WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain regions comparison

  1. Interspecific allometry of the brain and brain regions in parrots (psittaciformes): comparisons with other birds and primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Dean, Karen M; Nelson, John E

    2005-01-01

    Despite significant progress in understanding the evolution of the mammalian brain, relatively little is known of the patterns of evolutionary change in the avian brain. In particular, statements regarding which avian taxa have relatively larger brains and brain regions are based on small sample sizes and statistical analyses are generally lacking. We tested whether psittaciforms (parrots, cockatoos and lorikeets) have larger brains and forebrains than other birds using both conventional and phylogenetically based methods. In addition, we compared the psittaciforms to primates to determine if cognitive similarities between the two groups were reflected by similarities in brain and telencephalic volumes. Overall, psittaciforms have relatively larger brains and telencephala than most other non-passerine orders. No significant difference in relative brain or telencephalic volume was detected between psittaciforms and passerines. Comparisons of other brain region sizes between psittaciforms and other birds, however, exhibited conflicting results depending upon whether body mass or a brain volume remainder (total brain volume - brain region volume) was used as a scaling variable. When compared to primates, psittaciforms possessed similar relative brain and telencephalic volumes. The only exception to this was that in some analyses psittaciforms had significantly larger telencephala than primates of similar brain volume. The results therefore provide empirical evidence for previous claims that psittaciforms possess relatively large brains and telencephala. Despite the variability in the results, it is clear that psittaciforms tend to possess large brains and telencephala relative to non-passerines and are similar to primates in this regard. Although it could be suggested that this reflects the advanced cognitive abilities of psittaciforms, similar studies performed in corvids and other avian taxa will be required before this claim can be made with any certainty.

  2. Comparison of Regional Brain Perfusion Levels in Chronically Smoking and Non-Smoking Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. Durazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with numerous abnormalities in brain neurobiology, but few studies specifically investigated the chronic effects of smoking (compared to the acute effects of smoking, nicotine administration, or nicotine withdrawal on cerebral perfusion (i.e., blood flow. Predominately middle-aged male (47 ± 11 years of age smokers (n = 34 and non-smokers (n = 27 were compared on regional cortical perfusion measured by continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance studies at 4 Tesla. Smokers showed significantly lower perfusion than non-smokers in the bilateral medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, bilateral superior temporal gyri, left posterior cingulate, right isthmus of cingulate, and right supramarginal gyrus. Greater lifetime duration of smoking (adjusted for age was related to lower perfusion in multiple brain regions. The results indicated smokers showed significant perfusion deficits in anterior cortical regions implicated in the development, progression, and maintenance of all addictive disorders. Smokers concurrently demonstrated reduced blood flow in posterior brain regions that show morphological and metabolic aberrations as well as elevated beta amyloid deposition demonstrated by those with early stage Alzheimer disease. The findings provide additional novel evidence of the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on the human brain.

  3. Development of an MRI rating scale for multiple brain regions: comparison with volumetrics and with voxel-based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, R.R.; Williams, Guy B. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Scahill, Victoria L.; Graham, Kim S. [Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Graham, Andrew [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Hodges, John R. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Cognitive Neurology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    We aimed to devise a rating method for key frontal and temporal brain regions validated against quantitative volumetric methods and applicable to a range of dementia syndromes. Four standardised coronal MR images from 36 subjects encompassing controls and cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were used. After initial pilot studies, 15 regions produced good intra- and inter-rater reliability. We then validated the ratings against manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared ratings across the subject groups. Validation against both manual volumetry (for both frontal and temporal lobes), and against whole brain VBM, showed good correlation with visual ratings for the majority of the brain regions. Comparison of rating scores across disease groups showed involvement of the anterior fusiform gyrus, anterior hippocampus and temporal pole in semantic dementia, while anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal regions were involved in behavioural variant FTD. This simple visual rating can be used as an alternative to highly technical methods of quantification, and may be superior when dealing with single cases or small groups. (orig.)

  4. Development of an MRI rating scale for multiple brain regions: comparison with volumetrics and with voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to devise a rating method for key frontal and temporal brain regions validated against quantitative volumetric methods and applicable to a range of dementia syndromes. Four standardised coronal MR images from 36 subjects encompassing controls and cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were used. After initial pilot studies, 15 regions produced good intra- and inter-rater reliability. We then validated the ratings against manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared ratings across the subject groups. Validation against both manual volumetry (for both frontal and temporal lobes), and against whole brain VBM, showed good correlation with visual ratings for the majority of the brain regions. Comparison of rating scores across disease groups showed involvement of the anterior fusiform gyrus, anterior hippocampus and temporal pole in semantic dementia, while anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal regions were involved in behavioural variant FTD. This simple visual rating can be used as an alternative to highly technical methods of quantification, and may be superior when dealing with single cases or small groups. (orig.)

  5. The anatomy of the bill tip of kiwi and associated somatosensory regions of the brain: comparisons with shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Cunningham

    Full Text Available Three families of probe-foraging birds, Scolopacidae (sandpipers and snipes, Apterygidae (kiwi, and Threskiornithidae (ibises, including spoonbills have independently evolved long, narrow bills containing clusters of vibration-sensitive mechanoreceptors (Herbst corpuscles within pits in the bill-tip. These 'bill-tip organs' allow birds to detect buried or submerged prey via substrate-borne vibrations and/or interstitial pressure gradients. Shorebirds, kiwi and ibises are only distantly related, with the phylogenetic divide between kiwi and the other two taxa being particularly deep. We compared the bill-tip structure and associated somatosensory regions in the brains of kiwi and shorebirds to understand the degree of convergence of these systems between the two taxa. For comparison, we also included data from other taxa including waterfowl (Anatidae and parrots (Psittaculidae and Cacatuidae, non-apterygid ratites, and other probe-foraging and non probe-foraging birds including non-scolopacid shorebirds (Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae and Sternidae. We show that the bill-tip organ structure was broadly similar between the Apterygidae and Scolopacidae, however some inter-specific variation was found in the number, shape and orientation of sensory pits between the two groups. Kiwi, scolopacid shorebirds, waterfowl and parrots all shared hypertrophy or near-hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. Hypertrophy of the nucleus basorostralis, however, occurred only in waterfowl, kiwi, three of the scolopacid species examined and a species of oystercatcher (Charadriiformes: Haematopodidae. Hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus in kiwi, Scolopacidae, and other tactile specialists appears to have co-evolved alongside bill-tip specializations, whereas hypertrophy of nucleus basorostralis may be influenced to a greater extent by other sensory inputs. We suggest that similarities between kiwi and scolopacid

  6. The anatomy of the bill tip of kiwi and associated somatosensory regions of the brain: comparisons with shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Susan J; Corfield, Jeremy R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Castro, Isabel; Alley, Maurice R; Birkhead, Tim R; Parsons, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Three families of probe-foraging birds, Scolopacidae (sandpipers and snipes), Apterygidae (kiwi), and Threskiornithidae (ibises, including spoonbills) have independently evolved long, narrow bills containing clusters of vibration-sensitive mechanoreceptors (Herbst corpuscles) within pits in the bill-tip. These 'bill-tip organs' allow birds to detect buried or submerged prey via substrate-borne vibrations and/or interstitial pressure gradients. Shorebirds, kiwi and ibises are only distantly related, with the phylogenetic divide between kiwi and the other two taxa being particularly deep. We compared the bill-tip structure and associated somatosensory regions in the brains of kiwi and shorebirds to understand the degree of convergence of these systems between the two taxa. For comparison, we also included data from other taxa including waterfowl (Anatidae) and parrots (Psittaculidae and Cacatuidae), non-apterygid ratites, and other probe-foraging and non probe-foraging birds including non-scolopacid shorebirds (Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae and Sternidae). We show that the bill-tip organ structure was broadly similar between the Apterygidae and Scolopacidae, however some inter-specific variation was found in the number, shape and orientation of sensory pits between the two groups. Kiwi, scolopacid shorebirds, waterfowl and parrots all shared hypertrophy or near-hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. Hypertrophy of the nucleus basorostralis, however, occurred only in waterfowl, kiwi, three of the scolopacid species examined and a species of oystercatcher (Charadriiformes: Haematopodidae). Hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus in kiwi, Scolopacidae, and other tactile specialists appears to have co-evolved alongside bill-tip specializations, whereas hypertrophy of nucleus basorostralis may be influenced to a greater extent by other sensory inputs. We suggest that similarities between kiwi and scolopacid bill

  7. Comparison of clinical types of Wilson's disease and glucose metabolism in extrapyramidal motor brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, W; Barthel, H; Hesse, S; Grahmann, F; Kühn, H-J; Wagner, A; Villmann, T

    2002-07-01

    In Wilson's disease a disturbed glucose metabolism especially in striatal and cerebellar areas has been reported. This is correlated with the severity of extrapyramidal motor symptoms (EPS). These findings are only based on a small number of patients. Up to now it is unknown whether EPS are caused by various patterns of disturbed basal ganglia glucose metabolism. We investigated 37 patients and 9 normal volunteers to characterize the disturbed glucose metabolism in Wilson's disease more precisely. The glucose metabolism was determined in 5 cerebellar and cerebral areas (putamen, caput nuclei caudati, cerebellum, midbrain and thalamic area) by using (18)F-Fluorodesoxyglucose-Positron-Emission-Tomography ( [(18)F]FDG-PET). The database was evaluated by a cluster analysis. Additionally, the severity extrapyramidal motor symptoms were judged by a clinical score system. Three characteristic patterns of glucose metabolism in basal ganglia were obtained. Two of them may be assigned to patients with neurological symptoms whereas the third cluster corresponds to most patients without EPS or normal volunteers. The clusters can be identified by characteristic consumption rates in this 5 brain areas. The severity of EPS can not clearly be assigned to one of the clusters with disturbed glucose metabolism. However, the most severe cases are characterized by the lowest consumption in the striatal area. When there is marked improvement of EPS impaired glucose consumption reveals a persistent brain lesion. Finally, the neurological symptoms in Wilson's disease are caused by (at least) two different patterns of disturbed glucose metabolism in basal ganglia and cerebellum. The severity of EPS seems to be determined by a disturbed consumption in the striatal area. PMID:12140675

  8. A comparison of MRI tissue relaxometry and ROI methods used to determine regional brain iron concentrations in restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon HJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hye-Jin Moon,1,* Yongmin Chang,2,* Yeong Seon Lee,1 Huijin Song,3 Hyuk Won Chang,4 Jeonghun Ku,5 Richard P Allen,6 Christopher J Earley,6 Yong Won Cho1 1Department of Neurology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Molecular Medicine, 3Department of Medical and Biological Engineering, Kyungpook National University and Hospital, Daegu, Republic of Korea; 4Department of Radiology, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu, Republic of Korea; 6Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging relaxometry studies differed on the relaxometry methods and their approaches to determining the regions of interest (ROIs in restless legs syndrome (RLS patients. These differences could account for the variable and inconsistent results found across these studies. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the different relaxometry methods and different ROI approaches using each of these methods on a single population of controls and RLS subjects. Methods: A 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging with the gradient-echo sampling of free induction decay and echo pulse sequence was used. The regional brain “iron concentrations” were determined using three relaxometry metrics (R2, R2*, and R2' through two different ROI methods. The substantia nigra (SN was the primary ROI with red nucleus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus as the secondary ROIs. Results: Thirty-seven RLS patients and 40 controls were enrolled. The iron concentration as determined by R2 did not correlate with either of the other two methods, while R2* and R2' showed strong correlations, particularly for the substantia nigra and red nucleus. In the fixed-shape ROI method, the RLS group showed a lower iron index compared to the control

  9. Comparison of mercury accumulation among the brain, liver, kidney, and the brain regions of rats administered methylmercury in various phases of postnatal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, M.; Nakano, A. [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Several animal studies have indicated that a developing organism in its prenatal and early postnatal stage may be at higher risk in toxic metal exposure than in adult stage. Many infants were congenitally affected by methylmercury in the epidemics in Japan and Iraq. The infants reported from Minamata, Japan, had severe cerebral palsy, whereas their mothers had mild or no manifestations of poisoning. Some of the high susceptibility in infants may resulted from the specific features of the methylmercury metabolism in the developing organisms. Prenatal or postnatal development is characterized by functional immaturity of organs, which may affect the mercury (Hg) accumulation among organs. It seems possible that the Hg distribution might, in fact, reflect the toxic effects of methylmercury during a given developing phase. Thus, its distribution deserves closer examination. In our previous study, when a toxic level of methylmercury was administered, the Hg distribution and its effects on body weight gain and neurological disorders were found to be different among the rat postnatal developing phases. In the present study the Hg distribution among organs and brain regions was investigated during the several development phases with a nontoxic level of methylmercury treatment. 24 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Regional and voxel-wise comparisons of blood flow measurements between dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carissa M; Pope, Whitney B; Zaw, Taryar; Qiao, Joe; Naeini, Kourosh M; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Wang, J J; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the regional and voxel-wise correlation between dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with brain tumors. Thirty patients with histologically verified brain tumors were evaluated in the current study. DSC-MRI was performed by first using a preload dose of gadolinium contrast, then collecting a dynamic image acquisition during a bolus of contrast, followed by posthoc contrast agent leakage correction. Pseudocontinuous ASL was collected using 30 pairs of tag and control acquisition using a 3-dimensional gradient-echo spin-echo (GRASE) acquisition. All images were registered to a high-resolution anatomical atlas. Average CBF measurements within regions of contrast-enhancement and T2 hyperintensity were evaluated between the two modalities. Additionally, voxel-wise correlation between CBF measurements obtained with DSC and ASL were assessed. Results demonstrated a positive linear correlation between DSC and ASL measurements of CBF when regional average values were compared; however, a statistically significant voxel-wise correlation was only observed in around 30-40% of patients. These results suggest DSC and ASL may provide regionally similar, but spatially different measurements of CBF.

  11. Human capital in European peripheral regions: Brain - Drain and Brain - Gain : policies on brain drain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CSTM,

    2004-01-01

    Policies on brain drain Many policies are related to the problem of brain drain and brain gain. For instance, every policy that makes a region more attractive to live in, will make a region a more attractive place for the highly educated to settle. In theory this can be everything ranging from infra

  12. MR imaging of regional late brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports, to complement current knowledge on brain development, late regional brain maturation assessed with quantitative MR imaging. Axial and coronal head spin-echo (SE) images were obtained in 60 healthy individuals aged 5--56 years, with a double-echo, flow compensated imaging sequence obtained with a 1.5-T Magnetom spectroscopy and imaging system. T2-weighted images were calculated from the intensity differences in SE images at echo times (TEs) of 15 and 90 msec (TR = 2.5 second). The mean T2 values were determined at 16 sites in each cerebral hemisphere. T2 values of the six frontal subcortical white matter (FSCWM) sites and of the internal capsule (IC) were evaluated. Mean T2 values in the IC decreased until age 10 years, whereas this decrease continued in the FSCWM past age 15 years before reaching a plateau. Differential age-dependent patterns of mean T2 values emerged between the six FSCWM sites. The spread of T2 values varied at different sites independent of the age of the individuals. T2- values have previously been shown to reflect the status of brain development. The authors' data on the six FSCWM sites and the IC extend these findings to specific substructures of the brain. Interindividual variations and technical issues are responsible for the observed spread of data

  13. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain [poster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    The issue of this project is brain drain and brain gain in peripheral European regions. It focuses on the design, implementation and evaluation of actions to reduce brain drain and foster so-called brain gain. The action areas are the Twente region in the Netherlands; the Central Switzerland Cantons

  14. Comparison of regional screening methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Rowe, M.D.

    1979-09-01

    This report describes results of tests of different regional screening methods applied to data from western Maryland and the western United States. The purpose of these tests was to determine whether or not different regional screening methods produce different results, and to obtain some understanding of the nature of any differences found. Methods tested include Exclusionary Screening, Weighting Summation, Power Law, and Decision Analysis; weighting methods used include Categorization, Rating, Metfessel Allocation, Indifference Tradeoff, Churchman-Ackoff, and Decision Analysis. Results show that different methods do, indeed, produce different results, and that choice of decision rule is most important to results. Exclusionary Screening, in particular, can force decision tradeoffs that decision makers would not make were they to evaluate them directly. Nevertheless, differences in regional screening results do not necessarily mean differences in quality of the final site decision. The final result can depend on the skill with which the stages of the siting process following screening are conducted. The function of screening is to ease the task in those following stages by selecting candidate areas having high probability of containing suitable candidate sites. 32 refs., 32 figs., 43 tabs.

  15. Metabolic abnormalities in lobar and subcortical brain regions of abstinent polysubstance users: Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Abé, C.; Mon, A.; Hoefer, ME; Durazzo, TC; Pennington, DL; Schmidt, TP; Meyerhoff, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to explore neurometabolic and associated cognitive characteristics of patients with polysubstance use (PSU) in comparison with patients with predominant alcohol use using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods: Brain metabolite concentrations were examined in lobar and subcortical brain regions of three age-matched groups: 1-monthabstinent alcohol-dependent PSU, 1-month-abstinent individuals dependent on alcohol alone (ALC) and light drinking controls (...

  16. More 'mapping' in brain mapping: statistical comparison of effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Anthony C.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine;

    2003-01-01

    The term 'mapping' in the context of brain imaging conveys to most the concept of localization; that is, a brain map is meant to reveal a relationship between some condition or parameter and specific sites within the brain. However, in reality, conventional voxel-based maps of brain function......, or for that matter of brain structure, are generally constructed using analyses that yield no basis for inferences regarding the spatial nonuniformity of the effects. In the normal analysis path for functional images, for example, there is nowhere a statistical comparison of the observed effect in any voxel relative...... to that in any other voxel. Under these circumstances, strictly speaking, the presence of significant activation serves as a legitimate basis only for inferences about the brain as a unit. In their discussion of results, investigators rarely are content to confirm the brain's role, and instead generally prefer...

  17. Brain region specific mitophagy capacity could contribute to selective neuronal vulnerability in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabel Claus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD is histologically well defined by its characteristic degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Remarkably, divergent PD-related mutations can generate comparable brain region specific pathologies. This indicates that some intrinsic region-specificity respecting differential neuron vulnerability exists, which codetermines the disease progression. To gain insight into the pathomechanism of PD, we investigated protein expression and protein oxidation patterns of three different brain regions in a PD mouse model, the PINK1 knockout mice (PINK1-KO, in comparison to wild type control mice. The dysfunction of PINK1 presumably affects mitochondrial turnover by disturbing mitochondrial autophagic pathways. The three brain regions investigated are the midbrain, which is the location of substantia nigra; striatum, the major efferent region of substantia nigra; and cerebral cortex, which is more distal to PD pathology. In all three regions, mitochondrial proteins responsible for energy metabolism and membrane potential were significantly altered in the PINK1-KO mice, but with very different region specific accents in terms of up/down-regulations. This suggests that disturbed mitophagy presumably induced by PINK1 knockout has heterogeneous impacts on different brain regions. Specifically, the midbrain tissue seems to be most severely hit by defective mitochondrial turnover, whereas cortex and striatum could compensate for mitophagy nonfunction by feedback stimulation of other catabolic programs. In addition, cerebral cortex tissues showed the mildest level of protein oxidation in both PINK1-KO and wild type mice, indicating either a better oxidative protection or less reactive oxygen species (ROS pressure in this brain region. Ultra-structural histological examination in normal mouse brain revealed higher incidences of mitophagy vacuoles in cerebral cortex than in striatum and substantia

  18. Anger Style, Psychopathology, and Regional Brain Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Jennifer L.; Levin, Rebecca L.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Gregory A. Miller

    2008-01-01

    Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain asymmetry. The present study explored the...

  19. Imaging structural co-variance between human brain regions

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Giedd, Jay N.; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Brain structure varies between people in a markedly organized fashion. Communities of brain regions co-vary in their morphological properties. For example, cortical thickness in one region influences the thickness of structurally and functionally connected regions. Such networks of structural co-variance partially recapitulate the functional networks of healthy individuals and the foci of grey matter loss in neurodegenerative disease. This architecture is genetically heritable, is associated ...

  20. Decoding Brain States Based on Magnetoencephalography From Prespecified Cortical Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinyin; Li, Xin; Foldes, Stephen T; Wang, Wei; Collinger, Jennifer L; Weber, Douglas J; Bagić, Anto

    2016-01-01

    Brain state decoding based on whole-head MEG has been extensively studied over the past decade. Recent MEG applications pose an emerging need of decoding brain states based on MEG signals originating from prespecified cortical regions. Toward this goal, we propose a novel region-of-interest-constrained discriminant analysis algorithm (RDA) in this paper. RDA integrates linear classification and beamspace transformation into a unified framework by formulating a constrained optimization problem. Our experimental results based on human subjects demonstrate that RDA can efficiently extract the discriminant pattern from prespecified cortical regions to accurately distinguish different brain states.

  1. Regional brain responses in nulliparous women to emotional infant stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Montoya

    Full Text Available Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infant cries of two distress levels (low and high and unknown infant faces of varying affect (happy, sad, and neutral in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Brain activation was subsequently correlated with scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale. Infant cries activated bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri (STG and MTG and precentral and postcentral gyri. Activation was greater in bilateral temporal cortices for low- relative to high-distress cries. Happy relative to neutral faces activated the ventral striatum, caudate, ventromedial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. Sad versus neutral faces activated the precuneus, cuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, and behavioral activation drive correlated with occipital cortical activations in this contrast. Behavioral inhibition correlated with activation in the right STG for high- and low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Behavioral drive correlated inversely with putamen, caudate, and thalamic activations for the comparison of high-distress cries to pink noise. Reward-responsiveness correlated with activation in the left precentral gyrus during the perception of low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Our findings indicate that infant cry stimuli elicit activations in areas implicated in auditory processing and social cognition. Happy infant faces may be encoded as rewarding, whereas sad faces activate regions associated with empathic processing. Differences

  2. Regional brain responses in nulliparous women to emotional infant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jessica L; Landi, Nicole; Kober, Hedy; Worhunsky, Patrick D; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Mayes, Linda C; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-01-01

    Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infant cries of two distress levels (low and high) and unknown infant faces of varying affect (happy, sad, and neutral) in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Brain activation was subsequently correlated with scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale. Infant cries activated bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri (STG and MTG) and precentral and postcentral gyri. Activation was greater in bilateral temporal cortices for low- relative to high-distress cries. Happy relative to neutral faces activated the ventral striatum, caudate, ventromedial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. Sad versus neutral faces activated the precuneus, cuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, and behavioral activation drive correlated with occipital cortical activations in this contrast. Behavioral inhibition correlated with activation in the right STG for high- and low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Behavioral drive correlated inversely with putamen, caudate, and thalamic activations for the comparison of high-distress cries to pink noise. Reward-responsiveness correlated with activation in the left precentral gyrus during the perception of low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Our findings indicate that infant cry stimuli elicit activations in areas implicated in auditory processing and social cognition. Happy infant faces may be encoded as rewarding, whereas sad faces activate regions associated with empathic processing. Differences in motivational

  3. Cocaine disposition in discrete regions of rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, J I; Davis, J M

    1993-05-01

    It has been proposed that various effects of psychoactive drugs on the central nervous system may be related to the capacity of the drug to selectively concentrate in specific regions of the brain. In rat brain, cocaine effects on striatal and nucleus accumbens dopaminergic systems show quantitative differences. However, the disposition of cocaine in various brain regions has not been reported. In the present studies we examined the cocaine concentrations over time in serum and discrete brain regions of the rat after single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. At different time points (5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min) after i.p. injection of cocaine hydrochloride (10 mg kg-1, free base) the rats were decapitated and cocaine in serum and various brain regions was quantitated by a specific gas liquid chromatographic method. There was large inter-individual variability in different rats at each time-point. The disposition pattern of cocaine in rats after i.p. administration was similar to that observed in humans after intranasal administration. Initial absorption rate was rapid and, on average, the peak levels of cocaine were achieved in 10 min. The cocaine levels remained relatively high over the next 50 min indicating continual absorption, and then declined with a rate such that the levels 4 h after cocaine administration were undetectable in most of the animals. The overall changes in cocaine levels in various brain regions paralleled the serum concentrations. The area under the cocaine concentration-time curve (AUC) revealed more than three-fold differences in cocaine accumulation in various brain regions. This unequal disposition of cocaine may be responsible in part for differential biochemical effects in different brain regions. PMID:8499585

  4. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain: project design [poster

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Project design - The action plan consists of two overlapping phases. In the initial analytic phase the specific details of brain gain/ brain drain and their underlying processes in three regions are analyzed. This is not meant as a study project but rather a method to evaluate, design and implement brain drain gain instruments through a thorough analysis of processes. The implementation phase deals with the development, implementation and evaluation of instruments as well as the dissemination...

  5. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Stephen J. [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)]. E-mail: Stephen_Kish@CAMH.net; Furukawa, Yoshiaki [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Chang Lijan [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Tong Junchao [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Ginovart, Nathalie [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Houle, Sylvain [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Meyer, Jeffrey H. [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met.

  6. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met

  7. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain [poster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Frans H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Project goal - The overall goal of the project is to build a legitimate transnational network to transfer ideas and experiences and implement measures to reduce brain drain and foster brain gain while reinforcing the economical and spatial development of peripheral regions in NWE. This means a highe

  8. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain: project design [poster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    Project design - The action plan consists of two overlapping phases. In the initial analytic phase the specific details of brain gain/ brain drain and their underlying processes in three regions are analyzed. This is not meant as a study project but rather a method to evaluate, design and implement

  9. Regional Brain Activation during Meditation Shows Time and Practice Effects: An Exploratory FMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baron Short

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Meditation involves attentional regulation and may lead to increased activity in brain regions associated with attention such as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether DLPFC and ACC were activated during meditation. Subjects who meditate were recruited and scanned on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Subjects meditated for four sessions of 12 min and performed four sessions of a 6 min control task. Individual and group t-maps were generated of overall meditation response versus control response and late meditation response versus early meditation response for each subject and time courses were plotted. For the overall group (n = 13, and using an overall brain analysis, there were no statistically significant regional activations of interest using conservative thresholds. A region of interest analysis of the entire group time courses of DLPFC and ACC were statistically more active throughout meditation in comparison to the control task. Moreover, dividing the cohort into short (n = 8 and long-term (n = 5 practitioners (>10 years revealed that the time courses of long-term practitioners had significantly more consistent and sustained activation in the DLPFC and the ACC during meditation versus control in comparison to short-term practitioners. The regional brain activations in the more practised subjects may correlate with better sustained attention and attentional error monitoring. In summary, brain regions associated with attention vary over the time of a meditation session and may differ between long- and short-term meditation practitioners.

  10. Regional brain morphometry predicts memory rehabilitation outcome after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI commonly include difficulties with memory, attention, and executive dysfunction. These deficits are amenable to cognitive rehabilitation, but optimally selecting rehabilitation programs for individual patients remains a challenge. Recent methods for quantifying regional brain morphometry allow for automated quantification of tissue volumes in numerous distinct brain structures. We hypothesized that such quantitative structural information could help identify individuals more or less likely to benefit from memory rehabilitation. Fifty individuals with TBI of all severities who reported having memory difficulties first underwent structural MRI scanning. They then participated in a 12 session memory rehabilitation program emphasizing internal memory strategies (I-MEMS. Primary outcome measures (HVLT, RBMT were collected at the time of the MRI scan, immediately following therapy, and again at one month post-therapy. Regional brain volumes were used to predict outcome, adjusting for standard predictors (e.g., injury severity, age, education, pretest scores. We identified several brain regions that provided significant predictions of rehabilitation outcome, including the volume of the hippocampus, the lateral prefrontal cortex, the thalamus, and several subregions of the cingulate cortex. The prediction range of regional brain volumes were in some cases nearly equal in magnitude to prediction ranges provided by pretest scores on the outcome variable. We conclude that specific cerebral networks including these regions may contribute to learning during I-MEMS rehabilitation, and suggest that morphometric measures may provide substantial predictive value for rehabilitation outcome in other cognitive interventions as well.

  11. Whole brain and brain regional coexpression network interactions associated with predisposition to alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Vanderlinden

    Full Text Available To identify brain transcriptional networks that may predispose an animal to consume alcohol, we used weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA. Candidate coexpression modules are those with an eigengene expression level that correlates significantly with the level of alcohol consumption across a panel of BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains, and that share a genomic region that regulates the module transcript expression levels (mQTL with a genomic region that regulates alcohol consumption (bQTL. To address a controversy regarding utility of gene expression profiles from whole brain, vs specific brain regions, as indicators of the relationship of gene expression to phenotype, we compared candidate coexpression modules from whole brain gene expression data (gathered with Affymetrix 430 v2 arrays in the Colorado laboratories and from gene expression data from 6 brain regions (nucleus accumbens (NA; prefrontal cortex (PFC; ventral tegmental area (VTA; striatum (ST; hippocampus (HP; cerebellum (CB available from GeneNetwork. The candidate modules were used to construct candidate eigengene networks across brain regions, resulting in three "meta-modules", composed of candidate modules from two or more brain regions (NA, PFC, ST, VTA and whole brain. To mitigate the potential influence of chromosomal location of transcripts and cis-eQTLs in linkage disequilibrium, we calculated a semi-partial correlation of the transcripts in the meta-modules with alcohol consumption conditional on the transcripts' cis-eQTLs. The function of transcripts that retained the correlation with the phenotype after correction for the strong genetic influence, implicates processes of protein metabolism in the ER and Golgi as influencing susceptibility to variation in alcohol consumption. Integration of these data with human GWAS provides further information on the function of polymorphisms associated with alcohol-related traits.

  12. Regional genome transcriptional response of adult mouse brain to hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Aigang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since normal brain function depends upon continuous oxygen delivery and short periods of hypoxia can precondition the brain against subsequent ischemia, this study examined the effects of brief hypoxia on the whole genome transcriptional response in adult mouse brain. Result Pronounced changes of gene expression occurred after 3 hours of hypoxia (8% O2 and after 1 hour of re-oxygenation in all brain regions. The hypoxia-responsive genes were predominantly up-regulated in hindbrain and predominantly down-regulated in forebrain - possibly to support hindbrain survival functions at the expense of forebrain cognitive functions. The up-regulated genes had a significant role in cell survival and involved both shared and unshared signaling pathways among different brain regions. Up-regulation of transcriptional signaling including hypoxia inducible factor, insulin growth factor (IGF, the vitamin D3 receptor/retinoid X nuclear receptor, and glucocorticoid signaling was common to many brain regions. However, many of the hypoxia-regulated target genes were specific for one or a few brain regions. Cerebellum, for example, had 1241 transcripts regulated by hypoxia only in cerebellum but not in hippocampus; and, 642 (54% had at least one hepatic nuclear receptor 4A (HNF4A binding site and 381 had at least two HNF4A binding sites in their promoters. The data point to HNF4A as a major hypoxia-responsive transcription factor in cerebellum in addition to its known role in regulating erythropoietin transcription. The genes unique to hindbrain may play critical roles in survival during hypoxia. Conclusion Differences of forebrain and hindbrain hypoxia-responsive genes may relate to suppression of forebrain cognitive functions and activation of hindbrain survival functions, which may coordinately mediate the neuroprotection afforded by hypoxia preconditioning.

  13. STUDY OF REGIONAL STABILITY OF ECD DISTRIBUTION IN NORMAL BRAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培勇; 陈刚; 朱承谟

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate in vivo stability of ethylenedylbis cysteine diethylester ( ECD ) brain SPECT. Methods Each of13 normal volunteers (31.2±11.8 years) has12 dynamic SPECT scans acquired in 60min 1h after an injection of 99mTc-ECD using a triple headed gamma camera equipped with ultra high resolution fan beam collimators. Average counts per pixel were measured from frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital regions, cerebellum, basal ganglia, thalamus and white matter. Regional ECD clearance rates, regional gray-to-white matter (G/W) ratios and the change of the G /W ratio were calculated. Results The average ECD clearance rate was 4.2%/h, ranged from 3.03%/h to 5.41%/h corresponding to white matter and occipital. There was no significant difference between regional ECD clearance rates. Regional G/W ratio was between 1.27 to 1.75. The G /W ratio of temporal lobe was lower than the occipital (P<0.05). The change of regional G /W ratio with time is slow. Cbnclusion Regional ECD distribution is stable in normal brain. ECD clearance from brain is slow and no significant regional difference.

  14. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Wang, G.J.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Jayne, M.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3 {+-} 3, post 6 {+-} 3; p < 0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3 {+-} 2, post 3 {+-} 3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p < 0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p < 0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r = -0.62, p < 0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

  15. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3 ± 3, post 6 ± 3; p < 0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3 ± 2, post 3 ± 3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p < 0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p < 0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r = -0.62, p < 0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

  16. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: from brain regions to brain networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nomi, Jason S.; Lucina Q. Uddin

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD...

  17. Cognitive Abilities Independent of IQ Correlate with Regional Brain Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Jung, Rex E.; Colom, Roberto; Haier, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence relating psychometric measures of general intelligence and reasoning to regional brain structure and function assessed with a variety of neuroimaging techniques. Cognitive dimensions independent of general intelligence can also be identified psychometrically and studied for any neuroanatomical correlates. Here we…

  18. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  19. Regional brain stiffness changes across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Matthew C; Jones, David T; Jack, Clifford R; Glaser, Kevin J; Senjem, Matthew L; Manduca, Armando; Felmlee, Joel P; Carter, Rickey E; Ehman, Richard L; Huston, John

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an MRI-based technique to noninvasively measure tissue stiffness. Currently well established for clinical use in the liver, MRE is increasingly being investigated to measure brain stiffness as a novel biomarker of a variety of neurological diseases. The purpose of this work was to apply a recently developed MRE pipeline to measure regional brain stiffness changes in human subjects across the Alzheimer's disease (AD) spectrum, and to gain insights into the biological processes underlying those stiffness changes by correlating stiffness with existing biomarkers of AD. The results indicate that stiffness changes occur mostly in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, in accordance with the known topography of AD pathology. Furthermore, stiffness in those areas correlates with existing imaging biomarkers of AD including hippocampal volumes and amyloid PET. Additional analysis revealed preliminary but significant evidence that the relationship between brain stiffness and AD severity is nonlinear and non-monotonic. Given that similar relationships have been observed in functional MRI experiments, we used task-free fMRI data to test the hypothesis that brain stiffness was sensitive to structural changes associated with altered functional connectivity. The analysis revealed that brain stiffness is significantly and positively correlated with default mode network connectivity. Therefore, brain stiffness as measured by MRE has potential to provide new and essential insights into the temporal dynamics of AD, as well as the relationship between functional and structural plasticity as it relates to AD pathophysiology.

  20. Regional Brain Responses in Nulliparous Women to Emotional Infant Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Jessica L.; Nicole Landi; Hedy Kober; Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; W Einar Mencl; Mayes, Linda C.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2012-01-01

    Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infan...

  1. Regional distribution of SGLT activity in rat brain in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Amy S.; Hirayama, Bruce A.; Timbol, Gerald; Liu, Jie; Diez-Sampedro, Ana; Kepe, Vladimir; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Wright, Ernest M.; Barrio, Jorge R.

    2012-01-01

    Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) mRNAs have been detected in many organs of the body, but, apart from kidney and intestine, transporter expression, localization, and functional activity, as well as physiological significance, remain elusive. Using a SGLT-specific molecular imaging probe, α-methyl-4-deoxy-4-[18F]fluoro-d-glucopyranoside (Me-4-FDG) with ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemistry, we mapped in vivo the regional distribution of functional SGLTs in rat brain. Since Me-4-FDG ...

  2. A probabilistic approach to delineating functional brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G;

    2009-01-01

    healthy subjects. The templates were subsequently included in the region sets used in a previously published automatic MRI-based approach to create an observer- and activity-independent probabilistic VOI map. The probabilistic map approach was tested in a different group of 10 subjects and compared......-independent, reliable approach to delineating regions that can be identified only by functional imaging, here exemplified by the raphe nuclei. This approach can be used in future studies to create functional VOI maps based on neuroreceptor fingerprints retrieved through in vivo brain imaging Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6...

  3. Delineation of separate brain regions used for scientific versus engineering modes of thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Clair C.

    1994-08-01

    Powerful, latent abilities for extreme sophistication in abstract rationalization as potential biological adaptive behavioral responses were installed entirely through accident and inadvertence by biological evolution in the Homo sapiens sapiens species of brain. These potentials were never used, either in precursor species as factors in evolutionary increase in hominid brain mass, nor in less sophisticated forms within social environments characterized by Hss tribal brain population densities. Those latent abilities for unnatural biological adaptive behavior were forced to become manifest in various ways by growths in sophistication of communication interactions engendered by large growths in brain population densities brought on by developments in agriculture at the onset of the Holocene. It is proposed that differences probably exist between regions of the Hss brain involved in utilitarian, engineering types of problem conceptualization-solving versus regions of the brain involved in nonutilitarian, artistic-scientific types of problem conceptualization-solving. Populations isolated on separate continents from diffusive contact and influence on cultural developments, and selected for comparison of developments during equivalent stages of technological and social sophistication in matching 4000 year periods, show, at the ends of those periods, marked differences in aesthetic attributes expressed in cosmogonies, music, and writing (nonutilitarian thinking related to science and art). On the other hand the two cultures show virtually identical developments in three major stages of metallurgical technologies (utilitarian thinking related to engineering). Such archaeological data suggest that utilitarian modes of thought may utilize combinations of neuronal circuits in brain regions that are conserved among tribal populations territorially separated from each other for tens of thousands of years. Such conservation may not be true for neuronal circuits involved in

  4. Automatic segmentation of brain images: selection of region extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Leiguang; Kulikowski, Casimir A.; Mezrich, Reuben S.

    1991-07-01

    In automatically analyzing brain structures from a MR image, the choice of low level region extraction methods depends on the characteristics of both the target object and the surrounding anatomical structures in the image. The authors have experimented with local thresholding, global thresholding, and other techniques, using various types of MR images for extracting the major brian landmarks and different types of lesions. This paper describes specifically a local- binary thresholding method and a new global-multiple thresholding technique developed for MR image segmentation and analysis. The initial testing results on their segmentation performance are presented, followed by a comparative analysis of the two methods and their ability to extract different types of normal and abnormal brain structures -- the brain matter itself, tumors, regions of edema surrounding lesions, multiple sclerosis lesions, and the ventricles of the brain. The analysis and experimental results show that the global multiple thresholding techniques are more than adequate for extracting regions that correspond to the major brian structures, while local binary thresholding is helpful for more accurate delineation of small lesions such as those produced by MS, and for the precise refinement of lesion boundaries. The detection of other landmarks, such as the interhemispheric fissure, may require other techniques, such as line-fitting. These experiments have led to the formulation of a set of generic computer-based rules for selecting the appropriate segmentation packages for particular types of problems, based on which further development of an innovative knowledge- based, goal directed biomedical image analysis framework is being made. The system will carry out the selection automatically for a given specific analysis task.

  5. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-12-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

  6. Regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in autistic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisaoka, S.; Harada, M.; Nishitani, H. [Dept. of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan); Mori, K. [Dept. of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    We studied the variations in the concentration of metabolites with brain region and age in autistic individuals and normal controls using multiple analysis of covariance. We examined 55 autistic individuals (2-21 years old, 47 male and eight female) and 51 normal children (3 months-15 years old, 26 boys and 25 girls). Single volumes of interest were placed in the frontal, parietal and temporal region on both sides, the brain stem and cingulate gyrus. The concentration of each metabolite was quantified by the water reference method. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate in the temporal regions (Brodmann's areas 41 and 42) in the autistic individuals were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.05), but concentrations in other regions were not significantly different between the autistic individuals and controls. This suggests low density or dysfunction of neurones in Brodmann's areas 41 and 42 in autistic individual, which might be related to the disturbances of the sensory speech centre (Wernicke's area) in autism. (orig.)

  7. Regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in autistic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the variations in the concentration of metabolites with brain region and age in autistic individuals and normal controls using multiple analysis of covariance. We examined 55 autistic individuals (2-21 years old, 47 male and eight female) and 51 normal children (3 months-15 years old, 26 boys and 25 girls). Single volumes of interest were placed in the frontal, parietal and temporal region on both sides, the brain stem and cingulate gyrus. The concentration of each metabolite was quantified by the water reference method. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate in the temporal regions (Brodmann's areas 41 and 42) in the autistic individuals were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.05), but concentrations in other regions were not significantly different between the autistic individuals and controls. This suggests low density or dysfunction of neurones in Brodmann's areas 41 and 42 in autistic individual, which might be related to the disturbances of the sensory speech centre (Wernicke's area) in autism. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of Hybrid Codes for MRI Brain Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Soundarya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, medical images are compressed in a lossless manner in order to preserve details and to avoid wrong diagnosis. But this leads to a lower compression rate. Therefore, our aim is to improve the compression ratio by means of hybrid coding the MRI brain (tumor images. Hence we consider Region of Interest (ROI normally the abnormal region in the image and compress it without loss to achieve high compression ratio in par with maintaining high image quality and the Non-Region of Interest (Non-ROI of the image is compressed in a lossy manner. This study discusses two simple hybrid coding techniques (Hybrid A and Hybrid B on MRI human brain tumor image datasets. Also we evaluate their performance by comparing them with the standard lossless technique JPEG 2000 in terms of Compression Ratio (CR and Peak to Signal Noise Ratio (PSNR. Both hybrid codes have resulted in computationally economical scheme producing higher compression ratio than existing JPEG2000 and also meets the legal requirement of medical image archiving. The results obtained prove that our proposed hybrid schemes outperform existing schemes.

  9. Comparison Study of Segmentation Techniques for Brain Tumour Detection

    OpenAIRE

    D. Manju; Dr.M.SEETHA; Dr. K. Venugopala Rao

    2013-01-01

    Image segmentation plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Imagesegmentation locates objects and boundaries with in images and the segmentation process is stopped whenregion of interest is separated from the input image. Based on the application, region of interest may differand hence none of the segmentation algorithm satisfies the global applications. Thus segmentation stillremains a challenging area for researchers. This paper emphasis on comparison study of segment...

  10. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: From brain regions to brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomi, Jason S; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2015-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD to a more holistic approach to understanding face perception as a process supported by distributed cortical and subcortical brain networks. We summarize evidence for atypical activation patterns within brain networks that may contribute to social deficits characteristic of the disorder. We conclude by pointing to gaps in the literature and future directions that will continue to shed light on aspects of face processing in autism that are still under-examined. In particular, we highlight the need for more developmental studies and studies examining ecologically valid and naturalistic social stimuli. PMID:25829246

  11. Real-time fMRI brain computer interfaces: self-regulation of single brain regions to networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sergio; Buyukturkoglu, Korhan; Rana, Mohit; Birbaumer, Niels; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of brain computer interfaces based on real-time fMRI (rtfMRI-BCI), the possibility of performing neurofeedback based on brain hemodynamics has become a reality. In the early stage of the development of this field, studies have focused on the volitional control of activity in circumscribed brain regions. However, based on the understanding that the brain functions by coordinated activity of spatially distributed regions, there have recently been further developments to incorporate real-time feedback of functional connectivity and spatio-temporal patterns of brain activity. The present article reviews the principles of rtfMRI neurofeedback, its applications, benefits and limitations. A special emphasis is given to the discussion of novel developments that have enabled the use of this methodology to achieve self-regulation of the functional connectivity between different brain areas and of distributed brain networks, anticipating new and exciting applications for cognitive neuroscience and for the potential alleviation of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  12. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Terayama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR. Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL/day caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days, β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure.

  13. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terayama, Hayato; Endo, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Matsumoto, Koichi; Umezu, Mai; Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Ito, Masatoshi; Sato, Tadayuki; Naito, Munekazu; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tatemichi, Masayuki; Sakabe, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE) belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR). Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL)/day) caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J) mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days), β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure. PMID:27669271

  14. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Pleger

    Full Text Available The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  15. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  16. Financial Distress Comparison Across Three Global Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan D. Platt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has precipitated movement of output and employment between regions. We examine factors related to corporate financial distress across three continents. Using a multidimensional definition of financial distress we test three hypotheses to explain financial distress using historical financial data. A null hypothesis of a single global model was rejected in favor of a fully relaxed model which created individual financial distress models for each region. This result suggests that despite other indications of worldwide convergence, international differences in accounting rules, lending practices, managements skill levels, and legal requirements among others has kept corporate decline from becoming commoditized.

  17. Ultra-slow frequency bands reflecting potential coherence between neocortical brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Wang, Y-T; Wang, Y; Jung, T P; Huang, M; Cheng, C K; Mandell, A J

    2015-03-19

    Recent studies of electromagnetic ultra-slow waves (⩽0.1Hz) have suggested that they play a role in the integration of otherwise disassociated brain regions supporting vital functions (Ackermann and Borbely, 1997; Picchioni et al., 2010; Knyazev, 2012; Le Bon et al., 2012). We emphasize this spectral domain in probing sensor coherence issues raised by these studies using Hilbert phase coherences in the human MEG. In addition, we ask: will temporal-spatial phase coherence in regional brain oscillations obtained from the ultraslow spectral bands of multi-channel magnetoencephalograms (MEG) differentiate resting, "task-free" MEG records of normal control and schizophrenic subjects? The goal of the study is a comparison of the relative persistence of intra-regional phase locking values (PLVs), among 10, region-defined, sensors in examined in the resting multichannel, MEG records as a function of spectral frequency bands and diagnostic category. The following comparison of Hilbert-transform-engendered relative phases of each designated spectral band was made using their pair-wise PLVs. This indicated the proportion of shared cycle time in which the phase relations between the index location and reference leads were maintained. Leave one out, bootstrapping of the PLVs via a support vector machine (SVM), classified clinical status with 97.3% accuracy. It was generally the case that spectral bands ⩽1.0Hz generated the highest values of the PLVs and discriminated best between control and patient populations. We conclude that PLV analysis of the oscillatory patterns of MEG recordings in the ultraslow frequency bands suggest their functional significance in intra-regional signal coherence and provide a higher rate of classification of patients and normal subjects than the other spectral domains examined. PMID:25592429

  18. More 'mapping' in brain mapping: statistical comparison of effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Anthony C.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine;

    2003-01-01

    The term 'mapping' in the context of brain imaging conveys to most the concept of localization; that is, a brain map is meant to reveal a relationship between some condition or parameter and specific sites within the brain. However, in reality, conventional voxel-based maps of brain function, or ...

  19. Phylogenetic origins of early alterations in brain region proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Sandoval, Alexis L; Striedter, Georg F

    2010-01-01

    Adult galliform birds (e.g. chickens) exhibit a relatively small telencephalon and a proportionately large optic tectum compared with parrots and songbirds. We previously examined the embryonic origins of these adult species differences and found that the optic tectum is larger in quail than in parakeets and songbirds at early stages of development, prior to tectal neurogenesis onset. The aim of this study was to determine whether a proportionately large presumptive tectum is a primitive condition within birds or a derived feature of quail and other galliform birds. To this end, we examined embryonic brains of several avian species (emus, parrots, songbirds, waterfowl, galliform birds), reptiles (3 lizard species, alligators, turtles) and a monotreme (platypuses). Brain region volumes were estimated from serial Nissl-stained sections. We found that the embryos of galliform birds and lizards exhibit a proportionally larger presumptive tectum than all the other examined species. The presumptive tectum of the platypus is unusually small. The most parsimonious interpretation of these data is that the expanded embryonic tectum of lizards and galliform birds is a derived feature in both of these taxonomic groups.

  20. Seasonal and regional differences in gene expression in the brain of a hibernating mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Schwartz

    Full Text Available Mammalian hibernation presents a unique opportunity to study naturally occurring neuroprotection. Hibernating ground squirrels undergo rapid and extreme physiological changes in body temperature, oxygen consumption, and heart rate without suffering neurological damage from ischemia and reperfusion injury. Different brain regions show markedly different activity during the torpor/arousal cycle: the cerebral cortex shows activity only during the periodic returns to normothermia, while the hypothalamus is active over the entire temperature range. Therefore, region-specific neuroprotective strategies must exist to permit this compartmentalized spectrum of activity. In this study, we use the Illumina HiSeq platform to compare the transcriptomes of these two brain regions at four collection points across the hibernation season: April Active, October Active, Torpor, and IBA. In the cerebral cortex, 1,085 genes were found to be differentially expressed across collection points, while 1,063 genes were differentially expressed in the hypothalamus. Comparison of these transcripts indicates that the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus implement very different strategies during hibernation, showing less than 20% of these differentially expressed genes in common. The cerebral cortex transcriptome shows evidence of remodeling and plasticity during hibernation, including transcripts for the presynaptic cytomatrix proteins bassoon and piccolo, and extracellular matrix components, including laminins and collagens. Conversely, the hypothalamic transcriptome displays upregulation of transcripts involved in damage response signaling and protein turnover during hibernation, including the DNA damage repair gene RAD50 and ubiquitin E3 ligases UBR1 and UBR5. Additionally, the hypothalamus transcriptome also provides evidence of potential mechanisms underlying the hibernation phenotype, including feeding and satiety signaling, seasonal timing mechanisms, and fuel

  1. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing.

  2. The risk of radiation-induced second cancers in the high to medium dose region: a comparison between passive and scanned proton therapy, IMRT and VMAT for pediatric patients with brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteabbed, Maryam; Yock, Torunn I.; Paganetti, Harald

    2014-06-01

    The incidence of second malignant tumors is a clinically observed adverse late effect of radiation therapy, especially in organs close to the treatment site, receiving medium to high doses (>2.5 Gy). For pediatric patients, choosing the least toxic radiation modality is of utmost importance, due to their high radiosensitivity and small size. This study aims to evaluate the risk of second cancer incidence in the vicinity of the primary radiation field, for pediatric patients with brain/head and neck tumors and compare four treatment modalities: passive scattering and pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PPT and PBS), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). For a cohort of six pediatric patients originally treated with PPT, additional PBS, IMRT and VMAT plans were created. Dose distributions from these plans were used to calculate the excess absolute risk (EAR) and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for developing a second tumor in soft tissue and skull. A widely used risk assessment formalism was employed and compared with a linear model based on recent clinical findings. In general, LAR was found to range between 0.01%-2.8% for PPT/PBS and 0.04%-4.9% for IMRT/VMAT. PBS was associated with the lowest risk for most patients using carcinoma and sarcoma models, whereas IMRT and VMAT risks were comparable and the highest among all modalities. The LAR for IMRT/VMAT relative to PPT ranged from 1.3-4.6 for soft tissue and from 3.5-9.5 for skull. Larger absolute LAR was observed for younger patients and using linear risk models. The number of fields used in proton therapy and IMRT had minimal effect on the risk. When planning treatments and deciding on the treatment modality, the probability of second cancer incidence should be carefully examined and weighed against the possibility of developing acute side effects for each patient individually.

  3. Gender and environmental effects on regional brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression after experimental traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Li, Y; Kline, A E; Dixon, C E; Zafonte, R D; Wagner, A K

    2005-01-01

    Alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression have been reported in multiple brain regions acutely after traumatic brain injury, however neither injury nor post-injury environmental enrichment has been shown to affect hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression in male rats chronically post-injury. Studies have demonstrated hormone-related neuroprotection for female rats after traumatic brain injury, and estrogen and exercise both influence brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Despite recent studies suggesting that exposure post-traumatic brain injury to environmental enrichment improves cognitive recovery in male rats, we have shown that environmental enrichment mediated improvements with spatial learning are gender specific and only positively affect males. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gender and environmental enrichment on chronic post-injury cortical and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein expression. Sprague-Dawley male and cycling female rats were placed into environmental enrichment or standard housing after controlled cortical impact or sham surgery. Four weeks post-surgery, hippocampal and frontal cortex brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression were examined using Western blot. Results revealed significant increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the frontal cortex ipsilateral to injury for males (P=0.03). Environmental enrichment did not augment this effect. Neither environmental enrichment nor injury significantly affected cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression for females. In the hippocampus ipsilateral to injury brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression for both males and females was half (49% and 51% respectively) of that observed in shams housed in the standard environment. For injured males, there was a trend in this region for environmental enrichment to restore brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels to sham values

  4. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Differences in various mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters in different brain regions in different age groups. This dataset is associated with the following...

  5. Regional research priorities in brain and nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, Vijayalakshmi; Dang, Hoang-Minh; Goya, Rodolfo G; Mansour, Hader; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Russell, Vivienne Ann; Xin, Yu

    2015-11-19

    The characteristics of neurological, psychiatric, developmental and substance-use disorders in low- and middle-income countries are unique and the burden that they have will be different from country to country. Many of the differences are explained by the wide variation in population demographics and size, poverty, conflict, culture, land area and quality, and genetics. Neurological, psychiatric, developmental and substance-use disorders that result from, or are worsened by, a lack of adequate nutrition and infectious disease still afflict much of sub-Saharan Africa, although disorders related to increasing longevity, such as stroke, are on the rise. In the Middle East and North Africa, major depressive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder are a primary concern because of the conflict-ridden environment. Consanguinity is a serious concern that leads to the high prevalence of recessive disorders in the Middle East and North Africa and possibly other regions. The burden of these disorders in Latin American and Asian countries largely surrounds stroke and vascular disease, dementia and lifestyle factors that are influenced by genetics. Although much knowledge has been gained over the past 10 years, the epidemiology of the conditions in low- and middle-income countries still needs more research. Prevention and treatments could be better informed with more longitudinal studies of risk factors. Challenges and opportunities for ameliorating nervous-system disorders can benefit from both local and regional research collaborations. The lack of resources and infrastructure for health-care and related research, both in terms of personnel and equipment, along with the stigma associated with the physical or behavioural manifestations of some disorders have hampered progress in understanding the disease burden and improving brain health. Individual countries, and regions within countries, have specific needs in terms of research priorities. PMID:26580328

  6. Brain region-specificity of palmitic acid-induced abnormalities associated with Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Melrose Joseph; Balu Deebika; Patil Sachin; Chan Christina

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease mostly affecting the basal forebrain, cortex and hippocampus whereas the cerebellum is relatively spared. The reason behind this region-specific brain damage in AD is not well understood. Here, we report our data suggesting "differential free fatty acid metabolism in the different brain areas" as a potentially important factor in causing the region-specific damage observed in AD brain. Findings The astrog...

  7. Data mining a functional neuroimaging database for functional segregation in brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Balslev, Daniela; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    We describe a specialized neuroinformatic data mining technique in connection with a meta-analytic functional neuroimaging database: We mine for functional segregation within brain regions by identifying journal articles that report brain activations within the regions and clustering the abstract...

  8. Carnosine reverses the aging-induced down regulation of brain regional serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Ghosh, Tushar K; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the role of carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide biomolecule, on brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) serotonergic system during aging. Results showed an aging-induced brain region specific significant (a) increase in Trp (except cerebral cortex) and their 5-HIAA steady state level with an increase in their 5-HIAA accumulation and declination, (b) decrease in their both 5-HT steady state level and 5-HT accumulation (except cerebral cortex). A significant decrease in brain regional 5-HT/Trp ratio (except cerebral cortex) and increase in 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio were also observed during aging. Carnosine at lower dosages (0.5-1.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) didn't produce any significant response in any of the brain regions, but higher dosages (2.0-2.5μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) showed a significant response on those aging-induced brain regional serotonergic parameters. The treatment with carnosine (2.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days), attenuated these brain regional aging-induced serotonergic parameters and restored towards their basal levels that observed in 4 months young control rats. These results suggest that carnosine attenuates and restores the aging-induced brain regional down regulation of serotonergic system towards that observed in young rats' brain regions. PMID:26364584

  9. Comparison of Swallowing Functions Between Brain Tumor and Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Dae Hwan; Chun, Min Ho; Lee, Sook Joung; Song, Yoon Bum

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the swallowing functions according to the lesion locations between brain tumor and stroke patients. Methods Forty brain tumor patients and the same number of age-, lesion-, and functional status-matching stroke patients were enrolled in this study. Before beginning the swallowing therapy, swallowing function was evaluated in all subjects by videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Brain lesions were classified as either supratentorial or in-fratentorial. We evaluated the follo...

  10. Assessing the South African Brain Drain, a Statistical Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Baptiste Meyer; Mercy Brown; David Kaplan

    2000-01-01

    For several decades the analysis of the so-called brain drain has been hampered by measurement problems. It is now recognised that the official figures significantly underestimate the extent of the brain drain phenomenon and its increase since the political changes in the mid-1990's. This paper, using data from various reliable sources, provides new statistical evidence on the size of the brain drain from South Africa. It compares two methods used to arrive at a more realistic picture of the ...

  11. The serotonin transporter in rhesus monkey brain: comparison of DASB and citalopram binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Zhizhen [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)]. E-mail: zhizhen_zeng@merck.com; Chen, T.-B. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Miller, Patricia J. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Dean, Dennis [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Tang, Y.S. [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Sur, Cyrille [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Williams, David L. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We have characterized the interaction of the serotonin transporter ligand [{sup 3}H]-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)-benzylamine (DASB) with rhesus monkey brain in vitro using tissue homogenate binding and autoradiographic mapping. [{sup 3}H]-DASB, a tritiated version of the widely used [{sup 11}C] positron emission tomography tracer, was found to selectively bind to a single population of sites with high affinity (K {sub d}=0.20{+-}0.04 nM). The serotonin transporter density (B {sub max}) obtained for rhesus frontal cortex was found to be 66{+-}8 fmol/mg protein using [{sup 3}H]-DASB, similar to the B {sub max} value obtained using the reference radioligand [{sup 3}H]-citalopram, a well-characterized and highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (83{+-}22 fmol/mg protein). Specific binding sites of both [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram were similarly and nonuniformly distributed throughout the rhesus central nervous system, in a pattern consistent with serotonin transporter localization reported for human brain. Regional serotonin transporter densities, estimated from optical densities of the autoradiographic images, were well correlated between the two radioligands. Finally, DASB and fluoxetine showed dose-dependent full inhibition of [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding in a competition autoradiographic study, with K {sub i} values in close agreement with those obtained from rhesus brain homogenates. This side-by-side comparison of [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding sites in rhesus tissue homogenates and in adjacent rhesus brain slices provides additional support for the use of [{sup 11}C]-DASB to assess the availability and distribution of serotonin transporters in nonhuman primates.

