the subventricular zone (SVZ, and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, where neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain. In the SVZ and RMS, netrin-5 expression was observed in Mash1-positive transit-amplifying cells and in Doublecortin (DCX-positive neuroblasts, but not in GFAP-positive astrocytes. In the olfactory bulb, netrin-5 expression was maintained in neuroblasts, but its level was decreased in NeuN-positive mature neurons. In the hippocampal SGZ, netrin-5 was observed in Mash1-positive cells and in DCX-positive neuroblasts, but not in GFAP-positive astrocytes, suggesting that netrin-5 expression occurs from type 2a to type 3 cells. These data suggest that netrin-5 is produced by both transit-amplifying cells and neuroblasts to control neurogenesis in the adult brain.

  12. Image-Guided Focused Ultrasound-Mediated Regional Brain Stimulation in Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhye; Lee, Stephanie D; Park, Michael Y; Foley, Lori; Purcell-Estabrook, Erin; Kim, Hyungmin; Fischer, Krisztina; Maeng, Lee-So; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2016-02-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation using focused ultrasound has largely been carried out in small animals. In the present study, we applied stimulatory focused ultrasound transcranially to the primary sensorimotor (SM1) and visual (V1) brain areas in sheep (Dorset, all female, n = 8), under the guidance of magnetic resonance imaging, and examined the electrophysiologic responses. By use of a 250-kHz focused ultrasound transducer, the area was sonicated in pulsed mode (tone-burst duration of 1 ms, duty cycle of 50%) for 300 ms. The acoustic intensity at the focal target was varied up to a spatial peak pulse-average intensity (Isppa) of 14.3 W/cm(2). Sonication of SM1 elicited electromyographic responses from the contralateral hind leg, whereas stimulation of V1 generated electroencephalographic potentials. These responses were detected only above a certain acoustic intensity, and the threshold intensity, as well as the degree of responses, varied among sheep. Post-sonication animal behavior was normal, but minor microhemorrhages were observed from the V1 areas exposed to highly repetitive sonication (every second for ≥500 times for electroencephalographic measurements, Isppa = 6.6-10.5 W/cm(2), mechanical index = 0.9-1.2). Our results suggest the potential translational utility of focused ultrasound as a new brain stimulation modality, yet also call for caution in the use of an excessive number of sonications. PMID:26525652

  13. Region-specific vulnerability to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal death in rat brain after status epilepticus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jing Chen; Hu Guo; Guo Zheng; Zhong-Nan Shi

    2013-12-01

    We sought to clarify the involvement and the intra-cerebral distribution variability of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a representative molecule related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell death signalling pathways, in neuronal death resulting from status epilepticus in rats. The expression patterns of CHOP and glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78, a good marker of ER stress, were assessed by Western blotting, real-time PCR, Hoechst and immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus, cortex and striatum on a status epilepticus (SE) model. Double-fluorescent staining of CHOP and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated DNA nick-end labelling (TUNEL) method were performed to clarify the involvement of CHOP in cell death. SE resulted in a time-dependent increase in the expression of GRP78 and CHOP. The expression of GRP78 protein was increased at 3, 6 and 12 h after SE and no brain region variability was found. The expression of CHOP protein was also increased, reached its peak at 24 h and remained high at 48 h. CHOP protein expression, however, showed brain region variability with highest expression noted in the hippocampus followed by the striatum, and lowest in the cortex. The up-regulation of CHOP occurring at the transcriptional level was demonstrated by real-time PCR. Double fluorescence showed that CHOP expression strongly correlated with neurons undergoing apoptosis. The results indicated that SE compromises the function of the ER and that the hippocampus is more vulnerable than the cortex and the striatum.

  14. Effect of aging on alpha-1 adrenergic stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in various regions of rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of aging were examined on the ability of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonists to stimulate phosphoinositide hydrolysis in three brain regions. Tissue minces of thalamus, cerebral cortex and hippocampus from 3-, 18- and 28-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were prelabeled with [3H]myoinositol. Exposure of these prelabeled minces to phenylephrine and (-)-norepinephrine revealed that accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates was selectively reduced by 20 to 30% in the thalamus and cerebral cortex of the oldest age group. Analysis of concentration-response and competition binding curves indicated that this decrease was due to diminished agonist efficacy rather than diminished receptor affinity. The reduction in responsiveness to phenylephrine and (-)-norepinephrine in the cerebral cortex and the lack of any changes in the hippocampus parallel previously reported changes in the density of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors with aging. These data indicate that the ability of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonists to stimulate phosphoinositide hydrolysis is reduced in some, but not all, brain regions of aged Fischer 344 rats

  15. Region-specific up-regulation of oxytocin receptor binding in the brain of mice following chronic nicotine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Metaxas, Athanasios; Kitchen, Ian; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Bailey, Alexis

    2015-07-23

    Nicotine addiction is considered to be the main preventable cause of death worldwide. While growing evidence indicates that the neurohypophysial peptide oxytocin can modulate the addictive properties of several abused drugs, the regulation of the oxytocinergic system following nicotine administration has so far received little attention. Here, we examined the effects of long-term nicotine or saline administration on the central oxytocinergic system using [(125)I]OVTA autoradiographic binding in mouse brain. Male, 7-week old C57BL6J mice were treated with either nicotine (7.8 mg/kg daily; rate of 0.5 μl per hour) or saline for a period of 14-days via osmotic minipumps. Chronic nicotine administration induced a marked region-specific upregulation of the oxytocin receptor binding in the amygdala, a brain region involved in stress and emotional regulation. These results provide direct evidence for nicotine-induced neuroadaptations in the oxytocinergic system, which may be involved in the modulation of nicotine-seeking as well as emotional consequence of chronic drug use. PMID:26037668

  16. The study on regional brain blood flow in the patients with Parkinson's disease using 99Tcm-ECD SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes of brain blood floe in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to investigate the clinical characteristics of the patients with PD correlate with rCBF. Methods: Regional cerebral perfusion was investigated using SPECT in 34 patients with PD . The mean ages of the patients were 56.61±11.04 Years old. The course of disease in most patients was from 1 to over 20 years. Results: 94.1 per cent of patients (32/3) had a significant decrease of rCBF in the basal ganglia, frontal lobes, temporal lobes and thalamus. Parietal and occipital cortex were involved in some patients. The decrease of rCBF in the basal ganglia is unilateral in most patients with PD. There were over 3 brain regions that Conclusion: According to our results, patients with PD had decreased rCBF in the basal ganglia, frontal and temporal cortices. These may reflect a fundamental feature of clinical neuropathophysiology in PD. 99Tcm-ECD SPECT imaging is helpful to the diagnosis of PD and may help investigate the potential pathophysiology of PD. (authors)

  17. Cell apoptosis in perihematomal brain regions and expression of Caspase-3 protein in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinqing Zhang; Xiaoliang Yin; Kun Zhang; Zhimin Zhang; Hui Cai; Honglan Xu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), besides the space-occupying effect of hematoma, hematomal component also causes the pathological changes of perihematomal region, including the death of neurons and glial cells, vasogenic brain edema, the destruction of blood brain barrier and so on, which are the important factors to influence the prognosis of patients. Therefore, it is necessary to perform fur ther investigation and study on the pathological characteristics of injury and death of brain nerve cells. OBJECTIVE: To observe the pathological changes of apoptosis and Caspase-3 expression in perihe matomal brain regions in patients with hypertensive ICH (HICH) in different stages of onset, and analyze their relationship. DESIGN: Case-control observation. SETTING: Departments of Neurosurgery and Pathology of Beijing Chuiyangliu Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Totally 19 patients with HICH, including 12 male, 7 female, aged (58.3±12.8) ranging from 49 to 78 years, whose mean volume of hemorrhage was (48.6±16.4) mL, were involved . All the cases conformed to the diagnostic criteria of intracerebral hemorrhage formulated in the 4th National Cerebrovascular Dis eases Conference and were confirmed by skull CT scanning. Informed consents of operation and specimens were obtained from the patients and relatives.METHODS; ①Patients with HICH who had undergone surgical evacuation of an intracerebral hematoma by traverse temporal lobe approach in the Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Chuiyangliu Hospital from Jan uary 2004 to July 2005 were involved. Nineteen specimens of brain tissue from perihematomal region of HICH patients in different phases served as patient group. Five specimens were obtained from distant regions of patients in the super-early phase as the control group. According to the time from onset to operation, the 19 cases were divided into 3 groups: 6 cases in super-early phase(onset < 8 hours), 8 cases in early phase (onset about 8 to 24

  18. DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION IN MIDLINE THALAMIC REGION FACILITATES SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND SHORTTERM MEMORY IN A MOUSE MODEL OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta-Cruz, Isabel; Pavlides, Constantine; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2010-09-01

    Based on evidence suggesting that deep brain stimulation (DBS) may promote certain cognitive processes, we have been interested in developing DBS as a means of mitigating memory and learning impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we used an animal model of AD (TgCRND8 mice) to determine the effects of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) on non-amyloidogenic α-secretase activity and DBS in short-term memory. We tested our hypothesis using hippocampal slices (in vitro studies) from TgCRND8 mice to evaluate whether HFS increases α-secretase activity (non-amyloidogenic pathway) in the CA1 region. In a second set of experiments, we performed in vivo studies to evaluate whether DBS in midline thalamic region re-establishes hippocampal dependent short-term memory in TgCRND8 mice. The results showed that application of HFS to isolated hippocampal slices significantly increased synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region and promoted a 2-fold increase of non-amyloidogenic α-secretase activity, in comparison to low frequency stimulated controls from TgCRND8 mice. In the in vivo studies, DBS treatment facilitated acquisition of object recognition memory in TgCRND8 mice, in comparison to their own baseline before treatment. These results provide evidence that DBS could enhance short-term memory in the CA1 region of hippocampus in a mouse model of AD. PMID:23227306

  19. Effects of different endocrine disruptor (EDC) mixtures on gene expression in neonatal rat brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Schlumpf, Margret

    EDC mixtures on gene expression in developing brain. Amix (8 anti-androgenic chemicals), Emix (4 estrogenic chemicals) and Tmix (Amix + Emix + paracetamol recently identified as anti-androgenic) were administered by oral gavage to rat dams from gestational day 7 until weaning, at doses corresponding...... time RT PCR of selected mRNA species in MPO and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) of all dose groups. Microarray analyses revealed mixture- and sex-specific effects on gene expression patterns. The majority of genes affected by an individual mixture was selective for that mixture. Real time RT PCR of...... individual mRNAs demonstrated treatment- and sex-dependent differences between MPO and VMH. Effects were dose-dependent. Prominent are effects on the expression of genes involved in excitatory glutamatergic synapse formation and function. These data indicate that effects of complex EDC mixtures on developing...

  20. Accurate definition of brain regions position through the functional landmark approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirion, Bertrand; Varoquaux, Gaël; Poline, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-01-01

    In many application of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), including clinical or pharmacological studies, the definition of the location of the functional activity between subjects is crucial. While current acquisition and normalization procedures improve the accuracy of the functional signal localization, it is also important to ensure that functional foci detection yields accurate results, and reflects between-subject variability. Here we introduce a fast functional landmark detection procedure, that explicitly models the spatial variability of activation foci in the observed population. We compare this detection approach to standard statistical maps peak extraction procedures: we show that it yields more accurate results on simulations, and more reproducible results on a large cohort of subjects. These results demonstrate that explicit functional landmark modeling approaches are more effective than standard statistical mapping for brain functional focus detection. PMID:20879321

  1. Effects of different endocrine disruptor (EDC) mixtures on gene expression in neonatal rat brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver;

    2013-01-01

    Sexual brain differentiation is a potential EDC target. It depends on a combination of estrogen receptor- and androgen receptor-mediated effects in males and on estrogens in females. It is not known how these processes are affected by real-world mixtures of EDCs. We investigated the effect of three...... individual mRNAs demonstrated treatment- and sex-dependent differences between MPO and VMH. Effects were dose-dependent. Prominent are effects on the expression of genes involved in excitatory glutamatergic synapse formation and function. These data indicate that effects of complex EDC mixtures on developing...... time RT PCR of selected mRNA species in MPO and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) of all dose groups. Microarray analyses revealed mixture- and sex-specific effects on gene expression patterns. The majority of genes affected by an individual mixture was selective for that mixture. Real time RT PCR of...

  2. Comparison of clinical types of Wilson's disease and glucose metabolism in extrapyramidal motor brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, W; Barthel, H; Hesse, S; Grahmann, F; Kühn, H-J; Wagner, A; Villmann, T

    2002-07-01

    In Wilson's disease a disturbed glucose metabolism especially in striatal and cerebellar areas has been reported. This is correlated with the severity of extrapyramidal motor symptoms (EPS). These findings are only based on a small number of patients. Up to now it is unknown whether EPS are caused by various patterns of disturbed basal ganglia glucose metabolism. We investigated 37 patients and 9 normal volunteers to characterize the disturbed glucose metabolism in Wilson's disease more precisely. The glucose metabolism was determined in 5 cerebellar and cerebral areas (putamen, caput nuclei caudati, cerebellum, midbrain and thalamic area) by using (18)F-Fluorodesoxyglucose-Positron-Emission-Tomography ( [(18)F]FDG-PET). The database was evaluated by a cluster analysis. Additionally, the severity extrapyramidal motor symptoms were judged by a clinical score system. Three characteristic patterns of glucose metabolism in basal ganglia were obtained. Two of them may be assigned to patients with neurological symptoms whereas the third cluster corresponds to most patients without EPS or normal volunteers. The clusters can be identified by characteristic consumption rates in this 5 brain areas. The severity of EPS can not clearly be assigned to one of the clusters with disturbed glucose metabolism. However, the most severe cases are characterized by the lowest consumption in the striatal area. When there is marked improvement of EPS impaired glucose consumption reveals a persistent brain lesion. Finally, the neurological symptoms in Wilson's disease are caused by (at least) two different patterns of disturbed glucose metabolism in basal ganglia and cerebellum. The severity of EPS seems to be determined by a disturbed consumption in the striatal area. PMID:12140675

  3. Problems and peculiarities of medical service of the liquidators of the Bryansk Region, who were engaged in the clean-up after the Chernobyl accident in 1986-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of the radiological effects of the Chernobyl accident's consequences among the liquidators engaged in the clean-up in 1986-1987, represents, from our point of view, special interest. It is associated with the fact of multiply received high radiation doses as well as by the following radiological consequences, related to particular radiocontamination over the Bryansk region. This paper contains data analyses of medical, dosimetric, demographic and other health status characteristics of this group of liquidators during recent years

  4. Ascending projections from the caudal visceral nucleus of the solitary tract to brain regions involved in food intake and energy expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaman, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic homeostasis reflects the complex output of endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral control circuits that extend throughout the central nervous system. Brain regions that control food intake and energy expenditure are privy to continuous visceral sensory feedback signals that presumably modulate appetite, satiety, digestion, and metabolism. Sensory signals from the gastrointestinal tract and associated digestive viscera are delivered to the brain primarily by vagal afferents that termin...

  5. Classification of First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Subjects by Automated MRI Measures of Regional Brain Volume and Cortical Thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Yoichiro Takayanagi; Tsutomu Takahashi; Lina Orikabe; Yuriko Mozue; Yasuhiro Kawasaki; Kazue Nakamura; Yoko Sato; Masanari Itokawa; Hidenori Yamasue; Kiyoto Kasai; Masayoshi Kurachi; Yuji Okazaki; Michio Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have repeatedly demonstrated regional brain structural abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, relatively few MRI-based studies have attempted to distinguish between patients with first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls. METHOD: Three-dimensional MR images were acquired from 52 (29 males, 23 females) first-episode schizophrenia patients and 40 (22 males, 18 females) healthy subjects. Multiple brain measure...

  6. Quantitation of normal metabolite concentrations in six brain regions by in-vivo 1 H-MR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Minati Ludovico; Aquino Domenico; Bruzzone Maria; Erbetta Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concentrations of brain metabolites visible to in-vivo 1 H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) at 1.5 T in a sample of 28 normal subjects. Quantitation was attempted for inositol compounds, choline units, total creatine and N-acetyl moieties, using open-source software. Six brain regions were considered: frontal and parietal white matter, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, pons and cerebellum. Absolute concentrations were derived using tissue water as an internal r...

  7. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection alters endogenous retrovirus expression in distinct brain regions of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montag Judith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prion diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE are transmissible neurodegenerative diseases which are presumably caused by an infectious conformational isoform of the cellular prion protein. Previous work has provided evidence that in murine prion disease the endogenous retrovirus (ERV expression is altered in the brain. To determine if prion-induced changes in ERV expression are a general phenomenon we used a non-human primate model for prion disease. Results Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fasicularis were infected intracerebrally with BSE-positive brain stem material from cattle and allowed to develop prion disease. Brain tissue from the basis pontis and vermis cerebelli of the six animals and the same regions from four healthy controls were subjected to ERV expression profiling using a retrovirus-specific microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. We could show that Class I gammaretroviruses HERV-E4-1, ERV-9, and MacERV-4 increase expression in BSE-infected macaques. In a second approach, we analysed ERV-K-(HML-2 RNA and protein expression in extracts from the same cynomolgus macaques. Here we found a significant downregulation of both, the macaque ERV-K-(HML-2 Gag protein and RNA in the frontal/parietal cortex of BSE-infected macaques. Conclusions We provide evidence that dysregulation of ERVs in response to BSE-infection can be detected on both, the RNA and the protein level. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the differential expression of ERV-derived structural proteins in prion disorders. Our findings suggest that endogenous retroviruses may induce or exacerbate the pathological consequences of prion-associated neurodegeneration.

  8. A Study on the Application of Fuzzy Information Seeded Region Growing in Brain MRI Tissue Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuin-Mu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After long-term clinical trials, MRI has been proven to be used in humans harmlessly, and it is popularly used in medical diagnosis. Although MR is highly sensitive, it provides abundant organization information. Therefore, how to transform the multi-spectral images which is easier to be used for doctor’s clinical diagnosis. In this thesis, the fuzzy bidirectional edge detection method is used to solve conventional SRG problem of growing order in the initial seed stages. In order to overcome the problems of the different regions, although it is the same Euclidean distance for region growing and merging process stages, we present the peak detection method to improve them. The standard deviation target generation process (SDTGP is applied to guarantee the regions merging process does not cause over- or undersegmentation. Experimental results reveal that FISRG segments a multispectral MR image much more effectively than FAST and K-means.

  9. Stability of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the normal brain measured by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral glucose utilization (LCMRGI) was measured using the [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose method with PET in two groups of ten healthy young volunteers, each scanned in a resting state under different methodological conditions. In addition, five subjects had a second scan within 48 hr. Mean hemispheric values averaged 45.8 +/- 3.3 mumol/100 g/min in the right cerebral hemisphere and 47.0 +/- 3.7 mumol/100 g/min in the left hemisphere. A four-way analysis of variance (group, sex, region, hemisphere) was carried out on the results using three different methods of data manipulation: (a) the raw values of glucose utilization, (b) LCMRGI values normalized by the mean hemispheric gray matter LCMRGI value, and (c) log transformed LCMRGI values. For all analysis techniques, significantly higher LCMRGI values were consistently seen in the left mid and posterior temporal area and caudate nucleus relative to the right, and in the right occipital region relative to the left. The coefficient of variation of intrasubject regional differences (9.9%) was significantly smaller than the coefficient of variation for regions between subjects (16.5%). No differences were noted between the sexes and no effect of repeat procedures was seen in subjects having multiple scans. In addition, inter-regional LCMRGI correlations were examined both in values from the 20 normal subjects, as well as in a set of hypothetical abnormal values. Results were compared with those reported from other PET centers; despite certain methodological differences, the intersubject and inter-regional variation of LCMRGI is fairly constant

  10. A clinical nomogram and recursive partitioning analysis to determine the risk of regional failure after radiosurgery alone for brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This investigation defined patient populations at high-, intermediate-, and low-risk of regional failure (RF) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) lesion treatment using clinical nomograms and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA). Methods and materials: We created a retrospective database compiling 361 oligometastatic brain metastases patients treated with single-modality Linac-based SRS. Logistic analysis was performed to identify factors to be included in a RPA to predict for cumulative RF at 1-year. A 1-year cumulative RF clinical nomogram was constructed and validated (c-index statistic). Results: Age, number of brain metastases, World Health Organization (WHO) performance status (PS), and maximum gross tumor volume (GTV) size were found to be statistically significant predictors of the primary outcome. RPA classifications were defined as follows: low-risk (<25% 1-year RF): solitary lesion AND age >55Y; intermediate-risk (25–40% 1-year RF): age ⩽55Y AND solitary lesion OR WHO ⩾ 1 AND 2–3 lesions; and high-risk (>40% 1-year RF): WHO PS = 0 AND 2–3 lesions. These classifications were highly statistically significant (p < 0.01) for RF. A clinical nomogram (containing patient age, lesion number, largest GTV volume, and WHO PS) for the prediction of 1-year cumulative RF was created (c-index 0.69). Conclusion: A risk-adapted treatment approach can be applied for BM radiosurgery either using RPA categories and/or nomogram-based risk estimates

  11. High affinity dopamine D2 receptor radioligands. 1. Regional rat brain distribution of iodinated benzamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, R.M.; Ansari, M.S.; de Paulis, T.; Schmidt, D.E.; Clanton, J.A.; Smith, H.E.; Manning, R.G.; Gillespie, D.; Ebert, M.H. (Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Five 125I-labeled substituted benzamides, which are close structural analogues of (S)-sulpiride, eticlopride, and isoremoxipride, were evaluated for their selective in vivo uptake into dopamine D2 receptor rich tissue of the rat brain. Iodopride (KD 0.88 nM), an iodine substituted benzamide structurally related to sulpiride, displayed a maximal striatum: cerebellar uptake ratio of 7.6. Demonstration of saturation of the receptor with (125I)iodopride in striatum required uptake in frontal cortex to be used, rather than cerebellar uptake, to define nonspecific binding. Two other ligands structurally related to eticlopride, iclopride (KD 0.23 nM) and itopride (KD 0.16 nM), displayed maximal striatal: cerebellar uptake ratios of 9.8 and 3.3, respectively. The most potent ligands, epidepride (KD 0.057 nM) and ioxipride (KD 0.070 nM) showed striatal:cerebellar uptake ratios of 234 and 65, respectively. The observed uptake ratios correlated poorly with the affinity constants for the dopamine D2 receptor alone, but were highly correlated (r = 0.92) with the product of the receptor dissociation constant (KD) and the apparent lipophilicity (kw), as determined by reverse-phase HPLC at pH 7.5. Total striatal uptake also appeared dependent on lipophilicity, with maximal uptake occurring for ligands having log kw 2.4-2.8.

