WorldWideScience

Sample records for brain processes supporting

  1. Social support, stress and the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Stephanie M; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Fingerman, Karen L; Schnyer, David M

    2016-07-01

    Social support benefits health and well-being in older individuals, however the mechanism remains poorly understood. One proposal, the stress-buffering hypothesis states social support 'buffers' the effects of stress on health. Alternatively, the main effect hypothesis suggests social support independently promotes health. We examined the combined association of social support and stress on the aging brain. Forty healthy older adults completed stress questionnaires, a social network interview and structural MRI to investigate the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuitry, which is implicated in social and emotional processing and negatively affected by stress. Social support was positively correlated with right medial prefrontal cortical thickness while amygdala volume was negatively associated with social support and positively related to stress. We examined whether the association between social support and amygdala volume varied across stress level. Stress and social support uniquely contribute to amygdala volume, which is consistent with the health benefits of social support being independent of stress. PMID:26060327

  2. Age differences in brain systems supporting transient and sustained processes involved in prospective memory and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peira, Nathalie; Ziaei, Maryam; Persson, Jonas

    2016-01-15

    In prospective memory (PM), an intention to act in response to an external event is formed, retained, and at a later stage, when the event occurs, the relevant action is performed. PM typically shows a decline in late adulthood, which might affect functions of daily living. The neural correlates of this decline are not well understood. Here, 15 young (6 female; age range=23-30years) and 16 older adults (5 female; age range=64-74years) were scanned with fMRI to examine age-related differences in brain activation associated with event-based PM using a task that facilitated the separation of transient and sustained components of PM. We show that older adults had reduced performance in conditions with high demands on prospective and working memory, while no age-difference was observed in low-demanding tasks. Across age groups, PM task performance activated separate sets of brain regions for transient and sustained responses. Age-differences in transient activation were found in fronto-striatal and MTL regions, with young adults showing more activation than older adults. Increased activation in young, compared to older adults, was also found for sustained PM activation in the IFG. These results provide new evidence that PM relies on dissociable transient and sustained cognitive processes, and that age-related deficits in PM can be explained by an inability to recruit PM-related brain networks in old age.

  3. Business process support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, Adriana; Fiducia, Daniel [Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A. (TGS), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    This paper is about the own development of business support software. The developed applications are used to support two business processes: one of them is the process of gas transportation and the other is the natural gas processing. This software has interphases with the ERP SAP, software SCADA and on line gas transportation simulation software. The main functionalities of the applications are: entrance on line real time of clients transport nominations, transport programming, allocation of the clients transport nominations, transport control, measurements, balanced pipeline, allocation of gas volume to the gas processing plants, calculate of product tons processed in each plant and tons of product distributed to clients. All the developed software generates information to the internal staff, regulatory authorities and clients. (author)

  4. Training the Mind's Eye: "Brain Movies" Support Comprehension and Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Explicit instruction on the skill of creating mental imagery from text supports reading comprehension and recall. This article shares a strategy for teaching students how to process what they read by comparing mental imagery to "brain movies." It emphasizes choosing appropriate fiction and nonfiction texts to encourage readers to build the skill…

  5. Oxytocin: parallel processing in the social brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölen, Gül

    2015-06-01

    Early studies attempting to disentangle the network complexity of the brain exploited the accessibility of sensory receptive fields to reveal circuits made up of synapses connected both in series and in parallel. More recently, extension of this organisational principle beyond the sensory systems has been made possible by the advent of modern molecular, viral and optogenetic approaches. Here, evidence supporting parallel processing of social behaviours mediated by oxytocin is reviewed. Understanding oxytocinergic signalling from this perspective has significant implications for the design of oxytocin-based therapeutic interventions aimed at disorders such as autism, where disrupted social function is a core clinical feature. Moreover, identification of opportunities for novel technology development will require a better appreciation of the complexity of the circuit-level organisation of the social brain. PMID:25912257

  6. Information processing in miniature brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, L; Skorupski, P

    2011-03-22

    Since a comprehensive understanding of brain function and evolution in vertebrates is often hobbled by the sheer size of the nervous system, as well as ethical concerns, major research efforts have been made to understand the neural circuitry underpinning behaviour and cognition in invertebrates, and its costs and benefits under natural conditions. This special feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B contains an idiosyncratic range of current research perspectives on neural underpinnings and adaptive benefits (and costs) of such diverse phenomena as spatial memory, colour vision, attention, spontaneous behaviour initiation, memory dynamics, relational rule learning and sleep, in a range of animals from marine invertebrates with exquisitely simple nervous systems to social insects forming societies with many thousands of individuals working together as a 'superorganism'. This introduction provides context and history to tie the various approaches together, and concludes that there is an urgent need to understand the full neuron-to-neuron circuitry underlying various forms of information processing-not just to explore brain function comprehensively, but also to understand how (and how easily) cognitive capacities might evolve in the face of pertinent selection pressures. In the invertebrates, reaching these goals is becoming increasingly realistic. PMID:21227971

  7. IT Support for Healthcare Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, R.; Reichert, M.U.

    2005-01-01

    Patient treatment processes require the cooperation of different organizational units and medical disciplines. In such an environment an optimal process support becomes crucial. Though healthcare processes frequently change, and therefore the separation of the flow logic from the application code se

  8. Gender differences in brain networks supporting empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Markowitsch, Hans J; Shah, N Jon; Fink, Gereon R; Piefke, Martina

    2008-08-01

    Females frequently score higher on standard tests of empathy, social sensitivity, and emotion recognition than do males. It remains to be clarified, however, whether these gender differences are associated with gender specific neural mechanisms of emotional social cognition. We investigated gender differences in an emotion attribution task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects either focused on their own emotional response to emotion expressing faces (SELF-task) or evaluated the emotional state expressed by the faces (OTHER-task). Behaviorally, females rated SELF-related emotions significantly stronger than males. Across the sexes, SELF- and OTHER-related processing of facial expressions activated a network of medial and lateral prefrontal, temporal, and parietal brain regions involved in emotional perspective taking. During SELF-related processing, females recruited the right inferior frontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus stronger than males. In contrast, there was increased neural activity in the left temporoparietal junction in males (relative to females). When performing the OTHER-task, females showed increased activation of the right inferior frontal cortex while there were no differential activations in males. The data suggest that females recruit areas containing mirror neurons to a higher degree than males during both SELF- and OTHER-related processing in empathic face-to-face interactions. This may underlie facilitated emotional "contagion" in females. Together with the observation that males differentially rely on the left temporoparietal junction (an area mediating the distinction between the SELF and OTHERS) the data suggest that females and males rely on different strategies when assessing their own emotions in response to other people.

  9. Information processing in miniature brains

    OpenAIRE

    Chittka, L.; Skorupski, P.

    2011-01-01

    Since a comprehensive understanding of brain function and evolution in vertebrates is often hobbled by the sheer size of the nervous system, as well as ethical concerns, major research efforts have been made to understand the neural circuitry underpinning behaviour and cognition in invertebrates, and its costs and benefits under natural conditions. This special feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B contains an idiosyncratic range of current research perspectives on neural underpinning...

  10. Referral decision support in patients with subacute brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asger R; Nielsen, Jørgen F; Jensen, Jim;

    2016-01-01

    support in the RCS-E and the item specific threshold model, when patients with acquired brain injury are to be referred to CSS or DSS as their primary rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Efficient rehabilitation after acquired brain injury requires rehabilitation settings that meet patient...

  11. Image Processing Technique for Brain Abnormality Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Anwar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging is expensive and very much sophisticated because of proprietary software and expert personalities. This paper introduces an inexpensive, user friendly general-purpose image processing tool and visualization program specifically designed in MATLAB to detect much of the brain disorders as early as possible. The application provides clinical and quantitative analysis of medical images. Minute structural difference of brain gradually results in major disorders such as schizophrenia, Epilepsy, inherited speech and language disorder, Alzheimer's dementia etc. Here the main focusing is given to diagnose the disease related to the brain and its psychic nature (Alzheimer’s disease.

  12. A brain-computer interface to support functional recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Troels W; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) register changes in brain activity and utilize this to control computers. The most widely used method is based on registration of electrical signals from the cerebral cortex using extracranially placed electrodes also called electroencephalography (EEG). The features...... extracted from the EEG may, besides controlling the computer, also be fed back to the patient for instance as visual input. This facilitates a learning process. BCI allow us to utilize brain activity in the rehabilitation of patients after stroke. The activity of the cerebral cortex varies with the type...... of movement we imagine, and by letting the patient know the type of brain activity best associated with the intended movement the rehabilitation process may be faster and more efficient. The focus of BCI utilization in medicine has changed in recent years. While we previously focused on devices facilitating...

  13. ITSM process assessment supporting ITIL

    CERN Document Server

    Barafort, Béatrix; Cortina, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    The key to any successful IT Service Management solution are strong, clear processes that are fit for purpose. The continual cycle of service improvements must therefore look at the existing processes and assess how effective they are within changing business requirements.This innovative title not only looks at this fundamental process assessment, it does it using the key ISO/IEC standard in this area. In brief, this title explains the meeting between two standards:ITIL: the de facto standard in IT Service Management.ISO/IEC 15504 Information technology - Process assessmentReaders can therefor

  14. Do brain image databanks support understanding of normal ageing brain structure? A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickie, David Alexander; Job, Dominic E.; Wardlaw, Joanna M. [University of Edinburgh, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Western General Hospital, Brain Research Imaging Centre (BRIC), Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE), Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Poole, Ian [Toshiba Medical Visualisation Systems Europe, Ltd., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Ahearn, Trevor S.; Staff, Roger T.; Murray, Alison D. [University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Biomedical Imaging Centre, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Scottish Imaging Network, A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE), Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    To document accessible magnetic resonance (MR) brain images, metadata and statistical results from normal older subjects that may be used to improve diagnoses of dementia. We systematically reviewed published brain image databanks (print literature and Internet) concerned with normal ageing brain structure. From nine eligible databanks, there appeared to be 944 normal subjects aged {>=}60 years. However, many subjects were in more than one databank and not all were fully representative of normal ageing clinical characteristics. Therefore, there were approximately 343 subjects aged {>=}60 years with metadata representative of normal ageing, but only 98 subjects were openly accessible. No databank had the range of MR image sequences, e.g. T2*, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), required to effectively characterise the features of brain ageing. No databank supported random subject retrieval; therefore, manual selection bias and errors may occur in studies that use these subjects as controls. Finally, no databank stored results from statistical analyses of its brain image and metadata that may be validated with analyses of further data. Brain image databanks require open access, more subjects, metadata, MR image sequences, searchability and statistical results to improve understanding of normal ageing brain structure and diagnoses of dementia. (orig.)

  15. Technologies to support industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control and measuring techniques applied to industry have the common aim of increasing safety, reliability and plant availability. The industrial monitoring system needs a lot of sensors, whose signals, elaborated and interpreted, allow one to define the best working condition; moreover control instruments perform a diagnosis related to damages and breakages. The Experimental Engineering Division of ENEA's Thermal Reactor Department has developed sensors and measuring apparatus and has acquired advanced control techniques. All these systems, containing an original software, have been applied to industrial process problems and/or to experimental facilities both to increase reliability and to understand better process physics. Division activities are grouped in four sectors: non-destructive examinations (ultrasonic, eddy current, thermography, holographic interpherometry, penetrant liquids and magnetoscopy); innovative sensors (heated thermocouples, optical fiber sensors); advanced measuring systems (laser technology for fluidodynamic measures, nuclear radiation techniques, infrared measuring, mass spectrometer, hot-film anemometer, chromatographic apparatus); advanced technologies for diagnosis and signal analysis (digital image processing, statistical analysis). (author)

  16. Exercise as an intervention for the age-related decline in brain metabolic support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda J Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To identify interventions for brain aging, we must first identify the processes in which we hope to intervene. Brain aging is a period of decreasing functional capacity and increasing vulnerability, which reflect a reduction in morphological organization and perhaps degeneration. Since life is ultimately dependent upon the ability to maintain cellular organization through metabolism, this review explores evidence for a decline in neural metabolic support during aging, which includes a reduction in whole brain cerebral blood flow, and cellular metabolic capacity. Capillary density may also decrease with age, although the results are less clear. Exercise may be a highly effective intervention for brain aging, because it improves the cardiovascular system as a whole, and increases regional capillary density and neuronal metabolic capacity. Although the evidence is strongest for motor regions, more work may yield additional evidence for exercise-related improvement in metabolic support in non-motor regions. The protective effects of exercise may be specific to brain region and the type of insult. For example, exercise protects striatal cells from ischemia, but it produces mixed results after hippocampal seizures. Exercise can improve metabolic support and bioenergetic capacity in adult animals, but it remains to be determined whether it has similar effects in aging animals. What is clear is that exercise can influence the multiple levels of support necessary for maintaining optimal neuronal function, which is unique among proposed interventions for aging.

  17. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: From brain regions to brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomi, Jason S; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2015-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD to a more holistic approach to understanding face perception as a process supported by distributed cortical and subcortical brain networks. We summarize evidence for atypical activation patterns within brain networks that may contribute to social deficits characteristic of the disorder. We conclude by pointing to gaps in the literature and future directions that will continue to shed light on aspects of face processing in autism that are still under-examined. In particular, we highlight the need for more developmental studies and studies examining ecologically valid and naturalistic social stimuli. PMID:25829246

  18. A brain-computer interface to support functional recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, Troels W; Sørensen, Helge B

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) register changes in brain activity and utilize this to control computers. The most widely used method is based on registration of electrical signals from the cerebral cortex using extracranially placed electrodes also called electroencephalography (EEG). The features extracted from the EEG may, besides controlling the computer, also be fed back to the patient for instance as visual input. This facilitates a learning process. BCI allow us to utilize brain activity in the rehabilitation of patients after stroke. The activity of the cerebral cortex varies with the type of movement we imagine, and by letting the patient know the type of brain activity best associated with the intended movement the rehabilitation process may be faster and more efficient. The focus of BCI utilization in medicine has changed in recent years. While we previously focused on devices facilitating communication in the rather few patients with locked-in syndrome, much interest is now devoted to the therapeutic use of BCI in rehabilitation. For this latter group of patients, the device is not intended to be a lifelong assistive companion but rather a 'teacher' during the rehabilitation period. PMID:23859968

  19. Brain bases of morphological processing in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M; Ip, Ka I; Shih Ju Hsu, Lucy; Tardif, Twila; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2015-08-01

    How does the developing brain support the transition from spoken language to print? Two spoken language abilities form the initial base of child literacy across languages: knowledge of language sounds (phonology) and knowledge of the smallest units that carry meaning (morphology). While phonology has received much attention from the field, the brain mechanisms that support morphological competence for learning to read remain largely unknown. In the present study, young English-speaking children completed an auditory morphological awareness task behaviorally (n = 69, ages 6-12) and in fMRI (n = 16). The data revealed two findings: First, children with better morphological abilities showed greater activation in left temporoparietal regions previously thought to be important for supporting phonological reading skills, suggesting that this region supports multiple language abilities for successful reading acquisition. Second, children showed activation in left frontal regions previously found active in young Chinese readers, suggesting morphological processes for reading acquisition might be similar across languages. These findings offer new insights for developing a comprehensive model of how spoken language abilities support children's reading acquisition across languages. PMID:25930011

  20. Brain activity patterns uniquely supporting visual feature integration after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali eRaja Beharelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI patients typically respond more slowly and with more variability than controls during tasks of attention requiring speeded reaction time. These behavioral changes are attributable, at least in part, to diffuse axonal injury (DAI, which affects integrated processing in distributed systems. Here we use a multivariate method sensitive to distributed neural activity to compare brain activity patterns of patients with chronic phase moderate-to-severe TBI to those of controls during performance on a visual feature-integration task assessing complex attentional processes that has previously shown sensitivity to TBI. The TBI patients were carefully screened to be free of large focal lesions that can affect performance and brain activation independently of DAI. The task required subjects to hold either one or three features of a target in mind while suppressing responses to distracting information. In controls, the multi-feature condition activated a distributed network including limbic, prefrontal, and medial temporal structures. TBI patients engaged this same network in the single-feature and baseline conditions. In multi-feature presentations, TBI patients alone activated additional frontal, parietal, and occipital regions. These results are consistent with neuroimaging studies using tasks assessing different cognitive domains, where increased spread of brain activity changes was associated with TBI. Our results also extend previous findings that brain activity for relatively moderate task demands in TBI patients is similar to that associated with of high task demands in controls.

  1. Computer Supported Collaborative Processes in Virtual Organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Paszkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    In global economy, turbulent organization environment strongly influences organization's operation. Organizations must constantly adapt to changing circumstances and search for new possibilities of gaining competitive advantage. To face this challenge, small organizations base their operation on collaboration within Virtual Organizations (VOs). VO operation is based on collaborative processes. Due to dynamism and required flexibility of collaborative processes, existing business information systems are insufficient to efficiently support them. In this paper a novel method for supporting collaborative processes based on process mining techniques is proposed. The method allows activity patterns in various instances of collaborative processes to be identified and used for recommendation of activities. This provides an opportunity for better computer support of collaborative processes leading to more efficient and effective realization of business goals.

  2. Numerical support, information processing and attitude change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu; N.K. de Vries

    1993-01-01

    In two experiments we studied the prediction that majority support induces stronger convergent processing than minority support for a persuasive message, the more so when recipients are explicitly forced to pay attention to the source's point of view; this in turn affects the amount of attitude chan

  3. Formalisms to Support the Definition of Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leon J.Osterweil

    2009-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the importance of defining processes rigorously, completely, clearly, and in detail in order to support the complex projects that are essential to the modern world. The paper argues that such process definitions provide needed structure and context for the development of effective software systems. The centrality of process is argued by enumerating seven key ways in which processes and their definitions are expected to provide important benefits to society. The paper provides an example of a process formalism that makes good progress towards the difficult goal of being simultaneously rigorous, detailed, broad, and clear. Early experience suggests that these four key characteristics of this formalism do indeed seem to help it to support meeting the seven key benefits sought from process definitions. Additional research is suggested in order to gain more insights into needs in the area of process definition formalisms.

  4. Supporting Multiple Cognitive Processing Styles Using Tailored Support Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett

    2007-08-01

    According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individual’s cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a "good-enough" response instead of deliberating for the "best" response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included.

  5. Supporting the processes of teaching and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework focusing on the processes of teaching. The framework can be used for analysis of teaching and learning practice, as well as analysis of the intended processes proposed and supported in teaching/learning materials; on the other hand, the framework can...... be used when planning teaching and designing learning materials, in casu digital learning platforms. Processes are examined at the micro-level, identified as interaction sequences, and at the meso-level as workflows. The macro-level, the level of modules, is only addressed sporadically in this paper...... for developing more complex competences in students. A number of alternative interaction sequences and workflows are described and discussed. These alternatives all have their advantages, but they are evaluated as more complex, troublesome, and inconvenient to work with. Teaching and learning materials support...

  6. DPABI: Data Processing & Analysis for (Resting-State) Brain Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao-Gan; Wang, Xin-Di; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Brain imaging efforts are being increasingly devoted to decode the functioning of the human brain. Among neuroimaging techniques, resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) is currently expanding exponentially. Beyond the general neuroimaging analysis packages (e.g., SPM, AFNI and FSL), REST and DPARSF were developed to meet the increasing need of user-friendly toolboxes for R-fMRI data processing. To address recently identified methodological challenges of R-fMRI, we introduce the newly developed toolbox, DPABI, which was evolved from REST and DPARSF. DPABI incorporates recent research advances on head motion control and measurement standardization, thus allowing users to evaluate results using stringent control strategies. DPABI also emphasizes test-retest reliability and quality control of data processing. Furthermore, DPABI provides a user-friendly pipeline analysis toolkit for rat/monkey R-fMRI data analysis to reflect the rapid advances in animal imaging. In addition, DPABI includes preprocessing modules for task-based fMRI, voxel-based morphometry analysis, statistical analysis and results viewing. DPABI is designed to make data analysis require fewer manual operations, be less time-consuming, have a lower skill requirement, a smaller risk of inadvertent mistakes, and be more comparable across studies. We anticipate this open-source toolbox will assist novices and expert users alike and continue to support advancing R-fMRI methodology and its application to clinical translational studies.

  7. Behavioral Laterality of the Brain: Support for the Binary Construct of Hemisity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Eldine Morton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Three terms define brain behavioral laterality: Hemispheric dominance identifies the cerebral hemisphere producing one’s first language. Hemispheric asymmetry locates the brain side of non-language skills. A third term is needed to describe a person’s binary thinking, learning, and behaving styles. Since the 1950s split-brain studies, evidence has accumulated that individuals with right or left brain behavioral orientations (RPs or LPs exist. Originally, hemisphericity sought, but failed, to confirm the existence of such individual differences, due to its assertion that each individual lay somewhere on a gradient between competing left and right brain extremes. Recently, hemisity, a more accurate behavioral laterality context, has emerged. It posits that one’s behavioral laterality is binary: i.e., inherently either right or left brain-oriented. This insight enabled the quantitative determination of right or left behavioral laterality of thousands of subjects. MRI scans of right and left brain-oriented groups revealed two neuroanatomical differences. The first was an asymmetry of an executive element in the anterior cingulate cortex. This provided hemisity both a rationale and a primary standard. RPs and LPs gave opposite answers to many behavioral preference either-or, forced choice questions. This showed that several sex vs. hemisity traits are being conflated by society. Such was supported by the second neuroanatomical difference between the hemisity subtypes, that RPs of either sex had up to three times larger corpus callosi than LPs. Individuals of the same hemisity but opposite sex had more personality traits in common than those of the same sex but different hemisity. Although hemisity subtypes were equally represented in the general population, the process of higher education and career choice caused substantial hemisity sorting among the professions. Hemisity appears to be a valid and promising area for quantitative research of

  8. Contextual information processing of brain in art appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigeko; Ejima, Yoshimichi

    2013-04-01

    A psycho-historical framework for the science of art appreciation will be an experimental discipline that may shed new light on the highest capacities of the human brain, yielding new scientific ways to talk about the art appreciation. The recent findings of the contextual information processing in the human brain make the concept of the art-historical context clear for empirical experimentation.

  9. Correlated activity supports efficient cortical processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Po Hung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual recognition is a computational challenge that is thought to occur via efficient coding. An important concept is sparseness, a measure of coding efficiency. The prevailing view is that sparseness supports efficiency by minimizing redundancy and correlations in spiking populations. Yet, we recently reported that ‘choristers’, neurons that behave more similarly (have correlated stimulus preferences and spontaneous coincident spiking, carry more generalizable object information than uncorrelated neurons (‘soloists’ in macaque inferior temporal (IT cortex. The rarity of choristers (as low as 6% of IT neurons indicates that they were likely missed in previous studies. Here, we report that correlation strength is distinct from sparseness (choristers are not simply broadly tuned neurons, that choristers are located in non-granular output layers, and that correlated activity predicts human visual search efficiency. These counterintuitive results suggest that a redundant correlational structure supports efficient processing and behavior.

  10. How Can Educational Psychologists Support the Reintegration of Children with an Acquired Brain Injury upon Their Return to School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Heather; Howe, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the process of reintegration into school for children with an acquired brain injury (ABI) and considers the role of the educational psychologist (EP) in supporting these children. Interviews were conducted with a range of professionals in two specialist settings: a specialist rehabilitation centre and a children's hospital with…

  11. The Impact of Childhood Trauma on Brain Development: A Literature Review and Supporting Handouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirouac, Samantha; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on the brain and how trauma impacts brain development, structures, and functioning. A basic exploration of childhood trauma is outlined in this project, as it is essential in making associations and connections to brain development. Childhood trauma is processed in the…

  12. Information Support of Processes in Warehouse Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordei Kirill

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of globalization and the world economic communications, the role of information support of business processes increases in various branches and fields of activity. There is not an exception for the warehouse activity. Such information support is realized in warehouse logistic systems. In relation to territorial administratively education, the warehouse logistic system gets a format of difficult social and economic structure which controls the economic streams covering the intermediary, trade and transport organizations and the enterprises of other branches and spheres. Spatial movement of inventory items makes new demands to participants of merchandising. Warehousing (in the meaning – storage – is one of the operations entering into logistic activity, on the organization of a material stream, as a requirement. Therefore, warehousing as "management of spatial movement of stocks" – is justified. Warehousing, in such understanding, tries to get rid of the perception as to containing stocks – a business expensive. This aspiration finds reflection in the logistic systems working by the principle: "just in time", "economical production" and others. Therefore, the role of warehouses as places of storage is transformed to understanding of warehousing as an innovative logistic system.

  13. How Cognitive Plasticity Resolves the Brain's Information Processing Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Diankun Gong; Weiyi Ma; Kendrick, Keith M.; Qingqing Hu; Dezhong Yao

    2013-01-01

    A key unresolved question in cognitive science is whether the brain uses asynchronous or synchronous patterns of information transmission. Using an auditory learning task combined with electrophysiological recordings, we reveal for the first time that cognitive plasticity during learning transforms an asynchronous into a synchronous transmission pattern to achieve rapid, error-free performance. We also present a new model showing how the brain may resolve its information processing and transm...

  14. Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch

    OpenAIRE

    Malin eBjornsdotter; Ilanit eGordon; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Håkan eOlausson; Martha eKaiser

    2014-01-01

    Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm) and hairy (forearm) skin in healthy children (5-13 years), adolescents (14-17 years), and adults (25-35 years). Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), secondary...

  15. The brain as a distributed intelligent processing system: an EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Freitas da Rocha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various neuroimaging studies, both structural and functional, have provided support for the proposal that a distributed brain network is likely to be the neural basis of intelligence. The theory of Distributed Intelligent Processing Systems (DIPS, first developed in the field of Artificial Intelligence, was proposed to adequately model distributed neural intelligent processing. In addition, the neural efficiency hypothesis suggests that individuals with higher intelligence display more focused cortical activation during cognitive performance, resulting in lower total brain activation when compared with individuals who have lower intelligence. This may be understood as a property of the DIPS. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In our study, a new EEG brain mapping technique, based on the neural efficiency hypothesis and the notion of the brain as a Distributed Intelligence Processing System, was used to investigate the correlations between IQ evaluated with WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, and the brain activity associated with visual and verbal processing, in order to test the validity of a distributed neural basis for intelligence. CONCLUSION: The present results support these claims and the neural efficiency hypothesis.

  16. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM TO SUPPORT DECISION PROCESSES WITH DATA MINING

    OpenAIRE

    Rok Rupnik; Matjaž Kukar

    2007-01-01

    Traditional techniques of data analysis do not enable the solution of all kind of problems and for that reason they have become insufficient. This caused a newinterdisciplinary field of data mining to arise, encompassing both classical statistical, and modern machine learning techniques to support the data analysis and knowledge discovery from data. Data mining methods are powerful in dealing with large quantities of data, but on the other hand they are difficult to master by business users t...

  17. Acquired Brain Injury Club at a Community College: Opportunities for Support, Involvement, and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Nancy Resendes

    2009-01-01

    College students with acquired brain injuries face unique challenges. The likelihood of individuals with acquired brain injury experiencing isolation, lack of social support, and diminished self-esteem, along with cognitive impairments, is well documented in the literature. This article presents an overview of a community college's club for…

  18. Analysis and simulation of brain signal data by EEG signal processing technique using MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Sasikumar Gurumurthy; Vudi Sai Mahit; Rittwika Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    EEG is brain signal processing technique that allows gaining the understanding of the complex inner mechanisms of the brain and abnormal brain waves have shown to be associated with particular brain disorders. The analysis of brain waves plays an important role in diagnosis of different brain disorders. MATLAB provides an interactive graphic user interface (GUI) allowing users to flexiblyand interactively process their high-density EEG dataset and other brain signal data different techniques ...

  19. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain

    CERN Document Server

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. ...

  20. Classical Wave Model of Quantum-Like Processing in Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, A.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the conjecture on quantum-like (QL) processing of information in the brain. It is not based on the physical quantum brain (e.g., Penrose) - quantum physical carriers of information. In our approach the brain created the QL representation (QLR) of information in Hilbert space. It uses quantum information rules in decision making. The existence of such QLR was (at least preliminary) confirmed by experimental data from cognitive psychology. The violation of the law of total probability in these experiments is an important sign of nonclassicality of data. In so called "constructive wave function approach" such data can be represented by complex amplitudes. We presented 1,2 the QL model of decision making. In this paper we speculate on a possible physical realization of QLR in the brain: a classical wave model producing QLR . It is based on variety of time scales in the brain. Each pair of scales (fine - the background fluctuations of electromagnetic field and rough - the cognitive image scale) induces the QL representation. The background field plays the crucial role in creation of "superstrong QL correlations" in the brain.

  1. INFORMATION SUPPORT TRANSPORTATION PROCESS MULTIMODAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Filippova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: is to improve information support for the organization and functioning of multimodal systems delive-ry modes of transport in the northern regions of the Russian Federation on the basis of the development of theoretical and methodological and practical provisions, criteria, methods and mathematical models.Method or methodology of the work: a methodology placement vehicle logistics center (TLC in the Nordic region, providing links all transport modes involved in the delivery of energy, developed a model to optimize the parameters of the transport network, used for traffic, the most effective schemes of delivery of goods in multimodal report, taking into account the specifics of the Nordic region, and funding.Results: Studies have applied and may be used by the fe-deral and regional authorities and management in the deve-lopment of integrated programs for energy-Northern regions. Proposed in the theoretical research and methodological approaches are one way to increase the efficiency of the delivery of goods in the event of a little predictable situations on the route, TLC and transhipment points. The developed techniques are used and can be used to improve the northern region of the process control of cargo delivery.Conclusion: Therefore, based on the analysis of the status of the issue, it is quite obvious that the very topical area of optimization of the transport needs of the region to ensure the development and implementation of methods to improve the efficiency and quality of freight traffic by improving organizational structures and technology traffic control all transport space in the region.

  2. Support system for process flow scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Salomone, Enrique; Chiotti, Omar Juan Alfredo; Lerch, Juan

    2001-01-01

    Process flow scheduling is a concept that refers to the scheduling of flow shop process plants, whose scheduling calculations are guided by the process structure. In a wide variety of high-volume process industries, the process flow scheduling concept implies an integrated structure for planning and scheduling. This integrated vision of the planning function and the very particular characteristics of the process industry production environment challenge the application of the most traditio...

  3. Coordination processes in computer supported collaborative writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanselaar, G.; Erkens, Gijsbert; Jaspers, Jos; Prangsma, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    In the COSAR-project a computer-supported collaborative learning environment enables students to collaborate in writing an argumentative essay. The TC3 groupware environment (TC3: Text Composer, Computer supported and Collaborative) offers access to relevant information sources, a private notepad, a

  4. Phases management for advanced life support processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhard, F.; Brunink, J.A.J.; Tuinstra, B.; Assink, J.W.; Ten Asbroek, N.; Backx, V.; Klaassen, A.; Waters, G.; Stasiak, M.A.; Dixon, M.; Ordoñez-Inda, L.

    2005-01-01

    For a planetary base, a reliable life support system including food and water supply, gas generation and waste management is a condition sine qua non. While for a short-term period the life support system may be an open loop, i.e. water, gases and food provided from the Earth, for long-term missions

  5. Tutorial: Signal Processing in Brain-Computer Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Molina, G.

    2010-01-01

    Research in Electroencephalogram (EEG) based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) has been considerably expanding during the last few years. Such an expansion owes to a large extent to the multidisciplinary and challenging nature of BCI research. Signal processing undoubtedly constitutes an essential co

  6. Mathematical Models of Visual Information Processing in the Human Brain and Applications to Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    In this lecture I give a survey of joint works of Hitoshi Arai and Shinobu Arai. The main purpose of our study is to construct mathematical models of visual information processing in the brain, and to give applications to image processing. On the past few decades, several studies have been made on mathematical models of visual information processing in the human brain. Our new models are constructed by using simple pinwheel framelets ([4]) and pinwheel framelets ([6]), which are a new class o...

  7. Support Routines for In Situ Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert G.; Pariser, Oleg; Yeates, Matthew C.; Lee, Hyun H.; Lorre, Jean

    2013-01-01

    This software consists of a set of application programs that support ground-based image processing for in situ missions. These programs represent a collection of utility routines that perform miscellaneous functions in the context of the ground data system. Each one fulfills some specific need as determined via operational experience. The most unique aspect to these programs is that they are integrated into the large, in situ image processing system via the PIG (Planetary Image Geometry) library. They work directly with space in situ data, understanding the appropriate image meta-data fields and updating them properly. The programs themselves are completely multimission; all mission dependencies are handled by PIG. This suite of programs consists of: (1)marscahv: Generates a linearized, epi-polar aligned image given a stereo pair of images. These images are optimized for 1-D stereo correlations, (2) marscheckcm: Compares the camera model in an image label with one derived via kinematics modeling on the ground, (3) marschkovl: Checks the overlaps between a list of images in order to determine which might be stereo pairs. This is useful for non-traditional stereo images like long-baseline or those from an articulating arm camera, (4) marscoordtrans: Translates mosaic coordinates from one form into another, (5) marsdispcompare: Checks a Left Right stereo disparity image against a Right Left disparity image to ensure they are consistent with each other, (6) marsdispwarp: Takes one image of a stereo pair and warps it through a disparity map to create a synthetic opposite- eye image. For example, a right eye image could be transformed to look like it was taken from the left eye via this program, (7) marsfidfinder: Finds fiducial markers in an image by projecting their approximate location and then using correlation to locate the markers to subpixel accuracy. These fiducial markets are small targets attached to the spacecraft surface. This helps verify, or improve, the

  8. Supporting chemical process design under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wechsung

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in chemical process design is to make design decisions based on partly incomplete or imperfect design input data. Still, process engineers are expected to design safe, dependable and cost-efficient processes under these conditions. The complexity of typical process models limits intuitive engineering estimates to judge the impact of uncertain parameters on the proposed design. In this work, an approach to quantify the effect of uncertainty on a process design in order to enhance comparisons among different designs is presented. To facilitate automation, a novel relaxation-based heuristic to differentiate between numerical and physical infeasibility when simulations do not converge is introduced. It is shown how this methodology yields more details about limitations of a studied process design.

  9. Cognitive information processing and learning mechanisms of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majovski, L V; Jacques, S

    1982-05-01

    The view that the two cerebral hemispheres of the human brain are characterized by different cognitive processing modes that handle information received in various forms is commonly accepted by neurobehavioral scientists and neuropsychologists. Selected neuroanatomical, electrophysiological, neurochemical, biochemical, and neuropsychological data that bear on a cognitive information-processing model of the brain are presented. Processes involved in memory functions are discussed in regard to the nature of thought and the characteristics of mental life, e.g., internalization of thought, perception, arousal, attention, cognitive development, problem solving, the development of cognitive encoding, and selective recall. We present a position that argues for the brain as being flexible vs. fixed in its characteristics and limitations, drawing from various theories and viewpoints. We also present a review of selected mechanisms believed to be involved in brain-behavior processes, e.g., learning, cognition, pain, emotion, reward, cognitive development, and memory formation. A major theme addressed in terms of human information processing is that cognitive functioning, in a variety of instances, comprises subsets of more general processes, e.g., selective recall, cueing that is capable of addressing schemas, notions of inhibition and disinhibition, and the modulation of excitatory properties of certain neural transmitter substances. Questions such as "how is information stored in memory in the first place?" and "how do elements of motivation (i.e., goal orientation) get connected and then send their messages to appropriate inbound behaviors?" are addressed from the point of view that learning, although not understood completely, is somehow involved. Another unresolved question of theoretical and practical significance that we address is "how does learning result in neural connections?" Such questions are discussed in light of their implications for human memory, thought

  10. Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin eBjornsdotter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm and hairy (forearm skin in healthy children (5-13 years, adolescents (14-17 years and adults (25-35 years. Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, secondary somatosensory cortex (SII, insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism.

  11. Computer Supported Collaborative Processes in Virtual Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Paszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Cellary, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    In global economy, turbulent organization environment strongly influences organization's operation. Organizations must constantly adapt to changing circumstances and search for new possibilities of gaining competitive advantage. To face this challenge, small organizations base their operation on collaboration within Virtual Organizations (VOs). VO operation is based on collaborative processes. Due to dynamism and required flexibility of collaborative processes, existing business information s...

  12. Brain Mechanisms Supporting Modulation of Pain by Mindfulness Meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Zeidan, F.; Martucci, K.T.; Kraft, R.A.; Gordon, N. S.; McHaffie, J.G.; Coghill, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    The subjective experience of one’s environment is constructed by interactions among sensory, cognitive, and affective processes. For centuries, meditation has been thought to influence such processes by enabling a non-evaluative representation of sensory events. To better understand how meditation influences the sensory experience, we employed arterial spin labeling (ASL) functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the neural mechanisms by which mindfulness meditation influences pain in h...

  13. Comparison of Alternative Processes for Support Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martínez-Álvarez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many tasks that revolve around combinatorial analysis problems, same tasks found in Decision Support Systems (DSS as most of these are responsible for assessing a number of possibilities to deliver the best options. Within the analysis of possible solutions is performed by the DSS there are alternative procedures inside the engine for making decisions that involve them. As part of these alternative procedures today has highlighted the use of metaheuristics, thus in this paper we propose a comparison of some of them trying to broaden the spectrum we have for the applications nowadays.

  14. Assessment of vessel diameters for MR brain angiography processed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, Luminita; Obreja, Cristian-Dragos; Moldovanu, Simona

    2015-12-01

    The motivation was to develop an assessment method to measure (in)visible differences between the original and the processed images in MR brain angiography as a method of evaluation of the status of the vessel segments (i.e. the existence of the occlusion or intracerebral vessels damaged as aneurysms). Generally, the image quality is limited, so we improve the performance of the evaluation through digital image processing. The goal is to determine the best processing method that allows an accurate assessment of patients with cerebrovascular diseases. A total of 10 MR brain angiography images were processed by the following techniques: histogram equalization, Wiener filter, linear contrast adjustment, contrastlimited adaptive histogram equalization, bias correction and Marr-Hildreth filter. Each original image and their processed images were analyzed into the stacking procedure so that the same vessel and its corresponding diameter have been measured. Original and processed images were evaluated by measuring the vessel diameter (in pixels) on an established direction and for the precise anatomic location. The vessel diameter is calculated using the plugin ImageJ. Mean diameter measurements differ significantly across the same segment and for different processing techniques. The best results are provided by the Wiener filter and linear contrast adjustment methods and the worst by Marr-Hildreth filter.

  15. A brain network processing the age of faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György A Homola

    Full Text Available Age is one of the most salient aspects in faces and of fundamental cognitive and social relevance. Although face processing has been studied extensively, brain regions responsive to age have yet to be localized. Using evocative face morphs and fMRI, we segregate two areas extending beyond the previously established face-sensitive core network, centered on the inferior temporal sulci and angular gyri bilaterally, both of which process changes of facial age. By means of probabilistic tractography, we compare their patterns of functional activation and structural connectivity. The ventral portion of Wernicke's understudied perpendicular association fasciculus is shown to interconnect the two areas, and activation within these clusters is related to the probability of fiber connectivity between them. In addition, post-hoc age-rating competence is found to be associated with high response magnitudes in the left angular gyrus. Our results provide the first evidence that facial age has a distinct representation pattern in the posterior human brain. We propose that particular face-sensitive nodes interact with additional object-unselective quantification modules to obtain individual estimates of facial age. This brain network processing the age of faces differs from the cortical areas that have previously been linked to less developmental but instantly changeable face aspects. Our probabilistic method of associating activations with connectivity patterns reveals an exemplary link that can be used to further study, assess and quantify structure-function relationships.

  16. Supporting Process Improvement using Method Increments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaanderen, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    With the research described in this dissertation, we aim to shed light on the characteristics of process improvement efforts by looking at their evolution (how to change?) rather than their content (what to change?). This research is triggered by three main propositions, derived from earlier work: (

  17. Business Process Modeling Languages Supporting Collaborative Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Soleimani Malekan; H. Afsarmanesh

    2013-01-01

    Formalizing the definition of Business Processes (BPs) performed within each enterprise is fundamental for effective deployment of their competencies and capabilities within Collaborative Networks (CN). In our approach, every enterprise in the CN is represented by its set of BPs, so that other enter

  18. Process Drama Explorations to Support "Macbeth."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jared; Barrera, Gregory; Benedict, Julie; Cavanaugh, Michael; Christensen, Jessica; Clark, Susannah; Dallimore, Natalie; Drown, Danielle; Fink, Susan; Hansen, Josh; Haubner, Ashley; Hinsdale, Robin; Johnson, Tyler; King, JuLee; Maufort, Brenda; Neubauer, Laura; Popple, Jennifer; Praggastis, Cate; Price, Matt; Raber, Lloyd; Rowland, Tiffany; Strite-Hatch, Amy; Torson, Christine; Tuckness, Tara

    2003-01-01

    Explains that each year, theatre education majors at the University of Utah select a production that will be mounted by a professional theatre company on the campus. Explains that the theatre education majors complete extensive dramaturgical research for the production, and create a process drama pre-show piece that is presented to over 1500 K-12…

  19. Brain, music, and non-Poisson renewal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Ignaccolo, Massimiliano; Rider, Mark S; Ross, Mary J; Winsor, Phil; Grigolini, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we show that both music composition and brain function, as revealed by the electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis, are renewal non-Poisson processes living in the nonergodic dominion. To reach this important conclusion we process the data with the minimum spanning tree method, so as to detect significant events, thereby building a sequence of times, which is the time series to analyze. Then we show that in both cases, EEG and music composition, these significant events are the signature of a non-Poisson renewal process. This conclusion is reached using a technique of statistical analysis recently developed by our group, the aging experiment (AE). First, we find that in both cases the distances between two consecutive events are described by nonexponential histograms, thereby proving the non-Poisson nature of these processes. The corresponding survival probabilities Psi(t) are well fitted by stretched exponentials [Psi(t) proportional, variant exp (-(gammat){alpha}) , with 0.5underwater part has slow tails with an inverse power law structure with power index mu=1+alpha. Adopting the AE procedure we find that both EEG and music composition yield mu<2. On the basis of the recently discovered complexity matching effect, according to which a complex system S with mu{S}<2 responds only to a complex driving signal P with mu{P}< or =mu{S}, we conclude that the results of our analysis may explain the influence of music on the human brain.

  20. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults.

  1. A framework to support automated classification and labeling of brain electromagnetic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishkoff, Gwen A; Frank, Robert M; Rong, Jiawei; Dou, Dejing; Dien, Joseph; Halderman, Laura K

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for automated classification and labeling of patterns in electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data. We describe recent progress on four goals: 1) specification of rules and concepts that capture expert knowledge of event-related potentials (ERP) patterns in visual word recognition; 2) implementation of rules in an automated data processing and labeling stream; 3) data mining techniques that lead to refinement of rules; and 4) iterative steps towards system evaluation and optimization. This process combines top-down, or knowledge-driven, methods with bottom-up, or data-driven, methods. As illustrated here, these methods are complementary and can lead to development of tools for pattern classification and labeling that are robust and conceptually transparent to researchers. The present application focuses on patterns in averaged EEG (ERP) data. We also describe efforts to extend our methods to represent patterns in MEG data, as well as EM patterns in source (anatomical) space. The broader aim of this work is to design an ontology-based system to support cross-laboratory, cross-paradigm, and cross-modal integration of brain functional data. Tools developed for this project are implemented in MATLAB and are freely available on request. PMID:18301711

  2. A Framework to Support Automated Classification and Labeling of Brain Electromagnetic Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen A. Frishkoff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a framework for automated classification and labeling of patterns in electroencephalographic (EEG and magnetoencephalographic (MEG data. We describe recent progress on four goals: 1 specification of rules and concepts that capture expert knowledge of event-related potentials (ERP patterns in visual word recognition; 2 implementation of rules in an automated data processing and labeling stream; 3 data mining techniques that lead to refinement of rules; and 4 iterative steps towards system evaluation and optimization. This process combines top-down, or knowledge-driven, methods with bottom-up, or data-driven, methods. As illustrated here, these methods are complementary and can lead to development of tools for pattern classification and labeling that are robust and conceptually transparent to researchers. The present application focuses on patterns in averaged EEG (ERP data. We also describe efforts to extend our methods to represent patterns in MEG data, as well as EM patterns in source (anatomical space. The broader aim of this work is to design an ontology-based system to support cross-laboratory, cross-paradigm, and cross-modal integration of brain functional data. Tools developed for this project are implemented in MATLAB and are freely available on request.

  3. EEG processing and its application in brain-computer interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Xu Guanghua; Xie Jun; Zhang Feng; Li Lili; Han Chengcheng; Li Yeping; Sun Jingjing

    2013-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) is an efficient tool in exploring human brains.It plays a very important role in diagnosis of disorders related to epilepsy and development of new interaction techniques between machines and human beings,namely,brain-computer interface (BCI).The purpose of this review is to illustrate the recent researches in EEG processing and EEG-based BCI.First,we outline several methods in removing artifacts from EEGs,and classical algorithms for fatigue detection are discussed.Then,two BCI paradigms including motor imagery and steady-state motion visual evoked potentials (SSMVEP) produced by oscillating Newton' s rings are introduced.Finally,BCI systems including wheelchair controlling and electronic car navigation are elaborated.As a new technique to control equipments,BCI has promising potential in rehabilitation of disorders in central nervous system,such as stroke and spinal cord injury,treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and development of novel games such as brain-controlled auto racings.

  4. Grid Computing Application for Brain Magnetic Resonance Image Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work emphasizes the use of grid computing and web technology for automatic post-processing of brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) in the context of neuropsychiatric (Alzheimer's disease) research. Post-acquisition image processing is achieved through the interconnection of several individual processes into pipelines. Each process has input and output data ports, options and execution parameters, and performs single tasks such as: a) extracting individual image attributes (e.g. dimensions, orientation, center of mass), b) performing image transformations (e.g. scaling, rotation, skewing, intensity standardization, linear and non-linear registration), c) performing image statistical analyses, and d) producing the necessary quality control images and/or files for user review. The pipelines are built to perform specific sequences of tasks on the alphanumeric data and MRIs contained in our database. The web application is coded in PHP and allows the creation of scripts to create, store and execute pipelines and their instances either on our local cluster or on high-performance computing platforms. To run an instance on an external cluster, the web application opens a communication tunnel through which it copies the necessary files, submits the execution commands and collects the results. We present result on system tests for the processing of a set of 821 brain MRIs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study via a nonlinear registration pipeline composed of 10 processes. Our results show successful execution on both local and external clusters, and a 4-fold increase in performance if using the external cluster. However, the latter's performance does not scale linearly as queue waiting times and execution overhead increase with the number of tasks to be executed.

  5. Data near processing support for climate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindermann, Stephan; Ehbrecht, Carsten; Hempelmann, Nils

    2016-04-01

    Climate data repositories grow in size exponentially. Scalable data near processing capabilities are required to meet future data analysis requirements and to replace current "data download and process at home" workflows and approaches. On one hand side, these processing capabilities should be accessible via standardized interfaces (e.g. OGC WPS), on the other side a large variety of processing tools, toolboxes and deployment alternatives have to be supported and maintained at the data/processing center. We present a community approach of a modular and flexible system supporting the development, deployment and maintenace of OGC-WPS based web processing services. This approach is organized in an open source github project (called "bird-house") supporting individual processing services ("birds", e.g. climate index calculations, model data ensemble calculations), which rely on basic common infrastructural components (e.g. installation and deployment recipes, analysis code dependencies management). To support easy deployment at data centers as well as home institutes (e.g. for testing and development) the system supports the management of the often very complex package dependency chain of climate data analysis packages as well as docker based packaging and installation. We present a concrete deployment scenario at the German Climate Computing Center (DKRZ). The DKRZ one hand side hosts a multi-petabyte climate archive which is integrated e.g. into the european ENES and worldwide ESGF data infrastructure, and on the other hand hosts an HPC center supporting (model) data production and data analysis. The deployment scenario also includes openstack based data cloud services to support data import and data distribution for bird-house based WPS web processing services. Current challenges for inter-institutionnal deployments of web processing services supporting the european and international climate modeling community as well as the climate impact community are highlighted

  6. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  7. Caregiver wellbeing: an examination of the coping-appraisel process of caring for individuals with an acquired brain injury

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-12-09

    Objective: Previous literature has demonstrated empirical support for a stress process model of caregiving (Chronister & Chan, 2006). This study examined whether a coping–appraisal stress model helps in our understanding of the experience of caregiving for people with an acquired brain injury.\\r\

  8. Atypical Brain Activation during Simple & Complex Levels of Processing in Adult ADHD: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, T. Sigi; Bookheimer, Susan; McGough, James J.; Phillips, Joseph M.; McCracken, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Executive dysfunction in ADHD is well supported. However, recent studies suggest that more fundamental impairments may be contributing. We assessed brain function in adults with ADHD during simple and complex forms of processing. Method: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging with forward and backward digit spans to investigate…

  9. IT Support for Healthcare Processes - Premises, Challenges, Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, R.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    Healthcare processes require the cooperation of different organizational units and medical disciplines. In such an environment optimal process support becomes crucial. Though healthcare processes frequently change, and therefore the separation of the flow logic from the application code seems to be

  10. Flight Dynamics Mission Support and Quality Assurance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, InHwan

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the method of the Computer Sciences Corporation Flight Dynamics Operation (FDO) quality assurance approach to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Support Branch. Historically, a strong need has existed for developing systematic quality assurance using methods that account for the unique nature and environment of satellite Flight Dynamics mission support. Over the past few years FDO has developed and implemented proactive quality assurance processes applied to each of the six phases of the Flight Dynamics mission support life cycle: systems and operations concept, system requirements and specifications, software development support, operations planing and training, launch support, and on-orbit mission operations. Rather than performing quality assurance as a final step after work is completed, quality assurance has been built in as work progresses in the form of process assurance. Process assurance activities occur throughout the Flight Dynamics mission support life cycle. The FDO Product Assurance Office developed process checklists for prephase process reviews, mission team orientations, in-progress reviews, and end-of-phase audits. This paper will outline the evolving history of FDO quality assurance approaches, discuss the tailoring of Computer Science Corporations's process assurance cycle procedures, describe some of the quality assurance approaches that have been or are being developed, and present some of the successful results.

  11. Process Planning Support System for Green Manufacturing and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yan; LIU Fei; CAO Huajun; ZHANG Hua

    2007-01-01

    Owing to a lack of practical methods and soft- ware tools in the existing researches on green manufacturing (GM), process planning support system for green manufac- turing (GMPPSS) was developed to deal with the problems in optimization of environment-benign process planning. The GMPPSS consisted mainly of three function modules and related model repositories including: selection of process elements, optimization of process courses, and evaluation of process projects for GM. The database of the GMPPSS was used to provide plentiful information on resources consump- tion and environmental impact in manufacturing processes, which consisted of process attribute database, inventory database, machine database, tool database, and the cutting fluid database. Raw materials, secondary material consump- tion, energy consumption, and environment impacts of pro- cess planning were optimized to improve the green attribute of process planning of parts with the supports of the data- bases and model repositories. The gear processing in the machining tool factory was presented to verify the system's applicability.

  12. Age-related changes in brain support cells: Implications for stroke severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabji, Farida; Bake, Shameena; Lewis, Danielle K

    2013-10-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of adult disability and the fourth leading cause of mortality in the US. Stroke disproportionately occurs among the elderly, where the disease is more likely to be fatal or lead to long-term supportive care. Animal models, where the ischemic insult can be controlled more precisely, also confirm that aged animals sustain more severe strokes as compared to young animals. Furthermore, the neuroprotection usually seen in younger females when compared to young males is not observed in older females. The preclinical literature thus provides a valuable resource for understanding why the aging brain is more susceptible to severe infarction. In this review, we discuss the hypothesis that stroke severity in the aging brain may be associated with reduced functional capacity of critical support cells. Specifically, we focus on astrocytes, that are critical for detoxification of the brain microenvironment and endothelial cells, which play a crucial role in maintaining the blood brain barrier. In view of the sex difference in stroke severity, this review also discusses studies of middle-aged acyclic females as well as the effects of the estrogen on astrocytes and endothelial cells.

  13. Brain Mechanisms for Processing Affective (and Nonaffective) Touch Are Atypical in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Martha D; Yang, Daniel Y-J; Voos, Avery C; Bennett, Randi H; Gordon, Ilanit; Pretzsch, Charlotte; Beam, Danielle; Keifer, Cara; Eilbott, Jeffrey; McGlone, Francis; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2016-06-01

    C-tactile (CT) afferents encode caress-like touch that supports social-emotional development, and stimulation of the CT system engages the insula and cortical circuitry involved in social-emotional processing. Very few neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural mechanisms of touch processing in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who often exhibit atypical responses to touch. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated the hypothesis that children and adolescents with ASD would exhibit atypical brain responses to CT-targeted touch. Children and adolescents with ASD, relative to typically developing (TD) participants, exhibited reduced activity in response to CT-targeted (arm) versus non-CT-targeted (palm) touch in a network of brain regions known to be involved in social-emotional information processing including bilateral insula and insular operculum, the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, bilateral temporoparietal junction extending into the inferior parietal lobule, right fusiform gyrus, right amygdala, and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex including the inferior frontal and precentral gyri, suggesting atypical social brain hypoactivation. Individuals with ASD (vs. TD) showed an enhanced response to non-CT-targeted versus CT-targeted touch in the primary somatosensory cortex, suggesting atypical sensory cortical hyper-reactivity. PMID:26048952

  14. The prolongation of somatic support in a pregnant woman with brain-death: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Eliana

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical literature has increasingly reported cases of maternal brain death during pregnancy. This is a rare situation which demands the decision and, depending on the gestational age, the implementation of a set of measures to prolong the homeostasis of the human body after brain death for the purpose of maintaining the foetus alive until its viability. Case presentation A 40 year old woman suffered an intracranial haemorrhage during the 25th week of pregnancy. Despite neurosurgical drainage of a gross intraparenchymatous haematoma, the patient developed brain death. Upon confirmation of this diagnosis, she received full ventilatory and nutritional support, vasoactive drugs, maintenance of normothermia, hormone replacement and other supportive measures required to prolong gestation and improve the survival prognosis of her foetus. All decisions regarding the patient's treatment were taken in consensus with her family. She also received corticosteroids to accelerate foetal lung maturity. During the twenty-five days of somatic support, the woman's condition remained stable; however, during the last seven days the foetus developed oligohydramnios and brain-sparring, which led the medical team to take the decision to perform a Caesarean section at that moment. After delivery, the patient's organs were removed for donation. The male infant was born weighing 815 g, with an Apgar score of 9 and 10 at the first and fifth minutes, respectively. The infant was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, but did not require mechanical ventilation and had no major complications. He was discharged at 40 days of life, with no sequelae and weighing 1850 g. Conclusion These results are in accordance with findings from previous studies and case reports suggesting the appropriateness and safety of extended somatic support during pregnancy under certain circumstances. They also suggest the need for prompt diagnosis of brain death before the

  15. Classification of normal and pathological aging processes based on brain MRI morphology measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gonzalez, J. L.; Yanez-Suarez, O.; Medina-Bañuelos, V.