  12. Automatic segmentation of meningioma from non-contrasted brain MRI integrating fuzzy clustering and region growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Chun-Chih

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has become important in brain tumor diagnosis. Using this modality, physicians can locate specific pathologies by analyzing differences in tissue character presented in different types of MR images. This paper uses an algorithm integrating fuzzy-c-mean (FCM and region growing techniques for automated tumor image segmentation from patients with menigioma. Only non-contrasted T1 and T2 -weighted MR images are included in the analysis. The study's aims are to correctly locate tumors in the images, and to detect those situated in the midline position of the brain. Methods The study used non-contrasted T1- and T2-weighted MR images from 29 patients with menigioma. After FCM clustering, 32 groups of images from each patient group were put through the region-growing procedure for pixels aggregation. Later, using knowledge-based information, the system selected tumor-containing images from these groups and merged them into one tumor image. An alternative semi-supervised method was added at this stage for comparison with the automatic method. Finally, the tumor image was optimized by a morphology operator. Results from automatic segmentation were compared to the "ground truth" (GT on a pixel level. Overall data were then evaluated using a quantified system. Results The quantified parameters, including the "percent match" (PM and "correlation ratio" (CR, suggested a high match between GT and the present study's system, as well as a fair level of correspondence. The results were compatible with those from other related studies. The system successfully detected all of the tumors situated at the midline of brain. Six cases failed in the automatic group. One also failed in the semi-supervised alternative. The remaining five cases presented noticeable edema inside the brain. In the 23 successful cases, the PM and CR values in the two groups were highly related. Conclusions Results indicated

  13. Autopsy Findings of Brainstem in Head Trauma in Comparison with CT Scan Findings in Brain Trauma Ward in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeri Bavil Moslem

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT is now the primary diagnostic method for head trauma because of its ability to demonstrate the nature, extent, sites, and multiplicity of brain injuries. Although there have been numerous reports on the CT findings of most types of intracranial injury, the findings in brainstem injury have not been well described. This study aimed at comparing the autopsy findings of brainstem in head trauma in comparison with CT scan results. Two hundred patients with head trauma, who expired after a period of time of hospitalization, were assessed in a diagnostic value study. Brain stem involvement was determined by autopsy as well as CT scanning of the brain during their hospitalization. The results of the two methods were compared with each other, emphasizing on the type and location of probable lesions in the brain stem. Considering the autopsy as the method of the choice, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of CT scan in brain stem lesions of patients with head trauma were calculated. The effect of primary cause of head trauma, survival time and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were evaluated, as well. Brain stem lesions were detected in 39 (19.5% patients in autopsy. However, CT scan revealed brain stem lesions in 23(11.5% cases. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of CT scan was 59%, 100%, 100% and 91% respectively. The most common lesions of the brain stem region were as contusion of pons (8.5%, medulla (5% and midbrain (4.5%. There were 6 (3% cases of ponto-medullary junction tearing and 1 (0.5% case of cervico-medullary junction tearing. CT scan is a specific method of evaluating patients with probable brain stem injuries after head trauma, but low sensitivity limits its efficacy. Our results are in conformity with the reports in the literature.

  14. Unconscious word processing engages a distributed network of brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Michele T; McCarthy, Gregory

    2007-11-01

    A briefly exposed visual stimulus may not be consciously perceived if it is preceded and followed by a dissimilar visual pattern or mask. Despite the subject's lack of awareness, prior behavioral studies have shown that such masked stimuli, nevertheless, engage domain-specific processes [Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., Cohen, L., Le Bihan, D., Mangin, J.-F., Poline, J.-B., et al. Cerebral mechanisms of word masking and unconscious repetition priming. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 752-758, 2001; Bar, M., & Biederman, I. Subliminal visual priming. Psychological Science, 9, 464-469, 1998; Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., Le Clec'H, G., Koechlin, E., Mueller, M., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., et al. Imaging unconscious semantic priming. Nature, 395, 597-600, 1998; Whalen, P. J., Rauch, S. L., Etcoff, N. L., McInerney, S. C., Lee, M. B., & Jenike, M. A. Masked presentations of emotional facial expressions modulate amygdala activity without explicit knowledge. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 411-418, 1998; Marcel, A. J. Conscious and unconscious perception: Experiments on visual masking and word recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 197-237, 1983]. Masking thus provides a method for identifying language processes that are preattentive and automatic. Functional magnetic resonance imaging used in concert with masking may identify brain regions engaged by these unconscious language processes. In an adaptation design, subjects viewed a continuous stream of masked words and masked nonwords while performing an unrelated detection task, in which they were asked to make a response to a visible colored nonword stimulus (i.e., ampersands in red or blue font). Most trials were masked nonwords and masked words were presented once every 12-15 sec. The task ensured participant engagement, while the masked nonword baseline controlled for perceptual and orthographic processing. Participants were naïve to the purpose of the experiment and testing indicated that they did not consciously perceive either the words

  15. Automatic detection of the hippocampal region associated with Alzheimer's disease from microscopic images of mice brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaidhani, Tahseen; Hawkes, Cheryl; Jassim, Sabah; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2016-05-01

    The hippocampus is the region of the brain that is primarily associated with memory and spatial navigation. It is one of the first brain regions to be damaged when a person suffers from Alzheimer's disease. Recent research in this field has focussed on the assessment of damage to different blood vessels within the hippocampal region from a high throughput brain microscopic images. The ultimate aim of our research is the creation of an automatic system to count and classify different blood vessels such as capillaries, veins, and arteries in the hippocampus region. This work should provide biologists with efficient and accurate tools in their investigation of the causes of Alzheimer's disease. Locating the boundary of the Region of Interest in the hippocampus from microscopic images of mice brain is the first essential stage towards developing such a system. This task benefits from the variation in colour channels and texture between the two sides of the hippocampus and the boundary region. Accordingly, the developed initial step of our research to locating the hippocampus edge uses a colour-based segmentation of the brain image followed by Hough transforms on the colour channel that isolate the hippocampus region. The output is then used to split the brain image into two sides of the detected section of the boundary: the inside region and the outside region. Experimental results on a sufficiently number of microscopic images demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed solution.

  16. Experimental Precision and Variety Comparison Precision in Regional Crop Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Fan-ling; ZHANG Qun-yuan; GE Zhi-nan; YANG Fu-xin; ZHANG De-gui; LIU Wen-xin

    2002-01-01

    According to the basic concepts of precision and the principles of analysis of variance (ANOVA), precision types for experiments and variety comparison in regional crop trials (RCT) were studied and developed; expected variety comparison precision (EVCP) and realized variety comparison precision (RVCP) and the corresponding statistical indexes of them were proposed. It was explained that experimental precision (EP) and variety comparison precision (VCP) are two kinds of precision of RCT; EP includes error precision and variety mean precision, which can be measured respectively by the coefficient of variation of single observation's error (CVe) and the coefficient of variation of variety mean's error (CVY); VCP includes EVCP and RVCP, which can be measured respectively by the detectable least relative difference (DLRD) and the relative least significant distance (RLSD); EP is an important factor of VCP but not identical to it; RVCP is the realization of EVCP. Besides error, experimental design and GE interaction and ANOVA model affect VCP. Several application examples for these precision indexes were presented, and the precision of regional cotton trials in the Yellow River Valley and the Changjiang Valley were investigated through the historical data of RCTs from 1980 to 1999.

  17. Modulation of Intercellular Calcium Signaling by Melatonin, in Avian and Mammalian Astrocytes, is Brain Region Specific

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Jennifer L.; Earnest, Barbara J.; Tjalkens, Ronald B.; Cassone, Vincent M.; Zoran, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    Calcium waves among glial cells impact many central nervous system functions, including neural integration and brain metabolism. Here, we have characterized the modulatory effects of melatonin, a pineal neurohormone that mediates circadian and seasonal processes, on glial calcium waves derived from different brain regions and species. Diencephalic and telencephalic astrocytes, from both chick and mouse brains, expressed melatonin receptor proteins. Further, using the calcium-sensitive dye Flu...

  18. The Effects of Cocaine on Regional Brain Glucose Metabolism Is Attenuated in Dopamine Transporter Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; MICHAELIDES, MICHAEL; Benveniste, Helene; WANG, GENE JACK; Volkow, Nora D.

    2008-01-01

    Cocaine’s ability to block the dopamine transporter (DAT) is crucial for its reinforcing effects. However the brain functional consequences of DAT blockade by cocaine are less clear since they are confounded by its concomitant blockade of norepinephrine and serotonin transporters. To separate the dopaminergic from the non-dopaminergic effects of cocaine on brain function we compared the regional brain metabolic responses to cocaine between dopamine transporter deficient (DAT−/−) mice with tha...

  19. Intra- and interhemispheric connectivity between face-selective regions in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Andrews, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have revealed a number of regions in the human brain that respond to faces. However, the way these regions interact is a matter of current debate. The aim of this study was to use functional MRI to define face-selective regions in the human brain and then determine how these regions interact in a large population of subjects (n = 72). We found consistent face selectivity in the core face regions of the occipital and temporal lobes: the fusiform face area (FFA), occipital ...

  20. Brain Computer Interface. Comparison of Neural Networks Classifiers.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Pérez, Jose Luis; Barrientos Cruz, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Brain Computer Interface is an emerging technology that allows new output paths to communicate the user’s intentions without use of normal output ways, such as muscles or nerves (Wolpaw, J. R.; et al., 2002).In order to obtain its objective BCI devices shall make use of classifier which translate the inputs provided by user’s brain signal to commands for external devices. The primary uses of this technology will benefit persons with some kind blocking disease as for example: ALS, brainstem st...

  1. Cocaine postmortem distribution in three brain structures: a comparison with whole blood and vitreous humour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Virginia M; Fukushima, André R; Fontes, Luiz R; Fuzinato, Daniela V; Florio, Jorge C; Chasin, Alice A M

    2013-04-01

    The presence of cocaine (COC) in fluids or tissues does not prove that death was due to drug consumption and the interpretation of postmortem concentrations is more complex than attempts at making such correlations in the living. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine in brain and compare with whole blood and vitreous humour. The distribution in three brain structures (prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum) was homogeneous. There is a strong correlation for cocaine concentrations between vitreous humour and brain, vitreous humour and whole blood, and whole blood and brain in overdose cases. In addition, the comparison of COC/benzoylecgonine (BE) ratios in different experimental specimens proved to be more appropriate for evaluating cocaine-related death than individual drug values. These findings suggest that the comparison of cocaine levels in different compartments is essential to assess the cause of death. PMID:23472791

  2. Pubertal hormones modulate the addition of new cells to sexually dimorphic brain regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Eman I.; Zehr, Julia L.; Schulz, Kalynn M.; Lorenz, Betty H.; Doncarlos, Lydia L.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    New cells, including neurons, arise in several brain regions during puberty in rats. Sex differences in pubertal addition of cells coincide with adult sexual dimorphisms: for each region, the sex that gains more cells during puberty has a larger volume in adulthood. Removing gonadal hormones before puberty eliminates these sex differences, indicating that gonadal steroids direct the addition of new cells during puberty to maintain and accentuate sexual dimorphisms in the adult brain.

  3. SCOWLP classification: Structural comparison and analysis of protein binding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Gerd

    2008-01-01

    . The hierarchical classification of PBRs is implemented into the SCOWLP database and extends the SCOP classification with three additional family sub-levels: Binding Region, Interface and Contacting Domains. SCOWLP contains 9,334 binding regions distributed within 2,561 families. In 65% of the cases we observe families containing more than one binding region. Besides, 22% of the regions are forming complex with more than one different protein family. Conclusion The current SCOWLP classification and its web application represent a framework for the study of protein interfaces and comparative analysis of protein family binding regions. This comparison can be performed at atomic level and allows the user to study interactome conservation and variability. The new SCOWLP classification may be of great utility for reconstruction of protein complexes, understanding protein networks and ligand design. SCOWLP will be updated with every SCOP release. The web application is available at http://www.scowlp.org.

  4. Opiate antagonist binding sites in discrete brain regions of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, N.H.; Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The binding of {sup 3}H-naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, to membranes of discrete brain regions and spinal cord of 10 week old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was determined. The brain regions examined were hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midbrain and cortex. {sup 3}H-Naltrexone bound to membranes of brain regions and spinal cord at a single high affinity site with an apparent dissociation constant value of 3 nM. The highest density of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding sites were in hippocampus and lowest in the cerebral cortex. The receptor density (B{sub max}value) and apparent dissociation constant (K{sub d} value) values of {sup 3}H-naltrexone to bind to opiate receptors on the membranes of amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midgrain, cortex and spinal cord of WKY and SHR rates did not differ. The B{sub max} value of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding to membranes of hypothalamus of SHR rates was 518% higher than WKY rats but the K{sub d} values in the two strains did not differ. It is concluded that SHR rats have higher density of opiate receptors labeled with {sup 3}H-naltrexone in the hypothalamus only, in comparison with WKY rats, and that such a difference in the density of opiate receptors may be related to the elevated blood pressure in SHR rats.

  5. Localizing brain regions associated with female mate preference behavior in a swordtail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Y Wong

    Full Text Available Female mate choice behavior is a critical component of sexual selection, yet identifying the neural basis of this behavior is largely unresolved. Previous studies have implicated sensory processing and hypothalamic brain regions during female mate choice and there is a conserved network of brain regions (Social Behavior Network, SBN that underlies sexual behaviors. However, we are only beginning to understand the role this network has in pre-copulatory female mate choice. Using in situ hybridization, we identify brain regions associated with mate preference in female Xiphophorus nigrensis, a swordtail species with a female choice mating system. We measure gene expression in 10 brain regions (linked to sexual behavior, reward, sensory integration or other processes and find significant correlations between female preference behavior and gene expression in two telencephalic areas associated with reward, learning and multi-sensory processing (medial and lateral zones of the dorsal telencephalon as well as an SBN region traditionally associated with sexual response (preoptic area. Network analysis shows that these brain regions may also be important in mate preference and that correlated patterns of neuroserpin expression between regions co-vary with differential compositions of the mate choice environment. Our results expand the emerging network for female preference from one that focused on sensory processing and midbrain sexual response centers to a more complex coordination involving forebrain areas that integrate primary sensory processing and reward.

  6. Comparison of Statistical Models for Regional Crop Trial Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qun-yuan; KONG Fan-ling

    2002-01-01

    Based on the review and comparison of main statistical analysis models for estimating varietyenvironment cell means in regional crop trials, a new statistical model, LR-PCA composite model was proposed, and the predictive precision of these models were compared by cross validation of an example data. Results showed that the order of model precision was LR-PCA model > AMMI model > PCA model > Treatment Means (TM) model > Linear Regression (LR) model > Additive Main Effects ANOVA model. The precision gain factor of LR-PCA model was 1.55, increasing by 8.4% compared with AMMI.

  7. Differential oxidative stress and DNA damage in rat brain regions and blood following chronic arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D; Flora, S J S

    2008-05-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning caused by contaminated drinking water is a wide spread and worldwide problem particularly in India and Bangladesh. One of the possible mechanisms suggested for arsenic toxicity is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study was planned 1) to evaluate if chronic exposure to arsenic leads to oxidative stress in blood and brain - parts of male Wistar rats and 2) to evaluate which brain region of the exposed animals was more sensitive to oxidative injury. Male Wistar rats were exposed to arsenic (50A ppm sodium arsenite in drinking water) for 10A months. The brain was dissected into five major parts, pons medulla, corpus striatum, cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. A number of biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress were studied in blood and different brain regions. Single-strand DNA damage using comet assay was also assessed in lymphocytes. We observed a significant increase in blood and brain ROS levels accompanied by the depletion of GSH/GSSG ratio and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in different brain regions of arsenic-exposed rats. Chronic arsenic exposure also caused significant single-strand DNA damage in lymphocytes as depicted by comet with a tail in arsenic-exposed cells compared with the control cells. On the basis of results, we concluded that the cortex region of the brain was more sensitive to oxidative injury compared with the other regions studied. The present study, thus, leads us to suggest that arsenic induces differential oxidative stress in brain regions with cortex followed by hippocampus and causes single-strand DNA damage in lymphocytes.

  8. Regional Distribution of Copper, Zinc and Iron in Brain of Wistar Rat Model for Non-Wilsonian Brain Copper Toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amit; Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    In previous studies, we have reported first in vivo evidence of copper deposition in the choroid plexus, cognitive impairments, astrocytes swelling (Alzheimer type II cells) and astrogliosis (increase in number of astrocytes), and degenerated neurons coupled with significant increase in the hippocampus copper and zinc content in copper-intoxicated Wistar rats. Nonetheless, hippocampus iron levels were not affected by chronic copper-intoxication. Notwithstanding information on distribution of copper, zinc and iron status in different regions of brain due to chronic copper exposure remains fragmentary. In continuation with our previous study, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneally injected copper lactate (0.15 mg Cu/100 g body weight) daily for 90 days on copper, zinc and iron levels in different regions of the brain using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Copper-intoxicated group showed significantly increased cortex, cerebellum and striatum copper content (76, 46.8 and 80.7 % increase, respectively) compared to control group. However, non-significant changes were observed for the zinc and iron content in cortex, cerebellum and striatum due to chronic copper exposure. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that chronic copper toxicity causes differential copper buildup in cortex, cerebellum and striatum region of central nervous system of male Wistar rats; signifying the critical requirement to discretely evaluate the effect of copper neurotoxicity in different brain regions, and ensuing neuropathological and cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:26855494

  9. Dual role of cerebral blood flow in regional brain temperature control in the healthy newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Sachiko; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Robertson, Nicola J; Iwata, Osuke

    2014-10-01

    Small shifts in brain temperature after hypoxia-ischaemia affect cell viability. The main determinants of brain temperature are cerebral metabolism, which contributes to local heat production, and brain perfusion, which removes heat. However, few studies have addressed the effect of cerebral metabolism and perfusion on regional brain temperature in human neonates because of the lack of non-invasive cot-side monitors. This study aimed (i) to determine non-invasive monitoring tools of cerebral metabolism and perfusion by combining near-infrared spectroscopy and echocardiography, and (ii) to investigate the dependence of brain temperature on cerebral metabolism and perfusion in unsedated newborn infants. Thirty-two healthy newborn infants were recruited. They were studied with cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy, echocardiography, and a zero-heat flux tissue thermometer. A surrogate of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using superior vena cava flow adjusted for cerebral volume (rSVC flow). The tissue oxygenation index, fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen relative to rSVC flow (CMRO₂ index) were also estimated. A greater rSVC flow was positively associated with higher brain temperatures, particularly for superficial structures. The CMRO₂ index and rSVC flow were positively coupled. However, brain temperature was independent of FOE and the CMRO₂ index. A cooler ambient temperature was associated with a greater temperature gradient between the scalp surface and the body core. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and perfusion were monitored in newborn infants without using tracers. In these healthy newborn infants, cerebral perfusion and ambient temperature were significant independent variables of brain temperature. CBF has primarily been associated with heat removal from the brain. However, our results suggest that CBF is likely to deliver heat specifically to the superficial brain. Further studies are required to assess the

  10. Brain region-specificity of palmitic acid-induced abnormalities associated with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melrose Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease mostly affecting the basal forebrain, cortex and hippocampus whereas the cerebellum is relatively spared. The reason behind this region-specific brain damage in AD is not well understood. Here, we report our data suggesting "differential free fatty acid metabolism in the different brain areas" as a potentially important factor in causing the region-specific damage observed in AD brain. Findings The astroglia from two different rat brain regions, cortex (region affected in AD and cerebellum (unaffected region, were treated with 0.2 mM of palmitic acid. The conditioned media were then transferred to the cortical neurons to study the possible effects on the two main, AD-associated protein abnormalities, viz. BACE1 upregulation and hyperphosphorylation of tau. The conditioned media from palmitic-acid treated cortical astroglia, but not the cerebellar astroglia, significantly elevated levels of phosphorylated tau and BACE1 in cortical neurons as compared to controls (47 ± 7% and 45 ± 4%, respectively. Conclusion The present data provide an experimental explanation for the region-specific damage observed in AD brain; higher fatty acid-metabolizing capacity of cortical astroglia as compared to cerebellar astroglia, may play a causal role in increasing vulnerability of cortex in AD, while sparing cerebellum.

  11. Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity in internet gaming addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guangheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Internet gaming addiction (IGA, as a subtype of internet addiction disorder, is rapidly becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. The neurobiological underpinnings of IGA should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity of IGA. This study investigated the brain functions in IGA patients with resting-state fMRI. Methods Fifteen IGA subjects and fourteen healthy controls participated in this study. Regional homogeneity (ReHo measures were used to detect the abnormal functional integrations. Results Comparing to the healthy controls, IGA subjects show enhanced ReHo in brainstem, inferior parietal lobule, left posterior cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus. All of these regions are thought related with sensory-motor coordination. In addition, IGA subjects show decreased ReHo in temporal, occipital and parietal brain regions. These regions are thought responsible for visual and auditory functions. Conclusions Our results suggest that long-time online game playing enhanced the brain synchronization in sensory-motor coordination related brain regions and decreased the excitability in visual and auditory related brain regions.

  12. Dosimetric comparison of Helical Tomotherapy and Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery for single brain metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linskey Mark E

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helical Tomotherapy (HT integrates linear accelerator and computerized tomography (CT technology to deliver IMRT. Targets are localized (i.e. outlined as gross tumor volume [GTV] and planning target volume [PTV] on the planning kVCT study while daily MVCT is used for correction of patient's set-up and assessment of inter-fraction anatomy changes. Based on dosimetric comparisons, this study aims to find dosimetric equivalency between single fraction HT and Gamma Knife® stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS for the treatment of single brain metastasis. Methods The targeting MRI data set from the GKSRS were used for tomotherapy planning. Five patients with single brain metastasis treated with GKSRS were re-planned in the HT planning station using the same prescribed doses. There was no expansion of the GTV to create the PTV. Sub-volumes were created within the PTV and prescribed to the maximum dose seen in the GKSRS plans to imitate the hot spot normally seen in GKSRS. The PTV objective was set as a region at risk in HT planning using the same prescribed dose to the PTV periphery as seen in the corresponding GKSRS plan. The tumor volumes ranged from 437–1840 mm3. Results Conformality indices are inconsistent between HT and GKSRS. HT generally shows larger lower isodose line volumes, has longer treatment time than GKSRS and can treat a much larger lesion than GKSRS. Both HT and GKSRS single fraction dose-volume toxicity may be prohibitive in treating single or multiple lesions depending on the number and the sizes of the lesions. Conclusion Based on the trend for larger lower dose volumes and more constricted higher dose volumes in HT as compared to GKSRS, dosimetric equivalency was not reached between HT and GKSRS.

  13. Comparison of Vascular Perturbations in an Aβ-Injected Animal Model and in AD Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattinee Jantaratnotai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The validity of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ1–42 intrahippocampal injection, as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD, has previously been considered in terms of inflammatory reactivity and neuronal damage. In this work, we have extended the testing of the animal model to vasculature by comparison of selected properties of microvessels in vivo with those in human AD brain tissue. The injection of Aβ1–42, relative to control PBS (phosphate buffered saline, increased the mean number of microvessels and diminished the mean length of microvessels in the molecular layer of dentate gyrus. The animal model showed Aβ1–42, but not PBS, injection was associated with abnormalities in morphology of microvessels which were characterized as looping, fragmented, knob-like, uneven, and constricted. In particular, numbers of constricted microvessels, defined as vessels with diameters less than 3 μm, were considerably enhanced for Aβ1–42, compared to PBS, injection. In comparison, human AD brain demonstrated an elevated number of microvessels with a diminished mean length relative to nondemented (ND brain. Additionally, microvessel perturbations in AD brain showed a similar pattern of morphological abnormalities to those observed in Aβ1–42-injected rat hippocampus. Constricted microvessels were a prominent feature of AD brain but were rarely observed in ND tissue. These results provide the first evidence that a peptide-injection animal model exhibits a commonality in perturbations of microvessels compared with those evident in AD brain.

  14. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  15. Scaffolding of Fyn Kinase to the NMDA Receptor Determines Brain Region Sensitivity to Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Yaka, Rami; Phamluong, Khanhky; Ron, Dorit

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) abuse is a major societal problem. Although ethanol is a structurally simple, diffusible molecule, its sites of action are surprisingly selective, and the molecular mechanisms underlying specificity in ethanol actions are not understood. The NMDA receptor channel is one of the main targets for ethanol in the brain. We report here that the brain region-specific compartmentalization of Fyn kinase determines NMDA receptor sensitivity to ethanol. We demonstrate that, in the hipp...

  16. Segmentation of Tumor Region in MRI Images of Brain using Mathematical Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwini Gade; Rekha Vig; Vaishali Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces an efficient detection of brain tumor from cerebral MRI images. The methodology consists of two steps: enhancement and segmentation. To improve the quality of images and limit the risk of distinct regions fusion in the segmentation phase an enhancement process is applied. We applied mathematical morphology to increase the contrast in MRI images and to segment MRI images. Some of experimental results on brain images show the feasibility and the performance of the proposed...

  17. Segmentation of Tumor Region in MRI Images of Brain using Mathematical Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Gade

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an efficient detection of brain tumor from cerebral MRI images. The methodology consists of two steps: enhancement and segmentation. To improve the quality of images and limit the risk of distinct regions fusion in the segmentation phase an enhancement process is applied. We applied mathematical morphology to increase the contrast in MRI images and to segment MRI images. Some of experimental results on brain images show the feasibility and the performance of the proposed approach.

  18. Brain regional differences in CB1 receptor adaptation and regulation of transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Lazenka, M.F.; Selley, D.E.; Sim-Selley, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) are expressed throughout the brain and mediate the central effects of cannabinoids, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of marijuana. Repeated THC administration produces tolerance to cannabinoid-mediated effects, although the magnitude of tolerance varies by effect. Consistent with this observation, CB1R desensitization and downregulation, as well induction of immediate early genes (IEGs), varies by brain region. Zif268...

  19. Age- and brain-region-specific effects of dietary vitamin K on myelin sulfatides

    OpenAIRE

    Crivello, Natalia A.; Casseus, Sherley L.; Peterson, James W.; Smith, Donald E.; Sarah L. Booth

    2010-01-01

    Dysregulation of myelin sulfatides is a risk factor for cognitive decline with age. Vitamin K is present in high concentrations in the brain and has been implicated in the regulation of sulfatide metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the age-related interrelation between dietary vitamin K and sulfatides in myelin fractions isolated from the brain regions of Fischer 344 male rats fed one of two dietary forms of vitamin K: phylloquinone or its hydrogenated form, dihydrophylloquinone for ...

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy in senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relationship between the reduction of cerebal blood flow and brain atrophy in SDAT, these were measured in 13 cases of senile dementia of Alzheimer type, and compared to 15 cases of multi-infarct Dementia, 39 cases of lacunar infarction without dementia (non-demented CVD group) and 69 cases of aged normal control. Brain atrophy was evaluated by two-dimensional method on CT film by digitizer and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by 133Xe inhalation method. The degree of brain atrophy in SDAT was almost similar of that of MID. But it was more severe than that of non-demented group. MID showed the lowest rCBF among these groups. SDAT showed significantly lower rCBF than that of aged control, but rCBF in SDAT was equal to that of lacunar stroke without dementia. Focal reduction of cerebral blood flow in bilateral fronto-parietal and left occipital regions were observed in SDAT. Verbal intelligence score (Hasegawa's score) correlated with rCBF and brain atrophy index in MID, and a tendency of correlation between rCBF and brain atrophy in MID was also observed. However, there was no correlation among those indices in SDAT. These findings suggest that the loss of brain substance dose not correspond to the reduction of rCBF in SDAT and simultaneous measurement of rCBF and brain atrophy was useful to differ SDAT from MID. (author)

  1. Attentional Performance is Correlated with the Local Regional Efficiency of Intrinsic Brain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai eXu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention is a crucial brain function for human beings. Using neuropsychological paradigms and task-based functional brain imaging, previous studies have indicated that widely distributed brain regions are engaged in three distinct attention subsystems: alerting, orienting and executive control (EC. Here, we explored the potential contribution of spontaneous brain activity to attention by examining whether resting-state activity could account for individual differences of the attentional performance in normal individuals. The resting-state functional images and behavioral data from attention network test (ANT task were collected in 59 healthy subjects. Graph analysis was conducted to obtain the characteristics of functional brain networks and linear regression analyses were used to explore their relationships with behavioral performances of the three attentional components. We found that there was no significant relationship between the attentional performance and the global measures, while the attentional performance was associated with specific local regional efficiency. These regions related to the scores of alerting, orienting and EC largely overlapped with the regions activated in previous task-related functional imaging studies, and were consistent with the intrinsic dorsal and ventral attention networks (DAN/VAN. In addition, the strong associations between the attentional performance and specific regional efficiency suggested that there was a possible relationship between the DAN/VAN and task performances in the ANT. We concluded that the intrinsic activity of the human brain could reflect the processing efficiency of the attention system. Our findings revealed a robust evidence for the functional significance of the efficiently organized intrinsic brain network for highly productive cognitions and the hypothesized role of the DAN/ VAN at rest.

  2. AUTOMATED CLASSIFICATION AND SEGREGATION OF BRAIN MRI IMAGES INTO IMAGES CAPTURED WITH RESPECT TO VENTRICULAR REGION AND EYE-BALL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arunkumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI images of the brain are used for detection of various brain diseases including tumor. In such cases, classification of MRI images captured with respect to ventricular and eye ball regions helps in automated location and classification of such diseases. The methods employed in the paper can segregate the given MRI images of brain into images of brain captured with respect to ventricular region and images of brain captured with respect to eye ball region. First, the given MRI image of brain is segmented using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm, which is an optimized algorithm for MRI image segmentation. The algorithm proposed in the paper is then applied on the segmented image. The algorithm detects whether the image consist of a ventricular region or an eye ball region and classifies it accordingly.

  3. Circuit-wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Brain Region-Specific Gene Networks Regulating Depression Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Cates, Hannah M; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Lorsch, Zachary S; Walker, Deena M; Wang, Junshi; Huang, Xiaojie; Schlüter, Oliver M; Maze, Ian; Peña, Catherine J; Heller, Elizabeth A; Issler, Orna; Wang, Minghui; Song, Won-Min; Stein, Jason L; Liu, Xiaochuan; Doyle, Marie A; Scobie, Kimberly N; Sun, Hao Sheng; Neve, Rachael L; Geschwind, Daniel; Dong, Yan; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a complex, heterogeneous disorder and a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Most previous research has focused on individual brain regions and genes contributing to depression. However, emerging evidence in humans and animal models suggests that dysregulated circuit function and gene expression across multiple brain regions drive depressive phenotypes. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on four brain regions from control animals and those susceptible or resilient to chronic social defeat stress at multiple time points. We employed an integrative network biology approach to identify transcriptional networks and key driver genes that regulate susceptibility to depressive-like symptoms. Further, we validated in vivo several key drivers and their associated transcriptional networks that regulate depression susceptibility and confirmed their functional significance at the levels of gene transcription, synaptic regulation, and behavior. Our study reveals novel transcriptional networks that control stress susceptibility and offers fundamentally new leads for antidepressant drug discovery. PMID:27181059

  4. Functional photoacoustic imaging to observe regional brain activation induced by cocaine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-09-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was used to detect small animal brain activation in response to drug abuse. Cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution was injected into the blood stream of Sprague Dawley rats through tail veins. The rat brain functional change in response to the injection of drug was then monitored by the PAM technique. Images in the coronal view of the rat brain at the locations of 1.2 and 3.4 mm posterior to bregma were obtained. The resulted photoacoustic (PA) images showed the regional changes in the blood volume. Additionally, the regional changes in blood oxygenation were also presented. The results demonstrated that PA imaging is capable of monitoring regional hemodynamic changes induced by drug abuse.

  5. Regional apparent diffusion coefficient values in 3rd trimester fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Chen [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine), Tel Aviv (Israel); Sheba Medical Center, Diagnostic Imaging, 52621, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Weisz, Boaz; Lipitz, Shlomo; Katorza, Eldad [Tel Aviv University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine), Tel Aviv (Israel); Yaniv, Gal; Bergman, Dafi [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine), Tel Aviv (Israel); Biegon, Anat [Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the developing fetus can be used in the diagnosis and prognosis of prenatal brain pathologies. To this end, we measured regional ADC in a relatively large cohort of normal fetal brains in utero. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in 48 non-sedated 3rd trimester fetuses with normal structural MR imaging results. ADC was measured in white matter (frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes), basal ganglia, thalamus, pons, and cerebellum. Regional ADC values were compared by one-way ANOVA with gestational age as covariate. Regression analysis was used to examine gestational age-related changes in regional ADC. Four other cases of CMV infection were also examined. Median gestational age was 32 weeks (range, 26-33 weeks). There was a highly significant effect of region on ADC, whereby ADC values were highest in white matter, with significantly lower values in basal ganglia and cerebellum and the lowest values in thalamus and pons. ADC did not significantly change with gestational age in any of the regions tested. In the four cases with fetal CMV infection, ADC value was associated with a global decrease. ADC values in normal fetal brain are relatively stable during the third trimester, show consistent regional variation, and can make an important contribution to the early diagnosis and possibly prognosis of fetal brain pathologies. (orig.)

  6. Sodium tungstate induced neurological alterations in rat brain regions and their response to antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Sherry; Pant, Satish C; Kushwaha, Pramod; Bhargava, Rakesh; Flora, Swaran J S

    2015-08-01

    Tungsten, recognized recently as an environmental contaminant, is being used in arms and ammunitions as substitute to depleted uranium. We studied the effects of sodium tungstate on oxidative stress, few selected neurological variables like acetylcholinesterase, biogenic amines in rat brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) and their prevention following co-administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), naringenin and quercetin. Animals were sub-chronically exposed to sodium tungstate (100 ppm in drinking water) and orally co-supplemented with different antioxidants (0.30 mM) for three months. Sodium tungstate significantly decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase, dopamine, nor-epinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels while it increased monoamine oxidase activity in different brain regions. Tungstate exposure produced a significant increase in biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress while, neurological alterations were more pronounced in the cerebral cortex compared to other regions. Co-administration of NAC and flavonoids with sodium tungstate significantly restored glutathione, prevented changes in the brain biogenic amines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TBARS levels in the different brain regions. The protection was more prominent in the animals co-administered with NAC. We can thus conclude that sodium tungstate induced brain oxidative stress and the alterations in some neurological variables can effectively be reduced by co-supplementation of NAC. PMID:25983264

  7. Identification of a set of genes showing regionally enriched expression in the mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Marco A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pleiades Promoter Project aims to improve gene therapy by designing human mini-promoters ( Results We have utilized LongSAGE to identify regionally enriched transcripts in the adult mouse brain. As supplemental strategies, we also performed a meta-analysis of published literature and inspected the Allen Brain Atlas in situ hybridization data. From a set of approximately 30,000 mouse genes, 237 were identified as showing specific or enriched expression in 30 target regions of the mouse brain. GO term over-representation among these genes revealed co-involvement in various aspects of central nervous system development and physiology. Conclusion Using a multi-faceted expression validation approach, we have identified mouse genes whose human orthologs are good candidates for design of mini-promoters. These mouse genes represent molecular markers in several discrete brain regions/cell-types, which could potentially provide a mechanistic explanation of unique functions performed by each region. This set of markers may also serve as a resource for further studies of gene regulatory elements influencing brain expression.

  8. Differential production of reactive oxygen species in distinct brain regions of hypoglycemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Alvarado, Leticia; Montiel, Teresa; Massieu, Lourdes

    2014-09-01

    Hypoglycemia is a serious complication of insulin therapy in patients suffering from type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Severe hypoglycemia leading to coma (isoelectricity) induces massive neuronal death in vulnerable brain regions such as the hippocampus, the striatum and the cerebral cortex. It has been suggested that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress is involved in hypoglycemic brain damage, and that ROS generation is stimulated by glucose reintroduction (GR) after the hypoglycemic coma. However, the distribution of ROS in discrete brain regions has not been studied in detail. Using the oxidation sensitive marker dihydroethidium (DHE) we have investigated the distribution of ROS in different regions of the mouse brain during prolonged severe hypoglycemia without isoelectricity, as well as the effect of GR on ROS levels. Results show that ROS generation increases in the hippocampus, the cerebral cortex and the striatum after prolonged severe hypoglycemia before the coma. The hippocampus showed the largest increases in ROS levels. GR further stimulated ROS production in the hippocampus and the striatum while in the cerebral cortex, only the somatosensory and parietal areas were significantly affected by GR. Results suggest that ROS are differentially produced during the hypoglycemic insult and that a different response to GR is present among distinct brain regions.

  9. In vivo changes in microglial activation and amyloid deposits in brain regions with hypometabolism in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokokura, Masamichi; Mori, Norio; Yoshihara, Yujiro; Wakuda, Tomoyasu; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Iwata, Yasuhide; Nakamura, Kazuhiko [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu (Japan); Yagi, Shunsuke; Ouchi, Yasuomi [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Laboratory of Human Imaging Research, Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu (Japan); Yoshikawa, Etsuji [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu (Japan); Kikuchi, Mitsuru [Kanazawa University, Department of Psychiatry and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Sugihara, Genichi; Suda, Shiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Suzuki, Katsuaki [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu (Japan); Ueki, Takatoshi [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Amyloid {beta} protein (A{beta}) is known as a pathological substance in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is assumed to coexist with a degree of activated microglia in the brain. However, it remains unclear whether these two events occur in parallel with characteristic hypometabolism in AD in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the in vivo relationship between A{beta} accumulation and neuroinflammation in those specific brain regions in early AD. Eleven nootropic drug-naive AD patients underwent a series of positron emission tomography (PET) measurements with [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195, [{sup 11}C]PIB and [{sup 18}F]FDG and a battery of cognitive tests within the same day. The binding potentials (BPs) of [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195 were directly compared with those of [{sup 11}C]PIB in the brain regions with reduced glucose metabolism. BPs of [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195 and [{sup 11}C]PIB were significantly higher in the parietotemporal regions of AD patients than in ten healthy controls. In AD patients, there was a negative correlation between dementia score and [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195 BPs, but not [{sup 11}C]PIB, in the limbic, precuneus and prefrontal regions. Direct comparisons showed a significant negative correlation between [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195 and [{sup 11}C]PIB BPs in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) (p < 0.05, corrected) that manifested the most severe reduction in [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake. A lack of coupling between microglial activation and amyloid deposits may indicate that A{beta} accumulation shown by [{sup 11}C]PIB is not always the primary cause of microglial activation, but rather the negative correlation present in the PCC suggests that microglia can show higher activation during the production of A{beta} in early AD. (orig.)

  10. Cortical region of interest definition on SPECT brain images using X-ray CT registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzourio, N.; Sutton, D. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot); Joliot, M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot INSERM, Orsay (France)); Mazoyer, B.M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot Antenne d' Information Medicale, C.H.U. Bichat, Paris (France)); Charlot, V. (Hopital Louis Mourier, Colombes (France). Service de Psychiatrie); Salamon, G. (CHU La Timone, Marseille (France). Service de Neuroradiologie)

    1992-11-01

    We present a method for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) analysis based on individual registration of anatomical (CT) and functional ([sup 133]Xe regional cerebral blood flow) images and on the definition of three-dimensional functional regions of interest. Registration of CT and SPECT is performed through adjustment of CT-defined cortex limits to the SPECT image. Regions are defined by sectioning a cortical ribbon on the CT images, copied over the SPECT images and pooled through slices to give 3D cortical regions of interest. The proposed method shows good intra- and interobserver reproducibility (regional intraclass correlation coefficient [approx equal]0.98), and good accuracy in terms of repositioning ([approx equal]3.5 mm) as compared to the SPECT image resolution (14 mm). The method should be particularly useful for analysing SPECT studies when variations in brain anatomy (normal or abnormal) must be accounted for. (orig.).

  11. Aberrant Global and Regional Topological Organization of the Fractional Anisotropy-weighted Brain Structural Networks in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Huai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: All these resulted in a less optimal topological organization of networks underlying MDD patients, including an impaired capability of local information processing, reduced centrality of some brain regions and limited capacity to integrate information across different regions. Thus, these global network and regional node-level aberrations might contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of MDD from the view of the brain network.

  12. CT evaluation of the brain abscess: Comparison of CT and pathologic findings of brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to correlate the CT and histopathologic findings of abscess wall. The CT findings of 12 patients with pathologically proven brain abscess were retrospectively analyzed with particular attention to the thickness, smoothness and uniformity of enhancing abscess wall, and the results were correlated with histopathologic findings. Two patients with acute cerebritis showed an isodense ring on non-contrast CT(NCCT),but a true capsule formation could not be identified at pathologic examination. Six other patients with isodense ring on NCCT consisted of early to late cerebritis(3 cases), late cerebritis to early calsule(1 case), early capsule(1 case), and late capsule(1 case). These 6 cases showed ring enhancement on contrast enhanced CT(CECT) and true capsule formation pathologically. There was no isodense ring on NCCT in the remaining four patients. They consisted of early to late cerebeitis(2 cases), late cerebritis(1 case), and late cerebritis to early capsule formation(1 case). These also showed ring enhancement on CECT and true capsule formation pathologically. We found that it is different to predict the exact stage of brain abscess on preoperative CT findings. It is suggested that clinical findings and sequential dynamic CT may provide more detailed information for evaluation of abscess staging

  13. CT evaluation of the brain abscess: Comparison of CT and pathologic findings of brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jeoung Mi; Park, Ji Hyun; Kim, Ji Yang; Yim, Neung Jae; Song, Ik Hoon; Kim, Byung Heon [Massan Koryo General Hospital, Massan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-15

    This study was undertaken to correlate the CT and histopathologic findings of abscess wall. The CT findings of 12 patients with pathologically proven brain abscess were retrospectively analyzed with particular attention to the thickness, smoothness and uniformity of enhancing abscess wall, and the results were correlated with histopathologic findings. Two patients with acute cerebritis showed an isodense ring on non-contrast CT(NCCT),but a true capsule formation could not be identified at pathologic examination. Six other patients with isodense ring on NCCT consisted of early to late cerebritis(3 cases), late cerebritis to early calsule(1 case), early capsule(1 case), and late capsule(1 case). These 6 cases showed ring enhancement on contrast enhanced CT(CECT) and true capsule formation pathologically. There was no isodense ring on NCCT in the remaining four patients. They consisted of early to late cerebeitis(2 cases), late cerebritis(1 case), and late cerebritis to early capsule formation(1 case). These also showed ring enhancement on CECT and true capsule formation pathologically. We found that it is different to predict the exact stage of brain abscess on preoperative CT findings. It is suggested that clinical findings and sequential dynamic CT may provide more detailed information for evaluation of abscess staging.

  14. Chronic ethanol exposure produces time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Osterndorff-Kahanek

    Full Text Available Repeated ethanol exposure and withdrawal in mice increases voluntary drinking and represents an animal model of physical dependence. We examined time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks in amygdala (AMY, nucleus accumbens (NAC, prefrontal cortex (PFC, and liver after four weekly cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE vapor exposure in C57BL/6J mice. Microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles at 0-, 8-, and 120-hours following the last ethanol exposure. Each brain region exhibited a large number of differentially expressed genes (2,000-3,000 at the 0- and 8-hour time points, but fewer changes were detected at the 120-hour time point (400-600. Within each region, there was little gene overlap across time (~20%. All brain regions were significantly enriched with differentially expressed immune-related genes at the 8-hour time point. Weighted gene correlation network analysis identified modules that were highly enriched with differentially expressed genes at the 0- and 8-hour time points with virtually no enrichment at 120 hours. Modules enriched for both ethanol-responsive and cell-specific genes were identified in each brain region. These results indicate that chronic alcohol exposure causes global 'rewiring' of coexpression systems involving glial and immune signaling as well as neuronal genes.

  15. Regional differences in actomyosin contraction shape the primary vesicles in the embryonic chicken brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early embryo, the brain initially forms as a relatively straight, cylindrical epithelial tube composed of neural stem cells. The brain tube then divides into three primary vesicles (forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain), as well as a series of bulges (rhombomeres) in the hindbrain. The boundaries between these subdivisions have been well studied as regions of differential gene expression, but the morphogenetic mechanisms that generate these constrictions are not well understood. Here, we show that regional variations in actomyosin-based contractility play a major role in vesicle formation in the embryonic chicken brain. In particular, boundaries did not form in brains exposed to the nonmuscle myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin, whereas increasing contractile force using calyculin or ATP deepened boundaries considerably. Tissue staining showed that contraction likely occurs at the inner part of the wall, as F-actin and phosphorylated myosin are concentrated at the apical side. However, relatively little actin and myosin was found in rhombomere boundaries. To determine the specific physical mechanisms that drive vesicle formation, we developed a finite-element model for the brain tube. Regional apical contraction was simulated in the model, with contractile anisotropy and strength estimated from contractile protein distributions and measurements of cell shapes. The model shows that a combination of circumferential contraction in the boundary regions and relatively isotropic contraction between boundaries can generate realistic morphologies for the primary vesicles. In contrast, rhombomere formation likely involves longitudinal contraction between boundaries. Further simulations suggest that these different mechanisms are dictated by regional differences in initial morphology and the need to withstand cerebrospinal fluid pressure. This study provides a new understanding of early brain morphogenesis. (paper)

  16. Normative data for subcortical regional volumes over the lifetime of the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Olivier; Mouiha, Abderazzak; Dieumegarde, Louis; Duchesne, Simon

    2016-08-15

    Normative data for volumetric estimates of brain structures are necessary to adequately assess brain volume alterations in individuals with suspected neurological or psychiatric conditions. Although many studies have described age and sex effects in healthy individuals for brain morphometry assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, proper normative values allowing to quantify potential brain abnormalities are needed. We developed norms for volumetric estimates of subcortical brain regions based on cross-sectional magnetic resonance scans from 2790 healthy individuals aged 18 to 94years using 23 samples provided by 21 independent research groups. The segmentation was conducted using FreeSurfer, a widely used and freely available automated segmentation software. Models predicting subcortical regional volumes of each hemisphere were produced including age, sex, estimated total intracranial volume (eTIV), scanner manufacturer, magnetic field strength, and interactions as predictors. The mean explained variance by the models was 48%. For most regions, age, sex and eTIV predicted most of the explained variance while manufacturer, magnetic field strength and interactions predicted a limited amount. Estimates of the expected volumes of an individual based on its characteristics and the scanner characteristics can be obtained using derived formulas. For a new individual, significance test for volume abnormality, effect size and estimated percentage of the normative population with a smaller volume can be obtained. Normative values were validated in independent samples of healthy adults and in adults with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:27165761

  17. Role of Prion Replication in the Strain-dependent Brain Regional Distribution of Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping Ping; Morales, Rodrigo; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Moreno-Gonzalez, Ines; Khan, Uffaf; Soto, Claudio

    2016-06-10

    One intriguing feature of prion diseases is their strain variation. Prion strains are differentiated by the clinical consequences they generate in the host, their biochemical properties, and their potential to infect other animal species. The selective targeting of these agents to specific brain structures have been extensively used to characterize prion strains. However, the molecular basis dictating strain-specific neurotropism are still elusive. In this study, isolated brain structures from animals infected with four hamster prion strains (HY, DY, 139H, and SSLOW) were analyzed for their content of protease-resistant PrP(Sc) Our data show that these strains have different profiles of PrP deposition along the brain. These patterns of accumulation, which were independent of regional PrP(C) production, were not reproduced by in vitro replication when different brain regions were used as substrate for the misfolding-amplification reaction. On the contrary, our results show that in vitro replication efficiency depended exclusively on the amount of PrP(C) present in each part of the brain. Our results suggest that the variable regional distribution of PrP(Sc) in distinct strains is not determined by differences on prion formation, but on other factors or cellular pathways. Our findings may contribute to understand the molecular mechanisms of prion pathogenesis and strain diversity.

  18. Role of Prion Replication in the Strain-dependent Brain Regional Distribution of Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping Ping; Morales, Rodrigo; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Moreno-Gonzalez, Ines; Khan, Uffaf; Soto, Claudio

    2016-06-10

    One intriguing feature of prion diseases is their strain variation. Prion strains are differentiated by the clinical consequences they generate in the host, their biochemical properties, and their potential to infect other animal species. The selective targeting of these agents to specific brain structures have been extensively used to characterize prion strains. However, the molecular basis dictating strain-specific neurotropism are still elusive. In this study, isolated brain structures from animals infected with four hamster prion strains (HY, DY, 139H, and SSLOW) were analyzed for their content of protease-resistant PrP(Sc) Our data show that these strains have different profiles of PrP deposition along the brain. These patterns of accumulation, which were independent of regional PrP(C) production, were not reproduced by in vitro replication when different brain regions were used as substrate for the misfolding-amplification reaction. On the contrary, our results show that in vitro replication efficiency depended exclusively on the amount of PrP(C) present in each part of the brain. Our results suggest that the variable regional distribution of PrP(Sc) in distinct strains is not determined by differences on prion formation, but on other factors or cellular pathways. Our findings may contribute to understand the molecular mechanisms of prion pathogenesis and strain diversity. PMID:27056328

  19. 123I-iomazenil brain receptor SPECT in focal epilepsy. In comparison with 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT, MRI and Video/EEG monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical value of 123I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT in diagnosis of focal epilepsy in comparison with 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT, MRI and Video/EEG monitoring. Methods 123I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT was performed on 40 patients with focal epilepsy. The results were compared with those obtained by 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT, MRI and Video/EEG monitoring. Results: In 40 patients, the sensitivity of Video/EEG monitoring for localization of epileptogenic area was 95% (38/40). The sensitivity of 123I-iomazenil brain receptor SPECT, 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT and MRI for localization of epileptogenic area compared with Video/EEG monitoring ('gold standard') was 65.8%(25/38), 55.3%(21/38) and 47.4%(18/38), respectively. The localization of epileptogenic area with 123I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT was in concordance with Video/EEG monitoring in 20 patients, 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT in 15 patients and MRI in 16 patients, respectively. The sensitivity of 123I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT combined with MRI for localization of epileptogenic area was 84.2%(32/38). Conclusions: 123I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT is a useful method in detecting and localizing epileptogenic area. The combination of 123I-Iomazenil brain receptor SPECT and MRI has a high sensitivity for detecting epileptogenic area

  20. Sonographic evaluation of overall and regional vascularization of fetal brain: a preliminary methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oberto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the vascularization of fetal brain in normal and abnormal canditions by three-dimensional sonography associated to Power Doppler (3DPD, with application of Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL that allows to derive vascularization and flow indexes. In this connction, we propose a new method of standardization of the setting and the acquisition mode, choosing in different fetuses and at different gestational ages the same anatomical volumes, corresponding to five spherical regions of interest. In particular, tu study the overall vascularization of the fetal brain, we use a sphere with a diameter corresponding to the bi-parietal distance. To evaluate the regional vascularization, we identify four sampling spherical sites, two in each hemisphere. This standard technical approach according to correct morphological criteria allows to exclude from the analysis vascular territories external to the brain.

  1. Reduction of variance in measurements of average metabolite concentration in anatomically-defined brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ryan J.; Newman, Michael; Nikolaidis, Aki

    2016-11-01

    Multiple methods have been proposed for using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging (MRSI) to measure representative metabolite concentrations of anatomically-defined brain regions. Generally these methods require spectral analysis, quantitation of the signal, and reconciliation with anatomical brain regions. However, to simplify processing pipelines, it is practical to only include those corrections that significantly improve data quality. Of particular importance for cross-sectional studies is knowledge about how much each correction lowers the inter-subject variance of the measurement, thereby increasing statistical power. Here we use a data set of 72 subjects to calculate the reduction in inter-subject variance produced by several corrections that are commonly used to process MRSI data. Our results demonstrate that significant reductions of variance can be achieved by performing water scaling, accounting for tissue type, and integrating MRSI data over anatomical regions rather than simply assigning MRSI voxels with anatomical region labels.

  2. Brain Regions and Neuropsychological Deficits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Erdem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological factors had been shown to play an important role in the emergence of obsessive-compulsive disorder by the information obtained from the methods developed over the years. According to the neuropsychological perspective, the defects had been detected mainly in executive functions, in attention, memory, visual-spatial functions; and abnormalities had been described in the frontal lobe, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus regions of the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The main and the most repeated abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder are dysfunctions in executive function and visual memory. Dysfunctions of the inhibitory processes associated with the dominant frontal area lead to an insufficiency on the inhibition of verbal functions. Excessive activation of the orbitofrontal cortex that mediate the behavioral response suppression function in obsessive-compulsive disorder demonstrated by functional imaging techniques. Repeated-resistant behaviors (eg: compulsions are composed by the deteriorations of the inhibitions of motor or cognitive programs in basal ganglions provided through cycles of frontal lobe. The findings of clinical observations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder could be considered as a reflection of excessive work in 'error detection system' which is the cause of the thoughts that something goes wrong and efforts to achieve perfection. As neurobiological, this finding is observed as excessive activity in orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex representing the ability of humans to provide and detect errors. It is is expected to develop the vehicles that are more sensitive to the characteristics of cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to the neuropsychological tests, using electrophysiological and advanced functional imaging techniques will put forward a better underlying the physiopathology of this disorder in order to

  3. Comparison of Vascular Perturbations in an Aβ-Injected Animal Model and in AD Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Nattinee Jantaratnotai; Ryu, Jae K.; Claudia Schwab; McGeer, Patrick L.; McLarnon, James G

    2011-01-01

    The validity of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ 1-42) intrahippocampal injection, as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), has previously been considered in terms of inflammatory reactivity and neuronal damage. In this work, we have extended the testing of the animal model to vasculature by comparison of selected properties of microvessels in vivo with those in human AD brain tissue. The injection of Aβ 1-42, relative to control PBS (phosphate buffered saline), increased the mean number of micro...

  4. Adaptive integration of local region information to detect fine-scale brain activity patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, the spatial resolution of fMRI data is continuously growing. This pro- vides us the possibility to detect the fine-scale patterns of brain activities. The es- tablished univariate and multivariate methods to analyze fMRI data mostly focus on detecting the activation blobs without considering the distributed fine-scale pat- terns within the blobs. To improve the sensitivity of the activation detection, in this paper, multivariate statistical method and univariate statistical method are com- bined to discover the fine-grained activity patterns. For one voxel in the brain, a local homogenous region is constructed. Then, time courses from the local ho- mogenous region are integrated with multivariate statistical method. Univariate statistical method is finally used to construct the interests of statistic for that voxel. The approach has explicitly taken into account the structures of both activity pat- terns and existing noise of local brain regions. Therefore, it could highlight the fine-scale activity patterns of the local regions. Experiments with simulated and real fMRI data demonstrate that the proposed method dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection of fine-scale brain activity patterns which contain the subtle information about experimental conditions.

  5. Age-and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bio­-energetic parameters in five brain regions [brainstem (BS), frontal cortex (FC), cereb...

  6. Classification of first-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects by automated MRI measures of regional brain volume and cortical thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Takayanagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies have repeatedly demonstrated regional brain structural abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, relatively few MRI-based studies have attempted to distinguish between patients with first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls. METHOD: Three-dimensional MR images were acquired from 52 (29 males, 23 females first-episode schizophrenia patients and 40 (22 males, 18 females healthy subjects. Multiple brain measures (regional brain volume and cortical thickness were calculated by a fully automated procedure and were used for group comparison and classification by linear discriminant function analysis. RESULTS: Schizophrenia patients showed gray matter volume reductions and cortical thinning in various brain regions predominantly in prefrontal and temporal cortices compared with controls. The classifiers obtained from 66 subjects of the first group successfully assigned 26 subjects of the second group with accuracy above 80%. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that combinations of automated brain measures successfully differentiated first-episode schizophrenia patients from healthy controls. Such neuroimaging approaches may provide objective biological information adjunct to clinical diagnosis of early schizophrenia.

  7. Region-specific maturation of cerebral cortex in human fetal brain: diffusion tensor imaging and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Saksena, Sona [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lucknow, UP (India); Husain, Nuzhat; Srivastava, Savita [CSM Medical University, Department of Pathology, Lucknow (India); Rathore, Ram K.S.; Sarma, Manoj K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Kanpur (India); Malik, Gyanendra K. [CSM Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Lucknow (India); Das, Vinita [CSM Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lucknow (India); Pradhan, Mandakini [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Genetics, Lucknow (India); Pandey, Chandra M. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Biostatistics, Lucknow (India); Narayana, Ponnada A. [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-09-15

    In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical analysis in different cortical regions in fetal brains at different gestational age (GA) were performed. DTI was performed on 50 freshly aborted fetal brains with GA ranging from 12 to 42 weeks to compare age-related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in different cerebral cortical regions that include frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes at the level of thalami. GFAP immunostaining was performed and the percentage of GFAP-positive areas was quantified. The cortical FA values in the frontal lobe peaked at around 26 weeks of GA, occipital and temporal lobes at around 20 weeks, and parietal lobe at around 23 weeks. A significant, but modest, positive correlation (r=0.31, p=0.02) was observed between cortical FA values and percentage area of GFAP expression in cortical region around the time period during which the migrational events are at its peak, i.e., GA {<=} 28 weeks for frontal cortical region and GA{<=}22 weeks for rest of the lobes. The DTI-derived FA quantification with its GFAP immunohistologic correlation in cortical regions of the various lobes of the cerebral hemispheres supports region-specific migrational and maturational events in human fetal brain. (orig.)

  8. Regional brain activation associated with addiction of computer games in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, O. J.; Ko, Y. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, M. J.; Lee, J. D. [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Excessive computer game (CG) playing may cause not only behavioral addiction, but also potential negative effects on developing brain. It is necessary to reveal how brain is affected by excessive use of CG playing and behavioral addiction of it. By using PET, we address the issue seeking to identifying patterns of regional brain activation associated with behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG playing by adolescents. 6 normal control and 8 adolescents who were met by the criteria of behavioral addiction on the survey as addiction groups with an addiction of CG playing were participated. Initial screening survey which is the adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling was done. PET were performed twice in each participants both during resting state and after 20 min playing of CG. Psychological test including Youth Self Report (YSR), memory and attention test and vocabulary item from KWAIS were performed. Scores of the vocabulary item from KWAIS and social competence from YSR were significantly lower in the addiction group. On PET, addiction group showed higher resting metabolism on inferior frontal, premotor, prefrontal and superior temporal area. Adolescents with addiction of CG revealed different patterns of regional brain activation comparing to control groups. These suggest behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents.

  9. Regional brain activation associated with addiction of computer games in adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excessive computer game (CG) playing may cause not only behavioral addiction, but also potential negative effects on developing brain. It is necessary to reveal how brain is affected by excessive use of CG playing and behavioral addiction of it. By using PET, we address the issue seeking to identifying patterns of regional brain activation associated with behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG playing by adolescents. 6 normal control and 8 adolescents who were met by the criteria of behavioral addiction on the survey as addiction groups with an addiction of CG playing were participated. Initial screening survey which is the adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling was done. PET were performed twice in each participants both during resting state and after 20 min playing of CG. Psychological test including Youth Self Report (YSR), memory and attention test and vocabulary item from KWAIS were performed. Scores of the vocabulary item from KWAIS and social competence from YSR were significantly lower in the addiction group. On PET, addiction group showed higher resting metabolism on inferior frontal, premotor, prefrontal and superior temporal area. Adolescents with addiction of CG revealed different patterns of regional brain activation comparing to control groups. These suggest behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents

  10. Patterns of regional brain hypometabolism associated with knowledge of semantic features and categories in alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahn, R.; Garrard, P.; Talazko, J.;

    2006-01-01

    The study of semantic memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has raised important questions about the representation of conceptual knowledge in the human brain. It is still unknown whether semantic memory impairments are caused by localized damage to specialized regions or by diffuse da...... and nonliving concepts, as well as visual feature knowledge of living objects, and against distributed accounts of semantic memory that view visual and functional features of living and nonliving objects as distributed across a common set of brain areas.......The study of semantic memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has raised important questions about the representation of conceptual knowledge in the human brain. It is still unknown whether semantic memory impairments are caused by localized damage to specialized regions or by diffuse...... damage to distributed representations within nonspecialized brain areas. To our knowledge, there have been no direct correlations of neuroimaging of in vivo brain function in AD with performance on tasks differentially addressing visual and functional knowledge of living and nonliving concepts. We used...