  12. High affinity dopamine D2 receptor radioligands. 1. Regional rat brain distribution of iodinated benzamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five 125I-labeled substituted benzamides, which are close structural analogues of (S)-sulpiride, eticlopride, and isoremoxipride, were evaluated for their selective in vivo uptake into dopamine D2 receptor rich tissue of the rat brain. Iodopride (KD 0.88 nM), an iodine substituted benzamide structurally related to sulpiride, displayed a maximal striatum: cerebellar uptake ratio of 7.6. Demonstration of saturation of the receptor with [125I]iodopride in striatum required uptake in frontal cortex to be used, rather than cerebellar uptake, to define nonspecific binding. Two other ligands structurally related to eticlopride, iclopride (KD 0.23 nM) and itopride (KD 0.16 nM), displayed maximal striatal: cerebellar uptake ratios of 9.8 and 3.3, respectively. The most potent ligands, epidepride (KD 0.057 nM) and ioxipride (KD 0.070 nM) showed striatal:cerebellar uptake ratios of 234 and 65, respectively. The observed uptake ratios correlated poorly with the affinity constants for the dopamine D2 receptor alone, but were highly correlated (r = 0.92) with the product of the receptor dissociation constant (KD) and the apparent lipophilicity (kw), as determined by reverse-phase HPLC at pH 7.5. Total striatal uptake also appeared dependent on lipophilicity, with maximal uptake occurring for ligands having log kw 2.4-2.8

  13. Postoperative control in deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic region: the contact membership concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In deep brain stimulation, the anatomic positions of electrode contact centers are used as the basis for analysis. We propose a new semi-quantitative approach (contact membership concept) considering patient's individual anatomy, contact size, and extent of involvement of STN and neighboring structures. In ten bilaterally operated and improved Parkinsonian patients, effective contact positions (contacts used for monopolar stimulation) were analyzed. The position of the contact center (classical binary approach: each center assigned, 1, or not, 0, to a given structure) and of the contact in its dimension (contact membership concept: membership degree, ordinal values from 0 to 1, assigned to each anatomic structure according to extent of involvement) were compared for the whole patient group and, individually, for each patient. The membership concept revealed that for 13 out of 20 contacts, more than one structure was involved, where the classical binary approach assigned only one structure. For both approaches lateral STN, zona incerta and H1 (Forel's Field) were the main structures involved, but their frequencies of appearance differed. The membership concept allows detailed analysis of the anatomic contact position. In the future this approach could assist in correlating anatomy and clinical results for all electrode contacts (effective ones and clinically less efficient ones). (orig.)

  14. Simultaneously uncovering the patterns of brain regions involved in different story reading subprocesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Wehbe

    Full Text Available Story understanding involves many perceptual and cognitive subprocesses, from perceiving individual words, to parsing sentences, to understanding the relationships among the story characters. We present an integrated computational model of reading that incorporates these and additional subprocesses, simultaneously discovering their fMRI signatures. Our model predicts the fMRI activity associated with reading arbitrary text passages, well enough to distinguish which of two story segments is being read with 74% accuracy. This approach is the first to simultaneously track diverse reading subprocesses during complex story processing and predict the detailed neural representation of diverse story features, ranging from visual word properties to the mention of different story characters and different actions they perform. We construct brain representation maps that replicate many results from a wide range of classical studies that focus each on one aspect of language processing and offer new insights on which type of information is processed by different areas involved in language processing. Additionally, this approach is promising for studying individual differences: it can be used to create single subject maps that may potentially be used to measure reading comprehension and diagnose reading disorders.

  15. A determination of the regional brain/blood partition coefficient of water using dynamic positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the validity of the single compartment model in measuring CBF with the use of 15O-labeled water (H2 15O), dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) was performed following bolus injection of H2 15O. Careful attention was paid to accuracy in the measurement system (especially for the input function). In the region of the putamen, which includes the smallest mixture of gray and white matters in addition to the smallest contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces, the partition coefficient obtained was 0.88 +/- 0.06 (ml/g). The discrepancy from the prediction estimated from the brain/blood water content ratio was only 7%. This finding suggests that there is no more complicated model than the usual single compartment one to describe the physiological behaviour of 15O water. On the other hand, in the other cortical regions, the discrepancy was larger (e.g., about 12% for the insular cortex and 26% for the frontal cortex) than in the region of the putamen, and a significant fit-interval dependence was observed in the calculated parameters. These observations suggest a significant effect of tissue heterogeneity and/or contamination with nonperfusable spaces in actual clinical PET data

  16. Differential Expression of FosB Proteins and Potential Target Genes in Select Brain Regions of Addiction and Depression Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Paula A; Turecki, Gustavo; Robison, Alfred J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to stress or drugs of abuse has been linked to altered gene expression throughout the body, and changes in gene expression in discrete brain regions are thought to underlie many psychiatric diseases, including major depressive disorder and drug addiction. Preclinical models of these disorders have provided evidence for mechanisms of this altered gene expression, including transcription factors, but evidence supporting a role for these factors in human patients has been slow to emerge. The transcription factor ΔFosB is induced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) of rodents in response to stress or cocaine, and its expression in these regions is thought to regulate their "top down" control of reward circuitry, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here, we use biochemistry to examine the expression of the FosB family of transcription factors and their potential gene targets in PFC and HPC postmortem samples from depressed patients and cocaine addicts. We demonstrate that ΔFosB and other FosB isoforms are downregulated in the HPC but not the PFC in the brains of both depressed and addicted individuals. Further, we show that potential ΔFosB transcriptional targets, including GluA2, are also downregulated in the HPC but not PFC of cocaine addicts. Thus, we provide the first evidence of FosB gene expression in human HPC and PFC in these psychiatric disorders, and in light of recent findings demonstrating the critical role of HPC ΔFosB in rodent models of learning and memory, these data suggest that reduced ΔFosB in HPC could potentially underlie cognitive deficits accompanying chronic cocaine abuse or depression. PMID:27494187

  17. The anatomy of the bill tip of kiwi and associated somatosensory regions of the brain: comparisons with shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Cunningham

    Full Text Available Three families of probe-foraging birds, Scolopacidae (sandpipers and snipes, Apterygidae (kiwi, and Threskiornithidae (ibises, including spoonbills have independently evolved long, narrow bills containing clusters of vibration-sensitive mechanoreceptors (Herbst corpuscles within pits in the bill-tip. These 'bill-tip organs' allow birds to detect buried or submerged prey via substrate-borne vibrations and/or interstitial pressure gradients. Shorebirds, kiwi and ibises are only distantly related, with the phylogenetic divide between kiwi and the other two taxa being particularly deep. We compared the bill-tip structure and associated somatosensory regions in the brains of kiwi and shorebirds to understand the degree of convergence of these systems between the two taxa. For comparison, we also included data from other taxa including waterfowl (Anatidae and parrots (Psittaculidae and Cacatuidae, non-apterygid ratites, and other probe-foraging and non probe-foraging birds including non-scolopacid shorebirds (Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae and Sternidae. We show that the bill-tip organ structure was broadly similar between the Apterygidae and Scolopacidae, however some inter-specific variation was found in the number, shape and orientation of sensory pits between the two groups. Kiwi, scolopacid shorebirds, waterfowl and parrots all shared hypertrophy or near-hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. Hypertrophy of the nucleus basorostralis, however, occurred only in waterfowl, kiwi, three of the scolopacid species examined and a species of oystercatcher (Charadriiformes: Haematopodidae. Hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus in kiwi, Scolopacidae, and other tactile specialists appears to have co-evolved alongside bill-tip specializations, whereas hypertrophy of nucleus basorostralis may be influenced to a greater extent by other sensory inputs. We suggest that similarities between kiwi and scolopacid

  18. Uniform distributions of glucose oxidation and oxygen extraction in gray matter of normal human brain: No evidence of regional differences of aerobic glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Fahmeed; Herman, Peter; Bailey, Christopher J; Møller, Arne; Globinsky, Ronen; Fulbright, Robert K; Rothman, Douglas L; Gjedde, Albert

    2016-05-01

    Regionally variable rates of aerobic glycolysis in brain networks identified by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) imply regionally variable adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regeneration. When regional glucose utilization is not matched to oxygen delivery, affected regions have correspondingly variable rates of ATP and lactate production. We tested the extent to which aerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation power R-fMRI networks by measuring quantitative differences between the oxygen to glucose index (OGI) and the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in normal human brain (resting awake, eyes closed). Regionally uniform and correlated OEF and OGI estimates prevailed, with network values that matched the gray matter means, regardless of size, location, and origin. The spatial agreement between oxygen delivery (OEF≈0.4) and glucose oxidation (OGI ≈ 5.3) suggests that no specific regions have preferentially high aerobic glycolysis and low oxidative phosphorylation rates, with globally optimal maximum ATP turnover rates (VATP ≈ 9.4 µmol/g/min), in good agreement with (31)P and (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements. These results imply that the intrinsic network activity in healthy human brain powers the entire gray matter with ubiquitously high rates of glucose oxidation. Reports of departures from normal brain-wide homogeny of oxygen extraction fraction and oxygen to glucose index may be due to normalization artefacts from relative PET measurements. PMID:26755443

  19. Region-Specific Expression of Mitochondrial Complex I Genes during Murine Brain Development

    OpenAIRE

    Wirtz, Stefanie; Schuelke, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the nuclear encoded subunits of mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) may cause circumscribed cerebral lesions ranging from degeneration of the striatal and brainstem gray matter (Leigh syndrome) to leukodystrophy. We hypothesized that such pattern of regional pathology might be due to local differences in the dependence on complex I function. Using in situ hybridization we investigated the relative expression of 33 nuclear encoded complex I subunits in differe...

  20. Visualization of regional tau deposits using 3H-THK5117 in Alzheimer brain tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Lemoine, Laetitia; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Marutle, Amelia; Antoni, Gunnar; Eriksson, Jonas P; Ghetti, Bernardino; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Nennesmo, Inger; Gillberg, Per-Göran; Nordberg, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  The accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles, composed of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau protein, starts spreading early in specific regions in the course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), correlating with the progression of memory dysfunction. The non-invasive imaging of tau could therefore facilitate the early diagnosis of AD, differentiate it from other dementing disorders and allow evaluation of tau immunization therapy outcomes. In this study we characterized the in vitro bin...

  1. Regional brain volumes, diffusivity, and metabolite changes after electroconvulsive therapy for severe depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A.; Magnusson, P.; Hanson, Lars G.;

    2016-01-01

    , and metabolite changes in 19 patients receiving ECT for severe depression. Other regions of interest included the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex, and hypothalamus. Patients received a 3T MR scan before ECT (TP1), 1 week (TP2), and 4 weeks (TP3) after ECT...... regulation, but due to their lack of correlation with the antidepressant effect, this remodeling does not appear to be directly underlying the antidepressant action of ECT...

  2. Altered intrinsic regional spontaneous brain activity in patients with optic neuritis: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Y

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yi Shao,1,* Feng-Qin Cai,2,* Yu-Lin Zhong,1 Xin Huang,1,3 Ying Zhang,1 Pei-Hong Hu,1 Chong-Gang Pei,1 Fu-Qing Zhou,2 Xian-Jun Zeng2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 3Department of Ophthalmology, First People’s Hospital of Jiujiang, Jiujiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To investigate the underlying regional homogeneity (ReHo in brain-activity deficit in patients with optic neuritis (ON and its relationship with behavioral performance.Materials and methods: In total, twelve patients with ON (four males and eight females and twelve (four males and eight females age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The ReHo method was used to assess the local features of spontaneous brain activity. Correlation analysis was used to explore the relationship between the observed mean ReHo values of the different brain areas and the visual evoked potential (VEP in patients with ON.Results: Compared with the healthy controls, patients with ON showed lower ReHo in the left cerebellum, posterior lobe, left middle temporal gyrus, right insula, right superior temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, left superior frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus, and higher ReHo in the cluster of the left fusiform gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule. Meanwhile, we found that the VEP amplitude of the right eye in patients with ON showed a positive correlation with the ReHo signal value of the left cerebellum posterior lobe (r=0.701, P=0.011, the right superior frontal gyrus (r=0.731, P=0.007, and the left fusiform gyrus (r=0.644, P=0.024. We also found that the VEP latency of the right eye in ON showed a positive correlation with the ReHo signal value of the right insula (r=0.595, P=0

  3. Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren L Smith

    Full Text Available Long lasting abusive consumption, dependence, and withdrawal are characteristic features of alcohol use disorders (AUD. Mechanistically, persistent changes in gene expression are hypothesized to contribute to brain adaptations leading to ethanol toxicity and AUD. We employed repeated chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE exposure by vapor chamber as a mouse model to simulate the cycles of ethanol exposure and withdrawal commonly seen with AUD. This model has been shown to induce progressive ethanol consumption in rodents. Brain CIE-responsive expression networks were identified by microarray analysis across five regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system and extended amygdala with tissue harvested from 0-hours to 7-days following CIE. Weighted Gene Correlated Network Analysis (WGCNA was used to identify gene networks over-represented for CIE-induced temporal expression changes across brain regions. Differential gene expression analysis showed that long-lasting gene regulation occurred 7-days after the final cycle of ethanol exposure only in prefrontal cortex (PFC and hippocampus. Across all brain regions, however, ethanol-responsive expression changes occurred mainly within the first 8-hours after removal from ethanol. Bioinformatics analysis showed that neuroinflammatory responses were seen across multiple brain regions at early time-points, whereas co-expression modules related to neuroplasticity, chromatin remodeling, and neurodevelopment were seen at later time-points and in specific brain regions (PFC or HPC. In PFC a module containing Bdnf was identified as highly CIE responsive in a biphasic manner, with peak changes at 0 hours and 5 days following CIE, suggesting a possible role in mechanisms underlying long-term molecular and behavioral response to CIE. Bioinformatics analysis of this network and several other modules identified Let-7 family microRNAs as potential regulators of gene expression changes induced by CIE. Our results suggest a

  4. Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maren L; Lopez, Marcelo F; Archer, Kellie J; Wolen, Aaron R; Becker, Howard C; Miles, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Long lasting abusive consumption, dependence, and withdrawal are characteristic features of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Mechanistically, persistent changes in gene expression are hypothesized to contribute to brain adaptations leading to ethanol toxicity and AUD. We employed repeated chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor chamber as a mouse model to simulate the cycles of ethanol exposure and withdrawal commonly seen with AUD. This model has been shown to induce progressive ethanol consumption in rodents. Brain CIE-responsive expression networks were identified by microarray analysis across five regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system and extended amygdala with tissue harvested from 0-hours to 7-days following CIE. Weighted Gene Correlated Network Analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify gene networks over-represented for CIE-induced temporal expression changes across brain regions. Differential gene expression analysis showed that long-lasting gene regulation occurred 7-days after the final cycle of ethanol exposure only in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Across all brain regions, however, ethanol-responsive expression changes occurred mainly within the first 8-hours after removal from ethanol. Bioinformatics analysis showed that neuroinflammatory responses were seen across multiple brain regions at early time-points, whereas co-expression modules related to neuroplasticity, chromatin remodeling, and neurodevelopment were seen at later time-points and in specific brain regions (PFC or HPC). In PFC a module containing Bdnf was identified as highly CIE responsive in a biphasic manner, with peak changes at 0 hours and 5 days following CIE, suggesting a possible role in mechanisms underlying long-term molecular and behavioral response to CIE. Bioinformatics analysis of this network and several other modules identified Let-7 family microRNAs as potential regulators of gene expression changes induced by CIE. Our results suggest a complex temporal

  5. Functional brain laterality for sequential movements: Impact of transient practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yihong; DONG Zongwang; WENG Xuchu; CHEN Yizhang

    2005-01-01

    The impact of learning on brain functional laterality has not been systematically investigated. We employed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging combined with a delayed sequential movement task to investigate brain activation pattern and laterality during a transient practice in 12 subjects. Both hemispheres, involving motor areas and posterior parietal cortex, were engaged during motor preparation and execution, with larger activation volume in the left hemisphere than in the right. Activation volume in these regions significantly decreased after a transient practice, with more reduction in the right hemisphere resulting increase in left lateralization. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the physiological significance of brain functional laterality.

  6. Language Teacher Research Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a critical analysis of language teacher research engagement. The term "research engagement" here covers both engagement IN teacher research (i.e. by doing it) as well as engagement "with" research (i.e. by reading and using it). Research engagement is commonly recommended to language teachers as a potentially…

  7. Dopamine D(2) receptor quantification in extrastriatal brain regions using [(123)I]epidepride with bolus/infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinborg, L H; Videbaek, C; Knudsen, G M; Swahn, C G; Halldin, C; Friberg, L; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    2000-06-15

    The iodinated benzamide epidepride, which shows a picomolar affinity binding to dopamine D(2) receptors, has been designed for in vivo studies using SPECT. The aim of the present study was to apply a steady-state condition by the bolus/infusion approach with [(123)I]epidepride for the quantification of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptors in humans. In this way the distribution volume of the tracer can be determined from a single SPECT image and one blood sample. Based on bolus experiments, an algorithm using conventional convolution arguments for prediction of the outcome of a bolus/infusion (B/I) experiment was applied. It was predicted that a B/I protocol with infusion of one-third of the initial bolus per hour would be appropriate. Steady-state conditions were attained in extrastriatal regions within 3-4 h but the infusion continued up to 7 h in order to minimize the significance of individual differences in plasma clearance and binding parameters. A steady-state condition, however, could not be attained in striatal brain regions using a B/I protocol of 20 h, even after 11 h. Under near steady-state conditions a striatal:cerebellar ratio of 23 was demonstrated. Epidepride has a unique signal-to-noise ratio compared to [(123)I]IBZM but present difficulties for steady-state measurements of striatal regions. The bolus/infusion approach is particularly feasible for quantification of the binding potential in extrastriatal regions. PMID:10819910

  8. Effect of steroid on brain tumors and surround edemas : observation with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps of perfusion MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the hemodynamic change in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas after steroid treatment, and then investigate the clinical usefulness of perfusion MRI. We acquired conventional and perfusion MR images in 15 patients with various intracranial tumors (4 glioblastoma multiformes, 4 meningiomas, 3 metastatic tumors, 1 anaplastic ependymoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 hemangioblastoma, and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma). For perfusion MR imaging, a 1.5T unit employing the gradient-echo EPI technique was used, and further perfusion MR images were obtained 2-10 days after intravenous steroid therapy. After processing of the raw data, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were reconstructed. The maps were visually evaluated by comparing relative perfusion in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas with that in contralateral white matter. Objective evaluations were performed by comparing the perfusion ratios of brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Visual evaluations of rCBV maps, showed that in most brain tumors (67%, 10/15), perfusion was high before steroid treatment and showed in (80%, 12/15) decreased afterwards. Objective evaluation, showed that in all brain tumors, perfusion decreased. Visual evaluation of perfusion change in peritumoral edemas revealed change in only one case, but objective evaluation indicated that perfusion decreased significantly in all seven cases. rCBV maps acquired by perfusion MR imaging can provide hemodynamic information about brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Such maps could prove helpful in the preoperative planning of brain tumor surgery and the monitoring of steroid effects during conservative treatment. (author)

  9. Effect of steroid on brain tumors and surround edemas : observation with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps of perfusion MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ju Youl; Sun, Joo Sung; Kim, Sun Yong; Kim, Ji Hyung; Suh, Jung Ho; Cho, Kyung Gi; Kim, Jang Sung [Ajou University, School of Medicine, Su won (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-01-01

    To observe the hemodynamic change in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas after steroid treatment, and then investigate the clinical usefulness of perfusion MRI. We acquired conventional and perfusion MR images in 15 patients with various intracranial tumors (4 glioblastoma multiformes, 4 meningiomas, 3 metastatic tumors, 1 anaplastic ependymoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 hemangioblastoma, and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma). For perfusion MR imaging, a 1.5T unit employing the gradient-echo EPI technique was used, and further perfusion MR images were obtained 2-10 days after intravenous steroid therapy. After processing of the raw data, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were reconstructed. The maps were visually evaluated by comparing relative perfusion in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas with that in contralateral white matter. Objective evaluations were performed by comparing the perfusion ratios of brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Visual evaluations of rCBV maps, showed that in most brain tumors (67%, 10/15), perfusion was high before steroid treatment and showed in (80%, 12/15) decreased afterwards. Objective evaluation, showed that in all brain tumors, perfusion decreased. Visual evaluation of perfusion change in peritumoral edemas revealed change in only one case, but objective evaluation indicated that perfusion decreased significantly in all seven cases. rCBV maps acquired by perfusion MR imaging can provide hemodynamic information about brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Such maps could prove helpful in the preoperative planning of brain tumor surgery and the monitoring of steroid effects during conservative treatment. (author)

  10. Shifting from region of interest (ROI) to voxel-based analysis in human brain mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current clinical studies involve multidimensional high-resolution images containing an overwhelming amount of structural and functional information. The analysis of such a wealth of information is becoming increasingly difficult yet necessary in order to improve diagnosis, treatment and healthcare. Voxel-wise analysis is a class of modern methods of image processing in the medical field with increased popularity. It has replaced manual region of interest (ROI) analysis and has provided tools to make statistical inferences at voxel level. The introduction of voxel-based analysis software in all modern commercial scanners allows clinical use of these techniques. This review will explain the main principles, advantages and disadvantages behind these methods of image analysis. (orig.)