    2014-03-01

    Reported studies describing normal and abnormal aging based on anatomical MRI analysis do not consider morphological brain changes, but only volumetric measures to distinguish among these processes. This work presents a classification scheme, based both on size and shape features extracted from brain volumes, to determine different aging stages: healthy control (HC) adults, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three support vector machines were optimized and validated for the pair-wise separation of these three classes, using selected features from a set of 3D discrete compactness measures and normalized volumes of several global and local anatomical structures. Our analysis show classification rates of up to 98.3% between HC and AD; of 85% between HC and MCI and of 93.3% for MCI and AD separation. These results outperform those reported in the literature and demonstrate the viability of the proposed morphological indexes to classify different aging stages.

  16. NUMERICAL SUPPORT, INFORMATION-PROCESSING AND ATTITUDE-CHANGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEDREU, CKW; DEVRIES, NK

    1993-01-01

    In two experiments we studied the prediction that majority support induces stronger convergent processing than minority support for a persuasive message, the more so when recipients are explicitly forced to pay attention to the source's point of view; this in turn affects the amount of attitude chan

  17. Patterns of brain activity supporting autobiographical memory, prospection, and theory of mind, and their relationship to the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, R Nathan; Grady, Cheryl L

    2010-06-01

    The ability to rise above the present environment and reflect upon the past, the future, and the minds of others is a fundamentally defining human feature. It has been proposed that these three self-referential processes involve a highly interconnected core set of brain structures known as the default mode network (DMN). The DMN appears to be active when individuals are engaged in stimulus-independent thought. This network is a likely candidate for supporting multiple processes, but this idea has not been tested directly. We used fMRI to examine brain activity during autobiographical remembering, prospection, and theory-of-mind reasoning. Using multivariate analyses, we found a common pattern of neural activation underlying all three processes in the DMN. In addition, autobiographical remembering and prospection engaged midline DMN structures to a greater degree and theory-of-mind reasoning engaged lateral DMN areas. A functional connectivity analysis revealed that activity of a critical node in the DMN, medial prefrontal cortex, was correlated with activity in other regions in the DMN during all three tasks. We conclude that the DMN supports common aspects of these cognitive behaviors involved in simulating an internalized experience.

  18. Analysis and simulation of brain signal data by EEG signal processing technique using MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasikumar Gurumurthy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available EEG is brain signal processing technique that allows gaining the understanding of the complex inner mechanisms of the brain and abnormal brain waves have shown to be associated with particular brain disorders. The analysis of brain waves plays an important role in diagnosis of different brain disorders. MATLAB provides an interactive graphic user interface (GUI allowing users to flexiblyand interactively process their high-density EEG dataset and other brain signal data different techniques such as independent component analysis (ICA and/or time/frequency analysis (TFA, as well as standard averaging methods. We will be showing different brain signals by comparing, analysing and simulating datasets which is already loaded in the MATLAB software to process the EEG signals.

  19. BRAIN-COMPUTER-INTERFACE – SUPPORTED MOTOR IMAGERY TRAININTG FOR PATIENTS WITH HEMIPARESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Mokienko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to assess the feasibility of motor imagery supported brain-computer interface in patients with hemiparesis. 13 patients with central paresis of the hand and 15 healthy volunteers were learning to control EEG-based interface with feedback. No differences on interface control quality were found between patients and healthy subjects. The trainings were accompanied by the desynchronization of sensorimotor rhythm. In patients with cortical damage the source of EEG-activity was dislocated.

  20. Decision Support Systems (DSS) in Construction Tendering Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mohemad, Rosmayati; Othman, Zulaiha Ali; Noor, Noor Maizura Mohamad

    2010-01-01

    The successful execution of a construction project is heavily impacted by making the right decision during tendering processes. Managing tender procedures is very complex and uncertain involving coordination of many tasks and individuals with different priorities and objectives. Bias and inconsistent decision are inevitable if the decision-making process is totally depends on intuition, subjective judgement or emotion. In making transparent decision and healthy competition tendering, there exists a need for flexible guidance tool for decision support. Aim of this paper is to give a review on current practices of Decision Support Systems (DSS) technology in construction tendering processes. Current practices of general tendering processes as applied to the most countries in different regions such as United States, Europe, Middle East and Asia are comprehensively discussed. Applications of Web-based tendering processes is also summarised in terms of its properties. Besides that, a summary of Decision Support Sy...

  1. An Automated and Intelligent Medical Decision Support System for Brain MRI Scans Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal Siddiqui

    Full Text Available A wide interest has been observed in the medical health care applications that interpret neuroimaging scans by machine learning systems. This research proposes an intelligent, automatic, accurate, and robust classification technique to classify the human brain magnetic resonance image (MRI as normal or abnormal, to cater down the human error during identifying the diseases in brain MRIs. In this study, fast discrete wavelet transform (DWT, principal component analysis (PCA, and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM are used as basic components. Firstly, fast DWT is employed to extract the salient features of brain MRI, followed by PCA, which reduces the dimensions of the features. These reduced feature vectors also shrink the memory storage consumption by 99.5%. At last, an advanced classification technique based on LS-SVM is applied to brain MR image classification using reduced features. For improving the efficiency, LS-SVM is used with non-linear radial basis function (RBF kernel. The proposed algorithm intelligently determines the optimized values of the hyper-parameters of the RBF kernel and also applied k-fold stratified cross validation to enhance the generalization of the system. The method was tested by 340 patients' benchmark datasets of T1-weighted and T2-weighted scans. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed medical decision support system outperformed all other modern classifiers and achieves 100% accuracy rate (specificity/sensitivity 100%/100%. Furthermore, in terms of computation time, the proposed technique is significantly faster than the recent well-known methods, and it improves the efficiency by 71%, 3%, and 4% on feature extraction stage, feature reduction stage, and classification stage, respectively. These results indicate that the proposed well-trained machine learning system has the potential to make accurate predictions about brain abnormalities

  2. An Automated and Intelligent Medical Decision Support System for Brain MRI Scans Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Muhammad Faisal; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Kanesan, Jeevan

    2015-01-01

    A wide interest has been observed in the medical health care applications that interpret neuroimaging scans by machine learning systems. This research proposes an intelligent, automatic, accurate, and robust classification technique to classify the human brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) as normal or abnormal, to cater down the human error during identifying the diseases in brain MRIs. In this study, fast discrete wavelet transform (DWT), principal component analysis (PCA), and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) are used as basic components. Firstly, fast DWT is employed to extract the salient features of brain MRI, followed by PCA, which reduces the dimensions of the features. These reduced feature vectors also shrink the memory storage consumption by 99.5%. At last, an advanced classification technique based on LS-SVM is applied to brain MR image classification using reduced features. For improving the efficiency, LS-SVM is used with non-linear radial basis function (RBF) kernel. The proposed algorithm intelligently determines the optimized values of the hyper-parameters of the RBF kernel and also applied k-fold stratified cross validation to enhance the generalization of the system. The method was tested by 340 patients' benchmark datasets of T1-weighted and T2-weighted scans. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed medical decision support system outperformed all other modern classifiers and achieves 100% accuracy rate (specificity/sensitivity 100%/100%). Furthermore, in terms of computation time, the proposed technique is significantly faster than the recent well-known methods, and it improves the efficiency by 71%, 3%, and 4% on feature extraction stage, feature reduction stage, and classification stage, respectively. These results indicate that the proposed well-trained machine learning system has the potential to make accurate predictions about brain abnormalities from the

  3. ICT Support for Regulatory Compliance of Business Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Governatori, Guido

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an ITC (Information and Communication Technology) approach to support regulatory compliance for business processes, and we report on the development and evaluation of a business process compliance checker called Regorous, based on the compliance-by-design methodology proposed by Governatori and Sadiq

  4. A Gaussian decision-support tool for engineering design process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabalinejad, Mohammad; Spitas, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Decision-making in design is of great importance, resulting in success or failure of a system (Liu et al., 2010; Roozenburg and Eekels, 1995; Spitas, 2011a). This paper describes a robust decision-support tool for engineering design process, which can be used throughout the design process in either

  5. Reduced cortical thickness of brain areas involved in pain processing in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frokjaer, J.B.; Bouwense, S.A.W.; Olesen, S.S.; Lundager, F.H.; Eskildsen, S.F.; Goor, H. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) might have abnormal brain function. We assessed cortical thickness in brain areas involved in visceral pain processing. METHODS: We analyzed brain morphologies of 19 patients with painful CP and compared them with 15 healthy individu

  6. An MR Brain Images Classifier System via Particle Swarm Optimization and Kernel Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated abnormal brain detection is extremely of importance for clinical diagnosis. Over last decades numerous methods had been presented. In this paper, we proposed a novel hybrid system to classify a given MR brain image as either normal or abnormal. The proposed method first employed digital wavelet transform to extract features then used principal component analysis (PCA to reduce the feature space. Afterwards, we constructed a kernel support vector machine (KSVM with RBF kernel, using particle swarm optimization (PSO to optimize the parameters C and σ. Fivefold cross-validation was utilized to avoid overfitting. In the experimental procedure, we created a 90 images dataset brain downloaded from Harvard Medical School website. The abnormal brain MR images consist of the following diseases: glioma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, metastatic bronchogenic carcinoma, meningioma, sarcoma, Alzheimer, Huntington, motor neuron disease, cerebral calcinosis, Pick’s disease, Alzheimer plus visual agnosia, multiple sclerosis, AIDS dementia, Lyme encephalopathy, herpes encephalitis, Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, and cerebral toxoplasmosis. The 5-folded cross-validation classification results showed that our method achieved 97.78% classification accuracy, higher than 86.22% by BP-NN and 91.33% by RBF-NN. For the parameter selection, we compared PSO with those of random selection method. The results showed that the PSO is more effective to build optimal KSVM.

  7. Information flow and simulation support in the product development process

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Henrik; Larsson, Tobias

    1998-01-01

    This paper consists of a case study of the product development process at Indexator AB, manufacturer of rotators for heavy equipment. The process has been studied concerning the information flow and computer support in the engineering design department and its interacting departments. It is shown that the company has a clear view of how information flows and which computer tools they use in the different parts of the processes. The advantage of using computer tools for analysis and planning i...

  8. Anticipatory Processing in the Brain on the Perception of Müller-Lyer Illusionary Figures—A Brain Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shusaku; Sasaki, Shuntaro; Hirakawa, Masato; Hiwaki, Osamu

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the brain potential in relation with the recognition of Müller-Lyer (ML) illusionary figure, which was a famous optical illusion. Although it is frequently assumed that the ML illusionary effect could be derived from its geometrical construction, it derives the same length miss-estimation effect on the sense of touch; haptic illusion. Moreover it occurs in people who are blindfolded or congenital blind. Thus somehow higher information processing than the optical one within the brain could be expected to involve with the recognition of ML figure while few brain studies have demonstrated it. We then investigated the brain waves under subjects' perceiving ML illusionary figure. As a result the marked difference of the brain potential between ML and the control condition around the midline of parietal brain, where the multi-modal perception information was thought to associate within the brain, was observed. This result implies that the anticipatory processing on the perception of ML illusionary figures would be derived by integrating multi-sensory information.

  9. Alarm pheromone processing in the ant brain: an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Mizunami

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons, to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive projection neurons are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system.

  10. Role of the brain in the regulation process of urination

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Berdichevskiy; A. A. Sufianov; V. G. Yelishev; D. A. Barashin

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of positron emission tomography of the brain with glucose isotope 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in healthy men and women during the period of accumulation and emptying of the bladder revealed no gender-specific brain activity. The men and women during the accumulation and storage of urine occurs at a standard activity of the brain with the dominance of the left hemisphere. Zone hyperactivity of the brain during this period is the region of the back of the cingulate gyrus.During urinatio...

  11. Quadratic Program Optimization using Support Vector Machine for CT Brain Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Umamaheswari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an efficient Computer Tomography (CT image classification using Support Vector Machine (SVM with optimized quadratic programming methodology is proposed. Due to manual interpretation of brain images based on visual examination by radiologist/physician that cause incorrect diagnosis, when a large number of CT images are analyzed. To avoid the human error, an automated optimized classification system is proposed for abnormal CT image identification. This is an automated system for content based image retrieval with better classifier accuracy and prediction time. SVM classifier can accurately train up the datas as normal and abnormal brains interpreted manually by the user. The system can retrieve more number of images present in the query data base. The proposed classifier is analyzed with existing Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO and K Nearest Neighbour classifier KNN. From the experimental analysis, the proposed classifier outperforms all other classifier taken for examination.

  12. Web Refinding Support System Based on Process Recollective Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Toda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent growth of search technology has enabled people to find information more easily. However, most people need to refind information on a daily basis. Finding and refinding are different activities and require different types of support. However, current refinding support systems don't consider this point. This has caused several problems: PVR, loss of contextual information, and difference in search experiences. We discuss these problems and their solutions from a cognitive perspective. We propose a process-recollective refinding support system based on this discussion. We demonstrate a novel approach to refinding information on the web and a specific system as an example.

  13. The analytic hierarchy process as a support for decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Milanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this text deals with a convention site selection as one of the most lucrative areas in the tourism industry. The second part gives a further description of a method for decision making - the analytic hierarchy process. The basic characteristics: hierarchy constructions and pair wise comparison on the given level of the hierarchy are allured. The third part offers an example of application. This example is solved using the Super - Decision software, which is developed as a computer support for the analytic hierarchy process. This indicates that the AHP approach is a useful tool to help support a decision of convention site selection. .

  14. Co-ordinated structural and functional covariance in the adolescent brain underlies face processing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel Joel; Mareček, Radek; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Pike, G Bruce; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Our ability to process complex social cues presented by faces improves during adolescence. Using multivariate analyses of neuroimaging data collected longitudinally from a sample of 38 adolescents (17 males) when they were 10, 11.5, 13 and 15 years old, we tested the possibility that there exists parallel variations in the structural and functional development of neural systems supporting face processing. By combining measures of task-related functional connectivity and brain morphology, we reveal that both the structural covariance and functional connectivity among 'distal' nodes of the face-processing network engaged by ambiguous faces increase during this age range. Furthermore, we show that the trajectory of increasing functional connectivity between the distal nodes occurs in tandem with the development of their structural covariance. This demonstrates a tight coupling between functional and structural maturation within the face-processing network. Finally, we demonstrate that increased functional connectivity is associated with age-related improvements of face-processing performance, particularly in females. We suggest that our findings reflect greater integration among distal elements of the neural systems supporting the processing of facial expressions. This, in turn, might facilitate an enhanced extraction of social information from faces during a time when greater importance is placed on social interactions.

  15. Brain correlates of mathematical competence in processing mathematical representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland H. Grabner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to extract numerical information from different representation formats (e.g., equations, tables, or diagrams is a key component of mathematical competence but little is known about its neural correlate. Previous studies comparing mathematically less and more competent adults have focused on mental arithmetic and reported differences in left angular gyrus activity which were interpreted to reflect differential reliance on arithmetic fact retrieval during problem solving. The aim of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study was to investigate the brain correlates of mathematical competence in a task requiring the processing of typical mathematical representations. Twenty-eight adults of lower and higher mathematical competence worked on a representation matching task in which they had to evaluate whether the numerical information of a symbolic equation matches that of a bar chart. Two task conditions without and one condition with arithmetic demands were administered. Both competence groups performed equally well in the non-arithmetic conditions and only differed in accuracy in the condition requiring calculation. Activation contrasts between the groups revealed consistently stronger left angular gyrus activation in the more competent individuals across all three task conditions. The finding of competence-related activation differences independently of arithmetic demands suggests that more and less competent individuals differ in a cognitive process other than arithmetic fact retrieval. Specifically, it is argued that the stronger left angular gyrus activity in the more competent adults may reflect their higher proficiency in processing mathematical symbols. Moreover, the study demonstrates competence-related parietal activation differences that were not accompanied by differential experimental performance.

  16. Decision Support Systems (DSS in Construction Tendering Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmayati Mohemad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The successful execution of a construction project is heavily impacted by making the right decision during tendering processes. Managing tender procedures is very complex and uncertain involving coordination of many tasks and individuals with different priorities and objectives. Bias and inconsistent decision are inevitable if the decision-making process is totally depends on intuition, subjective judgement or emotion. In making transparent decision and healthy competition tendering, there exists a need for flexible guidance tool for decision support. Aim of this paper is to give a review on current practices of Decision Support Systems (DSS technology in construction tendering processes. Current practices of general tendering processes as applied to the most countries in different regions such as United States, Europe, Middle East and Asia are comprehensively discussed. Applications of Web-based tendering processes is also summarised in terms of its properties. Besides that, a summary of Decision Support System (DSS components is included in the next section. Furthermore, prior researches on implementation of DSS approaches in tendering processes are discussed in details. Current issues arise from both of paper-based and Web-based tendering processes are outlined. Finally, conclusion is included at the end of this paper.

  17. Hybrid RGSA and Support Vector Machine Framework for Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Brain Tumor Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajesh Sharma

    2015-01-01

    algorithm (RGSA. Support vector machines, over backpropagation network, and k-nearest neighbor are used to evaluate the goodness of classifier approach. The preliminary evaluation of the system is performed using 320 real-time brain MRI images. The system is trained and tested by using a leave-one-case-out method. The performance of the classifier is tested using the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.986 (±002. The experimental results demonstrate the systematic and efficient feature extraction and feature selection algorithm to the performance of state-of-the-art feature classification methods.

  18. Brain signatures of artificial language processing: Evidence challenging the critical period hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Friederici, A.; Steinhauer, K; Pfeifer, E.

    2002-01-01

    Adult second language learning seems to be more difficult and less efficient than first language acquisition during childhood. By using event-related brain potentials, we show that adults who learned a miniature artificial language display a similar real-time pattern of brain activation when processing this language as native speakers do when processing natural languages. Participants trained in the artificial language showed two event-related brain potential compo...

  19. School Processes in Providing Reading Support in GCSE Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Dominic; Woods, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Against a background of increasing student eligibility for "access arrangements" in examinations for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), this article examines the processes within schools that structure a student's access to the provision of reading support, including staff and student viewpoints. Dominic Griffiths, who is a…

  20. Decision support for information systems management : applying analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Decision-making in the field of information systems has become more complex due to a larger number of alternatives, multiple and sometimes conflicting goals, and an increasingly turbulent environment. In this paper we explore the appropriateness of Analytic Hierarchy Process to support I/S decision

  1. Action Learning--A Process Which Supports Organisational Change Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on how action learning sets (ALSs) were used to support organisational change initiatives. It sets the scene with contextualising the inclusion of change projects in a masters programme. Action learning is understood to be a dynamic process where a team meets regularly to help individual members address issues through a highly…

  2. Redesigning ambulatory care business processes supporting clinical care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, C; Sinkewich, M; Short, J; Callas, E

    1997-04-01

    The first step in redesigning the health care delivery process for ambulatory care begins with the patient and the business processes that support the patient. Patient-related business processes include patient access, service documentation, billing, follow-up, collection, and payment. Access is the portal to the clinical delivery and care management process. Service documentation, charge capture, and payment and collection are supporting processes to care delivery. Realigned provider networks now demand realigned patient business services to provide their members/customers/patients with improved service delivery at less cost. Purchaser mandates for cost containment, health maintenance, and enhanced quality of care have created an environment where every aspect of the delivery system, especially ambulatory care, is being judged. Business processes supporting the outpatient are therefore being reexamined for better efficiency and customer satisfaction. Many health care systems have made major investments in their ambulatory care environment, but have pursued traditional supporting business practices--such as multiple access points, lack of integrated patient appointment scheduling and registration, and multiple patient bills. These are areas that are appropriate for redesign efforts--all with the customer's needs and convenience in mind. Similarly, setting unrealistic expectations, underestimating the effort required, and ignoring the human elements of a patient-focused business service redesign effort can sabotage the very sound reasons for executing such an endeavor. Pitfalls can be avoided if a structured methodology, coupled with a change management process, are employed. Deloitte & Touche Consulting Group has been involved in several major efforts, all with ambulatory care settings to assist with the redesign of their business practices to consider the patient as the driver, instead of the institution providing the care. PMID:10181605

  3. Unconscious word processing engages a distributed network of brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Michele T; McCarthy, Gregory

    2007-11-01

    A briefly exposed visual stimulus may not be consciously perceived if it is preceded and followed by a dissimilar visual pattern or mask. Despite the subject's lack of awareness, prior behavioral studies have shown that such masked stimuli, nevertheless, engage domain-specific processes [Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., Cohen, L., Le Bihan, D., Mangin, J.-F., Poline, J.-B., et al. Cerebral mechanisms of word masking and unconscious repetition priming. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 752-758, 2001; Bar, M., & Biederman, I. Subliminal visual priming. Psychological Science, 9, 464-469, 1998; Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., Le Clec'H, G., Koechlin, E., Mueller, M., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., et al. Imaging unconscious semantic priming. Nature, 395, 597-600, 1998; Whalen, P. J., Rauch, S. L., Etcoff, N. L., McInerney, S. C., Lee, M. B., & Jenike, M. A. Masked presentations of emotional facial expressions modulate amygdala activity without explicit knowledge. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 411-418, 1998; Marcel, A. J. Conscious and unconscious perception: Experiments on visual masking and word recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 197-237, 1983]. Masking thus provides a method for identifying language processes that are preattentive and automatic. Functional magnetic resonance imaging used in concert with masking may identify brain regions engaged by these unconscious language processes. In an adaptation design, subjects viewed a continuous stream of masked words and masked nonwords while performing an unrelated detection task, in which they were asked to make a response to a visible colored nonword stimulus (i.e., ampersands in red or blue font). Most trials were masked nonwords and masked words were presented once every 12-15 sec. The task ensured participant engagement, while the masked nonword baseline controlled for perceptual and orthographic processing. Participants were naïve to the purpose of the experiment and testing indicated that they did not consciously perceive either the words

  4. Manufacturing of anode supported SOFCs: Processing parameters and their influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramousse, Severine; Menon, Mohan; Brodersen, Karen;

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of low cost, highly reliable and reproducible manufacturing processes has been focused for commercialization of SOFC technology. A major challenge in the production chain is the manufacture of anode-supported planar SOFC's single cells in which each layer in a layered structure...... contains a complex microstructure. In order to improve the cell performance as well as reducing the processing costs, it has been found necessary to consider the process chain holistically, because successful manufacture of such a cell and the achievement of optimal final properties depend on each...

  5. Quantum processes, space-time representation and brain dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Sisir; Roy, Sisir; Kafatos, Menas

    2003-01-01

    The recent controversy of applicability of quantum formalism to brain dynamics has been critically analysed. The prerequisites for any type of quantum formalism or quantum field theory is to investigate whether the anatomical structure of brain permits any kind of smooth geometric notion like Hilbert structure or four dimensional Minkowskian structure for quantum field theory. The present understanding of brain function clearly denies any kind of space-time representation in Minkowskian sense. However, three dimensional space and one time can be assigned to the neuromanifold and the concept of probabilistic geometry is shown to be appropriate framework to understand the brain dynamics. The possibility of quantum structure is also discussed in this framework.

  6. Role of the brain in the regulation process of urination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Berdichevskiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of positron emission tomography of the brain with glucose isotope 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in healthy men and women during the period of accumulation and emptying of the bladder revealed no gender-specific brain activity. The men and women during the accumulation and storage of urine occurs at a standard activity of the brain with the dominance of the left hemisphere. Zone hyperactivity of the brain during this period is the region of the back of the cingulate gyrus.During urination in both men and women have the increased activity of the cortex of the brain. Preserved the dominance of the left hemisphere. Hyperactivity zone of the brain during this period is the region of the anterior cingulate gyrus.Thus, the cortical control of the act of accumulation and bladder emptying in healthy people in our studies did not reveal gender differences. However, security features neurohumoral response of spinal centers and peripheral neuroregulation function of the lower urinary tract, may have a man and a woman significant differences.

  7. Role of the brain in the regulation process of urination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Berdichevskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of positron emission tomography of the brain with glucose isotope 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in healthy men and women during the period of accumulation and emptying of the bladder revealed no gender-specific brain activity. The men and women during the accumulation and storage of urine occurs at a standard activity of the brain with the dominance of the left hemisphere. Zone hyperactivity of the brain during this period is the region of the back of the cingulate gyrus.During urination in both men and women have the increased activity of the cortex of the brain. Preserved the dominance of the left hemisphere. Hyperactivity zone of the brain during this period is the region of the anterior cingulate gyrus.Thus, the cortical control of the act of accumulation and bladder emptying in healthy people in our studies did not reveal gender differences. However, security features neurohumoral response of spinal centers and peripheral neuroregulation function of the lower urinary tract, may have a man and a woman significant differences.

  8. Integrating Data-Mining Support into a Brain-Image Database Using Open-Source Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Previously, we described our implementation of a brain-image database (braid), based on the proprietary object-relational database-management system (ORDBMS). In conjunction with our collaborators, we have used this database to manage and analyze image and clinical data from what we call image-based clinical trials (IBCTs). Herein we describe the results of redesigning braid using open-source components, and integrating support for mining image and clinical data from braids user interface. Material and Methods: We re-designed and re-implemented BRAID using open-source components, including PostgreSQL, gcc, and PHP. We integrated data-mining algorithms into braid, based on PL/R, a PostgreSQL package to support efficient communication between R and PostgreSQL. Results: We present a sample clinical study to demonstrate how clinicians can perform queries for visualization, statistical analysis, and data mining, using a web-based interface. Conclusion: We have developed a database system with data-mining capabilities for managing, querying, analyzing and visualizing brain-MR images. We implemented this system using open-source components, with the express goal of wide dissemination throughout the neuroimaging research community. (authors)

  9. Designing and Evaluating a Web Supported Instructional Material based on Brain Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günay PALİÇ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to evaluate a web supported instructional material based on Brain Based Learning concerning “Energy” unit for the 9th grades in secondary education. The Case Study Method was used in the study. The sample of the study consists of a total of three physics education experts and one computer and instructional education expert working at the Fatih Faculty of Education in KTU and 10 physics teachers working in secondary schools in the city of Rize. In order to evaluate the educational material published on www.isgucenerji.com, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the experts. Also, an evaluation scale for the website consisting of 21 items was used to be applied to the teachers. The findings indicated that teachers have positive views about designed material’s convenience to curriculum and Brain Based Teaching. It was also deduced that the prepared material can be used for both classroom practice and individual studies. The study was finished with suggestions aimed at using and developing web supported teaching materials.

  10. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: from brain regions to brain networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nomi, Jason S.; Lucina Q. Uddin

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD...

  11. Support Process Re-Engineering : Case Support Services Group Ltd.,UK

    OpenAIRE

    Ståhlstedt, Satu

    2010-01-01

    The background of this functional thesis was in the case company’s dysfunctional human resource ‎management processes and in the problems caused by them. The main objective was to re-‎engineer the case company’s recruitment and induction processes in order to support recent and ‎future growth and to mend the problems caused by the company’s poor human resource ‎management. The thesis focuses on examining the re-engineering of recruitment and induction ‎processes in the case company. by analys...

  12. Genetic architecture supports mosaic brain evolution and independent brain–body size regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; Rosen, Glenn D.; Williams, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian brain consists of distinct parts that fulfil different functions. Finlay and Darlington have argued that evolution of the mammalian brain is constrained by developmental programs, suggesting that different brain parts are not free to respond individually to selection and evolve independent of other parts or overall brain size. However, comparisons among mammals with matched brain weights often reveal greater differences in brain part size, arguing against strong developmental co...

  13. Towards Process Support for Migrating Applications to Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauhan, Muhammad Aufeef; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is an active area of research for industry and academia. There are a large number of organizations providing cloud computing infrastructure and services. In order to utilize these infrastructure resources and services, existing applications need to be migrated to clouds. However...... for supporting migration to cloud computing based on our experiences from migrating an Open Source System (OSS), Hackystat, to two different cloud computing platforms. We explained the process by performing a comparative analysis of our efforts to migrate Hackystate to Amazon Web Services and Google App Engine....... We also report the potential challenges, suitable solutions, and lesson learned to support the presented process framework. We expect that the reported experiences can serve guidelines for those who intend to migrate software applications to cloud computing....

  14. Process Support for Increasing Participation in eParticipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Maier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of user acceptance of e-participation initiatives has been attributed to several factors, among them lack of motivation, poor transparency of process and lack of traceability of contributions. These deficits cannot be overcome by compliance with usability and accessibility guidelines. To increase user participation it is suggested to align such initiatives with the requirements of civil society groups who are more successful in mobilising public engagement and less with government requests. To enable and empower such groups to set up and maintain e-participation initiatives, a functional navigator for guiding users in configuring a platform as well as process support components are required. The latter focus on the transitions between different phases. The paper outlines how such an approach can be implemented to achieve a transparent circular flow of information and opinion between citizens and policy-makers in a collaborative environment which supports formal and informal political actors to work in partnership.

  15. Not so different after all: The same oscillatory processes support different types of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Julia Natascha; Ruhnau, Philipp; Weisz, Nathan

    2015-11-11

    Scientific research from the last two decades has provided a vast amount of evidence that brain oscillations reflect physiological activity enabling diverse cognitive processes. The goal of this review is to give a broad empirical and conceptual overview of how ongoing oscillatory activity may support attention processes. Keeping in mind that definitions of cognitive constructs like attention are prone to being blurry and ambiguous, the present review focuses mainly on the neural correlates of 'top-down' attention deployment. In particular, we will discuss modulations of (ongoing) oscillatory activity during spatial, temporal, selective, and internal attention. Across these seemingly distinct attentional domains, we will summarize studies showing the involvement of two oscillatory processes observed during attention deployment: power modulations mainly in the alpha band, and phase modulations in lower frequency bands. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention.

  16. Adsorption processes in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DallBauman, L A; Finn, J E

    1999-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft maintains a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work by supplying oxygen and water and by removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used successfully in the past for short-duration missions, the economics of current and future long-duration missions in space will make nearly complete recycling of air and water imperative. A variety of operations will be necessary to achieve the goal of nearly complete recycling. These include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and others. Several of these can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relative high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerative nature. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. Among the life support applications that can be achieved through use of adsorption technology are removal of trace contaminants and carbon dioxide from cabin air and recovery of potable water from waste streams. In each of these cases adsorption technology has been selected for use onboard the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for these applications are discussed. Human space exploration may eventually lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Separation and purification processes based on

  17. Web Based Technologies to Support High Level Process Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sharmila

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the uses of Web based Technologies to support High Level Process Maturity in an organization. It also provides an overview of CMMI, focusing on the importance of centralized data storage and data access for sustaining high maturity levels of CMMI. Further, elaboration is made on the web based technology, stressing that change over to Web Based Application is extremely helpful to maintain the centralized data repository, to collect data for process capability baseline, and to track process performance management, with reduced maintenance effort and ease of data access. A case study analysis of advantages of adopting Web Based Technology is also narrated. Finally the paper concludes that the sustenance of High level Process maturity can be achieved by adopting web application technology.

  18. A DICOM-RT Based ePR radiation therapy information system for decision-support of brain tumor patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B. J.; Law, M.; Huang, H. K.; Zee, C. S.; Chan, L.

    2006-03-01

    The need for comprehensive clinical image data and relevant information in image-guided Radiation Therapy (RT) is becoming steadily apparent. Multiple standalone systems utilizing the most technological advancements in imaging, therapeutic radiation, and computerized treatment planning systems acquire key data during the RT treatment course of a patient. One example are patients treated for brain tumors of greater sizes and irregular shapes that utilize state-of-the-art RT technology to deliver pinpoint accurate radiation doses. Various treatment options are available to the patient from Radiation Therapy to Stereotactic Radiosurgery and utilize different RT modalities. The disparate and complex data generated by the RT modalities along with related data scattered throughout the RT department in RT Information/Management systems, Record & Verify systems, and Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) compromise an efficient clinical workflow since the data crucial for a clinical decision may be time-consuming to retrieve, temporarily missing, or even lost. To address these shortcomings, the ACR-NEMA Standards Committee extended its DICOM (Digital Imaging & Communications in Medicine) Standard from Radiology to RT by ratifying seven DICOM RT objects starting in 1997. However, they are rarely used by the RT community in daily clinical operations. In the past, the research focus of an RT department has primarily been developing new protocols and devices to improve treatment process and outcomes of cancer patients with minimal effort dedicated to integration of imaging and information systems. By combining our past experience in medical imaging informatics research, DICOM-RT expertise, and system integration, our research involves using a brain tumor case model to show proof-of-concept that a DICOM-Standard electronic patient record (ePR) system can be developed as a foundation to perform medical imaging informatics research in developing decision-support tools and knowledge

  19. The Systems Engineering Process for Human Support Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering is designing and optimizing systems. This paper reviews the systems engineering process and indicates how it can be applied in the development of advanced human support systems. Systems engineering develops the performance requirements, subsystem specifications, and detailed designs needed to construct a desired system. Systems design is difficult, requiring both art and science and balancing human and technical considerations. The essential systems engineering activity is trading off and compromising between competing objectives such as performance and cost, schedule and risk. Systems engineering is not a complete independent process. It usually supports a system development project. This review emphasizes the NASA project management process as described in NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 7120.5B. The process is a top down phased approach that includes the most fundamental activities of systems engineering - requirements definition, systems analysis, and design. NPR 7120.5B also requires projects to perform the engineering analyses needed to ensure that the system will operate correctly with regard to reliability, safety, risk, cost, and human factors. We review the system development project process, the standard systems engineering design methodology, and some of the specialized systems analysis techniques. We will discuss how they could apply to advanced human support systems development. The purpose of advanced systems development is not directly to supply human space flight hardware, but rather to provide superior candidate systems that will be selected for implementation by future missions. The most direct application of systems engineering is in guiding the development of prototype and flight experiment hardware. However, anticipatory systems engineering of possible future flight systems would be useful in identifying the most promising development projects.

  20. Mechanism of case processing in the brain: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yokoyama

    Full Text Available In sentence comprehension research, the case system, which is one of the subsystems of the language processing system, has been assumed to play a crucial role in signifying relationships in sentences between noun phrases (NPs and other elements, such as verbs, prepositions, nouns, and tense. However, so far, less attention has been paid to the question of how cases are processed in our brain. To this end, the current study used fMRI and scanned the brain activity of 15 native English speakers during an English-case processing task. The results showed that, while the processing of all cases activates the left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior part of the middle temporal gyrus, genitive case processing activates these two regions more than nominative and accusative case processing. Since the effect of the difference in behavioral performance among these three cases is excluded from brain activation data, the observed different brain activations would be due to the different processing patterns among the cases, indicating that cases are processed differently in our brains. The different brain activations between genitive case processing and nominative/accusative case processing may be due to the difference in structural complexity between them.

  1. Two processes support visual recognition memory in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guderian, Sebastian; Brigham, Danielle; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2011-11-29

    A large body of evidence in humans suggests that recognition memory can be supported by both recollection and familiarity. Recollection-based recognition is characterized by the retrieval of contextual information about the episode in which an item was previously encountered, whereas familiarity-based recognition is characterized instead by knowledge only that the item had been encountered previously in the absence of any context. To date, it is unknown whether monkeys rely on similar mnemonic processes to perform recognition memory tasks. Here, we present evidence from the analysis of receiver operating characteristics, suggesting that visual recognition memory in rhesus monkeys also can be supported by two separate processes and that these processes have features considered to be characteristic of recollection and familiarity. Thus, the present study provides converging evidence across species for a dual process model of recognition memory and opens up the possibility of studying the neural mechanisms of recognition memory in nonhuman primates on tasks that are highly similar to the ones used in humans. PMID:22084079

  2. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells support blood-brain barrier integrity via TGF-β signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hae Seo

    Full Text Available Trophic coupling between cerebral endothelium and their neighboring cells is required for the development and maintenance of blood-brain barrier (BBB function. Here we report that oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs secrete soluble factor TGF-β1 to support BBB integrity. Firstly, we prepared conditioned media from OPC cultures and added them to cerebral endothelial cultures. Our pharmacological experiments showed that OPC-conditioned media increased expressions of tight-junction proteins and decreased in vitro BBB permeability by activating TGB-β-receptor-MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Secondly, our immuno-electron microscopic observation revealed that in neonatal mouse brains, OPCs attach to cerebral endothelial cells via basal lamina. And finally, we developed a novel transgenic mouse line that TGF-β1 is knocked down specifically in OPCs. Neonates of these OPC-specific TGF-β1 deficient mice (OPC-specific TGF-β1 partial KO mice: PdgfraCre/Tgfb1flox/wt mice or OPC-specific TGF-β1 total KO mice: PdgfraCre/Tgfb1flox/flox mice exhibited cerebral hemorrhage and loss of BBB function. Taken together, our current study demonstrates that OPCs increase BBB tightness by upregulating tight junction proteins via TGF-β signaling. Although astrocytes and pericytes are well-known regulators of BBB maturation and maintenance, these findings indicate that OPCs also play a pivotal role in promoting BBB integrity.

  3. Capitalizing on Basic Brain Processes in Developmental Algebra--Part One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Basic brain function is not a mystery. Given that neuroscientists understand the brain's basic functioning processes, one wonders what their research suggests to teachers of developmental algebra. What if we knew how to teach so as to improve understanding of the algebra taught to developmental algebra students? What if we knew how the brain…

  4. Introductory study of brain function data processing; No kino joho shori no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of the brain function aiming at developing an interface with the same function as humans have. In the study, the most up-to-date information/knowledge and future problems were examined on brain measurement, brain modeling, making a model an element, and the brain function data processing system. As to the brain measurement, the paper took up the multielectrode simultaneous measuring method and the optical multipoint measuring method as an invasive measuring method, and the functional magnetic resonance imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, magneto-encephalography, and electro-encephalography as a non-invasive measuring method. Relating to the brain modeling, studies were made on senses of sight and smell, the movement control and the learning. As to making a model an element, how to make the modeled function a chip on silicone for example becomes the problem. Reported were two reports on making the sense of sight an element and one report on making the parallel dispersed processing mechanism of brain an element. About the brain function data processing system, three reports were made on the present situation, matters in question, and the future development of the system in the case of catching data processing as a system taking a step ahead from making the model an element. 250 refs., 74 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Leading research on brain functional information processing; No kino joho shori no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This research aims at searching the concept of an information processing device with a fully different architecture from a previous ones based on the study on human brain function, sense and perception, and developing the basic fabrication technology for such system, and realizing the human-like information processing mechanism of memorization, learning, association, perception, intuition and value judgement. As an approach deriving biological and technological models from experimental brain studies, the model was derived from the brain functional information processing based on brain development/differentiation mechanism, the control mechanism/material of brain activities, and the knowledge obtained from brain measurement and study. In addition, for understanding a brain oscillation phenomenon by computational neuroscience, the cerebral cortex neural network model composed of realistic neuron models was proposed. Evaluation of the previous large-scale neural network chip system showed its ability of learning and fast processing, however, the next-generation brain computer requires further R and D of some novel architecture, device and system. 184 refs., 41 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  7. Self-supported electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge in developing new energy conversion technologies such as rechargeable metal-air batteries, regenerated fuel cells and water splitting devices is to find suitable catalysts that can efficiently and stably catalyze the key electrochemical processes involved. This paper reviews the new development of self-supported electrocatalysts in three categories: electrocatalysts growing on rigid substrates, electrocatalysts growing on soft substrates, and free-standing catalyst films. They are distinct and superior to the conventional powdery electrocatalysts, showing advantages in controllable nanostructure and chemical component, flexible electrode configuration, and outstanding catalytic performance. The self-supported electrocatalysts with various architectures like nanowire/plate/pillar arrays and porous films, composed of metals, metal oxides/selenides/phosphides, organic polymers, carbons and their corresponding hybrids, are presented and discussed. These catalysts exhibit high activity, durability and selectivity toward oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution, and/or hydrogen evolution reactions. The perspectives on the relevant areas are also proposed.

  8. Goals reconfigure cognition by modulating predictive processes in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    I applaud Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) theory that places goals at the center of cognition, and I discuss two ingredients missing from that theory. First, I argue that the brains of organisms much simpler than those of humans are already configured for goal achievement in situated interactions. Second, I propose a mechanistic view of the "reconfiguration principle" that links the theory with current views in computational neuroscience.

  9. Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea N Wong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59-80 years. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA, thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function.

  10. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR ROLLING PROCESS BASED ON SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Yanwei; Wu Tihua; Zhao Jingyi; Wang Yiqun

    2005-01-01

    A method for the calculation of the sensitivity factors of the rolling process has been obtained by differentiating the roll force model based on support vector machine. It can eliminate the algebraic loop of the analytical model of the rolling process. The simulations in the first stand of five stand cold tandem rolling mill indicate that the calculation for sensitivities by this proposed method can obtain a good accuracy, and an appropriate adjustment on the control variables determined directly by the sensitivity has an excellent compensation accuracy. Moreover, the roll gap has larger effect on the exit thickness than both front tension and back tension, and it is more efficient to select the roll gap as the controlvariable of the thickness control system in the first stand.

  11. An Information System to Support and Monitor Clinical Trial Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand of transparency of clinical research results, the need of accelerating the process oftransferring innovation in the daily medical practice as well as assuring patient safety and product efficacymake it necessary to extend the functionality of traditional trial registries. These new systems shouldcombine different functionalities to track the information exchange, support collaborative work, manageregulatory documents and monitor the entire clinical investigation (CIV lifecycle. This is the approachused to develop MEDIS, a Medical Device Information System, described in this paper under theperspective of the business process, and the underlining architecture. Moreover, MEDIS was designed onthe basis of Health Level 7 (HL7 v.3 standards and methodology to make it interoperable with similarregistries, but also to facilitate information exchange between different health information systems.

  12. Brain Function Differences in Language Processing in Children and Adults with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Diane L.; Vladimir L Cherkassky; Mason, Robert A.; Keller, Timothy A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2013-01-01

    Comparison of brain function between children and adults with autism provides an understanding of the effects of the disorder and associated maturational differences on language processing. Functional imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) was used to examine brain activation and cortical synchronization during the processing of literal and ironic texts in 15 children with autism, 14 children with typical development, 13 adults with autism, and 12 adult controls. Both the children an...

  13. Using information technology to support knowledge conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main roles of Information Technology in Knowledge Management programs is to accelerate the speed of knowledge transfer and creation. The Knowledge Management tools intend to help the processes of collecting and organizing the knowledge of groups of individuals in order to make this knowledge available in a shared base. Due to the largeness of the concept of knowledge, the software market for Knowledge Management seems to be quite confusing. Technology vendors are developing different implementations of the Knowledge Management concepts in their software products. Because of the variety and quantity of Knowledge Management tools available on the market, a typology may be a valuable aid to organizations that are looking for answers to specific needs. The objective of this article is to present guidelines that help to design such a typology. Knowledge Management solutions such as intranet systems, Electronic Document Management (EDM, groupware, workflow, artificial intelligence-based systems, Business Intelligence (BI, knowledge map systems, innovation support, competitive intelligence tools and knowledge portals are discussed in terms of their potential contributions to the processes of creating, registering and sharing knowledge. A number of Knowledge Management tools (Lotus Notes, Microsoft Exchange, Business Objects, Aris Toolset, File Net, Gingo, Vigipro, Sopheon have been checked. The potential of each category of solutions to support the transfer of tacit and/or explicit knowledge and to facilitate the knowledge conversion spiral in the sense of Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995 is discussed.

  14. An Investment Decision Support System for Process Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周章玉; 成思危; 华贲; 曾敏刚; 尹清华

    2001-01-01

    Most studies on investment evaluation mainly focus on enterprise economic benefits only, without process operability and sustainability considered. In this paper, we suggest that investment evaluation in process industries should be executed under three strategic objectives--enterprise benefits, social benefits and customer benefits. A systematic investment evaluation and decision-making method with a four-step procedure based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is proposed to evaluate various qualitative and quantitative elements with various criteria. At the first step, the decision hierarchy is constructed under the three strategic objectives. Second, pair-wise comparison is utilized to evaluate the weights of elements and criteria. Third, qualitative elements are quantified by pair-wise comparison and quantitative elements are re-scaled by a uniform criterion. At the last, the best choice is made through synthesizing values upward in the hierarchy. An investment decision support system (DSS) is developed based on Microsoft Excel, and applied to a retrofit investment of united fluid catalytic cracking(FCC) and liquefied gas separation process in a refinery plant.

  15. Operator support and diagnostic reasoning in an industrial process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaker, O.

    1996-12-31

    Efficient use of energy in production plants requires that the various processes are well controlled. The main focus of this doctoral thesis is on detection of errors and malfunctions using analytical redundancy and on state estimation using an open loop nonlinear model. A ``residual`` is present if a system does not behave as expected, or if a certain rule is violated. ``Reasoning`` is the action of finding process malfunctions based on observed residuals. The thesis applies a new formalism for comparing diagnostic reasoning methods both in terms of what knowledge is used and how it is used, and suggests a formal model of what is known about the process. The formalism is used to illustrate the difference between diagnostic reasoning based on physically interconnected process units and streams, and reasoning about goals and functions for finding a diagnosis. As an example of application, results and experiences from a test implementation using an open loop model for operator support in a complex fertilizer factory are reported. 108 refs., 61 figs., 37 tabs.

  16. β-Hydroxybutyrate supports synaptic vesicle cycling but reduces endocytosis and exocytosis in rat brain synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynevich, Sviatlana V; Waseem, Tatyana V; Hébert, Audrey; Pellerin, Luc; Fedorovich, Sergei V

    2016-02-01

    The ketogenic diet is used as a prophylactic treatment for different types of brain diseases, such as epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease. In such a diet, carbohydrates are replaced by fats in everyday food, resulting in an elevation of blood-borne ketone bodies levels. Despite clinical applications of this treatment, the molecular mechanisms by which the ketogenic diet exerts its beneficial effects are still uncertain. In this study, we investigated the effect of replacing glucose by the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate as the main energy substrate on synaptic vesicle recycling in rat brain synaptosomes. First, we observed that exposing presynaptic terminals to nonglycolytic energy substrates instead of glucose did not alter the plasma membrane potential. Next, we found that synaptosomes were able to maintain the synaptic vesicle cycle monitored with the fluorescent dye acridine orange when glucose was replaced by β-hydroxybutyrate. However, in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate, synaptic vesicle recycling was modified with reduced endocytosis. Replacing glucose by pyruvate also led to a reduced endocytosis. Addition of β-hydroxybutyrate to glucose-containing incubation medium was without effect. Reduced endocytosis in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate as sole energy substrate was confirmed using the fluorescent dye FM2-10. Also we found that replacement of glucose by ketone bodies leads to inhibition of exocytosis, monitored by FM2-10. However this reduction was smaller than the effect on endocytosis under the same conditions. Using both acridine orange in synaptosomes and the genetically encoded sensor synaptopHluorin in cortical neurons, we observed that replacing glucose by β-hydroxybutyrate did not modify the pH gradient of synaptic vesicles. In conclusion, the nonglycolytic energy substrates β-hydroxybutyrate and pyruvate are able to support synaptic vesicle recycling. However, they both reduce endocytosis. Reduction of both endocytosis and exocytosis together with

  17. Automatic volumetry on MR brain images can support diagnostic decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv Richard I

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic decisions in clinical imaging currently rely almost exclusively on visual image interpretation. This can lead to uncertainty, for example in dementia disease, where some of the changes resemble those of normal ageing. We hypothesized that extracting volumetric data from patients' MR brain images, relating them to reference data and presenting the results as a colour overlay on the grey scale data would aid diagnostic readers in classifying dementia disease versus normal ageing. Methods A proof-of-concept forced-choice reader study was designed using MR brain images from 36 subjects. Images were segmented into 43 regions using an automatic atlas registration-based label propagation procedure. Seven subjects had clinically probable AD, the remaining 29 of a similar age range were used as controls. Seven of the control subject data sets were selected at random to be presented along with the seven AD datasets to two readers, who were blinded to all clinical and demographic information except age and gender. Readers were asked to review the grey scale MR images and to record their choice of diagnosis (AD or non-AD along with their confidence in this decision. Afterwards, readers were given the option to switch on a false-colour overlay representing the relative size of the segmented structures. Colorization was based on the size rank of the test subject when compared with a reference group consisting of the 22 control subjects who were not used as review subjects. The readers were then asked to record whether and how the additional information had an impact on their diagnostic confidence. Results The size rank colour overlays were useful in 18 of 28 diagnoses, as determined by their impact on readers' diagnostic confidence. A not useful result was found in 6 of 28 cases. The impact of the additional information on diagnostic confidence was significant (p Conclusion Volumetric anatomical information extracted from brain

  18. Interspecies avian brain chimeras reveal that large brain size differences are influenced by cell-interdependent processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chun; Balaban, Evan; Jarvis, Erich D

    2012-01-01

    Like humans, birds that exhibit vocal learning have relatively delayed telencephalon maturation, resulting in a disproportionately smaller brain prenatally but enlarged telencephalon in adulthood relative to vocal non-learning birds. To determine if this size difference results from evolutionary changes in cell-autonomous or cell-interdependent developmental processes, we transplanted telencephala from zebra finch donors (a vocal-learning species) into Japanese quail hosts (a vocal non-learning species) during the early neural tube stage (day 2 of incubation), and harvested the chimeras at later embryonic stages (between 9-12 days of incubation). The donor and host tissues fused well with each other, with known major fiber pathways connecting the zebra finch and quail parts of the brain. However, the overall sizes of chimeric finch telencephala were larger than non-transplanted finch telencephala at the same developmental stages, even though the proportional sizes of telencephalic subregions and fiber tracts were similar to normal finches. There were no significant changes in the size of chimeric quail host midbrains, even though they were innervated by the physically smaller zebra finch brain, including the smaller retinae of the finch eyes. Chimeric zebra finch telencephala had a decreased cell density relative to normal finches. However, cell nucleus size differences between each species were maintained as in normal birds. These results suggest that telencephalic size development is partially cell-interdependent, and that the mechanisms controlling the size of different brain regions may be functionally independent. PMID:22860132

  19. Interspecies avian brain chimeras reveal that large brain size differences are influenced by cell-interdependent processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available Like humans, birds that exhibit vocal learning have relatively delayed telencephalon maturation, resulting in a disproportionately smaller brain prenatally but enlarged telencephalon in adulthood relative to vocal non-learning birds. To determine if this size difference results from evolutionary changes in cell-autonomous or cell-interdependent developmental processes, we transplanted telencephala from zebra finch donors (a vocal-learning species into Japanese quail hosts (a vocal non-learning species during the early neural tube stage (day 2 of incubation, and harvested the chimeras at later embryonic stages (between 9-12 days of incubation. The donor and host tissues fused well with each other, with known major fiber pathways connecting the zebra finch and quail parts of the brain. However, the overall sizes of chimeric finch telencephala were larger than non-transplanted finch telencephala at the same developmental stages, even though the proportional sizes of telencephalic subregions and fiber tracts were similar to normal finches. There were no significant changes in the size of chimeric quail host midbrains, even though they were innervated by the physically smaller zebra finch brain, including the smaller retinae of the finch eyes. Chimeric zebra finch telencephala had a decreased cell density relative to normal finches. However, cell nucleus size differences between each species were maintained as in normal birds. These results suggest that telencephalic size development is partially cell-interdependent, and that the mechanisms controlling the size of different brain regions may be functionally independent.

  20. Brain glycogen and its role in supporting glutamate and GABA homeostasis in a type 2 diabetes rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Waagepetersen, Helle S.; Schousboe, Arne;

    2012-01-01

    diabetic state. Also, our objective was to elucidate the contribution of glycogen to support neurotransmitter glutamate and GABA homeostasis. A glycogen phosphorylase (GP) inhibitor was administered to Sprague-Dawley (SprD) and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats in vivo and after one day of treatment [1......-(13)C]glucose was used to monitor metabolism. Brain levels of (13)C labeling in glucose, lactate, alanine, glutamate, GABA, glutamine and aspartate were determined. Our results show that inhibition of brain glycogen metabolism reduced the amounts of glutamate in both the control and type 2 diabetes......The number of people suffering from diabetes is hastily increasing and the condition is associated with altered brain glucose homeostasis. Brain glycogen is located in astrocytes and being a carbohydrate reservoir it contributes to glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, glycogen has been indicated to be...