  11. Regional Variations in Brain Gyrification Are Associated with General Cognitive Ability in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Michael D; Kippenhan, J Shane; Dickinson, Dwight; Carrasco, Jessica; Mattay, Venkata S; Weinberger, Daniel R; Berman, Karen F

    2016-05-23

    Searching for a neurobiological understanding of human intellectual capabilities has long occupied those very capabilities. Brain gyrification, or folding of the cortex, is as highly evolved and variable a characteristic in humans as is intelligence. Indeed, gyrification scales with brain size, and relationships between brain size and intelligence have been demonstrated in humans [1-3]. However, gyrification shows a large degree of variability that is independent from brain size [4-6], suggesting that the former may independently contribute to cognitive abilities and thus supporting a direct investigation of this parameter in the context of intelligence. Moreover, uncovering the regional pattern of such an association could offer insights into evolutionary and neural mechanisms. We tested for this brain-behavior relationship in two separate, independently collected, large cohorts-440 healthy adults and 662 healthy children-using high-resolution structural neuroimaging and comprehensive neuropsychometric batteries. In both samples, general cognitive ability was significantly associated (pFDR distribution that was nearly identical in both samples (Dice similarity coefficient = 0.80). This neuroanatomical pattern is consistent with an existing, well-known proposal, the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory of intelligence [7], and is also consistent with research in comparative evolutionary biology showing rapid neocortical expansion of these regions in humans relative to other species. These data provide a framework for understanding the neurobiology of human cognitive abilities and suggest a potential neurocellular association. PMID:27133866

  12. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induces an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete rat brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some upper brainstem cholinergic neurons (pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei are involved in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep and project rostrally to the thalamus and caudally to the medulla oblongata. A previous report showed that 96 h of REM sleep deprivation in rats induced an increase in the activity of brainstem acetylcholinesterase (Achase, the enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine (Ach in the synaptic cleft. There was no change in the enzyme's activity in the whole brain and cerebrum. The components of the cholinergic synaptic endings (for example, Achase are not uniformly distributed throughout the discrete regions of the brain. In order to detect possible regional changes we measured Achase activity in several discrete rat brain regions (medulla oblongata, pons, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex after 96 h of REM sleep deprivation. Naive adult male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flower-pot technique, while control rats were left in their home cages. Total, membrane-bound and soluble Achase activities (nmol of thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 were assayed photometrically. The results (mean ± SD obtained showed a statistically significant (Student t-test increase in total Achase activity in the pons (control: 147.8 ± 12.8, REM sleep-deprived: 169.3 ± 17.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.025 and thalamus (control: 167.4 ± 29.0, REM sleep-deprived: 191.9 ± 15.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05. Increases in membrane-bound Achase activity in the pons (control: 171.0 ± 14.7, REM sleep-deprived: 189.5 ± 19.5, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 and soluble enzyme activity in the medulla oblongata (control: 147.6 ± 16.3, REM sleep-deprived: 163.8 ± 8.3, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 were also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the enzyme's activity in the other brain regions assayed. The present findings show that the increase in Achase activity

  13. Repeated verum but not placebo acupuncture normalizes connectivity in brain regions dysregulated in chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Egorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture, an ancient East Asian therapy, is aimed at rectifying the imbalance within the body caused by disease. Studies evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture with neuroimaging tend to concentrate on brain regions within the pain matrix, associated with acute pain. We, however, focused on the effect of repeated acupuncture treatment specifically on brain regions known to support functions dysregulated in chronic pain disorders. Transition to chronic pain is associated with increased attention to pain, emotional rumination, nociceptive memory and avoidance learning, resulting in brain connectivity changes, specifically affecting the periaqueductal gray (PAG, medial frontal cortex (MFC and bilateral hippocampus (Hpc. We demonstrate that the PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in patients with chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis indeed correlates with clinical severity scores and further show that verum acupuncture-induced improvement in pain scores (compared to sham is related to the modulation of PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in the predicted direction. This study shows that repeated verum acupuncture might act by restoring the balance in the connectivity of the key pain brain regions, altering pain-related attention and memory.

  14. Aberrant Global and Regional Topological Organization of the Fractional Anisotropy-weighted Brain Structural Networks in Major Depressive Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Huai Chen; Zhi-Jian Yao; Jiao-Long Qin; Rui Yan; Ling-Ling Hua; Qing Lu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Most previous neuroimaging studies have focused on the structural and functional abnormalities of local brain regions in major depressive disorder (MDD).Moreover,the exactly topological organization of networks underlying MDD remains unclear.This study examined the aberrant global and regional topological patterns of the brain white matter networks in MDD patients.Methods:The diffusion tensor imaging data were obtained from 27 patients with MDD and 40 healthy controls.The brain fractional anisotropy-weighted structural networks were constructed,and the global network and regional nodal metrics of the networks were explored by the complex network theory.Results:Compared with the healthy controls,the brain structural network of MDD patients showed an intact small-world topology,but significantly abnormal global network topological organization and regional nodal characteristic of the network in MDD were found.Our findings also indicated that the brain structural networks in MDD patients become a less strongly integrated network with a reduced central role of some key brain regions.Conclusions:All these resulted in a less optimal topological organization of networks underlying MDD patients,including an impaired capability of local information processing,reduced centrality of some brain regions and limited capacity to integrate information across different regions.Thus,these global network and regional node-level aberrations might contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of MDD from the view of the brain network.

  15. Brain volumetric measures in alcoholics: a comparison of two segmentation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Oscar-Berman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marlene Oscar-Berman1–4, Janet Song5,61Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 4VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA; 5Research Scientist Institute, Center for Excellence in Education, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; 6Harvard College, Cambridge, MA, USAAbstract: Measures of regional brain volumes, which can be derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI images by dividing a brain into its constituent parts, can be used as structural indicators of many different neuroanatomical diseases and disorders, including alcoholism. Reducing the time and cost required for brain segmentation would greatly facilitate both clinical and research endeavors. In the present study, we compared two segmentation methods to measure brain volumes in alcoholic and nonalcoholic control subjects: 1 an automated system (FreeSurfer and 2 a semi-automated, supervised system (Cardviews, developed by the Center for Morphometric Analysis [CMA] at Massachusetts General Hospital, which requires extensive staff and oversight. The participants included 32 abstinent alcoholics (19 women and 37 demographically matched, nonalcoholic controls (17 women. Brain scans were acquired in a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. The FreeSurfer and CMA methods showed good agreement for the lateral ventricles, cerebral white matter, caudate, and thalamus. In general, the larger the brain structure, the closer the agreement between the methods, except for the cerebral cortex, which showed large between-method differences. However, several other discrepancies existed between the FreeSurfer and CMA volume measures of alcoholics’ brains. The CMA volumes, but not FreeSurfer, demonstrated that the thalamus, caudate, and putamen were significantly smaller in male alcoholics as compared with male controls. Additionally, the hippocampus was significantly smaller in alcoholic

  16. Recruitment of Language-, Emotion- and Speech-Timing Associated Brain Regions for Expressing Emotional Prosody: Investigation of Functional Neuroanatomy with fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel L. C.; Jazdzyk, Agnieszka; Stets, Manuela; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to progress understanding of prosodic emotion expression by establishing brain regions active when expressing specific emotions, those activated irrespective of the target emotion, and those whose activation intensity varied depending on individual performance. BOLD contrast data were acquired whilst participants spoke non-sense words in happy, angry or neutral tones, or performed jaw-movements. Emotion-specific analyses demonstrated that when expressing angry prosody, activated brain regions included the inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, the insula, and the basal ganglia. When expressing happy prosody, the activated brain regions also included the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and basal ganglia, with additional activation in the anterior cingulate. Conjunction analysis confirmed that the superior temporal gyrus and basal ganglia were activated regardless of the specific emotion concerned. Nevertheless, disjunctive comparisons between the expression of angry and happy prosody established that anterior cingulate activity was significantly higher for angry prosody than for happy prosody production. Degree of inferior frontal gyrus activity correlated with the ability to express the target emotion through prosody. We conclude that expressing prosodic emotions (vs. neutral intonation) requires generic brain regions involved in comprehending numerous aspects of language, emotion-related processes such as experiencing emotions, and in the time-critical integration of speech information. PMID:27803656

  17. Regional alterations of brain biogenic amines in young rats following chronic lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubas, T.C.; Stevenson, A.; Singhal, R.L.; Hrdina, P.D.

    1978-02-01

    An examination was made of neurochemical changes that occur in discrete brain regions of rats that have been chronically exposed to low levels of lead from birth, in order to provide further information on the involvement of brain biogenic amines in lead-induced neurotoxicity. Results indicate a relationship between exposure to lead and alterations in the brain levels of various putative neurotransmitters. However, changes in the functional activity of the neurotransmitter may not be adequately reflected in the change of its steady-state levels or may occur even in the absence of any changes in the actual concentrations. Lead may influence central neurotransmitter function by affecting one or several of the processes involved in the synthesis, release and/or disposition of biogenic amines.

  18. Gene expression profiles in rat brain disclose CNS signature genes and regional patterns of functional specialisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breilid Harald

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian brain is divided into distinct regions with structural and neurophysiological differences. As a result, gene expression is likely to vary between regions in relation to their cellular composition and neuronal function. In order to improve our knowledge and understanding of regional patterns of gene expression in the CNS, we have generated a global map of gene expression in selected regions of the adult rat brain (frontomedial-, temporal- and occipital cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum; both right and left sides as well as in three major non-neural tissues (spleen, liver and kidney using the Applied Biosystems Rat Genome Survey Microarray. Results By unsupervised hierarchical clustering, we found that the transcriptome within a region was highly conserved among individual rats and that there were no systematic differences between the two hemispheres (right versus left side. Further, we identified distinct sets of genes showing significant regional enrichment. Functional annotation of each of these gene sets clearly reflected several important physiological features of the region in question, including synaptic transmission within the cortex, neurogenesis in hippocampus and G-protein-mediated signalling in striatum. In addition, we were able to reveal potentially new regional features, such as mRNA transcription- and neurogenesis-annotated activities in cerebellum and differential use of glutamate signalling between regions. Finally, we determined a set of 'CNS-signature' genes that uncover characteristics of several common neuronal processes in the CNS, with marked over-representation of specific features of synaptic transmission, ion transport and cell communication, as well as numerous novel unclassified genes. Conclusion We have generated a global map of gene expression in the rat brain and used this to determine functional processes and pathways that have a regional preference or ubiquitous

  19. Empathic control through coordinated interaction of amygdala, theory of mind and extended pain matrix brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Emile G; Jacoby, Nir; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-07-01

    Brain regions in the "pain matrix", can be activated by observing or reading about others in physical pain. In previous research, we found that reading stories about others' emotional suffering, by contrast, recruits a different group of brain regions mostly associated with thinking about others' minds. In the current study, we examined the neural circuits responsible for deliberately regulating empathic responses to others' pain and suffering. In Study 1, a sample of college-aged participants (n=18) read stories about physically painful and emotionally distressing events during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while either actively empathizing with the main character or trying to remain objective. In Study 2, the same experiment was performed with professional social workers, who are chronically exposed to human suffering (n=21). Across both studies activity in the amygdala was associated with empathic regulation towards others' emotional pain, but not their physical pain. In addition, psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis and Granger causal modeling (GCM) showed that amygdala activity while reading about others' emotional pain was preceded by and positively coupled with activity in the theory of mind brain regions, and followed by and negatively coupled with activity in regions associated with physical pain and bodily sensations. Previous work has shown that the amygdala is critically involved in the deliberate control of self-focused distress - the current results extend the central importance of amygdala activity to the control of other-focused empathy, but only when considering others' emotional pain. PMID:25913703

  20. Functional MRI Preprocessing in Lesioned Brains: Manual Versus Automated Region of Interest Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Rogalsky, Corianne; Sheng, Tong; Liu, Brent; Damasio, Hanna; Winstein, Carolee J; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa S

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has significant potential in the study and treatment of neurological disorders and stroke. Region of interest (ROI) analysis in such studies allows for testing of strong a priori clinical hypotheses with improved statistical power. A commonly used automated approach to ROI analysis is to spatially normalize each participant's structural brain image to a template brain image and define ROIs using an atlas. However, in studies of individuals with structural brain lesions, such as stroke, the gold standard approach may be to manually hand-draw ROIs on each participant's non-normalized structural brain image. Automated approaches to ROI analysis are faster and more standardized, yet are susceptible to preprocessing error (e.g., normalization error) that can be greater in lesioned brains. The manual approach to ROI analysis has high demand for time and expertise, but may provide a more accurate estimate of brain response. In this study, commonly used automated and manual approaches to ROI analysis were directly compared by reanalyzing data from a previously published hypothesis-driven cognitive fMRI study, involving individuals with stroke. The ROI evaluated is the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus. Significant differences were identified in task-related effect size and percent-activated voxels in this ROI between the automated and manual approaches to ROI analysis. Task interactions, however, were consistent across ROI analysis approaches. These findings support the use of automated approaches to ROI analysis in studies of lesioned brains, provided they employ a task interaction design.

  1. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-li Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception.

  2. Brain regions involved in dispositional mindfulness during resting state and their relation with well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Mindfulness can be viewed as an important dispositional characteristic that reflects the tendency to be mindful in daily life, which is beneficial for improving individuals' both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. However, no study to date has examined the brain regions involved in individual differences in dispositional mindfulness during the resting state and its relation with hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. To investigate this issue, the present study employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to evaluate the regional homogeneity (ReHo) that measures the local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity in a large sample. We found that dispositional mindfulness was positively associated with the ReHo in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and right insula implicated in emotion processing, body awareness, and self-referential processing, and negatively associated with the ReHo in right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) implicated in response inhibition and attentional control. Furthermore, we found different neural associations with hedonic (i.e., positive and negative affect) and eudaimonic well-being (i.e., the meaningful and purposeful life). Specifically, the ReHo in the IFG predicted eudaimonic well-being whereas the OFC predicted positive affect, both of which were mediated by dispositional mindfulness. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence for linking individual differences in dispositional mindfulness to spontaneous brain activity and demonstrates that dispositional mindfulness engages multiple brain mechanisms that differentially influence hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. PMID:26360907

  3. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Shashwath A; Pryweller, Jennifer R; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume) in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD) controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both) morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and complex

  4. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwath A Meda

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and

  5. Social comparison affects brain responses to fairness in asset division : an ERP study with the ultimatum game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; van Dijk, E.; Leliveld, M.C.; Zhou, X.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that social comparison influences individual's fairness consideration and other-regarding behavior. However, it is not clear how social comparison affects the brain activity in evaluating fairness during asset distribution. In this study, participants, acting as recipient

  6. Aging-induced changes in brain regional serotonin receptor binding: Effect of Carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S; Poddar, M K

    2016-04-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT) has its own specific receptors in both pre- and post-synapse. In the present study the role of carnosine on aging-induced changes of [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding in different brain regions in a rat model was studied. The results showed that during aging (18 and 24 months) the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding was reduced in hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD but in cerebral cortex the [(3)H]-5-HT binding was increased with the increase of its only Bmax. The aging-induced changes in [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with carnosine (2.0 μg/kg/day, intrathecally, for 21 consecutive days) attenuated in (a) 24-month-aged rats irrespective of the brain regions with the attenuation of its Bmax except hypothalamus where both Bmax and KD were significantly attenuated, (b) hippocampus and hypothalamus of 18-month-aged rats with the attenuation of its Bmax, and restored toward the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding that observed in 4-month-young rats. The decrease in pons-medullary [(3)H]-5-HT binding including its Bmax of 18-month-aged rats was promoted with carnosine without any significant change in its cerebral cortex. The [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with the same dosages of carnosine in 4-month-young rats (a) increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus with the increase in their only Bmax whereas (b) decreased in hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD. These results suggest that carnosine treatment may (a) play a preventive role in aging-induced brain region-specific changes in serotonergic activity (b) not be worthy in 4-month-young rats in relation to the brain regional serotonergic activity. PMID:26808776

  7. Effects of physical exercise on central nervous system functions: a review of brain region specific adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Julie A; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    Pathologies of central nervous system (CNS) functions are involved in prevalent conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and Parkinson’s disease. Notable pathologies include dysfunctions of circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, central stress responses, and movement mediated by the basal ganglia. Although evidence suggests exercise may benefit these conditions, the neurobiological mechanisms of exercise in specific brain regions involved in these important ...

  8. Sex differences in synaptic plasticity in stress-responsive brain regions following chronic variable stress

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho-Netto, Eduardo F.; Myers, Brent; Jones, Kenneth; Solomon, Matia B.; Herman, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Increased stress responsiveness is implicated in the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Additionally, stress-related affective disorders have a higher incidence in women than men. Chronic stress in rodents produces numerous neuromorphological changes in a variety of limbic brain regions. Here, we examined the sex-dependent differences in presynaptic innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), prefrontal co...

  9. Effects of delayed treatment with nebracetam on neurotransmitters in brain regions after microsphere embolism in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Takeo, Satoshi; Hayashi, Hideki; Miyake, Keiko; Takagi, Kaori; Tadokoro, Mina; Takagi, Norio; Oshikawa, Sayuri

    1997-01-01

    The effects of delayed treatment with nebracetam, a novel nootropic drug, on neurotransmitters of brain regions were examined in rats with microsphere embolism-induced cerebral ischaemia.Cerebral ischaemia was induced by administration of 900 microspheres (48 μm) into the internal carotid artery. The rats with stroke-like symptoms were treated p.o. with 30 mg kg−1 nebracetam twice daily. The levels of acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their metabolites in ...

  10. Whole brain radiotherapy with adjuvant or concomitant boost in brain metastasis: dosimetric comparison between helical and volumetric IMRT technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare and evaluate the possible advantages related to the use of VMAT and helical IMRT and two different modalities of boost delivering, adjuvant stereotactic boost (SRS) or simultaneous integrated boost (SIB), in the treatment of brain metastasis (BM) in RPA classes I-II patients. Ten patients were treated with helical IMRT, 5 of them with SRS after whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and 5 with SIB. MRI co-registration with planning CT was mandatory and prescribed doses were 30 Gy in 10 fractions (fr) for WBRT and 15Gy/1fr or 45Gy/10fr in SRS or SIB, respectively. For each patient, 4 “treatment plans” (VMAT SRS and SIB, helical IMRT SRS and SIB) were calculated and accepted if PTV boost was included in 95 % isodose and dose constraints of the main organs at risk were respected without major deviations. Homogeneity Index (HI), Conformal Index (CI) and Conformal Number (CN) were considered to compare the different plans. Moreover, time of treatment delivery was calculated and considered in the analysis. Volume of brain metastasis ranged between 1.43 and 51.01 cc (mean 12.89 ± 6.37 ml) and 3 patients had double lesions. V95% resulted over 95 % in the average for each kind of technique, but the “target coverage” was inadequate for VMAT planning with two sites. The HI resulted close to the ideal value of zero in all cases; VMAT-SIB, VMAT-SRS, Helical IMRT-SIB and Helical IMRT-SRS showed mean CI of 2.15, 2.10, 2.44 and 1.66, respectively (optimal range: 1.5–2.0). Helical IMRT-SRS was related to the best and reliable finding of CN (0.66). The mean of treatment time was 210 s, 467 s, 440 s, 1598 s, respectively, for VMAT-SIB, VMAT-SRS, Helical IMRT-SIB and Helical IMRT-SRS. This dosimetric comparison show that helical IMRT obtain better target coverage and respect of CI and CN; VMAT could be acceptable in solitary metastasis. SIB modality can be considered as a good choice for clinical and logistic compliance; literature’s preliminary data are confirming

  11. Distinct representations of configural and part information across multiple face-selective regions of the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Golarai, Golijeh; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Eberhardt, Jennifer L.; John D E Gabrieli

    2015-01-01

    Several regions of the human brain respond more strongly to faces than to other visual stimuli, such as regions in the amygdala (AMG), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the fusiform face area (FFA). It is unclear if these brain regions are similar in representing the configuration or natural appearance of face parts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy adults who viewed natural or schematic faces with internal parts that were either normally configured or randomly rearr...

  12. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24{+-}4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor.

  13. Hindbrain regional growth in preterm newborns and its impairment in relation to brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hosung; Gano, Dawn; Ho, Mai-Lan; Guo, Xiaoyue M; Unzueta, Alisa; Hess, Christopher; Ferriero, Donna M; Xu, Duan; Barkovich, A James

    2016-02-01

    Premature birth globally affects about 11.1% of all newborns and is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disability in surviving infants. Histology has suggested that hindbrain subdivisions grow differentially, especially in the third trimester. Prematurity-related brain injuries occurring in this period may selectively affect more rapidly developing areas of hindbrain, thus accompanying region-specific impairments in growth and ultimately neurodevelopmental deficits. The current study aimed to quantify regional growth of the cerebellum and the brainstem in preterm neonates (n = 65 with individually multiple scans). We probed associations of the regional volumes with severity of brain injury. In neonates with no imaging evidence of injury, our analysis using a mixed-effect linear model showed faster growth in the pons and the lateral convexity of anterior/posterior cerebellar lobes. Different patterns of growth impairment were found in relation to early cerebral intraventricular hemorrhage and cerebellar hemorrhage (P explaining different mechanisms through which neurogenesis is disrupted. The pattern of cerebellar growth identified in our study agreed excellently with details of cerebellar morphogenesis in perinatal development, which has only been observed in histological data. Our proposed analytic framework may provide predictive imaging biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcome, enabling early identification and treatment of high-risk patients. Hum Brain Mapp 37:678-688, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26589992

  14. Differential Activation Patterns in the Same Brain Region Led to Opposite Emotional States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Kazuhisa; Watanabe, Takeo; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2016-01-01

    In human studies, how averaged activation in a brain region relates to human behavior has been extensively investigated. This approach has led to the finding that positive and negative facial preferences are represented by different brain regions. However, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) method, we found that different patterns of neural activations within the cingulate cortex (CC) play roles in representing opposite directions of facial preference. In the present study, while neutrally preferred faces were presented, multi-voxel activation patterns in the CC that corresponded to higher (or lower) preference were repeatedly induced by fMRI DecNef. As a result, previously neutrally preferred faces became more (or less) preferred. We conclude that a different activation pattern in the CC, rather than averaged activation in a different area, represents and suffices to determine positive or negative facial preference. This new approach may reveal the importance of an activation pattern within a brain region in many cognitive functions. PMID:27608359

  15. Gene co-expression analysis identifies brain regions and cell types involved in migraine pathophysiology: a GWAS-based study using the Allen Human Brain Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eising, Else; Huisman, Sjoerd M H; Mahfouz, Ahmed; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S; Anttila, Verneri; Winsvold, Bendik S; Kurth, Tobias; Ikram, M Arfan; Freilinger, Tobias; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boomsma, Dorret I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta R; Zwart, John-Anker; Quaye, Lydia; Strachan, David P; Kubisch, Christian; Dichgans, Martin; Davey Smith, George; Stefansson, Kari; Palotie, Aarno; Chasman, Daniel I; Ferrari, Michel D; Terwindt, Gisela M; de Vries, Boukje; Nyholt, Dale R; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Reinders, Marcel J T

    2016-04-01

    Migraine is a common disabling neurovascular brain disorder typically characterised by attacks of severe headache and associated with autonomic and neurological symptoms. Migraine is caused by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over a dozen genetic loci associated with migraine. Here, we integrated migraine GWAS data with high-resolution spatial gene expression data of normal adult brains from the Allen Human Brain Atlas to identify specific brain regions and molecular pathways that are possibly involved in migraine pathophysiology. To this end, we used two complementary methods. In GWAS data from 23,285 migraine cases and 95,425 controls, we first studied modules of co-expressed genes that were calculated based on human brain expression data for enrichment of genes that showed association with migraine. Enrichment of a migraine GWAS signal was found for five modules that suggest involvement in migraine pathophysiology of: (i) neurotransmission, protein catabolism and mitochondria in the cortex; (ii) transcription regulation in the cortex and cerebellum; and (iii) oligodendrocytes and mitochondria in subcortical areas. Second, we used the high-confidence genes from the migraine GWAS as a basis to construct local migraine-related co-expression gene networks. Signatures of all brain regions and pathways that were prominent in the first method also surfaced in the second method, thus providing support that these brain regions and pathways are indeed involved in migraine pathophysiology.

  16. Selective normalisation of regional brain bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate in the mucopolysaccharidosis 1 (Hurler) mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Jennifer T; Lehmann, Rebecca J; Derrick-Roberts, Ainslie L K; Fuller, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) is a glycerophospholipid highly enriched in the lysosomal network and elevated in lysosomal diseases. To correct this elevation, BMP synthesis was manipulated by dietary fatty acid supplementation and the impact on subregional brain BMP and pathology assessed in the mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis 1 (Hurler syndrome (HS)). There was widespread elevation of BMP in HS mice across all six sub-regions - brain stem, cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and the sub-cortex - with 22:6/22:6 the most abundant species. Linoleic acid normalised total BMP in all regions except the cortex and cerebellum, although there were differences in fatty acid species; the major finding a decrease in 22:6- and a concomitant increase in 22:5-containing species. A battery of behaviour assessments showed that in the water cross maze both HS and wild type mice performed less well on the linoleic acid diet, and that both HS and wild type mice on the linoleic acid diet performed similarly and better in the exploratory open field test. This may be a consequence of differential subregional BMP composition in the brain. The effects of high fat and docosahexaenoic/eicosapentaenoic acid enriched diets were generally unremarkable. Although major pathologies were not completely abrogated, much of the neurobehavioural testing was confounded by skeletal pathology that did not resolve. This is the first detailed characterisation of subregional brain BMP species informing on the ability to manipulate this phospholipid in the brain, and as such, may hold promise as an adjunct therapy not only for HS but also for other lysosomal diseases. PMID:26710715

  17. Stability of whole brain and regional network topology within and between resting and cognitive states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna K Rzucidlo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Graph-theory based analyses of resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data have been used to map the network organization of the brain. While numerous analyses of resting state brain organization exist, many questions remain unexplored. The present study examines the stability of findings based on this approach over repeated resting state and working memory state sessions within the same individuals. This allows assessment of stability of network topology within the same state for both rest and working memory, and between rest and working memory as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: fMRI scans were performed on five participants while at rest and while performing the 2-back working memory task five times each, with task state alternating while they were in the scanner. Voxel-based whole brain network analyses were performed on the resulting data along with analyses of functional connectivity in regions associated with resting state and working memory. Network topology was fairly stable across repeated sessions of the same task, but varied significantly between rest and working memory. In the whole brain analysis, local efficiency, Eloc, differed significantly between rest and working memory. Analyses of network statistics for the precuneus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex revealed significant differences in degree as a function of task state for both regions and in local efficiency for the precuneus. Conversely, no significant differences were observed across repeated sessions of the same state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that network topology is fairly stable within individuals across time for the same state, but also fluid between states. Whole brain voxel-based network analyses may prove to be a valuable tool for exploring how functional connectivity changes in response to task demands.

  18. Regional brain shrinkage and change in cognitive performance over two years: The bidirectional influences of the brain and cognitive reserve factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ninni; Ghisletta, Paolo; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Yuan, Peng; Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali

    2016-02-01

    We examined relationships between regional brain shrinkage and changes in cognitive performance, while taking into account the influence of chronological age, vascular risk, Apolipoprotein E variant and socioeconomic status. Regional brain volumes and cognitive performance were assessed in 167 healthy adults (age 19-79 at baseline), 90 of whom returned for the follow-up after two years. Brain volumes were measured in six regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (Hc), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC), and cognitive performance was evaluated in three domains: episodic memory (EM), fluid intelligence (Gf), and vocabulary (V). Average volume loss was observed in Hc, PhG and CbH, but reliable individual differences were noted in all examined ROIs. Average positive change was observed in EM and V performance but not in Gf scores, yet only the last evidenced individual differences in change. We observed reciprocal influences among neuroanatomical and cognitive variables. Larger brain volumes at baseline predicted greater individual gains in Gf, but differences in LPFC volume change were in part explained by baseline level of cognitive performance. In one region (PFw), individual change in volume was coupled with change in Gf. Larger initial brain volumes did not predict slower shrinkage. The results underscore the complex role of brain maintenance and cognitive reserve in adult development. PMID:26584866

  19. Heterogeneity of Regional Brain Atrophy Patterns Associated with Distinct Progression Rates in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Soo Byun

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify and characterize subtypes of Alzheimer's disease (AD exhibiting different patterns of regional brain atrophy on MRI using age- and gender-specific norms of regional brain volumes. AD subjects included in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study were classified into subtypes based on standardized values (Z-scores of hippocampal and regional cortical volumes on MRI with reference to age- and gender-specific norms obtained from 222 cognitively normal (CN subjects. Baseline and longitudinal changes of clinical characteristics over 2 years were compared across subtypes. Whole-brain-level gray matter (GM atrophy pattern using voxel-based morphometry (VBM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers of the subtypes were also investigated. Of 163 AD subjects, 58.9% were classified as the "both impaired" subtype with the typical hippocampal and cortical atrophy pattern, whereas 41.1% were classified as the subtypes with atypical atrophy patterns: "hippocampal atrophy only" (19.0%, "cortical atrophy only" (11.7%, and "both spared" (10.4%. Voxel-based morphometric analysis demonstrated whole-brain-level differences in overall GM atrophy across the subtypes. These subtypes showed different progression rates over 2 years; and all subtypes had significantly lower CSF amyloid-β 1-42 levels compared to CN. In conclusion, we identified four AD subtypes exhibiting heterogeneous atrophy patterns on MRI with different progression rates after controlling the effects of aging and gender on atrophy with normative information. CSF biomarker analysis suggests the presence of Aβ neuropathology irrespective of subtypes. Such heterogeneity of MRI-based neuronal injury biomarker and related heterogeneous progression patterns should be considered in clinical trials and practice with AD patients.

  20. Biogenic Amines in Microdissected Brain Regions of Drosophila melanogaster Measured with Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography – Electrochemical Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kuklinski, Nicholas J.; Berglund, E. Carina; Engelbrektsson, Johan; Ewing, Andrew G.

    2010-01-01

    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography with electrochemical detection has been used to quantify biogenic amines in microdissected Drosophila melanogaster brains and brain regions. The effects of pigment from the relatively large fly eyes on the separation have been examined to find that the red pigment from the compound eye masks much of the signal from biogenic amines. The brains of white mutant flies, which have characteristically low pigment in the eyes, have a significantly simplified sep...

  1. Mercury distribution and speciation in different brain regions of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicokinetics of mercury (Hg) in key species of Arctic ecosystem are poorly understood. We sampled five brain regions (frontal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord) from beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) harvested in 2006, 2008, and 2010 from the eastern Beaufort Sea, Canada, and measured total Hg (HgT) and total selenium (SeT) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mercury analyzer or cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, and the chemical forms using a high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS. At least 14% of the beluga whales had HgT concentrations higher than the levels of observable adverse effect (6.0 mg kg−1 wet weight (ww)) in primates. The concentrations of HgT differed between brain regions; median concentrations (mg kg−1 ww) were 2.34 (0.06 to 22.6, 81) (range, n) in temporal lobe, 1.84 (0.12 to 21.9, 77) in frontal lobe, 1.84 (0.05 to 16.9, 83) in cerebellum, 1.25 (0.02 to 11.1, 77) in spinal cord and 1.32 (0.13 to 15.2, 39) in brain stem. Total Hg concentrations in the cerebellum increased with age (p −1 ww) was positively associated with HgT concentration, and the percent MeHg (4 to 109%) decreased exponentially with increasing HgT concentration in the spinal cord, cerebellum, frontal lobe and temporal lobe. There was a positive association between SeT and HgT in all brain regions (p < 0.05) suggesting that Se may play a role in the detoxification of Hg in the brain. The concentration of HgT in the cerebellum was significantly associated with HgT in other organs. Therefore, HgT concentrations in organs that are frequently sampled in bio-monitoring studies could be used to estimate HgT concentrations in the cerebellum, which is the target organ of MeHg toxicity. - Highlights: • Mercury concentrations were highest in the temporal lobe of beluga whales. • Selenium and mercury concentrations were strongly correlated. • Total mercury concentrations in the cerebellum increased with age

  2. Mercury distribution and speciation in different brain regions of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Sonja K; Stern, Gary A; Wang, Feiyue; Lemes, Marcos; Chan, Hing Man

    2013-07-01

    The toxicokinetics of mercury (Hg) in key species of Arctic ecosystem are poorly understood. We sampled five brain regions (frontal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord) from beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) harvested in 2006, 2008, and 2010 from the eastern Beaufort Sea, Canada, and measured total Hg (HgT) and total selenium (SeT) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mercury analyzer or cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, and the chemical forms using a high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS. At least 14% of the beluga whales had HgT concentrations higher than the levels of observable adverse effect (6.0 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww)) in primates. The concentrations of HgT differed between brain regions; median concentrations (mgkg(-1) ww) were 2.34 (0.06 to 22.6, 81) (range, n) in temporal lobe, 1.84 (0.12 to 21.9, 77) in frontal lobe, 1.84 (0.05 to 16.9, 83) in cerebellum, 1.25 (0.02 to 11.1, 77) in spinal cord and 1.32 (0.13 to 15.2, 39) in brain stem. Total Hg concentrations in the cerebellum increased with age (p<0.05). Between 35 and 45% of HgT was water-soluble, of which, 32 to 41% was methyl mercury (MeHg) and 59 to 68% was labile inorganic Hg. The concentration of MeHg (range: 0.03 to 1.05 mg kg(-1) ww) was positively associated with HgT concentration, and the percent MeHg (4 to 109%) decreased exponentially with increasing HgT concentration in the spinal cord, cerebellum, frontal lobe and temporal lobe. There was a positive association between SeT and HgT in all brain regions (p<0.05) suggesting that Se may play a role in the detoxification of Hg in the brain. The concentration of HgT in the cerebellum was significantly associated with HgT in other organs. Therefore, HgT concentrations in organs that are frequently sampled in bio-monitoring studies could be used to estimate HgT concentrations in the cerebellum, which is the target organ of MeHg toxicity. PMID:23624002

  3. Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Britta K; Carmody, James; Vangel, Mark; Congleton, Christina; Yerramsetti, Sita M; Gard, Tim; Lazar, Sara W

    2011-01-30

    Therapeutic interventions that incorporate training in mindfulness meditation have become increasingly popular, but to date little is known about neural mechanisms associated with these interventions. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), one of the most widely used mindfulness training programs, has been reported to produce positive effects on psychological well-being and to ameliorate symptoms of a number of disorders. Here, we report a controlled longitudinal study to investigate pre-post changes in brain gray matter concentration attributable to participation in an MBSR program. Anatomical magnetic resonance (MR) images from 16 healthy, meditation-naïve participants were obtained before and after they underwent the 8-week program. Changes in gray matter concentration were investigated using voxel-based morphometry, and compared with a waiting list control group of 17 individuals. Analyses in a priori regions of interest confirmed increases in gray matter concentration within the left hippocampus. Whole brain analyses identified increases in the posterior cingulate cortex, the temporo-parietal junction, and the cerebellum in the MBSR group compared with the controls. The results suggest that participation in MBSR is associated with changes in gray matter concentration in brain regions involved in learning and memory processes, emotion regulation, self-referential processing, and perspective taking.

  4. Genome-wide coexpression of steroid receptors in the mouse brain: Identifying signaling pathways and functionally coordinated regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Ahmed; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; Grefhorst, Aldo; van Weert, Lisa T C M; Mol, Isabel M; Sips, Hetty C M; van den Heuvel, José K; Datson, Nicole A; Visser, Jenny A; Reinders, Marcel J T; Meijer, Onno C

    2016-03-01

    Steroid receptors are pleiotropic transcription factors that coordinate adaptation to different physiological states. An important target organ is the brain, but even though their effects are well studied in specific regions, brain-wide steroid receptor targets and mediators remain largely unknown due to the complexity of the brain. Here, we tested the idea that novel aspects of steroid action can be identified through spatial correlation of steroid receptors with genome-wide mRNA expression across different regions in the mouse brain. First, we observed significant coexpression of six nuclear receptors (NRs) [androgen receptor (Ar), estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1), estrogen receptor beta (Esr2), glucocorticoid receptor (Gr), mineralocorticoid receptor (Mr), and progesterone receptor (Pgr)] with sets of steroid target genes that were identified in single brain regions. These coexpression relationships were also present in distinct other brain regions, suggestive of as yet unidentified coordinate regulation of brain regions by, for example, glucocorticoids and estrogens. Second, coexpression of a set of 62 known NR coregulators and the six steroid receptors in 12 nonoverlapping mouse brain regions revealed selective downstream pathways, such as Pak6 as a mediator for the effects of Ar and Gr on dopaminergic transmission. Third, Magel2 and Irs4 were identified and validated as strongly responsive targets to the estrogen diethylstilbestrol in the mouse hypothalamus. The brain- and genome-wide correlations of mRNA expression levels of six steroid receptors that we provide constitute a rich resource for further predictions and understanding of brain modulation by steroid hormones. PMID:26811448

  5. Regional differences in gene expression and promoter usage in aged human brains

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, Luba M.

    2013-02-19

    To characterize the promoterome of caudate and putamen regions (striatum), frontal and temporal cortices, and hippocampi from aged human brains, we used high-throughput cap analysis of gene expression to profile the transcription start sites and to quantify the differences in gene expression across the 5 brain regions. We also analyzed the extent to which methylation influenced the observed expression profiles. We sequenced more than 71 million cap analysis of gene expression tags corresponding to 70,202 promoter regions and 16,888 genes. More than 7000 transcripts were differentially expressed, mainly because of differential alternative promoter usage. Unexpectedly, 7% of differentially expressed genes were neurodevelopmental transcription factors. Functional pathway analysis on the differentially expressed genes revealed an overrepresentation of several signaling pathways (e.g., fibroblast growth factor and wnt signaling) in hippocampus and striatum. We also found that although 73% of methylation signals mapped within genes, the influence of methylation on the expression profile was small. Our study underscores alternative promoter usage as an important mechanism for determining the regional differences in gene expression at old age.

  6. Characterization of monoaminergic systems in brain regions of prematurely ageing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, Monica; Hernanz, Angel; Medina, Sonia; Guayerbas, Noelia; Fernández, Beatriz; Viveros, Maria Paz

    2003-07-01

    We have previously shown that differences in life span among members of Swiss mouse populations appear to be related to their exploration of a T-maze, with a slow exploration ("slow mice") being linked to increased levels of emotionality/anxiety, an impaired immune function and a shorter life span. Thus, we proposed the slow mice as prematurely ageing mice (PAM). We have now compared the monoaminergic systems of the PAM and of the non-prematurely ageing mice (NPAM), in discrete brain regions. PAM had decreased noradrenaline (NA) levels in all the brain regions analysed, whereas the 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl glycol (MHPG)/NA ratios were not significantly modified. PAM also showed decreased serotonine (5-HT) levels in hypothalamus, striatum and midbrain, as well as increased 5-hydroxyindol-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA)/5-HT ratios in hypothalamus and hippocampus. The dopamine (DA) content was lower in PAM in most regions, whereas the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/DA and homovanillic acid (HVA)/DA ratios were either increased or unchanged depending on the region analysed. In most cases, the differences between PAM and NPAM involved both sexes. One exception was the hypothalamus where the differences only affected the male mice. The neurochemical alterations found in PAM resemble some changes reported for aged animals and are related with their behavioural features.

  7. Action sentences activate sensory motor regions in the brain independently of their status of reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega, Manuel; León, Inmaculada; Hernández, Juan A; Valdés, Mitchell; Padrón, Iván; Ferstl, Evelyn C

    2014-07-01

    Some studies have reported that understanding concrete action-related words and sentences elicits activations of motor areas in the brain. The present fMRI study goes one step further by testing whether this is also the case for comprehension of nonfactual statements. Three linguistic structures were used (factuals, counterfactuals, and negations), referring either to actions or, as a control condition, to visual events. The results showed that action sentences elicited stronger activations than visual sentences in the SMA, extending to the primary motor area, as well as in regions generally associated with the planning and understanding of actions (left superior temporal gyrus, left and right supramarginal gyri). Also, we found stronger activations for action sentences than for visual sentences in the extrastriate body area, a region involved in the visual processing of human body movements. These action-related effects occurred not only in factuals but also in negations and counterfactuals, suggesting that brain regions involved in action understanding and planning are activated by default even when the actions are described as hypothetical or as not happening. Moreover, some of these regions overlapped with those activated during the observation of action videos, indicating that the act of understanding action language and that of observing real actions share neural networks. These results support the claim that embodied representations of linguistic meaning are important even in abstract linguistic contexts.

  8. Comparison of template registration methods for multi-site meta-analysis of brain morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faskowitz, Joshua; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; McMahon, Katie L.; Wright, Margaret J.; Thompson, Paul M.; Jahanshad, Neda

    2016-03-01

    Neuroimaging consortia such as ENIGMA can significantly improve power to discover factors that affect the human brain by pooling statistical inferences across cohorts to draw generalized conclusions from populations around the world. Voxelwise analyses such as tensor-based morphometry also allow an unbiased search for effects throughout the brain. Even so, such consortium-based analyses are limited by a lack of high-powered methods to harmonize voxelwise information across study populations and scanners. While the simplest approach may be to map all images to a single standard space, the benefits of cohort-specific templates have long been established. Here we studied methods to pool voxel-wise data across sites using templates customized for each cohort but providing a meaningful common space across all studies for voxelwise comparisons. As non-linear 3D MRI registrations represent mappings between images at millimeter resolution, we need to consider the reliability of these mappings. To evaluate these mappings, we calculated test-retest statistics on the volumetric maps of expansion and contraction. Further, we created study-specific brain templates for ten T1-weighted MRI datasets, and a common space from four study-specific templates. We evaluated the efficacy of using a two-step registration framework versus a single standard space. We found that the two-step framework more reliably mapped subjects to a common space.

  9. Variants in the DYX2 locus are associated with altered brain activation in reading-related brain regions in subjects with reading disability

    OpenAIRE

    Cope, Natalie; Eicher, John D.; Meng, Haiying; Gibson, Christopher J.; Hager, Karl; Lacadie, Cheryl; Fulbright, Robert K.; Constable, R. Todd; Page, Grier P.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Reading disability (RD) is a complex genetic disorder with unknown etiology. Genes on chromosome 6p22, including DCDC2, KIAA0319, and TTRAP, have been identified as RD associated genes. Imaging studies have shown both functional and structural differences between brains of individuals with and without RD. There are limited association studies performed between RD genes, specifically genes on 6p22, and regional brain activation during reading tasks. Using fourteen variants in DCDC2, KIAA0319, ...

  10. Regional Differences in Brain Volume Predict the Acquisition of Skill in a Complex Real-Time Strategy Videogame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Boot, Walter R.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also…

  11. Pain facilitation brain regions activated by nalbuphine are revealed by pharmacological fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gear

    Full Text Available Nalbuphine, an agonist-antagonist kappa-opioid, produces brief analgesia followed by enhanced pain/hyperalgesia in male postsurgical patients. However, it produces profound analgesia without pain enhancement when co-administration with low dose naloxone. To examine the effect of nalbuphine or nalbuphine plus naloxone on activity in brain regions that may explain these differences, we employed pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI in a double blind cross-over study with 13 healthy male volunteers. In separate imaging sessions subjects were administered nalbuphine (5 mg/70 kg preceded by either saline (Sal-Nalb or naloxone 0.4 mg (Nalox-Nalb. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD activation maps followed by contrast and connectivity analyses revealed marked differences. Sal-Nalb produced significantly increased activity in 60 brain regions and decreased activity in 9; in contrast, Nalox-Nalb activated only 14 regions and deactivated only 3. Nalbuphine, like morphine in a previous study, attenuated activity in the inferior orbital cortex, and, like noxious stimulation, increased activity in temporal cortex, insula, pulvinar, caudate, and pons. Co-administration/pretreatment of naloxone selectively blocked activity in pulvinar, pons and posterior insula. Nalbuphine induced functional connectivity between caudate and regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal, insular, middle cingulate cortices, and putamen; naloxone co-admistration reduced all connectivity to non-significant levels, and, like phMRI measures of morphine, increased activation in other areas (e.g., putamen. Naloxone pretreatment to nalbuphine produced changes in brain activity possess characteristics of both analgesia and algesia; naloxone selectively blocks activity in areas associated with algesia. Given these findings, we suggest that nalbuphine interacts with a pain salience system, which can modulate perceived pain intensity.

  12. Students' Entrepreneurial Intentions: An Inter-Regional Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Mario; Haase, Heiko; Lautenschlager, Arndt

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The central research questions which the paper aims to answer are: What are the entrepreneurial intentions of university students in different European regions? What are the factors that most contribute to entrepreneurial intentions and the potential differences between the regions? Design/methodology/approach: This cross-sectional study…

  13. Comparison of regional and ecosystem CO2 fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Søgaard, Henrik; Batchvarova, Ekaterina

    2009-01-01

    A budget method to derive the regional surface flux of CO2 from the evolution of the boundary layer is presented and applied. The necessary input for the method can be deduced from a combination of vertical profile measurements of CO2 concentrations by i.e. an airplane, successive radio......-soundings and standard measurements of the CO2 concentration near the ground. The method was used to derive the regional flux of CO2 over an agricultural site at Zealand in Denmark during an experiment on 12–13 June 2006. The regional fluxes of CO2 represent a combination of agricultural and forest surface conditions....... It was found that the regional flux of CO2 in broad terms follows the behavior of the flux of CO2 at the agricultural (grassland) and the deciduous forest station. The regional flux is comparable not only in size but also in the diurnal (daytime) cycle of CO2 fluxes at the two stations....

  14. Apoptotic markers in cultured fibroblasts correlate with brain metabolites and regional brain volume in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla, A; Bargalló, N; Gassó, P; Molina, O; Pareto, D; Mas, S; Roca, J M; Bernardo, M; Lafuente, A; Parellada, E

    2015-08-25

    Cultured fibroblasts from first-episode schizophrenia patients (FES) have shown increased susceptibility to apoptosis, which may be related to glutamate dysfunction and progressive neuroanatomical changes. Here we determine whether apoptotic markers obtained from cultured fibroblasts in FES and controls correlate with changes in brain glutamate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and regional brain volumes. Eleven antipsychotic-naive FES and seven age- and gender-matched controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) and NAA levels were measured in the anterior cingulate (AC) and the left thalamus (LT). Hallmarks of apoptotic susceptibility (caspase-3-baseline activity, phosphatidylserine externalization and chromatin condensation) were measured in fibroblast cultures obtained from skin biopsies after inducing apoptosis with staurosporine (STS) at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 μM. Apoptotic biomarkers were correlated to brain metabolites and regional brain volume. FES and controls showed a negative correlation in the AC between Glx levels and percentages of cells with condensed chromatin (CC) after both apoptosis inductions (STS 0.5 μM: r = -0.90; P = 0.001; STS 0.25 μM: r = -0.73; P = 0.003), and between NAA and cells with CC (STS 0.5 μM induction r = -0.76; P = 0.002; STS 0.25 μM r = -0.62; P = 0.01). In addition, we found a negative correlation between percentages of cells with CC and regional brain volume in the right supratemporal cortex and post-central region (STS 0.25 and 0.5 μM; P < 0.05 family-wise error corrected (FWEc)). We reveal for the first time that peripheral markers of apoptotic susceptibility may correlate with brain metabolites, Glx and NAA, and regional brain volume in FES and controls, which is consistent with the neuroprogressive theories around the onset of the schizophrenia illness.

  15. Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Joensson, Morten; Biermann-Ruben, Katja;

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the workings of the brain are mainly intrinsically generated recurrent neuronal activity, with sensory inputs as modifiers of such activity in both sensory and higher order modality non-specific regions. This is supported by the demonstration of recurrent neuronal activity...... in the visual system as a response to visual stimulation. In contrast recurrent activity has never been demonstrated before in higher order modality non-specific regions. Using magneto-encephalography and Granger causality analysis, we tested in a paralimbic network the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance...... causal recurrent interaction between higher-order, modality non-specific regions. The network includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices together with pulvinar thalami, a network known to be effective in autobiographic memory retrieval and self...

  16. Assessment of regional glucose metabolism in aging brain and dementia with positron-emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.; Ferris, S.; Christman, D.; Fowler, J.; MacGregor, R.; Farkas, T.; Greenberg, J.; Dann, R.; Wolf, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper explores the alterations in regional glucose metabolism that occur in elderly subjects and those with senile dementia compared to normal young volunteers. Results showed a tendency for the frontal regions to have a lower metabolic rate in patients with dementia although this did not reach the level of significance when compared to the elderly control subjects. The changes in glucose metabolism were symmetrical in both the left and right hemispheres. There was a lack of correlation between the mean cortical metabolic rates for glucose and the global mental function in the patients with senile dementia. This is at variance with most of the regional cerebral blood flow data that has been collected. This may be partly related to the use of substrates other than glucose by the brain in elderly and demented subjects. (PSB)

  17. Characterization of opioid receptor types modulating acetylcholine release in septal regions of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazyakan, E; Hennegriff, M; Haaf, A; Landwehrmeyer, G B; Feuerstein, T J; Jackisch, R

    2000-07-01

    Presynaptic opioid receptors of the delta- and mu-types have been shown to inhibit the release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the rat striatum and hippocampus, respectively, but it is unknown whether opioid receptors modulate the release of ACh also in the region of origin of the hippocampal cholinergic innervation, the septum. To answer this question, slices (350 microm) of the medial septal area and of the diagonal band of Broca, as well as (for comparison) of the hippocampus, were prepared from adult male Wistar rats. The slices were incubated with [3H]choline, superfused in the presence of hemicholinium-3 (10 microM) and stimulated twice (S1, S2) by electrical fields (360 pulses, 3 Hz, 2 ms, 60 mA); opioid receptor agonists were present during S2. The preferential mu-agonist [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) inhibited the evoked ACh release by maximally about 40% in hippocampal slices and acted even more strongly in the medial septal area, or the diagonal band of Broca (about 60% or 75% maximal inhibition, respectively). These effects were reduced or abolished by the preferential mu-antagonist naloxone, which showed no effects when given alone. Using naloxone in the presence of a cocktail of peptidase inhibitors, no evidence for an endogenous tone of opioid peptides was found in the medial septal area, diagonal band of Broca or the hippocampus. Using the preferential delta-agonist [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE) and the delta-antagonist naltrindole, a delta-opioid receptor inhibiting evoked ACh release was clearly detectable both in the medial septal area and the diagonal band of Broca, but not in the hippocampus, whereas the preferential kappa-agonist trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclo-hexyl] benzeneacetamide (U50,488H) had only weak or no effects. In addition to the functional experiments, double in-situ hybridization studies were performed, in which cells containing mRNA for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were labeled by an

  18. Apathy is associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons with HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Rujvi; Brown, Gregory G.; Bolden, Khalima; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Archibald, Sarah; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Letendre, Scott L.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Apathy is a relatively common psychiatric syndrome in HIV infection, but little is known about its neural correlates. In the present study, we examined the associations between apathy and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices in key frontal white matter regions in the thalamocorticostriatal circuit that has been implicated in the expression of apathy. Nineteen participants with HIV infection and 19 demographically comparable seronegative comparison subjects completed the Apathy subscale of the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale as a part of a comprehensive neuropsychiatric research evaluation. When compared to the seronegative participants, the HIV+ group had significantly more frontal white matter abnormalities. Within HIV+ persons, and as predicted, higher ratings of apathy were associated with greater white matter alterations in the anterior corona radiata, genu, and orbital medial prefrontal cortex. The associations between white matter alterations and apathy were independent of depression and were stronger among participants with lower current CD4 counts. All told, these findings indicate that apathy is independently associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons infected with HIV, particularly in the setting of lower current immune functioning, which may have implications for antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25275424

  19. Brain region-specific expression of MeCP2 isoforms correlates with DNA methylation within Mecp2 regulatory elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl O Olson

    Full Text Available MeCP2 is a critical epigenetic regulator in brain and its abnormal expression or compromised function leads to a spectrum of neurological disorders including Rett Syndrome and autism. Altered expression of the two MeCP2 isoforms, MeCP2E1 and MeCP2E2 has been implicated in neurological complications. However, expression, regulation and functions of the two isoforms are largely uncharacterized. Previously, we showed the role of MeCP2E1 in neuronal maturation and reported MeCP2E1 as the major protein isoform in the adult mouse brain, embryonic neurons and astrocytes. Recently, we showed that DNA methylation at the regulatory elements (REs within the Mecp2 promoter and intron 1 impact the expression of Mecp2 isoforms in differentiating neural stem cells. This current study is aimed for a comparative analysis of temporal, regional and cell type-specific expression of MeCP2 isoforms in the developing and adult mouse brain. MeCP2E2 displayed a later expression onset than MeCP2E1 during mouse brain development. In the adult female and male brain hippocampus, both MeCP2 isoforms were detected in neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, MeCP2E1 expression was relatively uniform in different brain regions (olfactory bulb, striatum, cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, brainstem and cerebellum, whereas MeCP2E2 showed differential enrichment in these brain regions. Both MeCP2 isoforms showed relatively similar distribution in these brain regions, except for cerebellum. Lastly, a preferential correlation was observed between DNA methylation at specific CpG dinucleotides within the REs and Mecp2 isoform-specific expression in these brain regions. Taken together, we show that MeCP2 isoforms display differential expression patterns during brain development and in adult mouse brain regions. DNA methylation patterns at the Mecp2 REs may impact this differential expression of Mecp2/MeCP2 isoforms in brain regions. Our results significantly contribute

  20. Regional brain changes occurring during disobedience to "experts" in financial decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Y M Suen

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that individuals follow "Expert" advice, even when flawed and offers no advantage, and sometimes leads to disadvantages. The neurobiology underlying this is uncertain, and in particular there is an incomplete understanding of which brain regions are most involved when individuals chose to disobey an expert. To study this we examined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI differences during an investment game where subjects received differentially credible investment advice. Participants (n = 42; 32 males played an investment game, in which they could Buy or Not Buy a sequence of stocks. The better they did, the more money they made. Participants received either "Expert" advice or "Peer" advice. Those receiving Expert advice were told the advice came from a certified financial "Expert". Those receiving Peer Advice were told the advice was that of the student administering the scans, who deliberately dressed and acted casually. Both streams of advice were predetermined and identical. The advice was scripted to be helpful initially, but progressively worse as the task continued, becoming 100% wrong by the end of the task. Subjects receiving Expert Advice followed the advice significantly longer on average, even though this was progressively worse advice. Thus, following Expert advice had poorer consequences for individuals, but this did not dissuade them from continuing to follow the advice. In contrast, when subjects disobeyed Expert advice they exhibited significant anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and superior frontal gyrus activation relative to those disobeying Peer advice. These findings may suggest that in subjects who defy authority, or believe they are doing so (in this case by disobeying an "Expert" there is increased activation of these two brain regions. This may have relevance to several areas of behavior, and the potential role of these two brain regions in regard to disobedience behavior requires further

  1. In vivo electroporation to physiologically identified deep brain regions in postnatal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Nami; Kawasaki, Kazuha; Satoh, Takemasa; Hata, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Genetic manipulation is widely used to research the central nervous system (CNS). The manipulation of molecular expression in a small number of neurons permits the detailed investigation of the role of specific molecules on the function and morphology of the neurons. Electroporation is a broadly used technique for gene transfer in the CNS. However, the targeting of gene transfer using electroporation in postnatal animals was restricted to the cortex, hippocampus, or the region facing the ventricle in previous reports. Electroporation targeting of deep brain structures, such as the thalamus, has been difficult. We introduce a novel electroporation technique that enables gene transfer to a physiologically identified deep brain region using a glass pipette. We recorded neural activity in young-adult mice to identify the location of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus, using a glass pipette electrode containing the plasmid DNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The location of the LGN was confirmed by monitoring visual responses, and the plasmid solution was pressure-injected into the recording site. Voltage pulses were delivered through the glass pipette electrode. Several EGFP-labeled somata and dendrites were observed in the LGN after a few weeks, and labeled axons were found in the visual cortex. The EGFP-expressing structures were observed in detail sufficient to reconstruct their morphology in three dimensions. We further confirmed the applicability of this technique in cats. This method should be useful for the transfer of various genes into cells in physiologically identified brain regions in rodents and gyrencephalic mammals.

  2. 99mTc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in Seizure Disorder: Comparison Brain SPECT, MRI / CT and EEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied 115 patients with seizure who had been performed brain SPECT brain MRI of CT and EEG. To evaluate the pattern of brain SPECT in seizure patients 28 of them had secondary epilepsies, 87 had primary epilepsies. In primary epilepsies, 42 were generalized seizure and 45 were partial seizure. The causes of secondary epilepsies were congenital malformation, cerebromalacia, cerebral infarction ultiple sclerosis, AV-malformation. granuloma and etc, in order. In 28 secondary epilepsies, 25 of them, brain SPECT lesions was concordant with MRI or CT lesions. 3 were disconcordant. The brain SPECT findings of generalized seizure were normal in 22 patients, diffuse irregular decreased perfusion in 8, decreased in frontal cortex in 4. temporal in 5 and frontotemporal in 3. In 45 partial seizure, 19 brain SPECT were concordant with EEG (42.4%).

  3. Genome-wide DNA methylation analyses in the brain reveal four differentially methylated regions between humans and non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jinkai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly improved cognitive function is the most significant change in human evolutionary history. Recently, several large-scale studies reported the evolutionary roles of DNA methylation; however, the role of DNA methylation on brain evolution is largely unknown. Results To test if DNA methylation has contributed to the evolution of human brain, with the use of MeDIP-Chip and SEQUENOM MassARRAY, we conducted a genome-wide analysis to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs in the brain between humans and rhesus macaques. We first identified a total of 150 candidate DMRs by the MeDIP-Chip method, among which 4 DMRs were confirmed by the MassARRAY analysis. All 4 DMRs are within or close to the CpG islands, and a MIR3 repeat element was identified in one DMR, but no repeat sequence was observed in the other 3 DMRs. For the 4 DMR genes, their proteins tend to be conserved and two genes have neural related functions. Bisulfite sequencing and phylogenetic comparison among human, chimpanzee, rhesus macaque and rat suggested several regions of lineage specific DNA methylation, including a human specific hypomethylated region in the promoter of K6IRS2 gene. Conclusions Our study provides a new angle of studying human brain evolution and understanding the evolutionary role of DNA methylation in the central nervous system. The results suggest that the patterns of DNA methylation in the brain are in general similar between humans and non-human primates, and only a few DMRs were identified.

  4. Alterations in the level of OFQ/N-IR in rat brain regions by cocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Lutfy, Kabirullah; Lam, Hoa; Narayanan, Shridhar

    2008-01-01

    We have previously shown that administration of orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N), the endogenous ligand of the opioid receptor-like (ORL-1) receptor, into the lateral ventricles or VTA blocked cocaine sensitization. In the present study, we determined the effect of acute and chronic cocaine treatment on the level of endogenous OFQ/N in rat brain regions. Male Sprague Dawley rats were tested for motor activity in response to saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg) injection once daily for three consecutive...

  5. Fuzzy Multiscale Region Growing for Segmentation of MR Images of the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Karin; Maucksch, Frederik; Perlich, Anja; Wolff, Matthias; Toennies, Klaus; Brechmann, André

    We propose an automatic region growing technique for the segmentation of the cerebral cortex and white matter in MRI data. Our method exploits general anatomical knowledge and uses an iterative multi resolution scheme for the estimation of intensity distributions to compensate for artifacts within the data. We present a comparison to segmentation results created by the neuroimaging software Brainvoyager QX and show advantages of our approach based on a qualitative and quantitative evaluation.