  11. Classification of first-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects by automated MRI measures of regional brain volume and cortical thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Takayanagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies have repeatedly demonstrated regional brain structural abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, relatively few MRI-based studies have attempted to distinguish between patients with first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls. METHOD: Three-dimensional MR images were acquired from 52 (29 males, 23 females first-episode schizophrenia patients and 40 (22 males, 18 females healthy subjects. Multiple brain measures (regional brain volume and cortical thickness were calculated by a fully automated procedure and were used for group comparison and classification by linear discriminant function analysis. RESULTS: Schizophrenia patients showed gray matter volume reductions and cortical thinning in various brain regions predominantly in prefrontal and temporal cortices compared with controls. The classifiers obtained from 66 subjects of the first group successfully assigned 26 subjects of the second group with accuracy above 80%. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that combinations of automated brain measures successfully differentiated first-episode schizophrenia patients from healthy controls. Such neuroimaging approaches may provide objective biological information adjunct to clinical diagnosis of early schizophrenia.

  12. Correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and degree of brain tissue injury of interictal epileptic activity in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the correlation between the change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and brain tissue injury from interictal epileptic activity in patients with epilepsy. Methods: Forty-eight patients with epilepsy and 30 healthy persons were included in the study from which the serum S100β protein levels were determined by double antibody sandwich ELISA method. SPECT rCBF imaging was performed in all patients. The visual and semi-quantitative analyses were used to analyze the epileptic foci. SPSS 11.0 was applied for variance and linear correlation analyses. Results: Serum S-100β in patients with interictal epileptic activity was significantly higher than that in control group ((0.572±0.163) μg/L vs (0.218±0.134) μg/L, t =9.96, P<0.01). According to epilepsy control criteria, 20 cases achieved complete control (CC), 18 cases achieved partial control (PR). However, 10 cases got no improvement,whose serum S-100β protein ((0.809±0.056) μg/L) and the percentage change of rCBF ((0.337±0.060) %) were significantly higher than those of CC ((0.443±0.083) μg/L, (0.035±0.038) %) and those of PC ((0.585±0.108) μg/L, (0.187±0.075)%), F=56. 740, 92. 316, P<0.01. There were high correlation between serum S-100β and the percentage change of rCBF in epilepsy patients (r =0.887, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum S-100β protein assay combined with rCBF on SPECT imaging can make semi-quantitative diagnosis of epilepsy and help evaluate the brain damage from interictal epileptic activity. (authors)

  13. Comprehensive regional and temporal gene expression profiling of the rat brain during the first 24 h after experimental stroke identifies dynamic ischemia-induced gene expression patterns, and reveals a biphasic activation of genes in surviving tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Wieloch, Tadeusz; Gidö, Gunilla;

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify biological processes relevant for cell death and survival in the brain following stroke, the postischemic brain transcriptome was studied by a large-scale cDNA array analysis of three peri-infarct brain regions at eight time points during the first 24 h of reperfusion followi...

  14. Dynamic regional phase synchrony (DRePS): An Instantaneous Measure of Local fMRI Connectivity Within Spatially Clustered Brain Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvarnia, Amir; Pedersen, Mangor; Walz, Jennifer M; Vaughan, David N; Abbott, David F; Jackson, Graeme D

    2016-05-01

    Dynamic functional brain connectivity analysis is a fast expanding field in computational neuroscience research with the promise of elucidating brain network interactions. Sliding temporal window based approaches are commonly used in order to explore dynamic behavior of brain networks in task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. However, the low effective temporal resolution of sliding window methods fail to capture the full dynamics of brain activity at each time point. These also require subjective decisions regarding window size and window overlap. In this study, we introduce dynamic regional phase synchrony (DRePS), a novel analysis approach that measures mean local instantaneous phase coherence within adjacent fMRI voxels. We evaluate the DRePS framework on simulated data showing that the proposed measure is able to estimate synchrony at higher temporal resolution than sliding windows of local connectivity. We applied DRePS analysis to task-free fMRI data of 20 control subjects, revealing ultra-slow dynamics of local connectivity in different brain areas. Spatial clustering based on the DRePS feature time series reveals biologically congruent local phase synchrony networks (LPSNs). Taken together, our results demonstrate three main findings. Firstly, DRePS has increased temporal sensitivity compared to sliding window correlation analysis in capturing locally synchronous events. Secondly, DRePS of task-free fMRI reveals ultra-slow fluctuations of ∼0.002-0.02 Hz. Lastly, LPSNs provide plausible spatial information about time-varying brain local phase synchrony. With the DRePS method, we introduce a framework for interrogating brain local connectivity, which can potentially provide biomarkers of human brain function in health and disease. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1970-1985, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27019380

  15. Increased Functional Activation of Limbic Brain Regions during Negative Emotional Processing in Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sophie L; Veggeberg, Rosanna; Lemme, Jordan; Hodkinson, Duncan J; Scrivani, Steven; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2016-01-01

    Pain is both an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. This is highly relevant in migraine where cortical hyperexcitability in response to sensory stimuli (including pain, light, and sound) has been extensively reported. However, migraine may feature a more general enhanced response to aversive stimuli rather than being sensory-specific. To this end we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural activation in migraineurs interictaly in response to emotional visual stimuli from the International Affective Picture System. Migraineurs, compared to healthy controls, demonstrated increased neural activity in response to negative emotional stimuli. Most notably in regions overlapping in their involvement in both nociceptive and emotional processing including the posterior cingulate, caudate, amygdala, and thalamus (cluster corrected, p migraine may feature more generalized altered cerebral processing of aversive/negative stimuli, rather than exclusively to sensory stimuli. A generalized hypersensitivity to aversive stimuli may be an inherent feature of migraine, or a consequential alteration developed over the duration of the disease. This proposed cortical-limbic hypersensitivity may form an important part of the migraine pathophysiology, including psychological comorbidity, and may represent an innate sensitivity to aversive stimuli that underpins attack triggers, attack persistence and (potentially) gradual headache chronification. PMID:27507939

  16. Methylphenidate enhances working memory by modulating discrete frontal and parietal lobe regions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, M A; Owen, A M; Sahakian, B J; Mavaddat, N; Pickard, J D; Robbins, T W

    2000-03-15

    The indirect catecholamine agonist methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the drug treatment of choice in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), one of the most common behavioral disorders of childhood (DSM-IV), although symptoms may persist into adulthood. Methylphenidate can enhance cognitive performance in adults and children diagnosed with AD/HD (Kempton et al., 1999; Riordan et al., 1999) and also in normal human volunteers on tasks sensitive to frontal lobe damage, including aspects of spatial working memory (SWM) performance (Elliott et al., 1997). The present study investigated changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) induced by methylphenidate during performance of a self-ordered SWM task to define the neuroanatomical loci of the beneficial effect of the drug. The results show that the methylphenidate-induced improvements in working memory performance occur with task-related reductions in rCBF in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. The beneficial effects of methylphenidate on working memory were greatest in the subjects with lower baseline working memory capacity. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration of a localization of a drug-induced improvement in SWM performance in humans and has relevance for understanding the treatment of AD/HD. PMID:10704519

  17. Engaged listeners: shared neural processing of powerful political speeches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmälzle, Ralf; Häcker, Frank E K; Honey, Christopher J; Hasson, Uri

    2015-08-01

    Powerful speeches can captivate audiences, whereas weaker speeches fail to engage their listeners. What is happening in the brains of a captivated audience? Here, we assess audience-wide functional brain dynamics during listening to speeches of varying rhetorical quality. The speeches were given by German politicians and evaluated as rhetorically powerful or weak. Listening to each of the speeches induced similar neural response time courses, as measured by inter-subject correlation analysis, in widespread brain regions involved in spoken language processing. Crucially, alignment of the time course across listeners was stronger for rhetorically powerful speeches, especially for bilateral regions of the superior temporal gyri and medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, during powerful speeches, listeners as a group are more coupled to each other, suggesting that powerful speeches are more potent in taking control of the listeners' brain responses. Weaker speeches were processed more heterogeneously, although they still prompted substantially correlated responses. These patterns of coupled neural responses bear resemblance to metaphors of resonance, which are often invoked in discussions of speech impact, and contribute to the literature on auditory attention under natural circumstances. Overall, this approach opens up possibilities for research on the neural mechanisms mediating the reception of entertaining or persuasive messages. PMID:25653012

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... axis —A brain-body circuit which plays a critical role in the body's response to stress. impulse — ...

  19. People can understand descriptions of motion without activating visual motion brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SwethasriDravida

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available What is the relationship between our perceptual and linguistic representations of the same event? We approached this question by asking to whether visual perception of motion and understanding linguistic depictions of motion rely on the same neural architecture. The same group of participants took part in two language tasks and one visual task. In task 1, participants made semantic similarity judgments with high (e.g. “to bounce” and low motion (e.g. “to look” words. In task 2, participants made plausibility judgments for passages describing movement (“A centaur hurled a spear…” or cognitive events (“A gentleman loved cheese…”. Task 3 was a visual motion localizer in which participants viewed animations of point-light walkers, randomly moving dots, and stationary dots changing in luminance. Based on the visual motion localizer we identified classic visual motion areas of the temporal (MT/MST and STS and parietal cortex (inferior and superior parietal lobules. We find that linguistic depictions of motion and seeing motion activate largely distinct cortical areas. Motion words did not activate any part of the visual motion system. Motion passages produced a small response in the right superior parietal lobule, but none of the temporal motion regions. These results suggest 1 as compared to words, rich language stimuli such as passages are more likely to evoke mental imagery and more likely to affect perceptual circuits and 2 effects of language on the visual system are more likely in secondary perceptual areas as compared to early sensory areas. We conclude that language and visual perception constitute distinct but interacting systems.

  20. Expression of MT in perihematomal brain regions of rabbits%兔脑出血灶周围脑组织MT的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金庆; 苏芳忠; 陶胜忠; 张云汉

    2001-01-01

    @@Intracerebral hemorrhage frequently occurs in nervous system disease and leads to secondary cerebral lesion. Recent studies have confirmed that metalloth ionein (MT) is involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral hemorrhage. Using immun ohistochemical technique,the author detected the expression of MT in the perih ematomal brain regions in order to research the pathology mechanism of intracer ebral hemorrhage.

  1. Why mental arithmetic counts: brain activation during single digit arithmetic predicts high school math scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gavin R; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Do individual differences in the brain mechanisms for arithmetic underlie variability in high school mathematical competence? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we correlated brain responses to single digit calculation with standard scores on the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) math subtest in high school seniors. PSAT math scores, while controlling for PSAT Critical Reading scores, correlated positively with calculation activation in the left supramarginal gyrus and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, brain regions known to be engaged during arithmetic fact retrieval. At the same time, greater activation in the right intraparietal sulcus during calculation, a region established to be involved in numerical quantity processing, was related to lower PSAT math scores. These data reveal that the relative engagement of brain mechanisms associated with procedural versus memory-based calculation of single-digit arithmetic problems is related to high school level mathematical competence, highlighting the fundamental role that mental arithmetic fluency plays in the acquisition of higher-level mathematical competence. PMID:23283330

  2. Vascular Steal Explains Early Paradoxical Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Cerebrovascular Response in Brain Regions with Delayed Arterial Transit Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Poublanc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI during manipulation of inhaled carbon dioxide (CO2 can be used to measure cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR and map regions of exhausted cerebrovascular reserve. These regions exhibit a reduced or negative BOLD response to inhaled CO2. In this study, we sought to clarify the mechanism behind the negative BOLD response by investigating its time delay (TD. Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC MRI with the injection of a contrast agent was used as the gold standard in order to provide measurement of the blood arrival time to which CVR TD could be compared. We hypothesize that if negative BOLD responses are the result of a steal phenomenon, they should be synchronized with positive BOLD responses from healthy brain tissue, even though the blood arrival time would be delayed. Methods: On a 3-tesla MRI system, BOLD CVR and DSC images were collected in a group of 19 patients with steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease. For each patient, we generated a CVR magnitude map by regressing the BOLD signal with the end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2, and a CVR TD map by extracting the time of maximum cross-correlation between the BOLD signal and PETCO2. In addition, a blood arrival time map was generated by fitting the DSC signal with a gamma variate function. ROI masks corresponding to varying degrees of reactivity were constructed. Within these masks, the mean CVR magnitude, CVR TD and DSC blood arrival time were extracted and averaged over the 19 patients. CVR magnitude and CVR TD were then plotted against DSC blood arrival time. Results: The results show that CVR magnitude is highly correlated to DSC blood arrival time. As expected, the most compromised tissues with the longest blood arrival time have the lowest (most negative CVR magnitude. However, CVR TD shows a noncontinuous relationship with DSC blood arrival time. CVR TD is well correlated to DSC blood arrival time

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... but can still remember past events and learned skills, and carry on a conversation, all which rely ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... These factors may act alone or together in complex ways, to change the way a gene is ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... NIH Research Fact Sheets NIH Office of Science Education : Resources for science educators Pillbox: How to identify ...

  6. Prefrontal Engagement by Cognitive Reappraisal of Negative Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brady D.; Fitzgerald, Daniel A.; Klumpp, Heide; Shankman, Stewart A.; Phan, K. Luan

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive reappraisal has been associated with increased activation in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and cingulate regions implicated in cognitive control and affect regulation. To date, neuroimaging studies of reappraisal have primarily used emotionally evocative scenes, and it remains unclear whether the same cognitive strategy applied to emotional facial expressions would involve similar or different neural underpinnings. The present study used fMRI to examine brain activation during cognitive reappraisal of negatively valenced facial expressions relative to passive viewing of negative and neutral facial expressions. Twenty-two healthy adults completed a cognitive reappraisal task comprised of three different conditions (Look-Neutral, Maintain-Negative, Reappraise-Negative). Results indicated that reappraisal was associated with a decrease in negative affect and engagement of PFC brain regions implicated in cognitive control and affect regulation (DLPFC, mPFC, and VLPFC). Furthermore, individual differences in habitual reappraisal use were associated with greater DLPFC and mPFC activation, while suppression use was associated with greater amygdala activation. The present study provides preliminary evidence that facial expressions are effective alternative ‘targets’ of prefrontal engagement during cognitive reappraisal. These findings are particularly relevant for future research probing the neural bases of emotion regulation in populations for whom aversive scenes may be less appropriate (e.g., children) and illnesses in which aberrant responses to social signals of threat and negative feedback are cardinal phenotypes. PMID:25433095

  7. Brain oxidative stress: detection and mapping of anti-oxidant marker 'Glutathione' in different brain regions of healthy male/female, MCI and Alzheimer patients using non-invasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Pravat K; Tripathi, Manjari; Sugunan, Sreedevi

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) serves as an important anti-oxidant in the brain by scavenging harmful reactive oxygen species that are generated during different molecular processes. The GSH level in the brain provides indirect information on oxidative stress of the brain. We report in vivo detection of GSH non-invasively from various brain regions (frontal cortex, parietal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) in bilateral hemispheres of healthy male and female subjects and from bi-lateral frontal cortices in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). All AD patients who participated in this study were on medication with cholinesterase inhibitors. Healthy young male (age 26.4±3.0) and healthy young female (age 23.6±2.1) subjects have higher amount of GSH in the parietal cortical region and a specific GSH distribution pattern (parietal cortex>frontal cortex>hippocampus ~ cerebellum) has been found. Overall mean GSH content is higher in healthy young female compared to healthy young male subjects and GSH is distributed differently in two hemispheres among male and female subjects. In both young female and male subjects, statistically significant (p=0.02 for young female and p=0.001 for young male) difference in mean GSH content is found when compared between left frontal cortex (LFC) and right frontal cortex (RFC). In healthy young female subjects, we report statistically significant positive correlation of GSH content between RFC and LFC (r=0.641, p=0.004) as well as right parietal cortex (RPC) and left parietal cortex (LPC) (r=0.797, p=0.000) regions. In healthy young male subjects, statistically significant positive correlation of GSH content was observed between LFC and LPC (r=0.481, p=0.032) regions. This statistical analysis implicates that in case of a high GSH content in LPC of a young male, his LFC region would also contain high GSH and vice versa. The difference in mean of GSH content between healthy young female control and female AD

  8. Strategic Engagement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    “Pakistan regards China as a strategic partner and the bilateral ties have endured the test of time.”Pakistani Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz made the comment during his four-day official visit to China on April 16 when he met Chinese President Hu Jintao,Premier Wen Jiabao and the NPC Standing Committee Chairman Wu Bangguo.His visit to China also included a trip to Boao,where he delivered a keynote speech at the Boao Forum for Asia held on April 20-22. During his stay in Beijing,the two countries signed 13 agreements on cooperation in the fields of space,telecommunications,education and legal assistance,which enhanced an already close strategic partnership. In an interview with Beijing Review reporter Pan Shuangqin,Prime Minister Aziz addressed a number of issues ranging from Asia’s searching for a win-win economic situation to the influence of Sino-Pakistani relations on regional peace.

  9. Region-specific astrogliosis in brains of mice heterozygous for mutations in the neurofibromatosis type 1 (Nf1) tumor suppressor

    OpenAIRE

    Rizvi, Tilat A.; Akunuru, Shailaja; de Courten-Myers, Gabrielle; Switzer, Robert C.; Nordlund, Michael L.; Ratner, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Brains from human neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients show increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), consistent with activation of astrocytes (M.L. Nordlund, T.A. Rizvi, C.I. Brannan, N. Ratner, Neurofibromin expression and astrogliosis in neurofibromatosis (type 1) brains, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurology 54 (1995) 588–600). We analyzed brains from transgenic mice in which the Nf1 gene was targeted by homologous recombination. We show here that, in all heterozygous mi...

  10. Developmental Time Course of Estradiol, Testosterone, and Dihydrotestosterone Levels in Discrete Regions of Male and Female Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Konkle, Anne T. M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing view of sexual differentiation of mammalian brain is that androgen synthesized in the fetal and neonatal testis and aromatized centrally during a perinatal sensitive period is the sole source of brain estradiol and the primary determinant of sex differences. Subregions of the diencephalon are among the most sexually dimorphic in the brain, and there are well-established sex differences in the amount of testosterone and estradiol measured in the hypothalamus and preoptic area du...

  11. Effect of hypoxia on the incorporation of [2-3H] glycerol and [1-14C[-palmitate into lipids of various brain regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lipid metabolism in guinea pig brain after intermittent hypoxia, prolonged for 80 hrs, was markedly impaired. The in vivo incorporation of [2-3H] glycerol and [1-14C] palmitate into lipids of microsomes, mitochondria, myelin, and synaptosomes, purified form cerebral hemispheres, was significantly lower in the hypoxic animals than in the controls. The same effect was observed on the incorporation of labeled precursors into lipids of mitochondria purified from cerebellum and brainstem. In particular, the labeling of th major phospholipids present - ie, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) - in the mitochondria of the three brain regions examined decreased after hypoxic treatment

  12. Sex Differences in the Effects of Acute and Chronic Stress and Recovery after Long-Term Stress on Stress-Related Brain Regions of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yanhua; ter Horst, Gert J.; Wichmann, Romy; Bakker, Petra; Liu, Aihua; Li, Xuejun; Westenbroek, Christel

    2008-01-01

    Studies show that sex plays a role in stress-related depression, with women experiencing a higher vulnerability to its effect. Two major targets of antidepressants are brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element–binding protein (CREB). The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of CREB, phosphorylation of CREB (pCREB), and BDNF in stress-related brain regions of male and female rats after stress and recovery. CREB and pCREB levels were...

  13. Region-specific effects on brain metabolites of hypoxia and hyperoxia overlaid on cerebral ischemia in young and old rats: a quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani Patricia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both hypoxia and hyperoxia, deregulating the oxidative balance, may play a role in the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders underlain by cerebral ischemia. In the present study, quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to evaluate regional metabolic alterations, following a 24-hour hypoxic or hyperoxic exposure on the background of ischemic brain insult, in two contrasting age-groups of rats: young - 3 months old and aged - 24 months old. Methods Cerebral ischemia was induced by ligation of the right common carotid artery. Concentrations of eight metabolites (alanine, choline-containing compounds, total creatine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, lactate, myo-inositol and N-acetylaspartate were quantified from extracts in three different brain regions (fronto-parietal and occipital cortices and the hippocampus from both hemispheres. Results In the control normoxic condition, there were significant increases in lactate and myo-inositol concentrations in the hippocampus of the aged rats, compared with the respective values in the young ones. In the ischemia-hypoxia condition, the most prevalent changes in the brain metabolites were found in the hippocampal regions of both young and aged rats; but the effects were more evident in the aged animals. The ischemia-hyperoxia procedure caused less dedicated changes in the brain metabolites, which may reflect more limited tissue damage. Conclusions We conclude that the hippocampus turns out to be particularly susceptible to hypoxia overlaid on cerebral ischemia and that old age further increases this susceptibility.