  1. Brain training game improves executive functions and processing speed in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Nouchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions, but these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age on cognitive functions in the elderly. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-two elderly volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris. This study was completed by 14 of the 16 members in the Brain Age group and 14 of the 16 members in the Tetris group. To maximize the benefit of the interventions, all participants were non-gamers who reported playing less than one hour of video games per week over the past 2 years. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Each group played for a total of about 20 days. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into four categories (global cognitive status, executive functions, attention, and processing speed. Results showed that the effects of the brain training game were transferred to executive functions and to processing speed. However, the brain training game showed no transfer effect on any global cognitive status nor attention. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that playing Brain Age for 4 weeks could lead to improve cognitive functions (executive functions and processing speed in the elderly. This result indicated that there is a possibility which the elderly could improve executive functions and processing speed in short term training. The results need replication in large samples. Long-term effects and relevance for every-day functioning remain uncertain as yet. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000002825.

  2. A REVIEW ON INFLUENCE OF MUSIC ON BRAIN ACTIVITY USING SIGNAL PROCESSING AND IMAGING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K. ADALARASU,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As per clinical neuroscience, listening to music involves many brain activities and its study has advanced greatly in the last thirty years. Research shows that music has significant effect on our body and mind. Music has a positive effect on the hormone system and allows the brain to concentrate more easily and assimilate more information in less time, thereby boosting learning and information intake and thus augmenting cognitive skills. Studies have found that the silence between two musical notes triggers brain cells and neurons which are responsible for the development of sharp memory. Music at different pitches (for example, Madhyamavati, Sankarabarnam raga and so on elicits exceptionally emotions and is capable ofreliably affecting the mood of individuals, which in turn changes the brain activity. This article provides a brief overview of currently available signal processing and imaging techniques to study the influence of different music on human brain activity.

  3. Recursive cluster elimination based support vector machine for disease state prediction using resting state functional and effective brain connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopikrishna Deshpande

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain state classification has been accomplished using features such as voxel intensities, derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data, as inputs to efficient classifiers such as support vector machines (SVM and is based on the spatial localization model of brain function. With the advent of the connectionist model of brain function, features from brain networks may provide increased discriminatory power for brain state classification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we introduce a novel framework where in both functional connectivity (FC based on instantaneous temporal correlation and effective connectivity (EC based on causal influence in brain networks are used as features in an SVM classifier. In order to derive those features, we adopt a novel approach recently introduced by us called correlation-purged Granger causality (CPGC in order to obtain both FC and EC from fMRI data simultaneously without the instantaneous correlation contaminating Granger causality. In addition, statistical learning is accelerated and performance accuracy is enhanced by combining recursive cluster elimination (RCE algorithm with the SVM classifier. We demonstrate the efficacy of the CPGC-based RCE-SVM approach using a specific instance of brain state classification exemplified by disease state prediction. Accordingly, we show that this approach is capable of predicting with 90.3% accuracy whether any given human subject was prenatally exposed to cocaine or not, even when no significant behavioral differences were found between exposed and healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The framework adopted in this work is quite general in nature with prenatal cocaine exposure being only an illustrative example of the power of this approach. In any brain state classification approach using neuroimaging data, including the directional connectivity information may prove to be a performance enhancer. When brain state

  4. Koch Process Systems VR-System 350. Technical support document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a conceptual design of a volume reduction system for solid and liquid combustible low-level wastes generated by either PWR or BWR nuclear power plants. The heart of the system is the controlled-air incinerator process which was developed and demonstrated by Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) for use in the volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) waste. Equipment descriptions of sub-systems and supporting services are included with sizing basis. Instrument control philosophy is described for the system to be operated unattended. The system configuration, design, and analysis of releases are included to represent a system which is effective, flexible, safe, considers ALARA, and has all the basic needs for ultimate licensing by a utility. 18 references, 13 tables

  5. Individual Differences in Working Memory, Nonverbal IQ, and Mathematics Achievement and Brain Mechanisms Associated with Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Number Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullick, Margaret M.; Sprute, Lisa A.; Temple, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in mathematics performance may stem from domain-general factors like working memory and intelligence. Parietal and frontal brain areas have been implicated in number processing, but the influence of such cognitive factors on brain activity during mathematics processing is not known. The relationship between brain mechanisms…

  6. Hebrew Brain vs. English Brain: Language Modulates the Way It Is Processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Atira S.; Goelman, Gadi; Frost, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Is language processing universal? How do the specific properties of each language influence the way it is processed? In this study, we compare the neural correlates of morphological processing in Hebrew--a Semitic language with a rich and systematic morphology, to those revealed in English--an Indo-European language with a linear morphology. Using…

  7. The bimusical brain is not two monomusical brains in one: evidence from musical affective processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Chan, Alice H D; Roy, Anil; Margulis, Elizabeth H

    2011-12-01

    Complex auditory exposures in ambient environments include systems of not only linguistic but also musical sounds. Because musical exposure is often passive, consisting of listening rather than performing, examining listeners without formal musical training allows for the investigation of the effects of passive exposure on our nervous system without active use. Additionally, studying listeners who have exposure to more than one musical system allows for an evaluation of how the brain acquires multiple symbolic and communicative systems. In the present fMRI study, listeners who had been exposed to Western-only (monomusicals) and both Indian and Western musical systems (bimusicals) since childhood and did not have significant formal musical training made tension judgments on Western and Indian music. Significant group by music interactions in temporal and limbic regions were found, with effects predominantly driven by between-music differences in temporal regions in the monomusicals and by between-music differences in limbic regions in the bimusicals. Effective connectivity analysis of this network via structural equation modeling (SEM) showed significant path differences across groups and music conditions, most notably a higher degree of connectivity and larger differentiation between the music conditions within the bimusicals. SEM was also used to examine the relationships among the degree of music exposure, affective responses, and activation in various brain regions. Results revealed a more complex behavioral-neural relationship in the bimusicals, suggesting that affective responses in this group are shaped by multiple behavioral and neural factors. These three lines of evidence suggest a clear differentiation of the effects of the exposure of one versus multiple musical systems. PMID:21812560

  8. Dissociation of GLP-1 and insulin association with food processing in the brain: GLP-1 sensitivity despite insulin resistance in obese humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Heni

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The postprandial release of GLP-1 might alter reward processes in the orbitofrontal cortex and might thereby support the termination of food intake and reduce hunger. While obese persons showed brain insulin resistance, no GLP-1 resistance was observed. Our study provides novel insight into the central regulation of food intake by the incretin hormone GLP-1.

  9. Support vector machine-based classification of Alzheimer's disease from whole-brain anatomical MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present and evaluate a new automated method based on support vector machine (SVM) classification of whole-brain anatomical magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and elderly control subjects. We studied 16 patients with AD [mean age ± standard deviation (SD)=74.1 ±5.2 years, mini-mental score examination (MMSE) = 23.1 ± 2.9] and 22 elderly controls (72.3±5.0 years, MMSE=28.5± 1.3). Three-dimensional T1-weighted MR images of each subject were automatically parcellated into regions of interest (ROIs). Based upon the characteristics of gray matter extracted from each ROI, we used an SVM algorithm to classify the subjects and statistical procedures based on bootstrap resampling to ensure the robustness of the results. We obtained 94.5% mean correct classification for AD and control subjects (mean specificity, 96.6%; mean sensitivity, 91.5%). Our method has the potential in distinguishing patients with AD from elderly controls and therefore may help in the early diagnosis of AD. (orig.)

  10. Functional reorganization of the large-scale brain networks that support high-level cognition following brain damage in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idan Asher Blank

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, a number of large-scale networks in the human cortex that support high-level cognition have been identified. Here, we focus on two of these networks: the fronto-temporal language network (e.g., Fedorenko et al., 2010, and the fronto-parietal “multiple demand (MD” network (e.g., Duncan, 2010. These two networks are clearly distinct from one another: first, their respective regions show distinct functional profiles, with language regions showing selective responses to language stimuli (Fedorenko et al., 2011; Monti et al., 2012 and MD regions showing domain-general responses to cognitive effort across a wide range of tasks (Duncan & Owen, 2001; Fedorenko et al., 2013. Second, during “rest” and cognitive processing, each network shows strong activity synchronization among its constituent regions, whereas regions across the two networks are not synchronized (Blank et al., 2014; Lee et al., 2012; Mantini et al., 2013. In the current study, we examined how these functional characteristics of the two networks were affected following aphasia-inducing strokes. In particular, we asked whether damage to the language network would alter the involvement of the MD network in linguistic processing, and whether such damage would alter the patterns of synchronization across the two networks. Four male individuals with aphasia (age: M=53, having suffered a single left MCA CVA, were scanned in fMRI on two paradigms that enable basic functional characterization of language and MD regions: (i a language localizer task, where they passively read sentences and sequences of pseudowords (Fedorenko et al., 2010; and (ii a spatial working memory task, where they had to remember fewer (easy or more (hard locations in a grid (Fedorenko et al., 2013. Language and MD regions were defined in each individual using the sentences > pseudowords contrast and the hard > easy contrast, respectively. Subjects were also scanned while listening to

  11. Supporting change processes in design: Complexity, prediction and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Claudia M. [Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cme26@cam.ac.uk; Keller, Rene [Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rk313@cam.ac.uk; Earl, Chris [Open University, Department of Design and Innovation, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: C.F.Earl@open.ac.uk; Clarkson, P. John [Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: pjc10@cam.ac.uk

    2006-12-15

    Change to existing products is fundamental to design processes. New products are often designed through change or modification to existing products. Specific parts or subsystems are changed to similar ones whilst others are directly reused. Design by modification applies particularly to safety critical products where the reuse of existing working parts and subsystems can reduce cost and risk. However change is rarely a matter of just reusing or modifying parts. Changing one part can propagate through the entire design leading to costly rework or jeopardising the integrity of the whole product. This paper characterises product change based on studies in the aerospace and automotive industry and introduces tools to aid designers in understanding the potential effects of change. Two ways of supporting designers are described: probabilistic prediction of the effects of change and visualisation of change propagation through product connectivities. Change propagation has uncertainties which are amplified by the choices designers make in practice as they implement change. Change prediction and visualisation is discussed with reference to complexity in three areas of product development: the structural backcloth of connectivities in the existing product (and its processes), the descriptions of the product used in design and the actions taken to carry out changes.

  12. The economic valuation of improved process plant decision support technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Douglas C

    2007-06-01

    How can investments that would potentially improve a manufacturing plant's decision process be economically justified? What is the value of "better information," "more flexibility," or "improved integration" and the technologies that provide these effects? Technology investments such as improved process modelling, new real time historians and other databases, "smart" instrumentation, better data analysis and visualization software, and/or improved user interfaces often include these benefits as part of their valuation. How are these "soft" benefits to be converted to a quantitative economic return? Quantification is important if rational management decisions are to be made about the correct amount of money to invest in the technologies, and which technologies to choose among the many available ones. Modelling the plant operational decision cycle-detect, analyse, forecast, choose and implement--provides a basis for this economic quantification. In this paper a new economic model is proposed for estimation of the value of decision support investments based on their effect upon the uncertainty in forecasting plant financial performance. This model leads to quantitative benefit estimates that have a realistic financial basis. An example is presented demonstrating the application of the method.

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury: a Case Study of the School Reintegration Process

    OpenAIRE

    McWilliams, Karen P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this linear-analytic exploratory case study is to illustrate the reintegration process from acute care and rehabilitative care to the traditional school setting after one has sustained a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). TBI is an unrecognized educational challenge. Few educational professionals are aware of the divarication of TBI. Traumatic Brain Injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children and adolescents in the United States. The review of literature reveals ...

  14. Reward Sensitivity Is Associated with Brain Activity during Erotic Stimulus Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Costumero; Alfonso Barrós-Loscertales; Juan Carlos Bustamante; Noelia Ventura-Campos; Paola Fuentes; Patricia Rosell-Negre; César Ávila

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral approach system (BAS) from Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory is a neurobehavioral system involved in the processing of rewarding stimuli that has been related to dopaminergic brain areas. Gray’s theory hypothesizes that the functioning of reward brain areas is modulated by BAS-related traits. To test this hypothesis, we performed an fMRI study where participants viewed erotic and neutral pictures, and cues that predicted their appearance. Forty-five heterosexual men compl...

  15. Brain-borne IL-1 adjusts glucoregulation and provides fuel support to astrocytes and neurons in an autocrine/paracrine manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rey, A; Verdenhalven, M; Lörwald, A C; Meyer, C; Hernangómez, M; Randolf, A; Roggero, E; König, A M; Heverhagen, J T; Guaza, C; Besedovsky, H O

    2016-09-01

    It is still controversial which mediators regulate energy provision to activated neural cells, as insulin does in peripheral tissues. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) may mediate this effect as it can affect glucoregulation, it is overexpressed in the 'healthy' brain during increased neuronal activity, and it supports high-energy demanding processes such as long-term potentiation, memory and learning. Furthermore, the absence of sustained neuroendocrine and behavioral counterregulation suggests that brain glucose-sensing neurons do not perceive IL-1β-induced hypoglycemia. Here, we show that IL-1β adjusts glucoregulation by inducing its own production in the brain, and that IL-1β-induced hypoglycemia is myeloid differentiation primary response 88 protein (MyD88)-dependent and only partially counteracted by Kir6.2-mediated sensing signaling. Furthermore, we found that, opposite to insulin, IL-1β stimulates brain metabolism. This effect is absent in MyD88-deficient mice, which have neurobehavioral alterations associated to disorders in glucose homeostasis, as during several psychiatric diseases. IL-1β effects on brain metabolism are most likely maintained by IL-1β auto-induction and may reflect a compensatory increase in fuel supply to neural cells. We explore this possibility by directly blocking IL-1 receptors in neural cells. The results showed that, in an activity-dependent and paracrine/autocrine manner, endogenous IL-1 produced by neurons and astrocytes facilitates glucose uptake by these cells. This effect is exacerbated following glutamatergic stimulation and can be passively transferred between cell types. We conclude that the capacity of IL-1β to provide fuel to neural cells underlies its physiological effects on glucoregulation, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. However, deregulation of IL-1β production could contribute to the alterations in brain glucose metabolism that are detected in several neurologic and psychiatric diseases. PMID:26643538

  16. Event-Related Brain Potentials Reveal Anomalies in Temporal Processing of Faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.; Panagiotides, Heracles; Carver, Leslie J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Individuals with autism exhibit impairments in face recognition, and neuroimaging studies have shown that individuals with autism exhibit abnormal patterns of brain activity during face processing. The current study examined the temporal characteristics of face processing in autism and their relation to behavior. Method: High-density…

  17. Green Transport Balanced Scorecard Model with Analytic Network Process Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Staš

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the performance of economic and non-economic activities has required them to be friendly with the environment. Transport is one of the areas having considerable potential within the scope. The main assumption to achieve ambitious green goals is an effective green transport evaluation system. However, these systems are researched from the industrial company and supply chain perspective only sporadically. The aim of the paper is to design a conceptual framework for creating the Green Transport (GT Balanced Scorecard (BSC models from the viewpoint of industrial companies and supply chains using an appropriate multi-criteria decision making method. The models should allow green transport performance evaluation and support of an effective implementation of green transport strategies. Since performance measures used in Balanced Scorecard models are interdependent, the Analytic Network Process (ANP was used as the appropriate multi-criteria decision making method. The verification of the designed conceptual framework was performed on a real supply chain of the European automotive industry.

  18. Local Versus Global Effects of Isoflurane Anesthesia on Visual Processing in the Fly Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dror; Zalucki, Oressia H; van Swinderen, Bruno; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2016-01-01

    What characteristics of neural activity distinguish the awake and anesthetized brain? Drugs such as isoflurane abolish behavioral responsiveness in all animals, implying evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. However, it is unclear whether this conservation is reflected at the level of neural activity. Studies in humans have shown that anesthesia is characterized by spatially distinct spectral and coherence signatures that have also been implicated in the global impairment of cortical communication. We questioned whether anesthesia has similar effects on global and local neural processing in one of the smallest brains, that of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). Using a recently developed multielectrode technique, we recorded local field potentials from different areas of the fly brain simultaneously, while manipulating the concentration of isoflurane. Flickering visual stimuli ('frequency tags') allowed us to track evoked responses in the frequency domain and measure the effects of isoflurane throughout the brain. We found that isoflurane reduced power and coherence at the tagging frequency (13 or 17 Hz) in central brain regions. Unexpectedly, isoflurane increased power and coherence at twice the tag frequency (26 or 34 Hz) in the optic lobes of the fly, but only for specific stimulus configurations. By modeling the periodic responses, we show that the increase in power in peripheral areas can be attributed to local neuroanatomy. We further show that the effects on coherence can be explained by impacted signal-to-noise ratios. Together, our results show that general anesthesia has distinct local and global effects on neuronal processing in the fruit fly brain. PMID:27517084

  19. Spatiotemporal dynamics of word processing in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T Canolty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined the spatiotemporal dynamics of word processing by recording the electrocorticogram (ECoG from the lateral frontotemporal cortex of neurosurgical patients chronically implanted with subdural electrode grids. Subjects engaged in a target detection task where proper names served as infrequent targets embedded in a stream of task-irrelevant verbs and nonwords. Verbs described actions related to the hand (e.g, throw or mouth (e.g., blow, while unintelligible nonwords were sounds which matched the verbs in duration, intensity, temporal modulation, and power spectrum. Complex oscillatory dynamics were observed in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, low, and high gamma (HG bands in response to presentation of all stimulus types. HG activity (80-200 Hz in the ECoG tracked the spatiotemporal dynamics of word processing and identified a network of cortical structures involved in early word processing. HG was used to determine the relative onset, peak, and offset times of local cortical activation during word processing. Listening to verbs compared to nonwords sequentially activates first the posterior superior temporal gyrus (post-STG, then the middle superior temporal gyrus (mid-STG, followed by the superior temporal sulcus (STS. We also observed strong phase-locking between pairs of electrodes in the theta band, with weaker phase-locking occurring in the delta, alpha, and beta frequency ranges. These results provide details on the first few hundred milliseconds of the spatiotemporal evolution of cortical activity during word processing and provide evidence consistent with the hypothesis that an oscillatory hierarchy coordinates the flow of information between distinct cortical regions during goal-directed behavior.

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Process Validation Technical Support Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEXTON, R.A.

    2000-03-13

    The purpose of Process Validation is to confirm that nominal process operations are consistent with the expected process envelope. The Process Validation activities described in this document are not part of the safety basis, but are expected to demonstrate that the process operates well within the safety basis. Some adjustments to the process may be made as a result of information gathered in Process Validation.

  1. Human Decision Processes: Implications for SSA Support Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciano, P.

    2013-09-01

    Despite significant advances in computing power and artificial intelligence (AI), few critical decisions are made without a human decision maker in the loop. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) missions are both critical and complex, typically adhering to the human-in-the-loop (HITL) model. The collection of human operators injects a needed diversity of expert knowledge, experience, and authority required to successfully fulfill SSA tasking. A wealth of literature on human decision making exists citing myriad empirical studies and offering a varied set of prescriptive and descriptive models of judgment and decision making (Hastie & Dawes, 2001; Baron, 2000). Many findings have been proven sufficiently robust to allow information architects or system/interface designers to take action to improve decision processes. For the purpose of discussion, these concepts are bifurcated in two groups: 1) vulnerabilities to mitigate, and 2) capabilities to augment. These vulnerabilities and capabilities refer specifically to the decision process and should not be confused with a shortcoming or skill of a specific human operator. Thus the framing of questions and orders, the automated tools with which to collaborate, priming and contextual data, and the delivery of information all play a critical role in human judgment and choice. Evaluating the merits of any decision can be elusive; in order to constrain this discussion, ‘rational choice' will tend toward the economic model characteristics such as maximizing utility and selection consistency (e.g., if A preferred to B, and B preferred to C, than A should be preferred to C). Simple decision models often encourage one to list the pros and cons of a decision, perhaps use a weighting schema, but one way or another weigh the future benefit (or harm) of making a selection. The result (sought by the rationalist models) should drive toward higher utility. Despite notable differences in researchers' theses (to be discussed in the full

  2. Modular Segregation of Structural Brain Networks Supports the Development of Executive Function in Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Graham L.; Ciric, Rastko; Roalf, David R.; Richard F Betzel; Moore, Tyler M; Shinohara, Russel T.; Kahn, Ari E.; Quarmley, Megan; Cook, Philip A.; Elliot, Mark A.; Ruparel, Kosha; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C.; Bassett, Danielle S.; Satterthwaite, Theodore D

    2016-01-01

    The human brain is organized into large-scale functional modules that have been shown to evolve in childhood and adolescence. However, it remains unknown whether structural brain networks are similarly refined during development, potentially allowing for improvements in executive function. In a sample of 882 participants (ages 8-22) who underwent diffusion imaging as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, we demonstrate that structural network modules become more segregated with ...

  3. Guest Editorial: Leveraging the patient support network in traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kara Gagnon, OD, FAAO; Michael Wininger, PhD

    2013-01-01

    TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY AND ASSOCIATED DISORDERS CAN OBSTRUCT THE PATIENT-CARE PATHWAYA recent single-topic issue of this journal (JRRD, 49(7)) gave forum to common—yet often overlooked—sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI): sensory and communication dysfunction. The issue gave excellent context not only for the diffuse and idiosyncratic nature of these deficits but also for their prevalence. Perhaps the most compelling aspect of sensory and communication disorders following TBI is that imp...

  4. Cortisol alters reward processing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Valerie L; Wolf, Oliver T; Merz, Christian J

    2016-08-01

    Dysfunctional reward processing is known to play a central role for the development of psychiatric disorders. Glucocorticoids that are secreted in response to stress have been shown to attenuate reward sensitivity and thereby might promote the onset of psychopathology. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms mediating stress hormone effects on reward processing as well as potential sex differences remain elusive. In this neuroimaging study, we administered 30mg cortisol or a placebo to 30 men and 30 women and subsequently tested them in the Monetary Incentive Delay Task. Cortisol attenuated anticipatory neural responses to a verbal and a monetary reward in the left pallidum and the right anterior parahippocampal gyrus. Furthermore, in men, activation in the amygdala, the precuneus, the anterior cingulate, and in hippocampal regions was reduced under cortisol, whereas in cortisol-treated women a signal increase was observed in these regions. Behavioral performance also indicated that reward learning in men is impaired under high cortisol concentrations, while it is augmented in women. These findings illustrate that the stress hormone cortisol substantially diminishes reward anticipation and provide first evidence that cortisol effects on the neural reward system are sensitive to sex differences, which might translate into different vulnerabilities for psychiatric disorders. PMID:27170428

  5. Feasibility and utility of telephone-based psychological support for people with brain tumor: A single-case experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eJones

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rates of psychological distress are high following diagnosis and treatment of brain tumor. There can be multiple barriers to accessing psychological support, including physical and cognitive impairments and geographical limitations. Tele-based support could provide an effective and more flexible option for delivering psychological interventions. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility and utility of a telephone-based psychotherapy intervention for people with brain tumor. A single-case multiple-baseline design was employed with a 4-7 week baseline phase, 10-week treatment phase and 5-week maintenance phase including a booster session. Four participants with a benign or malignant brain tumor (3 males & 1 female; aged 34 to 49 years, received 10 sessions of tele-based therapy and a booster session at four weeks post-treatment. Levels of depression, anxiety, and illness cognitions were monitored on a weekly basis throughout each phase whilst measures of quality of life, stress and self-concept were administered at the start and end of each phase. Weekly measures were analysed using a combination of both visual analysis and Tau-U statistics. Of the four participants, two of them demonstrated significant gains in mental health (depression and/or anxiety and a significant decrease in their levels of helplessness (p<.05. The other two participants did not show gains in mental health or change in illness cognitions. All participants reported improvement in quality of life post-treatment. The results of the study provide preliminary support concerning the feasibility and utility of tele-based therapy for some people with brain tumor. Further research examining factors influencing the outcomes of tele-based psychological support is needed.

  6. Demographic variation in how the social brain processes news messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene Ingeborg van Driel, M A; Grabe, Maria Elizabeth; Ozen Bas, M A; Kleemans, Mariska

    2016-01-01

    A high capacity for visual perception distinguishes Homo sapiens from other primates. This human ability to detect social cues and retain visual records of social networks has been tested mostly with static facial images in laboratory settings. However, media consumption has become closely entangled with the way social life is navigated. Therefore, the study reported here tested demographic differences (gender and education) in visual information processing of social and nonsocial objects featured in audiovisual news content. Women recognized (accuracy) and recalled (salience) social images better than men. On the other hand, men were more skilled at recognizing, but not recalling, nonsocial images. Participants with lower educational levels recognized and recalled fewer images than individuals with higher educational levels. Interactions between demographic variables and time suggest that memory records for social images are more stable than those for nonsocial images. Memory may have survival-relevant importance, serving navigational functions that vary across environmental demands, resulting in differences across demographic groups. PMID:27378023

  7. BrainK for Structural Image Processing: Creating Electrical Models of the Human Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Papademetris, Xenophon; Tucker, Don M

    2016-01-01

    BrainK is a set of automated procedures for characterizing the tissues of the human head from MRI, CT, and photogrammetry images. The tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction support the primary goal of modeling the propagation of electrical currents through head tissues with a finite difference model (FDM) or finite element model (FEM) created from the BrainK geometries. The electrical head model is necessary for accurate source localization of dense array electroencephalographic (dEEG) measures from head surface electrodes. It is also necessary for accurate targeting of cerebral structures with transcranial current injection from those surface electrodes. BrainK must achieve five major tasks: image segmentation, registration of the MRI, CT, and sensor photogrammetry images, cortical surface reconstruction, dipole tessellation of the cortical surface, and Talairach transformation. We describe the approach to each task, and we compare the accuracies for the key tasks of tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction in relation to existing research tools (FreeSurfer, FSL, SPM, and BrainVisa). BrainK achieves good accuracy with minimal or no user intervention, it deals well with poor quality MR images and tissue abnormalities, and it provides improved computational efficiency over existing research packages. PMID:27293419

  8. BrainK for Structural Image Processing: Creating Electrical Models of the Human Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BrainK is a set of automated procedures for characterizing the tissues of the human head from MRI, CT, and photogrammetry images. The tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction support the primary goal of modeling the propagation of electrical currents through head tissues with a finite difference model (FDM or finite element model (FEM created from the BrainK geometries. The electrical head model is necessary for accurate source localization of dense array electroencephalographic (dEEG measures from head surface electrodes. It is also necessary for accurate targeting of cerebral structures with transcranial current injection from those surface electrodes. BrainK must achieve five major tasks: image segmentation, registration of the MRI, CT, and sensor photogrammetry images, cortical surface reconstruction, dipole tessellation of the cortical surface, and Talairach transformation. We describe the approach to each task, and we compare the accuracies for the key tasks of tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction in relation to existing research tools (FreeSurfer, FSL, SPM, and BrainVisa. BrainK achieves good accuracy with minimal or no user intervention, it deals well with poor quality MR images and tissue abnormalities, and it provides improved computational efficiency over existing research packages.

  9. Rotational Angle Measurement of Bridge Support Using Image Processing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Soo Park; John Arbie Agbayani; Jong-Han Lee; Jong-Jae Lee

    2016-01-01

    Measuring a very small rotational angle accurately and dynamically is indeed a challenging issue, especially in the case of bridge support. Also, existing inclinometers do not have sufficient resolution and accuracy to measure a bridge’s rotational angle. In this study, a new measurement system was developed to provide a practical means for measuring dynamic rotational angle of a bridge support. It features high resolution and accuracy compared with the available systems on the market. By the...

  10. Early specialization for voice and emotion processing in the infant brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Blasi; E. Mercure; S. Lloyd-Fox; A. Thomson; M. Brammer; D. Sauter; Q. Deeley; G.J. Barker; V. Renvall; S. Deoni; D. Gasston; S.C.R. Williams; M.H. Johnson; A. Simmons; D.G.M. Murphy

    2011-01-01

    Human voices play a fundamental role in social communication, and areas of the adult "social brain" show specialization for processing voices and their emotional content (superior temporal sulcus, inferior prefrontal cortex, premotor cortical regions, amygdala, and insula) [ [1], [2], [3], [4], [5],

  11. The time-course and spatial distribution of brain activity associated with sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Jonathan; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2012-04-01

    Sentence comprehension involves a host of highly interrelated processes, including syntactic parsing, semantic composition, and pragmatic inferencing. In neuroimaging, a primary paradigm for examining the brain bases of sentence processing has been to compare brain activity elicited by sentences versus unstructured lists of words. These studies commonly find an effect of increased activity for sentences in the anterior temporal lobes (aTL). Together with neuropsychological data, these findings have motivated the hypothesis that the aTL is engaged in sentence level combinatorics. Combinatoric processing during language comprehension, however, occurs within tens and hundreds of milliseconds, i.e., at a time-scale much faster than the temporal resolution of hemodynamic measures. Here, we examined the time-course of sentence-level processing using magnetoencephalography (MEG) to better understand the temporal profile of activation in this common paradigm and to test a key prediction of the combinatoric hypothesis: because sentences are interpreted incrementally, word-by-word, activity associated with basic linguistic combinatorics should be time-locked to word-presentation. Our results reveal increased anterior temporal activity for sentences compared to word lists beginning approximately 250 ms after word onset. We also observed increased activation in a network of other brain areas, extending across posterior temporal, inferior frontal, and ventral medial areas. These findings confirm a key prediction of the combinatoric hypothesis for the aTL and further elucidate the spatio-temporal characteristics of sentence-level computations in the brain.

  12. [Does Prefrontal Noninvasive Brain Stimulation Alleviating Symptoms in Depression and Schizophrenia Impact Mood and Emotion Processing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psomiades, Marion; Fonteneau, Clara; Suaud-Chagny, Marie-Françoise; Haesebaert, Frédéric; Brunelin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are noninvasive brain stimulation techniques currently used as therapeutic tools in various psychiatric conditions. Applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), they showed their efficacy in reducing drug-resistant symptoms in patients with major depression and in patients with schizophrenia with predominantly negative symptoms. The DLPFC is a brain structure involved in the expression of these symptoms as well as in other dysfunctional functions observed in theses conditions such as emotional processes. The goal of this review is to establish whether or not a link exists between clinical improvements and modulation of emotional processes following the stimulation of the DLPFC in both conditions. The data collected show that improved emotional processes is not linked to a clinical improvement neither in patients with depression nor in patients with negative schizophrenia. Our results suggests that although sharing common brain structures, the brain networks involved in both symptoms and in emotional processes would be separate. PMID:27570958

  13. Too many betas do not spoil the broth: The role of beta brain oscillations in language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eWeiss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years, brain oscillations have proven to be a gateway to the understanding of cognitive processes. It has been shown that different neurocognitive aspects of language processing are associated with brain oscillations at various frequencies. Frequencies in the beta range (13-30 Hz turned out to be particularly important with respect to cognitive and linguistic manipulations during language processing. Beta activity has been involved in higher-order linguistic functions such as the discrimination of word categories and the retrieval of action semantics as well as semantic memory, and syntactic binding processes, which support meaning construction during sentence processing. From a neurophysiological point of view, the important role of the beta frequencies for such a complex cognitive task as language processing seems reasonable. Experimental evidence suggests that frequencies in the beta range are ideal for maintaining and preserving the activity of neuronal assemblies over time. In particular, recent computational and experimental evidence suggest that beta frequencies are important for linking past and present input and the detection of novelty of stimuli, which are essential processes for language perception as well as production. In addition, the beta frequency’s role in the formation of cell assemblies underlying short-term memory seems indispensable for language analysis. Probably the most important point is the well-known relation of beta oscillations with motor processes. It can be speculated that beta activities reflect the close relationship between language comprehension and motor functions, which is one of the core claims of current theories on embodied cognition.In this article, the importance of beta oscillations for language processing is reviewed based both on findings in psychophysiological and neurophysiological literature.

  14. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-li Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception.

  15. Brain signal variability as a window into the bidirectionality between music and language processing: moving from a linear to a nonlinear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutka, Stefanie; Bidelman, Gavin M; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-12-30

    There is convincing empirical evidence for bidirectional transfer between music and language, such that experience in either domain can improve mental processes required by the other. This music-language relationship has been studied using linear models (e.g., comparing mean neural activity) that conceptualize brain activity as a static entity. The linear approach limits how we can understand the brain's processing of music and language because the brain is a nonlinear system. Furthermore, there is evidence that the networks supporting music and language processing interact in a nonlinear manner. We therefore posit that the neural processing and transfer between the domains of language and music are best viewed through the lens of a nonlinear framework. Nonlinear analysis of neurophysiological activity may yield new insight into the commonalities, differences, and bidirectionality between these two cognitive domains not measurable in the local output of a cortical patch. We thus propose a novel application of brain signal variability (BSV) analysis, based on mutual information and signal entropy, to better understand the bidirectionality of music-to-language transfer in the context of a nonlinear framework. This approach will extend current methods by offering a nuanced, network-level understanding of the brain complexity involved in music-language transfer.

  16. Brain signal variability as a window into the bidirectionality between music and language processing: moving from a linear to a nonlinear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutka, Stefanie; Bidelman, Gavin M; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-12-30

    There is convincing empirical evidence for bidirectional transfer between music and language, such that experience in either domain can improve mental processes required by the other. This music-language relationship has been studied using linear models (e.g., comparing mean neural activity) that conceptualize brain activity as a static entity. The linear approach limits how we can understand the brain's processing of music and language because the brain is a nonlinear system. Furthermore, there is evidence that the networks supporting music and language processing interact in a nonlinear manner. We therefore posit that the neural processing and transfer between the domains of language and music are best viewed through the lens of a nonlinear framework. Nonlinear analysis of neurophysiological activity may yield new insight into the commonalities, differences, and bidirectionality between these two cognitive domains not measurable in the local output of a cortical patch. We thus propose a novel application of brain signal variability (BSV) analysis, based on mutual information and signal entropy, to better understand the bidirectionality of music-to-language transfer in the context of a nonlinear framework. This approach will extend current methods by offering a nuanced, network-level understanding of the brain complexity involved in music-language transfer. PMID:24454295

  17. Process and Tool Support for Ontology-Aware Life Support System Development and Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in ontology development support a rich description of entities that are modeled within a domain and how these entities relate to each other....

  18. Middleware for Processing Message Queues with Elasticity Support and Sequential Integrity of Asynchronous Message Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique Teixeira, Eduardo; Patrícia Favacho de Araújo, Aletéia

    2015-10-01

    Elasticity in computing refers to dynamically adjusting the amount of allocated resources to process a distributed application. In order to achieve this, mechanisms are needed to avoid the phenomenon of the elasticity threshold detection moving constantly up or down. The existing work fails to deliver sequential integrity of asynchronous messages processing and the asymmetries of data distribution to achieve parallel consumption. This paper fills this gaps and proposes a middleware solution to dynamically analyze the flow of message queue, and a mechanism to increase the parallelized consumption based on the output behavior. An architecture for IOD (Increase On Demand) middleware is presented, with support for the increase and decrease of thread's to cope with the growth of message queues, using the technique of limit-based heuristics over a given period of time and grouping messages into sub-queues based on classification criteria.

  19. Self-Disorder and Brain Processing of Proprioception in Schizophrenia Spectrum Patients: A Re-Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M.; Raballo, Andrea; Mørup, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    Background : Anomalies of self-awareness (self-disorders, SDs) are theorized to be basic to schizophrenia psychopathology. We have previously observed dysfunction of brain processing of proprioception in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SZS). We hypothesized that SDs could be associated...... following right-hand proprioceptive stimulation. Conclusion : Disorders of self-awareness may be associated with dysfunction of early phases of somatosensory processing. The findings are potentially relevant to our understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, but further studies are needed....

  20. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Visual Scene Processing in the Human Brain: Evidence from Repetition Priming and Intrinsic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, W. Dale; Kahn, Itamar; Wig, Gagan S.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetrical specialization of cognitive processes across the cerebral hemispheres is a hallmark of healthy brain development and an important evolutionary trait underlying higher cognition in humans. While previous research, including studies of priming, divided visual field presentation, and split-brain patients, demonstrates a general pattern of right/left asymmetry of form-specific versus form-abstract visual processing, little is known about brain organization underlying this dissociatio...

  1. Senior Management Support in the New Product Development Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, Jorge; Weerd-Nederhof, de Petra C.; Pearson, Alan; Fisscher, Olaf

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between senior management support to new product development activities by means of a quantitative and qualitative analysis of questionnaire and interview data collected in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. The quantitative analysis showed that there is a sm

  2. Action Learning as a Core Process for SME Business Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James A.; Houghton, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This is an account the work of NetworkNorthWest, a [pound]1m project at the University of Salford that ran between 2004 and 2007 and was developed to address the issues relating to poor take up of traditional business support by small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and low levels of engagement of the business community with Institutes of…

  3. Evolving the Language-Ready Brain and the Social Mechanisms that Support Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    We first review the mirror-system hypothesis on the evolution of the language-ready brain, stressing the important role of imitation and protosign in providing the scaffolding for protospeech. We then assess the role of social interaction and non-specific knowledge of language in the emergence of new sign languages in deaf communities (focusing on…

  4. TBI-ROC Part Seven: Traumatic Brain Injury--Technologies to Support Memory and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Marcia; Elias, Eileen; Weider, Katie

    2010-01-01

    This article is the seventh of a multi-part series on traumatic brain injury (TBI). The six earlier articles in this series have discussed the individualized nature of TBI and its consequences, the rehabilitation continuum, and interventions at various points along the continuum. As noted throughout the articles, many individuals with TBI…

  5. Language comprehension in the bilingual brain: fMRI and ERP support for psycholinguistic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, W.J.B. van; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we review issues in bilingual language comprehension in the light of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related brain potential (ERP) data. Next, we consider to what extent neuroimaging data are compatible with assumptions and characteristics of available psycholin

  6. Evolving the Language Ready Brain and the Social Mechanisms that Support Language

    OpenAIRE

    Arbib, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    We first review the Mirror-System Hypothesis on the evolution of the language-ready brain, stressing the important role of imitation and protosign in providing the scaffolding for protospeech. We then assess the role of social interaction and non-specific knowledge of language in the emergence of new sign languages in deaf communities (focusing on Nicaraguan Sign Language).

  7. IT Support for Release Management Processes in the Automotive Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, D.; Herbst, J.; Hammori, M.; Reichert, M.U.; Dustdar, S.; Fiadeiro, J.L.; Sheth, A.

    2006-01-01

    Car development is based on long running, concurrently executed and highly dependent processes. The coordination and synchronization of these processes has become a complex and error-prone task due to the increasing number of functions and embedded systems in modern cars. These systems realize advan

  8. Ontological Support in Modeling Learners' Problem Solving Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chun-Hung; Wu, Chia-Wei; Wu, Shih-Hung; Chiou, Guey-Fa; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new model for simulating procedural knowledge in the problem solving process with our ontological system, InfoMap. The method divides procedural knowledge into two parts: process control and action performer. By adopting InfoMap, we hope to help teachers construct curricula (declarative knowledge) and teaching strategies by…

  9. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eClouard

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow (CBF changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e. pleasure evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation.

  10. Rotational Angle Measurement of Bridge Support Using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Soo Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring a very small rotational angle accurately and dynamically is indeed a challenging issue, especially in the case of bridge support. Also, existing inclinometers do not have sufficient resolution and accuracy to measure a bridge’s rotational angle. In this study, a new measurement system was developed to provide a practical means for measuring dynamic rotational angle of a bridge support. It features high resolution and accuracy compared with the available systems on the market. By the combinational use of a laser pointer and a vision-based displacement measurement system, the measurement accuracy was significantly increased. The accuracy and applicability were investigated through laboratory tests. From the laboratory tests, it has been found that the developed system can be applicable to bridge support with very small rotational angle. The effectiveness of the developed system was verified through field tests on real bridges. From the full-scale implementation on two PSC girder bridges, it is observed that the proposed system can measure the rotational angle with a high accuracy and reliability.

  11. Intention processing in communication: a common brain network for language and gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrici, Ivan; Adenzato, Mauro; Cappa, Stefano; Bara, Bruno G; Tettamanti, Marco

    2011-09-01

    Human communicative competence is based on the ability to process a specific class of mental states, namely, communicative intention. The present fMRI study aims to analyze whether intention processing in communication is affected by the expressive means through which a communicative intention is conveyed, that is, the linguistic or extralinguistic gestural means. Combined factorial and conjunction analyses were used to test two sets of predictions: first, that a common brain network is recruited for the comprehension of communicative intentions independently of the modality through which they are conveyed; second, that additional brain areas are specifically recruited depending on the communicative modality used, reflecting distinct sensorimotor gateways. Our results clearly showed that a common neural network is engaged in communicative intention processing independently of the modality used. This network includes the precuneus, the left and right posterior STS and TPJ, and the medial pFC. Additional brain areas outside those involved in intention processing are specifically engaged by the particular communicative modality, that is, a peri-sylvian language network for the linguistic modality and a sensorimotor network for the extralinguistic modality. Thus, common representation of communicative intention may be accessed by modality-specific gateways, which are distinct for linguistic versus extralinguistic expressive means. Taken together, our results indicate that the information acquired by different communicative modalities is equivalent from a mental processing standpoint, in particular, at the point at which the actor's communicative intention has to be reconstructed.

  12. Brain training game boosts executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Nouchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age and a popular puzzle game (Tetris. Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the healthy young adults. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields

  13. Design and implementation of business process support with bpm tool

    OpenAIRE

    Sečnik, Tomaž

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, with the economy experiencing the greatest recession since 1929, many companies found themselves in trouble or even ceasing operations. Companies with well-organised business processes or those capable of quickly modifying them were at an advantage, and able of maintaining a competitive advantage in their line of business. Of course, the modelling and optimisation of business processes in today’s world is becoming an increasingly more difficult task. This is where contemporar...

  14. Intelligent Technique for Signal Processing to Identify the Brain Disorder for Epilepsy Captures Using Fuzzy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurumurthy Sasikumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The new direction of understand the signal that is created from the brain organization is one of the main chores in the brain signal processing. Amid all the neurological disorders the human brain epilepsy is measured as one of the extreme prevalent and then programmed artificial intelligence detection technique is an essential due to the crooked and unpredictable nature of happening of epileptic seizures. We proposed an Improved Fuzzy firefly algorithm, which would enhance the classification of the brain signal efficiently with minimum iteration. An important bunching technique created on fuzzy logic is the Fuzzy C means. Together in the feature domain with the spatial domain the features gained after multichannel EEG signals remained combined by means of fuzzy algorithms. And for better precision segmentation process the firefly algorithm is applied to optimize the Fuzzy C-means membership function. Simultaneously for the efficient clustering method the convergence criteria are set. On the whole the proposed technique yields more accurate results and that gives an edge over other techniques. This proposed algorithm result compared with other algorithms like fuzzy c means algorithm and PSO algorithm.

  15. Complexity in relational processing predicts changes in functional brain network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Luca; Halford, Graeme S; Zalesky, Andrew; Harding, Ian H; Ramm, Brentyn J; Cutmore, Tim; Shum, David H K; Mattingley, Jason B

    2014-09-01

    The ability to link variables is critical to many high-order cognitive functions, including reasoning. It has been proposed that limits in relating variables depend critically on relational complexity, defined formally as the number of variables to be related in solving a problem. In humans, the prefrontal cortex is known to be important for reasoning, but recent studies have suggested that such processes are likely to involve widespread functional brain networks. To test this hypothesis, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a classic measure of deductive reasoning to examine changes in brain networks as a function of relational complexity. As expected, behavioral performance declined as the number of variables to be related increased. Likewise, increments in relational complexity were associated with proportional enhancements in brain activity and task-based connectivity within and between 2 cognitive control networks: A cingulo-opercular network for maintaining task set, and a fronto-parietal network for implementing trial-by-trial control. Changes in effective connectivity as a function of increased relational complexity suggested a key role for the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in integrating and implementing task set in a trial-by-trial manner. Our findings show that limits in relational processing are manifested in the brain as complexity-dependent modulations of large-scale networks. PMID:23563963

  16. Raster Data Partitioning for Supporting Distributed GIS Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Thai, B.; Olasz, A.

    2015-08-01

    In the geospatial sector big data concept also has already impact. Several studies facing originally computer science techniques applied in GIS processing of huge amount of geospatial data. In other research studies geospatial data is considered as it were always been big data (Lee and Kang, 2015). Nevertheless, we can prove data acquisition methods have been improved substantially not only the amount, but the resolution of raw data in spectral, spatial and temporal aspects as well. A significant portion of big data is geospatial data, and the size of such data is growing rapidly at least by 20% every year (Dasgupta, 2013). The produced increasing volume of raw data, in different format, representation and purpose the wealth of information derived from this data sets represents only valuable results. However, the computing capability and processing speed rather tackle with limitations, even if semi-automatic or automatic procedures are aimed on complex geospatial data (Kristóf et al., 2014). In late times, distributed computing has reached many interdisciplinary areas of computer science inclusive of remote sensing and geographic information processing approaches. Cloud computing even more requires appropriate processing algorithms to be distributed and handle geospatial big data. Map-Reduce programming model and distributed file systems have proven their capabilities to process non GIS big data. But sometimes it's inconvenient or inefficient to rewrite existing algorithms to Map-Reduce programming model, also GIS data can not be partitioned as text-based data by line or by bytes. Hence, we would like to find an alternative solution for data partitioning, data distribution and execution of existing algorithms without rewriting or with only minor modifications. This paper focuses on technical overview of currently available distributed computing environments, as well as GIS data (raster data) partitioning, distribution and distributed processing of GIS algorithms

  17. Support of the collaborative inquiry learning process: influence of support on task and team regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Saab; W. van Joolingen; B. van Hout-Wolters

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of the learning process is an important condition for efficient and effective learning. In collaborative learning, students have to regulate their collaborative activities (team regulation) next to the regulation of their own learning process focused on the task at hand (task regulation).

  18. Effects of Cognitive Complexity and Emotional Upset on Processing Supportive Messages: Two Tests of a Dual-Process Theory of Supportive Communication Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Graham D.; Burleson, Brant R.; Holmstrom, Amanda J.; McCullough, Jennifer D.; Rack, Jessica J.; Hanasono, Lisa K.; Rosier, Jennifer G.

    2011-01-01

    We report tests of hypotheses derived from a theory of supportive communication outcomes that maintains the effects of supportive messages are moderated by factors influencing the motivation and ability to process these messages. Participants in two studies completed a measure of cognitive complexity, which provided an assessment of processing…

  19. Automatic volumetry on MR brain images can support diagnostic decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Aviv Richard I; Rueckert Daniel; Hammers Alexander; Heckemann Rolf A; Harvey Christopher J; Hajnal Joseph V

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Diagnostic decisions in clinical imaging currently rely almost exclusively on visual image interpretation. This can lead to uncertainty, for example in dementia disease, where some of the changes resemble those of normal ageing. We hypothesized that extracting volumetric data from patients' MR brain images, relating them to reference data and presenting the results as a colour overlay on the grey scale data would aid diagnostic readers in classifying dementia disease versu...

  20. What reasoning support for ontology and rules? the brain anatomy case study

    OpenAIRE

    Golbreich, Christine; Dameron, Olivier; Bierlaire, Olivier; Gibaud, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a medical case study, which requires reasoning with an OWL ontology extended by rules. The application aims at assisting the labeling of some brain cortex structures identified in MRI images. A simplified example is provided to illustrate the need for supplementing OWL with rules, for reasoning over such hybrid knowledge, and showing potential issues with doing that. Then, we describe some of the available techniques and implementations for reasoning over hybrid systems an...

  1. Reconfiguration of brain network architecture to support executive control in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallen, Courtney L; Turner, Gary R; Adnan, Areeba; D'Esposito, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by declines in executive control abilities and changes in underlying brain network architecture. Here, we examined brain networks in young and older adults during a task-free resting state and an N-back task and investigated age-related changes in the modular network organization of the brain. Compared with young adults, older adults showed larger changes in network organization between resting state and task. Although young adults exhibited increased connectivity between lateral frontal regions and other network modules during the most difficult task condition, older adults also exhibited this pattern of increased connectivity during less-demanding task conditions. Moreover, the increase in between-module connectivity in older adults was related to faster task performance and greater fractional anisotropy of the superior longitudinal fasciculus. These results demonstrate that older adults who exhibit more pronounced network changes between a resting state and task have better executive control performance and greater structural connectivity of a core frontal-posterior white matter pathway.

  2. Intelligent Processing Equipment Research Supported by the National Science Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Suren B.

    1992-01-01

    The research in progress on processes, workstations, and systems has the goal of developing a high level of understanding of the issues involved. This will enable the incorporation of a level of intelligence that will allow the creation of autonomous manufacturing systems that operate in an optimum manner, under a wide range of conditions. The emphasis of the research has been on the development of highly productive and flexible techniques to address current and future problems in manufacturing and processing. Several of these projects have resulted in well-defined and established models that can now be implemented in the application arena in the next few years.

  3. Regional brain activation supporting cognitive control in the context of reward is associated with treated adolescents’ marijuana problem severity at follow-up: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Chung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study examined the extent to which regional brain activation during a reward cue antisaccade (AS task was associated with 6-month treatment outcome in adolescent substance users. Antisaccade performance provides a sensitive measure of executive function and cognitive control, and generally improves with reward cues. We hypothesized that when preparing to execute an AS, greater activation in regions associated with cognitive and oculomotor control supporting AS, particularly during reward cue trials, would be associated with lower substance use severity at 6-month follow-up. Adolescents (n = 14, ages 14–18 recruited from community-based outpatient treatment completed an fMRI reward cue AS task (reward and neutral conditions, and provided follow-up data. Results indicated that AS errors decreased in reward, compared to neutral, trials. AS behavioral performance, however, was not associated with treatment outcome. As hypothesized, activation in regions of interest (ROIs associated with cognitive (e.g., ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and oculomotor control (e.g., supplementary eye field during reward trials were inversely correlated with marijuana problem severity at 6-months. ROI activation during neutral trials was not associated with outcomes. Results support the role of motivational (reward cue factors to enhance cognitive control processes, and suggest a potential brain-based correlate of youth treatment outcome.

  4. Creative thinking as orchestrated by semantic processing versus cognitive control brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eAbraham

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is primarily investigated within the neuroscientific perspective as a unitary construct. While such an approach is beneficial when trying to infer the general picture regarding creativity and brain function, it is insufficient if the objective is to uncover the information processing brain mechanisms by which creativity occurs. As creative thinking emerges through the dynamic interplay between several cognitive processes, assessing the neural correlates of these operations would enable the development and characterization of an information processing framework from which to better understand this complex ability. This article focuses on two aspects of creative cognition that are central to generating original ideas. Conceptual expansion refers to the ability to widen one’s conceptual structures to include unusual or novel associations, while overcoming knowledge constraints refers to our ability to override the constraining influence imposed by salient or pertinent knowledge when trying to be creative. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence is presented to illustrate how semantic processing and cognitive control networks in the brain differentially modulate these critical facets of creative cognition.

  5. External Influences on an Internal Process: Supporting Preservice Teacher Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Ann; Klipfel, Lyndsay Halpin

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to better understand how participating in teacher research as a student teacher compares to conducting it as a practicing teacher, a teacher educator and her former teacher education student engaged in a collaborative dialogue. They focus their reflections in this article on the impact of external forces on the process of teacher…

  6. Web Services Support for Dynamic Business Process Outsourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, Paul; Ludwig, Heiko; Dan, Asit; Angelov, Samuil

    2003-01-01

    Outsourcing of business processes is crucial for organizations to be effective, efficient and flexible. To meet fast-changing market conditions, dynamic outsourcing is required, in which business relationships are established and enacted on-the-fly in an adaptive, fine-grained way unrestricted by ge

  7. Neuropsychological support to relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury in the sub-acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Siert, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have reported emotional distress in relatives of patients with brain injury, but few studies have investigated neuropsychological interventions for relatives. The present study assessed the amount of neuropsychological support as well as the actual number of sessions...... as characteristics related to the patient: Glasgow Coma Scale, Injury Severity Score, Early Functional Abilities, Functional Independence Measure, Rancho Los Amigos; and to the relative: symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-90-R), quality of life (SF-36) and amount and number of sessions of neuropsychological...

  8. Pattern classification of brain activation during emotional processing in subclinical depression: psychosis proneness as potential confounding factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Modinos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Support Vector Machine (SVM to perform multivariate pattern classification based on brain activation during emotional processing in healthy participants with subclinical depressive symptoms. Six-hundred undergraduate students completed the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II. Two groups were subsequently formed: (i subclinical (mild mood disturbance (n = 17 and (ii no mood disturbance (n = 17. Participants also completed a self-report questionnaire on subclinical psychotic symptoms, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences Questionnaire (CAPE positive subscale. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm entailed passive viewing of negative emotional and neutral scenes. The pattern of brain activity during emotional processing allowed correct group classification with an overall accuracy of 77% (p = 0.002, within a network of regions including the amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex. However, further analysis suggested that the classification accuracy could also be explained by subclinical psychotic symptom scores (correlation with SVM weights r = 0.459, p = 0.006. Psychosis proneness may thus be a confounding factor for neuroimaging studies in subclinical depression.

  9. A model-referenced procedure to support adversarial decision processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In public enquiries concerning major facilities, such as the construction of a new electric power plant, it is observed that a useable decision model should be made commonly available alongside the open provision of data and assumptions. The protagonist, eg the electric utility, generally makes use of a complex, proprietary model for detailed evaluation of options. A simple emulator of this, based upon a regression analysis of numerous scenarios, and validated by further simulations is shown to be feasible and potentially attractive. It would be in the interests of the utility to make such a model-referenced decision support method generally available. The approach is considered in relation to the recent Hinkley Point C public enquiry for a new nuclear power plant in the UK. (Author)

  10. 4D Design and Simulation Technologies and Process Design Patterns to Support Lean Construction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manfred Breit; Manfred Vogel; Fritz H(a)ubi; Fabian M(a)rki; Micheal Raps

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this ongoing joint research program is to determine how 3D/4D modeling, simula- tion and visualization of Products (buildings), Organizations and Processes (POP) can support lean con- struction. Initial findings suggest that Process Design Pattern may have the potential to intuitively support ICT based lean construction. We initiated a "Process Archeology" in order to reveal the requirements for tools that can support the planning, simulation and control of lean construction methods. First findings show that existing tools provide only limited support and therefore, we started to develop new methodologies and technologies to overcome these shortcomings. Through the introduction of Process Design Patterns, we in- tent to establish process thinking in the interdisciplinary POP design. Optimized construction processes may be synthesized with semi-automatic methods by applying Process Design Pattems on building structures. By providing process templates that integrate problem solution and expert knowledge, Process Design Pat- tems may have the potential to ensure high quality process models.