  6. Brain activation regions in schizophrenia patients performing the game piece memory task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daxing Wu; Huifang Yin; Lirong Yan; Changlian Tan; Dewen Hu; Shuqiao Yao

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Go, a traditional Chinese chess-like game, requires many unknown functions of the brain including attention, imaging, problem solving and processing of spatial working memory. To date, it remains uncertain whether the intellectual activities required to play Go are related to the frontal lobe.OBJECTIVE: To investigate various patterns of brain region activity while schizophrenic patients and normal subjects engaged in memorizing piece placement in the Chinese game of Go. Spatial working memory was measured in order to validate whether the prefrontal lobe participates in this memory process.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Non-randomized, concurrent control trial was performed at Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, between May and December 2004.PARTICIPANTS: A total of nine Chinese schizophrenic patients with no brain or bodily diseases and not undergoing electroshock treatment, who were in accordance with the DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, as well as thirteen healthy staffs and students with matched age, sex, and education were included. Patients and control subjects had no neurological disorders or mental retardation. In addition, all participants were right-handed.METHODS: The cognitive task for functional magnetic resonance imaging was a block design experiment. Both groups were asked to remember the placement of pieces in the Chinese game of Go on a computer screen. A brain activation map was analyzed in SPM99.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brain responses were compared with regard to activation region size, volume, and asymmetry indices.RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the reaction time was significantly delayed in schizophrenics performing the working memory task (P < 0.05). When performing the tasks, normal subjects showed significant activation of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal lobe with left dominance; the asymmetry indices were: frontal lobe, +0.32; temporal lobe, -0.58; parietal lobe, 0.41 ; and occipital lobe, -0.34. On

  7. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  8. The Mechanosensory Lateral Line System Mediates Activation of Socially-Relevant Brain Regions during Territorial Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Julie M; Maruska, Karen P

    2016-01-01

    Animals use multiple senses during social interactions and must integrate this information in the brain to make context-dependent behavioral decisions. For fishes, the largest group of vertebrates, the mechanosensory lateral line system provides crucial hydrodynamic information for survival behaviors, but little is known about its function in social communication. Our previous work using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, provided the first empirical evidence that fish use their lateral line system to detect water movements from conspecifics for mutual assessment and behavioral choices. It is unknown, however, where this socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the brain to elicit adaptive behavioral responses. To examine for the first time in any fish species which brain regions receive contextual mechanosensory information, we quantified expression of the immediate early gene cfos as a proxy for neural activation in sensory and socially-relevant brain nuclei from lateral line-intact and -ablated fish following territorial interactions. Our in situ hybridization results indicate that in addition to known lateral line processing regions, socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the ATn (ventromedial hypothalamus homolog), Dl (putative hippocampus homolog), and Vs (putative medial extended amygdala homolog). In addition, we identified a functional network within the conserved social decision-making network (SDMN) whose co-activity corresponds with mutual assessment and behavioral choice. Lateral line-intact and -ablated fight winners had different patterns of co-activity of these function networks and group identity could be determined solely by activation patterns, indicating the importance of mechanoreception to co-activity of the SDMN. These data show for the first time that the mechanosensory lateral line system provides relevant information to conserved decision-making centers of the brain during territorial

  9. Brain Regional α-[11C]Methyl-L-Tryptophan Trapping in Medication-Free Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Alexandre; Leyton, Marco; Gravel, Paul; Sibon, Igor; Sookman, Debbie; Neto, Pedro Rosa; Diksic, Mirko; Nakai, Akio; Pinard, Gilbert; Todorov, Christo; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Blier, Pierre; Nordahl, Thomas Edward; Benkelfat, Chawki

    2013-01-01

    Context The hypothesis of a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) stems largely from the clinical efficacy of 5-HT reuptake inhibitors. Serotonergic abnormalities in the unmedicated symptomatic state, however, remain to be fully characterized. Objective To investigate brain regional 5-HT synthesis, as indexed by positron emission tomography and the α-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan trapping constant (K*), in treatment-free adults meeting criteria for OCD. Design Between-group comparison. Setting Department of Psychiatry and Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, and Department of Psychology, McGill University Health Centre, Quebec, Canada. Participants Twenty-one medication-free patients with OCD (15 men with a mean [SD] age of 33.2 [9.3] years and 6 women with a mean [SD] age of 35.8 [7.1] years) and 21 healthy controls matched for age and sex (15 men with a mean [SD] age of 32.9 [10.1] years and 6 women with a mean [SD] age of 36.5.5 [8.6] years). Main Outcome Measure The α-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan brain trapping constant K*, which was analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) and with proportional normalization (extent threshold of 100 voxels with a peak threshold of P≤.005). Results Compared with healthy controls, the patients with OCD exhibited significantly greater α-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan trapping in the right hippocampus and left temporal gyrus (Brodmann area 20). In the larger sub-sample of all men, these same differences were also evident, as well as higher K* values in the caudate nucleus. Individual differences in symptom severity correlated positively with K* values sampled from the caudate and temporal lobe of the patients with OCD, respectively. There were no regions where the patients exhibited abnormally low K* values. Volumetric analyses found no morphometric alterations that would account for the group differences. Conclusion The results support previous reports of greater

  10. Graded perturbations of metabolism in multiple regions of human brain in Alzheimer's disease: Snapshot of a pervasive metabolic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingshu; Begley, Paul; Church, Stephanie J; Patassini, Stefano; Hollywood, Katherine A; Jüllig, Mia; Curtis, Maurice A; Waldvogel, Henry J; Faull, Richard L M; Unwin, Richard D; Cooper, Garth J S

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder that displays pathological characteristics including senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Metabolic defects are also present in AD-brain: for example, signs of deficient cerebral glucose uptake may occur decades before onset of cognitive dysfunction and tissue damage. There have been few systematic studies of the metabolite content of AD human brain, possibly due to scarcity of high-quality brain tissue and/or lack of reliable experimental methodologies. Here we sought to: 1) elucidate the molecular basis of metabolic defects in human AD-brain; and 2) identify endogenous metabolites that might guide new approaches for therapeutic intervention, diagnosis or monitoring of AD. Brains were obtained from nine cases with confirmed clinical/neuropathological AD and nine controls matched for age, sex and post-mortem delay. Metabolite levels were measured in post-mortem tissue from seven regions: three that undergo severe neuronal damage (hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and middle-temporal gyrus); three less severely affected (cingulate gyrus, sensory cortex and motor cortex); and one (cerebellum) that is relatively spared. We report a total of 55 metabolites that were altered in at least one AD-brain region, with different regions showing alterations in between 16 and 33 metabolites. Overall, we detected prominent global alterations in metabolites from several pathways involved in glucose clearance/utilization, the urea cycle, and amino-acid metabolism. The finding that potentially toxigenic molecular perturbations are widespread throughout all brain regions including the cerebellum is consistent with a global brain disease process rather than a localized effect of AD on regional brain metabolism. PMID:26957286

  11. Regional comparison of nuclear and fossil electric power generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear's main disadvantages are its high capital investment cost and uncertainty in schedule compared with alternatives. Nuclear plant costs continue to rise whereas coal plant investment costs are staying relative steady. Based on average experience, nuclear capital investment costs are nearly double those of coal-fired generation plants. The capital investment cost disadvantage of nuclear is balanced by its fuel cost advantages. New base load nuclear power plants were projected to be competitive with coal-fired plants in most regions of the country. Nuclear power costs wre projected to be significantly less (10% or more) than coal-fired power costs in the South Atlantic region. Coal-fired plants were projected to have a significant economic advantage over nuclear plants in the Central and North Central regions. In the remaining seven regions, the levelized cost of power from either option was projected to be within 10%. Uncertainties in future costs of materials, services, and financing affect the relative economics of the nuclear and coal options significantly. 10 figures

  12. Spectral Comparison and Stability of Red Regions on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Carlson, R. W.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2013-01-01

    A study of absolute color on Jupiter from Hubble Space Telescope imaging data shows that the Great Red Spot (GRS) is not the reddest region of the planet. Rather, a transient red cyclone visible in 1995 and the North Equatorial Belt both show redder spectra than the GRS (i.e., more absorption at blue and green wavelengths). This cyclone is unique among vortices in that it is intensely colored yet low altitude, unlike the GRS. Temporal analysis shows that the darkest regions of the NEB are relative constant in color from 1995 to 2008, while the slope of the GRS core may vary slightly. Principal component analysis shows several spectral components are needed, in agreement with past work, and further highlights the differences between regions. These color differences may be indicative of the same chromophore(s) under different conditions, such as mixing with white clouds, longer UV irradiation at higher altitude, and thermal processing, or may indicate abundance variations in colored compounds. A single compound does not fit the spectrum of any region well and mixes of multiple compounds including NH4SH, photolyzed NH3, hydrocarbons, and possibly P4, are likely needed to fully match each spectrum.

  13. Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

  14. Selective vulnerability of Rich Club brain regions is an organizational principle of structural connectivity loss in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColgan, Peter; Seunarine, Kiran K; Razi, Adeel; Cole, James H; Gregory, Sarah; Durr, Alexandra; Roos, Raymund A C; Stout, Julie C; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Scahill, Rachael I; Clark, Chris A; Rees, Geraint; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2015-11-01

    Huntington's disease can be predicted many years before symptom onset, and thus makes an ideal model for studying the earliest mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Diffuse patterns of structural connectivity loss occur in the basal ganglia and cortex early in the disease. However, the organizational principles that underlie these changes are unclear. By understanding such principles we can gain insight into the link between the cellular pathology caused by mutant huntingtin and its downstream effect at the macroscopic level. The 'rich club' is a pattern of organization established in healthy human brains, where specific hub 'rich club' brain regions are more highly connected to each other than other brain regions. We hypothesized that selective loss of rich club connectivity might represent an organizing principle underlying the distributed pattern of structural connectivity loss seen in Huntington's disease. To test this hypothesis we performed diffusion tractography and graph theoretical analysis in a pseudo-longitudinal study of 50 premanifest and 38 manifest Huntington's disease participants compared with 47 healthy controls. Consistent with our hypothesis we found that structural connectivity loss selectively affected rich club brain regions in premanifest and manifest Huntington's disease participants compared with controls. We found progressive network changes across controls, premanifest Huntington's disease and manifest Huntington's disease characterized by increased network segregation in the premanifest stage and loss of network integration in manifest disease. These regional and whole brain network differences were highly correlated with cognitive and motor deficits suggesting they have pathophysiological relevance. We also observed greater reductions in the connectivity of brain regions that have higher network traffic and lower clustering of neighbouring regions. This provides a potential mechanism that results in a characteristic pattern of structural

  15. Neurotransmitter mechanisms in the nucleus accumbens septi and related regions in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaas, I.

    1981-06-30

    The investigation compares the localization of different transmitter candidates, particularly the amino acide ..gamma..-aminobutyrate (GABA) and glutamate (GLU), in limbic and basal ganglia regions in the rat brain. In particular, the characteristics of nucleus accumbens septi have been studied in some detail. GABA neurons have been found in nucleus accumbens, and GABA projections from this nucleus have been identified in restricted basal forebrain and mesencephalic regions. GLU projections from the neo- or allocortex have been found to terminate in nucleus accumbens and other forebrain and hypothalamic nuclei. Neurotransmitters in local neurons have been identified in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, septum and caudatoputamen by means of local kainic acid injections, while neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus have been studied after systemic treatment of newborn animals with monosodium glutamate. The results are discussed as a basis for a better understanding of limbic-basal ganglia interactions.

  16. Pro-region engineering for improved yeast display and secretion of brain derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michael L; Malott, Thomas M; Metcalf, Kevin J; Puguh, Arthya; Chan, Jonah R; Shusta, Eric V

    2016-03-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a promising therapeutic candidate for a variety of neurological diseases. However, it is difficult to produce as a recombinant protein. In its native mammalian context, BDNF is first produced as a pro-protein with subsequent proteolytic removal of the pro-region to yield mature BDNF protein. Therefore, in an attempt to improve yeast as a host for heterologous BDNF production, the BDNF pro-region was first evaluated for its effects on BDNF surface display and secretion. Addition of the wild-type pro-region to yeast BDNF production constructs improved BDNF folding both as a surface-displayed and secreted protein in terms of binding its natural receptors TrkB and p75, but titers remained low. Looking to further enhance the chaperone-like functions provided by the pro-region, two rounds of directed evolution were performed, yielding mutated pro-regions that further improved the display and secretion properties of BDNF. Subsequent optimization of the protease recognition site was used to control whether the produced protein was in pro- or mature BDNF forms. Taken together, we have demonstrated an effective strategy for improving BDNF compatibility with yeast protein engineering and secretion platforms. PMID:26580314

  17. Notch receptor expression in neurogenic regions of the adult zebrafish brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Oliveira-Carlos

    Full Text Available The adult zebrash brain has a remarkable constitutive neurogenic capacity. The regulation and maintenance of its adult neurogenic niches are poorly understood. In mammals, Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance both in embryonic and adult CNS. To better understand how Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance during adult neurogenesis in zebrafish we analysed Notch receptor expression in five neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish brain. Combining proliferation and glial markers we identified several subsets of Notch receptor expressing cells. We found that 90 [Formula: see text] of proliferating radial glia express notch1a, notch1b and notch3. In contrast, the proliferating non-glial populations of the dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus rarely express notch3 and about half express notch1a/1b. In the non-proliferating radial glia notch3 is the predominant receptor throughout the brain. In the ventral telencephalon and in the mitotic area of the optic tectum, where cells have neuroepithelial properties, notch1a/1b/3 are expressed in most proliferating cells. However, in the cerebellar niche, although progenitors also have neuroepithelial properties, only notch1a/1b are expressed in a high number of PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. In this region notch3 expression is mostly in Bergmann glia and at low levels in few PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. Additionally, we found that in the proliferation zone of the ventral telencephalon, Notch receptors display an apical high to basal low gradient of expression. Notch receptors are also expressed in subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells. We suggest that the partial regional heterogeneity observed for Notch expression in progenitor cells might be related to the cellular diversity present in each of these neurogenic niches.

  18. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, C; Koch, L G; Britton, S L; Cai, M; Hruby, V J; Bednarek, M; Novak, C M

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of MC peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT.

  19. Brain regions associated with the acquisition of conditioned place preference for cocaine vs. social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rawas, Rana; Klement, Sabine; Kummer, Kai K; Fritz, Michael; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Positive social interaction could play an essential role in switching the preference of the substance dependent individual away from drug related activities. We have previously shown that conditioned place preference (CPP) for cocaine at the dose of 15 mg/kg and CPP for four 15-min episodes of social interaction were equally strong when rats were concurrently conditioned for place preference by pairing cocaine with one compartment and social interaction with the other. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential activation of brain regions related to the reward circuitry after acquisition/expression of cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP. Our findings indicate that cocaine CPP and social interaction CPP activated almost the same brain regions. However, the granular insular cortex and the dorsal part of the agranular insular cortex were more activated after cocaine CPP, whereas the prelimbic cortex and the core subregion of the nucleus accumbens were more activated after social interaction CPP. These results suggest that the insular cortex appears to be potently activated after drug conditioning learning while activation of the prelimbic cortex-nucleus accumbens core projection seems to be preferentially involved in the conditioning to non-drug stimuli such as social interaction. PMID:23015784

  20. Brain regions associated with the acquisition of conditioned place preference for cocaine versus social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana eEl Rawas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Positive social interaction could play an essential role in switching the preference of the substance dependent individual away from drug related activities. We have previously shown that conditioned place preference (CPP for cocaine at the dose of 15 mg/kg and CPP for four 15-min episodes of social interaction were equally strong when rats were concurrently conditioned for place preference by pairing cocaine with one compartment and social interaction with the other. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential activation of brain regions related to the reward circuitry after acquisition/expression of cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP. Our findings indicate that cocaine CPP and social interaction CPP activated almost the same brain regions. However, the granular insular cortex and the dorsal part of the agranular insular cortex were more activated after cocaine CPP, whereas the prelimbic cortex and the core subregion of the nucleus accumbens were more activated after social interaction CPP. These results suggest that the insular cortex appears to be potently activated after drug conditioning learning while activation of the prelimbic cortex - nucleus accumbens core projection seems to be preferentially involved in the conditioning to non-drug stimuli such as social interaction.

  1. Specific effects of punishment on amino acids turnover in discrete rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, T; Dworkin, S I; Co, C; Smith, J E

    1988-11-01

    Specific effects of punishment on the turnover rates of aspartate (Asp), glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in 14 brain regions were investigated in rats exposed to punishment. Two yoked controls were also used in an attempt to separate the nonspecific effects of response rate, reinforcement density and direct effects of punisher (foot shock). Punished and unpunished littermate rats had similar response rates, and the reinforcement density was almost identical for both groups. A third group (yoked-shock rats) received food and shock independent of responding whenever these were given to the punished rats. When compared to the unpunished rats, the punishment increased the turnover rates of the three amino acids in all brain regions examined except GABA turnover in the caudate-putamen and preoptic-diagonal band. The majority of these changes by the punishment were similar to the effects of the yoked-shock (yoked-shock versus unpunished), although the magnitude of increase by the punishment was mostly larger than that by the yoked-shock. Six changes by the punishment (increase in the turnover rates of Asp in the thalamus, Glu in the hypothalamus and GABA in the cingulate cortex, entorhinal-subicular cortex, dentate gyrus and hypothalamus) appeared to be the specific effects of punishment since the yoked-shock did not affect these parameters. These results suggest that the punishment caused a hyperexcitation of the amino acidergic neurons in the limbic systems, particularly those in Papez's circuit. PMID:3251236

  2. Brain region and activity-dependent properties of M for calibrated fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Christina Y; Herman, Peter; Coman, Daniel; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Wang, Helen; Juchem, Christoph; Rothman, Douglas L; de Graaf, Robin A; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2016-01-15

    Calibrated fMRI extracts changes in oxidative energy demanded by neural activity based on hemodynamic and metabolic dependencies of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response. This procedure requires the parameter M, which is determined from the dynamic range of the BOLD signal between deoxyhemoglobin (paramagnetic) and oxyhemoglobin (diamagnetic). Since it is unclear if the range of M-values in human calibrated fMRI is due to regional/state differences, we conducted a 9.4T study to measure M-values across brain regions in deep (α-chloralose) and light (medetomidine) anesthetized rats, as verified by electrophysiology. Because BOLD signal is captured differentially by gradient-echo (R2*) and spin-echo (R2) relaxation rates, we measured M-values by the product of the fMRI echo time and R2' (i.e., the reversible magnetic susceptibility component), which is given by the absolute difference between R2* and R2. While R2' mapping was shown to be dependent on the k-space sampling method used, at nominal spatial resolutions achieved at high magnetic field of 9.4T the M-values were quite homogenous across cortical gray matter. However cortical M-values varied in relation to neural activity between brain states. The findings from this study could improve precision of future calibrated fMRI studies by focusing on the global uniformity of M-values in gray matter across different resting activity levels. PMID:26529646

  3. Comparison of Feature Selection Techniques in Machine Learning for Anatomical Brain MRI in Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohka, Jussi; Moradi, Elaheh; Huttunen, Heikki

    2016-07-01

    We present a comparative split-half resampling analysis of various data driven feature selection and classification methods for the whole brain voxel-based classification analysis of anatomical magnetic resonance images. We compared support vector machines (SVMs), with or without filter based feature selection, several embedded feature selection methods and stability selection. While comparisons of the accuracy of various classification methods have been reported previously, the variability of the out-of-training sample classification accuracy and the set of selected features due to independent training and test sets have not been previously addressed in a brain imaging context. We studied two classification problems: 1) Alzheimer's disease (AD) vs. normal control (NC) and 2) mild cognitive impairment (MCI) vs. NC classification. In AD vs. NC classification, the variability in the test accuracy due to the subject sample did not vary between different methods and exceeded the variability due to different classifiers. In MCI vs. NC classification, particularly with a large training set, embedded feature selection methods outperformed SVM-based ones with the difference in the test accuracy exceeding the test accuracy variability due to the subject sample. The filter and embedded methods produced divergent feature patterns for MCI vs. NC classification that suggests the utility of the embedded feature selection for this problem when linked with the good generalization performance. The stability of the feature sets was strongly correlated with the number of features selected, weakly correlated with the stability of classification accuracy, and uncorrelated with the average classification accuracy. PMID:26803769

  4. Comparison of DMSP and SECS region-1 and region-2 ionospheric current boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weygand, J. M.; Wing, S.

    2016-06-01

    The region-1 and region-2 boundary has traditionally been identified using data from a single spacecraft crossing the auroral region and measuring the large scale changes in the cross track magnetic field. With data from the AUTUMN, CANMOS, CARISMA, GIMA, DTU MGS, MACCS, McMAC, STEP, THEMIS, and USGS ground magnetometer arrays we applied a state-of-art technique based on spherical elementary current system (SECS) method developed by Amm and Viljanen (1999) in order to calculate maps of region-1 and region-2 current system over the North American and Greenland auroral region. Spherical elementary current (SEC) amplitude (proxy for vertical currents) maps can be inferred at 10 s temporal resolution, ~1.5° geographic latitude (Glat), and 3.5° geographic longitude (Glon) spatial resolution. We compare the location of the region-1 and region-2 boundary obtained by the DMSP spacecraft with the region-1 and region-2 boundary observed in the SEC current amplitudes. We find that the boundaries typically agree within 0.2°±1.3°. These results indicate that the location of the region-1 and region-2 boundary can reasonably be determined from ground magnetometer data. The SECS maps represent a value-added product from the magnetometer database and can be used for contextual interpretation in conjunction with other missions as well as help with our understanding of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling mechanisms using the ground arrays and the magnetospheric spacecraft data.

  5. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  6. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  7. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Samantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM, corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN and 21 women (HC was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. Conclusions In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  8. A REGIONAL COMPARISON OF RISK-EFFICIENT SOYBEAN MARKETING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    McKinnell, Cathy S.; Kahl, Kandice H.; Curtis, Charles E., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Risk-efficient portfolios from a subset of marketing strategies were identified using Target-MOTAD. Portfolios were generated for Illinois, Arkansas, and South Carolina to determine whether regional price and yield characteristics affected the optimal marketing strategy selection during 1972-1985. The results support previous conclusions that the risk borne when following a combination of marketing strategies was less than the risk of any single marketing strategy examined. The results also s...

  9. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male...

  10. Mercury distribution and speciation in different brain regions of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, Sonja K., E-mail: ostertag@unbc.ca [Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, V2N 4Z9 (Canada); Stern, Gary A., E-mail: Gary.Stern@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Wang, Feiyue, E-mail: feiyue.wang@ad.umanitoba.ca [Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Lemes, Marcos, E-mail: Marcos.lemes@ad.umanitoba.ca [Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Chan, Hing Man, E-mail: laurie.chan@uottawa.ca [Center for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, 1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The toxicokinetics of mercury (Hg) in key species of Arctic ecosystem are poorly understood. We sampled five brain regions (frontal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord) from beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) harvested in 2006, 2008, and 2010 from the eastern Beaufort Sea, Canada, and measured total Hg (HgT) and total selenium (SeT) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mercury analyzer or cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, and the chemical forms using a high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS. At least 14% of the beluga whales had HgT concentrations higher than the levels of observable adverse effect (6.0 mg kg{sup −1} wet weight (ww)) in primates. The concentrations of HgT differed between brain regions; median concentrations (mg kg{sup −1} ww) were 2.34 (0.06 to 22.6, 81) (range, n) in temporal lobe, 1.84 (0.12 to 21.9, 77) in frontal lobe, 1.84 (0.05 to 16.9, 83) in cerebellum, 1.25 (0.02 to 11.1, 77) in spinal cord and 1.32 (0.13 to 15.2, 39) in brain stem. Total Hg concentrations in the cerebellum increased with age (p < 0.05). Between 35 and 45% of HgT was water-soluble, of which, 32 to 41% was methyl mercury (MeHg) and 59 to 68% was labile inorganic Hg. The concentration of MeHg (range: 0.03 to 1.05 mg kg{sup −1} ww) was positively associated with HgT concentration, and the percent MeHg (4 to 109%) decreased exponentially with increasing HgT concentration in the spinal cord, cerebellum, frontal lobe and temporal lobe. There was a positive association between SeT and HgT in all brain regions (p < 0.05) suggesting that Se may play a role in the detoxification of Hg in the brain. The concentration of HgT in the cerebellum was significantly associated with HgT in other organs. Therefore, HgT concentrations in organs that are frequently sampled in bio-monitoring studies could be used to estimate HgT concentrations in the cerebellum, which is the target organ of MeHg toxicity. - Highlights:

  11. Region-Specific Protein Abundance Changes in the Brain of MPTP-induced Parkinson’s Disease Mouse Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jianying; Chin, Mark H; Schepmoes, Athena A; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Weitz, Karl K; Petritis, Brianne O; Monroe, Matthew E; Camp, David G; Wood, Stephen A; Melega, William P; Bigelow, Diana J; Smith, Desmond J; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D

    2010-02-15

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal region of the brain; however, the neurodegeneration extends well beyond dopaminergic neurons. To gain a better understanding of the molecular changes relevant to PD, we applied two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to comparatively analyze the proteome changes in four brain regions (striatum, cerebellum, cortex, and the rest of brain) using a MPTP-induced PD mouse model with the objective to identify nigrostriatal-specific and other region-specific protein abundance changes. The combined analyses resulted in the identification of 4,895 non-redundant proteins with at least two unique peptides per protein. The relative abundance changes in each analyzed brain region were estimated based on the spectral count information. A total of 518 proteins were observed with significant MPTP-induced changes across different brain regions. 270 of these proteins were observed with specific changes occurring either only in the striatum and/or in the rest of the brain region that contains substantia nigra, suggesting that these proteins are associated with the underlying nigrostriatal pathways. Many of the proteins that exhibit significant abundance changes were associated with dopamine signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, the ubiquitin system, calcium signaling, the oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. A set of proteins with either consistent change across all brain regions or with changes specific to the cortex and cerebellum regions were also detected. One of the interesting proteins is ubiquitin specific protease (USP9X), a deubiquination enzyme involved in the protection of proteins from degradation and promotion of the TGF-β pathway, which exhibited altered abundances in all brain regions. Western blot validation showed similar spatial changes, suggesting that USP9X is potentially associated with neurodegeneration. Together, this study for the first time presents an overall picture of

  12. A regional comparison of China’s industrial development efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏后凯; 王业强

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese economy has been experiencing extensive growth for decades. Along with this growth, however, there have been industrial-economic, social and environmental inefficiencies. In some regions, problems exist because of overemphasis on GDP growth, or growth at the expense of the environment. Looking at efficiency through the prism of economic, social and environmental factors, this article analyzes the industrial economic development during the 10th Five-Year Plan (2001-2005). The authors conclude that economic development should be achieved while making overall improvements to economic, social and ecoenvironment efficiency.

  13. Automatic Region-Based Brain Classification of MRI-T1 Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Sepideh; Yusof, Rubiyah; Karimian, Alireza; Mitsukira, Yasue; Hematian, Amirshahram

    2016-01-01

    Image segmentation of medical images is a challenging problem with several still not totally solved issues, such as noise interference and image artifacts. Region-based and histogram-based segmentation methods have been widely used in image segmentation. Problems arise when we use these methods, such as the selection of a suitable threshold value for the histogram-based method and the over-segmentation followed by the time-consuming merge processing in the region-based algorithm. To provide an efficient approach that not only produce better results, but also maintain low computational complexity, a new region dividing based technique is developed for image segmentation, which combines the advantages of both regions-based and histogram-based methods. The proposed method is applied to the challenging applications: Gray matter (GM), White matter (WM) and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) segmentation in brain MR Images. The method is evaluated on both simulated and real data, and compared with other segmentation techniques. The obtained results have demonstrated its improved performance and robustness. PMID:27096925

  14. Regional Comparison of Nitrogen Export to Japanese Forest Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Shibata

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N emissions in Asian countries are predicted to increase over the next several decades. An understanding of the mechanisms that control temporal and spatial fluctuation of N export to forest streams is important not only to quantify critical loads of N, N saturation status, and soil acidification N dynamics and budgets in Japanese forested watersheds is not clear due to the lack of regional comparative studies on stream N chemistry. To address the lack of comparative studies, we measured inorganic N (nitrate and ammonium concentrations from June 2000 to May 2001 in streams in 18 experimental forests located throughout the Japanese archipelago and belonging to the Japanese Union of University Forests. N concentrations in stream water during base flow and high flow periods were monitored, and N mineralization potential in soil was measured using batch incubation experiments. Higher nitrate concentrations in stream water were present in central Japan, an area that receives high rates of atmospheric N deposition. In northern Japan, snowmelt resulted in increased nitrate concentrations in stream water. The potential net N mineralization rate was higher in surface soil than in subsurface soil, and the high potential for N mineralization in the surface soil partly contributed to the increase in nitrate concentration in stream water during a storm event. Regional differences in the atmospheric N deposition and seasonality of precipitation and high discharge are principal controls on the concentrations and variations of nitrates in stream water in forested watersheds of Japan.

  15. Frequency specificity of regional homogeneity in the resting-state human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Song

    Full Text Available Resting state-fMRI studies have found that the inter-areal correlations in cortical networks concentrate within ultra-low frequencies (0.01-0.04 Hz while long-distance connections within subcortical networks distribute over a wider frequency range (0.01-0.14 Hz. However, the frequency characteristics of regional homogeneity (ReHo in different areas are still unclear. To examine the ReHo properties in different frequency bands, a data-driven method, Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD, was adopted to decompose the time series of each voxel into several components with distinct frequency bands. ReHo values in each of the components were then calculated. Our results showed that ReHo in cortical areas were higher and more frequency-dependent than those in the subcortical regions. BOLD oscillations of 0.02-0.04 Hz mainly contributed to the cortical ReHo, whereas the ReHo in limbic areas involved a wider frequency range and were dominated by higher-frequency BOLD oscillations (>0.08 Hz. The frequency characteristics of ReHo are distinct between different parts of the striatum, with the frequency band of 0.04-0.1 Hz contributing the most to ReHo in caudate nucleus, and oscillations lower than 0.02 Hz contributing more to ReHo in putamen. The distinct frequency-specific ReHo properties of different brain areas may arise from the assorted cytoarchitecture or synaptic types in these areas. Our work may advance the understanding of the neural-physiological basis of local BOLD activities and the functional specificity of different brain regions.

  16. Automatic segmentation of different-sized leukoaraiosis regions in brain MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Kunieda, Takuya; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Ando, Hiromichi; Yamakawa, Hiroyasu; Asano, Takahiko; Kato, Hiroki; Iwama, Toru; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2008-03-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are the third leading cause of death in Japan. Therefore, a screening system for the early detection of asymptomatic brain diseases is widely used. In this screening system, leukoaraiosis is often detected in magnetic resonance (MR) images. The quantitative analysis of leukoaraiosis is important because its presence and extension is associated with an increased risk of severe stroke. However, thus far, the diagnosis of leukoaraiosis has generally been limited to subjective judgments by radiologists. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a computerized method for the segmentation of leukoaraiosis, and provide an objective measurement of the lesion volume. Our database comprised of T1- and T2-weighted images obtained from 73 patients. The locations of leukoaraiosis regions were determined by an experienced neuroradiologist. We first segment cerebral parenchymal regions in T1-weighted images by using a region growing technique. For determining the initial candidate regions for leukoaraiosis, the k-means clustering of pixel values in the T1- and T2-weighted images was applied to the segmented cerebral region. For the elimination of false positives (FPs), we determined features such as the location, size, and circularity from each of the initial candidates. Finally, rule-based schemes and a quadratic discriminant analysis with these features were employed for distinguishing between the leukoaraiosis regions and the FPs. The results indicated that the sensitivity for the detection of leukoaraiosis was 100% with 5.84 FPs per image. Our computerized scheme can be useful in assisting radiologists for the quantitative analysis of leukoaraiosis in T1- and T2-weighted images.

  17. An acute dose of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid alters gene expression in multiple mouse brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, B J; Saini, U T; Robinson, B L; Ali, S F; Patterson, T A

    2010-10-13

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is normally found in the brain in low concentrations and may function as a neurotransmitter, although the mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated. GHB has been used as a general anesthetic and is currently used to treat narcolepsy and alcoholism. Recreational use of GHB is primarily as a "club drug" and a "date rape drug," due to its amnesic effects. For this study, the hypothesis was that behavioral and neurochemical alterations may parallel gene expression changes in the brain after GHB administration. Adult male C57/B6N mice (n=5/group) were administered a single dose of 500 mg/kg GHB (i.p.) and were sacrificed 1, 2 and 4 h after treatment. Control mice were administered saline. Brains were removed and regionally dissected on ice. Total RNA from the hippocampus, cortex and striatum was extracted, amplified and labeled. Gene expression was evaluated using Agilent whole mouse genome 4x44K oligonucleotide microarrays. Microarray data were analyzed by ArrayTrack and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using P or = 1.7 as the criteria for significance. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) showed that samples from each time point clustered into distinct treatment groups with respect to sacrifice time. Ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA) was used to identify involved pathways. The results show that GHB induces gene expression alterations in hundreds of genes in the hippocampus, cortex and striatum, and the number of affected genes increases throughout a 4-h time course. Many of these DEGs are involved in neurological disease, apoptosis, and oxidative stress.

  18. Regional Susceptibility to Domoic Acid in Primary Astrocyte Cells Cultured from the Brain Stem and Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Pulido

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid is a marine biotoxin associated with harmful algal blooms and is the causative agent of amnesic shellfish poisoning in marine animals and humans. It is also an excitatory amino acid analog to glutamate and kainic acid which acts through glutamate receptors eliciting a very rapid and potent neurotoxic response. The hippocampus, among other brain regions, has been identified as a specific target site having high sensitivity to DOM toxicity. Histopathology evidence indicates that in addition to neurons, the astrocytes were also injured. Electron microscopy data reported in this study further supports the light microscopy findings. Furthermore, the effect of DOM was confirmed by culturing primary astrocytes from the hippocampus and the brain stem and subsequently exposing them to domoic acid. The RNA was extracted and used for biomarker analysis. The biomarker analysis was done for the early response genes including c-fos, c-jun, c-myc, Hsp-72; specific marker for the astrocytes- GFAP and the glutamate receptors including GluR 2, NMDAR 1, NMDAR 2A and B. Although, the astrocyte-GFAP and c-fos were not affected, c-jun and GluR 2 were down-regulated. The microarray analysis revealed that the chemokines / cytokines, tyrosine kinases (Trk, and apoptotic genes were altered. The chemokines that were up-regulated included - IL1-a, IL-1B, IL-6, the small inducible cytokine, interferon protein IP-10, CXC chemokine LIX, and IGF binding proteins. The Bax, Bcl-2, Trk A and Trk B were all downregulated. Interestingly, only the hippocampal astrocytes were affected. Our findings suggest that astrocytes may present a possible target for pharmacological interventions for the prevention and treatment of amnesic shellfish poisoning and for other brain pathologies involving excitotoxicity

  19. Regional Variation in Brain White Matter Diffusion Index Changes following Chemoradiotherapy: A Prospective Study Using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Christopher H.; Mohammad Nazem-Zadeh; Oliver E Lee; Schipper, Matthew J; Tsien, Christina I.; Theodore S Lawrence; Yue Cao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is little known about how brain white matter structures differ in their response to radiation, which may have implications for radiation-induced neurocognitive impairment. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine regional variation in white matter changes following chemoradiotherapy. Methods Fourteen patients receiving two or three weeks of whole-brain radiation therapy (RT) ± chemotherapy underwent DTI pre-RT, at end-RT, and one month post-RT. Three diffusion indices w...

  20. Quality control parameters on a large dataset of regionally dissected human control brains for whole genome expression studies

    OpenAIRE

    Trabzuni, Daniah; Ryten, Mina; Walker, Robert; Smith, Colin; Imran, Sabaena; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Weale, Michael E; Hardy, John

    2011-01-01

    We are building an open-access database of regional human brain expression designed to allow the genome-wide assessment of genetic variability on expression. Array and RNA sequencing technologies make assessment of genome-wide expression possible. Human brain tissue is a challenging source for this work because it can only be obtained several and variable hours post-mortem and after varying agonal states. These variables alter RNA integrity in a complex manner. In this report, we assess the e...

  1. Region-specific changes in brain diffusivity in fetal isolated mild ventriculomegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaniv, Gal [Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, The Institute for Research in Military Medicine, The Faculty of Medicine, Jerusalem (Israel); Sheba Medical Center, The Dr. Pinchas Bornstein Talpiot Medical Leadership Program, Tel Aviv (Israel); Katorza, Eldad [Sheba Medical Center, Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bercovitz, Ronen; Bergman, Dafi; Greenberg, Gahl; Hoffmann, Chen [Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Biegon, Anat [Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate the impact of symmetric and asymmetric isolated mild ventriculomegaly (IMVM, atrial width 10-15 mm) on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in fetal brain areas. Sixty-seven sequential fetal head magnetic resonance imaging scans (feMRI) of VM cases performed between 2009 and 2014 were compared to 38 normal feMRI scans matched for gestational age (controls). Ultrasound- and MRI-proven IMVM cases were divided into asymmetrical (AVM, ≥2 mm difference in atrial width), symmetrical (SVM, <2 mm difference in atrial width), and asymmetrical IMVM with one normal-sized ventricle (AV1norm). ADC values were significantly elevated in the basal ganglia (BG) of the SVM and AV1norm groups compared to controls (p < 0.004 and p < 0.013, respectively). High diffusivity was constantly detected in the BG ipsilateral to the enlarged atria relative to the normal-sized atria in the AV1norm group (p < 0.03). Frontal lobe ADC values were significantly reduced in the AVM and SVM groups (p < 0.003 and p < 0.003 vs. controls). Temporal lobe ADC values were significantly reduced in the AVM group (p < 0.001 vs. controls). Isolated mild ventriculomegaly is associated with distinct ADC value changes in different brain regions. This phenomenon could reflect the pathophysiology associated with different IMVM patterns. (orig.)

  2. Biogenic amines, amino acids and regional blood flow in rat brain after prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damage to nerve cells after prenatal irradiation could affect their later ability to function normally. The concentration of several biogenic amines and amino acids was therefore determined at different times after prenatal irradiation with 0.95 Gy on day 10, 12 or 15 of pregnancy. The offspring was sacrified 0.5, 1, 3 and 6 months after birth and the following structures were dissected: Cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and medulla. Biogenic amines isolated by HPLC and detected electrochemically were: Dopamine, DOPA, DOPAC, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin and hydroxyindolacetate. Amino acids converted to their dansyl derivatives and separated by HPLC were: Aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, gamma aminobutyrate and taurine. Many neurotransmitters were found increased in brain after prenatal irradiation, particularly on day 12 and 15 p.c. Marked changes were found for serotonin in several brain structures and for dopamin in striatum. An increase was also found in glutamate, glutamine and GABA. Studies on regional blood flow using injection of labelled 15 μ microspheres did not reveal significant alterations after prenatal irradiation. (orig.)

  3. Direct profiling of myelinated and demyelinated regions in mouse brain by imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Ruben; Dumont, Debora; van Brussel, Leen; van de Plas, Babs; Daniels, Ruth; Noben, Jean-Paul; Verhaert, Peter; van der Gucht, Estel; Robben, Johan; Clerens, Stefan; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2007-02-01

    One of the newly developed imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) technologies utilizes matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry to map proteins in thin tissue sections. In this study, we evaluated the power of MALDI IMS as we developed it in our (Bruker) MALDI TOF (Reflex IV) and TOF-TOF (Ultraflex II) systems to study myelin patterns in the mouse central nervous system under normal and pathological conditions. MALDI IMS was applied to assess myelin basic protein (MBP) isoform-specific profiles in different regions throughout the mouse brain. The distribution of ions of m/z 14,144 and 18,447 displayed a striking resemblance with white matter histology and were identified as MBP isoform 8 and 5, respectively. In addition, we demonstrated a significant reduction of the MBP-8 peak intensity upon MALDI IMS analysis of focal ethidium bromide-induced demyelinated brain areas. Our MS images were validated by immunohistochemistry using MBP antibodies. This study underscores the potential of MALDI IMS to study the contribution of MBP to demyelinating diseases.

  4. The role of right frontal brain regions in integration of spatial relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiahui; Cao, Bihua; Cao, Yunfei; Gao, Heming; Li, Fuhong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have explored the neural mechanisms of spatial reasoning on a two-dimensional (2D) plane; however, it remains unclear how spatial reasoning is conducted in a three-dimensional (3D) condition. In the present study, we presented 3D geometric objects to 16 adult participants, and asked them to process the spatial relationship between different corners of the geometric objects. In premise-1, the first two corners of a geometric shape (e.g., A vs. B) were displayed. In premise-2, the second and third corners (e.g., B vs. C) were displayed. After integrating the two premises, participants were required to infer the spatial relationship between the first and the third corners (e.g., A and C). Finally, the participants were presented with a conclusion object, and they were required to judge whether the conclusion was true or false based on their inference. The event-related potential evoked by premise-2 revealed that (1) compared with 2D spatial reasoning, 3D reasoning elicited a smaller P3b component, and (2) in the right frontal areas, increased negativities were found in the 3D condition during the N400 and late negative components (LNC). These findings imply that higher brain activity in the right frontal brain regions were related with the integration and maintenance of spatial information in working memory for reasoning.

  5. Expression of Bcl-2 in adult human brain regions with special reference to neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, S; Javoy-Agid, F; Herrero, M T; Strada, O; Boissiere, F; Hibner, U; Agid, Y

    1997-07-01

    The expression of the protooncogene bcl-2, an inhibitor of apoptosis in various cells, was examined in the adult human brain. Several experimental criteria were used to verify its presence; mRNA was analyzed by northern blot with parallel experiments in mouse tissues, by RNase protection, and by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Bcl-2 protein was detected by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Two bcl-2 mRNA species were identified in the human brain. The pattern of distribution of bcl-2 mRNA at the cellular level showed labeling in neurons but not glia. The in situ hybridization signal was stronger in the pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex and in the cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert than in the Purkinje neurons of the cerebellum. Both melanized and nonmelanized neurons were labeled in the substantia nigra. In the striatum, bcl-2 mRNA was detected in some but not all neurons. In the regions examined for Bcl-2 protein, the expression pattern correlated with the mRNA results. In patients with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, quantification of bcl-2 mRNA in the nucleus basalis of Meynert and substantia nigra, respectively, showed that the expression was unaltered compared with controls, raising the possibility that the expression of other components of apoptosis is modulated.

  6. Brain regions associated with Anhedonia in healthy adults: a PET correlation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Young Chul; Chun, Ji Won; Kim, Jae Jin; Park, Hae Jeong; Lee, Jong Doo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Jeong Ho [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    Anhedonia has been proposed to be the result of a basic neurophysiologic dysfunction and a vulnerability marker that precede and contribute to the liability of developing schizophrenia. We hypothesized that anhedonia, as a construct reflecting the decreased capacity to experience pleasure, should be associated with decreased positive hedonic affect trait. This study examined the relationship between anhedonia and positive hedonic affect trait and searched for the brain regions which correlate with anhedonia in normal subjects. Using {sup 18}F-FDG PET scan, we investigated the brain activity of twenty one subjects during resting state. Questionnaires were administrated after the scan in order to assess the self-rated individual differences in physical/social anhedonia and positive/negative affect traits. Negative correlation between physical anhedonia score and positive affect trait score was significant (Pearson coefficient=-0.440, {rho} <0.05). The subjects' physical and social anhedonia scores showed positive correlation with metabolic rates in the cerebellum and negative correlation with metabolic rates in the inferior temporal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. In addition, the positive affect trait score positively correlated with various areas, most prominent with the inferior temporal gyrus. These results suggest that neural substrates, such as the inferior temporal gyrus and prefrontal-cerebellar circuit, which dysfunction has been proposed to be involved with the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia, may also play a significant role in the liability of affective deficits like anhedonia.

  7. A comparison of brain gene expression levels in domesticated and wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W Albert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits. We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30-75 genes (less than 1% of expressed genes were differentially expressed, while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different.

  8. Chronic stress and moderate physical exercise prompt widespread common activation and limited differential activation in specific brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2016-10-01

    Chronic stress in rodents produces depressive behaviors, whereas moderate physical exercise counteracts stress-induced depressive behaviors. Chronic stress and physical exercise appear to produce such opposing effects by changing the neural activity of specific brain regions. However, the detailed mechanisms through which the two different types of stimuli regulate brain function in opposite directions are not clearly understood. In the present study, we attempted to explore the neuroanatomical substrates mediating stress-induced behavioral changes and anti-depressant effects of exercise by examining stimulus-dependent c-Fos induction in the brains of mice that were exposed to repeated stress or exercise in a scheduled manner. Systematic and integrated analyses of c-Fos expression profiles indicated that various brain areas, including the prelimbic cortex, lateral septal area, and paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus were commonly and strongly activated by both stress and exercise, while the lateral habenula and hippocampus were identified as being preferentially activated by stress and exercise, respectively. Exercise-dependent c-Fos expression in all regions examined in the brain occurred in both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. These results suggest that chronic stress and moderate exercise produce counteractive effects on mood behaviors, along with prompting widespread common activation and limited differential activation in specific brain regions. PMID:27539656

  9. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  10. Resting-state, functional MRI on regional homogeneity changes of brain in the heavy smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the mechanism of self-awareness in the heavy smokers (HS) by using regional homogeneity (ReHo) combined with resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). Methods: Thirty HS and 31 healthy non-smokers (NS) matched for age and sex underwent a 3.0 T resting-state fMRI. The data were post-processed by SPM 5 and then the ReHo values were calculated by REST software. The ReHo values between the two groups were compared by two-sample t-test. The brain map with significant difference of ReHo value was obtained. Results: Compared with that in NS group, the regions with decreased ReHo value included the bilateral precuneus, superior frontal gyrus,medial prefrontal cortex, right angular gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus, cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus in HS group. The regions of increased ReHo value included the bilateral insula, parahippocampal gyrus, white matter of parietal lobe, pons, left inferior parietal lobule, lingual gyrus, thalamus, inferior orbital gyrus, white matter of temporal-frontal lobe, and cerebellum. The difference was more obvious in the left hemisphere. Conclusions: In HS, abnormal ReHo on a resting state which reflects network of smoking addiction. This method may be helpful in understanding the mechanism of self-awareness in HS. (authors)

  11. Effects of alcohol consumption on cognition and regional brain volumes among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Brian; Jiang, Yang; Zanjani, Faika; Fardo, David

    2015-06-01

    This study utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort to examine the relationship between midlife and late-life alcohol consumption, cognitive functioning, and regional brain volumes among older adults without dementia or a history of abusing alcohol. The results from multiple linear regression models indicate that late life, but not midlife, alcohol consumption status is associated with episodic memory and hippocampal volume. Compared to late life abstainers, moderate consumers had larger hippocampal volume, and light consumers had higher episodic memory. The differences in episodic memory according to late life alcohol consumption status were no longer significant when hippocampal volume was included in the regression model. The findings from this study provide new evidence that hippocampal volume may contribute to the observed differences in episodic memory among older adults and late life alcohol consumption status.

  12. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy: comparison with MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Joon; Ryu, Young Hoon; Jeon, Tae Joo; Kim, Jai Keun; Nam, Ji Eun; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Yoon, Choon Sik; Lee, Jong Doo [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    We evaluated brain perfusion SPECT findings of MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy in correlation with MR imaging in search of specific imaging features. Subjects were five patients (four females and one male; age range, 1 to 25 year) who presented with repeated stroke like episodes, seizures or developmental delay or asymptomatic but had elevated lactic acid in CSF and serum. Conventional non-contrast MR imaging and Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) brain perfusion SPECT were performed and imaging features were analyzed. MRI demonstrated increased T2 signal intensities in the affected areas of gray and white matters mainly in the parietal (4/5) and occipital lobes (4/5) and in the basal ganglia (1/5), which were not restricted to a specific vascular territory. SPECT demonstrated decreased perfusion in the corresponding regions of MRI lesions. In addition, there were perfusion defects in parietal (1 patient), temporal (2), and frontal (1) lobes and basal ganglia (1) and thalami (2). In a patient with mitochondrial myopathy who had normal MRI, decreased perfusion was noted in left parietal area and bilateral thalami. Tc-99m ECD SPECT imaging in patients with MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy showed hypoperfusion of parieto-occipital cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and temporal cortex, which were not restricted to a specific vascular territory. There were no specific imaging features on SPECT. The significance of abnormal perfusion on SPECT without corresponding MR abnormalities needs to be evaluated further in larger number of patients.

  13. Comparison of brain activation to purposefully activate a tool in healthy subjects and brain tumor patients using fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the functional organization of the human brain involved in tool-manipulation. Blood Oxygen Level Dependent was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging in seventeen right-handed healthy volunteers and two brain tumor patients during two tool-manipulation tasks: simulated tightening a bolt with a screwdriver (Simulation), and tightening a bolt with a screwdriver (Real). Subjects performed the experiment without watching the tasks. Bilateral pre-supplementary motor areas, bilateral cerebellar posterior lobes, right ventral premotor area, right calcarine sulcus, and cerebellar vermis were activated during Real but not during Simulation tasks in healthy volunteers. In addition, brain tumor patients activated the prefrontal areas. Our results suggest that the human brain mechanisms for tool-manipulation have a neural-network comprised of presupplementary motor area, ventral premotor area, and bilateral cerebellar posterior lobes. In the patients with brain dusfurction diee to tumors, activation at the prefrontal area provided function compensation without motor paralysis. (author)

  14. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Masahiko; Shutara, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Kazumi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Nagata, Ken

    1998-07-01

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6{+-}3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  15. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6±3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  16. Altered relationships between rCBF in different brain regions of never-treated schizophrenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, O.; Schreckenberger, M.; Cremerius, U.; Dickmann, C.; Schulz, G.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Erkwoh, R.; Owega, A.; Sass, H. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Psychiatry

    1997-09-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the relations between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of different brain regions in acute schizophrenia and following neuroleptic treatment. Methods: Twenty-two never-treated, acute schizophrenic patients were examined with HMPAO brain SPECT and assessed psychopathologically, and reexamined following neuroleptic treatment (over 96.8 days) and psychopathological remission. rCBF was determined by region/cerebellar count quotients obtained from 98 irregular regions of interest (ROIs), summed up to 11 ROIs on each hemisphere. In acute schizophrenics, interregional rCBF correlations of each ROI to every other ROI were compared to the interregional correlations following neuroleptic treatment and to those of controls. Results: All significant correlations of rCBF ratios of different brain regions were exclusively positive in controls and patients. In controls, all ROIs of one hemisphere except the mesial temporal ROI correlated significantly to its contralateral ROI. Each hemisphere showed significant frontal-temporal correlations, as well as cortical-subcortical and some cortico-limbic. In contrast, in acute schizophrenics nearly every ROI correlated significantly with every other ROI, without a grouping or relation of the rCBF of certain ROIs as in controls. After neuroleptic treatment and clinical improvement, this diffuse pattern of correlations remained. Conclusions: These results indicate differences in the neuronal interplay between regions in schizophrenic and healthy subjects. In nevertreated schizophrenics, diffuse interregional rCBF correlations can be seen as a sign of change and dysfunction of the systems regulating specificity and diversity of the neuronal functions. Neuroleptic therapy and psychopathologic remission showed no normalizing effect on interregional correlations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, die Beziehungen zwischen den rCBF-Werten von verschiedenen Hirnregionen bei noch nie

  17. Directional connectivity between frontal and posterior brain regions is altered with increasing concentrations of propofol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Maksimow

    Full Text Available Recent studies using electroencephalography (EEG suggest that alteration of coherent activity between the anterior and posterior brain regions might be used as a neurophysiologic correlate of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. One way to assess causal relationships between brain regions is given by renormalized partial directed coherence (rPDC. Importantly, directional connectivity is evaluated in the frequency domain by taking into account the whole multichannel EEG, as opposed to time domain or two channel approaches. rPDC was applied here in order to investigate propofol induced changes in causal connectivity between four states of consciousness: awake (AWA, deep sedation (SED, loss (LOC and return of consciousness (ROC by gathering full 10/20 system human EEG data in ten healthy male subjects. The target-controlled drug infusion was started at low rate with subsequent gradual stepwise increases at 10 min intervals in order to carefully approach LOC (defined as loss of motor responsiveness to a verbal stimulus. The direction of the causal EEG-network connections clearly changed from AWA to SED and LOC. Propofol induced a decrease (p = 0.002-0.004 in occipital-to-frontal rPDC of 8-16 Hz EEG activity and an increase (p = 0.001-0.040 in frontal-to-occipital rPDC of 10-20 Hz activity on both sides of the brain during SED and LOC. In addition, frontal-to-parietal rPDC within 1-12 Hz increased in the left hemisphere at LOC compared to AWA (p = 0.003. However, no significant changes were detected between the SED and the LOC states. The observed decrease in back-to-front EEG connectivity appears compatible with impaired information flow from the posterior sensory and association cortices to the executive prefrontal areas, possibly related to decreased ability to perceive the surrounding world during sedation. The observed increase in the opposite (front-to-back connectivity suggests a propofol concentration dependent association and is not directly

  18. Protein carbonylation after traumatic brain injury: cell specificity, regional susceptibility, and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Rachel C; Buonora, John E; Jacobowitz, David M; Mueller, Gregory P

    2015-01-01

    Protein carbonylation is a well-documented and quantifiable consequence of oxidative stress in several neuropathologies, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer׳s disease, and Parkinson׳s disease. Although oxidative stress is a hallmark of traumatic brain injury (TBI), little work has explored the specific neural regions and cell types in which protein carbonylation occurs. Furthermore, the effect of gender on protein carbonylation after TBI has not been studied. The present investigation was designed to determine the regional and cell specificity of TBI-induced protein carbonylation and how this response to injury is affected by gender. Immunohistochemistry was used to visualize protein carbonylation in the brains of adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) as an injury model of TBI. Cell-specific markers were used to colocalize the presence of carbonylated proteins in specific cell types, including astrocytes, neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Results also indicated that the injury lesion site, ventral portion of the dorsal third ventricle, and ventricular lining above the median eminence showed dramatic increases in protein carbonylation after injury. Specifically, astrocytes and limited regions of ependymal cells adjacent to the dorsal third ventricle and the median eminence were most susceptible to postinjury protein carbonylation. However, these patterns of differential susceptibility to protein carbonylation were gender dependent, with males showing significantly greater protein carbonylation at sites distant from the lesion. Proteomic analyses were also conducted and determined that the proteins most affected by carbonylation in response to TBI include glial fibrillary acidic protein, dihydropyrimidase-related protein 2, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A. Many other proteins, however, were not carbonylated by CCI. These findings indicate that there is both regional

  19. Stereotactic radiosurgery for newly diagnosed brain metastases. Comparison of three dose levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rades, Dirk [University of Luebeck, Department of Radiation Oncology, Luebeck (Germany); Hornung, Dagmar [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Radiation Oncology, Hamburg (Germany); Blanck, Oliver [University of Luebeck, Department of Radiation Oncology, Luebeck (Germany); CyberKnife Center Northern Germany, Guestrow (Germany); Martens, Kristina [University of Luebeck, Department of Radiation Oncology, Luebeck (Germany); University of Luebeck, Center for Integrative Psychiatry, Luebeck (Germany); Khoa, Mai Trong [Hanoi Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Bach Mai Hospital, Nuclear Medicine and Oncology Center, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Trang, Ngo Thuy [Bach Mai Hospital, Nuclear Medicine and Oncology Center, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hueppe, Michael [University of Luebeck, Department of Anesthesiology, Luebeck (Germany); Terheyden, Patrick [University of Luebeck, Department of Dermatology, Luebeck (Germany); Gliemroth, Jan [University of Luebeck, Department of Neurosurgery, Luebeck (Germany); Schild, Steven E. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Department of Radiation Oncology, Scottsdale (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Three doses were compared for local control of irradiated metastases, freedom from new brain metastases, and survival in patients receiving stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone for one to three newly diagnosed brain metastases. In all, 134 patients were assigned to three groups according to the SRS dose given to the margins of the lesions: 13-16 Gy (n = 33), 18 Gy (n = 18), and 20 Gy (n = 83). Additional potential prognostic factors were evaluated: age (≤ 60 vs. > 60 years), gender, Karnofsky Performance Scale score (70-80 vs. 90-100), tumor type (non-small-cell lung cancer vs. melanoma vs. others), number of brain metastases (1 vs. 2-3), lesion size (< 15 vs. ≥ 15 mm), extracranial metastases (no vs. yes), RPA class (1 vs. 2), and interval of cancer diagnosis to SRS (≤ 24 vs. > 24 months). For 13-16 Gy, 18 Gy, and 20 Gy, the 1-year local control rates were 31, 65, and 79 %, respectively (p < 0.001). The SRS dose maintained significance on multivariate analysis (risk ratio: 2.25; 95 % confidence interval: 1.56-3.29; p < 0.001). On intergroup comparisons of local control, 20 Gy was superior to 13-16 Gy (p < 0.001) but not to 18 Gy (p = 0.12); 18 Gy showed a strong trend toward better local control when compared with 13-16 Gy (p = 0.059). Freedom from new brain metastases (p = 0.57) and survival (p = 0.15) were not associated with SRS dose in the univariate analysis. SRS doses of 18 Gy and 20 Gy resulted in better local control than 13-16 Gy. However, 20 Gy and 18 Gy must be compared again in a larger cohort of patients. Freedom from new brain metastases and survival were not associated with SRS dose. (orig.) [German] Drei Dosislevel bei der alleinigen stereotaktischen Radiochirurgie (SRS) von 1 bis 3 neu diagnostizierten Hirnmetastasen wurden hinsichtlich lokaler Kontrolle der bestrahlten Metastasen, Nichtauftreten neuer Hirnmetastasen und Gesamtueberleben verglichen. Nach der am Rand der Metastasen applizierten SRS-Dosis wurden 134 Patienten den Gruppen 13

  20. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  1. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  2. Regional blood flow in brain and peripheral tissues during acute experimental arterial subdural bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlin, J R; Zwetnow, N N; Hall, C

    1993-01-01

    The effects of a large intracranial arterial subdural bleeding on regional blood flow in the brain (rCBF) and in other body organs were studied, using a porcine model. The bleeding was produced by leading blood through a catheter from the abdominal aorta via an electronic drop recorder into the subdural compartment (SDC) over the left cerebral hemisphere. Pressures in the right lateral cerebral ventricle and in the cisterna magna were recorded along with 15 other vital parameters. Measurements of rCBF were carried out using radioactive microspheres 1) before the start of bleeding, 2) during the early bleeding phase, and 3) during the late bleeding phase. When the bleeding was initiated, the intracranial pressures rose within one minute to a level approximately 40 mmHg below the systemic arterial pressure, whilst the latter usually decreased 30-40 mmHg. In the subsequent early bleeding phase the cerebral perfusion pressure and the bleeding pressure fluctuated at a level of approximately 40 mmHg for several minutes. In the late bleeding phase, the perfusion pressure decreased maximally, even when a Cushing reaction was activated. During the early bleeding phase the changes in rCBF varied between the cerebral regions. However, the mean flow remained largely constant in the presence of a decreasing cerebrovascular resistance, indicating that autoregulation of CBF was intact. Concomitantly, cardiac output and heart rate decreased, whilst regional blood flow in extracerebral organs tended to increase, possibly due to an intracranial effect on the autonomic nervous system. In the late bleeding phase, rCBF was critically reduced in all regions, in spite of a marked rise in systemic arterial pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8372718

  3. Sedation and Regional Anesthesia for Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To present the conscious sedation and the regional anesthesia technique, consisting of scalp block and superficial cervical plexus block, used in our institution for patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. The study included 26 consecutive patients. A standardized anesthesia protocol was used and clinical data were collected prospectively. Results. Conscious sedation and regional anesthesia were used in all cases. The dexmedetomidine loading dose was 1 μg kg−1 and mean infusion rate was 0.26 μg kg−1 h−1 (0.21 [mean total dexmedetomidine dose: 154.68 μg (64.65]. Propofol was used to facilitate regional anesthesia. Mean propofol dose was 1.68 mg kg (0.84 [mean total propofol dose: 117.72 mg (59.11]. Scalp block and superficial cervical plexus block were used for regional anesthesia. Anesthesia related complications were minor. Postoperative pain was evaluated; mean visual analog scale pain scores were 0 at the postoperative 1st and 6th hours and 4 at the 12th and 24th hours. Values are mean (standard deviation. Conclusions. Dexmedetomidine sedation along with scalp block and SCPB provides good surgical conditions and pain relief and does not interfere with neurophysiologic testing during DBS for PD. During DBS the SCPB may be beneficial for patients with osteoarthritic cervical pain. This trial is registered with Clinical Trials Identifier NCT01789385.