  14. Brain region-specific perfluoroalkylated sulfonate (PFSA) and carboxylic acid (PFCA) accumulation and neurochemical biomarker responses in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kathrine Eggers; Basu, Niladri; Letcher, Robert J.;

    2015-01-01

    MAO activity in occipital lobe (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=0.83, p=0.041, n=6) and across brain regions (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=0.47, p=0.001, ∑PFSA; rp=0.44, p>0.001; n=50). GABA-A receptor density was positively correlated with two PFASs across brain regions (PFOS; rp=0.33, p=0.02 and PFDoDA; rp=0.34, p=0.014; n=52...... regions, whereas GS activity was positively correlated with PFASs primarily in occipital lobe. Results from the present study support the hypothesis that PFAS concentrations in polar bears from East Greenland have exceeded the threshold limits for neurochemical alterations. It is not known whether the...

  15. Brain Regions Engaged by Part- and Whole-Task Performance in a Video Game: A Model-Based Test of the Decomposition Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R.; Bothell, Daniel; Fincham, Jon M.; Anderson, Abraham R.; Poole, Ben; Qin, Yulin

    2011-01-01

    Part- and whole-task conditions were created by manipulating the presence of certain components of the Space Fortress video game. A cognitive model was created for two-part games that could be combined into a model that performed the whole game. The model generated predictions both for behavioral patterns and activation patterns in various brain…

  16. Speech Motor Brain Regions are Differentially Recruited During Perception of Native and Foreign-Accented Phonemes for First and Second Language Listeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DanielCallan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain imaging studies indicate that speech motor areas are recruited for auditory speech perception, especially when intelligibility is low due to environmental noise or when speech is accented. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relative contribution of brain regions to the processing of speech containing phonetic categories from one’s own language, speech with accented samples of one’s native phonetic categories, and speech with unfamiliar phonetic categories. To that end, native English and Japanese speakers identified the speech sounds /r/ and /l/ that were produced by native English speakers (unaccented and Japanese speakers (foreign-accented while functional magnetic resonance imaging measured their brain activity. For native English speakers, the Japanese accented speech was more difficult to categorize than the unaccented English speech. In contrast, Japanese speakers have difficulty distinguishing between /r/ and /l/, so both the Japanese accented and English unaccented speech were difficult to categorize. Brain regions involved with listening to foreign-accented productions of a first language included primarily the right cerebellum, left ventral inferior premotor cortex PMvi, and Broca’s area. Brain regions most involved with listening to a second-language phonetic contrast (foreign-accented and unaccented productions also included the left PMvi and the right cerebellum. Additionally, increased activity was observed in the right PMvi, the left and right ventral superior premotor cortex PMvs, and the left cerebellum. These results support a role for speech motor regions during the perception of foreign-accented native speech and for perception of difficult second-language phonetic contrasts.

  17. Frequency-dependent brain regional homogeneity alterations in patients with mild cognitive impairment during working memory state relative to resting state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyun eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported working memory deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. However, previous studies investigating the neural mechanisms of MCI have primarily focused on brain activity alterations during working memory tasks. No study to date has compared brain network alterations in the working memory state between MCI patients and normal control subjects. Therefore, using the index of regional homogeneity (ReHo, we explored brain network impairments in MCI patients during a working memory task relative to the resting state, and identified frequency-dependent effects in separate frequency bands.Our results indicate that, in MCI patients, ReHo is altered in the posterior cingulate cortex in the slow-3 band (0.073–0.198 Hz, and in the bottom of the right occipital lobe and part of the right cerebellum, the right thalamus, a diffusing region in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, the left and right parietal-occipital regions, and the right angular gyrus in the slow-5 band (0.01–0.027 Hz. Furthermore, in normal controls, the value of ReHo in clusters belonging to the default mode network decreased, while the value of ReHo in clusters belonging to the attentional network increased during the task state. However, this pattern was reversed in MCI patients, and was associated with decreased working memory performance. In addition, we identified altered functional connectivity of the abovementioned regions with other parts of the brain in MCI patients.This is the first study to compare frequency-dependent alterations of ReHo in MCI patients between resting and working memory states. The results provide a new perspective regarding the neural mechanisms of working memory deficits in MCI patients, and extend our knowledge of altered brain patterns in resting and task-evoked states.

  18. MODULATION OF Na + /K + , Mg 2 + and Ca 2+ ATPase ACTIVITY IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF RAT BRAIN DURING ROTENONE INDUCED PARKINSON'S DISEASE AND PROTECTIVE ROLE OF BACOPA MONNIERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunduluru Swathi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacopa monnieri(BM; Family: Scrophulariaceae, also referred as Brahmi or Jalbrahmi has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic system of medicine as a brain tonic, memory enhancer, revitaliser of sensory organs, anti-anxiety, cardio-tonic, diuretic, antidepressant and anticonvulsant agent, and the pharmacological actions are mainly attributed to the saponin compounds present in the alcoholic extract of the plant. The present study was carried out with a specific aim to examine the neuroprotective effect of Bacopa monnieriduring Rotenone (RT induced Parkinson’s disease (PD with particular reference to Na+/K+, Mg2+and Ca2+-ATPase activities in different regions of rat brain. In the experiment conducted rats were divided into four groups of six in each group, group 1 received Salinewater (1 ml/kg, group 2 received RT (2.5 mg/kg through i.p. route administration for 60 days to induce PD. The third group received BM extract (180 mg/kg/day for 20 days orally before induction of PD and group 4 received Levodopa (LD (10 mg/kg/day orally which is referred as drug control. The levels of Na+/K+, Mg2+and Ca2+-ATPase activities were measured. Na+/K+, Mg2+and Ca2+-ATPase activities were significantly depleted in different brain regions of rat during RT induced PD when compared to control rats. Treatment with BM and LD caused significant elevation in the activity levels of Na+/K+, Mg2+and Ca2+-ATPase in different brain regions of rats when compared to induced PD rats. Our results suggest the ability of BM extract to modulate Na+/K+, Mg2+and Ca2+- ATPase activities in different brain regions of RT induced rodent model of PD and thus offers effective management in the treatment of PD.

  19. Paleoneurology: neurodegenerative diseases are age-related diseases of specific brain regions recently developed by Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghika, J

    2008-11-01

    dementia, progressive nonfluent aphasia) (11) Temporomesial-limbic-paralimbic-associative cortical dementias (Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body, progressive amnesia): processing of explicit cognition: amnesic syndrome, processing of hand, larynx and eye: disorientation, ideomotor apraxia, agnosia, visuospatial processing, transcortical aphasia. (12) Focal posterior atrophy (Benson, progressive apraxia): visuomotor processing of what and where. (13) Macular degeneration: retinal "spot" for explicit symbols. (14) "Psychiatric syndromes": metacognition, self monitoring and regulation of hierarchical processing of metacognition: hallucinations, delusions, magic and mystic logic, delusions, confabulations; drive: impulsivity, obsessive-compulsive disorders, mental automatisms; social interactions: theory of mind, autism, Asperger. (15) Mood disorders: control on emotions: anxio-depressive and bipolar disorders, moria, emotional lability. (16) Musculoskeletal: inclusion body myositis: muscles for bipedal gait and fine motility. Paget's disease: bones for bipedal gait and cranium. Understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the evolution of these recent human brain regions and paleoneurology my be the key to the focal, asymmetrical or systemic character of neurodegeneration, the pathologic heterogeneity/overlap of syndromic presentations associating gait, hand, language, cognition, mood and behaviour disorders. PMID:18703290

  20. Repeatability and variation of region-of-interest methods using quantitative diffusion tensor MR imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is increasingly used in various diseases as a clinical tool for assessing the integrity of the brain’s white matter. Reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and an increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) are nonspecific findings in most pathological processes affecting the brain’s parenchyma. At present, there is no gold standard for validating diffusion measures, which are dependent on the scanning protocols, methods of the softwares and observers. Therefore, the normal variation and repeatability effects on commonly-derived measures should be carefully examined. Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 37.8 years, SD 11.4) underwent DTI of the brain with 3T MRI. Region-of-interest (ROI) -based measurements were calculated at eleven anatomical locations in the pyramidal tracts, corpus callosum and frontobasal area. Two ROI-based methods, the circular method (CM) and the freehand method (FM), were compared. Both methods were also compared by performing measurements on a DTI phantom. The intra- and inter-observer variability (coefficient of variation, or CV%) and repeatability (intra-class correlation coefficient, or ICC) were assessed for FA and ADC values obtained using both ROI methods. The mean FA values for all of the regions were 0.663 with the CM and 0.621 with the FM. For both methods, the FA was highest in the splenium of the corpus callosum. The mean ADC value was 0.727 ×10-3 mm2/s with the CM and 0.747 ×10-3 mm2/s with the FM, and both methods found the ADC to be lowest in the corona radiata. The CV percentages of the derived measures were < 13% with the CM and < 10% with the FM. In most of the regions, the ICCs were excellent or moderate for both methods. With the CM, the highest ICC for FA was in the posterior limb of the internal capsule (0.90), and with the FM, it was in the corona radiata (0.86). For ADC, the highest ICC was found in the genu of the corpus callosum (0.93) with the CM and in the uncinate fasciculus (0

  1. Brain imaging and brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage

  2. Matching spatial with ontological brain regions using Java tools for visualization, database access, and integrated data analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezgin, G.; Reid, A.T.; Schubert, D.; Kotter, R.

    2009-01-01

    Brain atlases are widely used in experimental neuroscience as tools for locating and targeting specific brain structures. Delineated structures in a given atlas, however, are often difficult to interpret and to interface with database systems that supply additional information using hierarchically o

  3. Expression of glutamatergic genes in healthy humans across 16 brain regions; altered expression in the hippocampus after chronic exposure to alcohol or cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, M-A; Rosser, A A; Zhou, Z; Mash, D C; Yuan, Q; Goldman, D

    2014-11-01

    We analyzed global patterns of expression in genes related to glutamatergic neurotransmission (glutamatergic genes) in healthy human adult brain before determining the effects of chronic alcohol and cocaine exposure on gene expression in the hippocampus. RNA-Seq data from 'BrainSpan' was obtained across 16 brain regions from nine control adults. We also generated RNA-Seq data from postmortem hippocampus from eight alcoholics, eight cocaine addicts and eight controls. Expression analyses were undertaken of 28 genes encoding glutamate ionotropic (AMPA, kainate, NMDA) and metabotropic receptor subunits, together with glutamate transporters. The expression of each gene was fairly consistent across the brain with the exception of the cerebellum, the thalamic mediodorsal nucleus and the striatum. GRIN1, encoding the essential NMDA subunit, had the highest expression across all brain regions. Six factors accounted for 84% of the variance in global gene expression. GRIN2B (encoding GluN2B), was up-regulated in both alcoholics and cocaine addicts (FDR corrected P = 0.008). Alcoholics showed up-regulation of three genes relative to controls and cocaine addicts: GRIA4 (encoding GluA4), GRIK3 (GluR7) and GRM4 (mGluR4). Expression of both GRM3 (mGluR3) and GRIN2D (GluN2D) was up-regulated in alcoholics and down-regulated in cocaine addicts relative to controls. Glutamatergic genes are moderately to highly expressed throughout the brain. Six factors explain nearly all the variance in global gene expression. At least in the hippocampus, chronic alcohol use largely up-regulates glutamatergic genes. The NMDA GluN2B receptor subunit might be implicated in a common pathway to addiction, possibly in conjunction with the GABAB1 receptor subunit. PMID:25262781

  4. Sex- and region-specific alterations of basal amino acid and monoamine metabolism in the brain of aquaporin-4 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Xiu-Lan; Gao, Lin; Zeng, Xiao-Ning; Ding, Jian-Hua; Cao, Cong; Niu, Ling; Hu, Gang

    2005-11-15

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a predominant water channel of the brain, mediates transmembrane water movement at the blood-brain barrier and brain-cerebrospinal fluid interface. A broad pattern of evidence indicates that AQP4 and regulators of its expression are potential targets for treatment of brain swelling, but whether it participates in the regulation of neurotransmission has not been reported. We examined neurochemical differences between AQP4-knockout and wild-type mice with particular focus on neurotransmission. Basal tissue neurotransmitter and metabolite levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Significant sex- and region-specific differences of amino acids and monoamines were found in the brain of wild-type and AQP4-knockout mice. In cortex, striatum, and hippocampus of male AQP4-knockout mice, an increase of glutamine and decrease of aspartate were observed. Glutamate was increased only in female AQP4-knockout mice. The lack of AQP4 failed to affect the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid and taurine. In the medial prefrontal cortex of AQP4-knockout mice, the levels of serotonin and norepinephrine were increased, but no significant change in dopamine level was found. In the striatum of male AQP4-knockout mice, the levels of dopamine and serotonin were remarkably increased, which was not found in female mice. In the hypothalamus of AQP4-knockout mice, only the serotonin level was altered. These results provide the first evidence that the lack of AQP4 expression is accompanied by sex- and region-specific alterations in brain amino acid and monoamine metabolism. PMID:16237719

  5. Brain spontaneous fluctuations in sensorimotor regions were directly related to eyes open and eyes closed: evidences from a machine learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishan eLiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that the difference between resting-state brain activations depends on whether the subject was eyes open (EO or eyes closed (EC. However, whether the spontaneous fluctuations are directly related to these two different resting states are still largely unclear. In the present study, we acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 24 healthy subjects (11 males, 20.17 ± 2.74 years under the EO and EC states. The amplitude of the spontaneous brain activity in low-frequency band was subsequently investigated by using the metric of fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF for each subject under each state. A support vector machine (SVM analysis was then applied to evaluate whether the category of resting states could be determined from the brain spontaneous fluctuations. We demonstrated that these two resting states could be decoded from the identified pattern of brain spontaneous fluctuations, predominantly based on fALFF in the sensorimotor module. Specifically, we observed prominent relationships between increased fALFF for EC and decreased fALFF for EO in sensorimotor regions. Overall, the present results indicate that a SVM performs well in the discrimination between the brain spontaneous fluctuations of distinct resting states and provide new insight into the neural substrate of the resting states during EC and EO.

  6. A Novel Rodent Model of Autism: Intraventricular Infusions of Propionic Acid Increase Locomotor Activity and Induce Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress in Discrete Regions of Adult Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick F. MacFabe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate neuroinflammatory changes, increased oxidative stress and disorders of glutathione metabolism may be involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Propionic acid (PPA is a dietary and gut bacterial short chain fatty acid which can produce brain and behavioral changes reminiscent of ASD following intraventricular infusion in rats. Adult Long-Evans rats were given intraventricular infusions of either PPA (500ug uL-1, 4µl anima-1 or phosphate buffered saline (PBS vehicle, twice daily for 7 days. Immediately following the second daily infusion, the locomotor activity of each rat was assessed in an automated open field (Versamax for 30 min. PPA-treated rats showed significant increases in locomotor activity compared to PBS vehicle controls. Following the last treatment day, specific brain regions were assessed for neuroinflammatory or oxidative stress markers. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed reactive astrogliosis (GFAP, activated microglia (CD68, Iba1 without apoptotic cell loss (Caspase 3 and NeuN in hippocampus and white matter (external capsule of PPA treated rats. Biomarkers of protein and lipid peroxidation, total glutathione (GSH as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR and glutathione S-transferase (GST were examined in brain homogenates. Some brain regions of PPA treated animals (neocortex, hippocampus, thalamus, striatum showed increased lipid and protein oxidation accompanied by decreased total GSH in neocortex. Catalase activity was decreased in most brain regions of PPA treated animals suggestive of reduced antioxidant enzymatic activity. GPx and GR activity was relatively unaffected by PPA treatment while GST was increased perhaps indicating involvement of GSH in the removal of PPA or related catabolites. Impairments in GSH and catalase levels may render CNS cells more susceptible to oxidative stress

  7. Genome-wide DNA methylation analyses in the brain reveal four differentially methylated regions between humans and non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jinkai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly improved cognitive function is the most significant change in human evolutionary history. Recently, several large-scale studies reported the evolutionary roles of DNA methylation; however, the role of DNA methylation on brain evolution is largely unknown. Results To test if DNA methylation has contributed to the evolution of human brain, with the use of MeDIP-Chip and SEQUENOM MassARRAY, we conducted a genome-wide analysis to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs in the brain between humans and rhesus macaques. We first identified a total of 150 candidate DMRs by the MeDIP-Chip method, among which 4 DMRs were confirmed by the MassARRAY analysis. All 4 DMRs are within or close to the CpG islands, and a MIR3 repeat element was identified in one DMR, but no repeat sequence was observed in the other 3 DMRs. For the 4 DMR genes, their proteins tend to be conserved and two genes have neural related functions. Bisulfite sequencing and phylogenetic comparison among human, chimpanzee, rhesus macaque and rat suggested several regions of lineage specific DNA methylation, including a human specific hypomethylated region in the promoter of K6IRS2 gene. Conclusions Our study provides a new angle of studying human brain evolution and understanding the evolutionary role of DNA methylation in the central nervous system. The results suggest that the patterns of DNA methylation in the brain are in general similar between humans and non-human primates, and only a few DMRs were identified.

  8. Steroid modulation of the chloride ionophore in rat brain: structure-activity requirements, regional dependence and mechanism of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, K.W.; Bolger, M.B.; Brinton, R.E.; Coirini, H.; McEwen, B.S.

    1988-08-01

    Further in vitro studies of steroids active at the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor regulated Cl- channel labeled by (35S)-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ((35S)TBPS) reveal additional structural requirements necessary for activity. Evaluation of selected steroids for activity against TBPS-induced convulsions show similar requirements for activity. Interestingly, steroids (e.g., 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha, 20 alpha-diol) were identified that have high potency but limited efficacy as modulators of (35S)TBPS binding. These characteristics are reminiscent of the clinically useful benzodiazepines (BZs) such as clonazepam. However, interactions between the prototypical anesthetic-barbiturate, sodium pentobarbital, and steroids active at the Cl- channel suggest that they do not share a common site of action as allosteric modulators of (35S)TBPS and BZ receptor binding. The most potent steroid evaluated, 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one, modulates (35S)TBPS binding at low concentrations (IC50 approximately 17 nM) in a regionally dependent manner. All (35S)TBPS binding sites appear to be functionally coupled to a steroid modulatory site. Because several of the active steroids are metabolites of progesterone, their ability to inhibit the binding of (3H)promegestrone to the cytosolic progestin receptor in rat uterus was evaluated. Those steroids showing potent activity at the GABAA receptor-Cl- ionophore were inactive at the intracellular progestin receptor. Such specificity coupled with their high potency provide additional support for the hypothesis that some of these steroids may be involved in the homeostatic regulation of brain excitability via the GABAA-BZ receptor complex.

  9. Steroid modulation of the chloride ionophore in rat brain: structure-activity requirements, regional dependence and mechanism of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further in vitro studies of steroids active at the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor regulated Cl- channel labeled by [35S]-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]TBPS) reveal additional structural requirements necessary for activity. Evaluation of selected steroids for activity against TBPS-induced convulsions show similar requirements for activity. Interestingly, steroids (e.g., 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha, 20 alpha-diol) were identified that have high potency but limited efficacy as modulators of [35S]TBPS binding. These characteristics are reminiscent of the clinically useful benzodiazepines (BZs) such as clonazepam. However, interactions between the prototypical anesthetic-barbiturate, sodium pentobarbital, and steroids active at the Cl- channel suggest that they do not share a common site of action as allosteric modulators of [35S]TBPS and BZ receptor binding. The most potent steroid evaluated, 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one, modulates [35S]TBPS binding at low concentrations (IC50 approximately 17 nM) in a regionally dependent manner. All [35S]TBPS binding sites appear to be functionally coupled to a steroid modulatory site. Because several of the active steroids are metabolites of progesterone, their ability to inhibit the binding of [3H]promegestrone to the cytosolic progestin receptor in rat uterus was evaluated. Those steroids showing potent activity at the GABAA receptor-Cl- ionophore were inactive at the intracellular progestin receptor. Such specificity coupled with their high potency provide additional support for the hypothesis that some of these steroids may be involved in the homeostatic regulation of brain excitability via the GABAA-BZ receptor complex

  10. Brain local and regional neuroglial alterations in Alzheimer´s Disease: cell types, responses and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Adolfo; Álvarez, María-Isabel; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Merino, José-Joaquín; Rodríguez, José Julio

    2016-01-01

    From birth to death, neurons are dynamically accompanied by neuroglial cells in a very close morphological and functional relationship. Three families have been classically considered within the CNS: astroglia, oligodendroglia and microglia. Many types/subtypes (including NGR2+ cells), with a wide variety of physiological and pathological effects on neurons, have been described using morphological and immunocytochemical criteria. Glio-glial, glio-neuronal and neuro-glial cell signaling and gliotransmission are phenomena that are essential to support brain functions. Morphofunctional changes resulting from the plasticity of all the glial cell types parallel the plastic neuronal changes that optimize the functionality of neuronal circuits. Moreover, neuroglia possesses the ability to adopt a reactive status (gliosis) in which, generally, new functions arise to improve and restore if needed the neural functionality. All these features make neuroglial cells elements of paramount importance when attempting to explain any physiological or pathological processes in the CNS, because they are involved in both, neuroprotection/neurorepair and neurodegeneration. There exist diverse and profound, regional and local, neuroglial changes in all involutive processes (physiological and pathological aging; neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer ´s disease -AD-), but today, the exact meaning of such modifications (the modifications of the different neuroglial types, in time and place), is not well understood. In this review we consider the different neuroglial cells and their responses in order to understand the possible role they fulfill in pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment (preventive or palliative) of AD. The existence of differentiated and/or concurrent pathogenic and neuro-protective/neuro-restorative astroglial and microglial responses is highlighted. PMID:26567738

  11. Noradrenergic stimulation modulates activation of extinction-related brain regions and enhances contextual extinction learning without affecting renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Lissek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewal in extinction learning describes the recovery of an extinguished response if the extinction context differs from the context present during acquisition and recall. Attention may have a role in contextual modulation of behavior and contribute to the renewal effect, while noradrenaline is involved in attentional processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study we investigated the role of the noradrenergic system for behavioral and brain activation correlates of contextual extinction and renewal, with a particular focus upon hippocampus and ventromedial PFC, which have crucial roles in processing of renewal. Healthy human volunteers received a single dose of the NA reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine prior to extinction learning. During extinction of previously acquired cue-outcome associations, cues were presented in a novel context (ABA or in the acquisition context (AAA. In recall, all cues were again presented in the acquisition context. Atomoxetine participants (ATO showed significantly faster extinction compared to placebo (PLAC. However, atomoxetine did not affect renewal. Hippocampal activation was higher in ATO during extinction and recall, as was ventromedial PFC activation, except for ABA recall. Moreover, ATO showed stronger recruitment of insula, anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral/orbitofrontal PFC. Across groups, cingulate, hippocampus and vmPFC activity during ABA extinction correlated with recall performance, suggesting high relevance of these regions for processing the renewal effect. In summary, the noradrenergic system appears to be involved in the modification of established associations during extinction learning and thus has a role in behavioral flexibility. The assignment of an association to a context and the subsequent decision on an adequate response, however, presumably operate largely independently of noradrenergic mechanisms.