  11. Expression, Covariation, and Genetic Regulation of miRNA Biogenesis Genes in Brain Supports their Role in Addiction, Psychiatric Disorders, and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Kathleen Mulligan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of miRNA and miRNA biogenesis genes in the adult brain is just beginning to be explored. In this study we have performed a comprehensive analysis of the expression, genetic regulation, and co-expression of major components of the miRNA biogenesis pathway using human and mouse data sets and resources available on the GeneNetwork web site (genenetwork.org. We found a wide range of variation in expression in both species for key components of the pathway—Drosha, Pasha, and Dicer. Across species, tissues, and expression platforms all three genes are generally well correlated. No single genetic locus exerts a strong and consistent influence on the expression of these key genes across murine brain regions. However, in mouse striatum, many members of the miRNA pathway are correlated—including Dicer, Drosha, Pasha, Ars2 (Srrt, Eif2c1 (Ago1, Eif2c2 (Ago2, Zcchc11, and Snip1. The expression of these genes may be partly influenced by a locus on Chromosome 9 (105.67 to 106.32 Mb. We explored ~1500 brain phenotypes available for the C57BL/6J x DBA/2J (BXD genetic mouse population in order to identify miRNA biogenesis genes correlated with traits related to addiction and psychiatric disorders. We found a significant association between expression of Dicer and Drosha in several brain regions and the response to many drugs of abuse, including ethanol, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Expression of Dicer, Drosha, and Pasha in most of the brain regions explored is strongly correlated with the expression of key members of the dopamine system. Drosha, Pasha, and Dicer expression is also correlated with the expression of behavioral traits measuring depression and sensorimotor gating, impulsivity, and anxiety, respectively. Our study provides a global survey of the expression and regulation of key miRNA biogenesis genes in brain and provides preliminary support for the involvement of these genes and their product miRNAs in addiction and psychiatric disease

  12. Experimentally supported mathematical modeling of continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette

    The scope of the PhD project was to increase knowledge on the process-to-product interactions in continuous tunnel ovens. The work has focused on five main objectives. These objectives cover development of new experimental equipment for pilot plant baking experiments, mathematical modeling of heat...... and temperature) and control the process (air flow, temperature, and humidity) are therefore emphasized. The oven is furthermore designed to work outside the range of standard tunnel ovens, making it interesting for manufacturers of both baking products and baking equipment. A mathematical model describing...... the heat and mass transfer in butter cookies during baking was formulated. The model was solved numerically by the use of a finite element method. Model optimization and validation was successfully carried out against experimental data obtained in the new pilot plant oven. The effect of the baking tray...

  13. Duration and numerical estimation in right brain-damaged patients with and without neglect: Lack of support for a mental time line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Nicolas; Pesenti, Mauro; Dormal, Valérie

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that left neglect patients are impaired when they have to orient their attention leftward relative to a standard in numerical comparison tasks. This finding has been accounted for by the idea that numerical magnitudes are represented along a spatial continuum oriented from left to right with small magnitudes on the left and large magnitudes on the right. Similarly, it has been proposed that duration could be represented along a mental time line that shares the properties of the number continuum. By comparing directly duration and numerosity processing, this study investigates whether or not the performance of neglect patients supports the hypothesis of a mental time line. Twenty-two right brain-damaged patients (11 with and 11 without left neglect), as well as 11 age-matched healthy controls, had to judge whether a single dot presented visually lasted shorter or longer than 500 ms and whether a sequence of flashed dots was smaller or larger than 5. Digit spans were also assessed to measure verbal working memory capacities. In duration comparison, no spatial-duration bias was found in neglect patients. Moreover, a significant correlation between verbal working memory and duration performance was observed in right brain-damaged patients, irrespective of the presence or absence of neglect. In numerical comparison, only neglect patients showed an enhanced distance effect for numerical magnitude smaller than the standard. These results do not support the hypothesis of the existence of a mental continuum oriented from left to right for duration. We discuss an alternative account to explain the duration impairment observed in right brain-damaged patients. PMID:26395357

  14. Processing biological literature with customizable Web services supporting interoperable formats

    OpenAIRE

    Rak, Rafal; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Carter, Jacob; Rowley, Andrew; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Web services have become a popular means of interconnecting solutions for processing a body of scientific literature. This has fuelled research on high-level data exchange formats suitable for a given domain and ensuring the interoperability of Web services. In this article, we focus on the biological domain and consider four interoperability formats, BioC, BioNLP, XMI and RDF, that represent domain-specific and generic representations and include well-established as well as emerging specific...

  15. Web Services Support for Dynamic Business Process Outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Grefen, Paul; Ludwig, Heiko; Dan, Asit; Angelov, Samuil

    2003-01-01

    Outsourcing of business processes is crucial for organizations to be effective, efficient and flexible. To meet fast-changing market conditions, dynamic outsourcing is required, in which business relationships are established and enacted on-the-fly in an adaptive, fine-grained way unrestricted by geographic distance. This requires automated means for both the establishment of outsourcing relationships and for the enactment of services performed in these relationships over electronic channels....

  16. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Eighth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section.

  17. A Generic Modeling Process to Support Functional Fault Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, William A.; Hemminger, Joseph A.; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Bis, Rachael A.

    2016-01-01

    Functional fault models (FFMs) are qualitative representations of a system's failure space that are used to provide a diagnostic of the modeled system. An FFM simulates the failure effect propagation paths within a system between failure modes and observation points. These models contain a significant amount of information about the system including the design, operation and off nominal behavior. The development and verification of the models can be costly in both time and resources. In addition, models depicting similar components can be distinct, both in appearance and function, when created individually, because there are numerous ways of representing the failure space within each component. Generic application of FFMs has the advantages of software code reuse: reduction of time and resources in both development and verification, and a standard set of component models from which future system models can be generated with common appearance and diagnostic performance. This paper outlines the motivation to develop a generic modeling process for FFMs at the component level and the effort to implement that process through modeling conventions and a software tool. The implementation of this generic modeling process within a fault isolation demonstration for NASA's Advanced Ground System Maintenance (AGSM) Integrated Health Management (IHM) project is presented and the impact discussed.

  18. Laboratory support for the didactic process of engineering processes automation at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wszołek

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The scope of the paper is to present effects of creating the laboratory support for the didactic process of automatic control of engineering processes.Design/methodology/approach: The discussed laboratory framework is a complex system, flexible in terms of further development, operating on four basic levels: rudimental- serving general introductory classes to the subject, advanced level- suitable for specialisation classes, hardware and software for individual or team work assignments completed in the course of self-studies, semester projects, BSc and MSc. theses, and the sophisticated level designed for PhD and DSc research workers.Findings: Close cooperation with industry and practical implementation of joint research projects play a crucial role in the functioning of the laboratory framework.Practical implications: The education of modern engineers and Masters of Science in automatic control and robotics is a challenging task which may be successfully accomplished only if faced with industrial reality. Continuously advancing industrial companies demand graduates who can quickly adjust to the workflow and who can instantly utilize the knowledge and skills acquired in the complex, interdisciplinary field of mechatronics.Originality/value: The discussed laboratory framework successfully couples software and hardware, providing a complex yet flexible system open for further development, enabling teaching and research into the design and operation of modern control systems, both by means of virtual construction and testing in simulation programs, as well as on real industrial structures configured in laboratory workstations.

  19. Emotion and the processing of symbolic gestures: an event-related brain potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Flaisch, Tobias; Häcker, Frank; Renner, Britta; Schupp, Harald

    2010-01-01

    The present study used event-related brain potentials to examine the hypothesis that emotional gestures draw attentional resources at the level of distinct processing stages. Twenty healthy volunteers viewed pictures of hand gestures with negative (insult) and positive (approval) emotional meaning as well as neutral control gestures (pointing) while dense sensor event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Emotion effects were reflected in distinct ERP modulations in early and later time wi...

  20. An Event-related Brain Potential Study of English Morphosyntactic Processing in Japanese Learners of English

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuta, Natsuko

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the neural mechanisms underlying English morphosyntactic processing in Case, subject-verb agreement, and past tense inflection in Japanese learners of English (JLEs) using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in terms of the effects of the age of second language (L2) acquisition (the age of learning English), L2 proficiency level (the English proficiency level), and native/first language (L1) transfer. Researchers have debated for a number of years the question...

  1. Brain activation during phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters in deaf signers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Peng, Danling; Liu, Li; Booth, James R.; Ding, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies found altered brain function in deaf individuals reading alphabetic orthographies. However, it is not known whether similar alterations of brain function are characteristic of non-alphabetic writing systems and whether alterations are specific to certain kinds of lexical tasks. Here we examined differences in brain activation between Chinese congenitally deaf individuals (CD) and hearing controls (HC) during character reading tasks requiring phonological and semantic judgments. For both tasks, we found that CD showed less activation than HC in left inferior frontal gyrus, but greater activation in several right hemisphere regions including inferior frontal gyrus, angular gyrus, and inferior temporal gyrus. Although many group differences were similar across tasks, greater activation in right middle frontal gyrus was more pronounced for the rhyming compared to the meaning task. Finally, within the deaf individuals better performance on the rhyming task was associated with less activation in right inferior parietal lobule and angular gyrus. Our results in Chinese CD are broadly consistent with previous studies in alphabetic languages suggesting greater engagement of inferior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal cortex for reading that is largely independent of task, with the exception of right middle frontal gyrus for phonological processing. The brain behavior correlations potentially indicate that CD that more efficiently use the right hemisphere are better readers. PMID:24795593

  2. Spatial dynamics of bioelectrical processes of brain during prolonged contact with physical factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suvorov, N.B.; Kukhtina, G.V.

    Study of the spatial organization of the EEG activity of the brain of man under normal circumstances and under prolonged effect of superhigh frequency electromagnetic fields involved examination of 155 workers ranging in age from 20 up to 39 years and working while exposed to electromagnetic fields for periods ranging from 2 up to 20 years and selection, from these, of 34 persons with no cerebral-cranial trauma, neuroinfection, psychotrauma, somatic or other diseases in their anamnesis for neurophysiological study. Monopolar EEG and EKG were registered during work and at psychosensory rest. Plasticity of the subjects' neurodynamic processes was assessed during voluntary regulation of the alpha-rhythm. Graphs of spatial-discrete interaction of isoelectric states of the EEG of the various zones of the brain were recorded by a digital computer. Prolonged periods of work while exposed to superhigh frequency electromagnetic fields produces phase changes of the spatial-discrete organization of neurorhythms of the brain. Working under these conditions for periods from 7 up to 14 years produces stress on the adaptational potentials of the organism and causes asthenization of mechanisms of self-regulation of the brain, which disturbs other functions of the organism. The maximum permissible period of work under these conditions is 7-14 years. 22 references, 4 figures.

  3. Neural organization and visual processing in the anterior optic tubercle of the honeybee brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Theo; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Giurfa, Martin; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2011-08-10

    The honeybee Apis mellifera represents a valuable model for studying the neural segregation and integration of visual information. Vision in honeybees has been extensively studied at the behavioral level and, to a lesser degree, at the physiological level using intracellular electrophysiological recordings of single neurons. However, our knowledge of visual processing in honeybees is still limited by the lack of functional studies of visual processing at the circuit level. Here we contribute to filling this gap by providing a neuroanatomical and neurophysiological characterization at the circuit level of a practically unstudied visual area of the bee brain, the anterior optic tubercle (AOTu). First, we analyzed the internal organization and neuronal connections of the AOTu. Second, we established a novel protocol for performing optophysiological recordings of visual circuit activity in the honeybee brain and studied the responses of AOTu interneurons during stimulation of distinct eye regions. Our neuroanatomical data show an intricate compartmentalization and connectivity of the AOTu, revealing a dorsoventral segregation of the visual input to the AOTu. Light stimuli presented in different parts of the visual field (dorsal, lateral, or ventral) induce distinct patterns of activation in AOTu output interneurons, retaining to some extent the dorsoventral input segregation revealed by our neuroanatomical data. In particular, activity patterns evoked by dorsal and ventral eye stimulation are clearly segregated into distinct AOTu subunits. Our results therefore suggest an involvement of the AOTu in the processing of dorsoventrally segregated visual information in the honeybee brain. PMID:21832175

  4. Reward sensitivity is associated with brain activity during erotic stimulus processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumero, Victor; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Fuentes, Paola; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Ávila, César

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral approach system (BAS) from Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory is a neurobehavioral system involved in the processing of rewarding stimuli that has been related to dopaminergic brain areas. Gray's theory hypothesizes that the functioning of reward brain areas is modulated by BAS-related traits. To test this hypothesis, we performed an fMRI study where participants viewed erotic and neutral pictures, and cues that predicted their appearance. Forty-five heterosexual men completed the Sensitivity to Reward scale (from the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire) to measure BAS-related traits. Results showed that Sensitivity to Reward scores correlated positively with brain activity during reactivity to erotic pictures in the left orbitofrontal cortex, left insula, and right ventral striatum. These results demonstrated a relationship between the BAS and reward sensitivity during the processing of erotic stimuli, filling the gap of previous reports that identified the dopaminergic system as a neural substrate for the BAS during the processing of other rewarding stimuli such as money and food. PMID:23840558

  5. Using EEG/MEG Data of Cognitive Processes in Brain-Computer Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) aim at providing a non-muscular channel for sending commands to the external world using electroencephalographic (EEG) and, more recently, magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements of the brain function. Most of the current implementations of BCIs rely on EEG/MEG data of motor activities as such neural processes are well characterized, while the use of data related to cognitive activities has been neglected due to its intrinsic complexity. However, cognitive data usually has larger amplitude, lasts longer and, in some cases, cognitive brain signals are easier to control at will than motor signals. This paper briefy reviews the use of EEG/MEG data of cognitive processes in the implementation of BCIs. Specifically, this paper reviews some of the neuromechanisms, signal features, and processing methods involved. This paper also refers to some of the author's work in the area of detection and classifcation of cognitive signals for BCIs using variability enhancement, parametric modeling, and spatial fltering, as well as recent developments in BCI performance evaluation

  6. Reward sensitivity is associated with brain activity during erotic stimulus processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Costumero

    Full Text Available The behavioral approach system (BAS from Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory is a neurobehavioral system involved in the processing of rewarding stimuli that has been related to dopaminergic brain areas. Gray's theory hypothesizes that the functioning of reward brain areas is modulated by BAS-related traits. To test this hypothesis, we performed an fMRI study where participants viewed erotic and neutral pictures, and cues that predicted their appearance. Forty-five heterosexual men completed the Sensitivity to Reward scale (from the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire to measure BAS-related traits. Results showed that Sensitivity to Reward scores correlated positively with brain activity during reactivity to erotic pictures in the left orbitofrontal cortex, left insula, and right ventral striatum. These results demonstrated a relationship between the BAS and reward sensitivity during the processing of erotic stimuli, filling the gap of previous reports that identified the dopaminergic system as a neural substrate for the BAS during the processing of other rewarding stimuli such as money and food.

  7. Superior Pattern Processing is the Essence of the Evolved Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eMattson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans have long pondered the nature of their mind/brain and, particularly why its capacities for reasoning, communication and abstract thought are far superior to other species, including closely related anthropoids. This article considers superior pattern processing (SPP as the fundamental basis of most, if not all, unique features of the human brain including intelligence, language, imagination, invention, and the belief in imaginary entities such as ghosts and gods. SPP involves the electrochemical, neuronal network-based, encoding, integration, and transfer to other individuals of perceived or mentally-fabricated patterns. During human evolution, pattern processing capabilities became increasingly sophisticated as the result of expansion of the cerebral cortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex and regions involved in processing of images. Specific patterns, real or imagined, are reinforced by emotional experiences, indoctrination and even psychedelic drugs. Impaired or dysregulated SPP is fundamental to cognitive and psychiatric disorders. A broader understanding of SPP mechanisms, and their roles in normal and abnormal function of the human brain, may enable the development of interventions that reduce irrational decisions and destructive behaviors.

  8. Abnormal brain processing of pain in migraine without aura: a high-density EEG brain mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, L L; Jensen, R; Buchgreitz, L;

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we used high-density EEG brain mapping to investigate spatio-temporal aspects of brain activity in response to experimentally induced muscle pain in 17 patients with migraine without aura and 15 healthy controls. Painful electrical stimuli were applied to the trapezius muscle...... to the tonic muscle pain condition (z = 29 mm vs. z =¿-13 mm, P aura....

  9. Collaborative decision process support tools from global change research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, D.G. [Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station; Faber, B.G. [CIESIN/TERRA, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Global change research attempts to develop a predictive understanding of ecosystems, especially their response to a host of anthropogenic stressors. In particular, the forest Service component of this program is concerned with how forest and related ecosystems should be managed in view of this understanding. Collaboration among scientists, managers and resource stakeholders is a key requirement for achieving improved management. This paper discusses a set of tools currently under development, that are capable of assisting people in conducting collaborative decision processes. It reviews recent advances in collaborative GIS techniques, describes an application of collaborative GIS with the Arapaho-Roosevelt National Forest, and discusses future development efforts.

  10. Brain signal variability as a window into the bidirectionality between music and language processing: Moving from a linear to a nonlinear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Andrea Hutka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is convincing empirical evidence for bidirectional transfer between music and language, such that experience in either domain can improve mental processes required by the other. This music-language relationship has been studied using linear models (e.g., comparing mean neural activity that conceptualize brain activity as a static entity. The linear approach limits how we can understand the brain’s processing of music and language because the brain is a nonlinear system. Furthermore, there is evidence that the networks supporting music and language processing interact in a nonlinear manner. We therefore posit that the neural processing and transfer between the domains of language and music are best viewed through the lens of a nonlinear framework. Nonlinear analysis of neurophysiological activity may yield new insight into the commonalities, differences, and bidirectionality between these two cognitive domains not measurable in the local output of a cortical patch. We thus propose a novel application of brain signal variability (BSV analysis, based on mutual information and signal entropy, to better understand the bidirectionality of music-to-language transfer in the context of a nonlinear framework. This approach will extend current methods by offering a nuanced, network-level understanding of the brain complexity involved in music-language transfer.

  11. Document Management and Exchange System – Supporting Education Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Egredzija

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development and implementation of new technologies are very important in education. One of the most challenging tasks in the education process is to build efficient and cost-friendly system for content management and exchange. The system has to be reliable, easy manageable and open. Centralized storage, secured access, and ubiquitous client technologies have emerged as best-practice solutions in engineering that kind of services. Users can easily publish or exchange documents and not need to worry about their distribution, storage or technical skills required for efficient document management. The system that will be presented is built on open source technologies and is deployable on all today's popular web software platforms. The web server, the programming language and operating system that are used to build and deploy such a system are all non-proprietary and completely open because our mission was to build system that can be easily extended and not limited by its corporate license. The system uses security mechanisms such as user group access policy, operating system level security (file system and secured data storage in database. Because of the growing need for document management in education process we believe that this project will find its place in practice.

  12. Processing biological literature with customizable Web services supporting interoperable formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Rafal; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Carter, Jacob; Rowley, Andrew; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Web services have become a popular means of interconnecting solutions for processing a body of scientific literature. This has fuelled research on high-level data exchange formats suitable for a given domain and ensuring the interoperability of Web services. In this article, we focus on the biological domain and consider four interoperability formats, BioC, BioNLP, XMI and RDF, that represent domain-specific and generic representations and include well-established as well as emerging specifications. We use the formats in the context of customizable Web services created in our Web-based, text-mining workbench Argo that features an ever-growing library of elementary analytics and capabilities to build and deploy Web services straight from a convenient graphical user interface. We demonstrate a 2-fold customization of Web services: by building task-specific processing pipelines from a repository of available analytics, and by configuring services to accept and produce a combination of input and output data interchange formats. We provide qualitative evaluation of the formats as well as quantitative evaluation of automatic analytics. The latter was carried out as part of our participation in the fourth edition of the BioCreative challenge. Our analytics built into Web services for recognizing biochemical concepts in BioC collections achieved the highest combined scores out of 10 participating teams. Database URL: http://argo.nactem.ac.uk. PMID:25006225

  13. Differences in Marital Satisfaction, Coping and Social Support following a Traumatic Brain Injury

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Aine Dr.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Adverse cognitive, emotional and behavioural sequelae of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) are commonly noted by family members. These sequelae can adversely impact on marital and family relationships. The aim of this study is to examine marital and relationship satisfaction following a TBI amongst patients and partners. Design: A questionnaire based postal survey was used to investigate relationship and marital satisfaction. Participants: Thirty four participants (14 male; 20 female), ranging in age from 25-68 years ( = 44 years, SD 11 years), took part in this study. Sixteen had sustained a TBI and eighteen were partners of patients with TBI. Participants with TBI who were inpatients at the National Rehabilitation Hospital (NRH) and their partners were invited to participate in the study. Outcome Measures: The Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSI-R) was used to examine marital and relationship satisfaction. Results: Both patients and partners reported relationship difficulties following brain injury (z = -3.078, p < .05 patients; z = 2.699, p < .05 partners). Conclusion: This study highlights the significant impact of TBI on relationships for both the TBI survivor and their partners. Implications for interventions in neuropsychological rehabilitation are discussed.

  14. Brain Circuitry Supporting Multi-Organ Autonomic Outflow in Response to Nausea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclocco, Roberta; Kim, Jieun; Garcia, Ronald G; Sheehan, James D; Beissner, Florian; Bianchi, Anna M; Cerutti, Sergio; Kuo, Braden; Barbieri, Riccardo; Napadow, Vitaly

    2016-02-01

    While autonomic outflow is an important co-factor of nausea physiology, central control of this outflow is poorly understood. We evaluated sympathetic (skin conductance level) and cardiovagal (high-frequency heart rate variability) modulation, collected synchronously with functional MRI (fMRI) data during nauseogenic visual stimulation aimed to induce vection in susceptible individuals. Autonomic data guided analysis of neuroimaging data, using a stimulus-based (analysis windows set by visual stimulation protocol) and percept-based (windows set by subjects' ratings) approach. Increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic modulation was associated with robust and anti-correlated brain activity in response to nausea. Specifically, greater autonomic response was associated with reduced fMRI signal in brain regions such as the insula, suggesting an inhibitory relationship with premotor brainstem nuclei. Interestingly, some sympathetic/parasympathetic specificity was noted. Activity in default mode network and visual motion areas was anti-correlated with parasympathetic outflow at peak nausea. In contrast, lateral prefrontal cortical activity was anti-correlated with sympathetic outflow during recovery, soon after cessation of nauseogenic stimulation. These results suggest divergent central autonomic control for sympathetic and parasympathetic response to nausea. Autonomic outflow and the central autonomic network underlying ANS response to nausea may be an important determinant of overall nausea intensity and, ultimately, a potential therapeutic target.

  15. Emotional Processing following Cortical and Subcortical Brain Damage: Contribution of the Fronto-Striatal Circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Breitenstein

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the differential contribution of cortical and subcortical brain structures in emotional processing by comparing patients with focal cortical lesions (n = 32 to those with primarily subcortical dysregulation of the basal ganglia (Parkinson’s disease n = 14. A standardized measure of emotional perception (Tübingen Affect Battery was used. Only patients in the more advanced stages of Parkinson’s disease and patients with focal damage to the (right frontal lobe differed significantly from controls in both facial expression and affective prosody recognition. The findings imply involvement of the fronto-striatal circuitry in emotional processing.

  16. Delta, theta, beta, and gamma brain oscillations index levels of auditory sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Guangting; Minett, James W; Wang, William S-Y

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of studies indicate that multiple ranges of brain oscillations, especially the delta (δ, patterns during phonological analysis. We also found significant β-related effects, suggesting tracking of EEG to the acoustic stimulus (high-β EAE), memory processing (θ-low-β CFC), and auditory-motor interactions (20-Hz rPDC) during phonological analysis. For semantic/syntactic processing, we obtained a significant effect of γ power, suggesting lexical memory retrieval or processing grammatical word categories. Based on these findings, we confirm that scalp EEG signatures relevant to δ, θ, β, and γ oscillations can index phonological and semantic/syntactic organizations separately in auditory sentence processing, compatible with the view that phonological and higher-level linguistic processing engage distinct neural networks. PMID:26931813

  17. Design of educational artifacts as support to learning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Adson Eduardo; Vasconcelos, Flávio Henrique

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify utilization schemes developed by students and teachers in their interaction with educational workstations in the electronic measurement and instrumentation laboratory at the Department of Electrical Engineering in the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil. After that, these schemes were used to design a new workstation. For this, it was important to bear in mind that the mentioned artifacts contain two key characteristics: (1) one from the designers themselves, resulting from their experience and their technical knowledge of what they are designing and (2) the experience from users and the means through which they take advantage of and develop these artifacts, in turn rendering them appropriate to perform the proposed task - the utilization schemes developed in the process of mediation between the user and the artifact. The satisfactory fusion of these two points makes these artifacts a functional unit - the instruments. This research aims to demonstrate that identifying the utilization schemes by taking advantage of user experience and incorporating this within the design, facilitates its appropriation and, consequently, its efficiency as an instrument of learning.

  18. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery for thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, T.B.; Bolivar, J.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) (DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP)] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  19. Linking inter- and intra-sentential processes for narrative production following traumatic brain injury: Implications for a model of discourse processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Richard K; Coelho, Carl A

    2016-01-01

    Some suggest that traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces dissociation between the macrolinguistic and microlinguistic levels of discourse production. This assumption is based primarily on studies that have found preserved intersentential cohesion and/or intra-sentential processing in narratives produced by these individuals. However, few studies exist, if any, that have investigated the relationship between these processes in TBI speakers who do demonstrate such microlinguistic impairments. This study investigated the relationship between impairments of intersentential cohesion and intra-sentential processing in the discourse of 15 speakers with severe TBI. The results demonstrated a significant relationship between the production of cohesive ties and instances of intra-sentential impairment that suggests that utilization of resources for adequate cohesion appears to negatively affect intra-sentential processing following TBI. We propose that macrolinguistic and microlinguistic processes are not independent of one another, as has been proposed, but share cognitive resources that support the planning and production of both local (microlinguistic) and long-distance (macrolinguistic) relationships expressed through discourse. PMID:26593882

  20. Basic emotion processing and the adolescent brain: Task demands, analytic approaches, and trajectories of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa B. Del Piero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early neuroimaging studies suggested that adolescents show initial development in brain regions linked with emotional reactivity, but slower development in brain structures linked with emotion regulation. However, the increased sophistication of adolescent brain research has made this picture more complex. This review examines functional neuroimaging studies that test for differences in basic emotion processing (reactivity and regulation between adolescents and either children or adults. We delineated different emotional processing demands across the experimental paradigms in the reviewed studies to synthesize the diverse results. The methods for assessing change (i.e., analytical approach and cohort characteristics (e.g., age range were also explored as potential factors influencing study results. Few unifying dimensions were found to successfully distill the results of the reviewed studies. However, this review highlights the potential impact of subtle methodological and analytic differences between studies, need for standardized and theory-driven experimental paradigms, and necessity of analytic approaches that are can adequately test the trajectories of developmental change that have recently been proposed. Recommendations for future research highlight connectivity analyses and non-linear developmental trajectories, which appear to be promising approaches for measuring change across adolescence. Recommendations are made for evaluating gender and biological markers of development beyond chronological age.

  1. Is there a degenerative process going on in the brain of people with schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn Rund

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a biological and behavioural disorder which manifests itself in neurocognitive dysfunctions. The question of whether these key characteristics of the disorder are due to schizophrenia being a degenerative disorder has been discussed for more than 100 years. Neuropsychological data indicate that neurocognitive functions are relatively stable over time after illness onset. Several studies show that there is a decline in neurocognitive functioning prior to and in connection with onset of illness. There is no convincing evidence, however, that there is a progressive neurodegenerative process after onset of illness. Morphological data, on the other hand, indicate a degenerative process. Several novel longitudinal studies indicate a rapid reduction of vital brain tissues after onset of illness. In this paper some ideas about compensatory reactions and Cognitive Reserve Theory is outlined as possible explanations of the recent MR studies that show structural changes in the brain after the onset of schizophrenia, at the same time as cognitive functioning does not become more impaired. Determining whether schizophrenia is a neurodegenerative illness with progressive structural changes in the brain after debut of the illness, or a neurodevelopmental disorder starting in early life, is of significant importance for understanding the pathophysiology of the illness and its treatments.

  2. Reduced cerebellar brain activity during reward processing in adolescent binge drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Cservenka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to ongoing development, adolescence may be a period of heightened vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. Binge drinking may alter reward-driven behavior and neurocircuitry, thereby increasing risk for escalating alcohol use. Therefore, we compared reward processing in adolescents with and without a history of recent binge drinking. At their baseline study visit, all participants (age = 14.86 ± 0.88 were free of heavy alcohol use and completed a modified version of the Wheel of Fortune (WOF functional magnetic resonance imaging task. Following this visit, 17 youth reported binge drinking on ≥3 occasions within a 90 day period and were matched to 17 youth who remained alcohol and substance-naïve. All participants repeated the WOF task during a second visit (age = 16.83 ± 1.22. No significant effects were found in a region of interest analysis of the ventral striatum, but whole-brain analyses showed significant group differences in reward response at the second study visit in the left cerebellum, controlling for baseline visit brain activity (p/α < 0.05, which was negatively correlated with mean number of drinks consumed/drinking day in the last 90 days. These findings suggest that binge drinking during adolescence may alter brain activity during reward processing in a dose-dependent manner.

  3. Distinct and Overlapping Brain Areas Engaged during Value-Based, Mathematical, and Emotional Decision Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Wei; Goh, Joshua O. S.

    2016-01-01

    When comparing between the values of different choices, human beings can rely on either more cognitive processes, such as using mathematical computation, or more affective processes, such as using emotion. However, the neural correlates of how these two types of processes operate during value-based decision-making remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the extent to which neural regions engaged during value-based decision-making overlap with those engaged during mathematical and emotional processing in a within-subject manner. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, participants viewed stimuli that always consisted of numbers and emotional faces that depicted two choices. Across tasks, participants decided between the two choices based on the expected value of the numbers, a mathematical result of the numbers, or the emotional face stimuli. We found that all three tasks commonly involved various cortical areas including frontal, parietal, motor, somatosensory, and visual regions. Critically, the mathematical task shared common areas with the value but not emotion task in bilateral striatum. Although the emotion task overlapped with the value task in parietal, motor, and sensory areas, the mathematical task also evoked responses in other areas within these same cortical structures. Minimal areas were uniquely engaged for the value task apart from the other two tasks. The emotion task elicited a more expansive area of neural activity whereas value and mathematical task responses were in more focal regions. Whole-brain spatial correlation analysis showed that valuative processing engaged functional brain responses more similarly to mathematical processing than emotional processing. While decisions on expected value entail both mathematical and emotional processing regions, mathematical processes have a more prominent contribution particularly in subcortical processes. PMID:27375466

  4. Distinct and Overlapping Brain Areas Engaged during Value-Based, Mathematical, and Emotional Decision Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Wei; Goh, Joshua O S

    2016-01-01

    When comparing between the values of different choices, human beings can rely on either more cognitive processes, such as using mathematical computation, or more affective processes, such as using emotion. However, the neural correlates of how these two types of processes operate during value-based decision-making remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the extent to which neural regions engaged during value-based decision-making overlap with those engaged during mathematical and emotional processing in a within-subject manner. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, participants viewed stimuli that always consisted of numbers and emotional faces that depicted two choices. Across tasks, participants decided between the two choices based on the expected value of the numbers, a mathematical result of the numbers, or the emotional face stimuli. We found that all three tasks commonly involved various cortical areas including frontal, parietal, motor, somatosensory, and visual regions. Critically, the mathematical task shared common areas with the value but not emotion task in bilateral striatum. Although the emotion task overlapped with the value task in parietal, motor, and sensory areas, the mathematical task also evoked responses in other areas within these same cortical structures. Minimal areas were uniquely engaged for the value task apart from the other two tasks. The emotion task elicited a more expansive area of neural activity whereas value and mathematical task responses were in more focal regions. Whole-brain spatial correlation analysis showed that valuative processing engaged functional brain responses more similarly to mathematical processing than emotional processing. While decisions on expected value entail both mathematical and emotional processing regions, mathematical processes have a more prominent contribution particularly in subcortical processes. PMID:27375466

  5. Effects of visual working memory on brain information processing of irrelevant auditory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiagui Qu

    Full Text Available Selective attention has traditionally been viewed as a sensory processing modulator that promotes cognitive processing efficiency by favoring relevant stimuli while inhibiting irrelevant stimuli. However, the cross-modal processing of irrelevant information during working memory (WM has been rarely investigated. In this study, the modulation of irrelevant auditory information by the brain during a visual WM task was investigated. The N100 auditory evoked potential (N100-AEP following an auditory click was used to evaluate the selective attention to auditory stimulus during WM processing and at rest. N100-AEP amplitudes were found to be significantly affected in the left-prefrontal, mid-prefrontal, right-prefrontal, left-frontal, and mid-frontal regions while performing a high WM load task. In contrast, no significant differences were found between N100-AEP amplitudes in WM states and rest states under a low WM load task in all recorded brain regions. Furthermore, no differences were found between the time latencies of N100-AEP troughs in WM states and rest states while performing either the high or low WM load task. These findings suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC may integrate information from different sensory channels to protect perceptual integrity during cognitive processing.

  6. Low-latency multi-threaded processing of neuronal signals for brain-computer interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg eFischer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs require demanding numerical computations to transfer brain signals into control signals driving an external actuator. Increasing the computational performance of the BCI algorithms carrying out these calculations enables faster reaction to user inputs and allows using more demanding decoding algorithms. Here we introduce a modular and extensible software architecture with a multi-threaded signal processing pipeline suitable for BCI applications. The computational load and latency (the time that the system needs to react to user input are measured for different pipeline implementations in typical BCI applications with realistic parameter settings. We show that BCIs can benefit substantially from the proposed parallelization: firstly, by reducing the latency and secondly, by increasing the amount of recording channels and signal features that can be used for decoding beyond the amount which can be handled by a single thread. The proposed software architecture provides a simple, yet flexible solution for BCI applications.

  7. Neuronal process structure and growth proteins are targets of heavy PTM regulation during brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Alistair V G; Schwämmle, Veit; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Brain development is a process requiring precise control of many different cell types. One method to achieve this is through specific and temporally regulated modification of proteins in order to alter structure and function. Post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins is known...... to have wide-ranging and substantial effects on cellular function, both as part of signalling network modulation and more directly by modifying the function of key proteins. In this study, we show that PTM regulation is differentially targeted at different areas of the proteome, and that cytoskeletal...... provides one of the most comprehensive sets of individual PTM site regulation data for mammalian brain tissue. This will provide a valuable resource for those wishing to perform comparisons or meta-analyses of large scale PTMomic data, as are becoming increasingly common. Furthermore, being focussed...

  8. Deep brain stimulation of nucleus accumbens region in alcoholism affects reward processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Heldmann

    Full Text Available The influence of bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS of the nucleus nucleus (NAcc on the processing of reward in a gambling paradigm was investigated using H(2[(15O]-PET (positron emission tomography in a 38-year-old man treated for severe alcohol addiction. Behavioral data analysis revealed a less risky, more careful choice behavior under active DBS compared to DBS switched off. PET showed win- and loss-related activations in the paracingulate cortex, temporal poles, precuneus and hippocampus under active DBS, brain areas that have been implicated in action monitoring and behavioral control. Except for the temporal pole these activations were not seen when DBS was deactivated. These findings suggest that DBS of the NAcc may act partially by improving behavioral control.

  9. Needs for everyday life support for brain tumour patients' relatives: systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karina; Poulsen, H S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to undertake a review of the everyday lives and the need for support felt by relatives of adults with malignant cerebral glioma. Through electronic literature searches we identified studies with qualitative, quantitative or mixed method designs. Fourteen studies were....... The relatives lacked information about how to provide day-to-day care and how to manage psychoses and neuropsychiatric problems at home. Likewise, they needed help from the professionals to talk with each other about potentially reduced life expectancy. Most relatives appeared to value specialist nurse support...

  10. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Cornelia; Kübler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level) and prime-target expressions (word level). Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences), target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients. PMID:22022414

  11. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Herbert

    Full Text Available The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level and prime-target expressions (word level. Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences, target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  12. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Cornelia; Kübler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level) and prime-target expressions (word level). Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences), target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  13. Tools to Improve the Process of Engineering Design: An Analysis of Team Configuration and Project Support

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Paige Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine how team design and project management (planning and tracking) affected planning and design performance and the people involved in the process. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate three factors: team design (individuals versus groups of three), project support (no project support versus manual project support versus automated project support), and the engineering design life-cycle, which includes conceptual design, preliminary design, an...

  14. Needs for everyday life support for brain tumour patients' relatives: systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karina; Poulsen, H S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to undertake a review of the everyday lives and the need for support felt by relatives of adults with malignant cerebral glioma. Through electronic literature searches we identified studies with qualitative, quantitative or mixed method designs. Fourteen studies were...

  15. Massively Parallel Signal Processing using the Graphics Processing Unit for Real-Time Brain-Computer Interface Feature Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J Adam; Williams, Justin C

    2009-01-01

    The clock speeds of modern computer processors have nearly plateaued in the past 5 years. Consequently, neural prosthetic systems that rely on processing large quantities of data in a short period of time face a bottleneck, in that it may not be possible to process all of the data recorded from an electrode array with high channel counts and bandwidth, such as electrocorticographic grids or other implantable systems. Therefore, in this study a method of using the processing capabilities of a graphics card [graphics processing unit (GPU)] was developed for real-time neural signal processing of a brain-computer interface (BCI). The NVIDIA CUDA system was used to offload processing to the GPU, which is capable of running many operations in parallel, potentially greatly increasing the speed of existing algorithms. The BCI system records many channels of data, which are processed and translated into a control signal, such as the movement of a computer cursor. This signal processing chain involves computing a matrix-matrix multiplication (i.e., a spatial filter), followed by calculating the power spectral density on every channel using an auto-regressive method, and finally classifying appropriate features for control. In this study, the first two computationally intensive steps were implemented on the GPU, and the speed was compared to both the current implementation and a central processing unit-based implementation that uses multi-threading. Significant performance gains were obtained with GPU processing: the current implementation processed 1000 channels of 250 ms in 933 ms, while the new GPU method took only 27 ms, an improvement of nearly 35 times.

  16. An Ontology Based Infrastructure To Support CMMI-Based Software Process Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    AKCAPINAR SEZER, Ebru; GAZEL, Sema; TARHAN, Ayca

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based software process assessment tool which was developed to support data collection phase of process assessment and to track conformance of software processes to CMMI as the process reference model. Ontology-based CMMI Mapping and Querying Tool (OCMQT) was developed as a plug-in to an open-source process management tool, namely EPF Composer which, is a realization of the process engineering meta-model SPEM. The study also explains findings from example usage ...

  17. A support system in virtual reality for effective hyperthermia treatments. Heating properties of needle applicator for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the effectiveness of the developed simulator system for performing an effective hyperthermia treatment with a needle applicator in virtual reality (VR). The human brain is protected by the skull, which makes it difficult to non-invasively heat deep brain tumors with electromagnetic energy. Generally, needle applicators were used in clinical practice to heat brain tumors. However, some problems exist. One is that this heating method has a small heating area around the needle. In order to expand the heating area of a needle applicator, we developed a new type of needle applicator made from a shape memory alloy (SMA). The thermal properties of the SMA were checked experimentally using the developed heating system. As a result, the proposed needle applicator made of SMA is useful to create a wider heating area inside a tumor. Another problem is that medical doctors find it difficult to put a needle applicator into a target point inside of tumors. Therefore, a support system for performing an effective hyperthermia treatment is required in the clinic. In this paper, first, we constructed an anatomical 3-D model from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) images by using 3-D computer aided design (CAD) software. Second, we presented the finite element method (FEM) model which is divided into non-linear elements on 3-D computer graphics (CG). Finally, we calculated temperature distributions using the 3-D FEM model with blood perfusion during hyperthermia treatments. From these results, it was found that the proposed VR system is effective for performing hyperthermia treatments. (author)

  18. The impact of genome-wide supported schizophrenia risk variants in the neurogranin gene on brain structure and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Walton

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms underlying genetic risk for schizophrenia, a highly heritable psychiatric condition, are still under investigation. New schizophrenia risk genes discovered through genome-wide association studies (GWAS, such as neurogranin (NRGN, can be used to identify these mechanisms. In this study we examined the association of two common NRGN risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with functional and structural brain-based intermediate phenotypes for schizophrenia. We obtained structural, functional MRI and genotype data of 92 schizophrenia patients and 114 healthy volunteers from the multisite Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium study. Two schizophrenia-associated NRGN SNPs (rs12807809 and rs12541 were tested for association with working memory-elicited dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC activity and surface-wide cortical thickness. NRGN rs12541 risk allele homozygotes (TT displayed increased working memory-related activity in several brain regions, including the left DLPFC, left insula, left somatosensory cortex and the cingulate cortex, when compared to non-risk allele carriers. NRGN rs12807809 non-risk allele (C carriers showed reduced cortical gray matter thickness compared to risk allele homozygotes (TT in an area comprising the right pericalcarine gyrus, the right cuneus, and the right lingual gyrus. Our study highlights the effects of schizophrenia risk variants in the NRGN gene on functional and structural brain-based intermediate phenotypes for schizophrenia. These results support recent GWAS findings and further implicate NRGN in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia by suggesting that genetic NRGN risk variants contribute to subtle changes in neural functioning and anatomy that can be quantified with neuroimaging methods.

  19. Clustering the lexicon in the brain: a meta-analysis of the neurofunctional evidence on noun and verb processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepaldi, Davide; Berlingeri, Manuela; Cattinelli, Isabella; Borghese, Nunzio A.; Luzzatti, Claudio; Paulesu, Eraldo

    2013-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that nouns and verbs are functionally independent linguistic entities, it is less clear whether their processing recruits different brain areas. This issue is particularly relevant for those theories of lexical semantics (and, more in general, of cognition) that suggest the embodiment of abstract concepts, i.e., based strongly on perceptual and motoric representations. This paper presents a formal meta-analysis of the neuroimaging evidence on noun and verb processing in order to address this dichotomy more effectively at the anatomical level. We used a hierarchical clustering algorithm that grouped fMRI/PET activation peaks solely on the basis of spatial proximity. Cluster specificity for grammatical class was then tested on the basis of the noun-verb distribution of the activation peaks included in each cluster. Thirty-two clusters were identified: three were associated with nouns across different tasks (in the right inferior temporal gyrus, the left angular gyrus, and the left inferior parietal gyrus); one with verbs across different tasks (in the posterior part of the right middle temporal gyrus); and three showed verb specificity in some tasks and noun specificity in others (in the left and right inferior frontal gyrus and the left insula). These results do not support the popular tenets that verb processing is predominantly based in the left frontal cortex and noun processing relies specifically on temporal regions; nor do they support the idea that verb lexical-semantic representations are heavily based on embodied motoric information. Our findings suggest instead that the cerebral circuits deputed to noun and verb processing lie in close spatial proximity in a wide network including frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. The data also indicate a predominant—but not exclusive—left lateralization of the network. PMID:23825451

  20. Clustering the Lexicon in the Brain: A Meta‑Analysis of the Neurofunctional Evidence on Noun and Verb Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eCrepaldi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it is widely accepted that nouns and verbs are functionally independent linguistic entities, it is less clear whether their processing recruits different brain areas. This issue is particularly relevant for those theories of lexical semantics (and, more in general, of cognition that suggest the embodiment of abstract concepts, i.e., based strongly on perceptual and motoric representations. This paper presents a formal meta‑analysis of the neuroimaging evidence on noun and verb processing in order to address this dichotomy more effectively at the anatomical level. We used a hierarchical clustering algorithm that grouped fMRI/PET activation peaks solely on the basis of spatial proximity. Cluster specificity for grammatical class was then tested on the basis of the noun‑verb distribution of the activation peaks included in each cluster. 32 clusters were identified: three were associated with nouns across different tasks (in the right inferior temporal gyrus, the left angular gyrus, and the left inferior parietal gyrus; one with verbs across different tasks (in the posterior part of the right middle temporal gyrus; and three showed verb specificity in some tasks and noun specificity in others (in the left and right inferior frontal gyrus and the left insula. These results do not support the popular tenets that verb processing is predominantly based in the left frontal cortex and noun processing relies specifically on temporal regions; nor do they support the idea that verb lexical‑semantic representations are heavily based on embodied motoric information. Our findings suggest instead that the cerebral circuits deputed to noun and verb processing lie in close spatial proximity in a wide network including frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. The data also indicate a predominant – but not exclusive – left lateralization of the network.

  1. NASA Supportability Engineering Implementation Utilizing DoD Practices and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David A.; Smith, John V.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I design and development program made the determination early in the System Design Review Phase to utilize DoD ILS and LSA approach for supportability engineering as an integral part of the system engineering process. This paper is to provide a review of the overall approach to design Ares-I with an emphasis on a more affordable, supportable, and sustainable launch vehicle. Discussions will include the requirements development, design influence, support concept alternatives, ILS and LSA planning, Logistics support analyses/trades performed, LSA tailoring for NASA Ares Program, support system infrastructure identification, ILS Design Review documentation, Working Group coordination, and overall ILS implementation. At the outset, the Ares I Project initiated the development of the Integrated Logistics Support Plan (ILSP) and a Logistics Support Analysis process to provide a path forward for the management of the Ares-I ILS program and supportability analysis activities. The ILSP provide the initial planning and coordination between the Ares-I Project Elements and Ground Operation Project. The LSA process provided a system engineering approach in the development of the Ares-I supportability requirements; influence the design for supportability and development of alternative support concepts that satisfies the program operability requirements. The LSA planning and analysis results are documented in the Logistics Support Analysis Report. This document was required during the Ares-I System Design Review (SDR) and Preliminary Design Review (PDR) review cycles. To help coordinate the LSA process across the Ares-I project and between programs, the LSA Report is updated and released quarterly. A System Requirement Analysis was performed to determine the supportability requirements and technical performance measurements (TPMs). Two working groups were established to provide support in the management and implement the Ares-I ILS program, the Integrated Logistics

  2. Methods for processing and analysis functional and anatomical brain images: computerized tomography, emission tomography and nuclear resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various methods for brain image processing and analysis are presented and compared. The following topics are developed: the physical basis of brain image comparison (nature and formation of signals intrinsic performance of the methods image characteristics); mathematical methods for image processing and analysis (filtering, functional parameter extraction, morphological analysis, robotics and artificial intelligence); methods for anatomical localization (neuro-anatomy atlas, proportional stereotaxic atlas, numerized atlas); methodology of cerebral image superposition (normalization, retiming); image networks

  3. Lessons Learnt from the Improvement of Customer Support Processes: A Case Study on Incident Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäntti, Marko

    IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is the most widely used IT service management framework that provides guidelines how to create, manage and support IT services. Service support processes, such as incident management and problem management, are among the first ITIL processes that organizations start to implement. However, several challenges may exist in the process implementation. The research question of this study is: which issues are important in establishing an ITIL-based incident management process? The main contribution of this paper is to present lessons learnt from an ITIL-based process improvement project that focused on establishing an incident management process in an IS department of a university hospital. Our results show that key issues in implementing incident management are to 1) define the basic concepts of incident management with concrete examples and 2) define process interfaces between incident management and other support processes.

  4. Facility design philosophy: Tank Waste Remediation System Process support and infrastructure definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the current facility design philosophy for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process support and infrastructure definition. The Tank Waste Remediation System Facility Configuration Study (FCS) initially documented the identification and definition of support functions and infrastructure essential to the TWRS processing mission. Since the issuance of the FCS, the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has proceeded to develop information and requirements essential for the technical definition of the TWRS treatment processing programs

  5. Massively parallel signal processing using the graphics processing unit for real-time brain-computer interface feature extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam Wilson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The clock speeds of modern computer processors have nearly plateaued in the past five years. Consequently, neural prosthetic systems that rely on processing large quantities of data in a short period of time face a bottleneck, in that it may not be possible to process all of the data recorded from an electrode array with high channel counts and bandwidth, such as electrocorticographic grids or other implantable systems. Therefore, in this study a method of using the processing capabilities of a graphics card (GPU was developed for real-time neural signal processing of a brain-computer interface (BCI. The NVIDIA CUDA system was used to offload processing to the GPU, which is capable of running many operations in parallel, potentially greatly increasing the speed of existing algorithms. The BCI system records many channels of data, which are processed and translated into a control signal, such as the movement of a computer cursor. This signal processing chain involves computing a matrix-matrix multiplication (i.e., a spatial filter, followed by calculating the power spectral density on every channel using an auto-regressive method, and finally classifying appropriate features for control. In this study, the first two computationally-intensive steps were implemented on the GPU, and the speed was compared to both the current implementation and a CPU-based implementation that uses multi-threading. Significant performance gains were obtained with GPU processing: the current implementation processed 1000 channels in 933 ms, while the new GPU method took only 27 ms, an improvement of nearly 35 times.

  6. Towards Tunable Consensus Clustering for Studying Functional Brain Connectivity During Affective Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chao; Abu-Jamous, Basel; Brattico, Elvira;

    2016-01-01

    in neuroimaging by means of first applying several analysis methods (three in this study) on multiple datasets and then integrating the clustering results. To validate the method, we applied it to a complex fMRI experiment involving affective processing of hundreds of music clips. We found that brain structures...... over traditional single clustering algorithms in being able to evidence robust connectivity patterns even with complex neuroimaging data involving a variety of stimuli and affective evaluations of them. The consensus clustering method is implemented in the R package "UNCLES" available on http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/UNCLES/index.html....

  7. Functional neurology of a brain system: a 3D olfactory bulb model to process natural odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore, Michele; Cavarretta, Francesco; Hines, Michael L; Shepherd, Gordon M

    2013-01-01

    The network of interactions between mitral and granule cells in the olfactory bulb is a critical step in the processing of odor information underlying the neural basis of smell perception. We are building the first computational model in 3 dimensions of this network in order to analyze the rules for connectivity and function within it. The initial results indicate that this network can be modeled to simulate experimental results on the activation of the olfactory bulb by natural odorants, providing a much more powerful approach for 3D simulation of brain neurons and microcircuits.

  8. Processing of global and local properties——An analysis with event-related brain potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩世辉; 陈霖

    1996-01-01

    The different processing of global and local properties of compound visual stimuli was studied with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in the present experiment. It was found that, compared with the identification of global properties, the discrimination of local properties elicited longer RTs, lower accuracies, increased amplitudes of P1, decreased amplitudes of N1, and longer latencies of N2 and P3. The conflict of global and local properties increased the amplitudes of P2, decreased the amplitudes of P3, and prolonged latencies of N2 and P3. These results indicated that the advantage of global processing occurs at an early perceptual stage, and the attentional mechanisms for global and local processing may be different.

  9. Differential activation of the amygdala and the 'social brain' during fearful face-processing in Asperger Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Chris; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; O'Riordan, Michelle; Bullmore, Edward T

    2007-01-01

    Impaired social cognition is a core feature of autism. There is much evidence showing people with autism use a different cognitive style than controls for face-processing. We tested if people with autism would show differential activation of social brain areas during a face-processing task. Thirteen adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS) and 13 matched controls. We used fMRI to investigate 'social brain' activity during perception of fearful faces. We employed stimuli known to reliably activate the amygdala and other social brain areas, and ROI analyses to investigate brain areas responding to facial threat as well as those showing a linear response to varying threat intensities. We predicted: (1) the HFA/AS group would show differential activation (as opposed to merely deficits) of the social brain compared to controls and (2) that social brain areas would respond to varied intensity of fear in the control group, but not the HFA/AS group. Both predictions were confirmed. The controls showed greater activation in the left amygdala and left orbito-frontal cortex, while the HFA/AS group showed greater activation in the anterior cingulate gyrus and superior temporal cortex. The control group also showed varying responses in social brain areas to varying intensities of fearful expression, including differential activations in the left and right amygdala. This response in the social brain was absent in the HFA/AS group. HFA/AS are associated with different patterns of activation of social brain areas during fearful emotion processing, and the absence in the HFA/AS brain of a response to varying emotional intensity.