  4. Comparison of proton therapy techniques for treatment of the whole brain as a component of craniospinal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For treatment of the entire cranium using passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT) compensators are often employed in order to reduce lens and cochlear exposure. We sought to assess the advantages and consequences of utilizing compensators for the treatment of the whole brain as a component of craniospinal radiation (CSI) with PSPT. Moreover, we evaluated the potential benefits of spot scanning beam delivery in comparison to PSPT. Planning computed tomography scans for 50 consecutive CSI patients were utilized to generate passive scattering proton therapy treatment plans with and without Lucite compensators (PSW and PSWO respectively). A subset of 10 patients was randomly chosen to generate scanning beam treatment plans for comparison. All plans were generated using an Eclipse treatment planning system and were prescribed to a dose of 36 Gy(RBE), delivered in 20 fractions, to the whole brain PTV. Plans were normalized to ensure equal whole brain target coverage. Dosimetric data was compiled and statistical analyses performed using a two-tailed Student’s t-test with Bonferroni corrections to account for multiple comparisons. Whole brain target coverage was comparable between all methods. However, cribriform plate coverage was superior in PSWO plans in comparison to PSW (V95%; 92.9 ± 14 vs. 97.4 ± 5, p < 0.05). As predicted, PSWO plans had significantly higher lens exposure in comparison to PSW plans (max lens dose Gy(RBE): left; 24.8 ± 0.8 vs. 22.2 ± 0.7, p < 0.05, right; 25.2 ± 0.8 vs. 22.8 ± 0.7, p < 0.05). However, PSW plans demonstrated no significant cochlear sparing vs. PSWO (mean cochlea dose Gy(RBE): 36.4 ± 0.2 vs. 36.7 ± 0.1, p = NS). Moreover, dose homogeneity was inferior in PSW plans in comparison to PSWO plans as reflected by significant alterations in both whole brain and brainstem homogeneity index (HI) and inhomogeneity coefficient (IC). In comparison to both PSPT techniques, multi-field optimized intensity modulated (MFO-IMPT) spot

  5. Selenotranscriptomic Analyses Identify Signature Selenoproteins in Brain Regions in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Sun, Sheng-Nan; Zheng, Jing; Fan, Hui-Hui; Wu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Song-Fang; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Genes of selenoproteome have been increasingly implicated in various aspects of neurobiology and neurological disorders, but remain largely elusive in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the selenotranscriptome (24 selenoproteins in total) in five brain regions (cerebellum, substantia nigra, cortex, pons and hippocampus) by real time qPCR in a two-phase manner using a mouse model of chronic PD. A wide range of changes in selenotranscriptome was observed in a manner depending on selenoproteins and brain regions. While Selv mRNA was not detectable and Dio1& 3 mRNA levels were not affected, 1, 11 and 9 selenoproteins displayed patterns of increase only, decrease only, and mixed response, respectively, in these brain regions of PD mice. In particular, the mRNA expression of Gpx1-4 showed only a decreased trend in the PD mouse brains. In substantia nigra, levels of 17 selenoprotein mRNAs were significantly decreased whereas no selenoprotein was up-regulated in the PD mice. In contrast, the majority of selenotranscriptome did not change and a few selenoprotein mRNAs that respond displayed a mixed pattern of up- and down-regulation in cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, and/or pons of the PD mice. Gpx4, Sep15, Selm, Sepw1, and Sepp1 mRNAs were most abundant across all these five brain regions. Our results showed differential responses of selenoproteins in various brain regions of the PD mouse model, providing critical selenotranscriptomic profiling for future functional investigation of individual selenoprotein in PD etiology. PMID:27656880

  6. Combined glutamate and glutamine levels in pain-processing brain regions are associated with individual pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunhammer, Matthias; Schweizer, Lauren M; Witte, Vanessa; Harris, Richard E; Bingel, Ulrike; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the living human brain and pain sensitivity is unknown. Combined glutamine/glutamate (Glx), as well as GABA levels can be measured in vivo with single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed at determining whether Glx and/or GABA levels in pain-related brain regions are associated with individual differences in pain sensitivity. Experimental heat, cold, and mechanical pain thresholds were obtained from 39 healthy, drug-free individuals (25 men) according to the quantitative sensory testing protocol and summarized into 1 composite measure of pain sensitivity. The Glx levels were measured using point-resolved spectroscopy at 3 T, within a network of pain-associated brain regions comprising the insula, the anterior cingulate cortex, the mid-cingulate cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the thalamus. GABA levels were measured using GABA-edited spectroscopy (Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy) within the insula, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the mid-cingulate cortex. Glx and/or GABA levels correlated positively across all brain regions. Gender, weekly alcohol consumption, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with Glx and/or GABA levels. A linear regression analysis including all these factors indicated that Glx levels pooled across pain-related brain regions were positively associated with pain sensitivity, whereas no appreciable relationship with GABA was found. In sum, we show that the levels of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and its precursor glutamine across pain-related brain regions are positively correlated with individual pain sensitivity. Future studies will have to determine whether our findings also apply to clinical populations. PMID:27649042

  7. Functional Connectivity Abnormalities of Brain Regions with Structural Deficits in Young Adult Male Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Limei; Yu, Dahua; Su, Shaoping; Ma, Yao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Li, Yangding; Bi, Yanzhi; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yuan, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers. Compared with healthy non-smokers, young smokers showed increased gray matter (GM) volume in the left putamen and decreased GM volume in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Moreover, GM volume in the left ACC has a negative correlation trend with pack-years and GM volume in the left putamen was positively correlated with pack-years. The left ACC and putamen with abnormal volumes were chosen as the regions of interest (ROIs) for the RSFC analysis. We found that smokers showed increased RSFC between the left ACC and right amygdala and between the left putamen and right anterior insula. We revealed structural and functional deficits within the frontostriatal circuits in young smokers, which may shed new insights into the neural mechanisms of smoking.

  8. Methylphenidate remediates error-preceding activation of the default mode brain regions in cocaine addicted individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuskey, David; Luo, Xi; Zhang, Sheng; Morgan, Peter T.; Abdelghany, Osama; Malison, Robert T.; Li, Chiang-shan R.

    2013-01-01

    Many previous studies suggest the potential of psychostimulants in improving cognitive functioning. Our earlier pharmacological brain imaging study showed that intravenous methylphenidate (MPH) improves inhibitory control by altering cortico-striato-thalamic activations in cocaine dependent (CD) individuals. Here we provide additional evidence for the effects of MPH in restoring cerebral activations during cognitive performance. Ten CD individuals performed a stop signal task (SST) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in two sessions, in which either MPH (0.5 mg/Kg BW) or saline was administered intravenously. In the SST, a frequent go signal instructs participants to make a speeded response and a less frequent stop signal instructs them to withhold the response. Our previous work described increased activation of the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex – regions of the default mode network (DMN) – before participants committed a stop error in healthy control but not CD individuals (Bednarski et al., 2011). The current results showed that, compared to saline, MPH restored error-preceding activations of DMN regions in CD individuals. The extent of the changes in precuneus activity was correlated with MPH-elicited increase in systolic blood pressure. These findings suggest that the influence of MPH on cerebral activations may extend beyond cognitive control and provide additional evidence warranting future studies to investigate the neural mechanisms and physiological markers of the efficacy of agonist therapy in cocaine dependence. PMID:23973363

  9. Comparison between Procalcitonin, Brain Natriuretic Peptide, and Uric Acid in Children with Cardiomyopathy and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohammad Noori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was performed to determine the level of procalcitonin, Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP, and uric acid in children with cardiomyopathy in comparison with controls and the association with echocardiographic findings. Methods. The levels of BNP, procalcitonin, and serum uric acid were measured and the amounts of biomarkers compared with echocardiographic findings. Results. In this study mean age of participants was the same (p=0.321. The majority of echocardiographic indices in left and right heart have different means in case and controls (p<0.05. Means of BNP, procalcitonin, and uric acid were 213.814 ± 309.601, 9.326 ± 3.881, and 6.846 ± 1.814 for case group and 2.76 ± 1.013, 1.851 ± 1.466, and 3.317 ± 0.924 for control (p<0.001, respectively. In the patients group there was relationship of Ross classification with BNP (χ2 = 15.845, p<0.05 and with age (χ2 = 8.946, p<0.05. For uric acid and procalcitonin no significant relationships were observed. Conclusions. procalcitonin, uric acid, and BNP had significant relationship with many echocardiographic findings in participants. For patients, procalcitonin did not show correlation. The severity of illness based on the Ross classification showed significant correlation with BNP level and age in patients.

  10. Brain metabolite changes in subcortical regions after exposure to cuprizone for 6 weeks: potential implications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gen; Xuan, Yinghua; Dai, Zhuozhi; Shen, Zhiwei; Zhang, Guishan; Xu, Haiyun; Wu, Renhua

    2015-01-01

    Cuprizone is a copper chelating agent able to selectively damage the white matter in the mouse brain. Recent studies have reported behavioral abnormalities relevant to some of schizophrenia symptoms. While associating white matter damage to the behavioral abnormalities, these previous studies did not rule out the possible impairment in neuronal functions in cuprizone-exposed mice. The aim of this study was to examine brain metabolites of the cuprizone-exposed mice by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). The examined brain regions were the caudoputamen, midbrain, and thalamus; these subcortical regions showed different susceptibilities to cuprizone in terms of demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss in previous studies. Young C57BL/6 mice were fed a standard rodent chow without or with cuprizone (0.2 %) for 6 weeks. At the end, open-field and Y-maze tests were performed to measure the emotional and cognitive behaviors of the animals, followed by (1)H-MRS procedure to evaluate the brain metabolites. Cuprizone-exposure increased anxiety levels and impaired spatial working memory. The same treatment increased T2 signal intensity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and caudoputamen, but not in the thalamus. Cuprizone-exposure decreased the concentrations of NAA and NAA+NAAG in caudoputamen, but not in thalamus and midbrain. It decreased levels of Cr+PCr, GPC+PCh and myo-inositol in all the three brain regions. These results provided neurochemical evidence for the impairment in neuronal functions by cuprizone treatment. PMID:25347963

  11. Effects of baseline CSF α-synuclein on regional brain atrophy rates in healthy elders, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Mattsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF α-synuclein is reduced in synucleinopathies, including dementia with Lewy bodies, and some studies have found increased CSF α-synuclein in Alzheimer's disease (AD. No study has explored effects of CSF α-synuclein on brain atrophy. Here we tested if baseline CSF α-synuclein affects brain atrophy rates and if these effects vary across brain regions, and across the cognitive spectrum from healthy elders (NL, to patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and AD. METHODS: Baseline CSF α-synuclein measurements and longitudinal structural brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 74 NL, 118 MCI patients and 55 AD patients. Effects of baseline CSF α-synuclein on regional atrophy rates were tested in 1 four pre-hoc defined regions possibly associated with Lewy body and/or AD pathology (amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, brainstem, and 2 all available regions of interest. Differences across diagnoses were tested by assessing the interaction of CSF α-synuclein and diagnosis (testing NL versus MCI, and NL versus AD. RESULTS: The effects of CSF α-synuclein on longitudinal atrophy rates were not significant after correction for multiple comparisons. There were tendencies for effects in AD in caudate (higher atrophy rates in subjects with higher CSF α-synuclein, P=0.046 and brainstem (higher atrophy rates in subjects with lower CSF α-synuclein, P=0.063. CSF α-synuclein had significantly different effects on atrophy rates in NL and AD in brainstem (P=0.037 and caudate (P=0.006. DISCUSSION: With the possible exception of caudate and brainstem, the overall weak effects of CSF α-synuclein on atrophy rates in NL, MCI and AD argues against CSF α-synuclein as a biomarker related to longitudinal brain atrophy in these diagnostic groups. Any effects of CSF α-synuclein may be attenuated by possible simultaneous occurrence of AD-related neuronal injury and concomitant Lewy body pathology, which may elevate and

  12. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Honorio Coronado; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O.L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; R. Vásquez Martínez; A. Monteagudo; H. Mogollón; N. Dávila Cardozo; M. Ríos; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; M. Ahuite; I. Huamantupa; Neill, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At...

  13. Brain tissue- and region-specific abnormalities on volumetric MRI scans in 21 patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS is a heterogeneous human disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and characterized by the primary findings of obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and learning and behavioural problems. BBS mouse models have a neuroanatomical phenotype consisting of third and lateral ventriculomegaly, thinning of the cerebral cortex, and reduction in the size of the corpus striatum and hippocampus. These abnormalities raise the question of whether humans with BBS have a characteristic morphologic brain phenotype. Further, although behavioral, developmental, neurological and motor defects have been noted in patients with BBS, to date, there are limited reports of brain findings in BBS. The present study represents the largest systematic evaluation for the presence of structural brain malformations and/or progressive changes, which may contribute to these functional problems. Methods A case-control study of 21 patients, most aged 13-35 years, except for 2 patients aged 4 and 8 years, who were diagnosed with BBS by clinical criteria and genetic analysis of known BBS genes, and were evaluated by qualitative and volumetric brain MRI scans. Healthy controls were matched 3:1 by age, sex and race. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS language with SAS STAT procedures. Results All 21 patients with BBS were found to have statistically significant region- and tissue-specific patterns of brain abnormalities. There was 1 normal intracranial volume; 2 reduced white matter in all regions of the brain, but most in the occipital region; 3 preserved gray matter volume, with increased cerebral cortex volume in only the occipital lobe; 4 reduced gray matter in the subcortical regions of the brain, including the caudate, putamen and thalamus, but not in the cerebellum; and 5 increased cerebrospinal fluid volume. Conclusions There are distinct and characteristic abnormalities in tissue- and region- specific volumes

  14. Gamma knife radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations located in eloquent regions of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javalkar Vijayakumar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective treatment strategy for selected group of patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs. Aim : The aim of this study was to evaluate the obliteration rates, complications, and patient outcomes after Gamma knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs located in eloquent regions of the brain with an emphasis on neurological morbidity. Materials and Methods : Between 2000 and December 2005, 37 patients with AVMs in eloquent locations (sensory, motor, speech, visual cortex, basal ganglia, and brain stem underwent stereotactic radiosurgery. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of these patients to asses the outcomes. Of the 37 patients, only two patients had prior embolization. Three underwent prospective staged volume radiosurgery. Two patients needed redo-radiosurgery for residual AVM. Mean target volume was 9.1 cc. Three lesions had nidus volume more than 20 cc. Average marginal dose was 18.75 Gy. The median duration of follow-up was 23 months (range, 6-60 months. 15 patients had follow-up of more than 36 months. Results : A total of 15 patients had follow-up of more than 36 months, thus available for evaluation of angiographic obliteration rates. Complete angiographic obliteration was documented in seven patients (46.7%. Four patients experienced hemorrhage during the latency period. One patient who had subsequent hemorrhage on follow-up developed worsening of neurological deficit. One patient developed significant sensory symptoms which resolved after steroids. No additional clinical deterioration related to treatment was noted in rest of the patients. Conclusions : AVMs located in eloquent and in deep locations can be treated safely with stereotactic radiosurgery with acceptable obliteration rates and minimal morbidity.

  15. Treatment for arteriovenous malformation of the brain Comparison between microsurgery and gamma knife

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microsurgery and gamma knife are the mainly ways to treat arteriovenous malformation of brain in grade Spetzler-Martin Ⅰ Ⅲ; however, therapeutic effects of them need to be further studied.OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic effects between microsurgery and gamma knife on the treatment of arteriovenous malformation of brain in grade Spetzler-Martin Ⅰ-Ⅲ.DESIGN: Retrospective analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery, the Third Hospital Affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University;Guangdong Microinvasion Center.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 86 patients with arteriovenous malformation of the brain were selected from the Department of Neurosurgery, the Third Hospital Affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University and Guangdong Microinvasion Center from January 1997 to February 2007. After DSA, CT and/or MRI examinations,patients were evaluated in grade Spetzler-Martin Ⅰ - Ⅲ. All patients were divided into microsurgery group (n = 34) and gamma knife group (n =52). There were 22 males and 12 females in the microsurgery group and their mean age was 26 years, while there were 34 males and 18 females in the gamma knife group and their mean age was 28 years. The grade of Spetzler-Martin was comparable in the two groups. All their relatives provided the confirmed consent and the study was allowed by ethics committee of our hospital.METHODS: Under complete anesthesia, patients were given microsurgery and the operative approach was chosen based on diseased regions. Firstly, feeding artery was blocked; secondly, it was separated along band of gliosis between malformation vessel mass and brain tissue; finally, draining vein was cut off and malformation vessel mass was resected. On the other hand, patients in the gamma knife group received Leksell-2300B gamma knife treatment. Leksell-G stereotaxis headframe was installed; GE1.5TMR scanning device was used for localization; r-Plan5.2 workstation was used for target design and dosage program;Leksell B gamma knife was used

  16. Long-term global and regional brain volume changes following severe traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal study with clinical correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidaros, Annette; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller; Liptrot, Matthew George;

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in neurodegenerative changes that progress for months, perhaps even years post-injury. However, there is little information on the spatial distribution and the clinical significance of this late atrophy. In 24 patients who had sustained severe TBI we acquired ......, inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculus, corpus callosum and corona radiata. This indicates that the long-term atrophy is attributable to consequences of traumatic axonal injury. Despite progressive atrophy, remarkable clinical improvement occurred in most patients....

  17. A comparison of classification algorithms in session-to-session generalisation in brain pattern recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Klaesson, Eric; Dahlin, Victor

    2014-01-01

    A brain computer interface (BCI) is a system to interpret a user’s intentionthrough using the users brain activity. The system is todayforemost used for research for disabled people. Electroencephalography(EEG) is the most common method used by BCI to record the brainactivity of the user, where the relevant information is read from thebeta and mu waves in the brain. These brain waves are from the partof the brain that is activated when user are doing problem solving orimagining moving a part ...

  18. Heterogeneity in expression of functional ionotropic glutamate and GABA receptors in astrocytes across brain regions: insights from the thalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Höft, Simon; Griemsmann, Stephanie; Seifert, Gerald; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes may express ionotropic glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, which allow them to sense and to respond to neuronal activity. However, so far the properties of astrocytes have been studied only in a few brain regions. Here, we provide the first detailed receptor analysis of astrocytes in the murine ventrobasal thalamus and compare the properties with those in other regions. To improve voltage-clamp control and avoid indirect effects during drug applications, freshly...

  19. Brain regions involved in processing facial identity and expression are differentially selective for surface and edge information

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Richard J; Young, Andrew W; Andrews, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Although different brain regions are widely considered to be involved in the recognition of facial identity and expression, it remains unclear how these regions process different properties of the visual image. Here, we ask how surface-based reflectance information and edge-based shape cues contribute to the perception and neural representation of facial identity and expression. Contrast-reversal was used to generate images in which normal contrast relationships across the surface of the imag...

  20. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Rajtmajer, Sarah M.; Reka Albert; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Frank Gerard Hillary

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs) that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity). Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g. choice of seed-region, anatomical landma...

  1. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Rajtmajer, Sarah M.; Roy, Arnab; Albert, Reka; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Hillary, Frank G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs) that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity). Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g., choice of seed-region, anatomical landm...

  2. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals region specific metabolic responses to SIV infection in the macaque brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Chan-Gyu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS studies of HIV-infected humans have demonstrated significant metabolic abnormalities that vary by brain region, but the causes are poorly understood. Metabolic changes in the frontal cortex, basal ganglia and white matter in 18 SIV-infected macaques were investigated using MRS during the first month of infection. Results Changes in the N-acetylaspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, myo-inositol (MI, creatine (Cr and glutamine/glutamate (Glx resonances were quantified both in absolute terms and relative to the creatine resonance. Most abnormalities were observed at the time of peak viremia, 2 weeks post infection (wpi. At that time point, significant decreases in NAA and NAA/Cr, reflecting neuronal injury, were observed only in the frontal cortex. Cr was significantly elevated only in the white matter. Changes in Cho and Cho/Cr were similar across the brain regions, increasing at 2 wpi, and falling below baseline levels at 4 wpi. MI and MI/Cr levels were increased across all brain regions. Conclusion These data best support the hypothesis that different brain regions have variable intrinsic vulnerabilities to neuronal injury caused by the AIDS virus.

  3. Structural and functional hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression in motor- and memory-related brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Michael Stoppel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS multiple motor and extra-motor regions display structural and functional alterations. However, their temporal dynamics during disease-progression are unknown. To address this question we employed a longitudinal design assessing motor- and novelty-related brain activity in two fMRI sessions separated by a 3-month interval. In each session, patients and controls executed a Go/NoGo-task, in which additional presentation of novel stimuli served to elicit hippocampal activity. We observed a decline in the patients' movement-related activity during the 3-month interval. Importantly, in comparison to controls, the patients' motor activations were higher during the initial measurement. Thus, the relative decrease seems to reflect a breakdown of compensatory mechanisms due to progressive neural loss within the motor-system. In contrast, the patients' novelty-evoked hippocampal activity increased across 3 months, most likely reflecting the build-up of compensatory processes typically observed at the beginning of lesions. Consistent with a stage-dependent emergence of hippocampal and motor-system lesions, we observed a positive correlation between the ALSFRS-R or MRC-Megascores and the decline in motor activity, but a negative one with the hippocampal activation-increase. Finally, to determine whether the observed functional changes co-occur with structural alterations, we performed voxel-based volumetric analyses on magnetization transfer images in a separate patient cohort studied cross-sectionally at another scanning site. Therein, we observed a close overlap between the structural changes in this cohort, and the functional alterations in the other. Thus, our results provide important insights into the temporal dynamics of functional alterations during disease-progression, and provide support for an anatomical relationship between functional and structural cerebral changes in ALS.

  4. Region specific optimization of continuous linear attenuation coefficients based on UTE (RESOLUTE): application to PET/MR brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladefoged, Claes N.; Benoit, Didier; Law, Ian; Holm, Søren; Kjær, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Hansen, Adam E.; Andersen, Flemming L.

    2015-10-01

    The reconstruction of PET brain data in a PET/MR hybrid scanner is challenging in the absence of transmission sources, where MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The main challenge of MR-AC is to separate bone and air, as neither have a signal in traditional MR images, and to assign the correct linear attenuation coefficient to bone. The ultra-short echo time (UTE) MR sequence was proposed as a basis for MR-AC as this sequence shows a small signal in bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new clinically feasible MR-AC method with patient specific continuous-valued linear attenuation coefficients in bone that provides accurate reconstructed PET image data. A total of 164 [18F]FDG PET/MR patients were included in this study, of which 10 were used for training. MR-AC was based on either standard CT (reference), UTE or our method (RESOLUTE). The reconstructed PET images were evaluated in the whole brain, as well as regionally in the brain using a ROI-based analysis. Our method segments air, brain, cerebral spinal fluid, and soft tissue voxels on the unprocessed UTE TE images, and uses a mapping of R2* values to CT Hounsfield Units (HU) to measure the density in bone voxels. The average error of our method in the brain was 0.1% and less than 1.2% in any region of the brain. On average 95% of the brain was within  ±10% of PETCT, compared to 72% when using UTE. The proposed method is clinically feasible, reducing both the global and local errors on the reconstructed PET images, as well as limiting the number and extent of the outliers.

  5. Gamma knife radiosurgery for multiple brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. Comparison with whole brain radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serizawa, Toru; Ono, Junichi [Chiba Cardiovascular Center (Japan); Iuchi, Toshihiko; Osato, Katsunobu

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study is to compare the effectiveness of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) with that of whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for multiple cerebral metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. Among 302 cases with cerebral metastases from non-small cell lung cancer treated at the Chiba Cardiovascular Center and Chiba Cancer Center between 1990 and 1999, 100 consecutive patients filling the following 4 entry criteria were analyzed in this study: Up to 10 multiple brain lesions at initial MRI study; No surgically inaccessible tumors with more than 30 mm in diameter; No carcinomatous meningitis; More than 3 months of life expectancy. The patients were divided into two groups: the GKS group (66 patients) and the WBRT group (34 patients). In the GKS group, large lesions ({>=}30mm) were removed microsurgically and all other small lesions (<30 mm) were treated by GKS. New distant lesions were treated by repeated GKS without prophylactic WBRT. In the WBRT group, the patients were treated by the traditional combined therapy of WBRT and surgery. In both groups, chemotherapy was administered according to the primary physician's protocol. The two groups did not differ in terms of age, gender, initial Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, pathology of lung caner, number, and size of brain lesion, systemic control, and chemotherapy. Overall survival (OS), neurological survival (NS) and qualitative survival (QS) of the GKS group were longer than those of the WBRT group according to Kaplan-Meier's method. In a multivariate analysis the WBRT group also had significant poor prognostic factors for OS, NS and QS. GKS without prophylactic WBRT could be a primary choice of treatment method for patients with as many as 10 cerebral metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. (author)

  6. Gamma knife radiosurgery for multiple brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. Comparison with whole brain radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this retrospective study is to compare the effectiveness of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) with that of whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for multiple cerebral metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. Among 302 cases with cerebral metastases from non-small cell lung cancer treated at the Chiba Cardiovascular Center and Chiba Cancer Center between 1990 and 1999, 100 consecutive patients filling the following 4 entry criteria were analyzed in this study: Up to 10 multiple brain lesions at initial MRI study; No surgically inaccessible tumors with more than 30 mm in diameter; No carcinomatous meningitis; More than 3 months of life expectancy. The patients were divided into two groups: the GKS group (66 patients) and the WBRT group (34 patients). In the GKS group, large lesions (≥30mm) were removed microsurgically and all other small lesions (<30 mm) were treated by GKS. New distant lesions were treated by repeated GKS without prophylactic WBRT. In the WBRT group, the patients were treated by the traditional combined therapy of WBRT and surgery. In both groups, chemotherapy was administered according to the primary physician's protocol. The two groups did not differ in terms of age, gender, initial Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, pathology of lung caner, number, and size of brain lesion, systemic control, and chemotherapy. Overall survival (OS), neurological survival (NS) and qualitative survival (QS) of the GKS group were longer than those of the WBRT group according to Kaplan-Meier's method. In a multivariate analysis the WBRT group also had significant poor prognostic factors for OS, NS and QS. GKS without prophylactic WBRT could be a primary choice of treatment method for patients with as many as 10 cerebral metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. (author)

  7. Atlas of regional anatomy of the brain using MRI. With functional correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume provides a unique review of the essential topographical anatomy of the brain from an MRI perspective, correlating high-quality anatomical plates with the corresponding high-resolution MRI images. The book includes a historical review of brain mapping and an analysis of the essential reference planes used for the study of the human brain. Subsequent chapters provide a detailed review of the sulcal and the gyral anatomy of the human cortex, guiding the reader through an interpretation of the individual brain atlas provided by high-resolution MRI. The relationship between brain structure and function is approached in a topographical fashion with analysis of the necessary imaging methodology and displayed anatomy. The central, perisylvian, mesial temporal and occipital areas receive special attention. Imaging of the core brain structures is included. An extensive coronal atlas concludes the book. (orig.)

  8. Algorithms of causal inference for the analysis of effective connectivity among brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, Daniel; Panzeri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, powerful general algorithms of causal inference have been developed. In particular, in the framework of Pearl's causality, algorithms of inductive causation (IC and IC(*)) provide a procedure to determine which causal connections among nodes in a network can be inferred from empirical observations even in the presence of latent variables, indicating the limits of what can be learned without active manipulation of the system. These algorithms can in principle become important complements to established techniques such as Granger causality and Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) to analyze causal influences (effective connectivity) among brain regions. However, their application to dynamic processes has not been yet examined. Here we study how to apply these algorithms to time-varying signals such as electrophysiological or neuroimaging signals. We propose a new algorithm which combines the basic principles of the previous algorithms with Granger causality to obtain a representation of the causal relations suited to dynamic processes. Furthermore, we use graphical criteria to predict dynamic statistical dependencies between the signals from the causal structure. We show how some problems for causal inference from neural signals (e.g., measurement noise, hemodynamic responses, and time aggregation) can be understood in a general graphical approach. Focusing on the effect of spatial aggregation, we show that when causal inference is performed at a coarser scale than the one at which the neural sources interact, results strongly depend on the degree of integration of the neural sources aggregated in the signals, and thus characterize more the intra-areal properties than the interactions among regions. We finally discuss how the explicit consideration of latent processes contributes to understand Granger causality and DCM as well as to distinguish functional and effective connectivity.

  9. Algorithms of causal inference for the analysis of effective connectivity among brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eChicharro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, powerful general algorithms of causal inference have been developed. In particular, in the framework of Pearl’s causality, algorithms of inductive causation (IC and IC* provide a procedure to determine which causal connections among nodes in a network can be inferred from empirical observations even in the presence of latent variables, indicating the limits of what can be learned without active manipulation of the system. These algorithms can in principle become important complements to established techniques such as Granger causality and Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM to analyze causal influences (effective connectivity among brain regions. However, their application to dynamic processes has not been yet examined. Here we study how to apply these algorithms to time-varying signals such as electrophysiological or neuroimaging signals. We propose a new algorithm which combines the basic principles of the previous algorithms with Granger causality to obtain a representation of the causal relations suited to dynamic processes. Furthermore, we use graphical criteria to predict dynamic statistical dependencies between the signals from the causal structure. We show how some problems for causal inference from neural signals (e.g. measurement noise, hemodynamic responses, and time aggregation can be understood in a general graphical approach. Focusing on the effect of spatial aggregation, we show that when causal inference is performed at a coarser scale than the one at which the neural sources interact, results strongly depend on the degree of integration of the neural sources aggregated in the signals, and thus characterize more the intra-areal properties than the interactions among regions. We finally discuss how the explicit consideration of latent processes contributes to understand Granger causality and DCM as well as to distinguish functional and effective connectivity.

  10. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Cortical and Subcortical Regions in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to explore the changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF at rest in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. Twenty-four PD patients and 22 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study. ALFF was measured on the whole brain of all participants. A two-sample t-test was then performed to detect the group differences with age, gender, education level, head motion, and gray matter volume as covariates. Results. It was showed that PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the left thalamus/caudate and right insula/inferior prefrontal gyrus, whereas they had increased ALFF in the right medial prefrontal cortex (BA 8/6 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10. Conclusions. Our results indicated that significant alterations of ALFF in the subcortical regions and prefrontal cortex have been detected in PD patients, independent of age, gender, education, head motion, and structural atrophy. The current findings further provide insights into the biological mechanism of the disease.

  11. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Cortical and Subcortical Regions in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jie; Jia, Xiuqin; Li, Huizhuo; Qin, Jiawei; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The present study aimed to explore the changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) at rest in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Twenty-four PD patients and 22 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study. ALFF was measured on the whole brain of all participants. A two-sample t-test was then performed to detect the group differences with age, gender, education level, head motion, and gray matter volume as covariates. Results. It was showed that PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the left thalamus/caudate and right insula/inferior prefrontal gyrus, whereas they had increased ALFF in the right medial prefrontal cortex (BA 8/6) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10). Conclusions. Our results indicated that significant alterations of ALFF in the subcortical regions and prefrontal cortex have been detected in PD patients, independent of age, gender, education, head motion, and structural atrophy. The current findings further provide insights into the biological mechanism of the disease.

  12. Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ana M; Yuan, Peng; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Raz, Naftali

    2015-09-01

    Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation.

  13. Macro-to-micro cortical vascular imaging underlies regional differences in ischemic brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziennis, Suzan; Qin, Jia; Shi, Lei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-05-01

    The ability to non-invasively monitor and quantify hemodynamic responses down to the capillary level is important for improved diagnosis, treatment and management of neurovascular disorders, including stroke. We developed an integrated multi-functional imaging system, in which synchronized dual wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging (DWLS) was used as a guiding tool for optical microangiography (OMAG) to test whether detailed vascular responses to experimental stroke in male mice can be evaluated with wide range sensitivity from arteries and veins down to the capillary level. DWLS enabled rapid identification of cerebral blood flow (CBF), prediction of infarct area and hemoglobin oxygenation over the whole mouse brain and was used to guide the OMAG system to hone in on depth information regarding blood volume, blood flow velocity and direction, vascular architecture, vessel diameter and capillary density pertaining to defined regions of CBF in response to ischemia. OMAG-DWLS is a novel imaging platform technology to simultaneously evaluate multiple vascular responses to ischemic injury, which can be useful in improving our understanding of vascular responses under pathologic and physiological conditions, and ultimately facilitating clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapeutic interventions of neurovascular diseases.

  14. Macro-to-micro cortical vascular imaging underlies regional differences in ischemic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziennis, Suzan; Qin, Jia; Shi, Lei; Wang, Ruikang K

    2015-05-05

    The ability to non-invasively monitor and quantify hemodynamic responses down to the capillary level is important for improved diagnosis, treatment and management of neurovascular disorders, including stroke. We developed an integrated multi-functional imaging system, in which synchronized dual wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging (DWLS) was used as a guiding tool for optical microangiography (OMAG) to test whether detailed vascular responses to experimental stroke in male mice can be evaluated with wide range sensitivity from arteries and veins down to the capillary level. DWLS enabled rapid identification of cerebral blood flow (CBF), prediction of infarct area and hemoglobin oxygenation over the whole mouse brain and was used to guide the OMAG system to hone in on depth information regarding blood volume, blood flow velocity and direction, vascular architecture, vessel diameter and capillary density pertaining to defined regions of CBF in response to ischemia. OMAG-DWLS is a novel imaging platform technology to simultaneously evaluate multiple vascular responses to ischemic injury, which can be useful in improving our understanding of vascular responses under pathologic and physiological conditions, and ultimately facilitating clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapeutic interventions of neurovascular diseases.

  15. Specific effects of punishment on biogenic monoamine turnover in discrete rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, T; Dworkin, S I; Co, C; Smith, J E

    1988-06-28

    Specific effects of punishment on the turnover rates of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) in brain regions were investigated in rats exposed to punishment. Two yoked controls were also used in an attempt to separate the non-specific effects of response rate, reinforcement density and direct effects of punisher (foot shock). Punished and unpunished littermate rats had similar response rates, and the reinforcement density was almost identical for both groups. A third group (yoked-shock rats) received food and shock independent of responding whenever these were given to the punished rats. When compared to the unpunished rats, changes in the monoamine turnover rates resulting from the punishment were similar to the effects of yoked-shock with respect to the direction of action in most cases (13 out of 17 changes). These changes may be related to non-specific effects of the shock. Four changes by the punishment were determined to be specific effects of the punishment since the yoked-shock had no effect or changed the turnover to the opposite direction. Among these, increase in 5-HT turnover rate in the frontal cortex (greater than 7-fold) was the largest change. These results and reported effects of drugs which act on serotonergic systems on the punished behavior suggest that the increase in 5-HT neuronal activity in the frontal cortex is involved in the behavioral suppression induced by the punishment. PMID:3409023

  16. Long-term occupational stress is associated with regional reductions in brain tissue volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Blix

    Full Text Available There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM and white matter (WM volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen - structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous data on chronic psychosocial stress, and indicate a morphological involvement of the frontostriatal circuits. The present findings of morphological changes in these regions confirm our previous conclusion that symptoms from occupational stress merit careful investigations and targeted treatment.

  17. CLINICAL STUDY OF ISCHEMIC PENUMBRA REGION IN BRAIN ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY MAPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qingrui; Liu Mingshun; Gu Lanjie; Mei Fengjun

    2000-01-01

    Department of Neurology, Fourth Affiliated Hospital. Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang ABSTRACT OBJETIVE To study features and clinical usage of ischemic penumbra region(IPR) in brain electrical activity mapping(BEAM).BACKGROUND To explore the functional improvement index of IPR untraumaticly. METH0DS 69 patients with acute cerebral infarction were divided into two groups according to different therapeutic time window--early treatment group( 32 cases, treatment in 12 hours)and contral group (37 cases, treatment in 12-72 hours).They were analysed in BEAM pre-and post-treatment Results: BEAM showed that the power of infarcted core was decreased and IPR became smaller in slow waves significantly after treatment in early treatment group and this change was in good agreement with improvement of clinical functions and SPECT DISCUSSION The key to treat acute cerebral infarction was to improve functions of IPR as 8oos as possible, BEAM could show the location and size of IPR. CONCLUSION BEAM was one of important index in evaluating the function of IPR.

  18. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Cortical and Subcortical Regions in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jie; Jia, Xiuqin; Li, Huizhuo; Qin, Jiawei; Liang, Peipeng; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The present study aimed to explore the changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) at rest in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Twenty-four PD patients and 22 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study. ALFF was measured on the whole brain of all participants. A two-sample t-test was then performed to detect the group differences with age, gender, education level, head motion, and gray matter volume as covariates. Results. It was showed that PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the left thalamus/caudate and right insula/inferior prefrontal gyrus, whereas they had increased ALFF in the right medial prefrontal cortex (BA 8/6) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10). Conclusions. Our results indicated that significant alterations of ALFF in the subcortical regions and prefrontal cortex have been detected in PD patients, independent of age, gender, education, head motion, and structural atrophy. The current findings further provide insights into the biological mechanism of the disease.

  19. Sleep deprivation disturbed regional brain activity in healthy subjects: evidence from a functional magnetic resonance-imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Li Wang, Yin Chen, Ying Yao, Yu Pan, Yi Sun Department of Neurology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF to explore regional brain activities in healthy subjects after sleep deprivation (SD.Materials and methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight females, eight males underwent the session twice: once was after normal sleep (NS, and the other was after SD. ALFF was used to assess local brain features. The mean ALFF-signal values of the different brain areas were evaluated to investigate relationships with clinical features and were analyzed with a receiver-operating characteristic curve.Results: Compared with NS subjects, SD subjects showed a lower response-accuracy rate, longer response time, and higher lapse rate. Compared with NS subjects, SD subjects showed higher ALFF area in the right cuneus and lower ALFF area in the right lentiform nucleus, right claustrum, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left inferior parietal cortex. ALFF differences in regional brain areas showed high sensitivity and specificity. In the SD group, mean ALFF of the right claustrum showed a significant positive correlation with accuracy rate (r=0.687, P=0.013 and a negative correlation with lapse rate (r=-0.706, P=0.01. Mean ALFF of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed a significant positive correlation with response time (r=0.675, P=0.016.Conclusion: SD disturbed the regional brain activity of the default-mode network, its anticorrelated “task-positive” network, and the advanced cognitive function brain areas. Keywords: sleep deprivation, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, default-mode network, functional magnetic resonance imaging

  20. A Comparison of Tourist Expectations and Satisfaction: A Case Study from Antalya Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın Aksu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For several years the number of tourists visiting Antalya Region has been increasing. It could be argued that Antalya is comparable with a capital city in terms of tourist numbers. Antalya Region hosted over 9 million tourists in 2008. To sustain demand and increase competition of operators in Antalya, it is necessary to create a powerful brand image. This will require a combination effort from all tourism stakeholders. Consequently, it is important to define the current tourist profile visiting Antalya Region, evaluate tourists’ expectations and satisfaction, and identify future tourism related research. These outcomes are all important in developing regional tourism. The aim of this study is comparison of expectation-levels and satisfaction-levels of a selected sample of tourists. The findings culminate from research conducted in Antalya Region from a sample of 10.393 tourists during 2008.

  1. Brain SPECT in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: comparison between visual analysis and SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Barbara Juarez; Ramos, Celso Dario; Santos, Allan Oliveira dos; Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes de; Camargo, Edwaldo Eduardo; Etchebehere, Elba Cristina Sa de Camargo, E-mail: juarezbarbara@hotmail.co [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Radiology; Min, Li Li; Cendes, Fernando [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Neurology

    2010-04-15

    Objective: to compare the accuracy of SPM and visual analysis of brain SPECT in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Method: interictal and ictal SPECTs of 22 patients with MTLE were performed. Visual analysis were performed in interictal (VISUAL(inter)) and ictal (VISUAL(ictal/inter)) studies. SPM analysis consisted of comparing interictal (SPM(inter)) and ictal SPECTs (SPM(ictal)) of each patient to control group and by comparing perfusion of temporal lobes in ictal and interictal studies among themselves (SPM(ictal/inter)). Results: for detection of the epileptogenic focus, the sensitivities were as follows: VISUAL(inter)=68%; VISUAL(ictal/inter)=100%; SPM(inter)=45%; SPM(ictal)=64% and SPM(ictal/inter)=77%. SPM was able to detect more areas of hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion. Conclusion: SPM did not improve the sensitivity to detect epileptogenic focus. However, SPM detected different regions of hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion and is therefore a helpful tool for better understand pathophysiology of seizures in MTLE. (author)

  2. Alterations in catecholamine turnover in specific regions of the rat brain following acute exposure to nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuri, A R; Kugel, G; Engelking, L R; Kumar, M S

    1998-04-01

    The effects of nitrous oxide (N2O) on steady-state concentrations and turnover rates of catecholamines in the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, brain stem, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, cerebral cortex, and spinal cord were determined in rats. Animals were exposed for 2 h to either 60% N2O or air. Immediately following exposure, all animals were injected intraperitoneally with alpha-methylparatyrosine (alphaMPT), a competitive inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase, and sacrificed at 0, 30, or 90 min postinjection. Brain catecholamine concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). Results indicate that N2O exposure significantly elevates steady-state concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) in the hypothalamus and striatum yet decreases amine levels in the brain stem region. Steady-state levels of dopamine (DA) were not significantly altered in any region of the CNS by N2O exposure. Acute exposure to N2O also resulted in significant decreases in the turnover rate of NE in the brain stem, yet it increased turnover of this amine in the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, and striatum. Acute exposure to N2O resulted in a decreased turnover rate of DA in the hippocampus and striatum. In contrast, N2O appears to increase DA turnover in the olfactory bulb. These results indicate that acute exposure to N2O in rats causes region-specific alterations in steady-state levels and turnover rates of DA and NE within the central nervous system.

  3. Blood interference in fluorescence spectrum : Experiment, analysis and comparison with intraoperativemeasurements on brain tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Lowndes, Shannely

    2010-01-01

    The optical touch pointer (OTP), a fluorescence spectroscopy based system, assists brain surgeons during guided brain tumor resection in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). After recording and analyzing the autofluorescence spectrum of the tissue, it is possible to distinguish malignant from healthy brain tissue. A challenge during the intraoperative measurements is the interference of blood. If it gets in contact with the laser pointer, the blood blocks the light transmission to and...

  4. A cross-sectional MRI study of brain regional atrophy and clinical characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Applying a cross-sectional design, we set out to further characterize the significance of extrahippocampal brain atrophy in a large sample of \\'sporadic\\' mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE+HS). By evaluating the influence of epilepsy chronicity on structural atrophy, this work represents an important step towards the characterization of MRI-based volumetric measurements as genetic endophenotypes for this condition. METHODS: Using an automated brain segmentation technique, MRI-based volume measurements of several brain regions were compared between 75 patients with \\'sporadic\\' MTLE+HS and 50 healthy controls. Applying linear regression models, we examined the relationship between structural atrophy and important clinical features of MTLE+HS, including disease duration, lifetime number of partial and generalized seizures, and history of initial precipitating insults (IPIs). RESULTS: Significant volume loss was detected in ipsilateral hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and cerebral white matter (WM). In addition, contralateral hippocampal and bilateral cerebellar grey matter (GM) volume loss was observed in left MTLE+HS patients. Hippocampal, amygdalar, and cerebral WM volume loss correlated with duration of epilepsy. This correlation was stronger in patients with prior IPIs history. Further, cerebral WM, cerebellar GM, and contralateral hippocampal volume loss correlated with lifetime number of generalized seizures. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that multiple brain regions beyond the hippocampus are involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE+HS. IPIs are an important factor influencing the rate of regional atrophy but our results also support a role for processes related to epilepsy chronicity. The consequence of epilepsy chronicity on candidate brain regions has important implications on their application as genetic endophenotypes.

  5. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Rajtmajer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity. Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g. choice of seed-region, anatomical landmarks. These approaches are limiting especially when functional connectivity may evolve over time in areas that are finer than known anatomical landmarks or in areas outside predetermined seeded regions. An ideal method would permit investigators to study network plasticity due to learning, maturation effects, or clinical recovery via multiple time point data that can be compared to one another in the same ROI while also preserving the voxel-level data in those ROIs at each time point. Data-driven approaches (e.g., whole-brain voxelwise approaches ameliorate concerns regarding investigator bias, but the fundamental problem of comparing the results between distinct data sets remains. In this paper we propose an approach, aggregate-initialized label propagation (AILP, which allows for data at separate time points to be compared for examining developmental processes resulting in network change (plasticity. To do so, we use a whole-brain modularity approach to parcellate the brain into anatomically constrained functional modules at separate time points and then apply the AILP algorithm to form a consensus set of ROIs for examining change over time. To demonstrate its utility, we make use of a known dataset of individuals with traumatic brain injury sampled at two time points during the first year of recovery and show how the AILP procedure can be applied to select regions of interest to be used in a graph theoretical analysis of plasticity.

  6. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtmajer, Sarah M; Roy, Arnab; Albert, Reka; Molenaar, Peter C M; Hillary, Frank G

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs) that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity). Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g., choice of seed-region, anatomical landmarks). These approaches are limiting especially when functional connectivity may evolve over time in areas that are finer than known anatomical landmarks or in areas outside predetermined seeded regions. An ideal method would permit investigators to study network plasticity due to learning, maturation effects, or clinical recovery via multiple time point data that can be compared to one another in the same ROI while also preserving the voxel-level data in those ROIs at each time point. Data-driven approaches (e.g., whole-brain voxelwise approaches) ameliorate concerns regarding investigator bias, but the fundamental problem of comparing the results between distinct data sets remains. In this paper we propose an approach, aggregate-initialized label propagation (AILP), which allows for data at separate time points to be compared for examining developmental processes resulting in network change (plasticity). To do so, we use a whole-brain modularity approach to parcellate the brain into anatomically constrained functional modules at separate time points and then apply the AILP algorithm to form a consensus set of ROIs for examining change over time. To demonstrate its utility, we make use of a known dataset of individuals with traumatic brain injury sampled at two time points during the first year of recovery and show how the AILP procedure can be applied to select regions of interest to be used in a graph theoretical analysis of plasticity. PMID:26283928

  7. Blueberries and strawberries activate neuronal housekeeping in critical brain regions of stress-induced young rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysfunctional autophagy, where accumulation of damaged or complex cellular components in neurons in response to sublethal cell stress has been implicated in an array of brain disorders. This phenomenon plays a pivotal role in aging, because of the increased vulnerability of the aging brain to incre...

  8. Regional difference of radiosensitivity of neural cells in the fetal brain of mice on day 13 of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnant Slc: ICR mice were exposed to a single whole-body X-irradiation at a dose of 12.5 R or 25 R on day 13 of gestation. After irradiation, fetuses were obtained from mothers at 1- or 3-hour intervals and coronal histological sections were made. Pyknotic cells were counted in the ventricular zone of brain mantle, hippocampal anlage and olfactory bulb. In the 25 R group, peak incidences of pyknotic cells in brain mantle, hippocampal anlage and olfactory bulb were 13.2 %, 6.9 % and 2.2 %, respectively. In the 12.5 R group, these were 6.0 %, 3.2 % and 1.7 %, respectively. This result indicates that neural cells in the ventricular zone of brain mantle are the most radiosensitive among the cerebral regions examined in day-13 mouse fetuses. (author)

  9. Influence of Punica granatum L. on region specific responses in rat brain during Alloxan-Induced diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushil Kumar Middha; Talambedu Usha; Tekupalli RaviKiran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Punica granatum peel methanolic extract (PGPE) on cerebral cortex (CC) and Hippocampus (HC) brain antioxidant defense system and markers of lipid and protein oxidation in alloxan induced diabetic rats.Methods:Oral administration of PGPE (75 and 150 mg of kg body weight) for 45 days resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose levels. Results: Supplementation of diabetic rats with PGPE showed increased activities of SOD and GPx with concomitant decrease in MDA and PC content. Region-specific changes were more evident in the HC when compared to CC. Conclusions: The present study indicated that PGPE can ameliorate brain oxidative stress in alloxan induced diabetic rats by up regulating antioxidant defense mechanism by attenuating lipid and protein oxidation. PGPE thus may be used as a potential therapeutic agent in preventing diabetic complications in the brain.

  10. The Effects of Dietary Fat and Iron Interaction on Brain Regional Iron Contents and Stereotypical Behaviors in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lumei; Byrd, Aria; Plummer, Justin; Erikson, Keith M.; Harrison, Scott H.; Han, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Adequate brain iron levels are essential for enzyme activities, myelination, and neurotransmitter synthesis in the brain. Although systemic iron deficiency has been found in genetically or dietary-induced obese subjects, the effects of obesity-associated iron dysregulation in brain regions have not been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary fat and iron interaction on brain regional iron contents and regional-associated behavior patterns in a mouse model. Thirty C57BL/6J male weanling mice were randomly assigned to six dietary treatment groups (n = 5) with varying fat (control/high) and iron (control/high/low) contents. The stereotypical behaviors were measured during the 24th week. Blood, liver, and brain tissues were collected at the end of the 24th week. Brains were dissected into the hippocampus, midbrain, striatum, and thalamus regions. Iron contents and ferritin heavy chain (FtH) protein and mRNA expressions in these regions were measured. Correlations between stereotypical behaviors and brain regional iron contents were analyzed at the 5% significance level. Results showed that high-fat diet altered the stereotypical behaviors such as inactivity and total distance traveled (P iron contents and FtH protein and mRNA expressions in a regional-specific manner: (1) high-fat diet significantly decreased the brain iron content in the striatum (P iron content and sleeping in midbrain (P iron also decreased brain iron content and FtH protein expression in a regionally specific manner. The effect of interaction between dietary fat and iron was observed in brain iron content and behaviors. All these findings will lay foundations to further explore the links among obesity, behaviors, and brain iron alteration. PMID:27493939

  11. Intra-Amniotic LPS Induced Region-Specific Changes in Presynaptic Bouton Densities in the Ovine Fetal Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Strackx

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Chorioamnionitis has been associated with increased risk for fetal brain damage. Although, it is now accepted that synaptic dysfunction might be responsible for functional deficits, synaptic densities/numbers after a fetal inflammatory challenge have not been studied in different regions yet. Therefore, we tested in this study the hypothesis that LPS-induced chorioamnionitis caused profound changes in synaptic densities in different regions of the fetal sheep brain. Material and Methods. Chorioamnionitis was induced by a 10 mg intra-amniotic LPS injection at two different exposure intervals. The fetal brain was studied at 125 days of gestation (term = 150 days either 2 (LPS2D group or 14 days (LPS14D group after LPS or saline injection (control group. Synaptophysin immunohistochemistry was used to quantify the presynaptic density in layers 2-3 and 5-6 of the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, entorhinal cortex, and piriforme cortex, in the nucleus caudatus and putamen and in CA1/2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Results. There was a significant reduction in presynaptic bouton densities in layers 2-3 and 5-6 of the motor cortex and in layers 2-3 of the entorhinal and the somatosensory cortex, in the nucleus caudate and putamen and the CA1/2 and CA3 of the hippocampus in the LPS2D compared to control animals. Only in the motor cortex and putamen, the presynaptic density was significantly decreased in the LPS14 D compared to the control group. No changes were found in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the piriforme cortex. Conclusion. We demonstrated that LPS-induced chorioamnionitis caused a decreased density in presynaptic boutons in different areas in the fetal brain. These synaptic changes seemed to be region-specific, with some regions being more affected than others, and seemed to be transient in some regions.

  12. Patterns of regional brain activation associated with different forms of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilardi, M; Ghez, C; Dhawan, V; Moeller, J; Mentis, M; Nakamura, T; Antonini, A; Eidelberg, D

    2000-07-14

    To examine the variations in regional cerebral blood flow during execution and learning of reaching movements, we employed a family of kinematically and dynamically controlled motor tasks in which cognitive, mnemonic and executive features of performance were differentiated and characterized quantitatively. During 15O-labeled water positron emission tomography (PET) scans, twelve right-handed subjects moved their dominant hand on a digitizing tablet from a central location to equidistant targets displayed with a cursor on a computer screen in synchrony with a tone. In the preceding week, all subjects practiced three motor tasks: 1) movements to a predictable sequence of targets; 2) learning of new visuomotor transformations in which screen cursor motion was rotated by 30 degrees -60 degrees; 3) learning new target sequences by trial and error, by using previously acquired routines in a task placing heavy load on spatial working memory. The control condition was observing screen and audio displays. Subtraction images were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping to identify significant brain activation foci. Execution of predictable sequences was characterized by a modest decrease in movement time and spatial error. The underlying pattern of activation involved primary motor and sensory areas, cerebellum, basal ganglia. Adaptation to a rotated reference frame, a form of procedural learning, was associated with decrease in the imposed directional bias. This task was associated with activation in the right posterior parietal cortex. New sequences were learned explicitly. Significant activation was found in dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In this study, we have introduced a series of flexible motor tasks with similar kinematic characteristics and different spatial attributes. These tasks can be used to assess specific aspects of motor learning with imaging in health and disease. PMID:10882792

  13. Sustained spatial attention to vibrotactile stimulation in the flutter range: relevant brain regions and their interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Goltz

    Full Text Available The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study was designed to get a better understanding of the brain regions involved in sustained spatial attention to tactile events and to ascertain to what extent their activation was correlated. We presented continuous 20 Hz vibrotactile stimuli (range of flutter concurrently to the left and right index fingers of healthy human volunteers. An arrow cue instructed subjects in a trial-by-trial fashion to attend to the left or right index finger and to detect rare target events that were embedded in the vibrotactile stimulation streams. We found blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD attentional modulation in primary somatosensory cortex (SI, mainly covering Brodmann area 1, 2, and 3b, as well as in secondary somatosensory cortex (SII, contralateral to the to-be-attended hand. Furthermore, attention to the right (dominant hand resulted in additional BOLD modulation in left posterior insula. All of the effects were caused by an increased activation when attention was paid to the contralateral hand, except for the effects in left SI and insula. In left SI, the effect was related to a mixture of both a slight increase in activation when attention was paid to the contralateral hand as well as a slight decrease in activation when attention was paid to the ipsilateral hand (i.e., the tactile distraction condition. In contrast, the effect in left posterior insula was exclusively driven by a relative decrease in activation in the tactile distraction condition, which points to an active inhibition when tactile information is irrelevant. Finally, correlation analyses indicate a linear relationship between attention effects in intrahemispheric somatosensory cortices, since attentional modulation in SI and SII were interrelated within one hemisphere but not across hemispheres. All in all, our results provide a basis for future research on sustained attention to continuous vibrotactile stimulation in the range

  14. High-fat diet-induced brain region-specific phenotypic spectrum of CNS resident microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baufeld, Caroline; Osterloh, Anja; Prokop, Stefan; Miller, Kelly R; Heppner, Frank L

    2016-09-01

    Diets high in fat (HFD) are known to cause an immune response in the periphery as well as the central nervous system. In peripheral adipose tissue, this immune response is primarily mediated by macrophages that are recruited to the tissue. Similarly, reactivity of microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, has been shown to occur in the hypothalamus of mice fed a high-fat diet. To characterize the nature of the microglial response to diets high in fat in a temporal fashion, we studied the phenotypic spectrum of hypothalamic microglia of mice fed high-fat diet for 3 days and 8 weeks by assessing their tissue reaction and inflammatory signature. While we observed a significant increase in Iba1+ myeloid cells and a reaction of GFAP+ astrocytes in the hypothalamus after 8 weeks of HFD feeding, we found the hypothalamic myeloid cell reaction to be limited to endogenous microglia and not mediated by infiltrating myeloid cells. Moreover, obese humans were found to present with signs of hypothalamic gliosis and exacerbated microglia dystrophy, suggesting a targeted microglia response to diet in humans as well. Notably, the glial reaction occurring in the mouse hypothalamus was not accompanied by an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, but rather by an anti-inflammatory reaction. Gene expression analyses of isolated microglia not only confirmed this observation, but also revealed a downregulation of microglia genes important for sensing signals in the microenvironment. Finally, we demonstrate that long-term exposure of microglia to HFD in vivo does not impair the cell's ability to respond to additional stimuli, like lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, our findings support the notion that microglia react to diets high in fat in a region-specific manner in rodents as well as in humans; however, this response changes over time as it is not exclusively pro-inflammatory nor does exposure to HFD prime microglia in the hypothalamus. PMID:27393312

  15. A comparison of atmospheric composition using the Carbon Bond and Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwar, G.; J. Godowitch; B. H. Henderson; K. Fahey; Pouliot, G.; W. T. Hutzell; Mathur, R.; Kang, D.; Goliff, W. S.; Stockwell, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    We incorporate the recently developed Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (version 2, RACM2) into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system for comparison with the existing 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism with updated toluene chemistry (CB05TU). Compared to CB05TU, RACM2 enhances the domain-wide monthly mean hydroxyl radical concentrations by 46% and nitric acid by 26%. However, it reduces hydrogen peroxide by 2%, peroxyacetic acid by 94%, methyl hydrogen peroxide by 19%, peroxyace...

  16. A comparison of atmospheric composition using the Carbon Bond and Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwar, G.; J. Godowitch; Henderson, B.; K. Fahey; Pouliot, G.; W. T. Hutzell; Mathur, R.; Kang, D.; Goliff, W. S.; Stockwell, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    We incorporate the recently developed Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (version 2, RACM2) into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system for comparison with the existing 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism with updated toluene chemistry (CB05TU). Compared to CB05TU, RACM2 enhances the domain-wide monthly mean hydroxyl radical concentrations by 46% and nitric acid by 26%. However, it reduces hydrogen peroxide by 2%, peroxyacetic acid by 94%, methyl hydrogen peroxide by 19%, pe...

  17. Comparison of body mass index in children of two different regions of welfare.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Shapouri Moghadam; Mohammad Safarian; Rahim Vakili; Seyed Morteza Ehteshamfar

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic basis of children obesity is of high importance for preventive policies. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of obesity among children living in two different levels of welfare regions in Mashhad northeast of Iran. A total of 625 primary school girls and boys aged 78-127 months were randomly selected, and values of their body mass index (BMI) were measured. The prevalence of both overweight and obesity were higher among students of enriched area in comparison with that of...