  12. Individual 3D region-of-interest atlas of the human brain: knowledge-based class image analysis for extraction of anatomical objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Kaiser, Hans-Juergen; Sabri, Osama; Buell, Udalrich

    2000-06-01

    After neural network-based classification of tissue types, the second step of atlas extraction is knowledge-based class image analysis to get anatomically meaningful objects. Basic algorithms are region growing, mathematical morphology operations, and template matching. A special algorithm was designed for each object. The class label of each voxel and the knowledge about the relative position of anatomical objects to each other and to the sagittal midplane of the brain can be utilized for object extraction. User interaction is only necessary to define starting, mid- and end planes for most object extractions and to determine the number of iterations for erosion and dilation operations. Extraction can be done for the following anatomical brain regions: cerebrum; cerebral hemispheres; cerebellum; brain stem; white matter (e.g., centrum semiovale); gray matter [cortex, frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal lobes, cingulum, insula, basal ganglia (nuclei caudati, putamen, thalami)]. For atlas- based quantification of functional data, anatomical objects can be convoluted with the point spread function of functional data to take into account the different resolutions of morphological and functional modalities. This method allows individual atlas extraction from MRI image data of a patient without the need of warping individual data to an anatomical or statistical MRI brain atlas.

  13. Repeatability and variation of region-of-interest methods using quantitative diffusion tensor MR imaging of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakulinen Ullamari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is increasingly used in various diseases as a clinical tool for assessing the integrity of the brain’s white matter. Reduced fractional anisotropy (FA and an increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC are nonspecific findings in most pathological processes affecting the brain’s parenchyma. At present, there is no gold standard for validating diffusion measures, which are dependent on the scanning protocols, methods of the softwares and observers. Therefore, the normal variation and repeatability effects on commonly-derived measures should be carefully examined. Methods Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 37.8 years, SD 11.4 underwent DTI of the brain with 3T MRI. Region-of-interest (ROI -based measurements were calculated at eleven anatomical locations in the pyramidal tracts, corpus callosum and frontobasal area. Two ROI-based methods, the circular method (CM and the freehand method (FM, were compared. Both methods were also compared by performing measurements on a DTI phantom. The intra- and inter-observer variability (coefficient of variation, or CV% and repeatability (intra-class correlation coefficient, or ICC were assessed for FA and ADC values obtained using both ROI methods. Results The mean FA values for all of the regions were 0.663 with the CM and 0.621 with the FM. For both methods, the FA was highest in the splenium of the corpus callosum. The mean ADC value was 0.727 ×10-3 mm2/s with the CM and 0.747 ×10-3 mm2/s with the FM, and both methods found the ADC to be lowest in the corona radiata. The CV percentages of the derived measures were Conclusions With both ROI-based methods variability was low and repeatability was moderate. The circular method gave higher repeatability, but variation was slightly lower using the freehand method. The circular method can be recommended for the posterior limb of the internal capsule and splenium of the corpus callosum, and the freehand

  14. Reducing the radiation dose to the eye lens region during CT brain examination: the potential beneficial effect of the combined use of bolus and a bismuth shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Computed Tomography (CT) is the leading contributor to medical exposure to ionizing radiation. Although the use of CT brain scans for patients with head injuries and convulsions has shown a tremendous growth, it has raised substantial concerns in the general public because of the risk of radiation-induced cataracts: the current available strategies to reduce the radiation dose to the eye lens region are limited. Therefore, the present research project was initiated with the aim of evaluating the potential benefit of the combined use of bolus and a bismuth shield on reducing the radiation dose to the eye lens region during CT brain examination. Materials and methods: We conducted a series of phantom studies to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD) that is delivered to the eye lens region during CT brain examination under the effect of different scanning and shielding setups. Results: Our results indicated, during CT brain examination: (1) a drastic reduction of 92.5% in the ESD to the eye lens region was found when the CT gantry was tilted from 0 deg. (overall ESD = 30.7 mGy) to 30 deg. cranially (overall ESD = 2.4 mGy), and (2) when the CT gantry was positioned at 0 deg. (the common practice in the clinical setting), the setups with the application of a) a bismuth shield, b) a bismuth shield with a face shield (air gap), c) a bismuth shield with bolus, and d) a bismuth shield with bolus and an air gap can result in an acceptable level of image quality with a smaller overall ESD delivered to the eye lens region (overall ESD = 23.2 mGy, 24 mGy, 21 mGy and 19.9 mGy, respectively) than the setup without the bismuth shield applied (overall ESD = 30.7 mGy). Conclusion: When the primary beam scanning through the eye lens region is unavoidable during CT brain examination, the combined use of a bismuth shield with bolus and a face shield is an easy-to-use and inexpensive shielding setup to reduce the radiation dose delivered to the eye lens region while

  15. Sensitivity of measurements of regional brain activation with oxygen-15-water and PET to time of stimulation and period of image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of oxygen-15- (15O) water uptake with positron emission tomography (PET) is a sensitive technique to monitor regional brain activation secondary to stimulation paradigms. In order to investigate data acquisition times that show maximal changes in regional activation and to assess the optimal time for stimulus presentation, we investigated 10 controls with 15O-water and PET during baseline and stroboscopic light stimulation. Sequential scans were done varying the time of stimulus presentation. The images were reconstructed using three different periods of data acquisition: uptake phase (initial 30-35 sec), washout phase (40 sec following peak activity in brain), and total activity (3 min). The images reconstructed during the uptake phase showed the largest changes in occipital cortex from stimulation. Maximal changes in occipital cortex were obtained when the visual stimulus was maintained during the uptake phase only

  16. Binding kinetics of 11C-N-methyl piperidyl benzilate (11C-NMPB) in a rhesus monkey brain using the cerebellum as a reference region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding kinetics of' 11C-N-methyl piperidyl benzilate (11C-NMPB) in rhesus monkey brain were studied using animal positron emission tomography (PET) (SHR2000). This study is intended to assess the validity of the method using the cerebellum as a reference region, and to evaluate the effects of anesthesia on 11C -NMPB binding. Two monkeys, anesthetized with ketamine, received intravenous 11C-NMPB alone (370-760 MBq, 11C-NMPB accumulated densely in the striatum and cerebral cortex with time. In contrast, the tracer accumulation significantly decreased with increased doses of nonradioactive NMPB. In the cerebellum, on the other hand, the accumulation of 11C-NMPB remained low and the tracer was slowly eliminated from the brain following the injection. 11C-NMPB binding in the cerebellum was barely affected by the increased dose of nonradioactive NMPB. We thus concluded that the specific 11C-NMPB binding was negligible in the cerebellum, and performed simplified evaluation of 11C-NMPB binding in each brain region by a graphical method using the cerebellum as a reference region. PET was conducted 26 times, in total both in ketamine-anesthetized and awake monkeys (n=3 each). Measurements of 11C-NMPB binding showed good run-to-run reproducibility within individual animals. When 11C-NMPB binding was compared between ketamine-treated and awake animals, a significant increase in 11C-NMPB binding was observed in the striatum but not in other brain regions of ketamine-treated animals. (author)

  17. Modulation of memory consolidation by the basolateral amygdala or nucleus accumbens shell requires concurrent dopamine receptor activation in both brain regions

    OpenAIRE

    LaLumiere, Ryan T; Nawar, Erene M.; McGaugh, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Previous findings indicate that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) interact in influencing memory consolidation. The current study investigated whether this interaction requires concurrent dopamine (DA) receptor activation in both brain regions. Unilateral, right-side cannulae were implanted into the BLA and the ipsilateral NAc shell or core in male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼300 g). One week later, the rats were trained on an inhibitory avoidance (IA) task and, 48 h la...

  18. Arsenic intoxication-induced reduction of glutathione level and of the activity of related enzymes in rat brain regions: reversal by dl-{alpha}-lipoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shila, Samuel; Subathra, Marimuthu; Devi, Muthuswamy Anusuya; Panneerselvam, Chinnakkannu [University of Madras, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Chennai (India)

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of dl-{alpha}-lipoic acid (LA) on arsenic (As) induced alteration of glutathione (GSH) level and of the activity of glutathione-related enzymes - glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) - in rat brain regions (cortex, hypothalamus, striatum, cerebellum and hippocampus). Male Wistar rats of 150{+-}10 g weight were divided into four groups: control and three experimental groups supplemented with arsenic (sodium arsenite) alone (100 ppm mixed in drinking water), lipoic acid alone (70 mg kg{sup -1} body weight), arsenic plus lipoic acid (100 ppm arsenic in drinking water plus 70 mg lipoic acid kg{sup -1} body weight). The arsenic content of brain regions was found to increase with the administration of sodium arsenite. Arsenic exposure elicited a significant decline in glutathione content and in the activity of related enzymes, with the greatest decreases seen in the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus, whereas there were no significant differences between control rats and the group treated with lipoic acid alone. Highly elevated content of the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain regions of arsenic-exposed rats reflected extensive lipid peroxidation (LPO) processes. Simultaneous lipoic acid treatment was effective in reducing brain regional arsenic levels and lipid peroxidation and in increasing the glutathione content and the activity of its related enzymes. Lipoic acid, by acting as an alternative sulfhydryl nucleophile to glutathione, prevents its oxidation to glutathione disulfide in detoxifying reactions against reactive oxygen species and consequently increases the activity of glutathione-related enzymes. (orig.)

  19. Region-specific alterations in the corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoid receptors in the postmortem brain of suicide victims

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale : Abnormalities of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in depression and suicide are among the most consistent findings in biological psychiatry. However, the specific molecular mechanism associated with HPA axis abnormality in the brain of depressed or suicidal subjects is not clear. It is believed that abnormal HPA axis is caused by increased levels of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and decreased levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the brain of depr...

  20. Acute exercise increases brain region-specific expression of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, GLUT1, and COX IV proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, Masaki; Hamada, Taku

    2014-05-01

    The brain is capable of oxidizing lactate and ketone bodies through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). We examined the protein expression of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and cytochrome-c oxidase subunit IV (COX IV) in the rat brain within 24 h after a single exercise session. Brain samples were obtained from sedentary controls and treadmill-exercised rats (20 m/min, 8% grade). Acute exercise resulted in an increase in lactate in the cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, but not the brainstem, and an increase in β-hydroxybutyrate in the cortex alone. After a 2-h exercise session MCT1 increased in the cortex and hippocampus 5 h postexercise, and the effect lasted in the cortex for 24 h postexercise. MCT2 increased in the cortex and hypothalamus 5-24 h postexercise, whereas MCT2 increased in the hippocampus immediately after exercise, and remained elevated for 10 h postexercise. Regional upregulation of MCT2 after exercise was associated with increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine-related kinase B proteins, but not insulin-like growth factor 1. MCT4 increased 5-10 h postexercise only in the hypothalamus, and was associated with increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression. However, none of the MCT isoforms in the brainstem was affected by exercise. Whereas GLUT 1 in the cortex increased only at 18 h postexercise, COX IV in the hippocampus increased 10 h after exercise and remained elevated for 24 h postexercise. These results suggest that acute prolonged exercise induces the brain region-specific upregulation of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, GLUT1, and COX IV proteins. PMID:24610532

  1. Regional distribution of the opioid receptor agonist N-(methyl- sup 11 C)pethidine in the brain of the rhesus monkey studied with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartvig, P. (Hospital Pharmacy, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)); Eckernaes, S.Aa. (Departments of Neurology, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)); Lindberg, B.S. (Department of Obstetrics and Gynaelogy, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)); Lundqvist, H. (Centre for Radiation Sciences, University of Uppsala (Sweden)); Antoni, G.; Rimland, A.; Laangstroem, B. (Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Uppsala (Sweden))

    1990-01-01

    The regional distribution and kinetics in the brain of Rhesus monkeys of N-(methyl-{sup 11}C)-pethidine have been studied by positron emission tomography, PET. {sup 11}C-Pethidine reached the brain with peak radioactivities appearing within 6-10 min. after administration. Highest radioactivities were measured in areas corresponding to the thalamus, the striatal area and also the lowest transection of the temporal lobes, with an uptake of 2.7-3.1 times the homogenous dilution of the radioactive dose. Low radioactivities were seen in the cerebellum and the occipital lobes. This distribution corresponds to the regional density of opioid receptors using in vitro binding techniques. The {sup 11}C-pethidine derived radioactivity left the brain with an initial half-life of 40--60 minutes, followed by an elimination which paralleled the plasma elimination of unlabelled pethidine. After pretreatment of the monkey with a small dose of naloxone, the radioactivities decreased about 40% in areas corresponding to the thalamus, striatum and lowest section of the temporal lobes, indicating competition for the same binding sties. By the use of a three-compartment model, it was possible to get an estimate of {sup 11}C-pethidine receptor binding characteristics in the brain. The ratio of Kon/Koff, equal to Bmax.Kd, was 0.06-0.1. This indicates that pethidine is bound with low affinity to the opioid receptors and is a poor ligand for studies of opioid receptor function with PET. Brain kinetics of {sup 11}C-pethidine is mainly determined by its blood kinetics. (author).

  2. Regional distribution of the opioid receptor agonist N-(methyl-11C)pethidine in the brain of the rhesus monkey studied with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regional distribution and kinetics in the brain of Rhesus monkeys of N-(methyl-11C)-pethidine have been studied by positron emission tomography, PET. 11C-Pethidine reached the brain with peak radioactivities appearing within 6-10 min. after administration. Highest radioactivities were measured in areas corresponding to the thalamus, the striatal area and also the lowest transection of the temporal lobes, with an uptake of 2.7-3.1 times the homogenous dilution of the radioactive dose. Low radioactivities were seen in the cerebellum and the occipital lobes. This distribution corresponds to the regional density of opioid receptors using in vitro binding techniques. The 11C-pethidine derived radioactivity left the brain with an initial half-life of 40-60 min., followed by an elimination which paralleled the plasma elimination of unlabelled pethidine. After pretreatment of the monkey with a small dose of naloxone, the radioactivities decreased about 40% in areas corresponding to the thalamus, striatum and lowest section of the temporal lobes, indicating competition for the same binding sties. By the use of a three-compartment model, it was possible to get an estimate of 11C-pethidine receptor binding characteristics in the brain. The ratio of Kon/Koff, equal to Bmax.(Kd, was 0.06-0.1. This indicates that pethidine is bound with low affinity to the opioid receptors and is a poor ligand for studies of opioid receptor function with PET. Brain kinetics of 11C-pethidine is mainly determined by its blood kinetics. (author)

  3. Engaging Your Beginners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Teachers love to see the spark of engagement when students eagerly engage in learning. But when teachers work with English language learners in the earliest stages of language acquisition, they're often unsure how to foster challenge and engagement with students who know such sparse English. Hill shares six key do's and don'ts for classroom…

  4. Engagement and Institutional Advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerts, David; Hudson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that institutional commitment to community engagement can be understood by examining levels of student, faculty, and community involvement in engagement; organizational structure, rewards, and campus publications supporting engagement; and compatibility of an institution's mission with this work (Holland, 1997). Underlying all of…

  5. Engaging With Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    engage us with reality. Engaging with Reality investigates some of the major global themes as they are reflected in documentaries from the USA, UK and Denmark. Engaging with Reality is a contribution to comparative, transnational studies of documentary in contemporary media culture. By comparing...

  6. Diverse antidepressants increase CDP-diacylglycerol production and phosphatidylinositide resynthesis in depression-relevant regions of the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undieh Ashiwel S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major depression is a serious mood disorder affecting millions of adults and children worldwide. While the etiopathology of depression remains obscure, antidepressant medications increase synaptic levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in brain regions associated with the disease. Monoamine transmitters activate multiple signaling cascades some of which have been investigated as potential mediators of depression or antidepressant drug action. However, the diacylglycerol arm of phosphoinositide signaling cascades has not been systematically investigated, even though downstream targets of this cascade have been implicated in depression. With the ultimate goal of uncovering the primary postsynaptic actions that may initiate cellular antidepressive signaling, we have examined the antidepressant-induced production of CDP-diacylglycerol which is both a product of diacylglycerol phosphorylation and a precursor for the synthesis of physiologically critical glycerophospholipids such as the phosphatidylinositides. For this, drug effects on [3H]cytidine-labeled CDP-diacylglycerol and [3H]inositol-labeled phosphatidylinositides were measured in response to the tricyclics desipramine and imipramine, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and paroxetine, the atypical antidepressants maprotiline and nomifensine, and several monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Results Multiple compounds from each antidepressant category significantly stimulated [3H]CDP-diacylglycerol accumulation in cerebrocortical, hippocampal, and striatal tissues, and also enhanced the resynthesis of inositol phospholipids. Conversely, various antipsychotics, anxiolytics, and non-antidepressant psychotropic agents failed to significantly induce CDP-diacylglycerol or phosphoinositide synthesis. Drug-induced CDP-diacylglycerol accumulation was independent of lithium and only partially dependent on phosphoinositide hydrolysis, thus indicating that antidepressants

  7. Atlas based brain volumetry: How to distinguish regional volume changes due to biological or physiological effects from inherent noise of the methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfer, Roland; Suppa, Per; Kepp, Timo; Spies, Lothar; Schippling, Sven; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Fully-automated regional brain volumetry based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in quantitative neuroimaging. In clinical trials as well as in clinical routine multiple MRIs of individual patients at different time points need to be assessed longitudinally. Measures of inter- and intrascanner variability are crucial to understand the intrinsic variability of the method and to distinguish volume changes due to biological or physiological effects from inherent noise of the methodology. To measure regional brain volumes an atlas based volumetry (ABV) approach was deployed using a highly elastic registration framework and an anatomical atlas in a well-defined template space. We assessed inter- and intrascanner variability of the method in 51 cognitively normal subjects and 27 Alzheimer dementia (AD) patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative by studying volumetric results of repeated scans for 17 compartments and brain regions. Median percentage volume differences of scan-rescans from the same scanner ranged from 0.24% (whole brain parenchyma in healthy subjects) to 1.73% (occipital lobe white matter in AD), with generally higher differences in AD patients as compared to normal subjects (e.g., 1.01% vs. 0.78% for the hippocampus). Minimum percentage volume differences detectable with an error probability of 5% were in the one-digit percentage range for almost all structures investigated, with most of them being below 5%. Intrascanner variability was independent of magnetic field strength. The median interscanner variability was up to ten times higher than the intrascanner variability. PMID:26723849

  8. Functional and structural cerebral changes in key brain regions after a facilitation programme for episodic future thought in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Alexandra; Sourty, Marion; Roquet, Daniel; Noblet, Vincent; Gounot, Daniel; Blanc, Frédéric; De Seze, Jérôme; Manning, Liliann

    2016-06-01

    Increasingly studied, episodic future thought (EFT) impairment negatively affects patients' daily life. Along these lines, working with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients, we documented the clinical effectiveness of a mental visual imagery (MVI)-based facilitation programme on EFT impairment related to executive function difficulties. We aimed at improving the characterisation of the cognitive and neural underpinnings of RR-MS patients' EFT amelioration, by exploring the structural and functional brain changes following the MVI programme. Seventeen non-depressed RR-MS patients were recruited and randomly assigned in the (i) experimental group (n=10), who followed the MVI programme or in the control group (n=7), who followed a verbal control programme. Using an adapted version of the Autobiographical Interview to assess EFT, after facilitation, significant improvement was observed in the experimental group only. This was accompanied by increased activation in the prefrontal region during the generation of future events and was positively correlated with grey matter volume increase in this same brain area. Increased activations in the parahippocampal and the middle temporal gyri were also observed in the experimental group in post-facilitation. Likewise, functional connectivity changes were observed in the posterior brain regions after facilitation. Only minor cerebral changes were observed in the control group, likely reflecting practice effects. Our study showed that EFT improvement following the MVI programme led to functional and structural changes in brain regions sustaining contextual processing, visual imagery, the integration and maintenance of multimodal information. Taken together, these findings suggest that a cognitive intervention focusing on scene construction can be efficient to alleviate EFT impairment related to executive dysfunction. As such, this study opens the way to the development of tailor-made rehabilitation programmes

  9. Are museums places where science and society can really engage in a dialogue? A positive example related to the rubbish emergency in the Campania region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Amodio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Science musums and science centres are wonderful places to host, support and mediate the dialogue between science and society. In fact, they are a natural crossroad where scientists, general public, media and insitutions for formal and informal learning meet. During the recent political and health crisis concerning the rubbish treatment in the Italian region of Campania, the science centre "Città della Scienza" has promoted an unusual dialogue between citizens and scientists.