  10. Visual and Haptic Shape Processing in the Human Brain: Unisensory Processing, Multisensory Convergence, and Top-Down Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Masson, Haemy; Bulthé, Jessica; Op de Beeck, Hans P; Wallraven, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Humans are highly adept at multisensory processing of object shape in both vision and touch. Previous studies have mostly focused on where visually perceived object-shape information can be decoded, with haptic shape processing receiving less attention. Here, we investigate visuo-haptic shape processing in the human brain using multivoxel correlation analyses. Importantly, we use tangible, parametrically defined novel objects as stimuli. Two groups of participants first performed either a visual or haptic similarity-judgment task. The resulting perceptual object-shape spaces were highly similar and matched the physical parameter space. In a subsequent fMRI experiment, objects were first compared within the learned modality and then in the other modality in a one-back task. When correlating neural similarity spaces with perceptual spaces, visually perceived shape was decoded well in the occipital lobe along with the ventral pathway, whereas haptically perceived shape information was mainly found in the parietal lobe, including frontal cortex. Interestingly, ventrolateral occipito-temporal cortex decoded shape in both modalities, highlighting this as an area capable of detailed visuo-haptic shape processing. Finally, we found haptic shape representations in early visual cortex (in the absence of visual input), when participants switched from visual to haptic exploration, suggesting top-down involvement of visual imagery on haptic shape processing. PMID:26223258

  11. Keeping time in the brain: Autism spectrum disorder and audiovisual temporal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Segers, Magali; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D; Camarata, Stephen; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-07-01

    A growing area of interest and relevance in the study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) focuses on the relationship between multisensory temporal function and the behavioral, perceptual, and cognitive impairments observed in ASD. Atypical sensory processing is becoming increasingly recognized as a core component of autism, with evidence of atypical processing across a number of sensory modalities. These deviations from typical processing underscore the value of interpreting ASD within a multisensory framework. Furthermore, converging evidence illustrates that these differences in audiovisual processing may be specifically related to temporal processing. This review seeks to bridge the connection between temporal processing and audiovisual perception, and to elaborate on emerging data showing differences in audiovisual temporal function in autism. We also discuss the consequence of such changes, the specific impact on the processing of different classes of audiovisual stimuli (e.g. speech vs. nonspeech, etc.), and the presumptive brain processes and networks underlying audiovisual temporal integration. Finally, possible downstream behavioral implications, and possible remediation strategies are outlined. Autism Res 2016, 9: 720-738. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Keeping time in the brain: Autism spectrum disorder and audiovisual temporal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Segers, Magali; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D; Camarata, Stephen; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-07-01

    A growing area of interest and relevance in the study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) focuses on the relationship between multisensory temporal function and the behavioral, perceptual, and cognitive impairments observed in ASD. Atypical sensory processing is becoming increasingly recognized as a core component of autism, with evidence of atypical processing across a number of sensory modalities. These deviations from typical processing underscore the value of interpreting ASD within a multisensory framework. Furthermore, converging evidence illustrates that these differences in audiovisual processing may be specifically related to temporal processing. This review seeks to bridge the connection between temporal processing and audiovisual perception, and to elaborate on emerging data showing differences in audiovisual temporal function in autism. We also discuss the consequence of such changes, the specific impact on the processing of different classes of audiovisual stimuli (e.g. speech vs. nonspeech, etc.), and the presumptive brain processes and networks underlying audiovisual temporal integration. Finally, possible downstream behavioral implications, and possible remediation strategies are outlined. Autism Res 2016, 9: 720-738. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26402725

  13. Supported employment and compensatory strategies for enhancing vocational outcome following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, J S; Wehman, P; Morton, M V; Stonnington, H H

    1988-01-01

    Epidemiological research clearly indicates that traumatic head injury has reached epidemic proportions. Incidence rates for head injury are greater than those for cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injury combined. Many victims suffer from long-term impairments in functional, neurological, medical, neuropsychological and linguistic status. Emotional and behavioural problems are common as well. Additionally, family problems often ensue as a consequence of the victim's dependency and concomitant emotional changes. Investigations of post-injury vocational status indicate that unemployment rates within the first 7 years post-injury range as high as 70% for those with moderate and severe injuries. Researchers have demonstrated that the emotional and neuropsychological changes arising from injury are the greatest contributors to reduced employability. Relatively high unemployment rates strongly suggest that traditional approaches to physical and vocational rehabilitation have been entirely inadequate. To complement existing services and enhance employment outcome, two approaches have been developed and refined for use with victims of head injury. Supported employment is a unique approach which assists the client to select, obtain and maintain suitable employment on the basis of his/her interests and abilities. Compensatory strategies have been developed to help the individual offset intellectual problems which would otherwise interfere with learning job skills and maintaining production levels. Often, compensatory strategies are used in the context of a comprehensive supported employment programme. The greater use of supported employment and compensatory strategies is likely to enhance employment outcomes for those with traumatic head injury. Nevertheless, additional research is needed to more clearly identify the types of techniques which work best for each unique set of problems. PMID:3167277

  14. Supported employment and compensatory strategies for enhancing vocational outcome following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, J S; Wehman, P; Morton, M V; Stonnington, H H

    1988-01-01

    Epidemiological research clearly indicates that traumatic head injury has reached epidemic proportions. Incidence rates for head injury are greater than those for cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injury combined. Many victims suffer from long-term impairments in functional, neurological, medical, neuropsychological and linguistic status. Emotional and behavioural problems are common as well. Additionally, family problems often ensue as a consequence of the victim's dependency and concomitant emotional changes. Investigations of post-injury vocational status indicate that unemployment rates within the first 7 years post-injury range as high as 70% for those with moderate and severe injuries. Researchers have demonstrated that the emotional and neuropsychological changes arising from injury are the greatest contributors to reduced employability. Relatively high unemployment rates strongly suggest that traditional approaches to physical and vocational rehabilitation have been entirely inadequate. To complement existing services and enhance employment outcome, two approaches have been developed and refined for use with victims of head injury. Supported employment is a unique approach which assists the client to select, obtain and maintain suitable employment on the basis of his/her interests and abilities. Compensatory strategies have been developed to help the individual offset intellectual problems which would otherwise interfere with learning job skills and maintaining production levels. Often, compensatory strategies are used in the context of a comprehensive supported employment programme. The greater use of supported employment and compensatory strategies is likely to enhance employment outcomes for those with traumatic head injury. Nevertheless, additional research is needed to more clearly identify the types of techniques which work best for each unique set of problems.

  15. MEASUREMENT PROCESS OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS FOR SUPPORTING STRATEGIC BUSINESS OBJECTIVES IN SOFTWARE DEVELOPING COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lais Pedroso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Software developing companies work in a competitive market and are often challenged to make business decisions with impact on competitiveness. Models accessing maturity for software development processes quality, such as CMMI and MPS-BR, comprise process measurements systems (PMS. However, these models are not necessarily suitable to support business decisions, neither to achieve strategic goals. The objective of this work is to analyze how the PMS of software development projects could support business strategies for software developing companies. Results taken from this work show that PMS results from maturity models for software processes can be suited to help evaluating operating capabilities and supporting strategic business decisions.

  16. Development of continuous pharmaceutical production processes supported by process systems engineering methods and tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Woodley, John

    2012-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is undergoing a radical transition towards continuous production processes. Systematic use of process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools form the key to achieve this transition in a structured and efficient way.......The pharmaceutical industry is undergoing a radical transition towards continuous production processes. Systematic use of process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools form the key to achieve this transition in a structured and efficient way....

  17. Face and location processing in children with early unilateral brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Brianna; Appelbaum, Mark; Carapetian, Stephanie; Hesselink, John; Nass, Ruth; Trauner, Doris; Stiles, Joan

    2014-07-01

    Human visuospatial functions are commonly divided into those dependent on the ventral visual stream (ventral occipitotemporal regions), which allows for processing the 'what' of an object, and the dorsal visual stream (dorsal occipitoparietal regions), which allows for processing 'where' an object is in space. Information about the development of each of the two streams has been accumulating, but very little is known about the effects of injury, particularly very early injury, on this developmental process. Using a set of computerized dorsal and ventral stream tasks matched for stimuli, required response, and difficulty (for typically-developing individuals), we sought to compare the differential effects of injury to the two systems by examining performance in individuals with perinatal brain injury (PBI), who present with selective deficits in visuospatial processing from a young age. Thirty participants (mean=15.1 years) with early unilateral brain injury (15 right hemisphere PBI, 15 left hemisphere PBI) and 16 matched controls participated. On our tasks children with PBI performed more poorly than controls (lower accuracy and longer response times), and this was particularly prominent for the ventral stream task. Lateralization of PBI was also a factor, as the dorsal stream task did not seem to be associated with lateralized deficits, with both PBI groups showing only subtle decrements in performance, while the ventral stream task elicited deficits from RPBI children that do not appear to improve with age. Our findings suggest that early injury results in lesion-specific visuospatial deficits that persist into adolescence. Further, as the stimuli used in our ventral stream task were faces, our findings are consistent with what is known about the neural systems for face processing, namely, that they are established relatively early, follow a comparatively rapid developmental trajectory (conferring a vulnerability to early insult), and are biased toward the right

  18. Mapping the connectivity underlying multimodal (verbal and non-verbal) semantic processing: a brain electrostimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2013-08-01

    Accessing the meaning of words, objects, people and facts is a human ability, made possible thanks to semantic processing. Although studies concerning its cortical organization are proficient, the subcortical connectivity underlying this semantic network received less attention. We used intraoperative direct electrostimulation, which mimics a transient virtual lesion during brain surgery for glioma in eight awaken patients, to map the anatomical white matter substrate subserving the semantic system. Patients performed a picture naming task and a non-verbal semantic association test during the electrical mapping. Direct electrostimulation of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, a poorly known ventral association pathway which runs throughout the brain, induced in all cases semantic disturbances. These transient disorders were highly reproducible, and concerned verbal as well as non-verbal output. Our results highlight for the first time the essential role of the left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle in multimodal (and not only in verbal) semantic processing. On the basis of these original findings, and in the lights of phylogenetic considerations regarding this fascicle, we suggest its possible implication in the monitoring of the human level of consciousness related to semantic memory, namely noetic consciousness.

  19. Longitudinal evidence for functional specialization of the neural circuit supporting working memory in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Amy S.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Hudson Kam, Carla L.; Hinshaw, Stephen; D’Esposito, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Although children perform more poorly than adults on many cognitive measures, they are better able to learn things such as language and music. These differences could result from the delayed specialization of neural circuits and asynchronies in the maturation of neural substrates required for learning. Working memory—the ability to hold information in mind that is no longer present in the environment—comprises a set of cognitive processes required for many, if not all, forms of learning. A cr...

  20. A Framework to Support Automated Classification and Labeling of Brain Electromagnetic Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Gwen A. Frishkoff; Robert M. Frank; Jiawei Rong; Dejing Dou; Joseph Dien; Laura K. Halderman

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for automated classification and labeling of patterns in electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data. We describe recent progress on four goals: 1) specification of rules and concepts that capture expert knowledge of event-related potentials (ERP) patterns in visual word recognition; 2) implementation of rules in an automated data processing and labeling stream; 3) data mining techniques that lead to r...

  1. Optimization-based decision support systems for planning problems in processing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Claassen, G.D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Optimization-based decision support systems for planning problems in processing industries Nowadays, efficient planning of material flows within and between supply chains is of vital importance and has become one of the most challenging problems for decision support in practice. The tremendous progress in hard- and software of the past decades was an important gateway for developing computerized systems that are able to support decision making on different levels within enterprises. T...

  2. Practical support for Lean Six Sigma software process definition using IEEE software engineering standards

    CERN Document Server

    Land, Susan K; Walz, John W

    2012-01-01

    Practical Support for Lean Six Sigma Software Process Definition: Using IEEE Software Engineering Standards addresses the task of meeting the specific documentation requirements in support of Lean Six Sigma. This book provides a set of templates supporting the documentation required for basic software project control and management and covers the integration of these templates for their entire product development life cycle. Find detailed documentation guidance in the form of organizational policy descriptions, integrated set of deployable document templates, artifacts required in suppo

  3. Predictors of Memory and Processing Speed Dysfunctions after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Winardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aims of this study were to evaluate the predictive value of admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS scores, duration of unconsciousness, neurosurgical intervention, and countercoup lesion on the impairment of memory and processing speed functions six months after a traumatic brain injury (TBI based on a structural equation modeling. Methods. Thirty TBI patients recruited from Neurosurgical Department at the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital were administered the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III processing speed index to evaluate the memory and processing speed functions. Results. The study showed that GCS scores accounted for 40% of the variance in memory/processing speed. No significant predictive effects were found for the other three variables. GCS classification at the time of TBI seems to correspond moderately to the severity of memory/processing speed dysfunctions. Conclusions. The present study demonstrated that admission GCS score is a robust predictor of memory/processing speed dysfunctions after TBI. The results should be replicated with a large sample of patients with TBI, or be extended by examining other potential clinical predictors.

  4. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  5. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  6. Supported mesoporous carbon ultrafiltration membrane and process for making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael; Foley, Henry C.; Agarwal, Hans

    2004-04-13

    A novel supported mesoporous carbon ultrafiltration membrane and process for producing the same. The membranes comprise a mesoporous carbon layer that exists both within and external to the porous support. A liquid polymer precursor composition comprising both carbonizing and noncarbonizing templating polymers is deposited on the porous metal support. The coated support is then heated in an inert-gas atmosphere to pyrolyze the polymeric precursor and form a mesoporous carbon layer on and within the support. The pore-size of the membranes is dependent on the molecular weight of the noncarbonizing templating polymer precursor. The mesoporous carbon layer is stable and can withstand high temperatures and exposure to organic chemicals. Additionally, the porous metal support provides excellent strength properties. The composite structure of the membrane provides novel structural properties and allows for increased operating pressures allowing for greater membrane flow rates. The invention also relates to the use of the novel ultrafiltration membrane to separate macromolecules from solution. An example is shown separating bovine serum albumin from water. The membrane functions by separating and by selective adsorption. Because of the membrane's porous metal support, it is well suited to industrial applications. The unique properties of the supported mesoporous carbon membrane also allow the membrane to be used in transient pressure or temperature swing separations processes. Such processes were not previously possible with existing mesoporous membranes. The present invention, however, possesses the requisite physical properties to perform such novel ultrafiltration processes.

  7. 75 FR 16820 - Delegated Processing for Certain 202 Supportive Housing for the Elderly Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Delegated Processing for Certain 202 Supportive Housing for the Elderly Projects... 202 Supportive Housing for the Elderly projects. OMB Approval Number: 2502-New. Form Numbers:...

  8. Optimization-based decision support systems for planning problems in processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, G.D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Optimization-based decision support systems for planning problems in processing industries Nowadays, efficient planning of material flows within and between supply chains is of vital importance and has become one of the most challenging problems for decision support in practice. The tremendo

  9. Cognition and brain functional aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-jie LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest population of elderly adults. Meanwhile, it is one of the countries showing fastest aging speed in the world. Aging processing is always companied with a series of brain structural and functional changes, which result in the decline of processing speed, working memory, long-term memory and executive function, etc. The studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI found certain aging effects on brain function activation, spontaneous activity and functional connectivity in old people. However, few studies have explored the brain functional curve during the aging process while most previous studies explored the differences in the brain function between young people and old people. Delineation of the human brain functional aging curve will promote the understanding of brain aging mechanisms and support the normal aging monitoring and early detection of abnormal aging changes. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.005

  10. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Trimmel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  11. Efficient physical embedding of topologically complex information processing networks in brains and computer circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S Bassett

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nervous systems are information processing networks that evolved by natural selection, whereas very large scale integrated (VLSI computer circuits have evolved by commercially driven technology development. Here we follow historic intuition that all physical information processing systems will share key organizational properties, such as modularity, that generally confer adaptivity of function. It has long been observed that modular VLSI circuits demonstrate an isometric scaling relationship between the number of processing elements and the number of connections, known as Rent's rule, which is related to the dimensionality of the circuit's interconnect topology and its logical capacity. We show that human brain structural networks, and the nervous system of the nematode C. elegans, also obey Rent's rule, and exhibit some degree of hierarchical modularity. We further show that the estimated Rent exponent of human brain networks, derived from MRI data, can explain the allometric scaling relations between gray and white matter volumes across a wide range of mammalian species, again suggesting that these principles of nervous system design are highly conserved. For each of these fractal modular networks, the dimensionality of the interconnect topology was greater than the 2 or 3 Euclidean dimensions of the space in which it was embedded. This relatively high complexity entailed extra cost in physical wiring: although all networks were economically or cost-efficiently wired they did not strictly minimize wiring costs. Artificial and biological information processing systems both may evolve to optimize a trade-off between physical cost and topological complexity, resulting in the emergence of homologous principles of economical, fractal and modular design across many different kinds of nervous and computational networks.

  12. Attention to language: novel MEG paradigm for registering involuntary language processing in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyrov, Yury; Smith, Marie L; Horner, Aidan J; Henson, Richard; Nathan, Pradeep J; Bullmore, Edward T; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2012-09-01

    Previous research indicates that, under explicit instructions to listen to spoken stimuli or in speech-oriented behavioural tasks, the brain's responses to senseless pseudowords are larger than those to meaningful words; the reverse is true in non-attended conditions. These differential responses could be used as a tool to trace linguistic processes in the brain and their interaction with attention. However, as previous studies relied on explicit instructions to attend or ignore the stimuli, a technique for automatic attention modulation (i.e., not dependent on explicit instruction) would be more advantageous, especially when cooperation with instructions may not be guaranteed (e.g., neurological patients, children etc). Here we present a novel paradigm in which the stimulus context automatically draws attention to speech. In a non-attend passive auditory oddball sequence, rare words and pseudowords were presented among frequent non-speech tones of variable frequency and length. The low percentage of spoken stimuli guarantees an involuntary attention switch to them. The speech stimuli, in turn, could be disambiguated as words or pseudowords only in their end, at the last phoneme, after the attention switch would have already occurred. Our results confirmed that this paradigm can indeed be used to induce automatic shifts of attention to spoken input. At ~250ms after the stimulus onset, a P3a-like neuromagnetic deflection was registered to spoken (but not tone) stimuli indicating an involuntary attention shift. Later, after the word-pseudoword divergence point, we found a larger oddball response to pseudowords than words, best explained by neural processes of lexical search facilitated through increased attention. Furthermore, we demonstrate a breakdown of this orderly pattern of neurocognitive processes as a result of sleep deprivation. The new paradigm may thus be an efficient way to assess language comprehension processes and their dynamic interaction with those

  13. Face the hierarchy: ERP and oscillatory brain responses in social rank processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Breton

    Full Text Available Recognition of social hierarchy is a key feature that helps us navigate through our complex social environment. Neuroimaging studies have identified brain structures involved in the processing of hierarchical stimuli but the precise temporal dynamics of brain activity associated with such processing remains largely unknown. Here, we used electroencephalography to examine the effect of social hierarchy on neural responses elicited by faces. In contrast to previous studies, the key manipulation was that a hierarchical context was constructed, not by varying facial expressions, but by presenting neutral-expression faces in a game setting. Once the performance-based hierarchy was established, participants were presented with high-rank, middle-rank and low-rank player faces and had to evaluate the rank of each face with respect to their own position. Both event-related potentials and task-related oscillatory activity were investigated. Three main findings emerge from the study. First, the experimental manipulation had no effect on the early N170 component, which may suggest that hierarchy did not modulate the structural encoding of neutral-expression faces. Second, hierarchy significantly modulated the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP within a 400-700 ms time-window, with more a prominent LPP occurring when the participants processed the face of the highest-rank player. Third, high-rank faces were associated with the highest reduction of alpha power. Taken together these findings provide novel electrophysiological evidence for enhanced allocation of attentional resource in the presence of high-rank faces. At a broader level, this study brings new insights into the neural processing underlying social categorization.

  14. Interactive multi-criteria decision support - new tools and processes for practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis studies and develops application procedures of multi-attribute value tree methods and related decision support systems. The objective is to understand the needs of practice for the process support and, through this, to help create user-friendly multi-criteria decision support systems and appropriate ways to use them. The motivation behind this is that the usability of the methods is strongly dependent on the available tools and on their application process. The recent advances on the development of computers and the Internet have also created new opportunities to develop the systems. Consequently, the role of computer support has become very process-oriented instead of only implementing the mathematics of the methods. Specifically, the thesis (i) introduces two new web-based systems, Web-HIPRE and Smart-Swaps, with focus on process support and on adopting the new opportunities of computer support, (ii) reports experiences on the use of these systems in environmental applications to support group decision making processes, and (iii) describes new ways to apply two specific methods, even swaps and preference programming, for various tasks with an aim to improve the practical applicability of these methods. (orig.)

  15. Requirements for the workflow-based support of release management processes in the automotive sector

    OpenAIRE

    Bestfleisch, U.; Herbst, J.; Reichert, M.U.

    2005-01-01

    One of the challenges the automotive industry currently has to master is the complexity of the electrical/elctronic system of a car. One key factor for reaching short product development cycles and high quality in this area are well-defined, properly executed test and release processes. In this paper we show why workflow management technology is needed to support these processes and how this support should look like. We further confront these requirements with the features of contemporary wor...

  16. Processing of sub- and supra-second intervals in the primate brain results from the calibration of neuronal oscillators via sensory, motor, and feedback processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Daya S

    2014-01-01

    The processing of time intervals in the sub- to supra-second range by the brain is critical for the interaction of primates with their surroundings in activities, such as foraging and hunting. For an accurate processing of time intervals by the brain, representation of physical time within neuronal circuits is necessary. I propose that time dimension of the physical surrounding is represented in the brain by different types of neuronal oscillators, generating spikes or spike bursts at regular intervals. The proposed oscillators include the pacemaker neurons, tonic inputs, and synchronized excitation and inhibition of inter-connected neurons. Oscillators, which are built inside various circuits of brain, help to form modular clocks, processing time intervals or other temporal characteristics specific to functions of a circuit. Relative or absolute duration is represented within neuronal oscillators by "neural temporal unit," defined as the interval between regularly occurring spikes or spike bursts. Oscillator output is processed to produce changes in activities of neurons, named frequency modulator neuron, wired within a separate module, represented by the rate of change in frequency, and frequency of activities, proposed to encode time intervals. Inbuilt oscillators are calibrated by (a) feedback processes, (b) input of time intervals resulting from rhythmic external sensory stimulation, and (c) synchronous effects of feedback processes and evoked sensory activity. A single active clock is proposed per circuit, which is calibrated by one or more mechanisms. Multiple calibration mechanisms, inbuilt oscillators, and the presence of modular connections prevent a complete loss of interval timing functions of the brain.

  17. Development traumatic brain injury computer user interface for disaster area in Indonesia supported by emergency broadband access network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiono, Agung Budi; Suwa, Hirohiko; Ohta, Toshizumi; Arifin, Muh Zafrullah; Kitamura, Yohei; Yoshida, Kazunari; Merdika, Daduk; Qiantori, Andri; Iskandar

    2012-12-01

    Disasters bring consequences of negative impacts on the environment and human life. One of the common cause of critical condition is traumatic brain injury (TBI), namely, epidural (EDH) and subdural hematoma (SDH), due to downfall hard things during earthquake. We proposed and analyzed the user response, namely neurosurgeon, general doctor/surgeon and nurse when they interacted with TBI computer interface. The communication systems was supported by TBI web based applications using emergency broadband access network with tethered balloon and simulated in the field trial to evaluate the coverage area. The interface consisted of demography data and multi tabs for anamnesis, treatment, follow up and teleconference interfaces. The interface allows neurosurgeon, surgeon/general doctors and nurses to entry the EDH and SDH patient's data during referring them on the emergency simulation and evaluated based on time needs and their understanding. The average time needed was obtained after simulated by Lenovo T500 notebook using mouse; 8-10 min for neurosurgeons, 12-15 min for surgeons/general doctors and 15-19 min for nurses. By using Think Pad X201 Tablet, the time needed for entry data was 5-7 min for neurosurgeon, 7-10 min for surgeons/general doctors and 12-16 min for nurses. We observed that the time difference was depending on the computer type and user literacy qualification as well as their understanding on traumatic brain injury, particularly for the nurses. In conclusion, there are five data classification for simply TBI GUI, namely, 1) demography, 2) specific anamnesis for EDH and SDH, 3) treatment action and medicine of TBI, 4) follow up data display and 5) teleneurosurgery for streaming video consultation. The type of computer, particularly tablet PC was more convenient and faster for entry data, compare to that computer mouse touched pad. Emergency broadband access network using tethered balloon is possible to be employed to cover the communications systems in

  18. The human brain on a computer, the design neuromorphic chips aims to process information as does the mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Develop chips that mimic the brain processes It will help create computers capable of interpreting information from image, sound and touch so that it may offer answers intelligent-not programmed before- according to these sensory data. chips neuromorphic may mimic the electrical activity neurons and brain synapses, and will be key to intelligence systems artificial (ia) that require interaction with the environment being able to extract information cognitive of what surrounds them. (Author)

  19. Goal selection versus process control while learning to use a brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Audrey S.; Rose, Minn L.; He, Bin

    2011-06-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) can be used to accomplish a task without requiring motor output. Two major control strategies used by BCIs during task completion are process control and goal selection. In process control, the user exerts continuous control and independently executes the given task. In goal selection, the user communicates their goal to the BCI and then receives assistance executing the task. A previous study has shown that goal selection is more accurate and faster in use. An unanswered question is, which control strategy is easier to learn? This study directly compares goal selection and process control while learning to use a sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI. Twenty young healthy human subjects were randomly assigned either to a goal selection or a process control-based paradigm for eight sessions. At the end of the study, the best user from each paradigm completed two additional sessions using all paradigms randomly mixed. The results of this study were that goal selection required a shorter training period for increased speed, accuracy, and information transfer over process control. These results held for the best subjects as well as in the general subject population. The demonstrated characteristics of goal selection make it a promising option to increase the utility of BCIs intended for both disabled and able-bodied users.

  20. The impact of hunger on food cue processing: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockburger, Jessica; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Bublatzky, Florian; Schupp, Harald T

    2009-10-01

    The present study used event-related brain potentials to examine deprivation effects on visual attention to food stimuli at the level of distinct processing stages. Thirty-two healthy volunteers (16 females) were tested twice 1 week apart, either after 24 h of food deprivation or after normal food intake. Participants viewed a continuous stream of food and flower images while dense sensor ERPs were recorded. As revealed by distinct ERP modulations in relatively earlier and later time windows, deprivation affected the processing of food and flower pictures. Between 300 and 360 ms, food pictures were associated with enlarged occipito-temporal negativity and centro-parietal positivity in deprived compared to satiated state. Of main interest, in a later time window (approximately 450-600 ms), deprivation increased amplitudes of the late positive potential elicited by food pictures. Conversely, flower processing varied by motivational state with decreased positive potentials in the deprived state. Minimum-Norm analyses provided further evidence that deprivation enhanced visual attention to food cues in later processing stages. From the perspective of motivated attention, hunger may induce a heightened state of attention for food stimuli in a processing stage related to stimulus recognition and focused attention.

  1. Individual reactions to high involvement work processes: investigating the role of empowerment and perceived organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Marcus M; Vandenberg, Robert J; DeJoy, David M; Schaffer, Bryan S; Wilson, Mark G

    2009-04-01

    This study sought to understand how high involvement work processes (HIWP) are processed at the employee level. Using structural equation modeling techniques, the authors tested and supported a model in which psychological empowerment mediated the effects of HIWP on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, and job stress. Furthermore, perceived organizational support (POS) was hypothesized to moderate the relationships between empowerment and these outcomes. With exception for the empowerment-job satisfaction association, support was found for our predictions. Future directions for research and the practical implications of our findings for both employees and organizations are discussed. PMID:19331475

  2. Near-infrared-spectroscopic study on processing of sounds in the brain; a comparison between native and non-native speakers of Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Koichi; Sekimoto, Sotaro; Itoh, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions The result suggested that mother tongue Japanese and non- mother tongue Japanese differ in their pattern of brain dominance when listening to sounds from the natural world-in particular, insect sounds. These results reveal significant support for previous findings from Tsunoda (in 1970). Objectives This study concentrates on listeners who show clear evidence of a 'speech' brain vs a 'music' brain and determines which side is most active in the processing of insect sounds, using with near-infrared spectroscopy. Methods The present study uses 2-channel Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to provide a more direct measure of left- and right-brain activity while participants listen to each of three types of sounds: Japanese speech, Western violin music, or insect sounds. Data were obtained from 33 participants who showed laterality on opposite sides for Japanese speech and Western music. Results Results showed that a majority (80%) of the MJ participants exhibited dominance for insect sounds on the side that was dominant for language, while a majority (62%) of the non-MJ participants exhibited dominance for insect sounds on the side that was dominant for music. PMID:26878216

  3. Brain emotional learning based Brain Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Asadi Ghanbari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A brain computer interface (BCI enables direct communication between a brain and a computer translating brain activity into computer commands using preprocessing, feature extraction and classification operations. Classification is crucial as it has a substantial effect on the BCI speed and bit rate. Recent developments of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs bring forward some challenging problems to the machine learning community, of which classification of time-varying electrophysiological signals is a crucial one. Constructing adaptive classifiers is a promising approach to deal with this problem. In this paper, we introduce adaptive classifiers for classify electroencephalogram (EEG signals. The adaptive classifier is brain emotional learning based adaptive classifier (BELBAC, which is based on emotional learning process. The main purpose of this research is to use a structural model based on the limbic system of mammalian brain, for decision making and control engineering applications. We have adopted a network model developed by Moren and Balkenius, as a computational model that mimics amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, thalamus, sensory input cortex and generally, those parts of the brain thought responsible for processing emotions. The developed method was compared with other methods used for EEG signals classification (support vector machine (SVM and two different neural network types (MLP, PNN. The result analysis demonstrated an efficiency of the proposed approach.

  4. Effects of Informative and Confirmatory Feedback on Brain Activation During Negative Feedback Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Kyoung eWoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study compared the effects of informative and confirmatory feedback on brain activation during negative feedback processing. For confirmatory feedback trials, participants were informed that they had failed the task, whereas informative feedback trials presented task relevant information along with the notification of their failure. Fourteen male undergraduates performed a series of spatial-perceptual tasks and received feedback while their brain activity was recorded. During confirmatory feedback trials, greater activations in the amygdala, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and the thalamus (including the habenular were observed in response to incorrect responses. These results suggest that confirmatory feedback induces negative emotional reactions to failure. In contrast, informative feedback trials elicited greater activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC when participants experienced failure. Further psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis revealed a negative coupling between the DLPFC and the amygdala during informative feedback relative to confirmatory feedback trials. These findings suggest that providing task-relevant information could facilitate implicit down-regulation of negative emotions following failure.

  5. Efficient block processing of long duration biotelemetric brain data for health care monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soumya, I. [Department of E.I.E, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam (India); Zia Ur Rahman, M., E-mail: mdzr-5@ieee.org [Department of E.C.E, K.L. University, Vaddeswaram, Green Fields, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh (India); Rama Koti Reddy, D. V. [Department of Instrumentation Engineering, College of Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam (India); Lay-Ekuakille, A. [Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Lecce (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    In real time clinical environment, the brain signals which doctor need to analyze are usually very long. Such a scenario can be made simple by partitioning the input signal into several blocks and applying signal conditioning. This paper presents various block based adaptive filter structures for obtaining high resolution electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which estimate the deterministic components of the EEG signal by removing noise. To process these long duration signals, we propose Time domain Block Least Mean Square (TDBLMS) algorithm for brain signal enhancement. In order to improve filtering capability, we introduce normalization in the weight update recursion of TDBLMS, which results TD-B-normalized-least mean square (LMS). To increase accuracy and resolution in the proposed noise cancelers, we implement the time domain cancelers in frequency domain which results frequency domain TDBLMS and FD-B-Normalized-LMS. Finally, we have applied these algorithms on real EEG signals obtained from human using Emotive Epoc EEG recorder and compared their performance with the conventional LMS algorithm. The results show that the performance of the block based algorithms is superior to the LMS counter-parts in terms of signal to noise ratio, convergence rate, excess mean square error, misadjustment, and coherence.

  6. Efficient block processing of long duration biotelemetric brain data for health care monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In real time clinical environment, the brain signals which doctor need to analyze are usually very long. Such a scenario can be made simple by partitioning the input signal into several blocks and applying signal conditioning. This paper presents various block based adaptive filter structures for obtaining high resolution electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which estimate the deterministic components of the EEG signal by removing noise. To process these long duration signals, we propose Time domain Block Least Mean Square (TDBLMS) algorithm for brain signal enhancement. In order to improve filtering capability, we introduce normalization in the weight update recursion of TDBLMS, which results TD-B-normalized-least mean square (LMS). To increase accuracy and resolution in the proposed noise cancelers, we implement the time domain cancelers in frequency domain which results frequency domain TDBLMS and FD-B-Normalized-LMS. Finally, we have applied these algorithms on real EEG signals obtained from human using Emotive Epoc EEG recorder and compared their performance with the conventional LMS algorithm. The results show that the performance of the block based algorithms is superior to the LMS counter-parts in terms of signal to noise ratio, convergence rate, excess mean square error, misadjustment, and coherence

  7. Subacute Changes in Cleavage Processing of Amyloid Precursor Protein and Tau following Penetrating Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountney, Andrea; Hwang, Hye; Swiercz, Adam; Rammelkamp, Zoe; Boutte, Angela M.; Shear, Deborah A.; Tortella, Frank C.; Schmid, Kara E.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an established risk factor for the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here the effects of severe penetrating TBI on APP and tau cleavage processing were investigated in a rodent model of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). PBBI was induced by stereotactically inserting a perforated steel probe through the right frontal cortex of the anesthetized rat and rapidly inflating/deflating the probe’s elastic tubing into an elliptical shaped balloon to 10% of total rat brain volume causing temporary cavitation injury. Separate animals underwent probe injury (PrI) alone without balloon inflation. Shams underwent craniectomy. Brain tissue was collected acutely (4h, 24h, 3d) and subacutely (7d) post-injury and analyzed by immunoblot for full length APP (APP-FL) and APP beta c-terminal fragments (βCTFs), full length tau (tau-FL) and tau truncation fragments and at 7d for cytotoxic Beta amyloid (Aβ) peptides Aβ40 and Aβ42 analysis. APP-FL was significantly decreased at 3d and 7d following PBBI whereas APP βCTFs were significantly elevated by 4h post-injury and remained elevated through 7d post-injury. Effects on βCTFs were mirrored with PrI, albeit to a lesser extent. Aβ40 and Aβ42 were significantly elevated at 7d following PBBI and PrI. Tau-FL decreased substantially 3d and 7d post-PBBI and PrI. Importantly, a 22 kDa tau fragment (tau22), similar to that found in AD, was significantly elevated by 4h and remained elevated through 7d post-injury. Thus both APP and tau cleavage was dramatically altered in the acute and subacute periods post-injury. As cleavage of these proteins has also been implicated in AD, TBI pathology shown here may set the stage for the later development of AD or other tauopathies. PMID:27428544

  8. Brain Training Game Improves Executive Functions and Processing Speed in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Nouchi; Yasuyuki Taki; Hikaru Takeuchi; Hiroshi Hashizume; Yuko Akitsuki; Yayoi Shigemune; Atsushi Sekiguchi; Yuka Kotozaki; Takashi Tsukiura; Yukihito Yomogida; Ryuta Kawashima

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions, but these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on cognitive functions in the elderly. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-two elderly volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). This study was completed by 14 of th...

  9. PerPos: a Translucent Positioning Middleware Supporting Adaptation of Internal Positioning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Langdal; Schougaard, Kari Rye; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun;

    2010-01-01

    process. To address this problem this paper proposes a positioning middleware named PerPos that is translucent and adaptable, i.e., it supports both high- and low-level interaction. The PerPos middleware provides translucency with respect to the positioning process and allows programmatic definition...

  10. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  11. How children process over-regularizations: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clahsen, Harald; Lück, Monika; Hahne, Anja

    2007-08-01

    This study examines the mental processes involved in children's on-line recognition of inflected word forms using event-related potentials (ERPs). Sixty children in three age groups (20 six- to seven-year-olds, 20 eight- to nine-year-olds, 20 eleven- to twelve-year-olds) and 23 adults (tested in a previous study) listened to sentences containing correct or incorrect German noun plural forms. In the two older child groups, as well as in the adult group, over-regularized plural forms elicited brain responses that are characteristic of combinatorial (grammatical) violations. We also found that ERP components associated with language processing change from child to adult with respect to their onsets and their topography. The ERP violation effects obtained for over-regularizations suggest that children (aged eight years and above) and adults employ morphological computation for processing purposes, consistent with dual-mechanism models of inflection. The observed differences between children's and adults' ERP responses are argued to result from children's smaller lexicons and from slower and less efficient processing.

  12. Quantum cognition: The possibility of processing with nuclear spins in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew P. A.

    2015-11-01

    The possibility that quantum processing with nuclear spins might be operative in the brain is explored. Phosphorus is identified as the unique biological element with a nuclear spin that can serve as a qubit for such putative quantum processing-a neural qubit-while the phosphate ion is the only possible qubit-transporter. We identify the "Posner molecule", Ca9(PO4)6, as the unique molecule that can protect the neural qubits on very long times and thereby serve as a (working) quantum-memory. A central requirement for quantum-processing is quantum entanglement. It is argued that the enzyme catalyzed chemical reaction which breaks a pyrophosphate ion into two phosphate ions can quantum entangle pairs of qubits. Posner molecules, formed by binding such phosphate pairs with extracellular calcium ions, will inherit the nuclear spin entanglement. A mechanism for transporting Posner molecules into presynaptic neurons during vesicle endocytosis is proposed. Quantum measurements can occur when a pair of Posner molecules chemically bind and subsequently melt, releasing a shower of intra-cellular calcium ions that can trigger further neurotransmitter release and enhance the probability of post-synaptic neuron firing. Multiple entangled Posner molecules, triggering non-local quantum correlations of neuron firing rates, would provide the key mechanism for neural quantum processing. Implications, both in vitro and in vivo, are briefly mentioned.

  13. Is the screening of product ideas supported by the NPD process design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the screening of product ideas is supported by the NPD (new product development) process design throughout the NPD phases. Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected with an internet survey questionnaire from 43 large companies...... literature will benefit from knowledge of the process of implementing "best practices" of NPD. Companies follow guidelines, but how is the NPD process followed through? This paper supports the need for improved insight into the complexity of screening decisions as well as knowledge of the screening...

  14. Whiteboard Icons to Support the Blood-Test Process in an Emergency Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdottir á; Hertzum, Morten; From, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    The competent treatment of emergency department (ED) patients requires an effective and efficient process for handling laboratory tests such as blood tests. This study investigates how ED clinicians go about the process, from ordering blood tests to acknowledging their results and, specifically......, assesses the use of whiteboard icons to support this process. On the basis of observation and interviews we find that the blood-test process is intertwined with multiple other temporal patterns in ED work. The whiteboard icons, which indicate four temporally distinct steps in the blood-test process......, support the nurses in maintaining the flow of patients through the ED and the physicians in assessing test results at timeouts. The main results of this study are, however, that the blood-test process is temporally and collaboratively complex, that the whiteboard icons pass by most of this complexity...

  15. Criticality in Large-Scale Brain fMRI Dynamics Unveiled by a Novel Point Process Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Balenzuela, Pablo; Fraiman, Daniel; Chialvo, Dante R.

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques have contributed significantly to our understanding of brain function. Current methods are based on the analysis of gradual and continuous changes in the brain blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) signal. Departing from that approach, recent work has shown that equivalent results can be obtained by inspecting only the relatively large amplitude BOLD signal peaks, suggesting that relevant information can be condensed in discrete events. This idea is further explored here to demonstrate how brain dynamics at resting state can be captured just by the timing and location of such events, i.e., in terms of a spatiotemporal point process. The method allows, for the first time, to define a theoretical framework in terms of an order and control parameter derived from fMRI data, where the dynamical regime can be interpreted as one corresponding to a system close to the critical point of a second order phase transition. The analysis demonstrates that the resting brain spends most of the time near the critical point of such transition and exhibits avalanches of activity ruled by the same dynamical and statistical properties described previously for neuronal events at smaller scales. Given the demonstrated functional relevance of the resting state brain dynamics, its representation as a discrete process might facilitate large-scale analysis of brain function both in health and disease. PMID:22347863

  16. Value-added and Supporting - Inhibiting Factors for the Wet Processing of Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Hariyati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is one of the annual crops which are widely favored by coffee enjoyers. SidomulyoVillage is one of the fourth largest coffee producing villages in District of Silo with a land area of 180 ha in 2009. Coffee experiences a process of harvest and post harvest; one of the activities of post-harvest is coffee processing. Coffee processing is divided into two; wet processing and dry processing. The majority of farmers in SidomulyoVillage do dry processing; about 75% of farmers do dry processing and 25% of farmers do wet processing. This research was intended to: (1 to find out the value added coffee processed,(2 to identify supporting and inhibiting factors the farmers to do wet processing, and (3 to identify the income differences of farmers undertakingthe wet and dry processing. This research was carried out on purpose (purposive method in the Sidomulyo Village, District of Silo, by taking samples; that is the total sampling of farmer group of Sidomulyo 1. Data analysis used including value added, Force Field and financial analysis. The research results showed that: (1 value added of coffee beans processing turn to HS coffee was IDR 975,- whereas coffee beans processing turn to ose coffee was IDR 529,-. (2 The strongest supporting factor of wet processing was the ability to absorb workers, while the strongest inhibiting factor of wet processing was less adequate water facilities; (3 The coffee farmer incomescarrying out wet processing and dry processing were different. PerHa coffee income of wet processing was IDR 11,228,805,- and that of dry processing per ha was IDR 7,901,249,-

  17. A semi-supervised support vector machine approach for parameter setting in motor imagery-based brain computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jinyi; Yu, Zhuliang

    2010-01-01

    Parameter setting plays an important role for improving the performance of a brain computer interface (BCI). Currently, parameters (e.g. channels and frequency band) are often manually selected. It is time-consuming and not easy to obtain an optimal combination of parameters for a BCI. In this paper, motor imagery-based BCIs are considered, in which channels and frequency band are key parameters. First, a semi-supervised support vector machine algorithm is proposed for automatically selecting a set of channels with given frequency band. Next, this algorithm is extended for joint channel-frequency selection. In this approach, both training data with labels and test data without labels are used for training a classifier. Hence it can be used in small training data case. Finally, our algorithms are applied to a BCI competition data set. Our data analysis results show that these algorithms are effective for selection of frequency band and channels when the training data set is small. PMID:21886673

  18. Statistical epistasis and functional brain imaging support a role of voltage-gated potassium channels in human memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Heck

    Full Text Available Despite the current progress in high-throughput, dense genome scans, a major portion of complex traits' heritability still remains unexplained, a phenomenon commonly termed "missing heritability." The negligence of analytical approaches accounting for gene-gene interaction effects, such as statistical epistasis, is probably central to this phenomenon. Here we performed a comprehensive two-way SNP interaction analysis of human episodic memory, which is a heritable complex trait, and focused on 120 genes known to show differential, memory-related expression patterns in rat hippocampus. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was also used to capture genotype-dependent differences in memory-related brain activity. A significant, episodic memory-related interaction between two markers located in potassium channel genes (KCNB2 and KCNH5 was observed (P(nominal combined=0.000001. The epistatic interaction was robust, as it was significant in a screening (P(nominal=0.0000012 and in a replication sample (P(nominal=0.01. Finally, we found genotype-dependent activity differences in the parahippocampal gyrus (P(nominal=0.001 supporting the behavioral genetics finding. Our results demonstrate the importance of analytical approaches that go beyond single marker statistics of complex traits.

  19. Support vector machine-based classification of Alzheimer's disease from whole-brain anatomical MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnin, Benoit [UMR-S 678, Inserm, Paris (France)]|[UMR-S 610, Inserm, Paris (France)]|[UMPC Univ Paris 06, Faculte de Medecine Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France)]|[IFR 49, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mesrob, Lilia [UMR-S 610, Inserm, Paris (France)]|[UMPC Univ Paris 06, Faculte de Medecine Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France)]|[IFR 49, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kinkingnehun, Serge [UMR-S 610, Inserm, Paris (France)]|[UMPC Univ Paris 06, Faculte de Medecine Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France)]|[IFR 49, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[BRAIN, Vitry-sur-Seine (France); Pelegrini-Issac, Melanie [UMR-S 678, Inserm, Paris (France)]|[UMPC Univ Paris 06, Faculte de Medecine Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France)]|[IFR 49, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Colliot, Olivier [IFR 49, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[UPR 640 LENA, CNRS, Paris (France); Sarazin, Marie; Dubois, Bruno [UMR-S 610, Inserm, Paris (France)]|[UMPC Univ Paris 06, Faculte de Medecine Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France)]|[IFR 49, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Department of Neurology, Paris (France); Lehericy, Stephane [UMR-S 610, Inserm, Paris (France)]|[UMPC Univ Paris 06, Faculte de Medecine Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France)]|[IFR 49, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[UMPC Univ. Paris 06, Center for NeuroImaging Research-CENIR, Paris (France)]|[Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Benali, Habib [UMR-S 678, Inserm, Paris (France)]|[UMPC Univ Paris 06, Faculte de Medecine Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France)]|[IFR 49, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[UNF/CRIUGM, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    We present and evaluate a new automated method based on support vector machine (SVM) classification of whole-brain anatomical magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and elderly control subjects. We studied 16 patients with AD [mean age {+-} standard deviation (SD)=74.1 {+-}5.2 years, mini-mental score examination (MMSE) = 23.1 {+-} 2.9] and 22 elderly controls (72.3{+-}5.0 years, MMSE=28.5{+-} 1.3). Three-dimensional T1-weighted MR images of each subject were automatically parcellated into regions of interest (ROIs). Based upon the characteristics of gray matter extracted from each ROI, we used an SVM algorithm to classify the subjects and statistical procedures based on bootstrap resampling to ensure the robustness of the results. We obtained 94.5% mean correct classification for AD and control subjects (mean specificity, 96.6%; mean sensitivity, 91.5%). Our method has the potential in distinguishing patients with AD from elderly controls and therefore may help in the early diagnosis of AD. (orig.)

  20. A Prototype for the Support of Integrated Software Process Development and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrawatpreyakorn, Nalinpat; Quirchmayr, Gerald; Chutimaskul, Wichian

    An efficient software development process is one of key success factors for quality software. Not only can the appropriate establishment but also the continuous improvement of integrated project management and of the software development process result in efficiency. This paper hence proposes a software process maintenance framework which consists of two core components: an integrated PMBOK-Scrum model describing how to establish a comprehensive set of project management and software engineering processes and a software development maturity model advocating software process improvement. Besides, a prototype tool to support the framework is introduced.

  1. A service-oriented approach for flexible process support within enterprises: application on PLM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Safa; Gzara, Lilia; Verjus, Hervé

    2013-02-01

    Manufacturing industries collaborating to develop new products need to implement an effective management of their design processes (DPs) and product information. Unfortunately, product lifecycle management (PLM) systems which are dedicated to support design activities are not efficient as it might be expected. Indeed, DPs are changing, emergent and non deterministic, due to the business environment under which they are carried out. PLM systems are currently based on workflow technology which does not support process agility. So, needs in terms of process support flexibility are necessary to facilitate the coupling with the environment reality. Furthermore, service-oriented approaches (SOA) enhances flexibility and adaptability of composed solutions. Systems based on SOA have the ability to inherently being evolvable. So, we can say that SOA can promote a support of flexible DPs. The aim of this work is to propose an alternative approach for flexible process support within PLM systems. The objective is to specify, design and implement business processes (BPs) in a very flexible way so that business changes can rapidly be considered in PLM solutions. Unlike existing approaches, the proposed one deal with a service-oriented perspectives rather than an activity-oriented one.

  2. Language/Culture Modulates Brain and Gaze Processes in Audiovisual Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisanaga, Satoko; Sekiyama, Kaoru; Igasaki, Tomohiko; Murayama, Nobuki

    2016-01-01

    Several behavioural studies have shown that the interplay between voice and face information in audiovisual speech perception is not universal. Native English speakers (ESs) are influenced by visual mouth movement to a greater degree than native Japanese speakers (JSs) when listening to speech. However, the biological basis of these group differences is unknown. Here, we demonstrate the time-varying processes of group differences in terms of event-related brain potentials (ERP) and eye gaze for audiovisual and audio-only speech perception. On a behavioural level, while congruent mouth movement shortened the ESs’ response time for speech perception, the opposite effect was observed in JSs. Eye-tracking data revealed a gaze bias to the mouth for the ESs but not the JSs, especially before the audio onset. Additionally, the ERP P2 amplitude indicated that ESs processed multisensory speech more efficiently than auditory-only speech; however, the JSs exhibited the opposite pattern. Taken together, the ESs’ early visual attention to the mouth was likely to promote phonetic anticipation, which was not the case for the JSs. These results clearly indicate the impact of language and/or culture on multisensory speech processing, suggesting that linguistic/cultural experiences lead to the development of unique neural systems for audiovisual speech perception. PMID:27734953

  3. Fluidized-bed combustion process evaluation and program support. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, I.; Podolski, W.F.; Swift, W.M.; Henry, R.F.; Hanway, J.E.; Griggs, K.E.; Herzenberg, C.; Helt, J.E.; Carls, E.L.

    1980-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is undertaking several tasks primarily in support of the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion project management team at Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Work is under way to provide fluidized-bed combustion process evaluation and program support to METC, determination of the state of the art of instrumentation for FBC applications, evaluation of the performance capability of cyclones for hot-gas cleaning in PFBC systems, and an initial assessment of methods for the measurement of sodium sulfate dew point.

  4. Analysis of the contingency contracting support plan within the joint planning process framework

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Michael S.; Flaherty, Gregory P.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Joint Planning Process (JPP) - by doctrine - does not include Contingency Contracting Support Plans (CCSPs) as an annex within Joint Operation Plans (OPLANs) or Joint Logistics Plans (LOGPLANs), thereby limiting Combatant Commander (COCOM) flexibility and responsiveness. Current OPLANS at the Joint-level generally discuss how forces will be contractually supported in-theater, but are not specific enough within the framework of the ...

  5. Role of hormonal factor in development of primary and secondary tumorous process in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kit

    2016-01-01

    .The present study was aimed at comparing the level of certain some hormones in tissue of glioblastomes, metastases of breast cancer into the brain and meningiomas, as well as the respective peritumoral zones.Materials and methods. Examined were samples of tissue obtained from a total of 56 patients admitted for operative treatment to our Department. Of these, 24 glioblastomas, 19 breast cancer metastases to the brain, 13 meningiomes without peritumoral edema. The histological control was carried out in all cases. The patients’ age varied form 35 to 72 years. During operative interventions we carried out removed neoplasms of the brain followed by biochemical study of the samples of tumor tissue and immediately adjoining to the tumorous foci tissue (perifocal zone. In 10 % of cytozolic fractions of tissue prepared on the potassium-phosphate buffer of pH 7.4 containing 0.15 of Tween-20 and 1 % of bovine serum albumin by means of immunoenzymatic assay (IEA using standard test systems we determined the level of steroid hormones – cortisole, testosterone, progesterone, estradiole, estriole, prolactine (IEA, HEMA, Russia estrone (IEA, DBC, Canada as well as sex-steroid-binding globulin (IEA, Alcor-Bio, Russia and hormones of adrenohypophysis – adrenocorticotropine (ACTH and somatotropic hormone (STH.Results. The obtained findings showed that the most hormonally saturated were metastases of breast cancer. In them along with elevated levels of cortisole, prolactine ACTH and STH concentrations whose concentrations increased virtually in any proliferative process we determined growth of saturation of tissues with estrone and free testosterone on the background of decrease level of active metabolite of estrogens – estriole. Besides, disorders of the steroid metabolism also touched the perifocal zone. Presence of glioblastoma turned out characteristic of identity of tumorous tissue and the perifocal zone by the level of cortizole, which is not found observed if tumors of other

  6. Integration of knowledge management in plant support engineering processes at TEPCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge management has not always been successful at TEPCO. There were many attempts to collect knowledge. But most of them did not keep initial momentum and eventually faded away. We realized that just collecting knowledge and placing it in shared media was not enough. Rather than collecting knowledge we should recognize the knowledge management as a process of knowledge expansion through the good use of it in business processes. Share and good use of information, especially non-conformance and operating experience is one of the key success factors of plant support engineering. At the same time, kew knowledge is created and retained, and engineers are trained through the use of information. Fig.1 shows how TEPCO integrates knowledge management in plant support engineering processes. Accumulated knowledge of non-conformance management experience and operating experience is analyzed to identify operation risks, review preventive maintenance effectiveness, analyse human performance strength and weakness, supply just-in-time caution report to operators, and store key issued in engineering notebooks to support safe operation of nuclear power plants. New knowledge is continuously created in the processes and retained in the support engineering organizations. Just-in-time caution report system was designed to supply operators with concise summaries of past experience at a right timing in procedure reviews and pre-job briefings. Plant technical support team has been creating engineering notebooks through its activities to support operation support organizations and maintenance organizations. The notebooks contain such information as important past experience, engineering bases, and tips for better works. There are some key success factors we have learned. Organization: Knowledge management should be aligned with important operation management strategy. Work process: Use of knowledge should be integrated into daily work and its effectiveness should be measured using

  7. Do words hurt? Brain activation during the processing of pain-related words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Maria; Eck, Judith; Straube, Thomas; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies suggested that areas of the pain matrix of the human brain are recruited by the processing of pain-related environmental cues such as pain-related pictures or descriptors of pain. However, it is still sketchy whether those activations are specific to the pain-relevance of the stimuli or simply reflect a general effect of negative valence or increased arousal. The present study investigates the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of pain-related, negative, positive, and neutral words. Pain-related words were matched to negative words regarding valence and arousal, and to positive words regarding arousal. Sixteen healthy subjects were scanned during two tasks, imagination and distraction, using functional MRI. When subjects were instructed to image a situation associated with the word presented (imagination task), we found increased activation within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), inferior patietal gyri (IPG), and precuneus when processing pain-related words compared to other words. However, when attention was focused on a foreground task and words were presented in the background (distraction task), we found a decrease in activation within dorsal anterior cingulum (dACC) and a relative increase in activation within the subgenual ventral anterior cingulum (sACC) when processing pain related words compared to other words. Thus, activations to pain-related words are strongly modulated by the attention demands of the task. Most remarkably, the differences in processing pain-related words compared to non-pain-related words are specific to the pain-relevance of the words and cannot simply be explained by their valence or arousal.