  18. Regionally distinct responses of microglia and glial progenitor cells to whole brain irradiation in adult and aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kun; Schindler, Matthew K; McQuail, Joseph A; Forbes, M Elizabeth; Riddle, David R

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy has proven efficacy for treating brain tumors and metastases. Higher doses and larger treatment fields increase the probability of eliminating neoplasms and preventing reoccurrence, but dose and field are limited by damage to normal tissues. Normal tissue injury is greatest during development and in populations of proliferating cells but also occurs in adults and older individuals and in non-proliferative cell populations. To better understand radiation-induced normal tissue injury and how it may be affected by aging, we exposed young adult, middle-aged, and old rats to 10 Gy of whole brain irradiation and assessed in gray- and white matter the responses of microglia, the primary cellular mediators of radiation-induced neuroinflammation, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells, the largest population of proliferating cells in the adult brain. We found that aging and/or irradiation caused only a few microglia to transition to the classically "activated" phenotype, e.g., enlarged cell body, few processes, and markers of phagocytosis, that is seen following more damaging neural insults. Microglial changes in response to aging and irradiation were relatively modest and three markers of reactivity - morphology, proliferation, and expression of the lysosomal marker CD68- were regulated largely independently within individual cells. Proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursors did not appear to be altered during normal aging but increased following irradiation. The impacts of irradiation and aging on both microglia and oligodendrocyte precursors were heterogeneous between white- and gray matter and among regions of gray matter, indicating that there are regional regulators of the neural response to brain irradiation. By several measures, the CA3 region of the hippocampus appeared to be differentially sensitive to effects of aging and irradiation. The changes assessed here likely contribute to injury following inflammatory challenges like brain irradiation and

  19. Regionally distinct responses of microglia and glial progenitor cells to whole brain irradiation in adult and aging rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hua

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy has proven efficacy for treating brain tumors and metastases. Higher doses and larger treatment fields increase the probability of eliminating neoplasms and preventing reoccurrence, but dose and field are limited by damage to normal tissues. Normal tissue injury is greatest during development and in populations of proliferating cells but also occurs in adults and older individuals and in non-proliferative cell populations. To better understand radiation-induced normal tissue injury and how it may be affected by aging, we exposed young adult, middle-aged, and old rats to 10 Gy of whole brain irradiation and assessed in gray- and white matter the responses of microglia, the primary cellular mediators of radiation-induced neuroinflammation, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells, the largest population of proliferating cells in the adult brain. We found that aging and/or irradiation caused only a few microglia to transition to the classically "activated" phenotype, e.g., enlarged cell body, few processes, and markers of phagocytosis, that is seen following more damaging neural insults. Microglial changes in response to aging and irradiation were relatively modest and three markers of reactivity - morphology, proliferation, and expression of the lysosomal marker CD68- were regulated largely independently within individual cells. Proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursors did not appear to be altered during normal aging but increased following irradiation. The impacts of irradiation and aging on both microglia and oligodendrocyte precursors were heterogeneous between white- and gray matter and among regions of gray matter, indicating that there are regional regulators of the neural response to brain irradiation. By several measures, the CA3 region of the hippocampus appeared to be differentially sensitive to effects of aging and irradiation. The changes assessed here likely contribute to injury following inflammatory challenges like

  20. Amplitude of Sensorimotor Mu Rhythm Is Correlated with BOLD from Multiple Brain Regions: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Siyang; Liu, Yuelu; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    The mu rhythm is a field oscillation in the ∼10Hz range over the sensorimotor cortex. For decades, the suppression of mu (event-related desynchronization) has been used to index movement planning, execution, and imagery. Recent work reports that non-motor processes, such as spatial attention and movement observation, also desynchronize mu, raising the possibility that the mu rhythm is associated with the activity of multiple brain regions and systems. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by recording simultaneous resting-state EEG-fMRI from healthy subjects. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to extract the mu components. The amplitude (power) fluctuations of mu were estimated as a time series using a moving-window approach, which, after convolving with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF), was correlated with blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals from the entire brain. Two main results were found. First, mu power was negatively correlated with BOLD from areas of the sensorimotor network, the attention control network, the putative mirror neuron system, and the network thought to support theory of mind. Second, mu power was positively correlated with BOLD from areas of the salience network, including anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that sensorimotor mu rhythm is associated with multiple brain regions and systems. They also suggest that caution should be exercised when attempting to interpret mu modulation in terms of a single brain network. PMID:27499736

  1. Parcellation of the Healthy Neonatal Brain into 107 Regions Using Atlas Propagation through Intermediate Time Points in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesa, Manuel; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair G.; Anblagan, Devasuda; Telford, Emma J.; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A.; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I.; Bastin, Mark E.; Boardman, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39+5 weeks, range 37+2–41+6). An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO) was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database), with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33) constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization (SyGN) method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modeling brain growth during development. PMID:27242423

  2. Parcellation of the healthy neonatal brain into 107 regions using atlas propagation through intermediate time points in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eBlesa Cabez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39+5 weeks, range 37+2-41+6. An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database, with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33 constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modelling brain growth during development.

  3. Amplitude of Sensorimotor Mu Rhythm Is Correlated with BOLD from Multiple Brain Regions: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Siyang; Liu, Yuelu; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    The mu rhythm is a field oscillation in the ∼10Hz range over the sensorimotor cortex. For decades, the suppression of mu (event-related desynchronization) has been used to index movement planning, execution, and imagery. Recent work reports that non-motor processes, such as spatial attention and movement observation, also desynchronize mu, raising the possibility that the mu rhythm is associated with the activity of multiple brain regions and systems. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by recording simultaneous resting-state EEG-fMRI from healthy subjects. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to extract the mu components. The amplitude (power) fluctuations of mu were estimated as a time series using a moving-window approach, which, after convolving with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF), was correlated with blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals from the entire brain. Two main results were found. First, mu power was negatively correlated with BOLD from areas of the sensorimotor network, the attention control network, the putative mirror neuron system, and the network thought to support theory of mind. Second, mu power was positively correlated with BOLD from areas of the salience network, including anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that sensorimotor mu rhythm is associated with multiple brain regions and systems. They also suggest that caution should be exercised when attempting to interpret mu modulation in terms of a single brain network. PMID:27499736

  4. Comparison of the activity measurements in nuclear medicine services in the Brazilian northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northeastern Regional Centre for Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE), National Nuclear Energy Commission, has organized for the first time in nuclear medicine services (NMSs) in the Brazilian northeast region a comparison of activity measurements for 99mTc, 131I, 67Ga, 201Tl and 57Co. This tool is widely utilized to evaluate not only the accuracy of radionuclide calibrators, but also the competence of NMSs to measure the activity of the radiopharmaceuticals and the performance of the personnel involved in these measurements. The comparison results showed that 90% of the results received from participants are within the ±10% limit established by the Brazilian Norm. - Highlights: • Establishing a comparison program of activity measurements was an important tool to guarantee the satisfactory performance of radionuclide calibrators in the Brazilian northeast region. • In this program 121 measurements performed in the nuclear medicine services of Alagoas, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte and Sergipe States were obtained. • The analysis of the results demonstrated that 90% of the results received from participants are within the ±10% limit established by the Brazilian Norm. • The services whose results were outside the recommended limits can be supported the Reference Laboratory in order to identify and to correct eventual unacceptable results

  5. Synapsin I (protein I) in different brain regions in senile dementia of Alzheimer type and in multiinfarct dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synapsin I (Protein I), a neuron-specfic phosphoprotein enriched in presynaptic nerve terminals, has been used as a quantitative marker for the density of nerve terminals in five brain regions (caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, mesencephalon and putamen) from patients who had suffered from Alzheimer disease/senile dementia of Alzheimer type (AD/SDAT), from patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID), and from agematched controls. Samples were obtained at autopsy. Lower levels of Synapsin I were observed in the hippocampus of patients with AD/SDAT but not with MID. There were no significant differences in Synapsin I levels between patients and controls in any of the other four brain regions examined. (Author)

  6. [Preliminary evidence of neurobiological and behavioral consequences of exposure to childhood maltreatment on regional brain development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, the topic of child abuse as an issue facing Japanese society has gained considerable attention with regard to the field of medicine and education and also in scenarios that relate to child care. The definition of child abuse includes abusing children verbally or psychologically, and is not limited to abusing children physically such as beating, sexual abuse, or neglect. Recent studies have revealed that emotional trauma during childhood development could be much more difficult to treat than physical abuse. Severe abuse during childhood can cause abnormal brain development and have a negative impact later in life. In this review, I will introduce the mechanisms of brain damage due to child abuse with consideration of how and when child abuse can have an impact on the victims' brains. The information presented is based on a collaborative study with the Psychiatry Department at Harvard University on the relationship between brain functions and the human mind.

  7. Induction of brain region-specific forms of obesity by agouti.

    OpenAIRE

    Kas, M. J. H.; Tiesjema, B; Dijk, G. van; Garner, KM; Barsh, GS; ter Brake, O; Verhaagen, J.; Adan, RAH

    2004-01-01

    Disruption of melanocortin ( MC) signaling, such as by ectopic Agouti overexpression, leads to an obesity syndrome with hyperphagia, obesity, and accelerated body weight gain during high-fat diet. To investigate where in the brain disruption of MC signaling results in obesity, long-term Agouti expression was induced after local injections of recombinant adeno-associated viral particles in selected brain nuclei of adult rats. Agouti expression in the paraventricular nucleus, a hypothalamic reg...

  8. Developmental and Regional Patterns of GAP-43 Immunoreactivity in a Metamorphosing Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Andrea Megela; Tanyu, Leslie H.; Horowitz, Seth S.; Chapman, Judith A.; Brown, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    Growth-associated protein-43 is typically expressed at high levels in the nervous system during development. In adult animals, its expression is lower, but still observable in brain areas showing structural or functional plasticity. We examined patterns of GAP-43 immunoreactivity in the brain of the bullfrog, an animal whose nervous system undergoes considerable reorganization across metamorphic development and retains a strong capacity for plasticity in adulthood. Immunolabeling was mostly d...

  9. Vocal parameters that indicate threat level correlate with FOS immunolabeling in social and vocal control brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jesse M S; Riters, Lauren V

    2012-01-01

    Transmitting information via communicative signals is integral to interacting with conspecifics, and some species achieve this task by varying vocalizations to reflect context. Although signal variation is critical to social interactions, the underlying neural control has not been studied. In response to a predator, black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilla) produce mobbing calls (chick-a-dee calls) with various parameters, some of which convey information about the threat stimulus. We predicted that vocal parameters indicative of threat would be associated with distinct patterns of neuronal activity within brain areas involved in social behavior and those involved in the sensorimotor control of vocal production. To test this prediction, we measured the syntax and structural aspects of chick-a-dee call production in response to a hawk model and assessed the protein product of the immediate early gene FOS in brain regions implicated in context-specific vocal and social behavior. These regions include the medial preoptic area (POM) and lateral septum (LS), as well as regions involved in vocal motor control, including the dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex and the HVC. We found correlations linking call rate (previously demonstrated to reflect threat) to labeling in the POM and LS. Labeling in the HVC correlated with the number of D notes per call, which may also signal threat level. Labeling in the call control region dorsomedial nucleus was associated with the structure of D notes and the overall number of notes, but not call rate or type of notes produced. These results suggest that the POM and LS may influence attributes of vocalizations produced in response to predators and that the brain region implicated in song control, the HVC, also influences call production. Because variation in chick-a-dee call rate indicates predator threat, we speculate that these areas could integrate with motor control regions to imbue mobbing signals with additional

  10. Effect of prolonged exposure to diesel engine exhaust on proinflammatory markers in different regions of the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kate

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The etiology and progression of neurodegenerative disorders depends on the interactions between a variety of factors including: aging, environmental exposures, and genetic susceptibility factors. Enhancement of proinflammatory events appears to be a common link in different neurological impairments, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. Studies have shown a link between exposure to particulate matter (PM, present in air pollution, and enhancement of central nervous system proinflammatory markers. In the present study, the association between exposure to air pollution (AP, derived from a specific source (diesel engine, and neuroinflammation was investigated. To elucidate whether specific regions of the brain are more susceptible to exposure to diesel-derived AP, various loci of the brain were separately analyzed. Rats were exposed for 6 hrs a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks to diesel engine exhaust (DEE using a nose-only exposure chamber. The day after the final exposure, the brain was dissected into the following regions: cerebellum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and tubercles, and the striatum. Results Baseline levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α were dependent on the region analyzed and increased in the striatum after exposure to DEE. In addition, baseline level of activation of the transcription factors (NF-κB and (AP-1 was also region dependent but the levels were not significantly altered after exposure to DEE. A similar, though not significant, trend was seen with the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and TNF Receptor-subtype I (TNF-RI. Conclusions Our results indicate that different brain regions may be uniquely responsive to changes induced by exposure to DEE. This study once more underscores the role of neuroinflammation in response to ambient air pollution

  11. Quantitation of normal metabolite concentrations in six brain regions by in-vivo 1 H-MR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minati Ludovico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the concentrations of brain metabolites visible to in-vivo 1 H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS at 1.5 T in a sample of 28 normal subjects. Quantitation was attempted for inositol compounds, choline units, total creatine and N-acetyl moieties, using open-source software. Six brain regions were considered: frontal and parietal white matter, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, pons and cerebellum. Absolute concentrations were derived using tissue water as an internal reference and using an external reference; metabolite signal intensity ratios with respect to creatine were also calculated. The inter-individual variability was smaller for absolute concentrations (internal reference as compared to that for signal intensity ratios. Significant regional variability in concentration was found for all metabolites, indicating that separate normative values are needed for different brain regions. The values obtained in this study can be used as reference in future studies, provided the same methodology is followed; it is confirmed that despite unsuccessful attempts in the past, smaller coefficients of variation can indeed be obtained through absolute quantification.

  12. Region-selective effects of neuroinflammation and antioxidant treatment on peripheral benzodiazepine receptors and NMDA receptors in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biegon, A.; Alvarado, M.; Budinger, T.F.; Grossman, R.; Hensley, K.; West, M.S.; Kotake, Y.; Ono, M.; Floyd, R.A.

    2001-12-10

    Following induction of acute neuroinflammation by intracisternal injection of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) in rats, quantitative autoradiography was used to assess the regional level of microglial activation and glutamate (NMDA) receptor binding. The possible protective action of the antioxidant phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone in this model was tested by administering the drug in the drinking water for 6 days starting 24 hours after endotoxin injection. Animals were killed 7 days post-injection and consecutive cryostat brain sections labeled with [3H]PK11195 as a marker of activated microglia and [125I]iodoMK801 as a marker of the open-channel, activated state of NMDA receptors. Lipopolysaccharide increased [3H]PK11195 binding in the brain, with the largest increases (2-3 fold) in temporal and entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and substantia innominata. A significant (>50 percent) decrease in [125I]iodoMK801 binding was found in the same brain regions. Phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone treatment resulted in a partial inhibition ({approx}25 percent decrease) of the lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in [3H]PK11195 binding but completely reversed the lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in [125I]iodoMK80 binding in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and substantia innominata. Loss of NMDA receptor function in cortical and hippocampal regions may contribute to the cognitive deficits observed in diseases with a neuroinflammatory component, such as meningitis or Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure-function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

  14. Pre-hospital severe traumatic brain injury – comparison of outcome in paramedic versus physician staffed emergency medical services

    OpenAIRE

    Pakkanen, Toni; Virkkunen, Ilkka; Kämäräinen, Antti; Huhtala, Heini; Silfvast, Tom; Virta, Janne; Randell, Tarja; Yli-Hankala, Arvi

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and permanent disability. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel are often the first healthcare providers attending patients with TBI. The level of available care varies, which may have an impact on the patient’s outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate mortality and neurological outcome of TBI patients in two regions with differently structured EMS systems. Methods A 6-year period (2005 – 2010) observatio...

  15. Potential brain language reorganization in a boy with refractory epilepsy; an fNIRS–EEG and fMRI comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Phetsamone Vannasing; Isotta Cornaggia; Catherine Vanasse; Julie Tremblay; Paola Diadori; Sébastien Perreault; Maryse Lassonde; Anne Gallagher

    2016-01-01

    As part of a presurgical investigation for a resection of a tumor located in the left temporal brain region, we evaluated pre- and postsurgical language lateralization in a right-handed boy with refractory epilepsy. In this study, we compared functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) results obtained while the participant performed expressive and receptive language tasks with those obtained using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This case study illustrates the potential for N...

  16. Acute Psychosis Associated with Subcortical Stroke: Comparison between Basal Ganglia and Mid-Brain Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron McMurtray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of psychosis in an older or elderly individual without history of previous psychiatric disorders should prompt a thorough workup for neurologic causes of psychiatric symptoms. This report compares and contrasts clinical features of new onset of psychotic symptoms between two patients, one with an acute basal ganglia hemorrhagic stroke and another with an acute mid-brain ischemic stroke. Delusions and hallucinations due to basal ganglia lesions are theorized to develop as a result of frontal lobe dysfunction causing impairment of reality checking pathways in the brain, while visual hallucinations due to mid-brain lesions are theorized to develop due to dysregulation of inhibitory control of the ponto-geniculate-occipital system. Psychotic symptoms occurring due to stroke demonstrate varied clinical characteristics that depend on the location of the stroke within the brain. Treatment with antipsychotic medications may provide symptomatic relief.

  17. Quantitative Comparison of SPM, FSL, and Brainsuite for Brain MR Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, K; Noorizadeh, N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accurate brain tissue segmentation from magnetic resonance (MR) images is an important step in analysis of cerebral images. There are software packages which are used for brain segmentation. These packages usually contain a set of skull stripping, intensity non-uniformity (bias) correction and segmentation routines. Thus, assessment of the quality of the segmented gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is needed for the neuroimaging applications. Methods...

  18. Application of machine learning methods to describe the effects of conjugated equine estrogens therapy on region-specific brain volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, Ramon; Espeland, Mark A.; Goveas, Joseph S; Davatzikos, Christos; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Maldjian, Joseph A.; Brunner, Robert L.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Johnson, Karen C.; Mysiw, W. Jerry; Wagner, Benjamin; Susan M. Resnick

    2011-01-01

    Use of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) has been linked to smaller regional brain volumes in women aged ≥65 years, however it is unknown whether this results in a broad-based characteristic pattern of effects. Structural MRI was used to assess regional volumes of normal tissue and ischemic lesions among 513 women who had been enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of CEE therapy for an average of 6.6 years, beginning at ages 65-80 years. A multivariate pattern analysis, based on a machine l...

  19. Comparison study of ferrofluid and powder iron oxide nanoparticle permeability across the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Dan; Sheikh, Lubna; Bhattacharya, Soumya; Nayar, Suprabha; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the permeability of 11 different iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) samples (eight fluids and three powders) was determined using an in vitro blood-brain barrier model. Importantly, the results showed that the ferrofluid formulations were statistically more permeable than the IONP powder formulations at the blood-brain barrier, suggesting a role for the presently studied in situ synthesized ferrofluid formulations using poly(vinyl) alcohol, bovine serum albumin, collagen, glutamic acid, graphene, and their combinations as materials which can cross the blood-brain barrier to deliver drugs or have other neurological therapeutic efficacy. Conversely, the results showed the least permeability across the blood-brain barrier for the IONP with collagen formulation, suggesting a role as a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent but limiting IONP passage across the blood-brain barrier. Further analysis of the data yielded several trends of note, with little correlation between permeability and fluid zeta potential, but a larger correlation between permeability and fluid particle size (with the smaller particle sizes having larger permeability). Such results lay the foundation for simple modification of iron oxide nanoparticle formulations to either promote or inhibit passage across the blood-brain barrier, and deserve further investigation for a wide range of applications. PMID:23426527

  20. Training of verbal creativity modulates brain activity in regions associated with language- and memory-related demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Andreas; Benedek, Mathias; Koschutnig, Karl; Pirker, Eva; Berger, Elisabeth; Meister, Sabrina; Neubauer, Aljoscha C; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2015-10-01

    This functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study was designed to investigate changes in functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation as a result of a computerized, 3-week verbal creativity training. The training was composed of various verbal divergent thinking exercises requiring participants to train approximately 20 min per day. Fifty-three participants were tested three times (psychometric tests and fMRI assessment) with an intertest-interval of 4 weeks each. Participants were randomly assigned to two different training groups, which received the training time-delayed: The first training group was trained between the first and the second test, while the second group accomplished the training between the second and the third test session. At the behavioral level, only one training group showed improvements in different facets of verbal creativity right after the training. Yet, functional patterns of brain activity during creative ideation were strikingly similar across both training groups. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses (along with supplementary region of interest analyses) revealed that the training was associated with activity changes in well-known creativity-related brain regions such as the left inferior parietal cortex and the left middle temporal gyrus, which have been shown as being particularly sensitive to the originality facet of creativity in previous research. Taken together, this study demonstrates that continuous engagement in a specific complex cognitive task like divergent thinking is associated with reliable changes of activity patterns in relevant brain areas, suggesting more effective search, retrieval, and integration from internal memory representations as a result of the training.

  1. Acute and chronic glucocorticoid treatments regulate astrocyte-enriched mRNAs in multiple brain regions in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley S. Carter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have primarily interpreted gene expression regulation by glucocorticoids in the brain in terms of impact on neurons; however, less is known about the corresponding impact of glucocorticoids on glia and specifically astrocytes in vivo. Recent microarray experiments have identified glucocorticoid-sensitive mRNAs in primary astrocyte cell culture, including a number of mRNAs that have reported astrocyte-enriched expression patterns relative to other brain cell types. Here, we have tested whether elevations of glucocorticoids regulate a subset of these mRNAs in vivo following acute and chronic corticosterone exposure in adult mice. Acute corticosterone exposure was achieved by a single injection of 10 mg/kg corticosterone, and tissue samples were harvested two hours post-injection. Chronic corticosterone exposure was achieved by administering 10 mg/mL corticosterone via drinking water for two weeks. Gene expression was then assessed in two brain regions associated with glucocorticoid action (prefrontal cortex and hippocampus by qPCR and by in situ hybridization. The majority of measured mRNAs regulated by glucocorticoids in astrocytes in vitro were similarly regulated by acute and/or chronic glucocorticoid exposure in vivo. In addition, the expression levels for mRNAs regulated in at least one corticosterone exposure condition (acute/chronic demonstrated moderate positive correlation between the two conditions by brain region. In situ hybridization analyses suggest that select mRNAs are regulated by chronic corticosterone exposure specifically in astroctyes based on (1 similar general expression patterns between corticosterone-treated and vehicle-treated animals and (2 similar expression patterns to the pan-astrocyte marker Aldh1l1. Our findings demonstrate that glucocorticoids regulate astrocyte-enriched mRNAs in vivo and suggest that glucocorticoids regulate gene expression in the brain in a cell type-dependent fashion.

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ... mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons ...

  3. Molecular fingerprinting reflects different histotypes and brain region in low grade gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    still point to an active involvement of TGF-beta signaling pathway in the PA development and pick out some hitherto unreported genes worthy of further investigation for the mixed glial-neuronal tumours. The identification of a brain region-specific gene signature suggests that LGGs, with similar pathological features but located at different sites, may be distinguishable on the basis of cancer genetics. Molecular fingerprinting seems to be able to better sub-classify such morphologically heterogeneous tumours and it is remarkable that mixed glial-neuronal tumours are strikingly separated from PAs

  4. Brain metabolites in the hippocampus-amygdala region and cerebellum in autism: an {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, H.; Harada, M.; Hisaoka, S.; Nishitani, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Tokushima, Tokushima City (Japan); Mori, K. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Tokushima (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Histological abnormalities of the brain in autism have been investigated extensively. We studied metabolites in the hippocampusamygdala (HA) region and cerebellum. We examined the right HA region and left cerebellar hemisphere of 27 autistic patients 2-18 years old, 21 boys and 6 girls and 10 normal children 6-14 years old, 4 boys and 6 girls, using the STEAM sequence. This sequence was used to minimise the influence of relaxation times. The N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) concentration was significantly lower (P=0.042) in autistic patients than in normal children (9.37 and 10.95 mM, respectively). There was no significant difference in other metabolites. The correlation coefficient (r value) of NAA between the HA region and cerebellum was 0.616. The decreased NAA concentration may be due to neuronal hypofunction or immature neurons. The NAA concentration in the HA region and cerebellum may be related, because of neuronal circuits or networks. (orig.)

  5. Brain metabolites in the hippocampus-amygdala region and cerebellum in autism: an 1H-MR spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histological abnormalities of the brain in autism have been investigated extensively. We studied metabolites in the hippocampusamygdala (HA) region and cerebellum. We examined the right HA region and left cerebellar hemisphere of 27 autistic patients 2-18 years old, 21 boys and 6 girls and 10 normal children 6-14 years old, 4 boys and 6 girls, using the STEAM sequence. This sequence was used to minimise the influence of relaxation times. The N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) concentration was significantly lower (P=0.042) in autistic patients than in normal children (9.37 and 10.95 mM, respectively). There was no significant difference in other metabolites. The correlation coefficient (r value) of NAA between the HA region and cerebellum was 0.616. The decreased NAA concentration may be due to neuronal hypofunction or immature neurons. The NAA concentration in the HA region and cerebellum may be related, because of neuronal circuits or networks. (orig.)

  6. Exercise increases blood flow to locomotor, vestibular, cardiorespiratory and visual regions of the brain in miniature swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, M. D.; Armstrong, R. B.; Godfrey, D. A.; Laughlin, M. H.; Ross, C. D.; Wilkerson, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    1. The purpose of these experiments was to use radiolabelled microspheres to measure blood flow distribution within the brain, and in particular to areas associated with motor function, maintenance of equilibrium, cardiorespiratory control, vision, hearing and smell, at rest and during exercise in miniature swine. Exercise consisted of steady-state treadmill running at intensities eliciting 70 and 100 % maximal oxygen consumption (V(O(2),max)). 2. Mean arterial pressure was elevated by 17 and 26 % above that at rest during exercise at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. 3. Mean brain blood flow increased 24 and 25 % at 70 and 100 % V(O(2),max), respectively. Blood flow was not locally elevated to cortical regions associated with motor and somatosensory functions during exercise, but was increased to several subcortical areas that are involved in the control of locomotion. 4. Exercise elevated perfusion and diminished vascular resistance in several regions of the brain related to the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclear area, cerebellar ventral vermis and floccular lobe), cardiorespiratory control (medulla and pons), and vision (dorsal occipital cortex, superior colliculi and lateral geniculate body). Conversely, blood flow to regions related to hearing (cochlear nuclei, inferior colliculi and temporal cortex) and smell (olfactory bulbs and rhinencephalon) were unaltered by exercise and associated with increases in vascular resistance. 5. The data indicate that blood flow increases as a function of exercise intensity to several areas of the brain associated with integrating sensory input and motor output (anterior and dorsal cerebellar vermis) and the maintenance of equilibrium (vestibular nuclei). Additionally, there was an intensity-dependent decrease of vascular resistance in the dorsal cerebellar vermis.

  7. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2-25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions.

  8. Comparison study of ferrofluid and powder iron oxide nanoparticle permeability across the blood–brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoff D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dan Hoff,1 Lubna Sheikh,2 Soumya Bhattacharya,2 Suprabha Nayar,2 Thomas J Webster11School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 2Biomaterials Group, Materials Science and Technology Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Burmamines, Jamshedpur, IndiaAbstract: In the present study, the permeability of 11 different iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP samples (eight fluids and three powders was determined using an in vitro blood–brain barrier model. Importantly, the results showed that the ferrofluid formulations were statistically more permeable than the IONP powder formulations at the blood–brain barrier, suggesting a role for the presently studied in situ synthesized ferrofluid formulations using poly(vinyl alcohol, bovine serum albumin, collagen, glutamic acid, graphene, and their combinations as materials which can cross the blood–brain barrier to deliver drugs or have other neurological therapeutic efficacy. Conversely, the results showed the least permeability across the blood–brain barrier for the IONP with collagen formulation, suggesting a role as a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent but limiting IONP passage across the blood–brain barrier. Further analysis of the data yielded several trends of note, with little correlation between permeability and fluid zeta potential, but a larger correlation between permeability and fluid particle size (with the smaller particle sizes having larger permeability. Such results lay the foundation for simple modification of iron oxide nanoparticle formulations to either promote or inhibit passage across the blood–brain barrier, and deserve further investigation for a wide range of applications.Keywords: ferrofluids, iron oxide nanoparticles, permeability, blood–brain barrier

  9. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Honorio Coronado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale

  10. Integrating regional and continental scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Pennington, R. T.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Monteagudo, A.; Mogollón, H.; Dávila Cardozo, N.; Ríos, M.; García-Villacorta, R.; Valderrama, E.; Ahuite, M.; Huamantupa, I.; Neill, D. A.; Laurance, W. F.; Nascimento, H. E. M.; Soares de Almeida, S.; Killeen, T. J.; Arroyo, L.; Núñez, P.; Freitas Alvarado, L.

    2009-01-01

    We contrast regional and continental-scale comparisons of the floristic composition of terra firme forest in South Amazonia, using 55 plots across Amazonia and a subset of 30 plots from northern Peru and Ecuador. Firstly, we examine the floristic patterns using both genus- or species-level data and find that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes different plot clusters. Secondly, we compare the patterns and causes of floristic differences at regional and continental scales. At a continental scale, ordination analysis shows that species of Lecythidaceae and Sapotaceae are gradually replaced by species of Arecaceae and Myristicaceae from eastern to western Amazonia. These floristic gradients are correlated with gradients in soil fertility and to dry season length, similar to previous studies. At a regional scale, similar patterns are found within north-western Amazonia, where differences in soil fertility distinguish plots where species of Lecythidaceae, characteristic of poor soils, are gradually replaced by species of Myristicaceae on richer soils. The main coordinate of this regional-scale ordination correlates mainly with concentrations of available calcium and magnesium. Thirdly, we ask at a regional scale within north-western Amazonia, whether soil fertility or other distance dependent processes are more important for determining variation in floristic composition. A Mantel test indicates that both soils and geographical distance have a similar and significant role in determining floristic similarity across this region. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is dependent on a range of processes that include both habitat specialisation related to edaphic conditions and other distance-dependent processes. To fully account for regional scale variation in continental

  11. Differential responsiveness of the right parahippocampal region to electrical stimulation in fixed human brains: Implications for historical surgical stimulation studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Nicolas; Persinger, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    If structure dictates function within the living human brain, then the persistence of specific responses to weak electric currents in fixed, deceased brains could reflect "hardwired" properties. Different key structures from the left and right hemispheres of brains that had been fixed for over 20years with ethanol-formalin-acetic acid were stimulated with either 1-Hz, 7-Hz, 10-Hz, 20-Hz, or 30-Hz, sine-wave, square-wave, or pulsed currents while needle-recorded quantitative electroencephalographic responses were obtained. Differential responses occurred only within the right hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. The right hippocampus displayed frequency-independent increases in gamma power relative to the left hemispheric homologue. The parahippocampal region responded exclusively to 7-Hz pulsed currents with wideband (8-30Hz) power. These profiles are consistent with dynamic connections associated with memory and consciousness and may partially explain the interactions resultant of pulse type and hemisphere for experiential elicitations during the golden age of surgical stimulations. The results also indicate that there may be an essential "hardwiring" within the human brain that is maintained for decades when it is fixed appropriately. PMID:27208828

  12. [Oxidative phosphorylation in different regions of the rat brain following morphine administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Iu I; Ivkov, N N; Matiushin, A I

    1976-01-01

    The influence exercised by morphine in a dose of 20 mg/kg, introduced intraperitoneally, and also in concentrations of 10(-3) and 10(-5) "in vitro" on the parameters of oxidative phosphorylation of the brain cortex and stem of rats was studied. Morphine, used in a concentration of 10(-3), is shown to speed up the substrates oxidation rate. During the first days of its administration the narcotic analgetic inhibited oxidation of mitochondia released from the brain stem, and, once habituation to the narcotic had developed, the inhibition ceased to be effective. In "in vivo" experiments and in vitro tests the effect of phosphorylation remained unchanged. The data obtained suggest that with developing habituation in regard to morphine the functions of the brain stem and cortex mitochondria do not undergo any substantial changes. PMID:1024831

  13. Comparison of Brain Activation Images Associated with Sexual Arousal Induced by Visual Stimulation and SP6 Acupuncture: fMRI at 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed not only to compare the brain activation regions associated with sexual arousal induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture, but also to evaluate its differential neuro-anatomical mechanism in healthy women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 Tesla (T). A total of 21 healthy right-handed female volunteers (mean age 22 years, range 19 to 32) underwent fMRI on a 3T MR scanner. The stimulation paradigm for sexual arousal consisted of two alternating periods of rest and activation. It began with a 1-minute rest period, 3 minutes of stimulation with either of an erotic video film or SP6 acupuncture, followed by 1-minute rest. In addition, a comparative study on the brain activation patterns between an acupoint and a shampoint nearby GB37 was performed. The fMRI data were obtained from 20 slices parallel to the AC-PC line on an axial plane, giving a total of 2,000 images. The mean activation maps were constructed and analyzed by using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software. As comparison with the shampoint, the acupoint showed 5 times and 2 times higher activities in the neocortex and limbic system, respectively. Note that brain activation in response to stimulation with the shampoint was not observed in the regions including the HTHL in the diencephalon, GLO and AMYG in the basal ganglia, and SMG in the parietal lobe. In the comparative study of visual stimulation vs. SP6 acupuncture, the mean activation ratio of stimulus was not significantly different to each other in both the neocortex and the limbic system (p < 0.05). The mean activities induced by both stimuli were not significantly different in the neocortex, whereas the acupunctural stimulation showed higher activity in the limbic system (p < 0.05). This study compared the differential brain activation patterns and the neural mechanisms for sexual arousal, which were induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture by using 3T fMRI. These findings

  14. Comparison of Brain Activation Images Associated with Sexual Arousal Induced by Visual Stimulation and SP6 Acupuncture: fMRI at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Nam Gil [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jae Bok; Jang, Seong Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This study was performed not only to compare the brain activation regions associated with sexual arousal induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture, but also to evaluate its differential neuro-anatomical mechanism in healthy women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 Tesla (T). A total of 21 healthy right-handed female volunteers (mean age 22 years, range 19 to 32) underwent fMRI on a 3T MR scanner. The stimulation paradigm for sexual arousal consisted of two alternating periods of rest and activation. It began with a 1-minute rest period, 3 minutes of stimulation with either of an erotic video film or SP6 acupuncture, followed by 1-minute rest. In addition, a comparative study on the brain activation patterns between an acupoint and a shampoint nearby GB37 was performed. The fMRI data were obtained from 20 slices parallel to the AC-PC line on an axial plane, giving a total of 2,000 images. The mean activation maps were constructed and analyzed by using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software. As comparison with the shampoint, the acupoint showed 5 times and 2 times higher activities in the neocortex and limbic system, respectively. Note that brain activation in response to stimulation with the shampoint was not observed in the regions including the HTHL in the diencephalon, GLO and AMYG in the basal ganglia, and SMG in the parietal lobe. In the comparative study of visual stimulation vs. SP6 acupuncture, the mean activation ratio of stimulus was not significantly different to each other in both the neocortex and the limbic system (p < 0.05). The mean activities induced by both stimuli were not significantly different in the neocortex, whereas the acupunctural stimulation showed higher activity in the limbic system (p < 0.05). This study compared the differential brain activation patterns and the neural mechanisms for sexual arousal, which were induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture by using 3T fMRI. These findings

  15. The comparison of methods for measuring oxidative stress in zebrafish brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussavi Nik, Seyyed Hani; Croft, Kevin; Mori, Trevor A; Lardelli, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The zebrafish is a versatile model organism with the potential to contribute to our understanding of the molecular pathological mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD). An early characteristic of AD brain pathology is lipid peroxidation resulting from oxidative stress. However, changes in lipid peroxidation have not yet been assessed in zebrafish brains, and an earlier attempt to observe changes in F₂-isoprostane levels in the brains of zebrafish exposed to hypoxia was unsuccessful. In this article, we examine the utility of various assays of lipid peroxidation and more general assays of intracellular oxidative stress to detect the changes in oxidative stress in the brains of adult zebrafish exposed to hypoxia or explanted into a sodium azide solution for chemical mimicry of hypoxia. Levels of F₂-isoprostanes and F₄-neuroprostanes were low and variable in zebrafish brains such that statistically significant changes due to hypoxia or chemical mimicry of hypoxia could not be observed. However, measurement of lipid hydroperoxides did reveal significant changes in lipid peroxidation under these conditions, while analyses of catalase gene expression and an assay based on 2',7'-dicholorofluorescein oxidation also revealed changes in oxidative stress levels.

  16. Analysis of Alzheimer's disease severity across brain regions by topological analysis of gene co-expression networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weixiong

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving variations in the transcriptome of many genes. AD does not affect all brain regions simultaneously. Identifying the differences among the affected regions may shed more light onto the disease progression. We developed a novel method involving the differential topology of gene coexpression networks to understand the association among affected regions and disease severity. Methods We analysed microarray data of four regions - entorhinal cortex (EC, hippocampus (HIP, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and middle temporal gyrus (MTG from AD affected and normal subjects. A coexpression network was built for each region and the topological overlap between them was examined. Genes with zero topological overlap between two region-specific networks were used to characterise the differences between the two regions. Results and conclusion Results indicate that MTG shows early AD pathology compared to the other regions. We postulate that if the MTG gets affected later in the disease, post-mortem analyses of individuals with end-stage AD will show signs of early AD in the MTG, while the EC, HIP and PCC will have severe pathology. Such knowledge is useful for data collection in clinical studies where sample selection is a limiting factor as well as highlighting the underlying biology of disease progression.

  17. Decreased Regional Homogeneity in Patients With Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jie; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Fuqing; Kuang, Hongmei; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Siyong; He, Laichang; Zeng, Xianjun; Gong, Honghan

    2015-10-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is characterized by structural disconnection and large-scale neural network dysfunction in the resting state. However, little is known concerning the intrinsic changes in local spontaneous brain activity in patients with mTBI. The aim of the current study was to assess regional synchronization in acute mTBI patients. Fifteen acute mTBI patients and 15 sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) were studied. We used the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method to map local connectivity across the whole brain and performed a two-sample t-test between the two groups. Compared with HCs, patients with acute mTBI showed significantly decreased ReHo in the left insula, left precentral/postcentral gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus (p Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores across all acute mTBI patients (p < 0.05, uncorrected). The ReHo method may provide an objective biomarker for evaluating the functional abnormity of mTBI in the acute setting. PMID:26348589

  18. Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions: a Granger causality analysis of autobiographic memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Lou

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the workings of the brain are mainly intrinsically generated recurrent neuronal activity, with sensory inputs as modifiers of such activity in both sensory and higher order modality non-specific regions. This is supported by the demonstration of recurrent neuronal activity in the visual system as a response to visual stimulation. In contrast recurrent activity has never been demonstrated before in higher order modality non-specific regions. Using magneto-encephalography and Granger causality analysis, we tested in a paralimbic network the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance causal recurrent interaction between higher-order, modality non-specific regions. The network includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices together with pulvinar thalami, a network known to be effective in autobiographic memory retrieval and self-awareness. Autobiographic memory retrieval of previous personal judgments of visually presented words was used as stimuli. It is demonstrated that the prestimulus condition is characterized by causal, recurrent oscillations which are maximal in the lower gamma range. When retrieving previous judgments of visually presented adjectives, this activity is dramatically increased during the stimulus task as ascertained by Granger causality analysis. Our results confirm the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance causal interaction between higher order, modality non-specific brain regions, exemplified in a network of autobiographical memory retrieval.

  19. Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S., E-mail: kodavanti.prasada@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Royland, Joyce E. [Genetic and Cellular Toxicology Branch, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Richards, Judy E. [Research Core Unit, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Besas, Jonathan; MacPhail, Robert C. [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1 g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at - 80 Degree-Sign C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12 month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure

  20. Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1 g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at − 80 °C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12 month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure resulted in oxidative

  1. MR tomography after head and brain trauma: Comparison with CT, EEG and neurological examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewes, W.; Moskopp, D.; Kurthen, M.; Solymosi, L.; Harder, T.; Kersting, G.

    1989-03-01

    56 patients with head and brain trauma and in coma were studied prospectively by means of MRT, CT, EEG and neurological examination. All patients had initial CT and EEG admission. MRT showed that in our patients morphological return to normal was the exception. Patients with head and brain injuries should be examined by MRT during the course of their illness. The use of special sequences, such as gradient-echo sequences for the diagnosis of haemorrhagic contusions, is indicated. CT should be retained for evaluating bone injury and cerebral damage during the acute stage.

  2. MR tomography after head and brain trauma: Comparison with CT, EEG and neurological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    56 patients with head and brain trauma and in coma were studied prospectively by means of MRT, CT, EEG and neurological examination. All patients had initial CT and EEG admission. MRT showed that in our patients morphological return to normal was the exception. Patients with head and brain injuries should be examined by MRT during the course of their illness. The use of special sequences, such as gradient-echo sequences for the diagnosis of haemorrhagic contusions, is indicated. CT should be retained for evaluating bone injury and cerebral damage during the acute stage. (orig.)

  3. Induction of brain region-specific forms of obesity by Agouti

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, M.J.H.; Tiesjema, B; van Dijk, G; Garner, KM; Barsh, GS; Ter Brake, O; Verhaagen, J; Adan, RAH

    2004-01-01

    Disruption of melanocortin ( MC) signaling, such as by ectopic Agouti overexpression, leads to an obesity syndrome with hyperphagia, obesity, and accelerated body weight gain during high-fat diet. To investigate where in the brain disruption of MC signaling results in obesity, long-term Agouti expre

  4. Induction of brain-region-specific forms of obesity by agouti

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Martien J H; Tiesjema, Birgitte; van Dijk, Gertjan; Garner, Keith M; Barsh, Gregory S; ter Brake, Olivier; Verhaagen, Joost; Adan, Roger A H

    2004-01-01

    Disruption of melanocortin (MC) signaling, such as by ectopic Agouti overexpression, leads to an obesity syndrome with hyperphagia, obesity, and accelerated body weight gain during high-fat diet. To investigate where in the brain disruption of MC signaling results in obesity, long-term Agouti expres

  5. Radiotherapy of primary brain tumours in the region of the third ventricle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, M A; Struikmans, H

    1990-01-01

    Patients (n = 18) with a primary brain tumour near the third ventricle and treated by radiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. Four different subgroups of patients, according to the histology (germ cell tumours, astrocytomas, other histologies, no histology) were separately discussed. Third ventr

  6. Regional localization of halopemide, a new psychotropic agent, in the rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, A.J.M.; Van Wijngaarden, I.; Janssen, P.A.J.; Soudijn, W.

    1978-01-01

    Halopemide is a new psychotropic agent, structurally related to the neuroleptics of the butyrophenone type, but with a different pharmacological and clinical profile. The concentration of halopemide in the rat brain is about 10 times less than that of R 29800, its chemical congener and of spiperone,

  7. Brain region's relative proximity as marker for Alzheimer's disease based on structural MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, incurable neurodegenerative disease and the most common type of dementia. It cannot be prevented, cured or drastically slowed, even though AD research has increased in the past 5-10 years. Instead of focusing on the brain volume or on the single...

  8. Potential brain language reorganization in a boy with refractory epilepsy; an fNIRS–EEG and fMRI comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phetsamone Vannasing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of a presurgical investigation for a resection of a tumor located in the left temporal brain region, we evaluated pre- and postsurgical language lateralization in a right-handed boy with refractory epilepsy. In this study, we compared functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS results obtained while the participant performed expressive and receptive language tasks with those obtained using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. This case study illustrates the potential for NIRS to contribute favorably to the localization of language functions in children with epilepsy and cognitive or behavioral problems and its potential advantages over fMRI in presurgical assessment. Moreover, it suggests that fNIRS is sensitive in localizing an atypical language network or potential brain reorganization related to epilepsy in young patients.

  9. Simultaneous quantification of monoamine neurotransmitters and their biogenic metabolites intracellularly and extracellularly in primary neuronal cell cultures and in sub-regions of guinea pig brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie Voigt; Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille;

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, we describe a validated chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantification of monoamine neurotransmitters and their biogenic metabolites intracellularly and extracellularly in primary neuronal cell culture and in sub-regions of the guinea pig brain. Electrochemical...

  10. The timing and strength of regional brain activation associated with word recognition in children with reading difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh eRezaie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the relative degree and timing of cortical activation across parietal, temporal, and frontal regions during performance of a continuous visual word recognition task in children who experience reading difficulties (N=44, RD and typical readers (N=40, NI. Minimum norm estimates of regional neurophysiological activity were obtained from magnetoencephalographic recordings. Children with RD showed bilaterally reduced neurophysiological activity in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and increased activity in rostral middle frontal and ventral occipitotemporal cortices, bilaterally. The temporal profile of activity in the RD group, featured near-simultaneous activity peaks in temporal, inferior parietal and prefrontal regions, in contrast to a clear temporal progression of activity among these areas in the NI group. These results replicate and extend previous MEG and fMRI results demonstrating atypical, latency-dependent attributes of the brain circuit involved in word reading in children with reading difficulties.

  11. Volumetric comparisons of brain structures in bats (an attempt at a phylogenetic interpretation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephan, Heinz; Pirlot, Paul

    1970-01-01

    Bats show, in spite of the unity which they derive from the unique possession of flight-ability, remarkable differences in their encephalization (Pirlot & Stephan, 1970). These differences were found to be more closely related to feeding habits than to systematic relationships. The brains of the ins

  12. Comparison of Brain Activation in Response to Two Dimensional and Three Dimensional On-Line Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woo Hyun; Shim, Hyung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective The present study assessed the difference in the brain activity of professional gamers (excessive players, but not addicts) in response to playing a 3-dimensional online game with an improved interface. Methods Twenty-three StarCraft I pro gamers and 16 StarCraft II pro gamers were recruited at Chung Ang University Medical Center. Brain activity in response to StarCraft I or II cues was assessed with a 1.5 Tesla Espree MRI scanner. Results StarCraft I pro gamers showed significantly greater activity in 4 clusters in response to the video game cues compared to StarCraft II pro gamers: right superior frontal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right occipital lobe, and left medial frontal gyrus. StarCraft II pro gamers showed significantly greater activity in 3 clusters in response to the video game cues compared to StarCraft I pro gamers: left middle frontal gyrus, left temporal fusiform gyrus and left cerebellum. Discussion This is the first study to show the difference in brain activity between gamers playing either a 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional online game. Current brain imaging studies may confirm the pro gamers' experience when playing StarCraft II, a 3-dimensional game with an improved interface, relative to playing StarCraft I. PMID:23798958

  13. Comparison of two different procedures for quantification of drugs of abuse in postmortem brain samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, Birgit; Stimpfl, Thomas; Holm, Karen Marie Dollerup;

    The aim of this study was to compare a routine method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of body-fluids and tissue samples developed in Vienna to a routine method developed for blood used in Copenhagen. No optimization was performed beforehand on the Copenhagen method to accommodate for the...... for the use of brain tissue....

  14. Comparison of Brain Activity during Drawing and Clay Sculpting: A Preliminary qEEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Kerry A.; Aravich, Paul F.; Deaver, Sarah P.; deBeus, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary experimental study examined brain wave frequency patterns of female participants (N = 14) engaged in two different art making conditions: clay sculpting and drawing. After controlling for nonspecific effects of movement, quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) recordings were made of the bilateral medial frontal cortex and…

  15. Comparison of in vitro cell models in predicting in vivo brain entry of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Jenni J; Jalkanen, Aaro J; Kääriäinen, Tiina M; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Venäläinen, Tetta; Hokkanen, Juho; Mönkkönen, Jukka; Suhonen, Marjukka; Forsberg, Markus M

    2010-12-15

    Although several in vitro models have been reported to predict the ability of drug candidates to cross the blood-brain barrier, their real in vivo relevance has rarely been evaluated. The present study demonstrates the in vivo relevance of simple unidirectional permeability coefficient (P(app)) determined in three in vitro cell models (BBMEC, Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1) for nine model drugs (alprenolol, atenolol, metoprolol, pindolol, entacapone, tolcapone, baclofen, midazolam and ondansetron) by using dual probe microdialysis in the rat brain and blood as an in vivo measure. There was a clear correlation between the P(app) and the unbound brain/blood ratios determined by in vivo microdialysis (BBMEC r=0.99, Caco-2 r=0.91 and MDCKII-MDR1 r=0.85). Despite of the substantial differences in the absolute in vitro P(app) values and regardless of the method used (side-by-side vs. filter insert system), the capability of the in vitro models to rank order drugs was similar. By this approach, thus, the additional value offered by the true endothelial cell model (BBMEC) remains obscure. The present results also highlight the need of both in vitro as well as in vivo methods in characterization of blood-brain barrier passage of new drug candidates.

  16. High luminosity IRAS galaxies - II. Optical spectroscopy, modelling of starburst regions and comparison with structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have obtained moderate-resolution spectrophotometry, and here present various emission-line ratios and emission-line luminosities, for a complete sample of (predominantly high-luminosity) IRAS galaxies. Line ratio diagnostic diagrams show most to exhibit H II region-like spectra, although about 12 per cent are Seyferts or LINERs. The fraction of active galaxies does not appear to be a function of IR luminosity. The typical extinction, as derived from Hα/Hβ, is Av∼1. Comparison of the (0 III)/Hβ line ratios of IRAS galaxies with those of an optically selected sample of H II region-like galaxies shows the IRAS galaxies to be of lower ionization, which may be due to either higher metallicities or their high dust content. The IRAS galaxies show a range of optical colours, with the majority having colours similar to Sc galaxies. (author)

  17. Association between the Levels of Biogenic Amines and Superoxide Anion Production in Brain Regions of Rats after Subchronic Exposure to TCDD

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, James P.; Masters, Karilane; Sarver, Jeffrey G.; Hassoun, Ezdihar A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of TCDD on the distribution of biogenic amines and production of superoxide anion (SA) in different brain regions of rats have been studied after subchronic exposure. Groups of females Sprague-Dawley rats were administered daily dose of 46 ng TCDD/kg/day (treated groups), or the vehicle used to dissolve TCDD (control group), for 90 days. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the exposure period and their brains were dissected into different regions including, hippocampus (H), cer...

  18. Region-selective effects of long-term lithium and carbamazepine administration on cyclic AMP levels in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of lithium and carbamazepine in the treatment of bipolar affective disorder is well established. Althougt a number of biochemical effects have been found, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying their therapeutic actions have not been elucidated nor are the target regions in the brain identified. Taken into account the important role of the cyclic AMP second messenger system in the regulation of neuronal exitability and the indications of its involvement in the pathophysiology of bipolar affective disorder, we have focused on the drug effects on cyclic AMP levels. The objectives of this investigation were to measure the effects on basal cyclic AMP levels, and to locate target regions within the rat brain after long-term administration of lithium and carbamazepine. Drug treatments were carried out for a period of 28 days. After either drug treatment the cyclic AMP level was increased 3-4 times in frontal cortex but unchanged in hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus, amygdala and in cerebellum. In neostratum the cyclic AMP level was decreased to about 30% after treatment with lithium. We suggest the common region-selective effect, observed for both drugs in frontal cortex, to be essential for the therapeutic actions of lithium and carbamazepine. (au)

  19. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  20. Deep brain stimulation of nucleus accumbens region in alcoholism affects reward processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Heldmann

    Full Text Available The influence of bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS of the nucleus nucleus (NAcc on the processing of reward in a gambling paradigm was investigated using H(2[(15O]-PET (positron emission tomography in a 38-year-old man treated for severe alcohol addiction. Behavioral data analysis revealed a less risky, more careful choice behavior under active DBS compared to DBS switched off. PET showed win- and loss-related activations in the paracingulate cortex, temporal poles, precuneus and hippocampus under active DBS, brain areas that have been implicated in action monitoring and behavioral control. Except for the temporal pole these activations were not seen when DBS was deactivated. These findings suggest that DBS of the NAcc may act partially by improving behavioral control.

  1. Sonographic evaluation of overall and regional vascularization of fetal brain: a preliminary methodological study.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Oberto; P. Gaglioti; G. Oggè; E. Olearo; Pace, C.; T. Trodos; G.L. Panattoni

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the vascularization of fetal brain in normal and abnormal canditions by three-dimensional sonography associated to Power Doppler (3DPD), with application of Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL) that allows to derive vascularization and flow indexes. In this connction, we propose a new method of standardization of the setting and the acquisition mode, choosing in different fetuses and at different gestational ag...

  2. A common gene expression signature in Huntington’s disease patient brain regions

    OpenAIRE

    Neueder, Andreas; Bates, Gillian P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene expression data provide invaluable insights into disease mechanisms. In Huntington’s disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease caused by a tri-nucleotide repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene, extensive transcriptional dysregulation has been reported. Conventional dysregulation analysis has shown that e.g. in the caudate nucleus of the post mortem HD brain the gene expression level of about a third of all genes was altered. Owing to this large number of dysregulated genes, t...

  3. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Changes of Glucose Metabolic Disorder, Learning, and Memory Dysfunction in Early Alzheimer’s Disease Assessed in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Using 18F-FDG-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1 transgenic (Tg mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using 18F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr. Morris water maze (MWM was used to evaluate learning and memory dysfunction. We showed a glucose utilization increase in multiple brain regions of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but not at 5 and 8 months. Comparisons of SUVrs within brains showed higher glucose utilization than controls in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but in the thalamus and striatum at 3.5, 5 and 8 months. By comparing SUVrs in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, Tg mice were distinguished from controls at 2 and 3.5 months. In MWM, Tg mice aged 2 months shared a similar performance to the controls (prodromal-AD. By contrast, Tg mice failed training tests at 3.5 months but failed all MWM tests at 5 and 8 months, suggestive of partial or complete cognitive deficits (symptomatic-AD. Correlation analyses showed that hippocampal SUVrs were significantly correlated with MWM parameters in the symptomatic-AD stage. These data suggest that glucose metabolic disorder occurs before onset of AD signs in APP/PS1 mice with the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus affected first, and that regional FDG uptake increase can be an early biomarker for AD. Furthermore, hippocampal FDG uptake is a possible indicator for progression of Alzheimer’s cognition after cognitive decline, at least in animals.

  4. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Changes of Glucose Metabolic Disorder, Learning, and Memory Dysfunction in Early Alzheimer’s Disease Assessed in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Using 18F-FDG-PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Yuan; Men, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Hua; Lei, Jian-Feng; Zuo, Fu-Xing; Wang, Zhan-Jing; Zhu, Zhao-Hui; Bao, Xin-Jie; Wang, Ren-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using 18F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr). Morris water maze (MWM) was used to evaluate learning and memory dysfunction. We showed a glucose utilization increase in multiple brain regions of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but not at 5 and 8 months. Comparisons of SUVrs within brains showed higher glucose utilization than controls in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but in the thalamus and striatum at 3.5, 5 and 8 months. By comparing SUVrs in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, Tg mice were distinguished from controls at 2 and 3.5 months. In MWM, Tg mice aged 2 months shared a similar performance to the controls (prodromal-AD). By contrast, Tg mice failed training tests at 3.5 months but failed all MWM tests at 5 and 8 months, suggestive of partial or complete cognitive deficits (symptomatic-AD). Correlation analyses showed that hippocampal SUVrs were significantly correlated with MWM parameters in the symptomatic-AD stage. These data suggest that glucose metabolic disorder occurs before onset of AD signs in APP/PS1 mice with the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus affected first, and that regional FDG uptake increase can be an early biomarker for AD. Furthermore, hippocampal FDG uptake is a possible indicator for progression of Alzheimer’s cognition after cognitive decline, at least in animals. PMID:27763550

  5. Altered intrinsic regional spontaneous brain activity in patients with optic neuritis: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Shao Y; Cai FQ; Zhong YL; Huang X; Zhang Y; Hu PH; Pei CG; Zhou FQ; Zeng XJ

    2015-01-01

    Yi Shao,1,* Feng-Qin Cai,2,* Yu-Lin Zhong,1 Xin Huang,1,3 Ying Zhang,1 Pei-Hong Hu,1 Chong-Gang Pei,1 Fu-Qing Zhou,2 Xian-Jun Zeng2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 3Department of Ophthalmology, First People’s Hospital of Jiujiang, Jiujiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To investigate the underlying regional homogeneity (ReHo) in brain...

  6. Comparison of blood-brain barrier disruption by intracarotid iopamidol and methylglucamine iothalamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, M R; Wilcox, J; Evill, C A; Benness, G T

    1983-01-01

    Using a canine model, the effect of intracarotid injections of the ionic contrast medium methylglucamine iothalamate was compared with that of the nonionic contrast medium iopamidol of similar iodine concentration (280 mg 1/ml). The degree and distribution of blood-brain barrier disruption was assessed using Evans blue stain as a visual marker and by contrast enhancement measured by a computed tomographic (CT) scanner. In all studies with methylglucamine iothalamate, Evans blue staining was demonstrated, and CT enhancement demonstrated a significant mean difference (p less than 0.01) between the control and injected hemispheres. The absence of blood-brain barrier disruption with iopamidol is probably related to its lower osmolality (570 mosmol/kg) compared with methylglucamine iothalamate (1,424 mosmol/kg) and the absence of any cation.

  7. A Comparison of Two Human Brain Tumor Segmentation Methods for MRI Data

    CERN Document Server

    Egger, Jan; Bauer, Miriam H A; Kuhnt, Daniela; Carl, Barbara; Freisleben, Bernd; Kolb, Andreas; Nimsky, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The most common primary brain tumors are gliomas, evolving from the cerebral supportive cells. For clinical follow-up, the evaluation of the preoperative tumor volume is essential. Volumetric assessment of tumor volume with manual segmentation of its outlines is a time-consuming process that can be overcome with the help of computerized segmentation methods. In this contribution, two methods for World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV glioma segmentation in the human brain are compared using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patient data from the clinical routine. One method uses balloon inflation forces, and relies on detection of high intensity tumor boundaries that are coupled with the use of contrast agent gadolinium. The other method sets up a directed and weighted graph and performs a min-cut for optimal segmentation results. The ground truth of the tumor boundaries - for evaluating the methods on 27 cases - is manually extracted by neurosurgeons with several years of experience in the resection of glio...

  8. A cross-laboratory comparison of expression profiling data from normal human postmortem brain

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, Meeta; Pavlidis, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Expression profiling of post-mortem human brain tissue has been widely used to study molecular changes associated with neuropsychiatric diseases as well as normal processes such as aging. Changes in expression associated with factors such as age, gender or postmortem interval are often more pronounced than changes associated with disease. Therefore in addition to being of interest in their own right, careful consideration of these effects are important in the interpretation of disease studies...

  9. Frontal lobe syndrome reassessed: comparison of patients with lateral or medial frontal brain damage

    OpenAIRE

    Paradiso, S; Chemerinski, E; Yazici, K.; Tartaro, A.; Robinson, R

    1999-01-01

    Examination of mood and behaviour changes after frontal damage may contribute to understanding the functional role of distinct prefrontal areas in depression and anxiety. Depression and anxiety disorders, symptoms, and behaviour were compared in eight patients with single lateral and eight patients with single medial frontal lesions matched for age, sex, race, education, socioeconomic status, side, and aetiology of lesion 2 weeks and 3 months after brain injury. DSM IV major de...

  10. Acute Psychosis Associated with Subcortical Stroke: Comparison between Basal Ganglia and Mid-Brain Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron McMurtray; Ben Tseng; Natalie Diaz; Julia Chung; Bijal Mehta; Erin Saito

    2014-01-01

    Acute onset of psychosis in an older or elderly individual without history of previous psychiatric disorders should prompt a thorough workup for neurologic causes of psychiatric symptoms. This report compares and contrasts clinical features of new onset of psychotic symptoms between two patients, one with an acute basal ganglia hemorrhagic stroke and another with an acute mid-brain ischemic stroke. Delusions and hallucinations due to basal ganglia lesions are theorized to develop as a result ...

  11. TMS-EEG: A window into the neurophysiological effects of transcranial electrical stimulation in non-motor brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Aron T; Rogasch, Nigel C; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Hoy, Kate E

    2016-05-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques are able to induce changes in cortical excitability and plasticity through the administration of weak currents to the brain and are currently being used to manipulate a vast array of cognitive processes. Despite the widespread use of tES technologies within both research and remedial settings, their precise neurophysiological mechanisms of action are not well established outside of the motor cortex. The expanding use of tES within non-motor brain regions highlights the growing need for a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of stimulation across a diversity of cortical locations. The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) provides a method of directly probing both local and widespread changes in brain neurophysiology, through the recording of TMS-evoked potentials and cortical oscillations. In this review we explore TMS-EEG as a tool for examining the impact of tES on cortical function and argue that multimodal approaches which combine tES with TMS-EEG could lead to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms which underlie tES-induced cognitive modulation.