  10. Regional changes in brain 2-14C-deoxyglucose uptake induced by convulsant and non-convulsant doses of lindane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindane-induced dose- and time-related changes in regional 2-14C-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake were examined in 59 discrete rat brain structures using the 2-DG autoradiographic technique. At different times (0.5-144 hr) after administration of a seizure-inducing single dose of lindane (60 mg/kg), 2-DG uptake was significantly increased in 18 cortical and subcortical regions mainly related to the limbic system (e.g., Ammon's horn, dentate gyrus, septal nuclei, nucleus accumbens, olfactory cortex) and extrapyramidal and sensory-motor areas (e.g., cerebellar cortex, red nucleus, medial vestibular nucleus). There was also a significant increase in superior colliculus layer II. In addition, significant decreases occurred in a group of 6 regions (e.g., auditory and motor cortices). Non-convulsing animals treated with the same dose of lindane showed a regional pattern of 2-DG uptake less modified than the convulsant group. A non-convulsant single dose of lindane (30 mg/kg) also modified significantly the 2-DG uptake (0.5-24 hr) in some brain areas. Although the various single doses of lindane tested produced different altered patterns of brain 2-DG uptake, some structures showed a similar trend in their modification (e.g., superior colliculi and accumbens, raphe and red nuclei). Repeated non-convulsant doses of lindane produced defined and long-lasting significant elevations of 2-DG uptake in some subcortical structures. Considering the treated groups all together, 2-DG uptake increased significantly in 26 of the 59 regions examined but only decreased significantly in 9 of them during the course of lindane effects. This fact can be related to the stimulant action described for this neurotoxic agent. The observed pattern provides a descriptive approach to the functional alterations occurring in vivo during the course of lindane intoxication

  11. Designing for user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Designing for User Engagement on the Web: 10 Basic Principles is concerned with making user experience engaging. The cascade of social web applications we are now familiar with - blogs, consumer reviews, wikis, and social networking - are all engaging experiences. But engagement is an increasingly common goal in business and productivity environments as well. This book provides a foundation for all those seeking to design engaging user experiences rich in communication and interaction. Combining a handbook on basic principles with case studies, it provides readers with a ric

  12. In vivo and in vitro changes in neurochemical parameters related to mercury concentrations from specific brain regions of polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Anke; Kwan, Michael; Chan, Hing Man

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been detected in polar bear brain tissue, but its biological effects are not well known. Relationships between Hg concentrations and neurochemical enzyme activities and receptor binding were assessed in the cerebellum, frontal lobes, and occipital lobes of 24 polar bears collected from Nunavik (Northern Quebec), Canada. The concentration-response relationship was further studied with in vitro experiments using pooled brain homogenate of 12 randomly chosen bears. In environmentally exposed brain samples, there was no correlative relationship between Hg concentration and cholinesterase (ChE) activity or muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) binding in any of the 3 brain regions. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in the occipital lobe showed a negative correlative relationship with total Hg concentration. In vitro experiments, however, demonstrated that Hg (mercuric chloride and methylmercury chloride) can inhibit ChE and MAO activities and muscarinic mAChR binding. These results show that Hg can alter neurobiochemical parameters but the current environmental Hg exposure level does have an effect on the neurochemistry of polar bears from northern Canada. PMID:25264143

  13. Individual Human Brain Areas Can Be Identified from Their Characteristic Spectral Activation Fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Anne; Gross, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    The human brain can be parcellated into diverse anatomical areas. We investigated whether rhythmic brain activity in these areas is characteristic and can be used for automatic classification. To this end, resting-state MEG data of 22 healthy adults was analysed. Power spectra of 1-s long data segments for atlas-defined brain areas were clustered into spectral profiles ("fingerprints"), using k-means and Gaussian mixture (GM) modelling. We demonstrate that individual areas can be identified from these spectral profiles with high accuracy. Our results suggest that each brain area engages in different spectral modes that are characteristic for individual areas. Clustering of brain areas according to similarity of spectral profiles reveals well-known brain networks. Furthermore, we demonstrate task-specific modulations of auditory spectral profiles during auditory processing. These findings have important implications for the classification of regional spectral activity and allow for novel approaches in neuroimaging and neurostimulation in health and disease. PMID:27355236

  14. Human brain mapping under increasing cognitive complexity using regional cerebral blood flow measurements and positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ian

    2007-11-01

    activation of classical cortical oculomotor regions and underscore the involvement of these areas in other behaviours such as visual attention and saccade inhibition. During eye movements in the dark an increased activation response in the parieto-occipital cortex can be found. This can be interpreted as effects of the gaze-sensitive neurons that are used to objectively localize objects relative to the body, and efferent copies of motor commands, used to predict the visual consequences of eye movements to maintain visual continuity. Defect efferent copies are in some neurobiological models of schizophrenia thought to contribute to passivity phenomena. The clinical perspective of brain mapping techniques is to preoperatively locate eloquent areas, e.g. motor function, language, and memory, allowing the achievement of optimal neurosurgical resection with the preservation of neurological function. PMID:18208679

  15. Mu-Opioid (MOP) receptor mediated G-protein signaling is impaired in specific brain regions in a rat model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, Edina; Büki, Alexandra; Kékesi, Gabriella; Horváth, Gyöngyi; Benyhe, Sándor

    2016-04-21

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental health disorder. Clinical reports suggest that many patients with schizophrenia are less sensitive to pain than other individuals. Animal models do not interpret schizophrenia completely, but they can model a number of symptoms of the disease, including decreased pain sensitivities and increased pain thresholds of various modalities. Opioid receptors and endogenous opioid peptides have a substantial role in analgesia. In this biochemical study we investigated changes in the signaling properties of the mu-opioid (MOP) receptor in different brain regions, which are involved in the pain transmission, i.e., thalamus, olfactory bulb, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Our goal was to compare the transmembrane signaling mediated by MOP receptors in control rats and in a recently developed rat model of schizophrenia. Regulatory G-protein activation via MOP receptors were measured in [(35)S]GTPγS binding assays in the presence of a highly selective MOP receptor peptide agonist, DAMGO. It was found that the MOP receptor mediated activation of G-proteins was substantially lower in membranes prepared from the 'schizophrenic' model rats than in control animals. The potency of DAMGO to activate MOP receptor was also decreased in all brain regions studied. Taken together in our rat model of schizophrenia, MOP receptor mediated G-proteins have a reduced stimulatory activity compared to membrane preparations taken from control animals. The observed distinct changes of opioid receptor functions in different areas of the brain do not explain the augmented nociceptive threshold described in these animals. PMID:26946106

  16. Expression pattern of neural synaptic plasticity marker-Arc in different brain regions induced by conditioned drug withdrawal from acute morphine-dependent rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu LI; Yuan-yuan HOU; Bin LU; Jie CHEN; Zhi-qiang CHI; Jing-gen LIU

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The immediate early gene Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein) mRNA and protein are induced by strong synaptic activation and rapidly transported into dendrites, where they localize at active synaptic sites. Thus, the Arc mRNA and protein are proposed as a marker of neuronal reactivity to map the neural substrates that are recruited by vari-ous stimuli. In the present study, we examined the expression of Arc protein induced by conditioned naloxone-precipitated drug withdrawal in different brain regions of acute morphine-dependent rats. The objective of the present study was to address the specific neural circuits involved in conditioned place aversion (CPA) that has not yet been well characterized. Methods: Place aversion was elicited by conditioned naloxone-precipitated drug withdrawal following exposure to a single dose of morphine. An immunohistochemical method was employed to detect the expression of Arc, which was used as a plasticity marker to trace the brain areas that contribute to the formation of the place aversion. Results: Marked increases in Arc protein levels were found in the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, the sensory cortex, the lateral striatum and the amygdala. This effect was more pronounced in the basolateral arnygdala (BLA), the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and the bed nucleus of the striatal terminals (BNST) when compared with the control group.Conclusion: Our results suggest that these brain regions may play key roles In mediating the negative motivational compo-nent of opiate withdrawal.

  17. Ancient Haplotypes at the 15q24.2 Microdeletion Region Are Linked to Brain Expression of MAN2C1 and Children's Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Alejandro; Esko, Tõnu; Pappa, Irene; Gutiérrez, Armand; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Llop, Sabrina; Bustamante, Mariona; Tiemeier, Henning; Metspalu, Andres; Wilsonx, James F.; Reina-Castillón, Judith; Shin, Jean; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš; Sunyer, Jordi; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A.; González, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The chromosome bands 15q24.1-15q24.3 contain a complex region with numerous segmental duplications that predispose to regional microduplications and microdeletions, both of which have been linked to intellectual disability, speech delay and autistic features. The region may also harbour common inversion polymorphisms whose functional and phenotypic manifestations are unknown. Using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, we detected four large contiguous haplotype-genotypes at 15q24 with Mendelian inheritance in 2,562 trios, African origin, high population stratification and reduced recombination rates. Although the haplotype-genotypes have been most likely generated by decreased or absent recombination among them, we could not confirm that they were the product of inversion polymorphisms in the region. One of the blocks was composed of three haplotype-genotypes (N1a, N1b and N2), which significantly correlated with intelligence quotient (IQ) in 2,735 children of European ancestry from three independent population cohorts. Homozygosity for N2 was associated with lower verbal IQ (2.4-point loss, p-value = 0.01), while homozygosity for N1b was associated with 3.2-point loss in non-verbal IQ (p-value = 0.0006). The three alleles strongly correlated with expression levels of MAN2C1 and SNUPN in blood and brain. Homozygosity for N2 correlated with over-expression of MAN2C1 over many brain areas but the occipital cortex where N1b homozygous highly under-expressed. Our population-based analyses suggest that MAN2C1 may contribute to the verbal difficulties observed in microduplications and to the intellectual disability of microdeletion syndromes, whose characteristic dosage increment and removal may affect different brain areas. PMID:27355585

  18. Parameters influencing SPET regional brain uptake of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime measured by calibrated point sources as an external standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using calibrated point sources as an external standard to convert SPET brain counts into absolute values of regional brain uptake (rBU) of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO), the relative contribution of different parameters to interindividual variability of cerebellar rBU was examined in 33 healthy volunteers. Stepwise regression analysis identified body surface as the most important factor underlying interindividual variability, when compared with brain volume. In the normal volunteer population presented, age decrement of rBU corrected for body surface and brain volume equalled 60.5-0.20xage. Based on the data of eight normal volunteers, including four test-retest studies with heart rate (HR) differences greater than 5 units and four test-stress studies with doubling of heart rate after bicycle exercise, influence of heart rate may be expressed by the equation ΔrBU = 0.35 ΔHR. Clinically, estimation of the relative influence of different factors allows normalization and extension of the applicability of the rBU quantification method used from longitudinal studies to group comparisons. Interestingly, results of the Daily Stress Inventory Scale and a subjective rating scale suggest the absence of a significant influence of minor stress on rBU. When using one vial per patient, chromatography may be omitted in clinical routine practice and lipophilicity may be estimated as 90% of the injected dose, if administered within 10 min after preparation. Finally, sensitivity of the quantification method was tested in eight volunteers using acetazolamide brain activation and showed a mean increase in cerebellar rBU of 30.2%, varying between 14.1% and 75.9%. (orig./MG)

  19. Effects of insulin detemir and NPH insulin on body weight and appetite-regulating brain regions in human type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa W van Golen

    Full Text Available Studies in rodents have demonstrated that insulin in the central nervous system induces satiety. In humans, these effects are less well established. Insulin detemir is a basal insulin analog that causes less weight gain than other basal insulin formulations, including the current standard intermediate-long acting Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin. Due to its structural modifications, which render the molecule more lipophilic, it was proposed that insulin detemir enters the brain more readily than other insulins. The aim of this study was to investigate whether insulin detemir treatment differentially modifies brain activation in response to food stimuli as compared to NPH insulin. In addition, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF insulin levels were measured after both treatments. Brain responses to viewing food and non-food pictures were measured using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in 32 type 1 diabetic patients, after each of two 12-week treatment periods with insulin detemir and NPH insulin, respectively, both combined with prandial insulin aspart. CSF insulin levels were determined in a subgroup. Insulin detemir decreased body weight by 0.8 kg and NPH insulin increased weight by 0.5 kg (p = 0.02 for difference, while both treatments resulted in similar glycemic control. After treatment with insulin detemir, as compared to NPH insulin, brain activation was significantly lower in bilateral insula in response to visual food stimuli, compared to NPH (p = 0.02 for right and p = 0.05 for left insula. Also, CSF insulin levels were higher compared to those with NPH insulin treatment (p = 0.003. Our findings support the hypothesis that in type 1 diabetic patients, the weight sparing effect of insulin detemir may be mediated by its enhanced action on the central nervous system, resulting in blunted activation in bilateral insula, an appetite-regulating brain region, in response to food stimuli.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00626080.

  20. Beyond Hemispheric Dominance: Brain Regions Underlying the Joint Lateralization of Language and Arithmetic to the Left Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2010-01-01

    Language and arithmetic are both lateralized to the left hemisphere in the majority of right-handed adults. Yet, does this similar lateralization reflect a single overall constraint of brain organization, such an overall "dominance" of the left hemisphere for all linguistic and symbolic operations? Is it related to the lateralization of specific…

  1. Toluene effects on Oxidative Stress in Brain regions of Young-adult, Middleage,and Senescent Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress plays a role in the adver...

  2. The obesity gene, TMEM18, is of ancient origin, found in majority of neuronal cells in all major brain regions and associated with obesity in severely obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine Allen S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TMEM18 is a hypothalamic gene that has recently been linked to obesity and BMI in genome wide association studies. However, the functional properties of TMEM18 are obscure. Methods The evolutionary history of TMEM18 was inferred using phylogenetic and bioinformatic methods. The gene's expression profile was investigated with real-time PCR in a panel of rat and mouse tissues and with immunohistochemistry in the mouse brain. Also, gene expression changes were analyzed in three feeding-related mouse models: food deprivation, reward and diet-induced increase in body weight. Finally, we genotyped 502 severely obese and 527 healthy Swedish children for two SNPs near TMEM18 (rs6548238 and rs756131. Results TMEM18 was found to be remarkably conserved and present in species that diverged from the human lineage over 1500 million years ago. The TMEM18 gene was widely expressed and detected in the majority of cells in all major brain regions, but was more abundant in neurons than other cell types. We found no significant changes in the hypothalamic and brainstem expression in the feeding-related mouse models. There was a strong association for two SNPs (rs6548238 and rs756131 of the TMEM18 locus with an increased risk for obesity (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002. Conclusion We conclude that TMEM18 is involved in both adult and childhood obesity. It is one of the most conserved human obesity genes and it is found in the majority of all brain sites, including the hypothalamus and the brain stem, but it is not regulated in these regions in classical energy homeostatic models.

  3. Brain regional {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]methyl-L-tryptophan trapping, used as an index of 5-HT synthesis, in healthy adults: absence of an age effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Benkelfat, Chawki; Leyton, Marco [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal (Canada); McGill University, Department of Psychiatry, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sakai, Yojiro [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal (Canada); University of Tokyo, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Morais, Jose A. [McGill University, Department of Geriatrics, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Diksic, Mirko [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal (Canada)

    2007-08-15

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies suggest that selective aspects of the brain serotonin (5-HT) system change during the aging process. Here, we assessed the effects of aging on the brain regional {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]methyl-L-tryptophan ({alpha}-[{sup 11}C]MTrp) trapping rate constant (K*; {mu}l.g{sup -1}.min{sup -1}), which, with certain assumptions, could be taken as a proxy of 5-HT synthesis. Thirty-six healthy right-handed subjects had positron emission tomography (PET) scans following injection with {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]MTrp [18 males aged 46.6 {+-} 22.2 years (range 20-80 years) and 18 females aged 33.0 {+-} 15.5 years (range 20-80 years)]. The trapping rate constant, K*, was calculated with the graphical method for irreversible ligands using the sinus-venous input function. A priori selected volumes of interest (VOIs) were defined using an automatic algorithm. VOI analysis showed no correlation between age and brain regional K* values. As reported by others, significant age-related reductions of gray matter were observed in the thalamus and frontal and cingulate cortices; even with partial volume correction there was still no significant relationship between K* and age. Further exploratory SPM voxelwise correlation between age and {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]MTrp trapping, using p = 0.05 (uncorrected), as well as voxel-based morphometry, was in agreement with the VOI analysis. The dissociation between age-related changes in brain anatomy and this index of serotonin synthesis suggests independent mechanisms underlying the normal aging process. (orig.)

  4. 5-HTTLPR differentially predicts brain network responses to emotional faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick M; Grady, Cheryl L; Madsen, Martin K;

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on neural responses to emotionally salient faces have been studied extensively, focusing on amygdala reactivity and amygdala-prefrontal interactions. Despite compelling evidence that emotional face paradigms engage a distributed network of brain regions...... involved in emotion, cognitive and visual processing, less is known about 5-HTTLPR effects on broader network responses. To address this, we evaluated 5-HTTLPR differences in the whole-brain response to an emotional faces paradigm including neutral, angry and fearful faces using functional magnetic...... to fearful faces was significantly greater in S' carriers compared to LA LA individuals. These findings provide novel evidence for emotion-specific 5-HTTLPR effects on the response of a distributed set of brain regions including areas responsive to emotionally salient stimuli and critical components...

  5. Academic Engagement and Commercialisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkmann, Markus; Tartari, Valentina; McKelvey, Maureen;

    2013-01-01

    as ‘academic engagement’. Apart from extracting findings that are generalisable across studies, we ask how academic engagement differs from commercialisation, defined as intellectual property creation and academic entrepreneurship. We identify the individual, organisational and institutional...... antecedents and consequences of academic engagement, and then compare these findings with the antecedents and consequences of commercialisation. Apart from being more widely practiced, academic engagement is distinct from commercialisation in that it is closely aligned with traditional academic research...

  6. Modulatory effects of N-acetylcysteine on cerebral cortex and cerebellum regions of ageing rat brain Efectos moduladores de la N-acetilcisteína sobre la corteza cerebral y las regiones cerebelosas sobre la del cerebro senescente de rata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Singh Kanwar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in brain ageing and in age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Since Nacetylcysteine (NAC has recently been shown to prevent oxidative damage in ageing brain, we have examined the effects of this thiolic antioxidant on the age associated oxidative stress related parameters in rat brain regions. The lipid peroxide formation, reduced glutathione (GSH content along with the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase were determined in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum brain regions of the young (4 months and older (14 months female rats. The lipid peroxidation was observed to be increased in the cerebral cortex regions accompanied by simultaneous decrease in the GSH content in both the regions of older rats. The SOD activity was reduced in both the regions while catalase was reduced only in cerebellum region of the older rats. Following NAC supplementation (160 mg/kg. b. wt./ day, lipid peroxidation was observed to be reduced which was accompanied by enhanced GSH levels, along with enhanced SOD and catalase in both the brain regions of older rats. Further, in the younger rats the NAC treatment resulted in the decrease of lipid peroxidation in both the regions that was accompanied by the increase catalase activity in cerebral cortex region along with increase in GSH content and SOD in cerebellum regions. Our result suggests that the normal brain ageing is associated with the decrease in antioxidative defense status and the supplementation of thiol antioxidants like NAC may prove helpful in managing the age related brain disorders characterized by compromised antioxidative defense systems.El estrés oxidativo se ha implicado en el envejecimiento cerebral y en los trastornos neurodegenerativos asociados con la edad. Puesto que recientemente se ha demostrado que la N-acetilcisteína (NAC previene el daño oxidativo en el cerebro senescente, hemos explorado los efectos de este antioxidante tiólico sobre

  7. Regional brain activation supporting cognitive control in the context of reward is associated with treated adolescents’ marijuana problem severity at follow-up: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Chung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study examined the extent to which regional brain activation during a reward cue antisaccade (AS task was associated with 6-month treatment outcome in adolescent substance users. Antisaccade performance provides a sensitive measure of executive function and cognitive control, and generally improves with reward cues. We hypothesized that when preparing to execute an AS, greater activation in regions associated with cognitive and oculomotor control supporting AS, particularly during reward cue trials, would be associated with lower substance use severity at 6-month follow-up. Adolescents (n = 14, ages 14–18 recruited from community-based outpatient treatment completed an fMRI reward cue AS task (reward and neutral conditions, and provided follow-up data. Results indicated that AS errors decreased in reward, compared to neutral, trials. AS behavioral performance, however, was not associated with treatment outcome. As hypothesized, activation in regions of interest (ROIs associated with cognitive (e.g., ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and oculomotor control (e.g., supplementary eye field during reward trials were inversely correlated with marijuana problem severity at 6-months. ROI activation during neutral trials was not associated with outcomes. Results support the role of motivational (reward cue factors to enhance cognitive control processes, and suggest a potential brain-based correlate of youth treatment outcome.