  8. Medical Image Processing for Fully Integrated Subject Specific Whole Brain Mesh Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yang Hsu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, anatomically consistent segmentation of vascular trees acquired with magnetic resonance imaging requires the use of multiple image processing steps, which, in turn, depend on manual intervention. In effect, segmentation of vascular trees from medical images is time consuming and error prone due to the tortuous geometry and weak signal in small blood vessels. To overcome errors and accelerate the image processing time, we introduce an automatic image processing pipeline for constructing subject specific computational meshes for entire cerebral vasculature, including segmentation of ancillary structures; the grey and white matter, cerebrospinal fluid space, skull, and scalp. To demonstrate the validity of the new pipeline, we segmented the entire intracranial compartment with special attention of the angioarchitecture from magnetic resonance imaging acquired for two healthy volunteers. The raw images were processed through our pipeline for automatic segmentation and mesh generation. Due to partial volume effect and finite resolution, the computational meshes intersect with each other at respective interfaces. To eliminate anatomically inconsistent overlap, we utilized morphological operations to separate the structures with a physiologically sound gap spaces. The resulting meshes exhibit anatomically correct spatial extent and relative positions without intersections. For validation, we computed critical biometrics of the angioarchitecture, the cortical surfaces, ventricular system, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF spaces and compared against literature values. Volumina and surface areas of the computational mesh were found to be in physiological ranges. In conclusion, we present an automatic image processing pipeline to automate the segmentation of the main intracranial compartments including a subject-specific vascular trees. These computational meshes can be used in 3D immersive visualization for diagnosis, surgery planning with haptics

  9. A Knowledge Management Approach to Support Software Process Improvement Implementation Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoni, Mariano Angel; Cerdeiral, Cristina; Zanetti, David; Cavalcanti da Rocha, Ana Regina

    The success of software process improvement (SPI) implementation initiatives depends fundamentally of the strategies adopted to support the execution of such initiatives. Therefore, it is essential to define adequate SPI implementation strategies aiming to facilitate the achievement of organizational business goals and to increase the benefits of process improvements. The objective of this work is to present an approach to support the execution of SPI implementation initiatives. We also describe a methodology applied to capture knowledge related to critical success factors that influence SPI initiatives. This knowledge was used to define effective SPI strategies aiming to increase the success of SPI initiatives coordinated by a specific SPI consultancy organization. This work also presents the functionalities of a set of tools integrated in a process-centered knowledge management environment, named CORE-KM, customized to support the presented approach.

  10. Perception and Processing of Faces in the Human Brain Is Tuned to Typical Feature Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, D. Samuel; Alvarez, Ivan; Lawson, Rebecca P.; Henriksson, Linda; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Faces are salient social stimuli whose features attract a stereotypical pattern of fixations. The implications of this gaze behavior for perception and brain activity are largely unknown. Here, we characterize and quantify a retinotopic bias implied by typical gaze behavior toward faces, which leads to eyes and mouth appearing most often in the upper and lower visual field, respectively. We found that the adult human visual system is tuned to these contingencies. In two recognition experiments, recognition performance for isolated face parts was better when they were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations. The recognition cost of reversed locations was equal to ∼60% of that for whole face inversion in the same sample. Similarly, an fMRI experiment showed that patterns of activity evoked by eye and mouth stimuli in the right inferior occipital gyrus could be separated with significantly higher accuracy when these features were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations. Our findings demonstrate that human face perception is determined not only by the local position of features within a face context, but by whether features appear at the typical retinotopic location given normal gaze behavior. Such location sensitivity may reflect fine-tuning of category-specific visual processing to retinal input statistics. Our findings further suggest that retinotopic heterogeneity might play a role for face inversion effects and for the understanding of conditions affecting gaze behavior toward faces, such as autism spectrum disorders and congenital prosopagnosia. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Faces attract our attention and trigger stereotypical patterns of visual fixations, concentrating on inner features, like eyes and mouth. Here we show that the visual system represents face features better when they are shown at retinal positions where they typically fall during natural vision. When facial features were shown at typical (rather

  11. Processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain: Insights from simultaneous interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Until now, considerable effort has been made to determine structural brain characteristics related to exceptional multilingual skills. However, at least one important question has not yet been satisfactorily addressed in the previous literature, namely whether and to which extent the processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions may promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain. Based on the premise that simultaneous interpretation is a highly demanding linguistic task that places strong demands on executive and articulatory functions, here we compared grey matter volumes between professional simultaneous interpreters (SI) and multilingual control subjects. Thereby, we focused on a specific set of a-priori defined bilateral brain regions that have previously been shown to support neurocognitional aspects of language control and linguistic functions in the multilingual brain. These regions are the cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, frontal operculum (pars triangularis and opercularis), inferior parietal lobe (IPL) (supramarginal and angular gyrus), and the insula. As a main result, we found reduced grey matter volumes in professional SI, compared to multilingual controls, in the left middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, bilateral middle part of the insula, and in the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Interestingly, grey matter volume in left pars triangularis, right pars opercularis, middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, and in the bilateral caudate nucleus was negatively correlated with the cumulative number of interpreting hours. Hence, we provide first evidence for an expertise-related grey matter architecture that may reflect a composite of brain characteristics that were still present before interpreting training and training-related changes.

  12. Spontaneous brain processing of the mammary pheromone in rabbit neonates prior to milk intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nanette Y; Piccin, Coralie; Datiche, Frédérique; Coureaud, Gérard

    2016-10-15

    Chemical signals play a critical role in interindividual communication, including mother-young relationships. Detecting odor cues released by the mammary area is vital to the newborn's survival. European rabbit females secret a mammary pheromone (MP) in their milk, which releases sucking-related orocephalic movements in newborns. Pups spontaneously display these typical movements at birth, independently of any perinatal learning. Our previous Fos mapping study (Charra et al., 2012) performed in 4-day-old rabbits showed that the MP activated a network of brain regions involved in osmoregulation, odor processing and arousal in comparison with a control odor. However, at this age, the predisposed appetitive value of the MP might be reinforced by previous milk intake. Here, the brain activation induced by the MP was examined by using Fos immunocytochemistry and compared to a neutral control odor in just born pups (day 0) that did not experienced milk intake. Compared to the control odor, the MP induced an increased Fos expression in the posterior piriform cortex. In the lateral hypothalamus, Fos immunostaining was combined with orexin detection since this peptide is involved in arousal/food-seeking behavior. The number of double-labeled cells was not different between MP and control odor stimulations but the total number of Fos stained cells was increased after MP exposure. Our results indicate that the MP does not activate the same regions in 0- vs. 4-day-old pups. This difference between the two ages may reflect a changing biological value of the MP in addition to its constant predisposed releasing value. PMID:27418440

  13. The nature of the destructive, compensatory and regenerative processes in the brain of rats after experimental moderate traumatic brain injury and the possibility of their pharmacological correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamytova E.M.

    2016-06-01

    analysis showed a reduction in the bulk density of the nucleus is 7, and 21 days of experimental traumatic brain injury in the group without treatment. In Cerebrolysin group on day 14 and 21, the bulk density of the nucleus closer to the control parameters. The same trend was observed in relation to the bulk density of ribosomes and neurofibrillary. In case of injury of moderate severity in the group without a neuroprotectant during the entire study period there is a diffuse lesion of the brain studied departments mostly damaged hemisphere, which appeared resistant dystrophic and destructive changes of the neurons without significant signs of pronounced reparative regeneration in the regenerative posttraumatic period. Conclusion. When using a neuroprotectant cerebrolysin marked increase in intact neurons, which was celebrated not only in the injured, but also in the contralateral hemisphere on the day 21st of the experiment. In this case an increase amount of glial cells was also seen. Citation: Mamytova EM. [The nature of the destructive, compensatory and regenerative processes in the brain of rats after experimental moderate traumatic brain injury and the possibility of their pharmacological correction]. Morphologia. 2016;10(2:18-22. Russian.

  14. Impact of Self-Explanation and Analogical Comparison Support on Learning Processes, Motivation, Metacognition, and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, J. Elizabeth

    Research examining analogical comparison and self-explanation has produced a robust set of findings about learning and transfer supported by each instructional technique. However, it is unclear how the types of knowledge generated through each technique differ, which has important implications for cognitive theory as well as instructional practice. I conducted a pair of experiments to directly compare the effects of instructional prompts supporting self-explanation, analogical comparison, and the study of instructional explanations across a number of fine-grained learning process, motivation, metacognition, and transfer measures. Experiment 1 explored these questions using sequence extrapolation problems, and results showed no differences between self-explanation and analogical comparison support conditions on any measure. Experiment 2 explored the same questions in a science domain. I evaluated condition effects on transfer outcomes; self-reported self-explanation, analogical comparison, and metacognitive processes; and achievement goals. I also examined relations between transfer and self-reported processes and goals. Receiving materials with analogical comparison support and reporting greater levels of analogical comparison were both associated with worse transfer performance, while reporting greater levels of self-explanation was associated with better performance. Learners' self-reports of self-explanation and analogical comparison were not related to condition assignment, suggesting that the questionnaires did not measure the same processes promoted by the intervention, or that individual differences in processing are robust even when learners are instructed to engage in self-explanation or analogical comparison.

  15. Improved signal processing approaches in an offline simulation of a hybrid brain-computer interface

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner & C.; Allison B.Z.; Krusienski D.J.; Kaiser V.; Muller-Putz G.R.; Pfurtscheller G.; Neuper C.

    2010-01-01

    In a conventional brain–computer interface (BCI) system, users perform mental tasks that yield specific patterns of brain activity. A pattern recognition system determines which brain activity pattern a user is producing and thereby infers the user’s mental task, allowing users to send messages or commands through brain activity alone. Unfortunately, despite extensive research to improve classification accuracy, BCIs almost always exhibit errors, which are sometimes so severe that effective c...

  16. Are left fronto-temporal brain areas a prerequisite for normal music-syntactic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammler, Daniela; Koelsch, Stefan; Friederici, Angela D

    2011-06-01

    An increasing number of neuroimaging studies in music cognition research suggest that "language areas" are involved in the processing of musical syntax, but none of these studies clarified whether these areas are a prerequisite for normal syntax processing in music. The present electrophysiological experiment tested whether patients with lesions in Broca's area (N=6) or in the left anterior temporal lobe (N=7) exhibit deficits in the processing of structure in music compared to matched healthy controls (N=13). A chord sequence paradigm was applied, and the amplitude and scalp topography of the Early Right Anterior Negativity (ERAN) was examined, an electrophysiological marker of musical syntax processing that correlates with activity in Broca's area and its right hemisphere homotope. Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) (but not anterior superior temporal gyrus - aSTG) patients with lesions older than 4 years showed an ERAN with abnormal scalp distribution, and subtle behavioural deficits in detecting music-syntactic irregularities. In one IFG patient tested 7 months post-stroke, the ERAN was extinguished and the behavioural performance remained at chance level. These combined results suggest that the left IFG, known to be crucial for syntax processing in language, plays also a functional role in the processing of musical syntax. Hence, the present findings are consistent with the notion that Broca's area supports the processing of syntax in a rather domain-general way.

  17. Software Process Improvement: Supporting the Linking of the Software and the Business Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Adriano Bessa; Rocha, Ana Regina; Lima, Andreia Cavalcanti

    The market is becoming more and more competitive, a lot of products and services depend of the software product and the software is one of the most important assets, which influence the organizations’ businesses. Considering this context, we can observe that the companies must to deal with the software, developing or acquiring, carefully. One of the perspectives that can help to take advantage of the software, supporting effectively the business, is to invest on the organization’s software processes. This paper presents an approach to evaluate and improve the processes assets of the software organizations, based on internationally well-known standards and process models. This approach is supported by automated tools from the TABA Workstation and is part of a wider improvement strategy constituted of three layers (organizational layer, process execution layer and external entity layer). Moreover, this paper presents the experience of use and their results.

  18. Neonatal brain injury and neuroanatomy of memory processing following very preterm birth in adulthood: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia K Kalpakidou

    Full Text Available Altered functional neuroanatomy of high-order cognitive processing has been described in very preterm individuals (born before 33 weeks of gestation; VPT compared to controls in childhood and adolescence. However, VPT birth may be accompanied by different types of adverse neonatal events and associated brain injury, the severity of which may have differential effects on brain development and subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study to investigate how differing degrees of neonatal brain injury, detected by neonatal ultrasounds, affect the functional neuroanatomy of memory processing in VPT young adults. We used a verbal paired associates learning task, consisting of four encoding, four cued-recall and four baseline condition blocks. To further investigate whether differences in neural activation between the groups were modulated by structural brain changes, structural MRI data were also collected. We studied 12 VPT young adults with a history of periventricular haemorrhage with associated ventricular dilatation, 17 VPT individuals with a history of uncomplicated periventricular haemorrhage, 12 individuals with normal ultrasonographic findings, and 17 controls. Results of a linear trend analysis demonstrated that during completion of the paired associates learning task right frontal and right parietal brain activation decreased as the severity of neonatal brain injury increased. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in on-line task performance and participants' intelligence quotient (IQ at assessment. This pattern of differential activation across the groups was observed particularly in the right middle frontal gyrus during encoding and in the right posterior cingulate gyrus during recall. Structural MRI data analysis revealed that grey matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, left middle temporal gyrus, right globus pallidus and

  19. Does social support really help to eat a low-fat diet? : Main effects and gender differences of received social support within the Health Action Process Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Urte; Ochsner, Sibylle; Hornung, Rainer; Knoll, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Most theories of health-behavior change focus exclusively on individual self-regulation without taking social factors, such as social support, into account. This study's first aim was to systematically test the added value of received instrumental and emotional social support within the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) in the context of dietary change. In the social support literature, gender effects emerge with regard to the effectiveness of social support. Thus, a second ai...

  20. Graphic Representation and Visualisation as Modelling Support for the Knowledge Acquisition Process

    OpenAIRE

    Håkansson, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The thesis describes steps taken towards using graphic representation and visual modelling support for the knowledge acquisition process in knowledge-based systems – a process commonly regarded as difficult. The performance of the systems depends on the quality of the embedded knowledge, which makes the knowledge acquisition phase particularly significant. During the acquisition phase, a main obstacle to proper extraction of information is the absence of effective modelling techniques. The co...

  1. MEASUREMENT PROCESS OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS FOR SUPPORTING STRATEGIC BUSINESS OBJECTIVES IN SOFTWARE DEVELOPING COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Lais Pedroso; Leonardo Rocha de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Software developing companies work in a competitive market and are often challenged to make business decisions with impact on competitiveness. Models accessing maturity for software development processes quality, such as CMMI and MPS-BR, comprise process measurements systems (PMS). However, these models are not necessarily suitable to support business decisions, neither to achieve strategic goals. The objective of this work is to analyze how the PMS of software development projects could supp...

  2. A Decision Support Tool for Assessing the Maturity of Software Product Line Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Faheem; Capretz, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The software product line aims at the effective utilization of software assets, reducing the time required to deliver a product, improving the quality, and decreasing the cost of software products. Organizations trying to incorporate this concept require an approach to assess the current maturity level of the software product line process in order to make management decisions. A decision support tool for assessing the maturity of the software product line process is developed to implement the...

  3. Improving IT Service Management Processes: A Case Study on IT Service Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtela, Antti; Jäntti, Marko

    IT services and IT service management play a very important role in the today's IT industry. Software as service approach enables IT customers to focus on using the software while IT service providers take care of the installation, configuration, support and maintenance activities. Various process frameworks can be used to improve IT service management processes. The most widely used IT service management framework is the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) that provides best practices for IT service providers on how to design, manage and support IT services. Despite the IT service management process frameworks, implementing an effective service support interface between an IT service provider and an IT customer is a big challenge. The research problem in this study is: what types of challenges are related to the service support interface between an IT service provider and IT customers. The main contribution of this paper is present challenges in a service support interface identified during a case study with a large IT service provider company in Finland.

  4. Simulation and Prediction of Alkalinity in Sintering Process Based on Grey Least Squares Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Qiang; WANG Ai-min

    2009-01-01

    The prediction of the alkalinity is difficult during the sintering process. Whether or not the level of the alkalinity of sintering process is successful is directly related to the quality of sinter. There is no very good method for predicting the alkalinity by now owing to the high complexity, high nonlinearity, strong coupling, high time delay, and etc. Therefore, a new technique, the grey squares support machine, was introduced. The grey support vector machine model of the alkalinity enabled the development of new equation and algorithm to predict the alkalinity. During modelling, the fluctuation of data sequence was weakened by the grey theory and the support vector machine was capable of processing nonlinear adaptable information, and the grey support vector machine has a combination of those advantages. The results revealed that the alkalinity of sinter could be accurately predicted using this model by reference to small sample and information. The experimental results showed that the grey support vector machine model was effective and practical owing to the advantages of high precision, less samples required, and simple calculation.

  5. Validation of new 3D post processing algorithm for improved maximum intensity projections of MR angiography acquisitions in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosmans, H.; Verbeeck, R.; Vandermeulen, D.; Suetens, P.; Wilms, G.; Maaly, M.; Marchal, G.; Baert, A.L. [Louvain Univ. (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study was to validate a new post processing algorithm for improved maximum intensity projections (mip) of intracranial MR angiography acquisitions. The core of the post processing procedure is a new brain segmentation algorithm. Two seed areas, background and brain, are automatically detected. A 3D region grower then grows both regions towards each other and this preferentially towards white regions. In this way, the skin gets included into the final `background region` whereas cortical blood vessels and all brain tissues are included in the `brain region`. The latter region is then used for mip. The algorithm runs less than 30 minutes on a full dataset on a Unix workstation. Images from different acquisition strategies including multiple overlapping thin slab acquisition, magnetization transfer (MT) MRA, Gd-DTPA enhanced MRA, normal and high resolution acquisitions and acquisitions from mid field and high field systems were filtered. A series of contrast enhanced MRA acquisitions obtained with identical parameters was filtered to study the robustness of the filter parameters. In all cases, only a minimal manual interaction was necessary to segment the brain. The quality of the mip was significantly improved, especially in post Gd-DTPA acquisitions or using MT, due to the absence of high intensity signals of skin, sinuses and eyes that otherwise superimpose on the angiograms. It is concluded that the filter is a robust technique to improve the quality of MR angiograms.

  6. Nutritional support for patients sustaining traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In traumatic brain injury (TBI, the appropriate timing and route of feeding, and the efficacy of immune-enhancing formulae have not been well established. We performed this meta-analysis aiming to compare the effects of different nutritional support modalities on clinical outcomes of TBI patients. METHODS: We systematically searched Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library until October, 2012. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs and non-randomized prospective studies (NPSs that compared the effects of different routes, timings, or formulae of feeding on outcomes in TBI patients were selected. The primary outcomes included mortality and poor outcome. The secondary outcomes included the length of hospital stay, the length of ventilation days, and the rate of infectious or feeding-related complications. FINDINGS: 13 RCTs and 3 NPSs were included. The pooled data demonstrated that, compared with delayed feeding, early feeding was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of mortality (relative risk [RR] = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.24-0.50, poor outcome (RR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54-0.91, and infectious complications (RR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-0.99. Compared with enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition showed a slight trend of reduction in the rate of mortality (RR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.34-1.09, poor outcome (RR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.51-1.04, and infectious complications (RR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.66-1.22, whereas without statistical significances. The immune-enhancing formula was associated with a significant reduction in infection rate compared with the standard formula (RR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.35-0.82. Small-bowel feeding was found to be with a decreasing rate of pneumonia compared with nasogastric feeding (RR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.22-0.76. CONCLUSION: After TBI, early initiation of nutrition is recommended. It appears that parenteral nutrition is superior to enteral nutrition in improving outcomes. Our results lend support to

  7. Processing of sub- and supra-second intervals in the primate brain results from the calibration of neuronal oscillators via sensory, motor and feedback processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daya Shankar Gupta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The processing of time intervals in the sub- to supra-second range by the brain is critical for the interaction of primates with their surroundings in activities, such as foraging and hunting. For an accurate processing of time intervals by the brain, representation of the physical time within neuronal circuits is necessary. I propose that time-dimension of the physical surrounding is represented in the brain by different types of neuronal oscillators, generating spikes or spike bursts at regular intervals. The proposed oscillators include the pacemaker neurons, tonic inputs and synchronized excitation and inhibition of inter-connected neurons. Oscillators, which are built inside various circuits of brain, help to form modular clocks, processing time intervals or other temporal characteristics specific to functions of a circuit. Relative or absolute duration is represented within neuronal oscillators by ‘neural temporal unit’, defined as the interval between regularly occurring spikes or spike bursts. Oscillator output is processed to produce changes in activities of neurons, named frequency modulator neuron, wired within a separate module, represented by the rate of change in frequency, and frequency of activities, proposed to encode time intervals. Inbuilt oscillators are calibrated by (a feedback processes (b input of time intervals resulting from rhythmic external sensory stimulation and (c synchronous effects of feedback processes and evoked sensory activity. A single active clock is proposed per circuit, which is calibrated by one or more mechanisms. Multiple calibration mechanisms, inbuilt oscillators and the presence of modular connections prevent a complete loss of interval timing functions of the brain.

  8. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words : temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, HT; Wijers, AA; Mars, RB; Benjamins, JS; Stowe, LA; Mars, Ruben

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that inv

  9. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words: temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schie, H.T. van; Wijers, A.A.; Mars, R.B.; Benjamins, J.S.; Stowe, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that inv

  10. Adaptive optics microscopy enhances image quality in deep layers of CLARITY processed brains of YFP-H mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinig, Marc R.; Novack, Samuel W.; Tao, Xiaodong; Ermini, Florian; Bentolila, Laurent A.; Roberts, Dustin G.; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan; Godshalk, S. E.; Raven, M. A.; Kubby, Joel

    2016-03-01

    Optical sectioning of biological tissues has become the method of choice for three-dimensional histological analyses. This is particularly important in the brain were neurons can extend processes over large distances and often whole brain tracing of neuronal processes is desirable. To allow deeper optical penetration, which in fixed tissue is limited by scattering and refractive index mismatching, tissue-clearing procedures such as CLARITY have been developed. CLARITY processed brains have a nearly uniform refractive index and three-dimensional reconstructions at cellular resolution have been published. However, when imaging in deep layers at submicron resolution some limitations caused by residual refractive index mismatching become apparent, as the resulting wavefront aberrations distort the microscopic image. The wavefront can be corrected with adaptive optics. Here, we investigate the wavefront aberrations at different depths in CLARITY processed mouse brains and demonstrate the potential of adaptive optics to enable higher resolution and a better signal-to-noise ratio. Our adaptive optics system achieves high-speed measurement and correction of the wavefront with an open-loop control using a wave front sensor and a deformable mirror. Using adaptive optics enhanced microscopy, we demonstrate improved image quality wavefront, point spread function, and signal to noise in the cortex of YFP-H mice.

  11. LANL Institutional Decision Support By Process Modeling and Analysis Group (AET-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Steven Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-04-04

    AET-2 has expertise in process modeling, economics, business case analysis, risk assessment, Lean/Six Sigma tools, and decision analysis to provide timely decision support to LANS leading to continuous improvement. This capability is critical during the current tight budgetary environment as LANS pushes to identify potential areas of cost savings and efficiencies. An important arena is business systems and operations, where processes can impact most or all laboratory employees. Lab-wide efforts are needed to identify and eliminate inefficiencies to accomplish Director McMillan’s charge of “doing more with less.” LANS faces many critical and potentially expensive choices that require sound decision support to ensure success. AET-2 is available to provide this analysis support to expedite the decisions at hand.

  12. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-02

    This report consists of Detailed Data Acquisition Sheets for Runs E-6 and E-7 for Task 2.2 of the Modification, Operation, and Support Studies of the Liquid Phase Methanol Laporte Process Development Unit. (Task 2.2: Alternate Catalyst Run E-6 and Catalyst Activity Maintenance Run E-7).

  13. Design concepts for an analytical chemistry laboratory to support plutonium processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.A.; Treibs, H.A.; Hartenstein, S.D.

    1990-08-31

    Design concepts were developed for an analytical chemistry laboratory to support the plutonium processing functions of the Special Isotope Separation (SIS) Production Plant. These concepts include pneumatic sample delivery, total containment of samples during analyses, robotic-based dry sample storage, continuous flow air locks for introducing supplies into the gloveboxes, and a within-laboratory sample transport system capable of multiple, simultaneous transfers.

  14. Design concepts for an analytical chemistry laboratory to support plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design concepts were developed for an analytical chemistry laboratory to support the plutonium processing functions of the Special Isotope Separation (SIS) Production Plant. These concepts include pneumatic sample delivery, total containment of samples during analyses, robotic-based dry sample storage, continuous flow air locks for introducing supplies into the gloveboxes, and a within-laboratory sample transport system capable of multiple, simultaneous transfers

  15. Representative Model of the Learning Process in Virtual Spaces Supported by ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacho, José

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the results of research activities for building the representative model of the learning process in virtual spaces (e-Learning). The formal basis of the model are supported in the analysis of models of learning assessment in virtual spaces and specifically in Dembo´s teaching learning model, the systemic approach to evaluating…

  16. A Grid Middleware for Distributed Java Computing with MPI Binding and Process Migration Supports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin(陈琳); WANG ChoLi(王卓立); Francis C.M.Lau

    2003-01-01

    "Grid" computing has emerged as an important new research field. With years of efforts, grid researchers have successfully developed grid technologies including security solutions,resource management protocols, information query protocols, and data management services. However, as the ultimate goal of grid computing is to design an infrastructure which supports dynamic,cross-organizational resource sharing, there is a need of solutions for efficient and transparent task re-scheduling in the grid.In this research, a new grid middleware is proposed, called G-JavaMPI. This middleware adds the parallel computing capability of Java to the grid with the support of a Grid-enabled message passing interface (MPI) for inter-process communication between Java processes executed at different grid points. A special feature of the proposed G-JavaMPI is the support of Java process migration with post-migration message redirection. With these supports, it is possible to migrate executing Java process from site to site for continuous computation, if some site is scheduled to be turned down for system reconfiguration. Moreover, the proposed G-JavaMPI middleware is very portable since it requires no modification of underlying OS, Java virtual machine, and MPI package. Preliminary performance tests have been conducted. The proposed mechanisms have shown good migration efficiency in a simulated grid environment.

  17. Words in the Bilingual Brain: An fNIRS Brain Imaging Investigation of Lexical Processing in Sign-Speech Bimodal Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioulia eKovelman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Early bilingual exposure, especially exposure to two languages in different modalities such as speech and sign, can profoundly affect an individual’s language, culture and cognition. Here we explore the hypothesis that bimodal dual language exposure can also affect the brain’s organization for language. These changes occur across brain regions universally important for language and parietal regions especially critical for sign language (Newman et al., Nature Neuroscience, 2002. We investigated three groups of participants (N=29 that completed a word repetition task in American Sign Language (ASL during fNIRS brain imaging. Those groups were (i hearing ASL-English bimodal bilinguals (n=5, (ii deaf American Sign Language (ASL signers (n=7, and (iii English monolinguals naïve to sign language (n=17. The key finding of the present study is that bimodal bilinguals showed reduced activation in left parietal regions relative to deaf ASL signers when asked to use only ASL. In contrast, this group of bimodal signers showed greater activation in left temporo-parietal regions relative to English monolinguals when asked to switch between their two languages (Kovelman, Petitto et al., 2009. Converging evidence now suggest that bimodal bilingual experience changes the brain bases of language, including the left temporo-parietal regions known to be critical for sign language processing (Emmorey et al., 2007. The results provide insight into the resilience and constraints of neural plasticity for language and bilingualism.

  18. Brain activity and connectivity during poetry composition: Toward a multidimensional model of the creative process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyuan; Erkkinen, Michael G; Healey, Meghan L; Xu, Yisheng; Swett, Katherine E; Chow, Ho Ming; Braun, Allen R

    2015-09-01

    Creativity, a multifaceted construct, can be studied in various ways, for example, investigating phases of the creative process, quality of the creative product, or the impact of expertise. Previous neuroimaging studies have assessed these individually. Believing that each of these interacting features must be examined simultaneously to develop a comprehensive understanding of creative behavior, we examined poetry composition, assessing process, product, and expertise in a single experiment. Distinct activation patterns were associated with generation and revision, two major phases of the creative process. Medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) was active during both phases, yet responses in dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal executive systems (DLPFC/IPS) were phase-dependent, indicating that while motivation remains unchanged, cognitive control is attenuated during generation and re-engaged during revision. Experts showed significantly stronger deactivation of DLPFC/IPS during generation, suggesting that they may more effectively suspend cognitive control. Importantly however, similar overall patterns were observed in both groups, indicating the same cognitive resources are available to experts and novices alike. Quality of poetry, assessed by an independent panel, was associated with divergent connectivity patterns in experts and novices, centered upon MPFC (for technical facility) and DLPFC/IPS (for innovation), suggesting a mechanism by which experts produce higher quality poetry. Crucially, each of these three key features can be understood in the context of a single neurocognitive model characterized by dynamic interactions between medial prefrontal areas regulating motivation, dorsolateral prefrontal, and parietal areas regulating cognitive control and the association of these regions with language, sensorimotor, limbic, and subcortical areas distributed throughout the brain. PMID:26015271

  19. Clinical significance of determination of changes of immuno-function parameters in patients with acute severe brain lnjury on different froms of nutritional support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the relationship between different forms of nutritional support and changes of serum nutritional as well as immuno-function parameters in patients with acute severe brain injury. Methods: Serum levels of total protein, albumin, hemoglobin, transferrin (with biochemistry), immunoglobulins IgA, IgG, IgM (with immuno-turbidimetry) and cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 (with RIA) were determined in 64 patients with acute severe brain injury both before and after 7 ∼ 10ds' nutritional support. The 64 patients were divided into two groups:1) experimental group, n=30, receiving parentral (70%) plus partial enteral (30%) feedings 2) control group, n=34, receiving total parenteral untritional support exclusively with equal mitrogen and calorie intake in all the 64 patients. Results: The serum levels of total protein, albumin, Hb and transferrin as well as other parameter in both groups before nutritional support were about the same. After the course of nutritional support, the serum levels of total protein and albumin changed little in both groups, but the Hb and transferritin levels in both groups increased significantly (P<0.05) with the levels significantly higher in the experimental group than those in the control group (P also <0.05). The serum immunoglobulins IgA, IgM levels changed verd littel, except that the IgG levels increased significantly in the experimental group after treatment (P<0.05) and were significantly higher than those in control group (P also <0.05). The serum cytokins levels in the control group changed little after the course of nutritional support, but the levels in the experimental group were greatly normalized and decreased significantly after treatment (P also <0.05). Conclusion: Parenteral combined with partial enteral nutritional support could improve the nutritional as well as immuno-function status better than exclusive TPN did in patients with acute severe brain injury. (authors)

  20. D3.1 BRAIN - Initial prototype of advanced SSVEP signal processing tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, V.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the High Frequency (HF) Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) based Brain Computer Interface (BCI) developed at Philips Research Europe (PRE). The interface is based on the fact that the oscillatory visual stimuli can elicit oscillatory brain activity at the same frequ

  1. Age-related vulnerability in the neural systems supporting semantic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Peelle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to form abstract representations of objects in semantic memory is crucial to language and thought. The utility of this information relies both on the representations of sensory-motor feature knowledge stored in long-term memory and the executive processes required to retrieve, manipulate, and evaluate this semantic knowledge in a task-relevant manner. These complementary components of semantic memory can be differentially impacted by aging. We investigated semantic processing in normal aging using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Young and older adults were asked to judge whether two printed object names match on a particular feature (for example, whether a tomato and strawberry have the same color. The task thus required both retrieval of relevant visual feature knowledge of object concepts and evaluating this information. Objects were drawn from either natural kinds or manufactured objects, and were queried on either color or shape in a factorial design. Behaviorally, all subjects performed well, but older adults could be divided into those whose performance matched that of young adults (better performers and those whose performance was worse (poorer performers. All subjects activated several cortical regions while performing this task, including bilateral inferior and lateral temporal cortex and left frontal and prefrontal cortex. Better performing older adults showed increased overall activity in bilateral premotor cortex and left lateral occipital cortex compared to young adults, and increased activity in these brain regions relative to poorer performing older adults who also showed gray matter atrophy in premotor cortex. These findings highlight the contribution of domain-general executive processing brain regions to semantic memory, and illustrate differences in how these regions are recruited in healthy older adults.

  2. Modes of Large-Scale Brain Network Organization during Threat Processing and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Reduction during TF-CBT among Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisler, Josh M.; Sigel, Benjamin A.; Kramer, Teresa L.; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D.

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often chronic and disabling across the lifespan. The gold standard treatment for adolescent PTSD is Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), though treatment response is variable and mediating neural mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we test whether PTSD symptom reduction during TF-CBT is associated with individual differences in large-scale brain network organization during emotion processing. Twenty adolescent girls, aged 11–16, with PTSD related to assaultive violence completed a 12-session protocol of TF-CBT. Participants completed an emotion processing task, in which neutral and fearful facial expressions were presented either overtly or covertly during 3T fMRI, before and after treatment. Analyses focused on characterizing network properties of modularity, assortativity, and global efficiency within an 824 region-of-interest brain parcellation separately during each of the task blocks using weighted functional connectivity matrices. We similarly analyzed an existing dataset of healthy adolescent girls undergoing an identical emotion processing task to characterize normative network organization. Pre-treatment individual differences in modularity, assortativity, and global efficiency during covert fear vs neutral blocks predicted PTSD symptom reduction. Patients who responded better to treatment had greater network modularity and assortativity but lesser efficiency, a pattern that closely resembled the control participants. At a group level, greater symptom reduction was associated with greater pre-to-post-treatment increases in network assortativity and modularity, but this was more pronounced among participants with less symptom improvement. The results support the hypothesis that modularized and resilient brain organization during emotion processing operate as mechanisms enabling symptom reduction during TF-CBT. PMID:27505076

  3. Modes of Large-Scale Brain Network Organization during Threat Processing and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Reduction during TF-CBT among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisler, Josh M; Sigel, Benjamin A; Kramer, Teresa L; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often chronic and disabling across the lifespan. The gold standard treatment for adolescent PTSD is Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), though treatment response is variable and mediating neural mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we test whether PTSD symptom reduction during TF-CBT is associated with individual differences in large-scale brain network organization during emotion processing. Twenty adolescent girls, aged 11-16, with PTSD related to assaultive violence completed a 12-session protocol of TF-CBT. Participants completed an emotion processing task, in which neutral and fearful facial expressions were presented either overtly or covertly during 3T fMRI, before and after treatment. Analyses focused on characterizing network properties of modularity, assortativity, and global efficiency within an 824 region-of-interest brain parcellation separately during each of the task blocks using weighted functional connectivity matrices. We similarly analyzed an existing dataset of healthy adolescent girls undergoing an identical emotion processing task to characterize normative network organization. Pre-treatment individual differences in modularity, assortativity, and global efficiency during covert fear vs neutral blocks predicted PTSD symptom reduction. Patients who responded better to treatment had greater network modularity and assortativity but lesser efficiency, a pattern that closely resembled the control participants. At a group level, greater symptom reduction was associated with greater pre-to-post-treatment increases in network assortativity and modularity, but this was more pronounced among participants with less symptom improvement. The results support the hypothesis that modularized and resilient brain organization during emotion processing operate as mechanisms enabling symptom reduction during TF-CBT.

  4. REPRESENTATIVE MODEL OF THE LEARNING PROCESS IN VIRTUAL SPACES SUPPORTED BY ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José CAPACHO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of research activities for building the representative model of the learning process in virtual spaces (e-Learning. The formal basis of the model are supported in the analysis of models of learning assessment in virtual spaces and specifically in Dembo´s teaching learning model, the systemic approach to evaluating virtual learning by Badrul H. Khan, and the Cybernetic model for evaluating virtual learning environments. The e-Learning model is systemic and of feedback by nature. The model integrates the society, Institution of Education, virtual training platform, virtual teacher and students, and finally the assessment of student learning in virtual learning spaces supported by ICT. The model consists of fourteen processes. Processes are defined taking into account the following dimensions: identification, academic, pedagogical, educational, formative, evaluative, assessment of virtual learning and technological. The model is fundamental to the management of e-learning supported by ICT, justified by the fact that it is an operative model of the teaching-learning process in virtual spaces. The importance of having an operative model in virtual education is to project the management and decision in virtual education. Then the operational, administrative and decision phases will allow the creation of a set of indicators. These indicators will assess the process of virtual education not only in students but also in the virtual institution.

  5. Representative Model of the Learning Process in Virtual Spaces Supported by ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José CAPACHO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of research activities for building the representative model of the learning process in virtual spaces (e-Learning. The formal basis of the model are supported in the analysis of models of learning assessment in virtual spaces and specifically in Dembo´s teaching learning model, the systemic approach to evaluating virtual learning by Badrul H. Khan, and the Cybernetic model for evaluating virtual learning environments. The e-Learning model is systemic and of feedback by nature. The model integrates the society, Institution of Education, virtual training platform, virtual teacher and students, and finally the assessment of student learning in virtual learning spaces supported by ICT. The model consists of fourteen processes. Processes are defined taking into account the following dimensions: identification, academic, pedagogical, educational, formative, evaluative, assessment of virtual learning and technological. The model is fundamental to the management of e-learning supported by ICT, justified by the fact that it is an operative model of the teaching-learning process in virtual spaces. The importance of having an operative model in virtual education is to project the management and decision in virtual education. Then the operational, administrative and decision phases will allow the creation of a set of indicators. These indicators will assess the process of virtual education not only in students but also in the virtual institution.

  6. Abnormal brain processing of cutaneous pain in patients with chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tommaso, Marina; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Guido, Marco; Libro, Giuseppe; Specchio, Luigi Maria; Tonali, Pietro; Puca, Francomichele

    2003-01-01

    Syndromes with chronic daily headache include chronic migraine (CM). The reason for the transformation of migraine into chronic daily headache is still unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate heat pain thresholds and event-related potentials following CO(2)-laser thermal stimulation (LEPS) in hand and facial regions in patients with CM, to show changes in nociceptive brain responses related to dysfunction of pain elaboration at the cortical level. The results were compared with findings from normal control subjects and from subjects who suffer from migraine without aura. The effects of stimulus intensity, subjective pain perception and attention were monitored and compared with features of the LEPS. Twenty-five CM patients, 15 subjects suffering from migraine without aura and 15 normal control subjects were enrolled in the study. LEPS amplitude variation was reduced in CM patients with respect to the perceived stimulus intensity, in comparison with migraine without aura patients and control subjects. In both headache groups, the distraction from the painful laser stimulus induced by an arithmetic task failed to suppress the LEPS amplitude, in comparison with control subjects. These results suggest an abnormal cortical processing of nociceptive input in CM patients, which could lead to the chronic state of pain. In both headache groups, an inability to reduce pain elaboration during an alternative cognitive task emerged as an abnormal behaviour probably predisposing to migraine.

  7. Developing a multiscale, multi-resolution agent-based brain tumor model by graphics processing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Le

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiscale agent-based modeling (MABM has been widely used to simulate Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM and its progression. At the intracellular level, the MABM approach employs a system of ordinary differential equations to describe quantitatively specific intracellular molecular pathways that determine phenotypic switches among cells (e.g. from migration to proliferation and vice versa. At the intercellular level, MABM describes cell-cell interactions by a discrete module. At the tissue level, partial differential equations are employed to model the diffusion of chemoattractants, which are the input factors of the intracellular molecular pathway. Moreover, multiscale analysis makes it possible to explore the molecules that play important roles in determining the cellular phenotypic switches that in turn drive the whole GBM expansion. However, owing to limited computational resources, MABM is currently a theoretical biological model that uses relatively coarse grids to simulate a few cancer cells in a small slice of brain cancer tissue. In order to improve this theoretical model to simulate and predict actual GBM cancer progression in real time, a graphics processing unit (GPU-based parallel computing algorithm was developed and combined with the multi-resolution design to speed up the MABM. The simulated results demonstrated that the GPU-based, multi-resolution and multiscale approach can accelerate the previous MABM around 30-fold with relatively fine grids in a large extracellular matrix. Therefore, the new model has great potential for simulating and predicting real-time GBM progression, if real experimental data are incorporated.

  8. Deterministic multivalued logic scheme for information processing and routing in the brain

    CERN Document Server

    Bezrukov, S M

    2009-01-01

    Driven by analogies with state vectors of quantum informatics and noise-based logic, we propose a general scheme and elements of neural circuitry for processing and addressing information in the brain. Specifically, we consider random (e.g., Poissonian) trains of finite-duration spikes, and, using the idealized concept of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, offer a procedure for generating 2^N-1 orthogonal vectors out of N partially overlapping trains (neuro-bits). We then show that these vectors can be used to construct 2^(2^N-1)-1 different superpositions which represent the same number of logic values when carrying or routing information. In quantum informatics the above numbers are the same, however, the present logic scheme is more advantageous because it is deterministic in the sense that the presence of a vector in the spike train is detected by an appropriate coincidence circuit. For this reason it does not require time averaging or repeated measurements of the kind used in standard cross-correlation ...

  9. Audio-visuomotor processing in the musician's brain: an ERP study on professional violinists and clarinetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Calbi, Marta; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of brain activation during visual and auditory perception of congruent vs. incongruent musical video clips was investigated in 12 musicians from the Milan Conservatory of music and 12 controls. 368 videos of a clarinetist and a violinist playing the same score with their instruments were presented. The sounds were similar in pitch, intensity, rhythm and duration. To produce an audiovisual discrepancy, in half of the trials, the visual information was incongruent with the soundtrack in pitch. ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. Only in musicians for their own instruments was a N400-like negative deflection elicited due to the incongruent audiovisual information. SwLORETA applied to the N400 response identified the areas mediating multimodal motor processing: the prefrontal cortex, the right superior and middle temporal gyrus, the premotor cortex, the inferior frontal and inferior parietal areas, the EBA, somatosensory cortex, cerebellum and SMA. The data indicate the existence of audiomotor mirror neurons responding to incongruent visual and auditory information, thus suggesting that they may encode multimodal representations of musical gestures and sounds. These systems may underlie the ability to learn how to play a musical instrument. PMID:25070060

  10. Training your brain: Do mental and physical (MAP) training enhance cognition through the process of neurogenesis in the hippocampus?

    OpenAIRE

    Curlik, D.M.; Shors, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    New neurons are produced each day in the hippocampus through the process of neurogenesis. Both mental and physical training can modify this process by increasing the number of new cells that mature into functional neurons in the adult brain. However, the mechanisms whereby these increases occur are not necessarily the same. Physical activity, especially aerobic exercise greatly increases the number of new neurons that are produced in the hippocamal formation. In contrast, mental training via ...

  11. Minimizing inter-subject variability in fNIRS based Brain Computer Interfaces via multiple-kernel support vector learning

    OpenAIRE

    Abibullaev, Berdakh; An, Jinung; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Jin, Sang-Hyeon; Moon, Jeon-Il

    2012-01-01

    Brain signal variability in the measurements obtained from different subjects during different sessions significantly deteriorates the accuracy of most brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. Moreover these variabilities, also known as inter-subject or inter-session variabilities, require lengthy calibration sessions before the BCI system can be used. Furthermore, the calibration session has to be repeated for each subject independently and before use of the BCI due to the inter-session varia...

  12. Biological Computation Indexes of Brain Oscillations in Unattended Facial Expression Processing Based on Event-Related Synchronization/Desynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Ma, Lin; Li, Haifeng; Zhao, Lun; Bo, Hongjian; Wang, Xunda

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of human emotions from Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals plays a vital role in affective Brain Computer Interface (BCI). The present study investigated the different event-related synchronization (ERS) and event-related desynchronization (ERD) of typical brain oscillations in processing Facial Expressions under nonattentional condition. The results show that the lower-frequency bands are mainly used to update Facial Expressions and distinguish the deviant stimuli from the standard ones, whereas the higher-frequency bands are relevant to automatically processing different Facial Expressions. Accordingly, we set up the relations between each brain oscillation and processing unattended Facial Expressions by the measures of ERD and ERS. This research first reveals the contributions of each frequency band for comprehension of Facial Expressions in preattentive stage. It also evidences that participants have emotional experience under nonattentional condition. Therefore, the user's emotional state under nonattentional condition can be recognized in real time by the ERD/ERS computation indexes of different frequency bands of brain oscillations, which can be used in affective BCI to provide the user with more natural and friendly ways. PMID:27471545

  13. Biological Computation Indexes of Brain Oscillations in Unattended Facial Expression Processing Based on Event-Related Synchronization/Desynchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Haifeng; Zhao, Lun; Bo, Hongjian; Wang, Xunda

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of human emotions from Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals plays a vital role in affective Brain Computer Interface (BCI). The present study investigated the different event-related synchronization (ERS) and event-related desynchronization (ERD) of typical brain oscillations in processing Facial Expressions under nonattentional condition. The results show that the lower-frequency bands are mainly used to update Facial Expressions and distinguish the deviant stimuli from the standard ones, whereas the higher-frequency bands are relevant to automatically processing different Facial Expressions. Accordingly, we set up the relations between each brain oscillation and processing unattended Facial Expressions by the measures of ERD and ERS. This research first reveals the contributions of each frequency band for comprehension of Facial Expressions in preattentive stage. It also evidences that participants have emotional experience under nonattentional condition. Therefore, the user's emotional state under nonattentional condition can be recognized in real time by the ERD/ERS computation indexes of different frequency bands of brain oscillations, which can be used in affective BCI to provide the user with more natural and friendly ways. PMID:27471545

  14. Four Functionally Distinct Regions in the Left Supramarginal Gyrus Support Word Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, M.; Hope, T. M. H.; Seghier, M. L.; Parker Jones, O.; Prejawa, S.; Green, D. W.; Price, C. J

    2016-01-01

    We used fMRI in 85 healthy participants to investigate whether different parts of the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) are involved in processing phonological inputs and outputs. The experiment involved 2 tasks (speech production (SP) and one-back (OB) matching) on 8 different types of stimuli that systematically varied the demands on sensory processing (visual vs. auditory), sublexical phonological input (words and pseudowords vs. nonverbal stimuli), and semantic content (words and objects vs. pseudowords and meaningless baseline stimuli). In ventral SMG, we found an anterior subregion associated with articulatory sequencing (for SP > OB matching) and a posterior subregion associated with auditory short-term memory (for all auditory > visual stimuli and written words and pseudowords > objects). In dorsal SMG, a posterior subregion was most highly activated by words, indicating a role in the integration of sublexical and lexical cues. In anterior dorsal SMG, activation was higher for both pseudoword reading and object naming compared with word reading, which is more consistent with executive demands than phonological processing. The dissociation of these four “functionally-distinct” regions, all within left SMG, has implications for differentiating between different types of phonological processing, understanding the functional anatomy of language and predicting the effect of brain damage. PMID:27600852

  15. International veterinary epilepsy task force recommendations for systematic sampling and processing of brains from epileptic dogs and cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matiasek, Kaspar; Pumarola I Batlle, Martí; Rosati, Marco;

    2015-01-01

    to add substantial data on patients with complete clinical work-up. This may be due to sparse training in epilepsy pathology and or due to lack of neuropathological guidelines for companion animals.The protocols introduced herein shall facilitate systematic sampling and processing of epileptic brains...... and therefore increase the efficacy, reliability and reproducibility of morphological studies in animals suffering from seizures.Brain dissection protocols of two neuropathological centres with research focus in epilepsy have been optimised with regards to their diagnostic yield and accuracy......, their practicability and their feasibility concerning clinical research requirements.The recommended guidelines allow for easy, standardised and ubiquitous collection of brain regions, relevant for seizure generation. Tissues harvested the prescribed way will increase the diagnostic efficacy and provide reliable...

  16. [The effect of neurotrophic treatment on the activation of reparative processes in patients with acute traumatic brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selianina, N V; Karakulova, Iu V

    2012-01-01

    The complex study of cognitive and emotional status, levels of serum serotonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were performed in 72 patients with acute traumatic brain injury, with a special focus on middle brain injuries (MBI), treated with Cerebrolysin. The neurological and cognitive impairment, mild state anxiety and depression and increased levels of humoral serotonin, which depends on the severity of the injury, were identified in patients with MBI before treatment. After the treatment, there were the decrease in the severity of neurological symptoms and a significant positive dynamics on the FAB scale as well as the increase in blood BDNF and serotonin levels. It has been concluded that using cerebrolysin in complex treatment of acute MBI promotes activation of neurotrophic processes and improves outcomes of closed craniocerebral injury. PMID:22951781

  17. Visualization of the functional recovery process of brain and spinal cord after injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elucidation of the process of spontaneous functional recovery of central nervous system (CNS) after injury like trauma and stroke is important to develop and conduct the better rehabilitation training to promote the recuperation. Authors have developed a macaque monkey model with an artificial injury of cervical corticospinal tract (CST), where its elaborative motor activity of fingers spontaneously recovers. This paper describes the selective CST injury procedure, its recovery process in finger movement and in CNS images by positron emission tomography (PET), and validation of the obtained images by nerve block. For the injury, CST is cut selectively at monkey's C4/C5 boundary to block the hand motion nerve and to preserve the 2-synapse pathway through the propriospinal neuron, which results in acute loss of grasping a piece of potato food. At 1-3 months after the treatment, the elaborative motor activity of fingers completely recovers. During this recovery period, PET is conducted to trace the brain blood flow change at the upper center of the motion in realizing/grasping food, where the dorsal pathway and cerebellar nuclei are activated at the motion in the untreated animal. At 1-2 months after operation, the blood flow is found increased in the two areas above and the increased area, widened relative to those before operation. At 3 months (at complete functional recovery), the activity in the ipsilateral primary motor area returns to normal level and in the contralateral area, is spread accompanying the increase in the bilateral dorsal premotor and secondary somatosensory areas. Imaging results are validated by nerve block with micro-injection of muscimol into the activated areas during the task motor. Findings are helpful for developing a method to promote the compensation of nervous function after injury. (K.T.)

  18. Functional brain interactions that serve cognitive-affective processing during pain and placebo analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, Jason G; Price, Donald D; Verne, G Nicholas; Perlstein, William M; Robinson, Michael M

    2007-12-01

    Pain requires the integration of sensory, cognitive, and affective information. The use of placebo is a common methodological ploy in many fields, including pain. Neuroimaging studies of pain and placebo analgesia (PA) have yet to identify a mechanism of action. Because PA must result from higher order processes, it is likely influenced by cognitive and affective dimensions of the pain experience. A network of brain regions involved in these processes includes the anterior and posterior insula (A-Ins, P-Ins), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (DACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and the supplementary motor area (SMA). We used connectivity analyses to investigate the underlying mechanisms associated with Placebo analgesia in a group of chronic pain patients. Structural equation models (SEM) of fMRI data evaluated the inter-regional connectivity of these regions across three conditions: (1) initial Baseline (B1), (2) placebo (PA), and (3) Placebo Match (PM). SEM results of B1 data in the left hemisphere confirmed hypothesized regional relationships. However, inter-regional relationships were dynamic and the network models varied across hemispheres and conditions. Deviations from the B1 model in the PA and PM conditions correspond to our manipulation of expectation for pain. The dynamic changes in inter-regional influence across conditions are interpreted in the context of a self-reinforcing feedback loop involved in the induction and maintenance of PA. Although it is likely that placebo analgesia results partly from afferent inhibition of a nociceptive signal, the mechanisms likely involve the interaction of a cognitive-affective network with input from both hemispheres. PMID:17904390

  19. A brain-dead pregnant woman with prolonged somatic support and successful neonatal outcome: A grand rounds case with a detailed review of literature and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Abuhasna; Amer, Al Jundi; Masood, Ur Rahman; Dirar, Abdallah; Faris, Chedid

    2013-07-01

    There are increased reports in the medical literature of brain death during pregnancy. In these rare cases, the decision was either to consider discontinuing homeostatic support and mechanical ventilation with an understanding that the fetus then will also die, or to continue full support in an attempt to prolong pregnancy for the purpose of maintaining the fetus alive until maturity. We report the first case in the United Arab Emirates and in literature of somatic support that extended up to 110 days with the successful delivery of a viable fetus. A 35-year-old woman suffered intracranial hemorrhage during the 16(th) week of pregnancy that lead to brain death despite maximal surgical and medical management. Upon confirmation of this diagnosis, the patient received full ventilatory and homeostatic support required to prolong gestation and improve the survival prognosis of her fetus. The status of the patient was discussed in a multidisciplinary approach and with the full involvement of her family. Somatic support continued until the patient was 32 of weeks gestation. Obstetric complications of the patient were frequently assessed and managed. Lower segment cesarean section (LSCS) was then performed. A preterm male in breech presentation was delivered with an average weight of 750 gm, and an Apgar score of 6, 7, and 9 at 1, 5, and 10 minutes, respectively. Prolonging somatic support in a pregnant woman with brain death to allow fetal survival resulted in a successful outcome in terms of saving the life of the fetus. The results are consistent with previous published case reports in the literature on the appropriateness and safety of such a strategy that involved an intensive multidisciplinary approach. Despite being a tragedy, maternal death can represent an opportunity to save the life of the fetus and for organ donation. Consensus future recommendations that can guide the management of similar conditions may also be adapted, especially with the growing medical

  20. [Comparative study on kidney tonifying and yang supporting effects of different processed products of Morinda officinalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, N; Shi, Ji; Jia, Tian-Zhu

    2013-11-01

    To compare the pharmacological effects for tonifying kidney and supporting Yang of different processed products of Morinda officinalis. The oral administration of adenine was performed to establish the kidney-Yang deficiency mice model. Four different processed products, namely M. officinalis, morinda pulp, salt-steamed M. officinalis and licorice-processed M. officinalis, were administered, with Guifu Dihuang pills as the control drug, and mice signs, weight, testicular coefficient, seminal vesicle coefficient, serum testosterone, serum cortisol and serum creatinine as evaluation indexes. The results showed that all of the four processed products of M. officinalis could improve the symptoms of the kidney-Yang deficient mice. Among them, salt-steamed M. officinalis had the most significant effect, which was followed by licorice-processed M. officinalis, morinda pulp and M. officinalis. PMID:24558872

  1. Developing a Logistics Data Process for Support Equipment for NASA Ground Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Suman

    2010-01-01

    The United States NASA Space Shuttle has long been considered an extremely capable yet relatively expensive rocket. A great part of the roughly US $500 million per launch expense was the support footprint: refurbishment and maintenance of the space shuttle system, together with the long list of resources required to support it, including personnel, tools, facilities, transport and support equipment. NASA determined to make its next rocket system with a smaller logistics footprint, and thereby more cost-effective and quicker turnaround. The logical solution was to adopt a standard Logistics Support Analysis (LSA) process based on GEIA-STD-0007 http://www.logisticsengineers.org/may09pres/GEIASTD0007DEXShortIntro.pdf which is the successor of MIL-STD-1388-2B widely used by U.S., NATO, and other world military services and industries. This approach is unprecedented at NASA: it is the first time a major program of programs, Project Constellation, is factoring logistics and supportability into design at many levels. This paper will focus on one of those levels NASA ground support equipment for the next generation of NASA rockets and on building a Logistics Support Analysis Record (LSAR) for developing and documenting a support solution and inventory of resources for. This LSAR is actually a standards-based database, containing analyses of the time and tools, personnel, facilities and support equipment required to assemble and integrate the stages and umbilicals of a rocket. This paper will cover building this database from scratch: including creating and importing a hierarchical bill of materials (BOM) from legacy data; identifying line-replaceable units (LRUs) of a given piece of equipment; analyzing reliability and maintainability of said LRUs; and therefore making an assessment back to design whether the support solution for a piece of equipment is too much work, i.e., too resource-intensive. If one must replace or inspect an LRU too much, perhaps a modification of

  2. The Success of Software Support in Engineering: An Emphasis on Process Rather Than Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Whyte

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for technological computerized support systems to supplement the structure and process of communication within the multi-disciplinary design team rather than attempt to substitute it. Understanding technological effects on the design process requires focus not on the packages of hardware and software themselves but on the specific roles and social variables that are intrinsic to specialist interaction. The role of inter-professional relationships is important in collaboration towards increasingly technologically complex solutions, and neglect of these relations may lead to the failure of existing information technology systems to support adequately scientific and engineering interaction. Technological influences on the processes of participation come about as a result of design team member choice about what features of technology to use, not from the technology itself. Group dynamics influence choice. Software support systems in isolation, will be unable to instil the crossfertilisation of multi-disciplinary professional objectives required for innovative design. Research is presented that explores the nature of inter-disciplinary relationships in the UK building-design team at the formative stage. The research examines the extent to which the collaborative processes of building-design must be addressed if IT products and moves towards computer-integrated-construction are to succeed in facilitating innovative building and engineering output.