  12. Brain immune cell composition and functional outcome after cerebral ischemia: Comparison of two mouse strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ah eKim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cells may contribute to secondary brain injury following cerebral ischemia. The C57Bl/6 mouse strain is known to exhibit a T helper 1-prone, pro-inflammatory type response to injury, whereas the FVB strain is relatively T helper 2-prone, or anti-inflammatory, in its immune response. We tested whether stroke outcome is more severe in C57Bl/6 than FVB mice. Male mice of each strain underwent sham surgery or 1 h occlusion of the middle cerebral artery followed by 23 h of reperfusion. Despite no difference in infarct size, C57Bl/6 mice displayed markedly greater functional deficits than FVB mice after stroke, as assessed by neurological scoring and hanging wire test. Total numbers of CD45+ leukocytes tended to be larger in the brains of C57Bl/6 than FVB mice after stroke, but there were marked differences in leukocyte composition between the two mouse strains. The inflammatory response in C57Bl/6 mice primarily involved T and B lymphocytes, whereas neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages were more prominent in FVB mice. Our data are consistent with the concept that functional outcome after stroke is dependent on the immune cell composition which develops following ischemic brain injury.

  13. Comparison of Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT between patients with delayed development and cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In previous study, thalamic or cerebellar hypoperfusion were reported in patients with cerebral palsy. This study was performed to evaluate cerebral perfusion abnormalities using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in patients with delayed motor development. Methods: Nineteen patients (9 boys, 10 girls, mean age 25.5 months) with delayed development underwent brain SPECT after injection of 185∼370 MBq of Tc-99m ECD. The imaging was obtained between 30 minutes and 1hr after injection. The patients were divided clinically as follows, patients with delayed development (n=5) and patients with cerebral palsy (n=14) who has delayed development and abnormal movement. The clinical subtypes of cerebral palsy were spastic quadriplegia (n=5), spastic diplegia (n=6) and spastic hemiplegia (n=3). In each group, decrease of cerebral perfusion was evaluated visually as mild, moderate and severe and quantitation of cerebral perfusion after Lassen's correction was also obtained. Results: SPECT findings showed normal or mildly decreased thalamic perfusion in patients with delayed development and severe decrease of thalamic or cerebellar perfusion in patients with spastic quadriplegia. In patients with spastic diplegia, mild decrease of perfusion was observed in thalamus. In quantified data, thalamic perfusion was lowest in patients with spastic quadriplegia and highest in patients with delayed development, but there were no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Brain SPECT with Tc-99m ECD has a role in the detection of perfusion abnormalities in patients with delayed development and cerebral palsy

  14. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow in various types of brain tumor. Effect of the space-occupying lesion on blood flow in brain tissue close to and remote from tumor site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, K; Skyhøj Olsen, T; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 23 patients with brain tumors using the 133Xe intra-carotid injection method and a 254 channel gamma camera. The glioblastomas (4) and astrocytomas (4) all showed hyperemia in the tumor and tumor-near region. This was also seen in several...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Target Volume Delineation in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning for Brain Tumors Using Localized Region-Based Active Contour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical application of a robust semiautomatic image segmentation method to determine the brain target volumes in radiation therapy treatment planning. Methods and Materials: A local robust region-based algorithm was used on MRI brain images to study the clinical target volume (CTV) of several patients. First, 3 oncologists delineated CTVs of 10 patients manually, and the process time for each patient was calculated. The averages of the oncologists’ contours were evaluated and considered as reference contours. Then, to determine the CTV through the semiautomatic method, a fourth oncologist who was blind to all manual contours selected 4-8 points around the edema and defined the initial contour. The time to obtain the final contour was calculated again for each patient. Manual and semiautomatic segmentation were compared using 3 different metric criteria: Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance. A comparison also was performed between volumes obtained from semiautomatic and manual methods. Results: Manual delineation processing time of tumors for each patient was dependent on its size and complexity and had a mean (±SD) of 12.33 ± 2.47 minutes, whereas it was 3.254 ± 1.7507 minutes for the semiautomatic method. Means of Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance between manual contours were 0.84 ± 0.02, 2.05 ± 0.66 cm, and 0.78 ± 0.15 cm, and they were 0.82 ± 0.03, 1.91 ± 0.65 cm, and 0.7 ± 0.22 cm between manual and semiautomatic contours, respectively. Moreover, the mean volume ratio (=semiautomatic/manual) calculated for all samples was 0.87. Conclusions: Given the deformability of this method, the results showed reasonable accuracy and similarity to the results of manual contouring by the oncologists. This study shows that the localized region-based algorithms can have great ability in determining the CTV and can be appropriate alternatives for manual approaches in brain cancer

  17. Regional variation in brain white matter diffusion index changes following chemoradiotherapy: a prospective study using tract-based spatial statistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H Chapman

    Full Text Available There is little known about how brain white matter structures differ in their response to radiation, which may have implications for radiation-induced neurocognitive impairment. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine regional variation in white matter changes following chemoradiotherapy.Fourteen patients receiving two or three weeks of whole-brain radiation therapy (RT ± chemotherapy underwent DTI pre-RT, at end-RT, and one month post-RT. Three diffusion indices were measured: fractional anisotropy (FA, radial diffusivity (RD, and axial diffusivity (AD. We determined significant individual voxel changes of diffusion indices using tract-based spatial statistics, and mean changes of the indices within fourteen white matter structures of interest.Voxels of significant FA decreases and RD increases were seen in all structures (p<0.05, with the largest changes (20-50% in the fornix, cingula, and corpus callosum. There were highly significant between-structure differences in pre-RT to end-RT mean FA changes (p<0.001. The inferior cingula had a mean FA decrease from pre-RT to end-RT significantly greater than 11 of the 13 other structures (p<0.00385.Brain white matter structures varied greatly in their response to chemoradiotherapy as measured by DTI changes. Changes in FA and RD related to white matter demyelination were prominent in the cingula and fornix, structures relevant to radiation-induced neurocognitive impairment. Future research should evaluate DTI as a predictive biomarker of brain chemoradiotherapy adverse effects.

  18. B7-H1 shapes T-cell–mediated brain endothelial cell dysfunction and regional encephalitogenicity in spontaneous CNS autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Luisa; Kuzmanov, Ivan; Hucke, Stephanie; Gross, Catharina C.; Posevitz, Vilmos; Dreykluft, Angela; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Andreas; Janoschka, Claudia; Lindner, Maren; Herold, Martin; Schwab, Nicholas; Ludwig-Portugall, Isis; Kurts, Christian; Meuth, Sven G.; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Wiendl, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms that determine lesion localization or phenotype variation in multiple sclerosis are mostly unidentified. Although transmigration of activated encephalitogenic T cells across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a crucial step in the disease pathogenesis of CNS autoimmunity, the consequences on brain endothelial barrier integrity upon interaction with such T cells and subsequent lesion formation and distribution are largely unknown. We made use of a transgenic spontaneous mouse model of CNS autoimmunity characterized by inflammatory demyelinating lesions confined to optic nerves and spinal cord (OSE mice). Genetic ablation of a single immune-regulatory molecule in this model [i.e., B7-homolog 1 (B7-H1, PD-L1)] not only significantly increased incidence of spontaneous CNS autoimmunity and aggravated disease course, especially in the later stages of disease, but also importantly resulted in encephalitogenic T-cell infiltration and lesion formation in normally unaffected brain regions, such as the cerebrum and cerebellum. Interestingly, B7-H1 ablation on myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific CD4+ T cells, but not on antigen-presenting cells, amplified T-cell effector functions, such as IFN-γ and granzyme B production. Therefore, these T cells were rendered more capable of eliciting cell contact-dependent brain endothelial cell dysfunction and increased barrier permeability in an in vitro model of the BBB. Our findings suggest that a single immune-regulatory molecule on T cells can be ultimately responsible for localized BBB breakdown, and thus substantial changes in lesion topography in the context of CNS autoimmunity. PMID:27671636

  19. Waxholm Space atlas of the rat brain hippocampal region: three-dimensional delineations based on magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjonigsen, Lisa J; Lillehaug, Sveinung; Bjaalie, Jan G; Witter, Menno P; Leergaard, Trygve B

    2015-03-01

    Atlases of the rat brain are widely used as reference for orientation, planning of experiments, and as tools for assigning location to experimental data. Improved quality and use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other tomographical imaging techniques in rats have allowed the development of new three-dimensional (3-D) volumetric brain atlas templates. The rat hippocampal region is a commonly used model for basic research on memory and learning, and for preclinical investigations of brain disease. The region features a complex anatomical organization with multiple subdivisions that can be identified on the basis of specific cytoarchitectonic or chemoarchitectonic criteria. We here investigate the extent to which it is possible to identify boundaries of divisions of the hippocampal region on the basis of high-resolution MRI contrast. We present the boundaries of 13 divisions, identified and delineated based on multiple types of image contrast observed in the recently published Waxholm Space MRI/DTI template for the Sprague Dawley rat brain (Papp et al., Neuroimage 97:374-386, 2014). The new detailed delineations of the hippocampal formation and parahippocampal region (Waxholm Space atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat brain, v2.0) are shared via the INCF Software Center (http://software.incf.org/), where also the MRI/DTI reference template is available. The present update of the Waxholm Space atlas of the rat brain is intended to facilitate interpretation, analysis, and integration of experimental data from this anatomically complex region.

  20. Cocaine alters dendritic spine density in cortical and subcortical brain regions of the postpartum and virgin female rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankfurt, Maya; Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris; Friedman, Eitan; Luine, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Cocaine use during pregnancy induces profound neural and behavioral deficits in both mother and offspring. The present study was designed to compare the effects of cocaine exposure on spine density of postpartum and virgin female rat brains. Timed, pregnant, primiparous rats were injected with either cocaine (30 mg/kg) or saline, once daily, from gestational day 8–20. Twenty four hours after giving birth, dam brains were processed for Golgi-impregnation. Since cocaine effects in female rats have not been determined, virgin females were also injected with the same dose of cocaine or saline for 12 days and sacrificed 24h after the last injection for comparison. Pregnant rats had significantly greater spine density in the medial amygdala (MeA) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) and lower spine density in CA1 than virgin females independent of cocaine treatment. Cocaine significantly increased dendritic spine density on the apical branch of pyramidal cells in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, 15%), both apical (13%) and basal (14.8%) branches of CA1 and cells in the MeA (28%) of pregnant rats. In the MPOA, cocaine administration resulted in a decrease in dendritic spine density (14%) in pregnant rats. In virgin females, cocaine had fewer effects but did increase dendritic spine density on both branches of CA1 neurons and in the MeA. The present study is the first to demonstrate that spine density differs between pregnant and virgin females and that pregnancy makes the brain more vulnerable to cocaine, which has important clinical implications. PMID:21480383

  1. Image-Guided Focused Ultrasound-Mediated Regional Brain Stimulation in Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhye; Lee, Stephanie D; Park, Michael Y; Foley, Lori; Purcell-Estabrook, Erin; Kim, Hyungmin; Fischer, Krisztina; Maeng, Lee-So; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2016-02-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation using focused ultrasound has largely been carried out in small animals. In the present study, we applied stimulatory focused ultrasound transcranially to the primary sensorimotor (SM1) and visual (V1) brain areas in sheep (Dorset, all female, n = 8), under the guidance of magnetic resonance imaging, and examined the electrophysiologic responses. By use of a 250-kHz focused ultrasound transducer, the area was sonicated in pulsed mode (tone-burst duration of 1 ms, duty cycle of 50%) for 300 ms. The acoustic intensity at the focal target was varied up to a spatial peak pulse-average intensity (Isppa) of 14.3 W/cm(2). Sonication of SM1 elicited electromyographic responses from the contralateral hind leg, whereas stimulation of V1 generated electroencephalographic potentials. These responses were detected only above a certain acoustic intensity, and the threshold intensity, as well as the degree of responses, varied among sheep. Post-sonication animal behavior was normal, but minor microhemorrhages were observed from the V1 areas exposed to highly repetitive sonication (every second for ≥500 times for electroencephalographic measurements, Isppa = 6.6-10.5 W/cm(2), mechanical index = 0.9-1.2). Our results suggest the potential translational utility of focused ultrasound as a new brain stimulation modality, yet also call for caution in the use of an excessive number of sonications. PMID:26525652

  2. Regional brain stem atrophy in idiopathic Parkinson's disease detected by anatomical MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jubault

    Full Text Available Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the dysfunction of dopaminergic dependent cortico-basal ganglia loops and diagnosed on the basis of motor symptoms (tremors and/or rigidity and bradykinesia. Post-mortem studies tend to show that the destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra constitutes an intermediate step in a broader neurodegenerative process rather than a unique feature of Parkinson's disease, as a consistent pattern of progression would exist, originating from the medulla oblongata/pontine tegmentum. To date, neuroimaging techniques have been unable to characterize the pre-symptomatic stages of PD. However, if such a regular neurodegenerative pattern were to exist, consistent damages would be found in the brain stem, even at early stages of the disease. We recruited 23 PD patients at Hoenn and Yahr stages I to II of the disease and 18 healthy controls (HC matched for age. T1-weighted anatomical scans were acquired (MPRAGE, 1 mm3 resolution and analyzed using an optimized VBM protocol to detect white and grey matter volume reduction without spatial a priori. When the HC group was compared to the PD group, a single cluster exhibited statistical difference (p<0.05 corrected for false detection rate, 4287 mm3 in the brain stem, between the pons and the medulla oblongata. The present study provides in-vivo evidence that brain stem damage may be the first identifiable stage of PD neuropathology, and that the identification of this consistent damage along with other factors could help with earlier diagnosis in the future. This damage could also explain some non-motor symptoms in PD that often precede diagnosis, such as autonomic dysfunction and sleep disorders.

  3. Netrin-5 is highly expressed in neurogenic regions of the adult brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru eYamagishi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian netrin family proteins are involved in targeting of axons, neuronal migration, and angiogenesis and act as repulsive and attractive guidance molecules. Netrin-5 is a new member of the netrin family with homology to the C345C domain of netrin-1. Unlike other netrin proteins, murine netrin-5 consists of two EGF motifs of the laminin V domain (LE and the C345C domain, but lacks the N-terminal laminin VI domain and one of the three LE motifs. We generated a specific antibody against netrin-5 to investigate its expression pattern in the rodent adult brain. Strong netrin-5 expression was observed in the olfactory bulb, rostral migrate stream (RMS, the subventricular zone (SVZ, and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, where neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain. In the SVZ and RMS, netrin-5 expression was observed in Mash1-positive transit-amplifying cells and in Doublecortin (DCX-positive neuroblasts, but not in GFAP-positive astrocytes. In the olfactory bulb, netrin-5 expression was maintained in neuroblasts, but its level was decreased in NeuN-positive mature neurons. In the hippocampal SGZ, netrin-5 was observed in Mash1-positive cells and in DCX-positive neuroblasts, but not in GFAP-positive astrocytes, suggesting that netrin-5 expression occurs from type 2a to type 3 cells. These data suggest that netrin-5 is produced by both transit-amplifying cells and neuroblasts to control neurogenesis in the adult brain.

  4. Effects of different endocrine disruptor (EDC) mixtures on gene expression in neonatal rat brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver;

    2013-01-01

    EDC mixtures on gene expression in developing brain. Amix (8 anti-androgenic chemicals), Emix (4 estrogenic chemicals) and Tmix (Amix + Emix + paracetamol recently identified as anti-androgenic) were administered by oral gavage to rat dams from gestational day 7 until weaning, at doses corresponding...... of individual mRNAs demonstrated treatment- and sex-dependent differences between MPO and VMH. Effects were dose-dependent. Prominent are effects on the expression of genes involved in excitatory glutamatergic synapse formation and function. These data indicate that effects of complex EDC mixtures on developing...

  5. A comparative antibody analysis of Pannexin1 expression in four rat brain regions reveals varying subcellular localizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela C Cone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pannexin1 (Panx1 channels release cytosolic ATP in response to signaling pathways. Panx1 is highly expressed in the central nervous system. We used four antibodies with different Panx1 anti-peptide epitopes to analyze four regions of rat brain. These antibodies labeled the same bands in Western blots and had highly similar patterns of immunofluorescence in tissue culture cells expressing Panx1, but Western blots of brain lysates from Panx1 knockout and control mice showed different banding patterns. Localizations of Panx1 in brain slices were generated using automated wide-field mosaic confocal microscopy for imaging large regions of interest while retaining maximum resolution for examining cell populations and compartments. We compared Panx1 expression over the cerebellum, hippocampus with adjacent cortex, thalamus and olfactory bulb. While Panx1 localizes to the same neuronal cell types, subcellular localizations differ. Two antibodies with epitopes against the intracellular loop and one against the carboxy terminus preferentially labeled cell bodies, while an antibody raised against an N-terminal peptide highlighted neuronal processes more than cell bodies. These labeling patterns may be a reflection of different cellular and subcellular localizations of full-length and/or modified Panx1 channels where each antibody is highlighting unique or differentially accessible Panx1 populations. However, we cannot rule out that one or more of these antibodies have specificity issues. All data associated with experiments from these four antibodies are presented in a manner that allows them to be compared and our claims thoroughly evaluated, rather than eliminating results that were questionable. Each antibody is given a unique identifier through the NIF Antibody Registry that can be used to track usage of individual antibodies across papers and all image and metadata are made available in the public repository, the Cell Centered Database, for on

  6. Modeling Causal Relationship Between Brain Regions Within the Drug-Cue Processing Network in Chronic Cocaine Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suchismita; Haney, Margaret; Hanson, Catherine; Biswal, Bharat; Hanson, Stephen José

    2015-12-01

    The cues associated with drugs of abuse have an essential role in perpetuating problematic use, yet effective connectivity or the causal interaction between brain regions mediating the processing of drug cues has not been defined. The aim of this fMRI study was to model the causal interaction between brain regions within the drug-cue processing network in chronic cocaine smokers and matched control participants during a cocaine-cue exposure task. Specifically, cocaine-smoking (15M; 5F) and healthy control (13M; 4F) participants viewed cocaine and neutral cues while in the scanner (a Siemens 3 T magnet). We examined whole brain activation, including activation related to drug-cue processing. Time series data extracted from ROIs determined through our General Linear Model (GLM) analysis and prior publications were used as input to IMaGES, a computationally powerful Bayesian search algorithm. During cocaine-cue exposure, cocaine users showed a particular feed-forward effective connectivity pattern between the ROIs of the drug-cue processing network (amygdala → hippocampus → dorsal striatum → insula → medial frontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex) that was not present when the controls viewed the cocaine cues. Cocaine craving ratings positively correlated with the strength of the causal influence of the insula on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cocaine users. This study is the first demonstration of a causal interaction between ROIs within the drug-cue processing network in cocaine users. This study provides insight into the mechanism underlying continued substance use and has implications for monitoring treatment response.

  7. Modeling Causal Relationship Between Brain Regions Within the Drug-Cue Processing Network in Chronic Cocaine Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suchismita; Haney, Margaret; Hanson, Catherine; Biswal, Bharat; Hanson, Stephen José

    2015-12-01

    The cues associated with drugs of abuse have an essential role in perpetuating problematic use, yet effective connectivity or the causal interaction between brain regions mediating the processing of drug cues has not been defined. The aim of this fMRI study was to model the causal interaction between brain regions within the drug-cue processing network in chronic cocaine smokers and matched control participants during a cocaine-cue exposure task. Specifically, cocaine-smoking (15M; 5F) and healthy control (13M; 4F) participants viewed cocaine and neutral cues while in the scanner (a Siemens 3 T magnet). We examined whole brain activation, including activation related to drug-cue processing. Time series data extracted from ROIs determined through our General Linear Model (GLM) analysis and prior publications were used as input to IMaGES, a computationally powerful Bayesian search algorithm. During cocaine-cue exposure, cocaine users showed a particular feed-forward effective connectivity pattern between the ROIs of the drug-cue processing network (amygdala → hippocampus → dorsal striatum → insula → medial frontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex) that was not present when the controls viewed the cocaine cues. Cocaine craving ratings positively correlated with the strength of the causal influence of the insula on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cocaine users. This study is the first demonstration of a causal interaction between ROIs within the drug-cue processing network in cocaine users. This study provides insight into the mechanism underlying continued substance use and has implications for monitoring treatment response. PMID:26038158

  8. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Sawiak

    Full Text Available Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala. Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy.

  9. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawiak, Stephen J; Perumal, Sunthara Rajan; Rudiger, Skye R; Matthews, Loren; Mitchell, Nadia L; McLaughlan, Clive J; Bawden, C Simon; Palmer, David N; Kuchel, Timothy; Morton, A Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala). Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy.

  10. Gambling for self, friends, and antagonists: differential contributions of affective and social brain regions on adolescent reward processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braams, Barbara R; Peters, Sabine; Peper, Jiska S; Güroğlu, Berna; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-10-15

    Adolescence is a time of increasing emotional arousal, sensation-seeking and risk-taking, especially in the context of peers. Recent neuroscientific studies have pinpointed to the role of the ventral striatum as a brain region which is particularly sensitive to reward, and to 'social brain' regions, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the precuneus, and the temporal parietal junction, as being particularly responsive to social contexts. However, no study to date has examined adolescents' sensitivity to reward across different social contexts. In this study we examined 249 participants between the ages 8 and 25, on a monetary reward-processing task. Participants could win or lose money for themselves, their best friend and a disliked peer. Winning for self resulted in a mid- to late adolescent specific peak in neural activation in the ventral striatum, whereas winning for a disliked peer resulted in a mid- to late adolescent specific peak in the mPFC. Our findings reveal that ventral striatum and mPFC hypersensitivity in adolescence is dependent on social context. Taken together, these results suggest that increased risk-taking and sensation seeking observed in adolescence might not be purely related to hyperactivity of the ventral striatum, but that these behaviors are probably strongly related to the social context in which they occur.

  11. Region-specific up-regulation of oxytocin receptor binding in the brain of mice following chronic nicotine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Metaxas, Athanasios; Kitchen, Ian; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Bailey, Alexis

    2015-07-23

    Nicotine addiction is considered to be the main preventable cause of death worldwide. While growing evidence indicates that the neurohypophysial peptide oxytocin can modulate the addictive properties of several abused drugs, the regulation of the oxytocinergic system following nicotine administration has so far received little attention. Here, we examined the effects of long-term nicotine or saline administration on the central oxytocinergic system using [(125)I]OVTA autoradiographic binding in mouse brain. Male, 7-week old C57BL6J mice were treated with either nicotine (7.8 mg/kg daily; rate of 0.5 μl per hour) or saline for a period of 14-days via osmotic minipumps. Chronic nicotine administration induced a marked region-specific upregulation of the oxytocin receptor binding in the amygdala, a brain region involved in stress and emotional regulation. These results provide direct evidence for nicotine-induced neuroadaptations in the oxytocinergic system, which may be involved in the modulation of nicotine-seeking as well as emotional consequence of chronic drug use. PMID:26037668

  12. Region-specific vulnerability to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal death in rat brain after status epilepticus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jing Chen; Hu Guo; Guo Zheng; Zhong-Nan Shi

    2013-12-01

    We sought to clarify the involvement and the intra-cerebral distribution variability of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a representative molecule related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell death signalling pathways, in neuronal death resulting from status epilepticus in rats. The expression patterns of CHOP and glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78, a good marker of ER stress, were assessed by Western blotting, real-time PCR, Hoechst and immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus, cortex and striatum on a status epilepticus (SE) model. Double-fluorescent staining of CHOP and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated DNA nick-end labelling (TUNEL) method were performed to clarify the involvement of CHOP in cell death. SE resulted in a time-dependent increase in the expression of GRP78 and CHOP. The expression of GRP78 protein was increased at 3, 6 and 12 h after SE and no brain region variability was found. The expression of CHOP protein was also increased, reached its peak at 24 h and remained high at 48 h. CHOP protein expression, however, showed brain region variability with highest expression noted in the hippocampus followed by the striatum, and lowest in the cortex. The up-regulation of CHOP occurring at the transcriptional level was demonstrated by real-time PCR. Double fluorescence showed that CHOP expression strongly correlated with neurons undergoing apoptosis. The results indicated that SE compromises the function of the ER and that the hippocampus is more vulnerable than the cortex and the striatum.

  13. Development of a practical image-based scatter correction method for brain perfusion SPECT: comparison with the TEW method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shidahara, Miho; Kato, Takashi; Kawatsu, Shoji; Yoshimura, Kumiko; Ito, Kengo [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology Research Institute, Department of Brain Science and Molecular Imaging, Obu, Aichi (Japan); Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Iida, Hidehiro [National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Department of Investigative Radiology, Suita (Japan); Kato, Rikio [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Radiology, Obu (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    An image-based scatter correction (IBSC) method was developed to convert scatter-uncorrected into scatter-corrected SPECT images. The purpose of this study was to validate this method by means of phantom simulations and human studies with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tracers, based on comparison with the conventional triple energy window (TEW) method. The IBSC method corrects scatter on the reconstructed image I{sub AC}{sup {mu}}{sup b} with Chang's attenuation correction factor. The scatter component image is estimated by convolving I{sub AC}{sup {mu}}{sup b} with a scatter function followed by multiplication with an image-based scatter fraction function. The IBSC method was evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT human brain perfusion studies obtained from five volunteers. The image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were compared. Using data obtained from the simulations, the image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were found to be nearly identical for both gray and white matter. In human brain images, no significant differences in image contrast were observed between the IBSC and TEW methods. The IBSC method is a simple scatter correction technique feasible for use in clinical routine. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of adaptive statistical iterative and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques in brain CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Qingguo, E-mail: renqg83@163.com [Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Dewan, Sheilesh Kumar, E-mail: sheilesh_d1@hotmail.com [Department of Geriatrics, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Li, Ming, E-mail: minli77@163.com [Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Li, Jianying, E-mail: Jianying.Li@med.ge.com [CT Imaging Research Center, GE Healthcare China, Beijing (China); Mao, Dingbiao, E-mail: maodingbiao74@163.com [Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Wang, Zhenglei, E-mail: Williswang_doc@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Electricity Hospital, Shanghai 200050 (China); Hua, Yanqing, E-mail: cjr.huayanqing@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare image quality and visualization of normal structures and lesions in brain computed tomography (CT) with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction techniques in different X-ray tube current–time products. Materials and methods: In this IRB-approved prospective study, forty patients (nineteen men, twenty-one women; mean age 69.5 ± 11.2 years) received brain scan at different tube current–time products (300 and 200 mAs) in 64-section multi-detector CT (GE, Discovery CT750 HD). Images were reconstructed with FBP and four levels of ASIR-FBP blending. Two radiologists (please note that our hospital is renowned for its geriatric medicine department, and these two radiologists are more experienced in chronic cerebral vascular disease than in neoplastic disease, so this research did not contain cerebral tumors but as a discussion) assessed all the reconstructed images for visibility of normal structures, lesion conspicuity, image contrast and diagnostic confidence in a blinded and randomized manner. Volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded. All the data were analyzed by using SPSS 13.0 statistical analysis software. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the image qualities at 200 mAs with 50% ASIR blending technique and 300 mAs with FBP technique (p > .05). While between the image qualities at 200 mAs with FBP and 300 mAs with FBP technique a statistically significant difference (p < .05) was found. Conclusion: ASIR provided same image quality and diagnostic ability in brain imaging with greater than 30% dose reduction compared with FBP reconstruction technique.

  15. A comparison of different models with motor dysfunction after traumatic brain injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Pu, Hongjian; Liu, Yingchao; Wang, Zengtao; Wang, Bomin; Xu, Wendong

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the model that could produce reproducible and persistent motor weakness and define the accurate tasks and testing parameters for longitudinal assessment of neurological deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We compared the effects of two rat models that suffered different controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury, as well as extensive motor cortex resection model, on behavior recovery and brain morphology. Behavioral tests including the skilled reaching task, limb-use asymmetry test and the grasping test were employed to evaluate neurofunctional recovery from pre- to 12 weeks after the injury. The results demonstrated that all the rats in four groups showed spontaneous functional improvement with the past of time after surgery, especially in rats with mild and moderate CCI injury. At the end of the experiment, the animals' performance reached preoperative base lines on reaching task and limb-use asymmetry test in mild and moderate groups, while severe motor weakness could be observed in rats with severe CCI injury, as well as rats with extended motor cortex resection. Overall, the results of this study indicated that both models with severe CCI injury and extended resection of the motor cortex developed reproducible and long-lasting motor weakness, comparable in severity and duration and identified skilled reaching task, as well as limb-use asymmetry test, as sensitive assessments for slight neurological deficits after brain injury. This will help to provide the basis for further research of the processes after the TBI and development of novel therapies. PMID:25385190

  16. Comparison of body mass index in children of two different regions of welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Shapouri Moghadam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic basis of children obesity is of high importance for preventive policies. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of obesity among children living in two different levels of welfare regions in Mashhad northeast of Iran. A total of 625 primary school girls and boys aged 78-127 months were randomly selected, and values of their body mass index (BMI were measured. The prevalence of both overweight and obesity were higher among students of enriched area in comparison with that of resource restricted (P<0.05.The prevalence of overweight concerns in urban and rural areas. These results highlight the relation between socio-economic status and prevalence of obesity among children.

  17. Cross-Comparison of Leaching Strains Isolated from Two Different Regions: Chambishi and Dexing Copper Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Ngom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia, was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different strains were characterized and compared at physiological level. The results revealed that, except for copper tolerance, strains within species presented almost similar physiological traits with slight advantages of Chambishi strains. However, in terms of leaching efficiency, native strains always achieved higher cell density and greater iron and copper extraction rates than the foreign microorganisms. In addition, microbial community analysis revealed that the different mixed cultures shared almost the same profile, and At. ferrooxidans strains always outcompeted the other strains.

  18. Cross-comparison of leaching strains isolated from two different regions: Chambishi and Dexing copper mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngom, Baba; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa) and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia), was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different strains were characterized and compared at physiological level. The results revealed that, except for copper tolerance, strains within species presented almost similar physiological traits with slight advantages of Chambishi strains. However, in terms of leaching efficiency, native strains always achieved higher cell density and greater iron and copper extraction rates than the foreign microorganisms. In addition, microbial community analysis revealed that the different mixed cultures shared almost the same profile, and At. ferrooxidans strains always outcompeted the other strains.

  19. Comparison and validation of global and regional ocean forecasting systems for the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xueming; Wang, Hui; Liu, Guimei; Régnier, Charly; Kuang, Xiaodi; Wang, Dakui; Ren, Shihe; Jing, Zhiyou; Drévillon, Marie

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the performance of two operational ocean forecasting systems, the global Mercator Océan (MO) Operational System, developed and maintained by Mercator Océan in France, and the regional South China Sea Operational Forecasting System (SCSOFS), by the National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center (NMEFC) in China, have been examined. Both systems can provide science-based nowcast/forecast products of temperature, salinity, water level, and ocean circulations. Comparison and validation of the ocean circulations, the structures of temperature and salinity, and some mesoscale activities, such as ocean fronts, typhoons, and mesoscale eddies, are conducted based on observed satellite and in situ data obtained in 2012 in the South China Sea. The results showed that MO performs better in simulating the ocean circulations and sea surface temperature (SST), and SCSOFS performs better in simulating the structures of temperature and salinity. For the mesoscale activities, the performance of SCSOFS is better than MO in simulating SST fronts and SST decrease during Typhoon Tembin compared with the previous studies and satellite data; but model results from both of SCSOFS and MO show some differences from satellite observations. In conclusion, some recommendations have been proposed for both forecast systems to improve their forecasting performance in the near future based on our comparison and validation.

  20. High-resolution ultrasound evaluation of experimental brain abscess evolution: comparison with computed tomography and neuropathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enzmann, D.R.; Britt, R.H.; Lyons, B.; Carroll, B.; Wilson, D.A.; Buxton, J.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) and high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) imaging of experimental brain abscess were correlated with neuropathologic findings in nine mongrel dogs. The HRUS scan was more sensitive to different histologic features than the CT scan but both accurately delineated the evolution of the experimental brain abscess. All stages of abscess evolution were characterized by an appearance of an echogenic rim with a hypoechoic center. In the early stages the echogenicity of the abscess was related primarily to marked cellular infiltration while in the late stages extensive collagen deposition correlated closely with the echo pattern. The size of the abscess in the cerebritis stages appeared smaller on the HRUS scan than on the CT scan because the latter modality detected the extensive cerebritis around the developing necrotic center whereas the HRUS scan did not. This discrepancy disappeared in the capsule stages. The HRUS scan provided a more accurate depiction of the neuropathologic characteristics of the necrotic center than did the CT scan. Healing of the abscess, indicated by a decrease in size of the hypoechoic center, was accurately detected by the HRUS scan.

  1. High-resolution ultrasound evaluation of experimental brain abscess evolution: comparison with computed tomography and neuropathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomographic (CT) and high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) imaging of experimental brain abscess were correlated with neuropathologic findings in nine mongrel dogs. The HRUS scan was more sensitive to different histologic features than the CT scan but both accurately delineated the evolution of the experimental brain abscess. All stages of abscess evolution were characterized by an appearance of an echogenic rim with a hypoechoic center. In the early stages the echogenicity of the abscess was related primarily to marked cellular infiltration while in the late stages extensive collagen deposition correlated closely with the echo pattern. The size of the abscess in the cerebritis stages appeared smaller on the HRUS scan than on the CT scan because the latter modality detected the extensive cerebritis around the developing necrotic center whereas the HRUS scan did not. This discrepancy disappeared in the capsule stages. The HRUS scan provided a more accurate depiction of the neuropathologic characteristics of the necrotic center than did the CT scan. Healing of the abscess, indicated by a decrease in size of the hypoechoic center, was accurately detected by the HRUS scan

  2. Bibliometric analysis of public health research in Africa: The overall trend and regional comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shan Ho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases in Africa can be prevented with appropriate public health interventions. This study aimed to assess the bibliometric characteristics of public health related research articles published by researchers in African institutions from 1991 to 2005. Data used in this study were obtained from the online version of the ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded. Articles published between 1991 and 2005 that had the phrase ‘public health’ in the title, author keywords or abstract, and had at least one author whose contact address was in an African country, were selected for analysis. The annual number of public health related articles published by African researchers significantly increased from 28 articles in 1991 to 135 articles in 2005, a 382% increase. International collaboration also increased: from 45% of articles having international collaborators during 1991–1995, to 52% during1996–2000, and to 67% during 2001–2005. Collaborations were mostly with European and North American countries. Keywords, subject categories and collaboration patterns of articles varied across regions, reflecting differences in needs and collaboration networks. Public health related research output, as well as international collaborations, have been increasing in Africa. Regional variation observed in this study may assist policymakers to facilitate the advancement of public health research in different regions of Africa, and could be useful for international organisations in identifying needs and to allocate research funding. Future bibliometric analyses of articles published by African researchers, can consider conducting regional comparisons using standardised methods, as well as describing the overall patterns, in order to provide a more comprehensive view of their bibliometric characteristics.

  3. Normal regional distribution of cerebral blood flow in dogs: comparison between (99m) Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer and (99m) Tc- hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Antita; Polis, Ingeborgh; Waelbers, Tim; Vandermeulen, Eva; Dobbeleir, André; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-01-01

    Functional imaging provides important insights into canine brain pathologies such as behavioral problems. Two (99m) Tc-labeled single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow tracers-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) and hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO)-are commonly used in human medicine and have been used previously in dogs but intrasubject comparison of both tracers in dogs is lacking. Therefore, this study investigated whether regional distribution differences between both tracers occur in dogs as is reported in humans. Eight beagles underwent two SPECT examinations first with (99m) Tc-ECD and followed by (99m) Tc-HMPAO. SPECT scanning was performed with a triple head gamma camera equipped with ultrahigh resolution parallel hole collimators. Images were reconstructed using filtered backprojection with a Butterworth filter. Emission data were fitted to a template permitting semiquantification using predefined regions or volumes of interest (VOIs). For each VOI, perfusion indices were calculated by normalizing the regional counts per voxel to total brain counts per voxel. The obtained perfusion indices for each region for both tracers were compared with a paired Student's T-test. Significant (P < 0.05) regional differences were seen in the subcortical region and the cerebellum. Both tracers can be used to visualize regional cerebral blood flow in dogs, however, due to the observed regional differences, they are not entirely interchangeable.

  4. Dosimetric comparison of Helical Tomotherapy and Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery for single brain metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Linskey Mark E; Shi Chengyu; Yan Yulong; Peñagarícano José A; Ratanatharathorn Vaneerat

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Helical Tomotherapy (HT) integrates linear accelerator and computerized tomography (CT) technology to deliver IMRT. Targets are localized (i.e. outlined as gross tumor volume [GTV] and planning target volume [PTV]) on the planning kVCT study while daily MVCT is used for correction of patient's set-up and assessment of inter-fraction anatomy changes. Based on dosimetric comparisons, this study aims to find dosimetric equivalency between single fraction HT and Gamma Knife® s...

  5. Fast Uptake and Long-Lasting Binding of Methamphetamine in the Human Brain: Comparison with Cocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Joanna S.; Volkow, Nora D.; Logan, Jean; Alexoff, David; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Wong, Christopher; Ma, Yeming; Kriplani, Aarti; Pradhan, Kith; Schlyer, David; Jayne, Millard; Hubbard, Barbara; Carter, Pauline; Warner, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine is one of the most addictive and neurotoxic drugs of abuse. It produces large elevations in extracellular dopamine in the striatum through vesicular release and inhibition of the dopamine transporter. In the U.S. abuse prevalence varies by ethnicity with very low abuse among African Americans relative to Caucasians, differentiating it from cocaine where abuse rates are similar for the two groups. Here we report the first comparison of methamphetamine and cocaine pharmacokineti...

  6. Familiarity to a Feed Additive Modulates Its Effects on Brain Responses in Reward and Memory Regions in the Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, David; Meurice, Paul; Clouard, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Brain responses to feed flavors with or without a feed additive (FA) were investigated in piglets familiarized or not with this FA. Sixteen piglets were allocated to 2 dietary treatments from weaning until d 37: the naive group (NAI) received a standard control feed and the familiarized group (FAM) received the same feed added with a FA mainly made of orange extracts. Animals were subjected to a feed transition at d 16 post-weaning, and to 2-choice feeding tests at d 16 and d 23. Production traits of the piglets were assessed up to d 28 post-weaning. From d 26 onwards, animals underwent 2 brain imaging sessions (positron emission tomography of 18FDG) under anesthesia to investigate the brain activity triggered by the exposure to the flavors of the feed with (FA) or without (C) the FA. Images were analyzed with SPM8 and a region of interest (ROI)-based small volume correction (p evaluation, cognition and reward, and included the prefrontal cortex, insular cortex, fusiform gyrus, limbic system and corpus striatum. The FAM animals showed a moderate preference for the novel post-transition FA feed compared to the C feed on d 16, i.e., day of the feed transition (67% of total feed intake). The presence or absence of the FA in the diet from weaning had no impact on body weight, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of the animals over the whole experimental period (p ≥ 0.10). Familiar feed flavors activated the prefrontal cortex. The amygdala, insular cortex, and prepyriform area were only activated in familiarized animals exposed to the FA feed flavor. The perception of FA feed flavor in the familiarized animals activated the dorsal striatum differently than the perception of the C feed flavor in naive animals. Our data demonstrated that the perception of FA in familiarized individuals induced different brain responses in regions involved in reward anticipation and/or perception processes than the familiar control feed flavor in naive animals. Chronic exposure to

  7. Regional mild hypothermia in the protection of the ischemic brain A hipotermia regional moderada na proteção do encéfalo isquêmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirto Nelso Prandini

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate that mild hypothermia can be a protective element when an ischemic onset occurs in rabbit brains. Methods: A rabbit model of focal ischemia was used to test the protection provided by mild hypothermia regionally produced by means of the placement of ice bag on the scalp of a hemicranium which has had previously its bone removed. Twenty New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups as follows: (A a control group where an ischemic lesion was produced by coagulation of the middle cerebral artery and (B a brain protected group where mild hypothermia was provided during 80 to 100 minutes after the same ischemic lesion. The brains slices were stained with 2,3,5-Triphenyletrazolium (TTC. The sections were photographed with a digital camera and the infarct volume was measured through a computer program. Results: The average of infarct volume was 70.53 mm³ in the control group. In the protected group, the average of infarct volume was 41,30 mm³ only in five animals. Five animals of this group did not demonstrate macroscopically and microscopically infarct area. Conclusions: We concluded that mild hypothermia regionally produced may protect ischemic brains of rabbits.Objetivo: Demonstrar a proteção que a hipotermia moderada pode fornecer em casos de isquemia em encéfalos de coelhos. Métodos: Foi utilizado um modelo de isquemia focal em coelhos, para avaliar a proteção fornecida por meio de hipotermia moderada, produzida através da colocação de pedras de gelo contidas no interior de um pequeno saco plástico, em contato com o couro cabeludo de um hemicrânio onde a tábua óssea foi previamente removida. Vinte coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branca, pesando de 3,100 Kg a 3,750 Kg foram divididos em dois grupos: (A um grupo controle onde foi produzida uma lesão isquêmica por meio da coagulação da artéria cerebral média e (B um grupo submetido a neuroproteção por hipotermia moderada regional durante 80 a

  8. Comparison of Classification Methods for P300 Brain-Computer Interface on Disabled Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Manyakov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on tests with a mind typing paradigm based on a P300 brain-computer interface (BCI on a group of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, middle cerebral artery (MCA stroke, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients, suffering from motor and speech disabilities. We investigate the achieved typing accuracy given the individual patient's disorder, and how it correlates with the type of classifier used. We considered 7 types of classifiers, linear as well as nonlinear ones, and found that, overall, one type of linear classifier yielded a higher classification accuracy. In addition to the selection of the classifier, we also suggest and discuss a number of recommendations to be considered when building a P300-based typing system for disabled subjects.

  9. A quantitative comparison of simultaneous BOLD fMRI and NIRS recordings during functional brain activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangman, Gary; Culver, Joseph P.; Thompson, John H.; Boas, David A.; Sutton, J. P. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to noninvasively monitor adult human brain function in a wide variety of tasks. While rough spatial correspondences with maps generated from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been found in such experiments, the amplitude correspondences between the two recording modalities have not been fully characterized. To do so, we simultaneously acquired NIRS and blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI data and compared Delta(1/BOLD) (approximately R(2)(*)) to changes in oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin concentrations derived from the NIRS data from subjects performing a simple motor task. We expected the correlation with deoxyhemoglobin to be strongest, due to the causal relation between changes in deoxyhemoglobin concentrations and BOLD signal. Instead we found highly variable correlations, suggesting the need to account for individual subject differences in our NIRS calculations. We argue that the variability resulted from systematic errors associated with each of the signals, including: (1) partial volume errors due to focal concentration changes, (2) wavelength dependence of this partial volume effect, (3) tissue model errors, and (4) possible spatial incongruence between oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes. After such effects were accounted for, strong correlations were found between fMRI changes and all optical measures, with oxyhemoglobin providing the strongest correlation. Importantly, this finding held even when including scalp, skull, and inactive brain tissue in the average BOLD signal. This may reflect, at least in part, the superior contrast-to-noise ratio for oxyhemoglobin relative to deoxyhemoglobin (from optical measurements), rather than physiology related to BOLD signal interpretation.

  10. Comparison of two treatments for coxarthrosis: local hyperthermia versus radio electric asymmetrical brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castagna A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Castagna1, Salvatore Rinaldi1,2, Vania Fontani1, Piero Mannu1, Matteo Lotti Margotti11Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Department of Neuro Psycho Physio Pathology, 2Medical School of Occupational Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, ItalyBackground: It is well known that psychological components are very important in the aging process and may also manifest in psychogenic movement disorders, such as coxarthrosis. This study analyzed the medical records of two similar groups of patients with coxarthrosis (n = 15 in each who were treated in two different clinics for rehabilitation therapy.Methods: Patients in Group A were treated with a course of traditional physiotherapy, including sessions of local hyperthermia. Group B patients were treated with only a course of radioelectric asymmetrical brain stimulation (REAC to improve their motor behavior.Results: Group A showed a significant decrease in symptoms of pain and stiffness, and an insignificant improvement in range of motion and muscle bulk. A single patient in this group developed worsened symptoms, and pain did not resolve completely in any patient. The patients in Group B had significantly decreased levels of pain and stiffness, and a significant improvement in range of motion and muscle bulk. No patients worsened in Group B, and the pain resolved completely in one patient.Conclusion: Both treatments were shown to be tolerable and safe. Patients who underwent REAC treatment appeared to have slightly better outcomes, with an appreciable improvement in both their physical and mental states. These aspects are particularly important in the elderly, in whom functional limitation is often associated with or exacerbated by a psychogenic component.Keywords: coxarthrosis, anti-aging, motor behavior, radioelectric asymmetric brain stimulation

  11. Comparison of different references for brain perfusion SPECT quantification in clinical routine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We used 40 brain perfusion SPECT studies from the INM, UCL database to investigate the performance of several references (denominators) in the calculation of perfusion ratios with single photon emission tomography (S PET) within a routine clinical service. According to clinical diagnosis and previous SPECT findings 4 groups were identified composed of: 10 controls (C, 23 to 84 y old); 10 myalgic-encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS, 22 to 61 y old); 10 major depression (MD, 24 to 68 y old); and 10 temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, 19 to 39 y old). Routine protocols for processing were used and the analysis was blind to group classification. Brain perfusion ratios were calculated using 7 different references: hemi cerebellum with higher counts (Cer), total counts in a 4 pixel slice through the basal ganglia slice (BG), average counts per pixel in the visual cortex (VC), average counts per pixel in the white matter (WM), total acquired counts (TAC), total reconstructed counts (TRC) and maximum counts per pixel in the entire study (MAXX). Unpaired test to compare different diagnostic groups, coefficient of variation (CV) to assess the reliability to each references followed by ANOVA were the statistical test used. The lowest mean CV's were found with VC (4.8%) and TRC (5.1%), with all the others significantly higher (p<0.0001). The range of CV's for Cer was the lowest (3.7% to 5.9%). Consistent differentiation between diagnostic groups and controls was only obtained with Cer. In conclusion, it appears that for clinical routine services Cer is the most reliable reference, exception made for all diseases affecting the cerebellum. In these cases TRC or VC should be preferred. (authors)

  12. A Study on the Application of Fuzzy Information Seeded Region Growing in Brain MRI Tissue Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuin-Mu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After long-term clinical trials, MRI has been proven to be used in humans harmlessly, and it is popularly used in medical diagnosis. Although MR is highly sensitive, it provides abundant organization information. Therefore, how to transform the multi-spectral images which is easier to be used for doctor’s clinical diagnosis. In this thesis, the fuzzy bidirectional edge detection method is used to solve conventional SRG problem of growing order in the initial seed stages. In order to overcome the problems of the different regions, although it is the same Euclidean distance for region growing and merging process stages, we present the peak detection method to improve them. The standard deviation target generation process (SDTGP is applied to guarantee the regions merging process does not cause over- or undersegmentation. Experimental results reveal that FISRG segments a multispectral MR image much more effectively than FAST and K-means.

  13. Stability of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the normal brain measured by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral glucose utilization (LCMRGI) was measured using the [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose method with PET in two groups of ten healthy young volunteers, each scanned in a resting state under different methodological conditions. In addition, five subjects had a second scan within 48 hr. Mean hemispheric values averaged 45.8 +/- 3.3 mumol/100 g/min in the right cerebral hemisphere and 47.0 +/- 3.7 mumol/100 g/min in the left hemisphere. A four-way analysis of variance (group, sex, region, hemisphere) was carried out on the results using three different methods of data manipulation: (a) the raw values of glucose utilization, (b) LCMRGI values normalized by the mean hemispheric gray matter LCMRGI value, and (c) log transformed LCMRGI values. For all analysis techniques, significantly higher LCMRGI values were consistently seen in the left mid and posterior temporal area and caudate nucleus relative to the right, and in the right occipital region relative to the left. The coefficient of variation of intrasubject regional differences (9.9%) was significantly smaller than the coefficient of variation for regions between subjects (16.5%). No differences were noted between the sexes and no effect of repeat procedures was seen in subjects having multiple scans. In addition, inter-regional LCMRGI correlations were examined both in values from the 20 normal subjects, as well as in a set of hypothetical abnormal values. Results were compared with those reported from other PET centers; despite certain methodological differences, the intersubject and inter-regional variation of LCMRGI is fairly constant

  14. A first comparison of irregularity and ion drift velocity measurements in the E-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Makarevich

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available E-region irregularity velocity measurements at large flow angles with the STARE Finland coherent VHF radar are considered in context of the ion and electron velocity data provided by the EISCAT tristatic radar system, CUTLASS Finland coherent HF radar, and IMAGE fluxgate magnetometers. The data have been collected during a special experiment on 27 March 2004 during which EISCAT was scanning between several E- and one F-region altitudes along the magnetic field line. Within the E-region, the EISCAT measurements at two altitudes of 110 and 115 km are considered while the electron velocity is inferred from the EISCAT ion velocity measurements at 278 km. The line-of-sight (l-o-s VHF velocity measured by STARE VHF los is compared to the ion and electron velocity components (Vi0 comp and Ve0 comp along the STARE l-o-s direction. The comparison with Ve0 comp for the entire event shows that the measurements exhibit large scatter and small positive correlation. The correlation with Ve0 comp was substantial in the first half of the interval under study when Ve0 comp was larger in magnitude. The comparison with Vi0 comp at 110 and 115 km shows a considerable positive correlation, with VHF velocity being typically larger (smaller in magnitude than Vi0 comp at 110 km (115 km so that VVHF los appears to be bounded by the ion velocity components at two altitudes. It is also demonstrated that the difference between VVHF los and Vi0 comp at 110 km can be treated, in the first approximation, as a linear function of the effective backscatter height heff also counted from 110 km; heff varies in the range 108–114 km due to the altitude integration effects in the scattering cross-section. Our results are consistent with the notion that VHF

  15. Classification of First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Subjects by Automated MRI Measures of Regional Brain Volume and Cortical Thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Yoichiro Takayanagi; Tsutomu Takahashi; Lina Orikabe; Yuriko Mozue; Yasuhiro Kawasaki; Kazue Nakamura; Yoko Sato; Masanari Itokawa; Hidenori Yamasue; Kiyoto Kasai; Masayoshi Kurachi; Yuji Okazaki; Michio Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have repeatedly demonstrated regional brain structural abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, relatively few MRI-based studies have attempted to distinguish between patients with first-episode schizophrenia and healthy controls. METHOD: Three-dimensional MR images were acquired from 52 (29 males, 23 females) first-episode schizophrenia patients and 40 (22 males, 18 females) healthy subjects. Multiple brain measure...

  16. Cell apoptosis in perihematomal brain regions and expression of Caspase-3 protein in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinqing Zhang; Xiaoliang Yin; Kun Zhang; Zhimin Zhang; Hui Cai; Honglan Xu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), besides the space-occupying effect of hematoma, hematomal component also causes the pathological changes of perihematomal region, including the death of neurons and glial cells, vasogenic brain edema, the destruction of blood brain barrier and so on, which are the important factors to influence the prognosis of patients. Therefore, it is necessary to perform fur ther investigation and study on the pathological characteristics of injury and death of brain nerve cells. OBJECTIVE: To observe the pathological changes of apoptosis and Caspase-3 expression in perihe matomal brain regions in patients with hypertensive ICH (HICH) in different stages of onset, and analyze their relationship. DESIGN: Case-control observation. SETTING: Departments of Neurosurgery and Pathology of Beijing Chuiyangliu Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Totally 19 patients with HICH, including 12 male, 7 female, aged (58.3±12.8) ranging from 49 to 78 years, whose mean volume of hemorrhage was (48.6±16.4) mL, were involved . All the cases conformed to the diagnostic criteria of intracerebral hemorrhage formulated in the 4th National Cerebrovascular Dis eases Conference and were confirmed by skull CT scanning. Informed consents of operation and specimens were obtained from the patients and relatives.METHODS; ①Patients with HICH who had undergone surgical evacuation of an intracerebral hematoma by traverse temporal lobe approach in the Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Chuiyangliu Hospital from Jan uary 2004 to July 2005 were involved. Nineteen specimens of brain tissue from perihematomal region of HICH patients in different phases served as patient group. Five specimens were obtained from distant regions of patients in the super-early phase as the control group. According to the time from onset to operation, the 19 cases were divided into 3 groups: 6 cases in super-early phase(onset < 8 hours), 8 cases in early phase (onset about 8 to 24

  17. Performance of WRF-Chem over Indian region: Comparison with measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gaurav Govardhan; Ravi S Nanjundiah; S K Satheesh; K Krishnamoorthy; V R Kotamarthi

    2015-06-01

    The aerosol mass concentrations over several Indian regions have been simulated using the online chemistry transport model, WRF-Chem, for two distinct seasons of 2011, representing the pre-monsoon (May) and post-monsoon (October) periods during the Indo–US joint experiment ‘Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)’. The simulated values were compared with concurrent measurements. It is found that the model systematically underestimates near-surface BC mass concentrations as well as columnar Aerosol Optical Depths (AODs) from the measurements. Examining this in the light of the model-simulated meteorological parameters, we notice the model overestimates both planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and surface wind speeds, leading to deeper mixing and dispersion and hence lower surface concentrations of aerosols. Shortcoming in simulating rainfall pattern also has an impact through the scavenging effect. It also appears that the columnar AODs are influenced by the unrealistic emission scenarios in the model. Comparison with vertical profiles of BC obtained from aircraft-based measurements also shows a systematic underestimation by the model at all levels. It is seen that concentration of other aerosols, viz., dust and sea-salt are closely linked with meteorological conditions prevailing over the region. Dust is higher during pre-monsoon periods due to the prevalence of north-westerly winds that advect dust from deserts of west Asia into the Indo-Gangetic plain. Winds and rainfall influence sea-salt concentrations. Thus, the unrealistic simulation of wind and rainfall leads to model simulated dust and sea-salt also to deviate from the real values; which together with BC also causes underperformance of the model with regard to columnar AOD. It appears that for better simulations of aerosols over Indian region, the model needs an improvement in the simulation of the meteorology.

  18. A clinical nomogram and recursive partitioning analysis to determine the risk of regional failure after radiosurgery alone for brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This investigation defined patient populations at high-, intermediate-, and low-risk of regional failure (RF) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) lesion treatment using clinical nomograms and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA). Methods and materials: We created a retrospective database compiling 361 oligometastatic brain metastases patients treated with single-modality Linac-based SRS. Logistic analysis was performed to identify factors to be included in a RPA to predict for cumulative RF at 1-year. A 1-year cumulative RF clinical nomogram was constructed and validated (c-index statistic). Results: Age, number of brain metastases, World Health Organization (WHO) performance status (PS), and maximum gross tumor volume (GTV) size were found to be statistically significant predictors of the primary outcome. RPA classifications were defined as follows: low-risk (<25% 1-year RF): solitary lesion AND age >55Y; intermediate-risk (25–40% 1-year RF): age ⩽55Y AND solitary lesion OR WHO ⩾ 1 AND 2–3 lesions; and high-risk (>40% 1-year RF): WHO PS = 0 AND 2–3 lesions. These classifications were highly statistically significant (p < 0.01) for RF. A clinical nomogram (containing patient age, lesion number, largest GTV volume, and WHO PS) for the prediction of 1-year cumulative RF was created (c-index 0.69). Conclusion: A risk-adapted treatment approach can be applied for BM radiosurgery either using RPA categories and/or nomogram-based risk estimates

  19. Androgen receptors in brain and pituitary of female rats: cyclic changes and comparisons with the male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, R J; Reid, D L; Resko, J A

    1986-03-01

    The in vitro binding of a synthetic androgen, methyltrienolone ([3H]-R1881), to brain and pituitary (PIT) cytosol and nuclear extracts was determined in male and female rats. Purified cytosol was prepared from PIT or hypothalamic-preoptic area-amygdala (HPA) and incubated in the presence of 0.1 to 10 nM [3H]-R1881. Scatchard analysis revealed the presence of a single, saturable, high-affinity binding site in PIT cytosol with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.42 X 10(-10) M in females and 0.95 X 10(-10) M in intact males. The Kd of HPA cytosol was much less in castrated males [0.47 +/- 0.05 (SEM) X 10(-10)M, n = 7] and females (0.63 +/- 0.1 X 10(-10) M, n = 4) than in intact males (5.8 +/- 1.1 X 10(-10) M, n = 8). Treatment of castrated males with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for 24 h (250 micrograms/100 g of body weight) increased the Kd of HPA cytosol only slightly (1.6 X 10(-10) M, mean of two replicates). Scatchard analysis of salt-extracted nuclear androgen receptor (ARn) showed a single, high-affinity binding site with similar Kd values in PIT and HPA of intact and castrated, DHT-treated male rats (PIT Kd = 7.3 X 10(-10) M, 9.3 X 10(-10) M; HPA Kd = 1.5 X 10(-9) M, 1.3 X 10(-9) M, respectively). Competition studies involving a range of several radioinert steroids revealed that the binding of [3H]-R1881 to cytosol (ARc) and nuclear extract was specific for androgen receptor when triamcinolone acetonide (10 microM) was added. The ARc and ARn levels were quantified in PIT, preoptic area (POA), hypothalamus (HT), amygdala, hippocampus, and cortex by single point estimation. Significantly (p less than 0.01) greater amounts of ARc were detected in PIT of ovariectomized females (32.7 +/- 2.9 fmol/mg of protein) than in that of orchidectomized males (22.33 +/- 1.6 fmol/mg of protein). The highest levels in the brain were seen in HT and POA. Pituitary ARc in females varied throughout the estrous cycle. Significantly (p less than 0.01) greater amounts were detected on

  20. Simultaneously uncovering the patterns of brain regions involved in different story reading subprocesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Wehbe

    Full Text Available Story understanding involves many perceptual and cognitive subprocesses, from perceiving individual words, to parsing sentences, to understanding the relationships among the story characters. We present an integrated computational model of reading that incorporates these and additional subprocesses, simultaneously discovering their fMRI signatures. Our model predicts the fMRI activity associated with reading arbitrary text passages, well enough to distinguish which of two story segments is being read with 74% accuracy. This approach is the first to simultaneously track diverse reading subprocesses during complex story processing and predict the detailed neural representation of diverse story features, ranging from visual word properties to the mention of different story characters and different actions they perform. We construct brain representation maps that replicate many results from a wide range of classical studies that focus each on one aspect of language processing and offer new insights on which type of information is processed by different areas involved in language processing. Additionally, this approach is promising for studying individual differences: it can be used to create single subject maps that may potentially be used to measure reading comprehension and diagnose reading disorders.

  1. High affinity dopamine D2 receptor radioligands. 1. Regional rat brain distribution of iodinated benzamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, R.M.; Ansari, M.S.; de Paulis, T.; Schmidt, D.E.; Clanton, J.A.; Smith, H.E.; Manning, R.G.; Gillespie, D.; Ebert, M.H. (Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Five 125I-labeled substituted benzamides, which are close structural analogues of (S)-sulpiride, eticlopride, and isoremoxipride, were evaluated for their selective in vivo uptake into dopamine D2 receptor rich tissue of the rat brain. Iodopride (KD 0.88 nM), an iodine substituted benzamide structurally related to sulpiride, displayed a maximal striatum: cerebellar uptake ratio of 7.6. Demonstration of saturation of the receptor with (125I)iodopride in striatum required uptake in frontal cortex to be used, rather than cerebellar uptake, to define nonspecific binding. Two other ligands structurally related to eticlopride, iclopride (KD 0.23 nM) and itopride (KD 0.16 nM), displayed maximal striatal: cerebellar uptake ratios of 9.8 and 3.3, respectively. The most potent ligands, epidepride (KD 0.057 nM) and ioxipride (KD 0.070 nM) showed striatal:cerebellar uptake ratios of 234 and 65, respectively. The observed uptake ratios correlated poorly with the affinity constants for the dopamine D2 receptor alone, but were highly correlated (r = 0.92) with the product of the receptor dissociation constant (KD) and the apparent lipophilicity (kw), as determined by reverse-phase HPLC at pH 7.5. Total striatal uptake also appeared dependent on lipophilicity, with maximal uptake occurring for ligands having log kw 2.4-2.8.