  8. Causal connectivity alterations of cortical-subcortical circuit anchored on reduced hemodynamic response brain regions in first-episode drug-naïve major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing; Zou, Ke; He, Zongling; Sun, Xueli; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    Some efforts were done to investigate the disruption of brain causal connectivity networks involved in major depressive disorder (MDD) using Granger causality (GC) analysis. However, the homogenous hemodynamic response function (HRF) assumption over the brain may disturb the inference of temporal precedence. Here we applied a blind deconvolution approach to examine the altered HRF shape in first-episode, drug-naïve MDD patients. The regions with abnormal HRF shape in patients were chosen as seeds to detect the GC alterations in MDD. The results demonstrated significantly decreased magnitude of spontaneous hemodynamic response of the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and the caudate nucleus (CAU) in MDD comparing to healthy controls, suggesting MDD patients likely had alterations in neurovascular coupling and cerebrovascular physiology in these two regions. GC mapping showed increased/decreased GC in OFC-/CAU centered networks in MDD. The outgoing GC values from OFC to anterior cingulate cortex and occipital regions were positively correlated with Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) scores, while the incoming GC from insula, middle and superior temporal gyrus to CAU were negatively correlated with HAMD scores of MDD. The abnormalities of directional connections in the cortico-subcortico-cerebellar network may lead to unbalanced integrating the emotional-related information for MDD, and further exacerbating depressive symptoms. PMID:26911651

  9. Focal attenuation of specific electroencephalographic power over the right parahippocampal region during transcerebral copper screening in living subjects and hemispheric asymmetric voltages in fixed brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Nicolas; Lehman, Brendan; Persinger, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    Covering the heads of human volunteers with a toque lined with copper mesh compared to no mesh resulted in significant diminishments in quantitative electroencephalographic power within theta and beta-gamma bands over the right caudal hemisphere. The effect was most evident in women compared to men. The significant attenuation of power was verified by LORETA (low resolution electromagnetic tomography) within the parahippocampal region of the right hemisphere. Direct measurements of frequency-dependent voltages of coronal section preserved in ethanol-formalin-acetic acid from our human brain collection revealed consistently elevated power (0.2μV(2)Hz(-1)) in right hemispheric structures compared to left. The discrepancy was most pronounced in the grey (cortical) matter of the right parahippocampal region. Probing the superficial convexities of the cerebrum in an unsectioned human brain demonstrated rostrocaudal differences in hemispheric spectral power density asymmetries, particularly over caudal and parahippocampal regions, which were altered as a function of the chemical and spatial contexts imposed upon the tissue. These results indicate that the heterogeneous response of the human cerebrum to covering of the head by a thin conductor could reflect an intrinsic structure and unique electrical property of the (entorhinal) cortices of the right caudal hemisphere that persists in fixed tissue. PMID:27211475

  10. Neuropathology does not Correlate with Regional Differences in the Extent of Expansion of CTG Repeats in the Brain with Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM1) is known to be an adult-onset muscular dystrophy caused by the expansion of CTG repeats within the 3' untranslated region of the dystrophin myotonin protein kinase (DMPK) gene. The clinical features of DM1 include CNS symptoms, such as cognitive impairment and personality changes, the pathogenesis of which remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that the distribution of neuropathological changes might be correlated with the extent of the length of the CTG repeats in the DMPK genes in DM1 patients. We studied the neuropathological changes in the brains of subjects with DM1 and investigated the extent of somatic instability in terms of CTG repeat expansion in the different brain regions of the same individuals by Southern blot analysis. The neuropathological changes included état criblé in the cerebral deep white matter and neurofibrillary tangles immunoreactive for phosphorylated tau in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, both of which were compatible with the subcortical dementia in DM1 patients. However, the length of the CTG repeats did not correlate with the regional differences in the extent of neuropathological changes. Our data suggested that pathomechanisms of dementia in DM1 might be more multifactorial rather than a toxic gain-of-function due to mutant RNA

  11. Brain regions involved in moxibustion-induced analgesia in irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yi; Wu, Zhiyuan; Ma, Xiaopeng; Liu, Huirong; Bao, Chunhui; YANG, LING; Cui, Yunhua; Zhou, Cili; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Yuemin; Zhang, Zhongwei; Zhang, Huan; Jia, Haipeng; Wu, Huangan

    2014-01-01

    Background Moxibustion is one of the most commonly used therapies in acupuncture practice, and is demonstrated to be beneficial for patients with diarrhea from irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS). But its mechanism remains unclear. Because visceral hypersensitivity in IBS patients has been documented by evaluation of perceived stimulations through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, we focused on observing brain imaging changes in D-IBS patients during rectal balloon distention...

  12. 2-(/sup 125/I)iodomelatonin binding sites in hamster brain membranes: pharmacological characteristics and regional distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, M.J.; Takahashi, J.S.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    1988-05-01

    Studies in a variety of seasonally breeding mammals have shown that melatonin mediates photoperiodic effects on reproduction. Relatively little is known, however, about the site(s) or mechanisms of action of this hormone for inducing reproductive effects. Although binding sites for (3H)melatonin have been reported previously in bovine, rat, and hamster brain, the pharmacological selectivity of these sites was never demonstrated. In the present study, we have characterized binding sites for a new radioligand, 2-(125I)iodomelatonin, in brains from a photoperiodic species, the Syrian hamster. 2-(125I)Iodomelatonin labels a high affinity binding site in hamster brain membranes. Specific binding of 2-(125I)iodomelatonin is rapid, stable, saturable, and reversible. Saturation studies demonstrated that 2-(125I)iodomelatonin binds to a single class of sites with an affinity constant (Kd) of 3.3 +/- 0.5 nM and a total binding capacity (Bmax) of 110.2 +/- 13.4 fmol/mg protein (n = 4). The Kd value determined from kinetic analysis (3.1 +/- 0.9 nM; n = 5) was very similar to that obtained from saturation experiments. Competition experiments showed that the relative order of potency of a variety of indoles for inhibition of 2-(125I)iodomelatonin binding site to hamster brain membranes was as follows: 6-chloromelatonin greater than or equal to 2-iodomelatonin greater than N-acetylserotonin greater than or equal to 6-methoxymelatonin greater than or equal to melatonin greater than 6-hydroxymelatonin greater than or equal to 6,7-dichloro-2-methylmelatonin greater than 5-methoxytryptophol greater than 5-methoxytryptamine greater than or equal to 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine greater than N-acetyltryptamine greater than serotonin greater than 5-methoxyindole (inactive).

  13. 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding sites in hamster brain membranes: pharmacological characteristics and regional distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies in a variety of seasonally breeding mammals have shown that melatonin mediates photoperiodic effects on reproduction. Relatively little is known, however, about the site(s) or mechanisms of action of this hormone for inducing reproductive effects. Although binding sites for [3H]melatonin have been reported previously in bovine, rat, and hamster brain, the pharmacological selectivity of these sites was never demonstrated. In the present study, we have characterized binding sites for a new radioligand, 2-[125I]iodomelatonin, in brains from a photoperiodic species, the Syrian hamster. 2-[125I]Iodomelatonin labels a high affinity binding site in hamster brain membranes. Specific binding of 2-[125I]iodomelatonin is rapid, stable, saturable, and reversible. Saturation studies demonstrated that 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binds to a single class of sites with an affinity constant (Kd) of 3.3 +/- 0.5 nM and a total binding capacity (Bmax) of 110.2 +/- 13.4 fmol/mg protein (n = 4). The Kd value determined from kinetic analysis (3.1 +/- 0.9 nM; n = 5) was very similar to that obtained from saturation experiments. Competition experiments showed that the relative order of potency of a variety of indoles for inhibition of 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding site to hamster brain membranes was as follows: 6-chloromelatonin greater than or equal to 2-iodomelatonin greater than N-acetylserotonin greater than or equal to 6-methoxymelatonin greater than or equal to melatonin greater than 6-hydroxymelatonin greater than or equal to 6,7-dichloro-2-methylmelatonin greater than 5-methoxytryptophol greater than 5-methoxytryptamine greater than or equal to 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine greater than N-acetyltryptamine greater than serotonin greater than 5-methoxyindole (inactive)

  14. Divergent Projections of Catecholaminergic Neurons in the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract to Limbic Forebrain and Medullary Autonomic Brain Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Beverly A. S.; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a critical structure involved in coordinating autonomic and visceral activities. Previous independent studies have demonstrated efferent projections from the NTS to the nucleus paragigantocellularis (PGi) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) in rat brain. To further characterize the neural circuitry originating from the NTS with postsynaptic targets in the amygdala and medullary autonomic targets, distinct green or red fluorescent latex micr...

  15. Enduring Consequences of Early-Life Infection on Glial and Neural Cell Genesis Within Cognitive Regions of the Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, Sondra T.; Beckley, Jacob T; Young, Sarah; Tsang, Verne; Watkins, Linda R; Steven F. Maier; Staci D. Bilbo

    2009-01-01

    Systemic infection with Escherichia coli on postnatal day (P) 4 in rats results in significantly altered brain cytokine responses and behavioral changes in adulthood, but only in response to a subsequent immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide [LPS]. The basis for these changes may be long-term changes in glial cell function. We assessed glial and neural cell genesis in the hippocampus, parietal cortex (PAR), and pre-frontal cortex (PFC), in neonates just after the infection, as well as in a...

  16. Simultaneous quantification of monoamine neurotransmitters and their biogenic metabolites intracellularly and extracellularly in primary neuronal cell cultures and in sub-regions of guinea pig brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie Voigt; Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille;

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, we describe a validated chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantification of monoamine neurotransmitters and their biogenic metabolites intracellularly and extracellularly in primary neuronal cell culture and in sub-regions of the guinea pig brain. Electrochemical...... intracellular and extracellular amounts of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in guinea pig frontal cortex and hippocampal primary neuronal cell cultures. Noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin were found to be in a range from 0.31 to 1.7 pmol per 2 million cells intracellularly, but only the...

  17. Regional brain uptake and pharmacokinetics of [123I]N-ω-fluoroalkyl-2β-carboxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane esters in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four N-ω-fluoroalkyl-2β-carboxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane esters [N-fluoroethyl, methyl ester (β-CIT-FE), N-fluoropropyl, methyl ester (β-CIT-FP), N-fluoroethyl, isopropyl ester (IP-β-CIT-FE), and N-fluoropropyl, isopropyl ester (IP-β-CIT-FP)] were labeled with 123I and evaluated in baboons by dynamic SPECT regional brain imaging, measurement of pharmacokinetics in arterial plasma, and whole body imaging. The labeled tracers were prepared by iododestannylation of the corresponding 4-(trimethylstannyl)phenyl compounds in radiochemical yield 63-96% and radiochemical purity > 96%. Regional SPECT brain imaging was carried out over a period of 5 h with a Strichman 810X Brain Imager to assess regional uptake in the striatum and midbrain compared to reference regions in the occipital cortex and cerebellum; arterial blood samples were taken for analysis of metabolites by solvent extraction and HPLC. The methyl esters showed higher total and specific peak uptake in the striatum than the isopropyl esters. Midbrain uptake was uniformly lower than striatal uptake and washed out more rapidly. β-CIT-FE had more rapid striatal kinetics than β-CIT-FP, with specific striatal washout rates of 10-14 vs 4-6% peak/h. Biodistribution of [123I]β-CIT-FE and [123I]β-CIT-FP measured by whole body conjugate imaging demonstrated major uptake in the brain, liver, and GI tract, with excretion occurring through both the renal and hepatobiliary routes. Absorbed radiation dose estimates based on the MIRD schema indicated highest dose rates to the urinary bladder wall and lower large intestine wall (0.7 and 0.6 rad/mCi for [123I]β-CIT-FE and 0.7 and 0.9 rad/mCi for [123I]β-CIT-FP, respectively). The high uptake in the striatum and the relative specificity with respect to cortical, midbrain, and cerebellar areas, suggest that [123I]β-CIT-FE and [123I]β-CIT-FP may be valuable tracers for studying the dopamine system in vivo by tomographic imaging.

  18. Mapping the brain's orchestration during speech comprehension: task-specific facilitation of regional synchrony in neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keil Andreas

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How does the brain convert sounds and phonemes into comprehensible speech? In the present magnetoencephalographic study we examined the hypothesis that the coherence of electromagnetic oscillatory activity within and across brain areas indicates neurophysiological processes linked to speech comprehension. Results Amplitude-modulated (sinusoidal 41.5 Hz auditory verbal and nonverbal stimuli served to drive steady-state oscillations in neural networks involved in speech comprehension. Stimuli were presented to 12 subjects in the following conditions (a an incomprehensible string of words, (b the same string of words after being introduced as a comprehensible sentence by proper articulation, and (c nonverbal stimulations that included a 600-Hz tone, a scale, and a melody. Coherence, defined as correlated activation of magnetic steady state fields across brain areas and measured as simultaneous activation of current dipoles in source space (Minimum-Norm-Estimates, increased within left- temporal-posterior areas when the sound string was perceived as a comprehensible sentence. Intra-hemispheric coherence was larger within the left than the right hemisphere for the sentence (condition (b relative to all other conditions, and tended to be larger within the right than the left hemisphere for nonverbal stimuli (condition (c, tone and melody relative to the other conditions, leading to a more pronounced hemispheric asymmetry for nonverbal than verbal material. Conclusions We conclude that coherent neuronal network activity may index encoding of verbal information on the sentence level and can be used as a tool to investigate auditory speech comprehension.

  19. Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II) in human brain: regional distribution of IGF II and of higher molecular mass forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-four distinct areas of human brain were analyzed for the presence of insulin-like growth factor (IGF). As reported for cerebrospinal fluid, only IGF II-like immunoreactivity, but no significant amounts of IGF I-like immunoreactivity, could be found. Upon gel permeation chromatography, two to five distinct size classes were separated on the basis of their immunoreactivity. Radioimmunoassays and a bioassay also gave results indistinguishable from those of serum IGF II. The highest amounts of IGF II-like immunoreactivity occur in the anterior pituitary. This is up to 100 times more than in most other brain regions analyzed. The higher molecular mass immunoreactive species were partially characterized. After immunoaffinity purification, the 38- and 26-kDa species are active in a bioassay. Specific IGF-binding protein activity could be shown after purification of the 38- and 26-kDa species on an IGF-affinity column. The 13-kDa species released significant amounts of 7.5-kDa material. The results are interpreted as evidence for the presence of IGF II synthesized locally in human brain

  20. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val⁶⁶Met polymorphism affects resting regional cerebral blood flow and functional connectivity differentially in women versus men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shau-Ming; Eisenberg, Daniel P; Kohn, Philip D; Kippenhan, Jonathan S; Kolachana, Bhaskar S; Weinberger, Daniel R; Berman, Karen F

    2012-05-16

    The human Val⁶⁶Met single nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene impacts BDNF signaling at the cellular level. At the neural-systems level, it is associated with differences in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampal function during performance of cognitive and affective tasks. Because the impact of this variant on basal prefrontal and hippocampal activity is not known but may be relevant to understanding the function of this gene in health and disease, we studied 94 healthy individuals with H₂ ¹⁵O PET to assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during rest and tested for between-genotype differences. Because BDNF and gonadal steroid hormones conjointly influence neuronal growth, survival, and plasticity in hippocampus and PFC, we also tested for sex × genotype interactions. Finally, in light of the known impact of BDNF on plasticity and dendritic arborization, we complimented direct rCBF comparisons with connectivity analyses to determine how activity in hippocampal and prefrontal regions showing between-genotype group differences covaries with rCBF in other nodes throughout the brain in a genotype- or sex-dependent manner. Compared with Val homozygotes, Met carriers had higher rCBF in prefrontal (BA25 extending into BA10) and hippocampal/parahippocampal regions. Moreover, there were significant sex × genotype interactions in regions (including frontal, parahippocampal, and lateral temporal cortex) in which Val homozygotes showed higher rCBF in females than males, but Met carriers showed the opposite relationship. Functional connectivity analysis demonstrated that correlations of BA25, hippocampus, and parahippocampus with frontal and temporal networks were positive for Val homozygotes and negative for Met carriers. In addition, sex × genotype analysis of functional connectivity revealed that genotype affected directionality of the inter-regional correlations differentially in men versus women. Our data indicate

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate have been linked ... we see, and help us to solve a problem. Some of the regions most commonly ... also appears to be involved in learning to fear an event, such as touching a ...

  2. Long-term meditation is associated with increased gray matter density in the brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Beek, Martijn van; Skewes, Joshua;

    2009-01-01

    Extensive practice involving sustained attention can lead to changes in brain structure. Here, we report evidence of structural differences in the lower brainstem of participants engaged in the long-term practice of meditation. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we observed higher gray matter...... density in lower brain stem regions of experienced meditators compared with age-matched nonmeditators. Our findings show that long-term practitioners of meditation have structural differences in brainstem regions concerned with cardiorespiratory control. This could account for some of the...... cardiorespiratory parasympathetic effects and traits, as well as the cognitive, emotional, and immunoreactive impact reported in several studies of different meditation practices....

  3. Dose-response assessment of tariquidar and elacridar and regional quantification of P-glycoprotein inhibition at the rat blood-brain barrier using (R)-[11C]verapamil PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overactivity of the multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is believed to play an important role in resistance to central nervous system drug treatment. (R)-[11C]verapamil (VPM) PET can be used to measure the function of P-gp at the BBB, but low brain uptake of VPM hampers the mapping of regional differences in cerebral P-gp function and expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response relationship of two potent P-gp inhibitors and to investigate if increased brain uptake of VPM mediated by P-gp inhibition can be used to assess regional differences in P-gp activity. Two groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) underwent single VPM PET scans at 120 min after administration of different doses of the P-gp inhibitors tariquidar and elacridar. In an additional six rats, paired VPM PET scans were performed before and after administration of 3 mg/kg tariquidar. Inhibitor administration resulted in an up to 11-fold increase in VPM brain distribution volumes (DV) with half-maximum effective dose (ED50) values of 3.0 ± 0.2 and 1.2 ± 0.1 mg/kg for tariquidar and elacridar, respectively. In paired PET scans, 3 mg/kg tariquidar resulted in regionally different enhancement of brain activity distribution, with lowest DV in cerebellum and highest DV in thalamus. Our data show that tariquidar and elacridar are able to increase VPM brain distribution in rat brain up to 11-fold over baseline at maximum effective doses, with elacridar being about three times more potent than tariquidar. Regional differences in tariquidar-induced modulation of VPM brain uptake point to regional differences in cerebral P-gp function and expression in rat brain. (orig.)

  4. Hemoglobins, Hemorphins, and 11p15.5 Chromosomal Region in Cancer Biology and İmmunity with Special Emphasis for Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinoz, Meric Adil; Elmaci, Ilhan; Ince, Bahri; Ozpinar, Aysel; Sav, Aydin Murat

    2016-05-01

    In systemic cancers, increased hemolysis leads to extracellular hemoglobin (HB), and experimental studies have shown its provoking role on tumor growth and metastasis. However, investigations have shown that HB chains presented by tumor vascular pericytes or serum protein complexes of HB could also induce antitumor immunity, which may be harnessed to treat refractory cancers and brain tumors. Mounting recent evidence shows that expression of HBs is not restricted to erythrocytes and that HBs exist in the cells of lung and kidney, in macrophages, and in neurons and glia of the central nervous system (CNS). HBs mediate coping with hypoxia and free radical stress in normal and tumor cells, and they are increased in certain tumors including breast, lung, colon, and squamous cell cancers. Recent studies showed HBs in meningioma, in the cyst fluid of craniopharyngioma, in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of pediatric patients with posterior fossa tumors, and in glioblastoma cell lines. Hemorphins, abundant brain peptides formed via HB-chain cleavage, exert opioid activity and antiproliferative and immunomodifier effects. Hence mutations in HBs may modify brain tumorigenesis via influencing hemorphins and perturbing regulations of immune surveillance and cell growth in the neuroectodermal tissues. The β-globin gene cluster resides in the chromosome region 11p15.5, harboring important immunity genes and IGF2, H19, PHLDA2/TSSC3, TRIM3, and SLC22A18 genes associated with cancers and gliomas. 11p15.5 is a prominent region subject to epigenetic regulation. Thus the β-globin loci may exert haplotypal interactions with these. Some clues support this theory. It is well established that iron load induces liver cancer in thalassemia major; however iron load-independent associations also exist. Enhanced rates of hematologic malignancies are associated with HB Lepore, association of hemoglobin E with cholangiocarcinoma, and enhanced gastric cancer rates in the thalassemia trait. In

  5. Identification and regional distribution in rat brain of radiometabolites of the dopamine transporter PET radioligand [11C]PE2I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to determine the composition of radioactivity in rat brain after intravenous administration of the dopamine transporter radioligand, [11C]PE2I. PET time-activity curves (TACs) and regional brain distribution ex vivo were measured using no-carrier-added [11C]PE2I. Carrier-added [11C]PE2I was administered to identify metabolites with high-performance liquid radiochromatography (RC) or RC with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and MS-MS). The stability of [11C]PE2I was assessed in rat brain homogenates. After peak brain uptake of no-carrier-added [11C]PE2I, there was differential washout rate from striata and cerebellum. Thirty minutes after injection, [11C]PE2I represented 10.9 ± 2.9% of the radioactivity in plasma, 67.1 ± 11.0% in cerebellum, and 92.5 ± 3.2% in striata, and was accompanied by two less lipophilic radiometabolites. [11C]PE2I was stable in rat brain homogenate for at least 1 h at 37 C. LC-MS identified hydroxylated PE2I (1) (m/z 442) and carboxyl-desmethyl-PE2I (2) (m/z 456) in brain. MS-MS of 1 gave an m/z 442→424 transition due to H2O elimination, so verifying the presence of a benzyl alcohol group. Metabolite 2 was the benzoic acid derivative. Ratios of ex vivo measurements of [11C]PE2I, [11C]1, and [11C]2 in striata to their cognates in cerebellum were 6.1 ± 3.4, 3.7 ± 2.2 and 1.33 ± 0.38, respectively, showing binding selectivity of metabolite [11C]1 to striata. Radiometabolites [11C]1 and [11C]2 were characterized as the 4-hydroxymethyl and 4-carboxyl analogs of [11C]PE2I, respectively. The presence of the pharmacologically active [11C]1 and the inactive [11C]2 is a serious impediment to successful biomathematical analysis. (orig.)