  3. A reliability study on brain activation during active and passive arm movements supported by an MRI-compatible robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Natalia; Yu, Ningbo; Brügger, Mike; Villiger, Michael; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Riener, Robert; Kollias, Spyros

    2014-11-01

    In neurorehabilitation, longitudinal assessment of arm movement related brain function in patients with motor disability is challenging due to variability in task performance. MRI-compatible robots monitor and control task performance, yielding more reliable evaluation of brain function over time. The main goals of the present study were first to define the brain network activated while performing active and passive elbow movements with an MRI-compatible arm robot (MaRIA) in healthy subjects, and second to test the reproducibility of this activation over time. For the fMRI analysis two models were compared. In model 1 movement onset and duration were included, whereas in model 2 force and range of motion were added to the analysis. Reliability of brain activation was tested with several statistical approaches applied on individual and group activation maps and on summary statistics. The activated network included mainly the primary motor cortex, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal cortex, medial and lateral premotor regions, and subcortical structures. Reliability analyses revealed robust activation for active movements with both fMRI models and all the statistical methods used. Imposed passive movements also elicited mainly robust brain activation for individual and group activation maps, and reliability was improved by including additional force and range of motion using model 2. These findings demonstrate that the use of robotic devices, such as MaRIA, can be useful to reliably assess arm movement related brain activation in longitudinal studies and may contribute in studies evaluating therapies and brain plasticity following injury in the nervous system.

  4. Demand-based maintenance and operators support based on process models; Behovsstyrt underhaall och operatoersstoed baserat paa process modeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlquist, Erik; Widarsson, Bjoern; Tomas-Aparicio, Elena

    2012-02-15

    There is a strong demand for systems that can give early warnings on upcoming problems in process performance or sensor measurements. In this project we have developed and implemented such a system on-line. The goal with the system is to give warnings about both faults needing urgent actions, as well giving advice on roughly when service may be needed for specific functions. The use of process simulation models on-line can offer a significant tool for operators and process engineers to analyse the performance of the process and make the most correct and fastest decision when problems arise. In this project physical simulation models are used in combination with decision support tools. By using a physical model it is possible to compare the measured data to the data obtained from the simulation and give these deviations as input to a decision support tool with Bayesian Networks (BN) that will result in information about the probability for wrong measurement in the instruments, process problems and maintenance needs. The application has been implemented in a CFB boiler at Maelarenergi AB. After tuning the model the system has been used online during September - October 2010 and May - October 2011, showing that the system is working on-line with respect to running the simulation model but with batch runs with respect to the BN. Examples have been made for several variables where trends of the deviation between simulation results and measured data have been used as input to a BN, where the probability for different faults has been calculated. Combustion up in the separator/cyclones has been detected several times, problems with fuel feed on both sides of the boiler as well. A moisture sensor not functioning as it should and suspected malfunctioning temperature meters as well. Deeper investigations of the true cause of problems have been used as input to tune the BN

  5. Auditory Brain Stem Processing in Reptiles and Amphibians: Roles of Coupled Ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, Katie L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Comparative approaches to the auditory system have yielded great insight into the evolution of sound localization circuits, particularly within the nonmammalian tetrapods. The fossil record demonstrates multiple appearances of tympanic hearing, and examination of the auditory brain stem of variou...

  6. Thyroid hormone’s role in regulating brain glucose metabolism and potentially modulating hippocampal cognitive processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jahagirdar, V; McNay, EC

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive performance is dependent on adequate glucose supply to the brain. Insulin, which regulates systemic glucose metabolism, has been recently shown both to regulate hippocampal metabolism and to be a mandatory component of hippocampally-mediated cognitive performance. Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate systemic glucose metabolism and may also be involved in regulation of brain glucose metabolism. Here we review potential mechanisms for such regulation. Importantly, TH imbalance is often enc...

  7. Maintaining Brain Health by Monitoring Inflammatory Processes: a Mechanism to Promote Successful Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Rosano, Caterina; Marsland, Anna L.; Gianaros, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining brain health promotes successful aging. The main determinants of brain health are the preservation of cognitive function and remaining free from structural and metabolic abnormalities, including loss of neuronal synapses, atrophy, small vessel disease and focal amyloid deposits visible by neuroimaging. Promising studies indicate that these determinants are to some extent modifiable, even among adults seventy years and older. Converging animal and human evidence further suggests th...

  8. Maternal interpersonal affiliation is associated with adolescents' brain structure and reward processing

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, S.; Brassen, S; Bromberg, U; Banaschewski, T; Conrod, P; Flor, H; Gallinat, J.; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, A.; Martinot, J-L; Nees, F; Rietschel, M; Smolka, M N; Ströhle, A.; Struve, M

    2012-01-01

    Considerable animal and human research has been dedicated to the effects of parenting on structural brain development, focusing on hippocampal and prefrontal areas. Conversely, although functional imaging studies suggest that the neural reward circuitry is involved in parental affection, little is known about mothers' interpersonal qualities in relation to their children's brain structure and function. Moreover, gender differences concerning the effect of maternal qualities have rarely been i...

  9. Preliminary Evidence for Impaired Brain Activity of Neural Reward Processing in Children and Adolescents with Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment, which markedly increases risks for psychopathology, is associated with structural and functional brain differences. Especially, exposure to parental verbal abuse (PVA) or interparental violence during childhood is associated with negative outcomes such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and reduced cognitive abilities. Other forms of childhood maltreatment have been associated with brain structure or developmental alteration. Our earlier studies elucidated potential discernible effects of PVA and witnessing domestic violence during childhood on brain morphology, including gray matter volume or cortical thickness. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse might be modified specifically by such experiences, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in the corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that sensory cortices are highly plastic structures. Using tasks with high and low monetary rewards while subjects underwent functional MRI, we also examined whether neural activity during reward processing was altered, or not, in children and adolescents with reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Significantly reduced activity in the caudate and nucleus accumbens was observed during a high monetary reward condition in the RAD group compared to the typically developed group. The striatal neural reward activity in the RAD group was also markedly decreased. The present results suggest that dopaminergic dysfunction occurred in the striatum in children and adolescents with RAD, potentially leading to a future risk of psychiatric disorders such as dependence. PMID:27150924

  10. Towards a Common Platform to Support Business Processes, Services and Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piprani, Baba

    The search for the Holy Grail in achieving interoperability of business processes, services and semantics continues with every new type or search for the Silver Bullet. Most approaches towards interoperability either are focusing narrowly on the simplistic notion using technology supporting a cowboy-style development without much regard to metadata or semantics. At the same time, the distortions on semantics created by many of current modeling paradigms and approaches - including the disharmony created by multiplicity of parallel approaches to standardization - are not helping us resolve the real issues facing knowledge and semantics management. This paper will address some of the issues facing us, like: What have we achieved? Where did we go wrong? What are we doing right? - providing an ipso-facto encapsulated candid snapshot on an approach to harmonizing our approach to interoperability, and propose a common platform to support Business Processes, Services and Semantics.

  11. The Mixed Waste Management Facility: Technology selection and implementation plan, Part 2, Support processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to establish the foundation for the selection and implementation of technologies to be demonstrated in the Mixed Waste Management Facility, and to select the technologies for initial pilot-scale demonstration. Criteria are defined for judging demonstration technologies, and the framework for future technology selection is established. On the basis of these criteria, an initial suite of technologies was chosen, and the demonstration implementation scheme was developed. Part 1, previously released, addresses the selection of the primary processes. Part II addresses process support systems that are considered ''demonstration technologies.'' Other support technologies, e.g., facility off-gas, receiving and shipping, and water treatment, while part of the integrated demonstration, use best available commercial equipment and are not selected against the demonstration technology criteria

  12. Transmetalation Process as a Route for Preparation of Zinc-Oxide-Supported Copper Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsuan; Duan, Yichen; Williams, Mackenzie G; Teplyakov, Andrew V

    2016-07-19

    Supported nanoparticulate materials have a variety of uses, from energy storage to catalysis. In preparing such materials, precision control can often be achieved by applying chemical deposition methods. However, ligand removal following the initial deposition presents a substantial challenge because of potential surface contamination. Traditional approaches normally include multistep processing and require a substantial thermal budget. Using transmetalation chemistry, it is possible to circumvent both disadvantages and prepare chemically reactive copper nanoparticles supported on a commercially available ZnO powder material by metalorganic vapor copper deposition followed by very mild annealing to 350 K. The self-limiting copper deposition reaction is used to demonstrate the utility of this approach for hexafluoroacetylacetonate-copper-vinyltrimethylsilane, Cu(hfac)VTMS, reacting with ZnO. The low-temperature transmetalation is confirmed by a combination of spectroscopic studies. Model density functional theory calculations are consistent with a thermodynamic driving force for the process. PMID:27351220

  13. Representative Model Of The Learning Process 
In Virtual Spaces Supported By Ict

    OpenAIRE

    CAPACHO, José

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the results of research activities for building the representative model of the learning process in virtual spaces (e-Learning). The formal basis of the model are supported in the analysis of models of learning assessment in virtual spaces and specifically in Dembo´s teaching learning model, the systemic approach to evaluating virtual learning by Badrul H. Khan, and the Cybernetic model for evaluating virtual learning environments. The e-Learning model is syste...

  14. Representative Model of the Learning Process in Virtual Spaces Supported by ICT

    OpenAIRE

    CAPACHO, José

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows the results of research activities for building the representative model of the learning process in virtual spaces (e-Learning). The formal basis of the model are supported in the analysis of models of learning assessment in virtual spaces and specifically in Dembo´s teaching learning model, the systemic approach to evaluating virtual learning by Badrul H. Khan, and the Cybernetic model for evaluating virtual learning environments. The e-Learning model is systemic and of feed...

  15. Enabling to Apply XP Process in Distributed Development Environments with Tool Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ansari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation both in academic and industrial areas of the XP methodology has shown very good results if applied to small/medium co-localized working groups. In this paper, we described an approach that overcomes the XP constraint of collocation by introducing a process-support environment (called M.P.D.X.P that helps software development teams and solves the problems which arise when XP is carried out by distributed teams.

  16. Kinematic Analysis of Cpm Machine Supporting to Rehabilitation Process after Surgical Knee Arthroscopy and Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trochimczuk, R.; Kuźmierowski, T.

    2014-11-01

    Existing commercial solutions of the CPM (Continuous Passive Motion) machines are described in the paper. Based on the analysis of existing solutions we present our conceptual solution to support the process of rehabilitation of the knee joint which is necessary after arthroscopic surgery. For a given novel structure we analyze and present proprietary algorithms and the computer application to simulate the operation of our PCM device. In addition, we suggest directions for further research.

  17. Kinematic Analysis of Cpm Machine Supporting to Rehabilitation Process after Surgical Knee Arthroscopy and Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trochimczuk R.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Existing commercial solutions of the CPM (Continuous Passive Motion machines are described in the paper. Based on the analysis of existing solutions we present our conceptual solution to support the process of rehabilitation of the knee joint which is necessary after arthroscopic surgery. For a given novel structure we analyze and present proprietary algorithms and the computer application to simulate the operation of our PCM device. In addition, we suggest directions for further research.

  18. A THEORETICAL MODEL OF SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT WORK PROCESSES FOR MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION TEAM

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana Gennadevna Pronyushkina

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the management of production team, in particular the developed theoretical model of socio-psychological support work processes for management of production team. The author of the research are formulated the purpose and objectives of social-psychological work on management of the production team. Developed in the study a theoretical model aimed at determining the conditions and the identification of features of effective management of the enterprise taking into account ...

  19. Supporting diagnosis and treatment in medical care based on Big Data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupşe, Oana-Sorina; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Bernard, Elena

    2014-01-01

    With information and data in all domains growing every day, it is difficult to manage and extract useful knowledge for specific situations. This paper presents an integrated system architecture to support the activity in the Ob-Gin departments with further developments in using new technology to manage Big Data processing - using Google BigQuery - in the medical domain. The data collected and processed with Google BigQuery results from different sources: two Obstetrics & Gynaecology Departments, the TreatSuggest application - an application for suggesting treatments, and a home foetal surveillance system. Data is uploaded in Google BigQuery from Bega Hospital Timişoara, Romania. The analysed data is useful for the medical staff, researchers and statisticians from public health domain. The current work describes the technological architecture and its processing possibilities that in the future will be proved based on quality criteria to lead to a better decision process in diagnosis and public health. PMID:24743079

  20. Strength Analysis and Process Simulation of Subway Contact Rail Support Bracket of Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedulov, Boris N.; Safonov, Alexander A.; Sergeichev, Ivan V.; Ushakov, Andrey E.; Klenin, Yuri G.; Makarenko, Irina V.

    2016-10-01

    An application of composites for construction of subway brackets is a very effective approach to extend their lifetime. However, this approach involves the necessity to prevent process-induced distortions of the bracket due to thermal deformation and chemical shrinkage. At present study, a process simulation has been carried out to support the design of the production tooling. The simulation was based on the application of viscoelastic model for the resin. Simulation results were verified by comparison with results of manufacturing experiments. To optimize the bracket structure the strength analysis was carried out as well.

  1. Dietary tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion effects on behavioral and brain signatures of human motivational processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, James M; Grant, Steven J; Chen, Gang; Hommer, Daniel W

    2014-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission is critical for motivational processing. We assessed whether disruption of DA synthesis in healthy controls using an amino-acid beverage devoid of catecholamine precursors (tyrosine-phenylalanine depletion (TPD)) would blunt recruitment of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) by rewards. Sixteen controls ingested each of a tyr/phe-depleting beverage (DEP) or a tyr/phe-balanced (BAL) control beverage in two laboratory visits. Five hours after consumption of each drink, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they viewed anticipatory cues to respond to a target to either win money or avoid losing money. TPD did not exert main effects on mood or on task behavior, but affected brain activation. In right NAcc, TPD blunted activation by anticipation of high rewards. In left NAcc, recruitment anticipating high rewards was modulated by individual differences in mood change across the DEP drink day, where subjects whose mood worsened following TPD (relative to within-day mood change under BAL conditions) also showed lower activation under DEP conditions relative to BAL conditions. Exploratory analysis indicated that TPD qualitatively blunted the voxel-wise spatial extent of suprathreshold activation by reward anticipation. Finally, loss outcomes activated anterior insula under DEP conditions but not under BAL conditions. These data indicate that: (1) dietary depletion of catacholamine precursors will blunt dopaminergic mesolimbic activity, and (2) in controls, synthetic pathways of this neurocircuitry maintain sufficient buffering capacity to resist an effect on motivated behavior. Additional studies are needed to determine if clinical populations would show similar resistance to behavioral effects of TPD. PMID:23995581

  2. Endocytosis and intracellular processing of platelet microparticles by brain endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faille, Dorothée; El-Assaad, Fatima; Mitchell, Andrew J; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Chimini, Giovanna; Fusai, Thierry; Grau, Georges E; Combes, Valéry

    2012-08-01

    Platelet-derived microparticles (PMP) bind and modify the phenotype of many cell types including endothelial cells. Recently, we showed that PMP were internalized by human brain endothelial cells (HBEC). Here we intend to better characterize the internalization mechanisms of PMP and their intracellular fate. Confocal microscopy analysis of PKH67-labelled PMP distribution in HBEC showed PMP in early endosome antigen 1 positive endosomes and in LysoTracker-labelled lysosomes, confirming a role for endocytosis in PMP internalization. No fusion of calcein-loaded PMP with HBEC membranes was observed. Quantification of PMP endocytosis using flow cytometry revealed that it was partially inhibited by trypsin digestion of PMP surface proteins and by extracellular Ca(2+) chelation by EDTA, suggesting a partial role for receptor-mediated endocytosis in PMP uptake. This endocytosis was independent of endothelial receptors such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and was not increased by tumour necrosis factor stimulation of HBEC. Platelet-derived microparticle internalization was dramatically increased in the presence of decomplemented serum, suggesting a role for PMP opsonin-dependent phagocytosis. Platelet-derived microparticle uptake was greatly diminished by treatment of HBEC with cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of microfilament formation required for both phagocytosis and macropinocytosis, with methyl-β-cyclodextrin that depletes membrane cholesterol needed for macropinocytosis and with amiloride that inhibits the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger involved in macropinocytosis. In conclusion, PMP are taken up by active endocytosis in HBEC, involving mechanisms consistent with both phagocytosis and macropinocytosis. These findings identify new processes by which PMP could modify endothelial cell phenotype and functions.

  3. Dietary tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion effects on behavioral and brain signatures of human motivational processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, James M; Grant, Steven J; Chen, Gang; Hommer, Daniel W

    2014-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission is critical for motivational processing. We assessed whether disruption of DA synthesis in healthy controls using an amino-acid beverage devoid of catecholamine precursors (tyrosine-phenylalanine depletion (TPD)) would blunt recruitment of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) by rewards. Sixteen controls ingested each of a tyr/phe-depleting beverage (DEP) or a tyr/phe-balanced (BAL) control beverage in two laboratory visits. Five hours after consumption of each drink, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they viewed anticipatory cues to respond to a target to either win money or avoid losing money. TPD did not exert main effects on mood or on task behavior, but affected brain activation. In right NAcc, TPD blunted activation by anticipation of high rewards. In left NAcc, recruitment anticipating high rewards was modulated by individual differences in mood change across the DEP drink day, where subjects whose mood worsened following TPD (relative to within-day mood change under BAL conditions) also showed lower activation under DEP conditions relative to BAL conditions. Exploratory analysis indicated that TPD qualitatively blunted the voxel-wise spatial extent of suprathreshold activation by reward anticipation. Finally, loss outcomes activated anterior insula under DEP conditions but not under BAL conditions. These data indicate that: (1) dietary depletion of catacholamine precursors will blunt dopaminergic mesolimbic activity, and (2) in controls, synthetic pathways of this neurocircuitry maintain sufficient buffering capacity to resist an effect on motivated behavior. Additional studies are needed to determine if clinical populations would show similar resistance to behavioral effects of TPD.

  4. A Deep Investigation of the Thermal Decomposition Process of Supported Silver Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jun; Xu, Tianhao; Li, Yaping; Lei, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hui; Evans, D. G.; Sun, Xiaoming; Duan, Xue [Beijing Univ. of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China)

    2014-06-15

    A deep understanding of the metallic silver catalysts formation process on oxide support and the formation mechanism is of great scientific and practical meaning for exploring better catalyst preparing procedures. Herein the thermal decomposition process of supported silver catalyst with silver oxalate as the silver precursor in the presence of ethylenediamine and ethanolamine is carefully investigated by employing a variety of characterization techniques including thermal analysis, in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The formation mechanism of supported silver particles was revealed. Results showed that formation of metallic silver begins at about 100 .deg. C and activation process is essentially complete below 145 .deg. C. Formation of silver was accompanied by decomposition of oxalate group and removal of organic amines. Catalytic performance tests using the epoxidation of ethylene as a probe reaction showed that rapid activation (for 5 minutes) at a relatively low temperature (170 .deg. C) afforded materials with optimum catalytic performance, since higher activation temperatures and/or longer activation times resulted in sintering of the silver particles.

  5. DEVELOPING AN IMAGE PROCESSING APPLICATION THAT SUPPORTS NEW FEATURES OF JPEG2000 STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgin GÖÇERİ

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developing technologies in multimedia brought the importance of image processing and compression. Images that are reduced in size using lossless and lossy compression techniques without degrading the quality of the image to an unacceptable level take up much less space in memory. This enables them to be sent and received over the Internet or mobile devices in much shorter time. The wavelet-based image compression standard JPEG2000 has been created by the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG committee to superseding the former JPEG standard. Works on various additions to this standard are still under development. In this study, an Application has been developed in Visual C# 2005 which implies important image processing techniques such as edge detection and noise reduction. The important feature of this Application is to support JPEG2000 standard as well as supporting other image types, and the implementation does not only apply to two-dimensional images, but also to multi-dimensional images. Modern software development platforms that support image processing have also been compared and several features of the developed software have been identified.

  6. Preclinical Diagnosis of Magnetic Resonance (MR Brain Images via Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform with Tsallis Entropy and Generalized Eigenvalue Proximal Support Vector Machine (GEPSVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing an accurate computer-aided diagnosis (CAD system of MR brain images is essential for medical interpretation and analysis. In this study, we propose a novel automatic CAD system to distinguish abnormal brains from normal brains in MRI scanning. Methods: The proposed method simplifies the task to a binary classification problem. We used discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT to extract wavelet packet coefficients from MR brain images. Next, Shannon entropy (SE and Tsallis entropy (TE were harnessed to obtain entropy features from DWPT coefficients. Finally, generalized eigenvalue proximate support vector machine (GEPSVM, and GEPSVM with radial basis function (RBF kernel, were employed as classifier. We tested the four proposed diagnosis methods (DWPT + SE + GEPSVM, DWPT + TE + GEPSVM, DWPT + SE + GEPSVM + RBF, and DWPT + TE + GEPSVM + RBF on three benchmark datasets of Dataset-66, Dataset-160, and Dataset-255. Results: The 10 repetition of K-fold stratified cross validation results showed the proposed DWPT + TE + GEPSVM + RBF method excelled not only other three proposed classifiers but also existing state-of-the-art methods in terms of classification accuracy. In addition, the DWPT + TE + GEPSVM + RBF method achieved accuracy of 100%, 100%, and 99.53% on Dataset-66, Dataset-160, and Dataset-255, respectively. For Dataset-255, the offline learning cost 8.4430s and online prediction cost merely 0.1059s. Conclusions: We have proved the effectiveness of the proposed method, which achieved nearly 100% accuracy over three benchmark datasets.

  7. Neural regions supporting lexical processing of objects and actions: A case series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie L Breining

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Linking semantic representations to lexical items is an important cognitive process for both producing and comprehending language. Past research has suggested that the bilateral anterior temporal lobes are critical for this process (e.g. Patterson, Nestor, & Rogers, 2007. However, the majority of studies focused on object concepts alone, ignoring actions. The few that considered actions suggest that the temporal poles are not critical for their processing (e.g. Kemmerer et al., 2010. In this case series, we investigated the neural substrates of linking object and action concepts to lexical labels by correlating the volume of defined regions of interest with behavioral performance on picture-word verification and picture naming tasks of individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA. PPA is a neurodegenerative condition with heterogeneous neuropathological causes, characterized by increasing language deficits for at least two years in the face of relatively intact cognitive function in other domains (Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011. This population displays appropriate heterogeneity of performance and focal atrophy for investigating the neural substrates involved in lexical semantic processing of objects and actions. Method. Twenty-one individuals with PPA participated in behavioral assessment within six months of high resolution anatomical MRI scans. Behavioral assessments consisted of four tasks: picture-word verification and picture naming of objects and actions. Performance on these assessments was correlated with brain volume measured using atlas-based analysis in twenty regions of interest that are commonly atrophied in PPA and implicated in language processing. Results. Impaired performance for all four tasks significantly correlated with atrophy in the right superior temporal pole, left anterior middle temporal gyrus, and left fusiform gyrus. No regions were identified in which volume correlated with performance for both

  8. Spatiotemporal brain dynamics of emotional face processing modulations induced by the serotonin 1A/2A receptor agonist psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Fosco; Schmidt, André; Pokorny, Thomas; Kometer, Michael; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2014-12-01

    Emotional face processing is critically modulated by the serotonergic system. For instance, emotional face processing is impaired by acute psilocybin administration, a serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptor agonist. However, the spatiotemporal brain mechanisms underlying these modulations are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal brain dynamics underlying psilocybin-induced modulations during emotional face processing. Electrical neuroimaging analyses were applied to visual evoked potentials in response to emotional faces, following psilocybin and placebo administration. Our results indicate a first time period of strength (i.e., Global Field Power) modulation over the 168-189 ms poststimulus interval, induced by psilocybin. A second time period of strength modulation was identified over the 211-242 ms poststimulus interval. Source estimations over these 2 time periods further revealed decreased activity in response to both neutral and fearful faces within limbic areas, including amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus, and the right temporal cortex over the 168-189 ms interval, and reduced activity in response to happy faces within limbic and right temporo-occipital brain areas over the 211-242 ms interval. Our results indicate a selective and temporally dissociable effect of psilocybin on the neuronal correlates of emotional face processing, consistent with a modulation of the top-down control.

  9. Does noninvasive brain stimulation applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex nonspecifically influence mood and emotional processing in healthy individuals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine eMondino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC is often targeted with noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS to modulate in vivo human behaviors. This brain region plays a key role in mood, emotional processing and attentional processing of emotional information. In this article, we ask the question: when we target the DLPFC with NIBS, do we modulate these processes altogether, nonspecifically, or can we modulate them selectively? We thus review articles investigating the effects of NIBS applied over the DLPFC on mood, emotional processing and attentional processing of emotional stimuli in healthy subjects. We discuss that NIBS over the DLPFC can modulate emotional processing and attentional processing of emotional stimuli, without specifically influencing mood. Indeed, there seems to be a lack of evidence that NIBS over the DLPFC influence on mood in healthy individuals. Finally, there appears to be a hemispheric lateralization: when applied over the left DLPFC, NIBS improved processing of positive stimuli and reduced selective attention for stimuli expressing anger, whereas when applied over the right DLPFC, it increased selective attention for stimuli expressing anger.

  10. Sediment and process water characterization in support of 300 Area North Process Pond physical soil washing test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-02-18

    The sediments in the 300 Area North Process Pond are being considered for clean-up using soil washing processes. Prior to site clean-up several preliminary pilot-scale physical washing campaigns were performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) staff in the summer of 1993. WHC used equipment that was obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Specific details are found in the 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan. Physical soil washing includes separation and proper containment of the contaminant-rich fines and residual liquid effluent and release of the coarse ``clean`` fraction, should it meet minimum performance levels for residual contaminant concentration to the site being cleaned. A goal of the demonstration is to concentrate the contaminants into {le}10% of the soil volume excavated and, therefore, to release {ge}90% of the soil back to the site as clean soil. To support interpretation of the WHC soil washing treatability study, PNL performed some sediment and process water characterization on samples taken during three major and one small campaign. This report documents particle-size distributions in various field washed piles, and chemical and gama emitting radionuclide contents as a function of particle-size distribution for the field washed sediments and contents in the spent process water. All of the particle fractions were separated by wet sieving, but two field samples were also subjected to dry sieving and attrition scrubbing followed by wet sieving.

  11. Automated data processing of { 1H-decoupled} 13C MR spectra acquired from human brain in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shic, Frederick; Ross, Brian

    2003-06-01

    In clinical 13C infusion studies, broadband excitation of 200 ppm of the human brain yields 13C MR spectra with a time resolution of 2-5 min and generates up to 2000 metabolite peaks over 2 h. We describe a fast, automated, observer-independent technique for processing { 1H-decoupled} 13C spectra. Quantified 13C spectroscopic signals, before and after the administration of [1- 13C]glucose and/or [1- 13C]acetate in human subjects are determined. Stepwise improvements of data processing are illustrated by examples of normal and pathological results. Variation in analysis of individual 13C resonances ranged between 2 and 14%. Using this method it is possible to reliably identify subtle metabolic effects of brain disease including Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy.

  12. Behavioral and molecular processing of visceral pain in the brain of mice: impact of colitis and psychological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush eJain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal disorders with abdominal pain are associated with central sensitization and psychopathologies that are often exacerbated by stress. Here we investigated the impact of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS and repeated water avoidance stress (WAS on spontaneous and nociception-related behavior and molecular signaling in the mouse brain. DSS increased the mechanical pain sensitivity of the abdominal skin while both WAS and DSS enhanced the mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity of the plantar skin. These manifestations of central sensitization were associated with augmented c-Fos expression in spinal cord, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex. While WAS stimulated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK p42/44, DSS activated another signaling pathway, both of which converged on c-Fos. The DSS- and WAS-induced hyperalgesia in the abdominal and plantar skin and c-Fos expression in the brain disappeared when the mice were subjected to WAS+DSS treatment. Intrarectal allyl isothiocyanate (AITC evoked aversive behavior (freezing, reduction of locomotion and exploration in association with p42/44 MAPK and c-Fos activation in spinal cord and brain. These effects were inhibited by morphine, which attests to their relationship with nociception. DSS and WAS exerted opposite effects on AITC-evoked p42/44 MAPK and c-Fos activation, which indicates that these transduction pathways subserve different aspects of visceral pain processing in the brain. In summary, behavioral perturbations caused by colitis and psychological stress are associated with distinct alterations in cerebral signaling. These findings provide novel perspectives on central sensitization and the sensory and emotional processing of visceral pain stimuli in the brain.

  13. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication: A Fabrication Process that Revolutionizes Aircraft Structural Designs and Spacecraft Supportability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminger, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The technological inception and challenges, as well as current applications of the electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process are outlined. The process was motivated by the need for a new metals technology that would be cost-effective, enable the production of new alloys and that would could be used for efficient, lightweight structures. EBF3 is a rapid metal fabrication, layer-additive process that uses no molds or tools and which yields properties equivalent to wrought. The benefits of EBF3 include it near-net shape which minimizes scrap and reduces part count; efficiency in design which allows for lighter weight and enhanced performance; and, its "green" manufacturing process which yields minimal waste products. EBF3 also has a high tensile strength, while a structural test comparison found that EBF3 panels performed 5% lower than machined panels. Technical challenges in the EBF3 process include a need for process control monitoring and an improvement in localized heat response. Currently, the EBF3 process can be used to add details onto forgings and to construct and form complex shapes. However, it has potential uses in a variety of industries including aerospace, automotive, sporting goods and medical implant devices. The novel structural design capabilities of EBF3 have the ability to yield curved stiffeners which may be optimized for performance, low weight, low noise and damage tolerance applications. EBF3 has also demonstrated its usefulness in 0-gravity environments for supportability in space applications.

  14. ‘Living' theory: a pedagogical framework for process support in networked learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipa Levy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the broad outcome of an action research project in which practical theory was developed in the field of networked learning through case-study analysis of learners' experiences and critical evaluation of educational practice. It begins by briefly discussing the pedagogical approach adopted for the case-study course and the action research methodology. It then identifies key dimensions of four interconnected developmental processes–orientation, communication, socialisation and organisation–that were associated with ‘learning to learn' in the course's networked environment, and offers a flavour of participants' experiences in relation to these processes. A number of key evaluation issues that arose are highlighted. Finally, the paper presents the broad conceptual framework for the design and facilitation of process support in networked learning that was derived from this research. The framework proposes a strong, explicit focus on support for process as well as domain learning, and progression from tighter to looser design and facilitation structures for process-focused (as well as domain-focused learning tasks.

  15. What evidence supports special processing for faces? A cautionary tale for fMRI interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Rosemary A; Cottrell, Garrison W

    2013-11-01

    We trained a neurocomputational model on six categories of photographic images that were used in a previous fMRI study of object and face processing. Multivariate pattern analyses of the activations elicited in the object-encoding layer of the model yielded results consistent with two previous, contradictory fMRI studies. Findings from one of the studies [Haxby, J. V., Gobbini, M. I., Furey, M. L., Ishai, A., Schouten, J. L., & Pietrini, P. Distributed and overlapping representations of faces and objects in ventral temporal cortex. Science, 293, 2425-2430, 2001] were interpreted as evidence for the object-form topography model. Findings from the other study [Spiridon, M., & Kanwisher, N. How distributed is visual category information in human occipito-temporal cortex? An fMRI study. Neuron, 35, 1157-1165, 2002] were interpreted as evidence for neural processing mechanisms in the fusiform face area that are specialized for faces. Because the model contains no special processing mechanism or specialized architecture for faces and yet it can reproduce the fMRI findings used to support the claim that there are specialized face-processing neurons, we argue that these fMRI results do not actually support that claim. Results from our neurocomputational model therefore constitute a cautionary tale for the interpretation of fMRI data. PMID:23859648

  16. Subliminal and Supraliminal Processing of Facial Expression of Emotions: Brain Oscillation in the Left/Right Frontal Area

    OpenAIRE

    Michela Balconi; Chiara Ferrari

    2012-01-01

    The unconscious effects of an emotional stimulus have been highlighted by a vast amount of research, whereover it remains questionable whether it is possible to assign a specific function to cortical brain oscillations in the unconscious perception of facial expressions of emotions. Alpha band variation was monitored within the right- and left-cortical side when subjects consciously (supraliminal stimulation) or unconsciously (subliminal stimulation) processed facial patterns. Twenty subjects...

  17. Gender differences in functional hemispheric asymmetry during processing of vowels as reflected by the human brain magnetic response

    OpenAIRE

    Obleser, Jonas; Eulitz, Carsten; Lahiri, Aditi; Elbert, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A number of findings indicate gender differences in language-related functional hemispheric brain asymmetry. To test if such gender-specific laterality is already present at the level of vowel-processing, the auditory evoked magnetic field was recorded in healthy right-handed male and female participants in response to the German synthetic vowels [a], [e] and [i]. Female participants exhibited stronger N100m responses than male participants over the left hemisphere. This observation was highl...

  18. Brain regions involved in processing facial identity and expression are differentially selective for surface and edge information

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Richard J; Young, Andrew W; Andrews, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Although different brain regions are widely considered to be involved in the recognition of facial identity and expression, it remains unclear how these regions process different properties of the visual image. Here, we ask how surface-based reflectance information and edge-based shape cues contribute to the perception and neural representation of facial identity and expression. Contrast-reversal was used to generate images in which normal contrast relationships across the surface of the imag...

  19. Data supporting the rat brain sample preparation and validation assays for simultaneous determination of 8 neurotransmitters and their metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnicz, Aneta; Ortiz, José Avendaño; Casas, Ana I; Freitas, Andiara E; López, Manuela G; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana

    2016-06-01

    The data presented in this article supports the rat brain sample preparation procedure previous to its injection into the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system to monitor levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, glutamic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol. In addition, we describe the method validation assays (such as calibration curve, lower limit of quantification, precision and accuracy intra- and inter-day, selectivity, extraction recovery and matrix effect, stability, and carry-over effect) according to the United States Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency to measure in one step different neurotransmitters and their metabolites. The data supplied in this article is related to the research study entitled: "Simultaneous determination of 8 neurotransmitters and their metabolite levels in rat brain using liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry: application to the murine Nrf2 model of depression" (Wojnicz et al. 2016) [1]. PMID:27054183

  20. Effect of second language exposure on brain activity for language processing among preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Souta; Shibata, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Michiyo; Tanaka, Akihiro; Konno, Akitsugu; Maruyama, Suguru; Gyoba, Jiro; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Koizumi, Masatoshi

    2012-05-01

    We investigated brain activity in 3-5-year-old preschoolers as they listened to connected speech stimuli in Japanese (first language), English (second language), and Chinese (a rarely exposed, foreign language) using near-infrared spectroscopy. Unlike the younger preschoolers who had been exposed to English for almost 1 year, brain activity in the bilateral frontal regions of the older preschoolers who had been exposed to English for almost 2 years was higher for Japanese and English speech stimuli than for Chinese. This tendency seemed to be similar to that observed in adults who had learned English for some years. These results indicate that exposure to a second language affects brain activity to language stimuli among preschoolers.

  1. Bearing Degradation Process Prediction Based on the Support Vector Machine and Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojiang Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the degradation process of bearings before they reach the failure threshold is extremely important in industry. This paper proposed a novel method based on the support vector machine (SVM and the Markov model to achieve this goal. Firstly, the features are extracted by time and time-frequency domain methods. However, the extracted original features are still with high dimensional and include superfluous information, and the nonlinear multifeatures fusion technique LTSA is used to merge the features and reduces the dimension. Then, based on the extracted features, the SVM model is used to predict the bearings degradation process, and the CAO method is used to determine the embedding dimension of the SVM model. After the bearing degradation process is predicted by SVM model, the Markov model is used to improve the prediction accuracy. The proposed method was validated by two bearing run-to-failure experiments, and the results proved the effectiveness of the methodology.

  2. Designing a Decision Making Support Information System for the Operational Control of Industrial Technological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Faradian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy logic is a new and innovative technology that was used in order to develop a realization of engineering control. In recent years, fuzzy logic proved its great potential especially applied to automatization of industrial process control, where it enables the control design to be formed based on experience of experts and results of experiments. The projects that have been realized reveal that the application of fuzzy logic in the technological process control has already provided us with better decisions compared to that of standard control technique. Fuzzy logic provides an opportunity to design an advisory system for decision-making based on operator experience and results of experiments not taking a mathematical model as a basis. The present work deals with a specific technological process ─ designing a support decision making information system for the operational control of the lime kiln with the use of fuzzy logic based on creation of the relevant expert-objective knowledge base.

  3. Analysis and Study of Parallel Processing Mode in VLDB Decision Support System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays, many kinds of computer network data management systems have been built widely in China. People have realized widely that management information system (MIS) has brought a revolution to the management mechanism. Moreover, the managers of company need wide-range and comprehensive decision information more and more urgently which is the character of information explosion era. The needs of users become harsher and harsher in the design of MIS, and these needs have brought new problems to the general designers of MIS. Furthermore, the current method of traditional database development can't solve so big and complex problems of wide-range and comprehensive information processing. This paper proposes the adoption of parallel processing mode, the built of new decision support system (DSS) is to discuss and analyze the problems of information collection, processing and the acquirement of full-merit information with cross-domain and cross-VLDB (very-large database).

  4. Multimodal Brain-Tumor Segmentation Based on Dirichlet Process Mixture Model with Anisotropic Diffusion and Markov Random Field Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-tumor segmentation is an important clinical requirement for brain-tumor diagnosis and radiotherapy planning. It is well-known that the number of clusters is one of the most important parameters for automatic segmentation. However, it is difficult to define owing to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue among different patients and the ambiguous boundaries of lesions. In this study, a nonparametric mixture of Dirichlet process (MDP model is applied to segment the tumor images, and the MDP segmentation can be performed without the initialization of the number of clusters. Because the classical MDP segmentation cannot be applied for real-time diagnosis, a new nonparametric segmentation algorithm combined with anisotropic diffusion and a Markov random field (MRF smooth constraint is proposed in this study. Besides the segmentation of single modal brain-tumor images, we developed the algorithm to segment multimodal brain-tumor images by the magnetic resonance (MR multimodal features and obtain the active tumor and edema in the same time. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using 32 multimodal MR glioma image sequences, and the segmentation results are compared with other approaches. The accuracy and computation time of our algorithm demonstrates very impressive performance and has a great potential for practical real-time clinical use.

  5. Tracking Neural Modulation Depth by Dual Sequential Monte Carlo Estimation on Point Processes for Brain-Machine Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; She, Xiwei; Liao, Yuxi; Li, Hongbao; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Zhang, Shaomin; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Principe, Jose

    2016-08-01

    Classic brain-machine interface (BMI) approaches decode neural signals from the brain responsible for achieving specific motor movements, which subsequently command prosthetic devices. Brain activities adaptively change during the control of the neuroprosthesis in BMIs, where the alteration of the preferred direction and the modulation of the gain depth are observed. The static neural tuning models have been limited by fixed codes, resulting in a decay of decoding performance over the course of the movement and subsequent instability in motor performance. To achieve stable performance, we propose a dual sequential Monte Carlo adaptive point process method, which models and decodes the gradually changing modulation depth of individual neuron over the course of a movement. We use multichannel neural spike trains from the primary motor cortex of a monkey trained to perform a target pursuit task using a joystick. Our results show that our computational approach successfully tracks the neural modulation depth over time with better goodness-of-fit than classic static neural tuning models, resulting in smaller errors between the true kinematics and the estimations in both simulated and real data. Our novel decoding approach suggests that the brain may employ such strategies to achieve stable motor output, i.e., plastic neural tuning is a feature of neural systems. BMI users may benefit from this adaptive algorithm to achieve more complex and controlled movement outcomes. PMID:26584486

  6. Performance Evaluation of Staged Bosch Process for CO2 Reduction to Produce Life Support Consumables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilekar, Saurabh A.; Hawley, Kyle; Junaedi, Christian; Walsh, Dennis; Roychoudhury, Subir; Abney. Morgan B.; Mansell, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing carbon dioxide to produce water and hence oxygen is critical for sustained manned missions in space, and to support both NASA's cabin Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) concepts. For long term missions beyond low Earth orbit, where resupply is significantly more difficult and costly, open loop ARS, like Sabatier, consume inputs such as hydrogen. The Bosch process, on the other hand, has the potential to achieve complete loop closure and is hence a preferred choice. However, current single stage Bosch reactor designs suffer from a large recycle penalty due to slow reaction rates and the inherent limitation in approaching thermodynamic equilibrium. Developmental efforts are seeking to improve upon the efficiency (hence reducing the recycle penalty) of current single stage Bosch reactors which employ traditional steel wool catalysts. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI), with support from NASA, has investigated the potential for utilizing catalysts supported over short-contact time Microlith substrates for the Bosch reaction to achieve faster reaction rates, higher conversions, and a reduced recycle flows. Proof-of-concept testing was accomplished for a staged Bosch process by splitting the chemistry in two separate reactors, first being the reverse water-gas-shift (RWGS) and the second being the carbon formation reactor (CFR) via hydrogenation and/or Boudouard. This paper presents the results from this feasibility study at various operating conditions. Additionally, results from two 70 hour durability tests for the RWGS reactor are discussed.

  7. Preparation and Support of Patients through the Transplant Process: Understanding the Recipients' Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Mauthner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation for heart transplant commonly includes booklets, instructional videos, personalized teaching sessions, and mentorship. This paper explores heart transplant recipients’ thoughts on their preparation and support through the transplant process. Twenty-five interviews were audio-/videotaped capturing voice and body language and transcribed verbatim. Coding addressed language, bodily gesture, volume, and tone in keeping with our visual methodology. Recipients reported that only someone who had a transplant truly understands the experience. As participants face illness and life-altering experiences, maintaining a positive attitude and hope is essential to coping well. Healthcare professionals provide ongoing care and reassurance about recipients’ medical status. Mentors, family members, and close friends play vital roles in supporting recipients. Participants reported that only heart transplant recipients understood the experience, the hope, and ultimately the suffering associated with living with another persons’ heart. Attention needs to be focused not solely on the use of teaching modalities, but also on the development of innovative support networks. This will promote patient and caregiver engagement in self-management. Enhancing clinicians’ knowledge of the existential aspects of transplantation will provide them with a nuanced understanding of the patients’ experience, which will ultimately enhance their ability to better prepare and support patients and their caregivers.

  8. Supported cobalt dicarbollide process for F-element separation and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobalt dicarbollide, an extremely strong anion, was first utilized in a solvent extraction process in 1975 by Kyrs, and developed in Czechoslovakia by Kyrs, Rais, Selucky and co-workers at NRI. The process was further refined and demonstrated in Russia to remove fission products from Purex waste. Until recently, the process did not interest U.S. investigators because it utilized nitrobenzene as a diluent. To overcome the use of a hazardous diluent, a new supported dicarbollide process (SDP) was jointly invented by the authors in 1992. Results from laboratory tests of the SDP for cesium, strontium and f-element removal from aqueous solutions (over a wide pH range) are very encouraging. The SDP operates without significant loss of the extractant and modifier to the aqueous effluent compared to the solvent extraction mode, and it combines the advantages of solvent extraction, such as high selectivity, with the advantages of ion exchange processes, such as large number of theoretical plates. This paper will present results to date of the testing of the process

  9. Frontiers for the Early Diagnosis of AD by Means of MRI Brain Imaging and Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Christian; Battista, Petronilla; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) as a consequence of increasing aging population makes urgent the availability of methods for the early and accurate diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) could be used as in vivo, non invasive tool to identify sensitive and specific markers of very early AD progression. In recent years, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and machine- learning algorithms have attracted strong interest within the neuroimaging community, as they allow automatic classification of imaging data with higher performance than univariate statistical analysis. An exhaustive search of PubMed, Web of Science and Medline records was performed in this work, in order to retrieve studies focused on the potential role of MRI in aiding the clinician in early diagnosis of AD by using Support Vector Machines (SVMs) as MVPA automated classification method. A total of 30 studies emerged, published from 2008 to date. This review aims to give a state-of-the-art overview about SVM for the early and differential diagnosis of AD-related pathologies by means of MRI data, starting from preliminary steps such as image pre-processing, feature extraction and feature selection, and ending with classification, validation strategies and extraction of MRI-related biomarkers. The main advantages and drawbacks of the different techniques were explored. Results obtained by the reviewed studies were reported in terms of classification performance and biomarker outcomes, in order to shed light on the parameters that accompany normal and pathological aging. Unresolved issues and possible future directions were finally pointed out. PMID:26567735

  10. Perlite as a potential support for nickel catalyst in the process of sunflower oil hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonjić, V.; Krstić, J.; Lončarević, D.; Jovanović, D.; Vukelić, N.; Stanković, M.; Nikolova, D.; Gabrovska, M.

    2015-12-01

    Investigation was conducted in order to elucidate the possibility of using perlite as support for preparation of nickel based precursor catalyst, potentially applicable in vegetable oil hydrogenation process. On three differently prepared expanded perlite, nickel catalyst precursors with identical Ni/SiO2 = 1.1 and Ni/Mg = 10/1 ratios were synthesized by precipitation-deposition method. Different techniques, SEM micrography, He-pycnometry, calcimetry, Hg-porosimetry, N2-physisorption, H2-chemisorption and temperature programmed reduction, were used for characterization of obtained samples. Determining the precursor texture, morphology and reducibility shows a successfully deposited nickel phase on perlite support with promising properties for vegetable oil hydrogenation. Chosen precursor was reduced and passivated in paraffin oil and the obtained catalyst showed significant catalytic activity in the test of sunflower oil hydrogenation.

  11. White Matter Maturation Supports the Development of Reasoning Ability through Its Influence on Processing Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Emilio; Whitaker, Kirstie J.; Steele, Joel S.; Green, Chloe T.; Wendelken, Carter; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the human brain changes in several ways throughout childhood and adolescence. Perhaps the most salient of these changes is the strengthening of white matter tracts that enable distal brain regions to communicate with one another more quickly and efficiently. Here, we sought to understand whether and how white matter changes…

  12. Ultrafast laser processing of transparent materials supported by in-situ diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumkar, M.; Kaiser, M.; Kleiner, J.; Grossmann, D.; Flamm, D.; Bergner, K.; Nolte, S.

    2016-03-01

    For the development of industrial NIR ultrafast laser processing of transparent materials, the absorption inside the bulk material has to be controlled. Applications we aim for are front and rear side ablation, drilling and inscription of modifications for cleaving and selective laser etching of glass and sapphire in sheet geometry. We applied pump probe technology and in situ stress birefringence microscopy for fundamental studies on the influence of energy and duration (100 fs - 20 ps), temporal and spatial spacing, focusing and beam shaping of the laser pulses. Applying pump probe technique we are able to visualize differences of spatio-temporal build up of absorption, self focusing, shock wave generation for standard, multispot and beam shaped focusing. Incubation effects and disturbance of beam propagation due to modifications or ablation can be observed. In-situ imaging of stress birefringence gained insight in transient build up of stress with and without translation. The results achieved so far, demonstrate that transient stress has to be taken into account in scaling the laser machining throughput of brittle materials. Furthermore it points out that transient stress birefringence is a good indicator for accumulation effects, supporting tailored processing strategies. Cutting results achieved for selective laser etching by single pass laser modification exemplifies the benefits of process development supported by in situ diagnostics.

  13. Synchrotron supported DEI/KES of a brain tumor in an animal model: The search for a microimaging modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, K. A.; Schültke, E.; Menk, R. H.; Siu, K.; Pavlov, K.; Kelly, M.; McLoughlin, G.; Beveridge, T.; Tromba, G.; Juurlink, B. H.; Chapman, D.; Rigon, L.; Griebel, R. W.

    2005-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the commonest and most aggressive primary brain tumor in humans. The high rate of tumor recurrence results in a poor prognosis despite multimodality treatment. One reason for high rate of recurrence is the invasive nature of the tumor into the surrounding normal brain tissue or multifocal occurrence at sites remote from that of the primary tumor establishment. Existing imaging demonstrates the primary tumor but fail to show the residual tumor microaggregates left behind following initial treatment. In this study, we employed diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) in an attempt to find an imaging modality that will provide visualization of residual disease that is not be apparent on MRI or CT scans.

  14. First and Second Language in the Brain: Neuronal Correlates of Language Processing and Spelling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Patricia; Kozel, Nadja; Purgstaller, Christian; Kargl, Reinhard; Schwab, Daniela; Fink, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This study explores oscillatory brain activity by means of event-related synchronization and desynchronization (%ERS/ERD) of EEG activity during the use of phonological and orthographic-morphological spelling strategies in L2 (English) and L1 (German) in native German speaking children. EEG was recorded while 33 children worked on a task requiring…

  15. Impaired social brain network for processing dynamic facial expressions in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Wataru

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impairment of social interaction via facial expressions represents a core clinical feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. However, the neural correlates of this dysfunction remain unidentified. Because this dysfunction is manifested in real-life situations, we hypothesized that the observation of dynamic, compared with static, facial expressions would reveal abnormal brain functioning in individuals with ASD. We presented dynamic and static facial expressions of fear and happiness to individuals with high-functioning ASD and to age- and sex-matched typically developing controls and recorded their brain activities using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Result Regional analysis revealed reduced activation of several brain regions in the ASD group compared with controls in response to dynamic versus static facial expressions, including the middle temporal gyrus (MTG, fusiform gyrus, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG. Dynamic causal modeling analyses revealed that bi-directional effective connectivity involving the primary visual cortex–MTG–IFG circuit was enhanced in response to dynamic as compared with static facial expressions in the control group. Group comparisons revealed that all these modulatory effects were weaker in the ASD group than in the control group. Conclusions These results suggest that weak activity and connectivity of the social brain network underlie the impairment in social interaction involving dynamic facial expressions in individuals with ASD.

  16. Explaining Pragmatic Performance in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Process Perspective on Communicative Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Francesca M.; Angeleri, Romina; Sacco, Katiuscia; Bara, Bruno G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the pragmatic abilities of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Several studies in the literature have previously reported communicative deficits in individuals with TBI, however such research has focused principally on communicative deficits in general, without providing an…

  17. Integral Public Activities as a Support to the Site Selection Process for LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first site selection process for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository took place between 1990 and 1993 in Slovenia was stopped unsuccessfully with very strong public opposition at local level, followed by political withdrawal on national level. As one of the consequences ARAO started to develop new approach to the site selection based also on the findings from sociology, psychology and other human sciences. The recommendations on public involvement and transparency were so strong that ARAO started with first limited public relation (PR) activities which later grew to the PR process which supports all technical activities in ARAO. Presently the PR process covers communication, information and research activities and assures careful planning, prompt responds and involvement of the highest responsible persons at ARAO. Integral public relation activities are divided in several parts. Majority of activities support the on-going site selection process where activities are presently focused on functioning of local partnerships developed as a basic communication tool to involve as much citizens and public as possible on local level. Presently two local partnerships are working in Krsko and Brezice community with clear role to enhance public involvement according to Aarchus convention. Each of the partnerships is organized in a specific way adjusted to the local needs. Communication activities are organized also for different other projects and are preparing the necessary basis for the work with different groups of stake holders and in different situations. As a foundation very broad information material, such as books, leaflets, reports, magazines, video cassettes, CD and DVD on the radioactive waste management is prepared and used for different purposes. We also try to be proactive with web pages and have a well organized visitors' center. Improvement of public relation process is achieved through constant survey and feed-back information

  18. Process on Drug Delivery for Brain Targeting%脑靶向制剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振振; 陆洋; 杜守颖

    2012-01-01

    介绍了近年来脑靶向制剂的研究现状,为新型中药脑靶向制剂的研究和开发提供参考.通过查阅国内外相关文献资料并进行分析、归纳和总结,解释了血脑屏障的生理结构特点,介绍了常用的促进药物透过血脑屏障的方法;通过了解脑靶向制剂的给药方式及新剂型研究(β-环糊精包合物、前体药物、脂质体、纳米粒、微乳、原位凝胶),阐述了中药经鼻腔给药发挥中枢治疗作用的优势和可行性,认为中药在脑靶向给药方面必将有更加广阔的应用前景.%Process on drug delivery for brain targeting was summarized to provide basis for traditional Chinese mediline (TCM). Literatures about the development of brain-targeted preparation in recent years were reviewed and analyzed. This paper not only described the physiological structure characteristics of blood-brain-barrier, but also introduced some common methods for promoting drugs through the blood-brain-barrier. The paper also described the administration methods and new preparations (?CD, prodrug, liposomes, nanoparticles, micro emulsion, in situ gel) to understand the advantages and feasibility of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) nasal administration. Brain-targeted preparations of TCM had wide development prospect.