  2. High affinity dopamine D2 receptor radioligands. 1. Regional rat brain distribution of iodinated benzamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five 125I-labeled substituted benzamides, which are close structural analogues of (S)-sulpiride, eticlopride, and isoremoxipride, were evaluated for their selective in vivo uptake into dopamine D2 receptor rich tissue of the rat brain. Iodopride (KD 0.88 nM), an iodine substituted benzamide structurally related to sulpiride, displayed a maximal striatum: cerebellar uptake ratio of 7.6. Demonstration of saturation of the receptor with [125I]iodopride in striatum required uptake in frontal cortex to be used, rather than cerebellar uptake, to define nonspecific binding. Two other ligands structurally related to eticlopride, iclopride (KD 0.23 nM) and itopride (KD 0.16 nM), displayed maximal striatal: cerebellar uptake ratios of 9.8 and 3.3, respectively. The most potent ligands, epidepride (KD 0.057 nM) and ioxipride (KD 0.070 nM) showed striatal:cerebellar uptake ratios of 234 and 65, respectively. The observed uptake ratios correlated poorly with the affinity constants for the dopamine D2 receptor alone, but were highly correlated (r = 0.92) with the product of the receptor dissociation constant (KD) and the apparent lipophilicity (kw), as determined by reverse-phase HPLC at pH 7.5. Total striatal uptake also appeared dependent on lipophilicity, with maximal uptake occurring for ligands having log kw 2.4-2.8

  3. Differential impact of REM sleep deprivation on cytoskeletal proteins of brain regions involved in sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jennifer; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is involved in memory consolidation, which implies synaptic plasticity. This process requires protein synthesis and the reorganization of the neural cytoskeleton. REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) has an impact on some neuronal proteins involved in synaptic plasticity, such as glutamate receptors and postsynaptic density protein 95, but its effects on cytoskeletal proteins is unknown. In this study, the effects of REMSD on the content of the cytoskeletal proteins MAP2 and TAU were analyzed. Adult female rats were submitted to selective REMSD by using the multiple platform technique. After 24, 48 or 72 h of REMSD, rats were decapitated and the following brain areas were dissected: pons, preoptic area, hippocampus and frontal cortex. Protein extraction and Western blot were performed. Results showed an increase in TAU content in the pons, preoptic area and hippocampus after 24 h of REMSD, while in the frontal cortex a significant increase in TAU content was observed after 72 h of REMSD. A TAU content decrease was observed in the hippocampus after 48 h of REMSD. Interestingly, a marked increase in TAU content was observed after 72 h of REMSD. MAP2 content only increased in the preoptic area at 24 h, and in the frontal cortex after 24 and 72 h of REMSD, without significant changes in the pons and hippocampus. These results support the idea that REM sleep plays an important role in the organization of neural cytoskeleton, and that this effect is tissue-specific.

  4. Differential Gene Expression Patterns in Developing Sexually Dimorphic Rat Brain Regions Exposed to Antiandrogenic, Estrogenic, or Complex Endocrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver;

    2015-01-01

    The study addressed the question whether gene expression patterns induced by different mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) administered in a higher dose range, corresponding to 450×, 200×, and 100× high-end human exposure levels, could be characterized in developing brain with respect...... to endocrine activity of mixture components, and which developmental processes were preferentially targeted. Three EDC mixtures, A-Mix (anti-androgenic mixture) with 8 antiandrogenic chemicals (di-n-butylphthalate, diethylhexylphthalate, vinclozolin, prochloraz, procymidone, linuron, epoxiconazole, and DDE), E...... area and ventromedial hypothalamus in all dose groups. Expression patterns were mixture, sex, and region specific. Effects of the analgesic drug paracetamol, which exhibits antiandrogenic activity in peripheral systems, differed from those of A-Mix. All mixtures had a strong, mixture-specific impact...

  5. Transport of 222Rn using the regional model REMO: a detailed comparison with measurements over Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 222Rn concentration simulated by the regional atmospheric model REMO over Europe and western Siberia is compared to in-situ records in Europe, and discussed in the context of site effects for stations that are also part of a CO2 observing network. The REMO model has a limited spatial domain, forced at its lateral boundaries with meteorological fields of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and with tracer concentrations issued from the TM3 global transport model. The modelled Rn field is compared to measurements at six stations: two coastal ones (Atlantic Ocean and Baltic Sea), two low-elevation sites in plains, one mountain station and one high-altitude station. We show that the synoptic and diurnal 222Rn variability as simulated by REMO (55 km by 55 km) is realistic. In some cases REMO performs better than TM3, which is of coarser resolution, but this is not always true. At Mace Head, a station located near the western edge of the REMO domain, we show that the 222Rn 'baseline' concentration is strongly influenced by boundary conditions, reflecting 222Rn transport from North America across the Atlantic Ocean. At Schauinsland, a mountain station in south-western Germany, even though the spatial resolution of REMO is not fine enough to reproduce transport processes induced by local topography, a fairly good agreement between model and measurements can be obtained, provided that one can determine from comparison of observed and modelled diurnal temperature changes which layer of the model is suitable for comparison with the data. Finally, the implications of modelling 222Rn are discussed here in the broader context of interpreting site effects that may also affect CO2 continental observations in Europe

  6. Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients with Medically Refractory Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haense, Cathleen; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Wilke, Florian; Schrader, Christoph; Capelle, Holger H; Geworski, Lilli; Bengel, Frank M; Krauss, Joachim K; Berding, Georg

    2016-01-01

    In this study, alterations in brain perfusion have been investigated in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) compared with control subjects. In addition, we investigated the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in both globus pallidus internus (GPi) and centromedian-parafascicular/ventralis oralis internus nuclei of the thalamus (CM/Voi) and sham (SHAM) stimulation on cerebral blood flow. In a prospective controlled, randomized, double-blind setting, five severely affected adult patients with TS with predominant motor or vocal tics (mean total tic score on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale: 39) underwent serial brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography with (99m)Tc-ECD. Results were compared with data from six age-matched control subjects. All patients were investigated at four different time points: once before DBS implantation (preOP) and three times postoperatively. Postoperative scans were performed in a randomized order, each after 3 months of either GPi, CM/Voi, or SHAM stimulation. At each investigation, patients were injected at rest while awake, but scanned during anesthesia. This procedure ensured that neither anesthesia nor movement artifacts influenced our results. Control subjects were investigated only once at baseline (without DBS or anesthesia). At baseline, cerebral blood flow was significantly reduced in patients with TS (preOP) compared with controls in the central region, frontal, and parietal lobe, specifically in Brodmann areas 1, 4-9, 30, 31, and 40. Significantly increased perfusion was found in the cerebellum. When comparing SHAM stimulation to preOP condition, we found significantly decreased perfusion in basal ganglia and thalamus, but increased perfusion in different parts of the frontal cortex. Compared with SHAM condition both GPi and thalamic stimulation resulted in a significant decrease in cerebral blood flow in basal ganglia and cerebellum, while perfusion in the frontal cortex was significantly increased

  7. Differential Expression of FosB Proteins and Potential Target Genes in Select Brain Regions of Addiction and Depression Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Paula A; Turecki, Gustavo; Robison, Alfred J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to stress or drugs of abuse has been linked to altered gene expression throughout the body, and changes in gene expression in discrete brain regions are thought to underlie many psychiatric diseases, including major depressive disorder and drug addiction. Preclinical models of these disorders have provided evidence for mechanisms of this altered gene expression, including transcription factors, but evidence supporting a role for these factors in human patients has been slow to emerge. The transcription factor ΔFosB is induced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) of rodents in response to stress or cocaine, and its expression in these regions is thought to regulate their "top down" control of reward circuitry, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here, we use biochemistry to examine the expression of the FosB family of transcription factors and their potential gene targets in PFC and HPC postmortem samples from depressed patients and cocaine addicts. We demonstrate that ΔFosB and other FosB isoforms are downregulated in the HPC but not the PFC in the brains of both depressed and addicted individuals. Further, we show that potential ΔFosB transcriptional targets, including GluA2, are also downregulated in the HPC but not PFC of cocaine addicts. Thus, we provide the first evidence of FosB gene expression in human HPC and PFC in these psychiatric disorders, and in light of recent findings demonstrating the critical role of HPC ΔFosB in rodent models of learning and memory, these data suggest that reduced ΔFosB in HPC could potentially underlie cognitive deficits accompanying chronic cocaine abuse or depression. PMID:27494187

  8. Quantitative comparison of preparation methodologies for X-ray fluorescence microscopy of brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) facilitates high-sensitivity quantitative imaging of trace metals at high spatial resolution over large sample areas and can be applied to a diverse range of biological samples. Accurate determination of elemental content from recorded spectra requires proper calibration of the XFM instrument under the relevant operating conditions. Here, we describe the manufacture, characterization, and utilization of multi-element thin-film reference foils for use in calibration of XFM measurements of biological and other specimens. We have used these internal standards to assess the two-dimensional distribution of trace metals in a thin tissue section of a rat hippocampus. The data used in this study was acquired at the XFM beamline of the Australian Synchrotron using a new 384-element array detector (Maia) and at beamline 2-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source. Post-processing of samples by different fixation techniques was investigated, with the conclusion that differences in solvent type and sample handling can significantly alter elemental content. The present study highlights the quantitative capability, high statistical power, and versatility of the XFM technique for mapping trace metals in biological samples, e.g., brain tissue samples in order to help understand neurological processes, especially when implemented in conjunction with a high-performance detector such as Maia. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of amounts and types of practice during rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Jacobson Kimberley, PhD, PT

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with acquired neurological deficits may capitalize on cortical reorganization to recover functional skills that have been lost. Research in neuroplasticity proposes that a high number of repetitions may lead to cortical reorganization. The purposes of this study were to quantify the number and type of activities performed by patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI and stroke in physical and occupational therapy sessions to determine whether (1 the number of repetitions approaches the numbers in neuroplasticity research, (2 there were differences based on patient diagnosis, and (3 patient or therapist characteristics affected the type or amount of activities performed. Forty-eight patient and forty provider subjects participated. One hundred seven therapy sessions were observed. Data from therapy sessions were counted and categorized. Neither patient group approached the total number of repetitions neuroplasticity research suggests may be required for neuroplastic change. Repetitions per session did not differ between groups. Subjects with TBI performed more repetitions per minute in three categories (total upper-limb repetitions, gait steps, and transfers than subjects with stroke. Therapists with 15 years of neurological therapy experience instructed patients in fewer functional repetitions per minute than did therapists with 5 to 15 years of experience.

  10. Quantitative comparison of preparation methodologies for X-ray fluorescence microscopy of brain tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Simon A.; Sexton, Brett A.; Hoobin, Pamela; Mayo, Sheridan C. [CSIRO, Materials Science and Engineering and the Preventative Health Flagship, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Myers, Damian E. [St. Vincent s Hospital, Department of Surgery/Orthopaedics, Fitzroy, VIC (Australia); University of Melbourne, Department of Surgery, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Jonge, Martin D. de; Paterson, David; Howard, Daryl L. [Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Vogt, Stefan [Argonne National Laboratory, X-ray Science Division, Argonne, IL (United States); Ryan, Chris G. [CSIRO, Earth Science and Resources Engineering, Clayton, VIC (Australia); University of Melbourne, School of Physics, Parkville, VIC (Australia); University of Tasmania, CODES Centre of Excellence, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Altissimo, Matteo [Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Moorhead, Gareth F. [CSIRO, Materials Science and Engineering and the Preventative Health Flagship, Clayton, VIC (Australia); University of Melbourne, School of Physics, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Wilkins, Stephen W. [CSIRO, Materials Science and Engineering and the Preventative Health Flagship, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Monash University, School of Physics, Clayton, VIC (Australia)

    2011-08-15

    X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) facilitates high-sensitivity quantitative imaging of trace metals at high spatial resolution over large sample areas and can be applied to a diverse range of biological samples. Accurate determination of elemental content from recorded spectra requires proper calibration of the XFM instrument under the relevant operating conditions. Here, we describe the manufacture, characterization, and utilization of multi-element thin-film reference foils for use in calibration of XFM measurements of biological and other specimens. We have used these internal standards to assess the two-dimensional distribution of trace metals in a thin tissue section of a rat hippocampus. The data used in this study was acquired at the XFM beamline of the Australian Synchrotron using a new 384-element array detector (Maia) and at beamline 2-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source. Post-processing of samples by different fixation techniques was investigated, with the conclusion that differences in solvent type and sample handling can significantly alter elemental content. The present study highlights the quantitative capability, high statistical power, and versatility of the XFM technique for mapping trace metals in biological samples, e.g., brain tissue samples in order to help understand neurological processes, especially when implemented in conjunction with a high-performance detector such as Maia. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of dry and gel based electrodes for p300 brain-computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guger, Christoph; Krausz, Gunther; Allison, Brendan Z; Edlinger, Guenter

    2012-01-01

    Most brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) rely on one of three types of signals in the electroencephalogram (EEG): P300s, steady-state visually evoked potentials, and event-related desynchronization. EEG is typically recorded non-invasively with electrodes mounted on the human scalp using conductive electrode gel for optimal impedance and data quality. The use of electrode gel entails serious problems that are especially pronounced in real-world settings when experts are not available. Some recent work has introduced dry electrode systems that do not require gel, but often introduce new problems such as comfort and signal quality. The principal goal of this study was to assess a new dry electrode BCI system in a very common task: spelling with a P300 BCI. A total of 23 subjects used a P300 BCI to spell the word "LUCAS" while receiving real-time, closed-loop feedback. The dry system yielded classification accuracies that were similar to those obtained with gel systems. All subjects completed a questionnaire after data recording, and all subjects stated that the dry system was not uncomfortable. This is the first field validation of a dry electrode P300 BCI system, and paves the way for new research and development with EEG recording systems that are much more practical and convenient in field settings than conventional systems.

  12. Comparison of dry and gel based electrodes for P300 brain-computer interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eGuger

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Most brain-computer interfaces (BCI rely on one of three types of signals in the electroencephalogram (EEG: P300s, steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP, and event-related desynchronization (ERD. EEG is typically recorded non-invasively with electrodes mounted on the human scalp using conductive electrode gel for optimal impedance and data quality. The use of electrode gel entails serious problems that are especially pronounced in real-world settings when experts are not available. Some recent work has introduced dry electrode systems that do not require gel, but often introduce new problems such as comfort and signal quality. The principal goal of this study was to assess a new dry electrode BCI system in a very common task: spelling with a P300 BCI. A total of 23 subjects used a P300 BCI to spell the word LUCAS while receiving realtime, closed-loop feedback. The dry system yielded classification accuracies that were similar to those obtained with gel systems. All subjects completed a questionnaire after data recording, and all subjects stated that the dry system was not uncomfortable. This is the first field validation of a dry electrode P300 BCI system, and paves the way for new research and development with EEG recording systems that are much more practical and convenient in field settings than conventional systems.

  13. Regional Poverty and Population Response:A Comparison of Three Regions in the United States and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Siebert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine poverty in three regions in the United States and Germany and discuss its causes and demographic consequences. The three regions are those with the highest rates of poverty in the two countries: the Mississippi Delta and Texas Borderland in the United States and the Northeastern Border Region in Germany. We show that standard models to explain poverty need to be placed in the historical legacies of the three regions in order to understand their current levels of poverty. While our results show many common factors for poverty in the three regions, they also point to important differences. Similarly, we identify differences among the regions in their demographic responses to poverty, in part reflecting their different historical legacies. Thus, one implication of the paper is the importance of place-based poverty-mitigation strategies for successful policy planning.

  14. Uniform distributions of glucose oxidation and oxygen extraction in gray matter of normal human brain: No evidence of regional differences of aerobic glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Fahmeed; Herman, Peter; Bailey, Christopher J; Møller, Arne; Globinsky, Ronen; Fulbright, Robert K; Rothman, Douglas L; Gjedde, Albert

    2016-05-01

    Regionally variable rates of aerobic glycolysis in brain networks identified by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) imply regionally variable adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regeneration. When regional glucose utilization is not matched to oxygen delivery, affected regions have correspondingly variable rates of ATP and lactate production. We tested the extent to which aerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation power R-fMRI networks by measuring quantitative differences between the oxygen to glucose index (OGI) and the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in normal human brain (resting awake, eyes closed). Regionally uniform and correlated OEF and OGI estimates prevailed, with network values that matched the gray matter means, regardless of size, location, and origin. The spatial agreement between oxygen delivery (OEF≈0.4) and glucose oxidation (OGI ≈ 5.3) suggests that no specific regions have preferentially high aerobic glycolysis and low oxidative phosphorylation rates, with globally optimal maximum ATP turnover rates (VATP ≈ 9.4 µmol/g/min), in good agreement with (31)P and (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements. These results imply that the intrinsic network activity in healthy human brain powers the entire gray matter with ubiquitously high rates of glucose oxidation. Reports of departures from normal brain-wide homogeny of oxygen extraction fraction and oxygen to glucose index may be due to normalization artefacts from relative PET measurements. PMID:26755443

  15. Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maren L; Lopez, Marcelo F; Archer, Kellie J; Wolen, Aaron R; Becker, Howard C; Miles, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Long lasting abusive consumption, dependence, and withdrawal are characteristic features of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Mechanistically, persistent changes in gene expression are hypothesized to contribute to brain adaptations leading to ethanol toxicity and AUD. We employed repeated chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor chamber as a mouse model to simulate the cycles of ethanol exposure and withdrawal commonly seen with AUD. This model has been shown to induce progressive ethanol consumption in rodents. Brain CIE-responsive expression networks were identified by microarray analysis across five regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system and extended amygdala with tissue harvested from 0-hours to 7-days following CIE. Weighted Gene Correlated Network Analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify gene networks over-represented for CIE-induced temporal expression changes across brain regions. Differential gene expression analysis showed that long-lasting gene regulation occurred 7-days after the final cycle of ethanol exposure only in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Across all brain regions, however, ethanol-responsive expression changes occurred mainly within the first 8-hours after removal from ethanol. Bioinformatics analysis showed that neuroinflammatory responses were seen across multiple brain regions at early time-points, whereas co-expression modules related to neuroplasticity, chromatin remodeling, and neurodevelopment were seen at later time-points and in specific brain regions (PFC or HPC). In PFC a module containing Bdnf was identified as highly CIE responsive in a biphasic manner, with peak changes at 0 hours and 5 days following CIE, suggesting a possible role in mechanisms underlying long-term molecular and behavioral response to CIE. Bioinformatics analysis of this network and several other modules identified Let-7 family microRNAs as potential regulators of gene expression changes induced by CIE. Our results suggest a complex temporal

  16. Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren L Smith

    Full Text Available Long lasting abusive consumption, dependence, and withdrawal are characteristic features of alcohol use disorders (AUD. Mechanistically, persistent changes in gene expression are hypothesized to contribute to brain adaptations leading to ethanol toxicity and AUD. We employed repeated chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE exposure by vapor chamber as a mouse model to simulate the cycles of ethanol exposure and withdrawal commonly seen with AUD. This model has been shown to induce progressive ethanol consumption in rodents. Brain CIE-responsive expression networks were identified by microarray analysis across five regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system and extended amygdala with tissue harvested from 0-hours to 7-days following CIE. Weighted Gene Correlated Network Analysis (WGCNA was used to identify gene networks over-represented for CIE-induced temporal expression changes across brain regions. Differential gene expression analysis showed that long-lasting gene regulation occurred 7-days after the final cycle of ethanol exposure only in prefrontal cortex (PFC and hippocampus. Across all brain regions, however, ethanol-responsive expression changes occurred mainly within the first 8-hours after removal from ethanol. Bioinformatics analysis showed that neuroinflammatory responses were seen across multiple brain regions at early time-points, whereas co-expression modules related to neuroplasticity, chromatin remodeling, and neurodevelopment were seen at later time-points and in specific brain regions (PFC or HPC. In PFC a module containing Bdnf was identified as highly CIE responsive in a biphasic manner, with peak changes at 0 hours and 5 days following CIE, suggesting a possible role in mechanisms underlying long-term molecular and behavioral response to CIE. Bioinformatics analysis of this network and several other modules identified Let-7 family microRNAs as potential regulators of gene expression changes induced by CIE. Our results suggest a

  17. Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maren L; Lopez, Marcelo F; Archer, Kellie J; Wolen, Aaron R; Becker, Howard C; Miles, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Long lasting abusive consumption, dependence, and withdrawal are characteristic features of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Mechanistically, persistent changes in gene expression are hypothesized to contribute to brain adaptations leading to ethanol toxicity and AUD. We employed repeated chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor chamber as a mouse model to simulate the cycles of ethanol exposure and withdrawal commonly seen with AUD. This model has been shown to induce progressive ethanol consumption in rodents. Brain CIE-responsive expression networks were identified by microarray analysis across five regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system and extended amygdala with tissue harvested from 0-hours to 7-days following CIE. Weighted Gene Correlated Network Analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify gene networks over-represented for CIE-induced temporal expression changes across brain regions. Differential gene expression analysis showed that long-lasting gene regulation occurred 7-days after the final cycle of ethanol exposure only in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Across all brain regions, however, ethanol-responsive expression changes occurred mainly within the first 8-hours after removal from ethanol. Bioinformatics analysis showed that neuroinflammatory responses were seen across multiple brain regions at early time-points, whereas co-expression modules related to neuroplasticity, chromatin remodeling, and neurodevelopment were seen at later time-points and in specific brain regions (PFC or HPC). In PFC a module containing Bdnf was identified as highly CIE responsive in a biphasic manner, with peak changes at 0 hours and 5 days following CIE, suggesting a possible role in mechanisms underlying long-term molecular and behavioral response to CIE. Bioinformatics analysis of this network and several other modules identified Let-7 family microRNAs as potential regulators of gene expression changes induced by CIE. Our results suggest a complex temporal

  18. Regional Comparison of the Neurogenic Effects of CNTF-Derived Peptides and Cerebrolysin in AβPP Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rockenstein, Edward; Ubhi, Kiren; Doppler, Edith; Novak, Philipp; Moessler, Herbert; Bin LI; Blanchard, Julie; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid; Mante, Michael; Adame, Anthony; Crews, Leslie; Masliah, Eliezer

    2011-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in certain brain regions, is known to decrease with age and the loss of neurogenic potential has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Cerebrolysin (CBL) has been shown to increase neurogenesis in models of stroke and AD. CBL is composed of small peptides with activity similar to neurotrophic factors including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), which may mediate its neurogenic effects. This s...

  19. Comparison of seismotomographic and thermogravitational models with distribution of the seismotectonic deformation orientations for Kamchatka region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushenkova, Natalia; Kuchay, Olga; Chervov, Victor; Koulakov, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    area of structural changes in the tomography model at a depth of 200-400 km. In the numerical 3D model of convection in the upper mantle, the same zone corresponds to the connection of the downward flows. These results suggest that the southeastern descending flow corresponds to the abrupt changes of orientations of the principal axes of seismotectonic deformation. Moreover, the southwestern descending flow corresponds to the subducting slab patterns in the tomography model of the Kamchatka region. This work is partially supported by the RSCF project #14-17-00430. Bushenkova N., Kuchay O., Chervov V. (2014), Comparison of seismotomographic and thermogravitational models with distribution of the seismotectonic deformation orientations for southern Siberia area, Geophys. Res. Abstr. EGU 2014. P. 3452. Koulakov I.Yu., N.L. Dobretsov, N.A. Bushenkova, A.V. Yakovlev, (2011). Slab shape in subduction zones beneath the Kurile-Kamchatka and Aleutian arcs based on regional tomography results, Russian Geology and Geophysics 52 (6), 650-667. Riznichenko Yu.V. Problemy seismologii. M.: Nauka, 1985, 407 p. (in russian). Chervov V.V., Chernykh G.G. (2014), Numerical modeling of three-dimensional convection in the upper mantle of the earth beneath Eurasia lithosphere, Journal of Engineering Thermophysics. 23(2), 105-111.

  20. From Child to Young Adult, the Brain Changes Its Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Kaustubh Supekar; Mark Musen; Vinod Menon

    2009-01-01

    The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y) and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y). Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains have similar "small-world" organization at th...

  1. Comparison of spike sorting and thresholding of voltage waveforms for intracortical brain-machine interface performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Breanne P.; Tat, Derek M.; Irwin, Zachary T.; Gilja, Vikash; Nuyujukian, Paul; Foster, Justin D.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Thompson, David E.; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. For intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), action potential voltage waveforms are often sorted to separate out individual neurons. If these neurons contain independent tuning information, this process could increase BMI performance. However, the sorting of action potentials (‘spikes’) requires high sampling rates and is computationally expensive. To explicitly define the difference between spike sorting and alternative methods, we quantified BMI decoder performance when using threshold-crossing events versus sorted action potentials. Approach. We used data sets from 58 experimental sessions from two rhesus macaques implanted with Utah arrays. Data were recorded while the animals performed a center-out reaching task with seven different angles. For spike sorting, neural signals were sorted into individual units by using a mixture of Gaussians to cluster the first four principal components of the waveforms. For thresholding events, spikes that simply crossed a set threshold were retained. We decoded the data offline using both a Naïve Bayes classifier for reaching direction and a linear regression to evaluate hand position. Main results. We found the highest performance for thresholding when placing a threshold between -3 and -4.5 × Vrms. Spike sorted data outperformed thresholded data for one animal but not the other. The mean Naïve Bayes classification accuracy for sorted data was 88.5% and changed by 5% on average when data were thresholded. The mean correlation coefficient for sorted data was 0.92, and changed by 0.015 on average when thresholded. Significance. For prosthetics applications, these results imply that when thresholding is used instead of spike sorting, only a small amount of performance may be lost. The utilization of threshold-crossing events may significantly extend the lifetime of a device because these events are often still detectable once single neurons are no longer isolated.

  2. Comparison of partial volume effects in arterial and venous contrast curves in CT brain perfusion imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J Riordan

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In brain CT perfusion (CTP, the arterial contrast bolus is scaled to have the same area under the curve (AUC as the venous outflow to correct for partial volume effects (PVE. This scaling is based on the assumption that large veins are unaffected by PVE. Measurement of the internal carotid artery (ICA, usually unaffected by PVE due to its large diameter, may avoid the need for partial volume correction. The aims of this work are to examine i the assumptions behind PVE correction and ii the potential of selecting the ICA obviating correction for PVE. METHODS: The AUC of the ICA and sagittal sinus were measured in CTP datasets from 52 patients. The AUCs were determined by i using commercial CTP software based on a Gaussian curve-fitting to the time attenuation curve, and ii by simple integration of the time attenuation curve over a time interval. In addition, frames acquired up to 3 minutes after first bolus passage were used to examine the ratio of arterial and venous enhancement. The impact of selecting the ICA without PVE correction was illustrated by reporting cerebral blood volume (CBV measurements. RESULTS: In 49 of 52 patients, the AUC of the ICA was significantly larger than that of the sagittal sinus (p = 0.017. Measured after the first pass bolus, contrast enhancement remained 50% higher in the ICA just after the first pass bolus, and 30% higher 3 minutes later. CBV measurements were significantly lowered when the ICA was used without PVE correction. CONCLUSIONS: Contradicting the assumptions underlying PVE correction, contrast in the ICA was significantly higher than in the sagittal sinus, even 3 minutes after the first pass of the contrast bolus. PVE correction might lead to overestimation of CBV if the CBV is calculated using the AUC of the time attenuation curves.

  3. Dopamine D(2) receptor quantification in extrastriatal brain regions using [(123)I]epidepride with bolus/infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinborg, L H; Videbaek, C; Knudsen, G M; Swahn, C G; Halldin, C; Friberg, L; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    2000-06-15

    The iodinated benzamide epidepride, which shows a picomolar affinity binding to dopamine D(2) receptors, has been designed for in vivo studies using SPECT. The aim of the present study was to apply a steady-state condition by the bolus/infusion approach with [(123)I]epidepride for the quantification of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptors in humans. In this way the distribution volume of the tracer can be determined from a single SPECT image and one blood sample. Based on bolus experiments, an algorithm using conventional convolution arguments for prediction of the outcome of a bolus/infusion (B/I) experiment was applied. It was predicted that a B/I protocol with infusion of one-third of the initial bolus per hour would be appropriate. Steady-state conditions were attained in extrastriatal regions within 3-4 h but the infusion continued up to 7 h in order to minimize the significance of individual differences in plasma clearance and binding parameters. A steady-state condition, however, could not be attained in striatal brain regions using a B/I protocol of 20 h, even after 11 h. Under near steady-state conditions a striatal:cerebellar ratio of 23 was demonstrated. Epidepride has a unique signal-to-noise ratio compared to [(123)I]IBZM but present difficulties for steady-state measurements of striatal regions. The bolus/infusion approach is particularly feasible for quantification of the binding potential in extrastriatal regions. PMID:10819910

  4. The Thatcher illusion reveals orientation dependence in brain regions involved in processing facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psalta, Lilia; Young, Andrew W; Thompson, Peter; Andrews, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Although the processing of facial identity is known to be sensitive to the orientation of the face, it is less clear whether orientation sensitivity extends to the processing of facial expressions. To address this issue, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to measure the neural response to the Thatcher illusion. This illusion involves a local inversion of the eyes and mouth in a smiling face-when the face is upright, the inverted features make it appear grotesque, but when the face is inverted, the inversion is no longer apparent. Using an fMRI-adaptation paradigm, we found a release from adaptation in the superior temporal sulcus-a region directly linked to the processing of facial expressions-when the images were upright and they changed from a normal to a Thatcherized configuration. However, this release from adaptation was not evident when the faces were inverted. These results show that regions involved in processing facial expressions display a pronounced orientation sensitivity.

  5. A Comparison of ETKF and Downscaling in a Regional Ensemble Prediction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbin Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the operational regional ensemble prediction system (REPS in China Meteorological Administration (CMA, this paper carried out comparison of two initial condition perturbation methods: an ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF and a dynamical downscaling of global ensemble perturbations. One month consecutive tests are implemented to evaluate the performance of both methods in the operational REPS environment. The perturbation characteristics are analyzed and ensemble forecast verifications are conducted; furthermore, a TC case is investigated. The main conclusions are as follows: the ETKF perturbations contain more power at small scales while the ones derived from downscaling contain more power at large scales, and the relative difference of the two types of perturbations on scales become smaller with forecast lead time. The growth of downscaling perturbations is more remarkable, and the downscaling perturbations have larger magnitude than ETKF perturbations at all forecast lead times. However, the ETKF perturbation variance can represent the forecast error variance better than downscaling. Ensemble forecast verification shows slightly higher skill of downscaling ensemble over ETKF ensemble. A TC case study indicates that the overall performance of the two systems are quite similar despite the slightly smaller error of DOWN ensemble than ETKF ensemble at long range forecast lead times.

  6. A comparison of atmospheric composition using the Carbon Bond and Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sarwar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate the recently developed Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (version 2, RACM2 into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system for comparison with the existing 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism with updated toluene chemistry (CB05TU. Compared to CB05TU, RACM2 enhances the domain-wide monthly mean hydroxyl radical concentrations by 46% and nitric acid by 26%. However, it reduces hydrogen peroxide by 2%, peroxyacetic acid by 94%, methyl hydrogen peroxide by 19%, peroxyacetyl nitrate by 40%, and organic nitrate by 41%. RACM2 enhances ozone compared to CB05TU at all ambient levels. Although it exhibited greater overestimates at lower observed concentrations, it displayed an improved performance at higher observed concentrations. The RACM2 ozone predictions are also supported by increased ozone production efficiency that agrees better with observations. Compared to CB05TU, RACM2 enhances the domain-wide monthly mean sulfate by 10%, nitrate by 6%, ammonium by 10%, anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols by 42%, biogenic secondary organic aerosols by 5%, and in-cloud secondary organic aerosols by 7%. Increased inorganic and organic aerosols with RACM2 agree better with observed data. Any air pollution control strategies developed using the two mechanisms do not differ appreciably.

  7. A comparison of atmospheric composition using the Carbon Bond and Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sarwar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate the recently developed Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (version 2, RACM2 into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system for comparison with the existing 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism with updated toluene chemistry (CB05TU. Compared to CB05TU, RACM2 enhances the domain-wide monthly mean hydroxyl radical concentrations by 46% and nitric acid by 26%. However, it reduces hydrogen peroxide by 2%, peroxyacetic acid by 94%, methyl hydrogen peroxide by 19%, peroxyacetyl nitrate by 40%, and organic nitrate by 41%. RACM2 predictions generally agree better with the observed data than the CB05TU predictions. RACM2 enhances ozone for all ambient levels leading to higher bias at low (70 ppbv concentrations. The RACM2 ozone predictions are also supported by increased ozone production efficiency that agrees better with observations. Compared to CB05TU, RACM2 enhances the domain-wide monthly mean sulfate by 10%, nitrate by 6%, ammonium by 10%, anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols by 42%, biogenic secondary organic aerosols by 5%, and in-cloud secondary organic aerosols by 7%. Increased inorganic and organic aerosols with RACM2 agree better with observed data. While RACM2 enhances ozone and secondary aerosols by relatively large margins, control strategies developed for ozone or fine particles using the two mechanisms do not differ appreciably.

  8. Comparison of starts and turns of national and regional level swimmers by individualized-distance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Santiago; Cala, Antonio; Frutos, Pablo G; Navarro, Enrique

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the race characteristics of the start and turn segments of national and regional level swimmers. In the study, 100 and 200-m events were analysed during the finals session of the Open Comunidad de Madrid (Spain) tournament. The "individualized-distance" method with two-dimensional direct linear transformation algorithm was used to perform race analyses. National level swimmers obtained faster velocities in all race segments and stroke comparisons, although significant inter-level differences in start velocity were only obtained in half (8 out of 16) of the analysed events. Higher level swimmers also travelled for longer start and turn distances but only in the race segments where the gain of speed was high. This was observed in the turn segments, in the backstroke and butterfly strokes and during the 200-m breaststroke event, but not in any of the freestyle events. Time improvements due to the appropriate extension of the underwater subsections appeared to be critical for the end race result and should be carefully evaluated by the "individualized-distance" method. PMID:25325772

  9. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF ACTIVE REGION 7986: COMPARISON OF SIMULATIONS WITH OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mok, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Mikić, Zoran; Lionello, Roberto; Downs, Cooper; Linker, Jon A., E-mail: ymok@uci.edu [Predictive Science, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    In the present study, we use a forward modeling method to construct a 3D thermal structure encompassing active region 7986 of 1996 August. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emissions are then computed and compared with observations. The heating mechanism is inspired by a theory on Alfvén wave turbulence dissipation. The magnetic structure is built from a Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/MDI magnetogram and an estimated torsion parameter deduced from observations. We found that the solution to the equations in some locations is in a thermal nonequilibrium state. The time variation of the density and temperature profiles leads to time dependent emissions, which appear as thin, loop-like structures with uniform cross-section. Their timescale is consistent with the lifetime of observed coronal loops. The dynamic nature of the solution also leads to plasma flows that resemble observed coronal rain. The computed EUV emissions from the coronal part of the fan loops and the high loops compare favorably with SOHO/EIT observations in a quantitative comparison. However, the computed emission from the lower atmosphere is excessive compared to observations, a symptom common to many models. Some factors for this discrepancy are suggested, including the use of coronal abundances to compute the emissions and the neglect of atmospheric opacity effects.

  10. Normalization in PET group comparison studies - The importance of a valid reference region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Jonsdottir, Kristjana Yr; Cumming, Paul;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism, the large interindividual variation commonly is minimized by normalization to the global mean prior to statistical analysis. This approach requires that no between-group or between-state diffe......INTRODUCTION: In positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism, the large interindividual variation commonly is minimized by normalization to the global mean prior to statistical analysis. This approach requires that no between-group or between......-state differences exist in the normalization region. Given the variability typical of global CBF and the practical limit on sample size, small group differences in global mean easily elude detection, but still bias the comparison, with profound consequences for the physiological interpretation of the results....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative [15O]H2O PET recordings of CBF were obtained in 45 healthy subjects (21-81 years) and 14 patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). With volume-of-interest (VOI) and voxel-based statistics, we conducted regression analyses of CBF as function of age in the healthy group...

  11. Comparison of the Effects of Adenosine A1 Receptors Activity in CA1 Region of the Hippocampus on Entorhinal Cortex and Amygdala Kindled Seizures in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heidarianpour

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In the CNS, adenosine is known to suppress repetitive neuronal Firing, suggesting a role as an endogenous modifier of seizures. Indeed, intracerebral adenosine concentrations rise acutely during seizure activity and are thought to be responsible for terminating seizures and establishing a period of post-ictal refractoriness. However, it is unclear whether this suppression results from a general depression of brain excitability or through action on particular sites critical for the control of after discharge generation and/or seizure development and propagation. In this regard, comparison of the effects of adenosine A1 receptors of CA1 (region of the ‎hippocampus on entorhinal cortex and amygdala kindled seizures was ‎investigated in this study. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, Animals were kindled by daily electrical stimulation of amygdale (group A or entorhinal cortex (group B. In the fully kindled animals, N6-‎cyclohexyladenosine (CHA;1 and 10 M; a selective adenosine A1 receptor ‎agonist and 1,3-dimethyl-8-cyclohexylxanthine(CPT;1 ‎µ‎M; a selective ‎adenosine A1 receptors antagonist were microinfused bilaterally into the CA1 ‎region of hippocampus (1l/2min and animals were stimulated at 5 and 15 minutes after drug ‎injection. All animals were received artificial cerebrospinal fluid, 24 h before ‎each drug injection and this result were used as control. Results: The seizure parameters were measured at 5 and 15min post injection. Obtained data showed that CHA at concentrations of 10 ‎µ‎M reduced ‎entorhinal cortex and amygdala after discharge and stage5 seizure durations and ‎increased stage4 latency. CHA at concentration 1‎µ‎M significantly alters ‎seizure parameters of group A but not effect on group B. Intrahippocampal (CA1 region pretreatment of CPT (1 ‎µ‎M before CHA abolished the effects of CHA on seizure parameters.Conclusion: It ‎may be

  12. Tc-{sup 99m} ECD brain SPECT in MELAS syndrome: comparison with MR finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Joon; Ryu, Young Hoon; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Jeon, Tae Joo; Kim, Jai Keun; Nam, Ji Eun; Lee, Jong Doo [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Hee [Poondang Cha Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyung Cheol [College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Chonnon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate SPECT findings of MELAS syndrome and mitochondrial myopathy and correlate them with MR findings in search of specific imaging features and to assess the role of SPECT in MELAS syndrome. Five patients (four females and one male; age range, 1 to 25 years) who presented with repeated stroke-like episodes or seizures or developmental delay or were asymptomatic but had elevated lactic acid in CSF and serum were evaluated with conventional noncontrast MR imaging and SPECT. MRI demonstrated increased T2 signal intensities in the affected areas of gray and white matters mainly on the parietal (4/5) and occipital lobes (4/5) and in the basal ganglias (1/5), which were not restricted to a specific vascular territory. SPECT demonstrated decreased uptake of Tc-99m ECD on parietal (5/5) and occipital (4/5) and temporal (2/5) and frontal (1/5) lobe and basal ganglia (2/5) and thalami (2/5). In a patient with mitochondrial myopathy who had normal MRI, decreased perfusion is noted on left parietal area and bilateral thalami. Comparison of the numbers of abnormal findings revealed that decreased perfusion seen on SPECT were more numerous than anatomical abnormalities seen on MRI. SPECT may be a sensitive method for pathophysiological study of metabolic disturbances in MELAS. Moreover, in patients with mitochondrial myopathy without clinical encephalopathy, SPECT may play a role in evaluating subclinical encephalopathy even with normal conventional MR findings.

  13. Altered Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in Language-Related Brain Regions in Association with Verbal Memory Performance in Euthymic Bipolar Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. J. Linden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential abnormalities in the structure and function of the temporal lobes have been studied much less in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. This may not be justified because language-related symptoms, such as pressured speech and flight of ideas, and cognitive deficits in the domain of verbal memory are amongst the hallmark of bipolar disorder (BD, and contribution of temporal lobe dysfunction is therefore likely. In the current study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity (FC between the auditory cortex (Heschl’s gyrus [HG], planum temporale [PT] and whole brain using seed correlation analysis in n = 21 BD euthymic patients and n = 20 matched healthy controls and associated it with verbal memory performance. In comparison to controls BD patients showed decreased functional connectivity between Heschl’s gyrus and planum temporale and the left superior and middle temporal gyrus. Additionally, fronto-temporal functional connectivity with the right inferior frontal/precentral gyrus and the insula was increased in patients. Verbal episodic memory deficits in the investigated sample of BD patients and language-related symptoms might therefore be associated with a diminished FC within the auditory/temporal gyrus and a compensatory fronto-temporal pathway.

  14. A reliable procedure for comparison of antioxidants in rat brain homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, J K; Beart, P M; Jarrott, B

    1998-04-01

    Lipid peroxidation is a major consequence of oxidative stress and an important cause of neuronal damage in ischaemic injuries and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Recent research has focused on the development of antioxidant drugs which may delay or minimize neurodegeneration. Rapid and reliable assays are therefore necessary in order to evaluate novel antioxidant compounds. A widely adopted method for measurement of lipid peroxidation is the thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) assay. Several variations of this method have appeared in the literature, some of which have been tested by us without success. We have therefore established a reliable procedure which takes into account the most important factors previously found to influence the TBARS method. Briefly, various concentrations of drug were added to rat brain homogenates (10% w/v in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.4) and incubated at 37 degrees C for 10 min before addition of ammonium ferric sulphate (100 or 1000 microM) and a further incubation at 37 degrees C for 30 min. Proteins were then precipitated with 8.1% sodium dodecyl sulphate, the reaction stopped with 20% acetic acid, and the samples were then centrifuged for 15 min. Aliquots of supernatant were added to an equal volume of thiobarbituric acid (0.8%), samples were heated at 95 degrees C for 30 min, and then cooled on ice before reading at 532 nm. The present adaptation represents a simple and highly reproducible assay which does not require difficult extraction procedures with hazardous chemicals and results in a stable chromagen. The method has been evaluated using a number of structurally distinct antioxidants and iron chelators. IC50 values (microM) for percentage inhibition of TBARS formation were as follows: desferroxamine (1.1), U83836E (1.7), butylated hydroxytoluene (13), U74500A (20), LY231617 (22), idebenone (89), and Trolox (110). This order of potency was comparable to that found with a commercially

  15. Effect of time period after boric acid injection on {sup 10}B absorption in different regions of adult male rat's brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh.nasrin@gmail.com [Nuclear Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Poonak Sq. PO Box 14515-775, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali [Nuclear Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Poonak Sq. PO Box 14515-775, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Behnam [Nuclear Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Poonak Sq. PO Box 14515-775, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Laboratory of Basic Science and Neuroscience, Basic Science Dept, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Pardis-e-Hemmat,Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Goodarzi, Samereh [Nuclear Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Poonak Sq. PO Box 14515-775, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Distribution of {sup 10}B in different regions of rat normal brain was studied. Two groups were chosen as control and trial. Trial group received 2 ml of neutral boron compound. 2, 4 and 6 h after the injection brain removed, coronal sections of forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain were sandwiched between two pieces of polycarbonate. Autoradiography plots of {sup 10}B distribution showed significant differences in three regions with the highest {sup 10}B concentration in the forebrain during 4 h after injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Normal tissue tolerance is very important in BNCT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study has been done to determine {sup 10}B distribution in three anatomical regions of rat normal brain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These specific regions of brain have not been studied in previous BNCT projects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found significant differences in {sup 10}B distribution between these three regions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In different time periods after neutral boron compound injection, there has been a significant difference in boron absorption.

  16. Methylphenidate remediates error-preceding activation of the default mode brain regions in cocaine-addicted individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuskey, David; Luo, Xi; Zhang, Sheng; Morgan, Peter T; Abdelghany, Osama; Malison, Robert T; Li, Chiang-shan R

    2013-11-30

    Many previous studies suggest the potential of psychostimulants in improving cognitive functioning. Our earlier pharmacological brain imaging study showed that intravenous methylphenidate (MPH) improves inhibitory control by altering cortico-striato-thalamic activations in cocaine-dependent (CD) individuals. Here we provide additional evidence for the effects of MPH in restoring cerebral activations during cognitive performance. Ten CD individuals performed a stop signal task (SST) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in two sessions, in which either MPH (0.5mg/kg body weight) or saline was administered intravenously. In the SST, a frequent go signal instructs participants to make a speeded response and a less frequent stop signal instructs them to withhold the response. Our previous work described increased activation of the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex-regions of the default mode network (DMN)-before participants committed a stop error in healthy control but not CD individuals (Bednarski et al., 2011). The current results showed that, compared to saline, MPH restored error-preceding activations of DMN regions in CD individuals. The extent of the changes in precuneus activity was correlated with MPH-elicited increase in systolic blood pressure. These findings suggest that the influence of MPH on cerebral activations may extend beyond cognitive control and provide additional evidence warranting future studies to investigate the neural mechanisms and physiological markers of the efficacy of agonist therapy in cocaine dependence. PMID:23973363

  17. The DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin counteracts stroke in the normal and diabetic mouse brain: a comparison with glimepiride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsalia, Vladimer; Ortsäter, Henrik; Olverling, Anna; Darlöf, Emilia; Wolbert, Petra; Nyström, Thomas; Klein, Thomas; Sjöholm, Åke; Patrone, Cesare

    2013-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a strong risk factor for stroke. Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor in clinical use against type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the potential antistroke efficacy of linagliptin in type 2 diabetic mice. To understand whether efficacy was mediated by glycemia regulation, a comparison with the sulfonylurea glimepiride was done. To determine whether linagliptin-mediated efficacy was dependent on a diabetic background, experiments in nondiabetic mice were performed. Type 2 diabetes was induced by feeding the mice a high-fat diet for 32 weeks. Mice were treated with linagliptin/glimepiride for 7 weeks. Stroke was induced at 4 weeks into the treatment by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Blood DPP-4 activity, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels, glucose, body weight, and food intake were assessed throughout the experiments. Ischemic brain damage was measured by determining stroke volume and by stereologic quantifications of surviving neurons in the striatum/cortex. We show pronounced antistroke efficacy of linagliptin in type 2 diabetic and normal mice, whereas glimepiride proved efficacious against stroke in normal mice only. These results indicate a linagliptin-mediated neuroprotection that is glucose-independent and likely involves GLP-1. The findings may provide an impetus for the development of DPP-4 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of stroke in diabetic patients.

  18. Comparison of stereotactic plans for brain tumors with two different multileaf collimating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrazzo, Livia; Zani, Margherita; Pallotta, Stefania; Greto, Daniela; Scoccianti, Silvia; Talamonti, Cinzia; Biti, Giampaolo; Bucciolini, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been widely used for treating small intracranial lesions. This technique allows conforming the dose distribution to the planning target volume (PTV), providing a steep dose gradient with the surrounding normal tissues. This is realized through dedicated collimation systems. The present study aims to compare SRS plans with two collimating systems: the beam modulator (BM) of the Elekta Synergy linac and the DirexGroup micromultileaf collimator (μMLC). Seventeen patients (25 PTVs) were planned both with BM and μMLC (mounted on an Elekta Precise linac) using the Odyssey (PerMedics) treatment planning system (TPS). Plans were compared in terms of dose-volume histograms (DVH), minimum dose to the PTV, conformity index (CI), and homogeneity index (HI), as defined by the TPS, and doses to relevant organs at risk (OAR). The mean difference between the μMLC and the BM plans in minimum PTV dose was 5.7% ± 4.2% in favor of the μMLC plans. No statistically significant difference was found between the distributions of the CI values for the two planning modalities (p = 0.54), while the difference between the distributions of the HI values was statistically significant (p = 0.018). For both BM and μMLC plans, no differences were observed in CI and HI, depending on lesion size and shape. The PTV homogeneity achieved by BM plans was 15.1% ± 6.8% compared to 10.4% ± 6.6% with μMLC. Higher maximum and mean doses to OAR were observed in the BM plans; however, for both plans, dose constraints were respected. The comparison between the two collimating systems showed no substantial differences in terms of PTV coverage or OAR sparing. The improvements obtained by using μMLC are relatively small, and both systems turned out to be adequate for SRS treatments. PMID:24423831

  19. Regional induction of c-fos and heat shock protein-72 mRNA following fluid-percussion brain injury in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghupathi, R.; Welsh, F.A.; Gennarelli, T.A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    To evaluate the cellular response to traumatic brain injury, the expression of mRNA for c-fos and the 72-kDa heat shock protein (hsp72) was determined using in situ hybridization following lateral fluid-percussion injury (2.2-2.4 atm) in rat brain. At 2 h after injury, induction of c-fos mRNA was restricted to regions of the cortex surrounding the contusion area. An increase in c-fos mRNA, but not hsp72 mRNA, was observed bilaterally in the CA{sub 3} subfield of the hippocampus and the granule cells of the dentate gyrus and in the thalamus ipsilateral to the impact site. By 6 h, increased expression of c-fos mRNA was observed only in the corpus callosum on the impact side; hsp72 mRNA persisted in the deep cortical layers and upper layers of the subcortical white matter below the site of maximal injury. By 24 h, both c-fos and hsp72 mRNA had returned to control levels in all regions of the brain. These results demonstrate that lateral fluid-percussion brain injury triggers regionally and temporally specific expression of c-fos and hsp72 mRNA, which may be suggestive of differential neurochemical alterations in neurons and glia following experimental brain injury. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Comparison of brain activation patterns during executive function tasks in hoarding disorder and non-hoarding OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Christina M; Luks, Tracy L; Lai, Karen; Vigil, Ofilio; Guillory, Sylvia; Nongpiur, Arvind; Fekri, Shiva M; Kupferman, Eve; Mathalon, Daniel H; Mathews, Carol A

    2016-09-30

    We examined differences in regional brain activation during tests of executive function in individuals with Hoarding Disorder (HD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), and healthy controls (HC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants completed computerized versions of the Stroop and Go/No-Go task. We found that during the conflict monitoring and response inhibition condition in the Go/No-Go task, individuals with HD had significantly greater activity than controls in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). HD also exhibited significantly greater right DLPFC activity than OCD. We also observed significant differences in activity between HD and HC and between HD and OCD in regions (ACC, anterior insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and striatum) involved in evaluating stimulus-response-reward associations, or the personal and task-relevant value of stimuli and behavioral responses to stimuli. These results support the hypothesis that individuals with HD have difficulty deciding on the value or task relevance of stimuli, and may perceive an abnormally high risk of negative feedback for difficult or erroneous cognitive behavior. PMID:27522332

  1. Comparison of two brain tumor-localizing MRI agent. GD-BOPTA and GD-DTPA. MRI and ICP study of rat brain tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we compared the behavior of Gd-BOPTA as a brain tumor selective contrast agent with Gd-DTPA in a common dose of 0.1 mmol/kg. We performed a MRI study using those two agent as contrast material, and we measured tissue Gd-concentrations by ICP-AES. As a result, Gd-BOPTA showed a better MRI enhancement in brain tumor. ICP showed significantly greater uptake of Gd-BOPTA in tumor samples, at all time course peaked at 5 minutes after administration, Gd being retained for a longer time in brain tumor till 2 hours, without rapid elimination as Gd-DTPA. We conclude that Gd-BOPTA is a new useful contrast material for MR imaging in brain tumor and an effective absorption agent for neutron capture therapy for further research. (author)

  2. Comparison study of two different procedures for the determination of drugs of abuse in postmortem brain samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Karen Marie Dollerup; Reiter, Birgit; Skov, Louise;

    2014-01-01

    from blood to brain and thereby see if we could avoid a time comsuming optimization of the Copenhagen method to accommodate the more complex brain matrix. Comparative analyses and quantification of eight drugs of abuse (methadone, morphine, amphetamine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, morphine, codeine......, diazepam and 7-aminoflunitrazepam) in 19 brain homogenates of authentic cases were conducted....

  3. Correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and degree of brain tissue injury of interictal epileptic activity in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the correlation between the change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and brain tissue injury from interictal epileptic activity in patients with epilepsy. Methods: Forty-eight patients with epilepsy and 30 healthy persons were included in the study from which the serum S100β protein levels were determined by double antibody sandwich ELISA method. SPECT rCBF imaging was performed in all patients. The visual and semi-quantitative analyses were used to analyze the epileptic foci. SPSS 11.0 was applied for variance and linear correlation analyses. Results: Serum S-100β in patients with interictal epileptic activity was significantly higher than that in control group ((0.572±0.163) μg/L vs (0.218±0.134) μg/L, t =9.96, P<0.01). According to epilepsy control criteria, 20 cases achieved complete control (CC), 18 cases achieved partial control (PR). However, 10 cases got no improvement,whose serum S-100β protein ((0.809±0.056) μg/L) and the percentage change of rCBF ((0.337±0.060) %) were significantly higher than those of CC ((0.443±0.083) μg/L, (0.035±0.038) %) and those of PC ((0.585±0.108) μg/L, (0.187±0.075)%), F=56. 740, 92. 316, P<0.01. There were high correlation between serum S-100β and the percentage change of rCBF in epilepsy patients (r =0.887, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum S-100β protein assay combined with rCBF on SPECT imaging can make semi-quantitative diagnosis of epilepsy and help evaluate the brain damage from interictal epileptic activity. (authors)

  4. Increased Functional Activation of Limbic Brain Regions during Negative Emotional Processing in Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sophie L; Veggeberg, Rosanna; Lemme, Jordan; Hodkinson, Duncan J; Scrivani, Steven; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2016-01-01

    Pain is both an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. This is highly relevant in migraine where cortical hyperexcitability in response to sensory stimuli (including pain, light, and sound) has been extensively reported. However, migraine may feature a more general enhanced response to aversive stimuli rather than being sensory-specific. To this end we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural activation in migraineurs interictaly in response to emotional visual stimuli from the International Affective Picture System. Migraineurs, compared to healthy controls, demonstrated increased neural activity in response to negative emotional stimuli. Most notably in regions overlapping in their involvement in both nociceptive and emotional processing including the posterior cingulate, caudate, amygdala, and thalamus (cluster corrected, p migraine may feature more generalized altered cerebral processing of aversive/negative stimuli, rather than exclusively to sensory stimuli. A generalized hypersensitivity to aversive stimuli may be an inherent feature of migraine, or a consequential alteration developed over the duration of the disease. This proposed cortical-limbic hypersensitivity may form an important part of the migraine pathophysiology, including psychological comorbidity, and may represent an innate sensitivity to aversive stimuli that underpins attack triggers, attack persistence and (potentially) gradual headache chronification. PMID:27507939

  5. Individual Differences in Reward and Somatosensory-Motor Brain Regions Correlate with Adiposity in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapuano, Kristina M; Huckins, Jeremy F; Sargent, James D; Heatherton, Todd F; Kelley, William M

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of adolescent obesity has increased dramatically over the past three decades, and research has documented that the number of television shows viewed during childhood is associated with greater risk for obesity. In particular, considerable evidence suggests that exposure to food marketing promotes eating habits that contribute to obesity. The present study examines neural responses to dynamic food commercials in overweight and healthy-weight adolescents using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Compared with non-food commercials, food commercials more strongly engaged regions involved in attention and saliency detection (occipital lobe, precuneus, superior temporal gyri, and right insula) and in processing rewards [left and right nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)]. Activity in the left OFC and right insula further correlated with subjects' percent body fat at the time of the scan. Interestingly, this reward-related activity to food commercials was accompanied by the additional recruitment of mouth-specific somatosensory-motor cortices-a finding that suggests the intriguing possibility that higher-adiposity adolescents mentally simulate eating behaviors and offers a potential neural mechanism for the formation and reinforcement of unhealthy eating habits that may hamper an individual's ability lose weight later in life. PMID:25994961

  6. Comparison of the regional CO2 mole fraction filtering approaches at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, S. X.; Tans, P. P.; Steinbacher, M.; Zhou, L. X.; Luan, T.

    2015-12-01

    The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which are minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for trend analysis, for the estimation of regional sources and sinks, and for the modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) regional station (Lin'an, LAN) in China. The methods are based on the concentration of atmospheric black carbon (BC), on a statistical approach (robust extraction of baseline signal, REBS), on CH4 as an auxiliary tracer (AUX), and on meteorological parameters (MET). All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during the winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fraction evaluations, as the filtered trend may be influenced by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks, and considers diurnal variations and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 (standard error) from 2009 to 2011.

  7. Exposure to ethanol during neurodevelopment modifies crucial offspring rat brain enzyme activities in a region-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolakis, Vasileios; Liapi, Charis; Zarros, Apostolos; Kalopita, Konstantina; Memtsas, Vassilios; Botis, John; Tsagianni, Anastasia; Kimpizi, Despoina; Varatsos, Alexios; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2015-12-01

    The experimental simulation of conditions falling within "the fetal alcohol spectrum disorder" (FASD) requires the maternal exposure to ethanol (EtOH) during crucial neurodevelopmental periods; EtOH has been linked to a number of neurotoxic effects on the fetus, which are dependent upon the extent and the magnitude of the maternal exposure to EtOH and for which very little is known with regard to the exact mechanism(s) involved. The current study has examined the effects of moderate maternal exposure to EtOH (10 % v/v in the drinking water) throughout gestation, or gestation and lactation, on crucial 21-day-old offspring Wistar rat brain parameters, such as the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and two adenosine triphosphatases (Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase), in major offspring CNS regions (frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and pons). The implemented experimental setting has provided a comparative view of the neurotoxic effects of maternal exposure to EtOH between gestation alone and a wider exposure timeframe that better covers the human third trimester-matching CNS neurodevelopment period (gestation and lactation), and has revealed a CNS region-specific susceptibility of the examined crucial neurochemical parameters to the EtOH exposure schemes attempted. Amongst these parameters, of particular importance is the recorded extensive stimulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in the frontal cortex of the EtOH-exposed offspring that seems to be a result of the deleterious effect of EtOH during gestation. Although this stimulation could be inversely related to the observed inhibition of AChE in the same CNS region, its dependency upon the EtOH-induced modulation of other systems of neurotransmission cannot be excluded and must be further clarified in future experimental attempts aiming to simulate and to shed more light on the milder forms of the FASD-related pathophysiology.

  8. Comparison of pointwise and regional statistical approaches to detect non stationarity in extreme rainfall events. Application to the Sahelian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthou, G.; Vischel, T.; Lebel, T.; Quantin, G.; Favre, A.; Blanchet, J.; Ali, A.

    2012-12-01

    Studying trends in rainfall extremes at regional scale is required to provide reference climatology to evaluate General Circulation Model global predictions as well as to help managing and designing hydraulic works. The present study compares three methods to detect trends (linear and change-point) in series of daily rainfall annual maxima: (i) The first approach is widely used and consist in applying statistical stationarity tests (linear trend and change-point) on the point-wise maxima series; (ii) The second approach compares the performances of a constant and a time dependent Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution fitted to the point-wise maxima series. (iii) The last method uses an original regional statistical model based on space-time GEV distribution which is used to detect changes in rainfall extremes directly at regional scale. The three methods are applied to detect trends in extreme daily rainfall over the Sahel during the period 1950-1990 for which a network of 128 daily rain gages is available. This region has experienced an intense drought since the end of the 1960s; it is thus an interesting case-study to illustrate how a regional climate change can affect the extreme rainfall distributions. One major result is that the statistical stationarity tests rarely detect non-stationarities in the series while the two GEV-based model