  6. Conscious Pulse; 1, The rules of engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2002-01-01

    This paper elaborates on four previously proposed rules of engagement between conscious states and physiological states. A new rule is proposed that applies to a continuous model of conscious brain states that cannot precisely resolve eigenvalues. If two apparatus states are in superposition, and if their eigenvalues are so close together that they cannot be consciously resolved on this model, then it is shown that observation will not generally reduce the superposition to just one of its member eigenstates. In general, the observation of a quantum mechanical superposition results in another superposition. Key words: Brain states, cat paradox, consciousness, conscious observer, macroscopic superposition, measurement, state reduction, state collapse, von Neumann.

  7. Developmental exposure to PBDE 99 and PCB affects estrogen sensitivity of target genes in rat brain regions and female sexual behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtensteiger, W.; Faass, O.; Ceccatelli, R.; Schlumpf, M. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Pharmacology and Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    We recently reported effects of PBDE99 (2,2',4,4'5-pentabromoBDE) on sexual differentiation processes in rat reproductive organs and central nervous system. These studies were prompted by reports on an increase of PBDE levels in human milk, an indicator of the body burden of pregnant women and of potential exposure of the nursing infant, during the last decade. Even higher human adipose tissue and milk levels were reported for North America. PBDE99 is present in human and animal samples and exhibits developmental neurotoxicity in mice. The developing brain is subject to the organizing action of estradiol locally formed from circulating testosterone, and thus represents a target for endocrine active chemicals. One molecular mechanism by which chemicals may interfere with sexual brain differentiation, may be a change in the expression of sex hormone (estrogen)-regulated genes. Such effects may manifest themselves in mRNA expression levels, or in the sensitivity of the genes to estrogen. In order to detect alterations of the latter, more subtle parameter, we have conducted experiments in developmentally chemical-exposed rat offspring that were gonadectomized in adulthood and injected with a challenge dose of estradiol. Effects of PBDE99 were compared with those of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254, which had previously been found to influence sexual brain differentiation. We analyzed the expression of estrogen-regulated genes in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and medial preoptic area (MPO), two brain regions that are part of a network involved in the integration of environmental cues, sexual behavior and gonadal function. Since prominent changes were observed in VMH which is particularly important for female sexual behavior, the study was completed by a behavioral analysis.

  8. Engagement Means Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Employee engagement is not just HR's responsibility. While HR is responsible for the process of measuring and driving engagement, improving it is actually everyone's responsibility. And that means reducing the barriers to productivity to drive business performance. Training departments can play a pivotal role. Their job is to enhance curriculum or…

  9. The Player Engagement Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Engagement is an essential element of the player experience, and the concept is described in various ways in the literature. To gain a more detailed comprehension of this multifaceted concept, and in order to better understand what aspects can be used to evaluate engaging game play and to design...

  10. The Engagement Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tartari, Valentina; Salter, Ammon

    2013-01-01

    Recently, debate on women in academic science has been extended to academics' engagement with industry. We suggest that women tend to engage less in industry collaboration than their male colleagues of similar status. We argue that differences are mitigated by the presence of other women and by...

  11. Civic Engagement Comes Alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruempel, Beverly J.; Gentzler, Yvonne S.; Hausafus, Cheryl O.; Keino, Leah C.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how civic engagement came alive in a Family and Consumer Social Issues class. College students are at a critical age to develop a lifelong interest in civic engagement. Students in a Family and Consumer Social Issues class were required to attend two meetings of a public board or agency of their choice. Their assignment was…

  12. Regional blockade by neuroleptic drugs of in vivo 3H-spiperone binding in the rat brain. Relation to blockade of apomorphine induced hyperactivity and stereotypies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regional prevention by neuroleptic drugs of specific in vivo 3H-spiperone binding was studied in the rat brain. L-sulpiride, thioridazine and clozapine were found to reduce the 3H-spiperone bindings selectively in the olfactory tubercle, septum, substantia nigra and frontal cortex but not the striatum at dose levels which preferentially block apomorphine (APO) induced hyperactivity. The maximal prevention of specific 3H-spiperone binding by l-sulpiride and clozapine reached 60-80% in the former structures while the displacement of striatal 3H-spiperone binding did not exceed 40%. In contrast to l-sulpiride, thioridazine and clozapine both chlorpromazine and haloperidol reduced the 3H-spiperone binding to the same extent in all regions studied. Chlorpromazine and haloperidol were potent in prevention of striatal 3H-spiperone binding in vivo which reached 60-80% in this structure. (Author)

  13. Regional blockade by neuroleptic drugs of in vivo /sup 3/H-spiperone binding in the rat brain. Relation to blockade of apomorphine induced hyperactivity and stereotypies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, C.; Haglund, L.; Oegren, S.O.; Aengeby, T. (Astra Lackemedel AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden). Dept. of Pharmacology)

    1981-01-01

    The regional prevention by neuroleptic drugs of specific in vivo /sup 3/H-spiperone binding was studied in the rat brain. L-sulpiride, thioridazine and clozapine were found to reduce the /sup 3/H-spiperone bindings selectively in the olfactory tubercle, septum, substantia nigra and frontal cortex but not the striatum at dose levels which preferentially block apomorphine (APO) induced hyperactivity. The maximal prevention of specific /sup 3/H-spiperone binding by l-sulpiride and clozapine reached 60-80% in the former structures while the displacement of striatal /sup 3/H-spiperone binding did not exceed 40%. In contrast to l-sulpiride, thioridazine and clozapine both chlorpromazine and haloperidol reduced the /sup 3/H-spiperone binding to the same extent in all regions studied. Chlorpromazine and haloperidol were potent in prevention of striatal /sup 3/H-spiperone binding in vivo which reached 60-80% in this structure.

  14. Postnatal Age Influences Hypoglycemia-induced Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 Activation in the Brain Regions of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Raghavendra; Sperr, Dustin; Ennis, Kathleen; Tran, Phu

    2009-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) overactivation plays a significant role in hypoglycemia-induced brain injury in adult rats. To determine the influence of postnatal age on PARP-1 activation, developing and adult male rats were subjected to acute hypoglycemia of equivalent severity and duration. The expression of PARP-1 and its downstream effectors, apoptosis inducing factor (Aifm1), caspase 3 (Casp3), NF-κB (Nfkb1) and bcl-2 (Bcl2), and cellular poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer expression...

  15. Using voxel-based morphometry to examine the relationship between regional brain volumes and memory performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric eMeyer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder, in which morphological alterations of brain tissue develop many years before the first neuropsychological and clinical changes occur. Among the first and most prominent symptoms are deficiencies of declarative memory functions. This stage of precursory symptoms to AD has been described as amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and is discussed as a potential AD prodrome. As therapy in the later stages of AD has been shown to be of limited impact, aMCI would be the key target for early intervention. For that purpose a comprehensive neuropsychological and anatomical characterization of this group is necessary. Previous neuropsychological investigations identified tests which are highly sensitive in diagnosing aMCI and very early AD. However, the sensitivity of those neuropsychological tests to the particular structural neuropathology in aMCI remains to be specified. To this end we investigated 25 patients with single-domain aMCI. All participants underwent extensive neuropsychological testing and anatomical scanning with structural magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM was performed to identify brain regions that show a significant correlation between regional brain volume and behavioral measures of memory and executive functioning. We found that performance in a variety of mnemonic tests was directly related to the integrity of the medial temporal lobe cortex (MTLC. Moreover, impairment of memory subfunctions in aMCI might be detected earlier than overt structural damage. By this, these findings contribute to the identification of cerebral structures associated with memory deficits in aMCI.

  16. Cell- and region-specific miR30-based gene knock-down with temporal control in the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Haibo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi emerges as a powerful tool to induce loss-of-function phenotypes. In the context of the brain, gene manipulation is best targeted to specific subsets of cells in order to achieve a physiologically relevant outcome. Polymerase II-based viral expression systems can be used to cell-specifically express constructs incorporating flanking and loop sequences from endogenous microRNA (miRNA, which directs the designed hairpins into the endogenous gene silencing machinery. While many studies have documented non-cell-selective gene knock-down in the brain, it has not been tested whether different cell types or different areas of the central nervous system (CNS are equally amenable to this approach. We have evaluated this issue using a tetracycline (Tet-controllable and cell-specific miRNA 30 (miR30-based short hairpin (shRNA interference system. Results To achieve targeted expression two cell type-specific promoters were used; the enhanced compact glial fibrillary acidic protein (GfaABC1D promoter and the enhanced human synapsin-1 (SYN promoter. Powerful luciferase (Luc and the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS gene knock-down were achieved both in vitro and in vivo. Administration of doxycycline (Dox abrogated gene silencing. However, the efficacy of gene knock-down in both neurones and astrocytes in the hippocampus (HIP was lower than that in the dorsal vagal complex of the brainstem (DVC. This was not due to regional differences in the expression of the the key enzymes involved in miRNA processing. Conclusions The results from the presented experiments demonstrated that selective gene knock-down in subsets of brain cells is achievable. However, there are some presently unknown regional factors which affect either the processing of miRNA-based cassettes or their potency for gene silencing.

  17. Systemic injection of kainic acid: Gliosis in olfactory and limbic brain regions quantified with [3H]PK 11195 binding autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurodegenerative diseases may result from excessive stimulation of excitatory amino acid receptors by endogenous ligands. Because neuronal degeneration is associated with glial proliferation and hypertrophy, the degenerative changes throughout rat brain following the systemic administration of kainic acid (12 mg/kg) were mapped with quantitative autoradiography of [3H]PK 11195. This radioligand binds to a mitochondrial benzodiazepine binding site (MBBS) on microglia and astrocytes. Analysis of eight horizontal and four coronal brain levels revealed up to 16-fold increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding from 1 to 5 weeks but not 1 day after kainate injection. Increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding were predominantly in ventral limbic brain regions and olfactory projections to neocortical areas, with the olfactory cortex greater than subiculum/CA1 greater than anterior olfactory nucleus, medial thalamic nucleus, and piriform cortex greater than cingulate cortex and rostral hippocampus greater than dentate gyrus, septum, and amygdala greater than entorhinal cortex and temporal cortex. Little or no enhancement of [3H]PK 11195 binding was observed in numerous regions including the caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, cerebellum, thalamic nuclei, choroid plexus, medulla, parietal or occipital cortex, or pons. A 2-fold greater extent of neurodegeneration was obtained in ventral portions of the olfactory bulb, entorhinal cortex, temporal cortex, and dentate gyrus compared with the dorsal portions of these structures. The pattern of increase in [3H]PK 11195 binding closely matched the patterns of neuronal degeneration reported following parenteral kainate injection. These findings strengthen the notion that quantitative autoradiography of [3H]PK 11195 is a valuable tool to quantify the extent of neuronal degeneration

  18. EEG-directed connectivity from posterior brain regions is decreased in dementia with Lewy bodies: a comparison with Alzheimer's disease and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwan, Meenakshi; van Dellen, Edwin; van Boxtel, Lotte; van Straaten, Elisabeth C W; de Waal, Hanneke; Lemstra, Afina W; Gouw, Alida A; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Sommer, Iris E; Stam, Cornelis J

    2016-05-01

    Directed information flow between brain regions might be disrupted in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and relate to the clinical syndrome of DLB. To investigate this hypothesis, resting-state electroencephalography recordings were obtained in patients with probable DLB and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and controls (N = 66 per group, matched for age and gender). Phase transfer entropy was used to measure directed connectivity in the groups for the theta, alpha, and beta frequency band. A posterior-to-anterior phase transfer entropy gradient, with occipital channels driving the frontal channels, was found in controls in all frequency bands. This posterior-to-anterior gradient was largely lost in DLB in the alpha band (p < 0.05). In the beta band, posterior brain regions were less driving in information flow in AD than in DLB and controls. In conclusion, the common posterior-to-anterior pattern of directed connectivity in controls is disturbed in DLB patients in the alpha band, and in AD patients in the beta band. Disrupted alpha band-directed connectivity may underlie the clinical syndrome of DLB and differentiate between DLB and AD. PMID:27103525

  19. Cocaine addiction related reproducible brain regions of abnormal default-mode network functional connectivity: a group ICA study with different model orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoyu; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2013-08-26

    Model order selection in group independent component analysis (ICA) has a significant effect on the obtained components. This study investigated the reproducible brain regions of abnormal default-mode network (DMN) functional connectivity related with cocaine addiction through different model order settings in group ICA. Resting-state fMRI data from 24 cocaine addicts and 24 healthy controls were temporally concatenated and processed by group ICA using model orders of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50, respectively. For each model order, the group ICA approach was repeated 100 times using the ICASSO toolbox and after clustering the obtained components, centrotype-based anterior and posterior DMN components were selected for further analysis. Individual DMN components were obtained through back-reconstruction and converted to z-score maps. A whole brain mixed effects factorial ANOVA was performed to explore the differences in resting-state DMN functional connectivity between cocaine addicts and healthy controls. The hippocampus, which showed decreased functional connectivity in cocaine addicts for all the tested model orders, might be considered as a reproducible abnormal region in DMN associated with cocaine addiction. This finding suggests that using group ICA to examine the functional connectivity of the hippocampus in the resting-state DMN may provide an additional insight potentially relevant for cocaine-related diagnoses and treatments. PMID:23707901

  20. TGF-β superfamily gene expression and induction of the Runx1 transcription factor in adult neurogenic regions after brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor T Logan

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI increases neurogenesis in the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ and the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β superfamily cytokines are important regulators of adult neurogenesis, but their involvement in the regulation of this process after brain injury is unclear. We subjected adult mice to controlled cortical impact (CCI injury, and isolated RNA from the SVZ and DG at different post-injury time points. qPCR array analysis showed that cortical injury caused significant alterations in the mRNA expression of components and targets of the TGF-β, BMP, and activin signaling pathways in the SVZ and DG after injury, suggesting that these pathways could regulate post-injury neurogenesis. In both neurogenic regions, the injury also induced expression of Runt-related transcription factor-1 (Runx1, which can interact with intracellular TGF-β Smad signaling pathways. CCI injury strongly induced Runx1 expression in activated and proliferating microglial cells throughout the neurogenic regions. Runx1 protein was also expressed in a subset of Nestin- and GFAP-expressing putative neural stem or progenitor cells in the DG and SVZ after injury. In the DG only, these Runx1+ progenitors proliferated. Our data suggest potential roles for Runx1 in the processes of microglial cell activation and proliferation and in neural stem cell proliferation after TBI.

  1. Is the Sense of Agency in Schizophrenia Influenced by Resting-State Variation in Self-Referential Regions of the Brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jeffrey D; Wagner, Nils-Frederic; Northoff, Georg

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a disturbance of the self, of which the attribution of agency is a major component. In this article, we review current theories of the Sense of Agency, their relevance to schizophrenia, and propose a novel framework for future research. We explore some of the models of agency, in which both bottom-up and top-down processes are implicated in the genesis of agency. We further this line of inquiry by suggesting that ongoing neurological activity (the brain's resting state) in self-referential regions of the brain can provide a deeper level of influence beyond what the current models capture. Based on neuroimaging studies, we suggest that aberrant activity in regions such as the default mode network of individuals with schizophrenia can lead to a misattribution of internally/externally generated stimuli. This can result in symptoms such as thought insertion and delusions of control. Consequently, neuroimaging can contribute to a more comprehensive conceptualization and measurement of agency and potential treatment implications. PMID:26221048

  2. Conscious Pulse I: The rules of engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    This paper elaborates on four previously proposed rules of engagement between conscious states and physiological states. A new rule is proposed that applies to a continuous model of conscious brain states that cannot precisely resolve eigenvalues. If two apparatus states are in superposition, and if their eigenvalues are so close together that they cannot be consciously resolved on this model, then it is shown that observation will not generally reduce the superposition to just one of its mem...

  3. Understanding brain networks and brain organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2014-09-01

    What is the relationship between brain and behavior? The answer to this question necessitates characterizing the mapping between structure and function. The aim of this paper is to discuss broad issues surrounding the link between structure and function in the brain that will motivate a network perspective to understanding this question. However, as others in the past, I argue that a network perspective should supplant the common strategy of understanding the brain in terms of individual regions. Whereas this perspective is needed for a fuller characterization of the mind-brain, it should not be viewed as panacea. For one, the challenges posed by the many-to-many mapping between regions and functions is not dissolved by the network perspective. Although the problem is ameliorated, one should not anticipate a one-to-one mapping when the network approach is adopted. Furthermore, decomposition of the brain network in terms of meaningful clusters of regions, such as the ones generated by community-finding algorithms, does not by itself reveal "true" subnetworks. Given the hierarchical and multi-relational relationship between regions, multiple decompositions will offer different "slices" of a broader landscape of networks within the brain. Finally, I described how the function of brain regions can be characterized in a multidimensional manner via the idea of diversity profiles. The concept can also be used to describe the way different brain regions participate in networks.

  4. The ABCs of Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Seth A.; Nuland, Leila Richey; Parsons, Allison Ward

    2014-01-01

    Student engagement is an important consideration for teachers and administrators because it is explicitly associated with achievement. What the authors call the ABC's of engagement they outline as: Affective engagement, Behavioral engagement, and Cognitive engagement. They also present "Three Things Every Teacher Needs to Know about…

  5. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Kou, Zhifeng; Iraji, Armin

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy; however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrated both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. ...

  6. University engagement and regional sustainability initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per; Thrane, Mikkel;

    2009-01-01

    Aalborg University, Denmark, the linkages (actual, potential and missing) between academic work in research and education and sustainability initiatives are explored. The focus is both on the university's core activities as a provider of research and education and on the university's activities as an...

  7. Constituting Public Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael

    2013-01-01

    understanding of science to those of public engagement with science and technology (PEST), and the histories, or genealogies, of such models. Data from two qualitative studies-a case study of one of the United Kingdom'ssix Beacons for Public Engagement and a study of contract research staff-are used...... backgrounds, suggesting that multiple and overlapping meanings around PEST are derived from particular histories that have been brought together, through the rubric of public engagement, in assemblages such as the Beacons. © 2013 SAGE Publications....

  8. Measuring user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Lalmas, Mounia; Yom-Tov, Elad

    2014-01-01

    User engagement refers to the quality of the user experience that emphasizes the positive aspects of interacting with an online application and, in particular, the desire to use that application longer and repeatedly. User engagement is a key concept in the design of online applications (whether for desktop, tablet or mobile), motivated by the observation that successful applications are not just used, but are engaged with. Users invest time, attention, and emotion in their use of technology, and seek to satisfy pragmatic and hedonic needs. Measurement is critical for evaluating whether online

  9. Community-Engaged Scholarship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester; Parker, Patricia S.

    2013-01-01

    We are pleased to offer this special issue on community-engaged scholarship. As scholar-activists working for social justice alongside youth of color (Pat) and critical arts activists engaging with stigmatized communities (Ester), we began this project with the intent of gathering a collection of...... to this special issue, Schaefer & Rivera) in community-engaged scholarship—issues that emerge at the intersection between the political and the theoretical and which are at the forefront of conversations both inside and outside the traditional boundaries of academe....

  10. Detection of regional cerebral ischemia in the rat brain with susceptibility-enhanced echo-planar MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an ultrafast imaging technique with a magnetic susceptibility contrast medium in order to monitor the relative perfusion of normal and compromised rat brain tissue. Unilateral (right) middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (n = 4) was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. Control (n = 4) and sham-operated (n = 3) rats were also studied. MR imaging was performed with a General Electric 2.0-T CSI system (equipped with Acustar S-150 self-shielded gradients). Coronal gradient refocused echo-planar images were acquired in 65.6 msec (section thickness 2 mm; sweep width, 62.5 kHz; 64 x 64 image matrix; field of view, 40 x 40 mm) in sets of 12 or 16, before and during bolus administration of MR contrast material 0.05 mmol of iron per kilogram as AMI-25 superparamagnetic iron oxide particles

  11. Anatomo-functional study of the temporo-parieto-occipital region: dissection, tractographic and brain mapping evidence from a neurosurgical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Duffau, Hugues; Paradiso, Beatrice; Grandi, Enrico; Balbi, Sergio; Granieri, Enrico; Colarusso, Enzo; Chioffi, Franco; Marras, Carlo Efisio; Sarubbo, Silvio

    2014-08-01

    The temporo-parieto-occipital (TPO) junction is a complex brain territory heavily involved in several high-level neurological functions, such as language, visuo-spatial recognition, writing, reading, symbol processing, calculation, self-processing, working memory, musical memory, and face and object recognition. Recent studies indicate that this area is covered by a thick network of white matter (WM) connections, which provide efficient and multimodal integration of information between both local and distant cortical nodes. It is important for neurosurgeons to have good knowledge of the three-dimensional subcortical organisation of this highly connected region to minimise post-operative permanent deficits. The aim of this dissection study was to highlight the subcortical functional anatomy from a topographical surgical perspective. Eight human hemispheres (four left, four right) obtained from four human cadavers were dissected according to Klingler's technique. Proceeding latero-medially, the authors describe the anatomical courses of and the relationships between the main pathways crossing the TPO. The results obtained from dissection