  19. Standardized environmental enrichment supports enhanced brain plasticity in healthy rats and prevents cognitive impairment in epileptic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat P Fares

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage, which offers: (1 minimally stressful social interactions; (2 increased voluntary exercise; (3 multiple entertaining activities; (4 cognitive stimulation (maze exploration, and (5 novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week. The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories.

  20. PROMO: a computerized tool to support process monitoring activities -application in CANDU simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PROMO, a prototype computerized PROcess MOnitoring tool, has been designed for the resolution of perceived complexity under conditions of time constraints and criticality. It is suggested that this makes it uniquely suitable for applications such as nuclear power plant operator training and support. This paper describes the tool, the theory underlying its design, and results from preliminary laboratory experiments. While field tests are necessary prior to the drawing of conclusions, the results from the laboratory trials are promising. Efforts are currently underway to extend the research setting to power plant operator training centers. (author). 57 refs., 1 fig

  1. Fuzzy model of the computer integrated decision support and management system in mineral processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljanović Igor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the research on the subject of computer integrated systems for decision making and management support in mineral processing based on fuzzy logic, realized at the Department of Applied Computing and System Engineering of the Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, for the needs of doctoral thesis of the first author, and wider demands of the mineral industry, the incompleteness of the developed and contemporary computer integrated systems fuzzy models was noticed. The paper presents an original model with the seven staged hierarchical monitoring-management structure, in which the shortcomings of the models utilized today were eliminated.

  2. Configuration Management (CM) Support for KM Processes at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioletti, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Collection and processing of information are critical aspects of every business activity from raw data to information to an executable decision. Configuration Management (CM) supports KM practices through its automated business practices and its integrated operations within the organization. This presentation delivers an overview of JSC/Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and its methods to encourage innovation through collaboration and participation. Specifically, this presentation will illustrate how SLSD CM creates an embedded KM activity with an established IT platform to control and update baselines, requirements, documents, schedules, budgets, while tracking changes essentially managing critical knowledge elements.

  3. Manyscale Computing for Sensor Processing in Support of Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, M.; Chapman, W.; Hayden, E.; Sahni, S.; Ranka, S.

    2014-09-01

    Increasing image and signal data burden associated with sensor data processing in support of space situational awareness implies continuing computational throughput growth beyond the petascale regime. In addition to growing applications data burden and diversity, the breadth, diversity and scalability of high performance computing architectures and their various organizations challenge the development of a single, unifying, practicable model of parallel computation. Therefore, models for scalable parallel processing have exploited architectural and structural idiosyncrasies, yielding potential misapplications when legacy programs are ported among such architectures. In response to this challenge, we have developed a concise, efficient computational paradigm and software called Manyscale Computing to facilitate efficient mapping of annotated application codes to heterogeneous parallel architectures. Our theory, algorithms, software, and experimental results support partitioning and scheduling of application codes for envisioned parallel architectures, in terms of work atoms that are mapped (for example) to threads or thread blocks on computational hardware. Because of the rigor, completeness, conciseness, and layered design of our manyscale approach, application-to-architecture mapping is feasible and scalable for architectures at petascales, exascales, and above. Further, our methodology is simple, relying primarily on a small set of primitive mapping operations and support routines that are readily implemented on modern parallel processors such as graphics processing units (GPUs) and hybrid multi-processors (HMPs). In this paper, we overview the opportunities and challenges of manyscale computing for image and signal processing in support of space situational awareness applications. We discuss applications in terms of a layered hardware architecture (laboratory > supercomputer > rack > processor > component hierarchy). Demonstration applications include

  4. Computer-Based Support of Decision Making Processes during Biological Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Antos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes contextual analysis of a general system that should provide a computerized support of decision making processes related to response operations in case of a biological incident. This analysis is focused on information systems and information resources perspective and their integration using appropriate tools and technology. In the contextual design the basic modules of BioDSS system are suggested and further elaborated. The modules deal with incident description, scenarios development and recommendation of appropriate countermeasures. Proposals for further research are also included.

  5. Enabling Support of Collaborative Cross-enterprise Business Processes for Legacy ERP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundars Alksnis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to create innovative business products, share knowledge between people and businesses, or increase the control and quality of services, more and more often enterprise business processes involve in collaborations by delegating or providing some pieces of work to other enterprises. Necessity to cooperate in the cross-enterprise setting leads to Collaborative Business Processes (CBPs. The difference between CBPs and Business Processes (BPs is in the decentralized coordination, flexible backward recovery, participants notification about the state, efficient adaptability to changes, presence of multiple information systems, and individual authorization settings. In the paper we consider a specific case of CBPs where multiple collaborating partners use Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP system of the same vendor. The vendor can see (e.g., monitor the changes of data elements, but does not have explicit process awareness in the ERP system to support flow of activities in the cross-enterprise setting. The paper also discusses different settings of cross-enterprise CBP and shows simplified enterprise models behind the vendor possibilities to positively impact collaborative processes. The restrictions of the vendor are implicit information flows in BP, diversity of ERP integrations with third party Information Systems (IS, the lack of mechanisms for monitoring BP instances, backward recovery, user notification about the current state and tasks, and inability to make explicit changes in customers’ ISs.

  6. Modeling Causal Relationship Between Brain Regions Within the Drug-Cue Processing Network in Chronic Cocaine Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suchismita; Haney, Margaret; Hanson, Catherine; Biswal, Bharat; Hanson, Stephen José

    2015-12-01

    The cues associated with drugs of abuse have an essential role in perpetuating problematic use, yet effective connectivity or the causal interaction between brain regions mediating the processing of drug cues has not been defined. The aim of this fMRI study was to model the causal interaction between brain regions within the drug-cue processing network in chronic cocaine smokers and matched control participants during a cocaine-cue exposure task. Specifically, cocaine-smoking (15M; 5F) and healthy control (13M; 4F) participants viewed cocaine and neutral cues while in the scanner (a Siemens 3 T magnet). We examined whole brain activation, including activation related to drug-cue processing. Time series data extracted from ROIs determined through our General Linear Model (GLM) analysis and prior publications were used as input to IMaGES, a computationally powerful Bayesian search algorithm. During cocaine-cue exposure, cocaine users showed a particular feed-forward effective connectivity pattern between the ROIs of the drug-cue processing network (amygdala → hippocampus → dorsal striatum → insula → medial frontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex) that was not present when the controls viewed the cocaine cues. Cocaine craving ratings positively correlated with the strength of the causal influence of the insula on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cocaine users. This study is the first demonstration of a causal interaction between ROIs within the drug-cue processing network in cocaine users. This study provides insight into the mechanism underlying continued substance use and has implications for monitoring treatment response.

  7. Modeling Causal Relationship Between Brain Regions Within the Drug-Cue Processing Network in Chronic Cocaine Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suchismita; Haney, Margaret; Hanson, Catherine; Biswal, Bharat; Hanson, Stephen José

    2015-12-01

    The cues associated with drugs of abuse have an essential role in perpetuating problematic use, yet effective connectivity or the causal interaction between brain regions mediating the processing of drug cues has not been defined. The aim of this fMRI study was to model the causal interaction between brain regions within the drug-cue processing network in chronic cocaine smokers and matched control participants during a cocaine-cue exposure task. Specifically, cocaine-smoking (15M; 5F) and healthy control (13M; 4F) participants viewed cocaine and neutral cues while in the scanner (a Siemens 3 T magnet). We examined whole brain activation, including activation related to drug-cue processing. Time series data extracted from ROIs determined through our General Linear Model (GLM) analysis and prior publications were used as input to IMaGES, a computationally powerful Bayesian search algorithm. During cocaine-cue exposure, cocaine users showed a particular feed-forward effective connectivity pattern between the ROIs of the drug-cue processing network (amygdala → hippocampus → dorsal striatum → insula → medial frontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex) that was not present when the controls viewed the cocaine cues. Cocaine craving ratings positively correlated with the strength of the causal influence of the insula on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cocaine users. This study is the first demonstration of a causal interaction between ROIs within the drug-cue processing network in cocaine users. This study provides insight into the mechanism underlying continued substance use and has implications for monitoring treatment response. PMID:26038158

  8. An assessment of patient safety in acupuncture process under EMR support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Chang; Hung, Ming-Chien; Hsiao, Shih-Jung; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Chang, Mei-Man

    2011-12-01

    With the facilitating roles of IT, this study is to investigate the safety issues of the acupuncture process in the current practices under EMR support. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in 80 Chinese medicine practice hospitals and clinics in Taiwan. Concerns over patient safety during the acupuncture process were raised, such as an inconsistency between the practice and prescription and a lack of monitoring patient's condition during the treatment. Confirming the physicians' prescription and documenting patients' reaction for patient record management are needed to add to the EMR system for patient safety while performing acupuncture. The results of this study can be used by the government or medical institutes to assess the work flow and set up standards of EMRs design for their acupuncture treatment to ensure patient safety and to enhance healthcare quality.

  9. Fault Detection and Diagnosis in Process Data Using Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the complex industrial process, it has become increasingly challenging to effectively diagnose complicated faults. In this paper, a combined measure of the original Support Vector Machine (SVM and Principal Component Analysis (PCA is provided to carry out the fault classification, and compare its result with what is based on SVM-RFE (Recursive Feature Elimination method. RFE is used for feature extraction, and PCA is utilized to project the original data onto a lower dimensional space. PCA T2, SPE statistics, and original SVM are proposed to detect the faults. Some common faults of the Tennessee Eastman Process (TEP are analyzed in terms of the practical system and reflections of the dataset. PCA-SVM and SVM-RFE can effectively detect and diagnose these common faults. In RFE algorithm, all variables are decreasingly ordered according to their contributions. The classification accuracy rate is improved by choosing a reasonable number of features.

  10. Analysis of Space Shuttle Ground Support System Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery Processes and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael; Trent, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the FDIR (Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery) Project for the Constellation Program, a task was designed within the context of the Constellation Program FDIR project called the Legacy Benchmarking Task to document as accurately as possible the FDIR processes and resources that were used by the Space Shuttle ground support equipment (GSE) during the Shuttle flight program. These results served as a comparison with results obtained from the new FDIR capability. The task team assessed Shuttle and EELV (Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle) historical data for GSE-related launch delays to identify expected benefits and impact. This analysis included a study of complex fault isolation situations that required a lengthy troubleshooting process. Specifically, four elements of that system were considered: LH2 (liquid hydrogen), LO2 (liquid oxygen), hydraulic test, and ground special power.

  11. Process Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Puerarin Based on Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Chen; Xiaoyi Huang; Yanlei Qi; Xin Qi; Qing Guo

    2014-01-01

    In ultrasonic extraction technology, optimization of technical parameters often considers extraction medium only, without including ultrasonic parameters. This paper focuses on controlling the ultrasonic extraction process of puerarin, investigating the influence of ultrasonic parameters on extraction rate, and empirical y analyzing the main components of Pueraria, i.e., isoflavone compounds. A method is presented combining orthogonal experi-mental design with a support vector machine and a predictive model is established for optimization of technical parameters. From the analysis with the predictive model, appropriate process parameters are achieved for higher extraction rate. With these parameters in the ultrasonic extraction of puerarin, the experimental result is satisfactory. This method is of significance to the study of extracting root-stock plant medicines.

  12. UML Profile for Mining Process: Supporting Modeling and Simulation Based on Metamodels of Activity Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giubergia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An UML profile describes lightweight extension mechanism to the UML by defining custom stereotypes, tagged values, and constraints. They are used to adapt UML metamodel to different platforms and domains. In this paper we present an UML profile for models supporting event driving simulation. In particular, we use the Arena simulation tool and we focus on the mining process domain. Profiles provide an easy way to obtain well-defined specifications, regulated by the Object Management Group (OMG. They can be used as a presimulation technique to obtain solid models for the mining industry. In this work we present a new profile to extend the UML metamodel; in particular we focus on the activity diagram. This extended model is applied to an industry problem involving loading and transportation of minerals in the field of mining process.

  13. Transgenic Rat Model of Huntington’s Disease: A Histopathological Study and Correlations with Neurodegenerative Process in the Brain of HD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvona Mazurová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats transgenic for Huntington’s disease (tgHD51 CAG rats, surviving up to two years, represent an animal model of HD similar to the late-onset form of human disease. This enables us to follow histopathological changes in course of neurodegenerative process (NDP within the striatum and compare them with postmortem samples of human HD brains. A basic difference between HD pathology in human and tgHD51 rats is in the rate of NDP progression that originates primarily from slow neuronal degeneration consequently resulting in lesser extent of concomitant reactive gliosis in the brain of tgHD51 rats. Although larger amount of striatal neurons displays only gradual decrease in their size, their number is significantly reduced in the oldest tgHD51 rats. Our quantitative analysis proved that the end of the first year represents the turn in the development of morphological changes related to the progression of NDP in tgHD51 rats. Our data also support the view that all types of CNS glial cells play an important, irreplaceable role in NDP. To the best of our knowledge, our findings are the first to document that tgHD51 CAG rats can be used as a valid animal model for detailed histopathological studies related to HD in human.

  14. Potential means of support for materials processing in space. A history of government support for new technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckannan, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    Development of a given technology for national defense and large systems developments when the task is too large or risky for entrepreneurs, yet is clearly in the best interest of the nation are discussed. Advanced research to identify areas of interest was completed. Examples of commercial opportunities are the McDonnell-Douglas Corporation purification process for pharmaceutical products and the Microgravity Research Associates process for growing gallium arsenide crystals in space.

  15. A THEORETICAL MODEL OF SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT WORK PROCESSES FOR MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Gennadevna Pronyushkina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the management of production team, in particular the developed theoretical model of socio-psychological support work processes for management of production team. The author of the research are formulated the purpose and objectives of social-psychological work on management of the production team. Developed in the study a theoretical model aimed at determining the conditions and the identification of features of effective management of the enterprise taking into account the socio-psychological characteristics of its staff. Tasks include: definition of the main characteristics of the production team and their severity, the analysis of these characteristics and identifying opportunities for their transformation, development of recommendations for management of social-psychological work on effects on the characteristics of the collective enterprise.Practical study of the activities of a number of businesses have shown the need to improve socio-psychological support of management processes production team: introducing a social and psychological planning team and develop the practice of sociological research on the state of the team, to ensure the smoothing of relations between workers and management through periodic meetings, creations of conditions for feedback, maintaining healthy competition among team members.

  16. Characterization of platinum catalyst supported on carbon nanoballs prepared by solution plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve the energy-conversion efficiency in fuel cells, the authors loaded Pt nanoparticles on carbon nanoballs (CNBs) by using solution plasma processing (SPP) involving CNB and Pt ion with a protection group. In this study, we employed poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to prepare Pt nanoparticles supported on CNB (Pt/CNB) by the SPP, and the electrochemical properties as a catalyst was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. The carbon nanoballs were prepared by thermal decomposition process of ethylene and hydrogen gases. Color of the solution changed from yellow to dark brown as synthesis time. This change indicates the improvement of dispersibility of CNB. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy images and elemental mapping images showed the Pt nanoparticles supported on CNB. A catalytic activity of the Pt/CNB in use of SDS was shown to be higher than the Pt/CNB prepared with PVP system. The SDS-containing Pt/CNB also showed the higher activity than that obtained by the conventional method.

  17. Organic Micropollutants Removal from Water by Oxidation and Other Processes:QSAR Models, Decision Support System and Hybrids of Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Sudhakaran, Sairam

    2013-08-01

    The presence of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in water is of great environmental concern. OMPs such as endocrine disruptors and certain pharmaceuticals have shown alarming effects on aquatic life. OMPs are included in the priority list of contaminants in several government directorate frameworks. The low levels of OMPs concentration (ng/L to μg/L) force the use of sophisticated analytical instruments. Although, the techniques to detect OMPs are progressing, the focus of current research is only on limited, important OMPs due to the high amount of time, cost and effort involved in analyzing them. Alternatively, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models help to screen processes and propose appropriate options without considerable experimental effort. QSAR models are well-established in regulatory bodies as a method to screen toxic chemicals. The goal of the present thesis was to develop QSAR models for OMPs removal by oxidation. Apart from the QSAR models, a decision support system (DSS) based on multi-criteria analysis (MCA) involving socio-economic-technical and sustainability aspects was developed. Also, hybrids of different water treatment processes were studied to propose a sustainable water treatment train for OMPs removal. In order to build the QSAR models, the ozone/hydroxyl radical rate constants or percent removals of the OMPs were compiled. Several software packages were used to 5 compute the chemical properties of OMPs and perform statistical analyses. For DSS, MCA was used since it allows the comparison of qualitative (non-monetary, non-metric) and quantitative criteria (e.g., costs). Quadrant plots were developed to study the hybrid of natural and advanced water treatment processes. The QSAR models satisfied both chemical and statistical criteria. The DSS resulted in natural treatment and ozonation as the preferred processes for OMPs removal. The QSAR models can be used as a screening tool for OMPs removal by oxidation. Moreover, the

  18. Processing information about support exchanges in close relationships: The role of a knowledge structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent eTuran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available People develop knowledge of interpersonal interaction patterns (e.g., prototypes and schemas, which shape how they process incoming information. One such knowledge structure based on attachment theory was examined: the secure base script (the prototypic sequence of events when an attachment figure comforts a close relationship partner in distress. In two studies (N = 53 and N = 119, participants were shown animated film clips in which geometric figures depicted the secure base script and asked to describe the animations. Both studies found that many people readily recognize the secure-base script from these minimal cues quite well, suggesting that this script is not only available in the context of specific relationships (i.e., a relationship-specific knowledge: The generalized (abstract structure of the script is also readily accessible, which would make it possible to apply it to any relationship (including new relationships. Regression analyses suggested that participants who recognized the script were more likely to (a include more animation elements when describing the animations, (b see a common theme in different animations, (c create better organized stories, and (d later recall more details of the animations. These findings suggest that access to this knowledge structure helps a person organize and remember relevant incoming information. Furthermore, in both Study 1 and Study 2, individual differences in the ready recognition of the script were associated with individual differences in having access to another related knowledge: indicators suggesting that a potential relationship partner can be trusted to be supportive and responsive at times of stress. Results of Study 2 also suggest that recognizing the script is associated with those items of an attachment measure that concern giving and receiving support. Thus, these knowledge structures may shape how people process support-relevant information in their everyday lives, potentially

  19. Processing Information about Support Exchanges in Close Relationships: The Role of a Knowledge Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    People develop knowledge of interpersonal interaction patterns (e.g., prototypes and schemas), which shape how they process incoming information. One such knowledge structure based on attachment theory was examined: the secure base script (the prototypic sequence of events when an attachment figure comforts a close relationship partner in distress). In two studies (N = 53 and N = 119), participants were shown animated film clips in which geometric figures depicted the secure base script and asked to describe the animations. Both studies found that many people readily recognize the secure-base script from these minimal cues quite well, suggesting that this script is not only available in the context of specific relationships (i.e., a relationship-specific knowledge): The generalized (abstract) structure of the script is also readily accessible, which would make it possible to apply it to any relationship (including new relationships). Regression analyses suggested that participants who recognized the script were more likely to (a) include more animation elements when describing the animations, (b) see a common theme in different animations, (c) create better organized stories, and (d) later recall more details of the animations. These findings suggest that access to this knowledge structure helps a person organize and remember relevant incoming information. Furthermore, in both Study 1 and Study 2, individual differences in the ready recognition of the script were associated with individual differences in having access to another related knowledge: indicators suggesting that a potential relationship partner can be trusted to be supportive and responsive at times of stress. Results of Study 2 also suggest that recognizing the script is associated with those items of an attachment measure that concern giving and receiving support. Thus, these knowledge structures may shape how people process support-relevant information in their everyday lives, potentially affecting

  20. Active In-Database Processing to Support Ambient Assisted Living Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner O. de Morais

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to the existing software architectures that underpin the development of smart homes and ambient assisted living (AAL systems, this work presents a database-centric architecture that takes advantage of active databases and in-database processing. Current platforms supporting AAL systems use database management systems (DBMSs exclusively for data storage. Active databases employ database triggers to detect and react to events taking place inside or outside of the database. DBMSs can be extended with stored procedures and functions that enable in-database processing. This means that the data processing is integrated and performed within the DBMS. The feasibility and flexibility of the proposed approach were demonstrated with the implementation of three distinct AAL services. The active database was used to detect bed-exits and to discover common room transitions and deviations during the night. In-database machine learning methods were used to model early night behaviors. Consequently, active in-database processing avoids transferring sensitive data outside the database, and this improves performance, security and privacy. Furthermore, centralizing the computation into the DBMS facilitates code reuse, adaptation and maintenance. These are important system properties that take into account the evolving heterogeneity of users, their needs and the devices that are characteristic of smart homes and AAL systems. Therefore, DBMSs can provide capabilities to address requirements for scalability, security, privacy, dependability and personalization in applications of smart environments in healthcare.

  1. Impaired social brain network for processing dynamic facial expressions in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sato Wataru; Toichi Motomi; Uono Shota; Kochiyama Takanori

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Impairment of social interaction via facial expressions represents a core clinical feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the neural correlates of this dysfunction remain unidentified. Because this dysfunction is manifested in real-life situations, we hypothesized that the observation of dynamic, compared with static, facial expressions would reveal abnormal brain functioning in individuals with ASD. We presented dynamic and static facial expressions of fear ...

  2. Neural Processing of Calories in Brain Reward Areas Can be Modulated by Reward Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    van Rijn, Inge; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Paul A.M. Smeets

    2016-01-01

    A food's reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food's acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015), in which participants (n = 30) tasted simpl...

  3. Neural processing of calories in brain reward areas can be modulated by reward sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Inge eVan Rijn; Sanne eGriffioen-Roose; Cees ede Graaf; Paul A.M. Smeets

    2016-01-01

    A food’s reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food’s acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015), in which participants (n=30) tasted simple ...

  4. An event-related brain potential study of schizotypal personality and associative semantic processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kiang, Michael; Prugh, Jocelyn; Kutas, Marta

    2009-01-01

    To examine whether schizotypal personality is associated with the degree to which concepts activate each other in semantic memory, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a delayed lexical decision task from healthy volunteers rated for schizotypy. Each target word was directly, indirectly, or not at all related to a prime word preceding it at a 300- or 750-ms stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA). Overall, N400 amplitudes were largest for unrelated targets, smallest for directly...

  5. Diffusion MRI of the neonate brain: acquisition, processing and analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannek, Kerstin [University of Queensland, Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland, School of Medicine, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland, Centre for Advanced Imaging, Brisbane (Australia); Guzzetta, Andrea [IRCCS Stella Maris, Department of Developmental Neuroscience, Calambrone Pisa (Italy); Colditz, Paul B. [University of Queensland, Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland, Perinatal Research Centre, Brisbane (Australia); Rose, Stephen E. [University of Queensland, Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland, Centre for Advanced Imaging, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia)

    2012-10-15

    Diffusion MRI (dMRI) is a popular noninvasive imaging modality for the investigation of the neonate brain. It enables the assessment of white matter integrity, and is particularly suited for studying white matter maturation in the preterm and term neonate brain. Diffusion tractography allows the delineation of white matter pathways and assessment of connectivity in vivo. In this review, we address the challenges of performing and analysing neonate dMRI. Of particular importance in dMRI analysis is adequate data preprocessing to reduce image distortions inherent to the acquisition technique, as well as artefacts caused by head movement. We present a summary of techniques that should be used in the preprocessing of neonate dMRI data, and demonstrate the effect of these important correction steps. Furthermore, we give an overview of available analysis techniques, ranging from voxel-based analysis of anisotropy metrics including tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to recently developed methods of statistical analysis addressing issues of resolving complex white matter architecture. We highlight the importance of resolving crossing fibres for tractography and outline several tractography-based techniques, including connectivity-based segmentation, the connectome and tractography mapping. These techniques provide powerful tools for the investigation of brain development and maturation. (orig.)

  6. Systems biology and brain activity in neuronal pathways by smart device and advanced signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Gastone; Intrator, Nathan; Remondini, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary biomedicine is producing large amount of data, especially within the fields of “omic” sciences. Nevertheless, other fields, such as neuroscience, are producing similar amount of data by using non-invasive techniques such as imaging, functional magnetic resonance and electroencephalography. Nowadays a big challenge and a new research horizon for Systems Biology is to develop methods to integrate and model this data in an unifying framework capable to disentangle this amazing complexity. In this paper we show how methods from genomic data analysis can be applied to brain data. In particular the concept of pathways, networks and multiplex are discussed. These methods can lead to a clear distinction of various regimes of brain activity. Moreover, this method could be the basis for a Systems Biology analysis of brain data and for the integration of these data in a multivariate and multidimensional framework. The feasibility of this integration is strongly dependent from the feature extraction method used. In our case we used an “alphabet” derived from a multi-resolution analysis that is capable to capture the most relevant information from these complex signals. PMID:25206359

  7. Diffusion MRI of the neonate brain: acquisition, processing and analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannek, Kerstin; Guzzetta, Andrea; Colditz, Paul B; Rose, Stephen E

    2012-10-01

    Diffusion MRI (dMRI) is a popular noninvasive imaging modality for the investigation of the neonate brain. It enables the assessment of white matter integrity, and is particularly suited for studying white matter maturation in the preterm and term neonate brain. Diffusion tractography allows the delineation of white matter pathways and assessment of connectivity in vivo. In this review, we address the challenges of performing and analysing neonate dMRI. Of particular importance in dMRI analysis is adequate data preprocessing to reduce image distortions inherent to the acquisition technique, as well as artefacts caused by head movement. We present a summary of techniques that should be used in the preprocessing of neonate dMRI data, and demonstrate the effect of these important correction steps. Furthermore, we give an overview of available analysis techniques, ranging from voxel-based analysis of anisotropy metrics including tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to recently developed methods of statistical analysis addressing issues of resolving complex white matter architecture. We highlight the importance of resolving crossing fibres for tractography and outline several tractography-based techniques, including connectivity-based segmentation, the connectome and tractography mapping. These techniques provide powerful tools for the investigation of brain development and maturation. PMID:22903761

  8. Systems Biology and brain activity in neuronal pathways by smart device and advanced signal processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastone eCastellani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary biomedicine is producing large amount of data, especially within the fields of omic sciences. Nevertheless, other fields, such as neuroscience, are producing similar amount of data by using non invasive techniques such as imaging, Functional Magnetic Resonance and Electroencephalography. Nowadays a big challenge and a new research horizon for Systems Biology is to develop methods to integrate and model this data in an unifying framework capable to disentangle this amazing complexity. In this paper we show how methods from genomic data analysis can be applied to brain data. In particular the concept of pathways, networks and multiplex are discussed. These methods can lead to a clear distinction of various regimes of brain activity. Moreover, this method could be the basis for a Systems Biology analysis of brain data and for the integration of these data in a multivariate and multidimensional framework. The feasibility of this integration is strongly dependent from the feature extraction method used. In our case we used an alphabet derived from a multi-resolution analysis that is capable to capture the most relevant information from these complex signals.

  9. Functional divisions for visual processing in the central brain of flying Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Peter T.; Dickinson, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Although anatomy is often the first step in assigning functions to neural structures, it is not always clear whether architecturally distinct regions of the brain correspond to operational units. Whereas neuroarchitecture remains relatively static, functional connectivity may change almost instantaneously according to behavioral context. We imaged panneuronal responses to visual stimuli in a highly conserved central brain region in the fruit fly, Drosophila, during flight. In one substructure, the fan-shaped body, automated analysis revealed three layers that were unresponsive in quiescent flies but became responsive to visual stimuli when the animal was flying. The responses of these regions to a broad suite of visual stimuli suggest that they are involved in the regulation of flight heading. To identify the cell types that underlie these responses, we imaged activity in sets of genetically defined neurons with arborizations in the targeted layers. The responses of this collection during flight also segregated into three sets, confirming the existence of three layers, and they collectively accounted for the panneuronal activity. Our results provide an atlas of flight-gated visual responses in a central brain circuit. PMID:26324910

  10. Methods of development fuzzy logic driven decision-support models in copper alloys processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kluska-Nawarecka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a diagnostic decision support system using different then divalent logical formalism, in particular fuzzy logic, allows the inference from the facts presented not as explicit numbers, but described by linguistic variables such as the "high level", "low temperature", "too much content", etc. Thanks to this, process of inference resembles human manner in actual conditions of decision-making processes. Knowledge of experts allows him to discover the functions describing the relationship between the classification of a set of objects and their characteristics, on the basis of which it is possible to create a decision-making rules for classifying new objects of unknown classification so far. This process can be automated. Experimental studies conducted on copper alloys provide large amounts of data. Processing of these data can be greatly accelerated by the classification trees algorithms which provides classes that can be used in fuzzy inference model. Fuzzy logic also provides the flexibility of allocating to classes on the basis of membership functions (which is similar to events in real-world conditions. Decision-making in foundry operations often requires reliance on knowledge incomplete and ambiguous, hence that the conclusions from the data and facts may be "to some extent" true, and the technologist has to determine what level of confidence is acceptable, although the degree of accuracy for specific criteria is defined by membership function, which takes values from interval . This paper describes the methodology and the process of developing fuzzy logic-based models of decision making based on preprocessed data with classification trees, where the needs of the diverse characteristics of copper alloys processing are the scope. Algorithms for automatic classification of the materials research work of copper alloys are clearly the nature of the innovative and promising hope for practical applications in this area.

  11. Affective context interferes with brain responses during cognitive processing in borderline personality disorder: fMRI evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloff, Paul H.; White, Richard; Omari, Amro; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Diwadka, Vaibhav A.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with loss of cognitive control in the face of intense negative emotion. Negative emotional context may interfere with cognitive processing through the dysmodulation of brain regions involved in regulation of emotion, impulse control, executive function and memory. Structural and metabolic brain abnormalities have been reported in these regions in BPD. Using novel fMRI protocols, we investigated the neural basis of negative affective interference with cognitive processing targeting these regions. Attention-driven Go No-Go and X-CPT (continuous performance test) protocols, using positive, negative and neutral Ekman faces, targeted the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), respectively. A stimulus-driven Episodic Memory task, using images from the International Affective Pictures System, targeted the hippocampus (HIP). Participants comprised 23 women with BPD, who were compared with 15 healthy controls. When Negative>Positive faces were compared in the Go No-Go task, BPD subjects had hyper-activation relative to controls in areas reflecting task-relevant processing: the superior parietal/precuneus and thebasal ganglia. Decreased activation was also noted in the OFC, and increased activation in the amygdala (AMY). In the X-CPT, BPD subjects again showed hyper-activation in task-relevant areas: the superior parietal/precuneus and the ACC. In the stimulus-driven Episodic Memory task, BPD subjects had decreased activation relative to controls in the HIP, ACC, superior parietal/precuneus, and dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) (for encoding), and the ACC, dPFC, and HIP for retrieval of Negative>Positive pictures, reflecting impairment of task-relevant functions. Negative affective interference with cognitive processing in BPD differs from that in healthy controls and is associated with functional abnormalities in brain networks reported to have structural or metabolic

  12. Usability of clinical decision support system as a facilitator for learning the assistive technology adaptation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danial-Saad, Alexandra; Kuflik, Tsvi; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Schreuer, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usability of Ontology Supported Computerized Assistive Technology Recommender (OSCAR), a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) for the assistive technology adaptation process, its impact on learning the matching process, and to determine the relationship between its usability and learnability. Two groups of expert and novice clinicians (total, n = 26) took part in this study. Each group filled out system usability scale (SUS) to evaluate OSCAR's usability. The novice group completed a learning questionnaire to assess OSCAR's effect on their ability to learn the matching process. Both groups rated OSCAR's usability as "very good", (M [SUS] = 80.7, SD = 11.6, median = 83.7) by the novices, and (M [SUS] = 81.2, SD = 6.8, median = 81.2) by the experts. The Mann-Whitney results indicated that no significant differences were found between the expert and novice groups in terms of OSCAR's usability. A significant positive correlation existed between the usability of OSCAR and the ability to learn the adaptation process (rs = 0.46, p = 0.04). Usability is an important factor in the acceptance of a system. The successful application of user-centered design principles during the development of OSCAR may serve as a case study that models the significant elements to be considered, theoretically and practically in developing other systems. Implications for Rehabilitation Creating a CDSS with a focus on its usability is an important factor for its acceptance by its users. Successful usability outcomes can impact the learning process of the subject matter in general, and the AT prescription process in particular. The successful application of User-Centered Design principles during the development of OSCAR may serve as a case study that models the significant elements to be considered, theoretically and practically. The study emphasizes the importance of close collaboration between the developers and

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow imaging assessment of brain function reconstruction in elderly hemiplegia patients by body weight support treadmill training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenqing Wang; Yongping Liu; Diqing Wang; Yanshuang Li; Jinglai Hao; Hongwei Zhang; Sheng Bi; Changshui Weng

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism underlying body weight support treadmill training in elderly hemiplegic stroke patients is largely unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the changes of cortical blood flow in seven elderly patients with post-stroke hemiplegia before and after body weight support treadmill training by semi-quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow assessed by single photon emission computed tomography. Body weight support treadmill training for 6 months was effective in improving cerebral blood flow and promoting the walking speed and balance recovery in elderly patients with post-stroke hemiplegia.

  14. LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W

    2007-11-30

    This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA

  15. Follow-up of pain processing recovery after ketamine in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia patients using brain perfusion ECD-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric; Cammilleri, Serge; Colavolpe, Cecile; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille, Cedex 5 (France); Niboyet, Jean [Clinique La Phoceanne, Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Marseille (France)

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the follow-up of pain processing recovery in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia (FM) could be objectively evaluated with brain perfusion ethyl cysteinate dimer single photon computerized tomography (ECD-SPECT) after administration of ketamine. We enrolled 17 hyperalgesic FM women patients (48.5 {+-} 11 years, range 25-63). After treatment with subcutaneous ketamine, 11 patients were considered as 'good responders', with a decrease in pain intensity, evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), greater than 50%. On the other hand, six patients were considered as 'poor responders'. A voxel-based analysis of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was conducted (p{sub voxel} < 0.001uc), in the two subgroups of patients, before and after treatment, in comparison to a group of ten healthy subjects, matched for age and gender. In comparison to baseline brain SPECT, midbrain rCBF showed a greater increase after ketamine in the responder group than in the nonresponder group (p{sub cluster} = 0.016c). In agreement with the clinical response, the change in midbrain rCBF after ketamine was highly correlated with the reduction of VAS pain score (r = 0.7182; p = 0.0041). This prospective study suggests that blockade of facilitatory descending modulation of pain with ketamine can be evaluated in the periaqueductal grey with brain perfusion SPECT. (orig.)

  16. Brain signal variability as a window into the bidirectionality between music and language processing: Moving from a linear to a nonlinear model

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanie Andrea Hutka; Bidelman, Gavin M.; Sylvain eMoreno

    2013-01-01

    There is convincing empirical evidence for bidirectional transfer between music and language, such that experience in either domain can improve mental processes required by the other. This music-language relationship has been studied using linear models (e.g., comparing mean neural activity) that conceptualize brain activity as a static entity. The linear approach limits how we can understand the brain’s processing of music and language because the brain is a nonlinear system. Furthermore, th...

  17. Brain signal variability as a window into the bidirectionality between music and language processing: moving from a linear to a nonlinear model

    OpenAIRE

    Hutka, Stefanie; Bidelman, Gavin M.; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    There is convincing empirical evidence for bidirectional transfer between music and language, such that experience in either domain can improve mental processes required by the other. This music-language relationship has been studied using linear models (e.g., comparing mean neural activity) that conceptualize brain activity as a static entity. The linear approach limits how we can understand the brain’s processing of music and language because the brain is a nonlinear system. Furthermore, th...

  18. TRISO-Coated Fuel Processing to Support High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.

    2002-10-01

    technologies used in processing the fuel. Potential processing methods will be identified both by a review of the literature regarding the processing of similar fuels and by a reliance on the experience and innovation of the authors. The objective is not to generate an exhaustive list of options but rather to identify a number of potentially practical processing options. These options necessarily take into consideration the chemical characteristics of the entire fuel element and its component parts. Once the practical options are identified, a qualitative assessment of the technical merit and maturity, relative costs, and relative quantity of waste generation will be used to rank the various options. Through this form of analysis, a base-case flow sheet will be identified for further study and development. A fallback flow sheet will also be selected to reduce the overall technical risk of the development plan. To support the base-case flow sheet, a technical development plan will be used to identify the key issues for the highest-rated option(s). In this effort the technical uncertainties will be more fully articulated, and research and development activities will be recommended to reduce the technical risks.

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on neurons ... depression, can occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ...

  1. Circadian Oscillations within the Hippocampus Support Hippocampus-dependent Memory Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Lynn Eckel-Mahan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to sustain memories over long periods of time, sometimes even a lifetime, is one of the most remarkable properties of the brain. Much knowledge has been gained over the past few decades regarding the molecular correlates of memory formation. Once a memory is forged, however, the molecular events that provide permanence are as of yet unclear. Studies in multiple organisms have revealed that circadian rhythmicity is important for the formation, stability, and recall of memories [1]. The neuronal events that provide this link need to be explored further. This article will discuss the findings related to the circadian regulation of memory-dependent processes in the hippocampus. Specifically, the circadian-controlled MAP kinase and cAMP signal transduction pathway plays critical roles in the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory. A series of studies have revealed the circadian oscillation of this pathway within the hippocampus, an activity that is absent in memory-deficient, transgenic mice lacking Ca2+-stimulated adenylyl cyclases. Interference with these oscillations proceeding the cellular memory consolidation period impairs the persistence of hippocampus-dependent memory. These data suggest that the persistence of long-term memories may depend upon reactivation of this signal transduction pathway in the hippocampus during the circadian cycle. New data reveals the dependence of hippocampal oscillation in MAPK activity on the SCN, again underscoring the importance of this region in maintaining the circadian physiology of memory. Finally, the downstream ramification of these oscillations in terms of gene expression and epigenetics should be considered, as emerging evidence is pointing strongly to a circadian link between epigenetics and long term synaptic plasticity.

  2. Automatic defect detection for TFT-LCD array process using quasiconformal kernel support vector data description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hung; Chen, Yan-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Defect detection has been considered an efficient way to increase the yield rate of panels in thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) manufacturing. In this study we focus on the array process since it is the first and key process in TFT-LCD manufacturing. Various defects occur in the array process, and some of them could cause great damage to the LCD panels. Thus, how to design a method that can robustly detect defects from the images captured from the surface of LCD panels has become crucial. Previously, support vector data description (SVDD) has been successfully applied to LCD defect detection. However, its generalization performance is limited. In this paper, we propose a novel one-class machine learning method, called quasiconformal kernel SVDD (QK-SVDD) to address this issue. The QK-SVDD can significantly improve generalization performance of the traditional SVDD by introducing the quasiconformal transformation into a predefined kernel. Experimental results, carried out on real LCD images provided by an LCD manufacturer in Taiwan, indicate that the proposed QK-SVDD not only obtains a high defect detection rate of 96%, but also greatly improves generalization performance of SVDD. The improvement has shown to be over 30%. In addition, results also show that the QK-SVDD defect detector is able to accomplish the task of defect detection on an LCD image within 60 ms.

  3. Automatic Defect Detection for TFT-LCD Array Process Using Quasiconformal Kernel Support Vector Data Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Liu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Defect detection has been considered an efficient way to increase the yield rate of panels in thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD manufacturing. In this study we focus on the array process since it is the first and key process in TFT-LCD manufacturing. Various defects occur in the array process, and some of them could cause great damage to the LCD panels. Thus, how to design a method that can robustly detect defects from the images captured from the surface of LCD panels has become crucial. Previously, support vector data description (SVDD has been successfully applied to LCD defect detection. However, its generalization performance is limited. In this paper, we propose a novel one-class machine learning method, called quasiconformal kernel SVDD (QK-SVDD to address this issue. The QK-SVDD can significantly improve generalization performance of the traditional SVDD by introducing the quasiconformal transformation into a predefined kernel. Experimental results, carried out on real LCD images provided by an LCD manufacturer in Taiwan, indicate that the proposed QK-SVDD not only obtains a high defect detection rate of 96%, but also greatly improves generalization performance of SVDD. The improvement has shown to be over 30%. In addition, results also show that the QK-SVDD defect detector is able to accomplish the task of defect detection on an LCD image within 60 ms.

  4. Hybrid wavelet-support vector machine approach for modelling rainfall-runoff process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komasi, Mehdi; Sharghi, Soroush

    2016-01-01

    Because of the importance of water resources management, the need for accurate modeling of the rainfall-runoff process has rapidly grown in the past decades. Recently, the support vector machine (SVM) approach has been used by hydrologists for rainfall-runoff modeling and the other fields of hydrology. Similar to the other artificial intelligence models, such as artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neural fuzzy inference system, the SVM model is based on the autoregressive properties. In this paper, the wavelet analysis was linked to the SVM model concept for modeling the rainfall-runoff process of Aghchai and Eel River watersheds. In this way, the main time series of two variables, rainfall and runoff, were decomposed to multiple frequent time series by wavelet theory; then, these time series were imposed as input data on the SVM model in order to predict the runoff discharge one day ahead. The obtained results show that the wavelet SVM model can predict both short- and long-term runoff discharges by considering the seasonality effects. Also, the proposed hybrid model is relatively more appropriate than classical autoregressive ones such as ANN and SVM because it uses the multi-scale time series of rainfall and runoff data in the modeling process.

  5. Expanding the application of the tablet processing workstation to support the sample preparation of oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opio, Alex Manuel; Nickerson, Beverly; Xue, Gang; Warzeka, John; Norris, Ken

    2011-06-01

    Sample preparation is the most time-consuming part of the analytical method for powder for oral suspension (POS) assay, purity, and preservative analysis, as this involves multiple dilution and filtration steps. The Tablet Processing Workstation (TPW) was used to automate the sample preparation of a POS formulation. Although the TPW is typically used to automate the preparation of solid oral dosage forms and powders, it contains all of the necessary components to perform POS sample preparation. The TPW exhibited acceptable repeatability in testing 3 lots using 10 replicate preparations per lot. Acceptable linearity of the drug and preservative in the presence of excipients was demonstrated over the range corresponding to 50-150% of intent. Accuracy showed suitable recoveries for all points evaluated. TPW results were shown to correlate to results obtained with the manual method. The TPW method was used to prepare samples in support of manufacturing scale-up efforts. With the efficiencies gained using the TPW, it was possible to analyze a large number of samples generated during process development activities for the POS formulation with minimal human intervention. The extensive data enabled trending of the manufacturing development runs and helped to identify optimization strategies for the process.

  6. Pain: a distributed brain information network?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Mano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how pain is processed in the brain has been an enduring puzzle, because there doesn't appear to be a single "pain cortex" that directly codes the subjective perception of pain. An emerging concept is that, instead, pain might emerge from the coordinated activity of an integrated brain network. In support of this view, Woo and colleagues present evidence that distinct brain networks support the subjective changes in pain that result from nociceptive input and self-directed cognitive modulation. This evidence for the sensitivity of distinct neural subsystems to different aspects of pain opens up the way to more formal computational network theories of pain.

  7. Challenges in the return to school and successful reintegration after traumatic brain injury: a qualitative survey among students, parents and teachers about the process of transition from stationary rehabilitation back to schooling in the mainstream system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Hennig

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A severe traumatic brain injury (TBI is a significant risk for the successful return to mainstream school system after stationary rehabilitation. This process is lacking empirical research concerning supportive aspects and barriers. The present study aims to show a multi-perspective view (parents, students, teachers about the circumstances of school return after TBI. 22 semi-structured interviews were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The results indicate that a positive long-term outcome rather depends on possibilities of the individual support for the student. An accurate coordination of arrangements for support and a voluntary commitment of teachers and parents in particular were highlighted as key factors. Furthermore, a thorough explanation and clarification about consequences of TBI for learning processes to teachers is pivotal. Permanent restrictions due TBI are often underestimated by teachers in mainstream system.

  8. [Community-based rehabilitation and outpatient care for patients with acquired brain injury and chronic neurological disability in Germany: continuing support for social participation and re-integration in the neurological care system?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, P; Hendrich, A; Kringler, W; Vespo, E

    2012-12-01

    In Germany a number of patients who are suffering from acquired brain injury and chronic neurological disability are either undersupplied or exposed to inappropriate care in their social environment. The number of these patients is increasing due to the changes in the procedures of care and due to demographic factors. While acute medical care and early rehabilitative treatment is accessible throughout the German health care system the necessary multimodal and competent care is rare or absent in the social participative sites such as life and occupational environments of the patients. The complex impairment of the brain, the central organ for sensorial, executive and other cognitive functions of human beings, renders the affected patient an exception in the system of medical and social care - this has only inadequately been considered in the past. The authors explain the necessity to disclose the status of a "human-with acquired-brain damage (Mensch-mit-erworbener-Hirnschädigung, MeH)" explicitly as severely disabled. The paper recommends a number of structural and procedural elements that have proven to overcome the insufficient or inappropriate support in integrating the patients suffering from acquired brain injury and chronic neurological disability in their social environment as well as for a demand-focused support with sustainable rehabilitative and ambulant follow-up procedures. Comparisons with other developed health care systems and international guidelines show that with organizing of early-supported-discharge, community-ambulation, shared-care and community-based-rehabilitation these problems have long since been identified elsewhere. Community-based and resident-oriented concepts have already been systematically implemented. In order to achieve the necessary support for the individual patient, a nation-wide development is necessary in Germany to perform the principles of the German social code and the principles of the Convention on the Rights of

  9. Lexical processing of vocabulary class in patients with Broca's aphasia: An event-related brain potential study on agrammatic comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Ter Keurs, M.; Brown, C.; Hagoort, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents electrophysiological evidence of an impairment in the on-line processing of word class information in patients with Broca’s aphasia with agrammatic comprehension. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from the scalp while Broca patients and non-aphasic control subjects read open- and closed-class words that appeared one at a time on a PC screen. Separate waveforms were computed for open- and closed-class words. The non-aphasic control subjects showed a modula...

  10. Neural processing of calories in brain reward areas can be modulated by reward sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge eVan Rijn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A food’s reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food’s acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity, however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015, in which participants (n=30 tasted simple solutions of a non-caloric sweetener with or without a non-sweet carbohydrate (maltodextrin during hunger and satiety. Secondly, we expanded these analyses to regular drinks by assessing the same relationship in data from a study in which soft drinks sweetened with either sucrose or a non-caloric sweetener were administered during hunger (n=18 (Griffioen-Roose et al., 2013. First, taste activation by the non-caloric solution/soft drink was subtracted from that by the caloric solution/soft drink to eliminate sweetness effects and retain activation induced by calories. Subsequently, this difference in taste activation was correlated with reward sensitivity as measured with the BAS drive subscale of the Behavioral Activation System (BAS questionnaire.When participants were hungry and tasted calories from the simple solution, brain activation in the right ventral striatum (caudate, right amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (bilaterally correlated negatively with BAS drive scores. In contrast, when participants were satiated, taste responses correlated positively with BAS drive scores in the left caudate. These results were not replicated for soft drinks. Thus, neural responses to oral calories from maltodextrin were modulated by reward sensitivity in reward-related brain areas. This was not the case for sucrose. This may be due to the direct detection of maltodextrin, but not sucrose in the oral cavity. Also, in a familiar beverage, detection of calories per

  11. A nuclear decision support system built with a real-time process control AI shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managing large nuclear power plants is generally approached by creating separate management teams to handle major functional areas such as operations, maintenance, training and engineering. While this approach facilitates a general understanding of the specific functions and problem areas of a nuclear plant, such broad definitions diminish the integration of information needed to understand the overall problem domain. One solution utilizes a decision support system that integrates a real-time process control AI shell, relational database manager, graphic depiction of the real-time events, and distributed knowledge bases that reside within each of the departments. The goal is to create a living model between plant components, procedures, tech specs, specific functions, maintenance and training requirements. This paper describes such a model, called Engineering Model and Simulation System (EMASS)

  12. Soft sensor design for hydrodesulfurization process using support vector regression based on WT and PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeid Shokri; Mohammad Taghi Sadeghi; Mahdi Ahmadi Marvast; Shankar Narasimhan

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for developing a reliable data driven soft sensor to improve the prediction accuracy of sulfur content in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) process was proposed. Therefore, an integrated approach using support vector regression (SVR) based on wavelet transform (WT) and principal component analysis (PCA) was used. Experimental data from the HDS setup were employed to validate the proposed model. The results reveal that the integrated WT-PCA with SVR model was able to increase the prediction accuracy of SVR model. Implementation of the proposed model delivers the best satisfactory predicting performance (EAARE=0.058 andR2=0.97) in comparison with SVR. The obtained results indicate that the proposed model is more reliable and more precise than the multiple linear regression (MLR), SVR and PCA-SVR.

  13. Toward a transtheoretical model of interprofessional education: stages, processes and forces supporting institutional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Phillip G

    2013-01-01

    The history of interprofessional education (IPE) in the USA is a checkered one, characterized by boom and bust cycles of advancement and retrenchment, expansion and contraction. The successful development, implementation and continuation of IPE in health and social care in US higher education institutions all depend on a number of factors related to how individuals and organizations do or do not support it in the academic setting. Deliberate and planned change to advance IPE requires a comprehensive theoretical framework to guide it and insure its success. A transtheoretical model (TTM) of institutional change is proposed as a comprehensive framework of the stages, processes and forces that can facilitate and maintain change in support of IPE. The TTM framework recognizes the complexity of change, and captures and organizes important elements from different organizational theories. It also provides a structure for conceptualizing the multiple dimensions needed for change, offering intervention strategies and leverage points to be used by leaders in promoting and maintaining it. Finally, the TTM model suggests that the stabilization of IPE programs over the long term is dependent on a real and significant shift in institutional values in response to forces from both within and without the organization.

  14. On the use of supported ceria membranes for oxyfuel process/syngas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobera, M.P.; Serra, J.M.; Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn;

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic oxygen transport membranes (OTMs) enable selective oxygen separation from air at high temperatures. Among several potential applications for OTMs, the use in (1) oxygen production for oxyfuel power plants and (2) the integration in high-temperature catalytic membrane reactors for alkane......-rich environments and/or decomposition in reducing gas environments. The oxygen flux through supported thin film membranes of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95−δ (CGO) with 2 mol.% of cobalt was measured for oxygen separation in oxyfuel processes and in syngas production and degradation was compared to perovskite...... with an oxygen reduction catalyst. Oxygen separation was studied using air as feed and argon/CO2 or argon/CH4 mixtures as sweep gas in the temperature range 750–1000 °C. The supported membrane exhibited a maximum oxygen flux of ca. 5 ml min−1 cm−2 at 1000 °C when diluted methane was used as sweep gas. The CGO...

  15. Incidence of Parental Support and Pressure on Their Children's Motivational Processes towards Sport Practice Regarding Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Amado

    Full Text Available Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, structural equation modeling (SEM with the aim of examining how parental support/pressure could influence their children´s motivational processes in sport was conducted, as well as the models´ differences in operability regarding gender. The sample size was 321 children ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old who were athletes from Extremadura, and 321 parents (included only the father or mother more involved with the sport of his or her child. 175 participants were male and 146 were female from individual (n = 130, and team sports (n=191. A questionnaire was conducted to assess parental perception of support/pressure and another questionnaire was conducted to measure satisfaction of basic psychological needs, type of motivation and enjoyment/boredom showed by their children towards sport practice. Results revealed that parental pressure negatively predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. It also emerged as a strong positive predictor of intrinsic motivation and negative predictor of amotivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation emerged as positive predictor of enjoyment and a negative predictor of boredom, whereas amotivation positively predicted boredom and negatively predicted enjoyment. Furthermore, results showed there were mean differences by gender: male athletes perceived greater parental pressure. Hence, it is necessary to decrease parental pressure towards their children in sport, with the aim of making them more motivated and enjoy, promoting positive consequences.

  16. Polymeric supported sorbents for decreasing hazardous metal ions content in wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedure for preparation of polymeric supported silica, and their usage for decreasing hazardous metal ion content in wet process phosphoric acid was developed. The procedure is based firstly on extraction silica from rice straw by alkaline treatment , secondly supporting the produced silica on binding polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The produced polymer based sorbent was used for decreasing hazardous metal ions (especially iron) present as inorganic impurities in crud Egyptian phosphoric acid (green acid). Different factors affecting the sorption equilibrium ( contact time, temperature , sorbent mass and batch factor ) were studied. Studying the sorption isotherm revealed that the adsorption data could favorably fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In the dynamic study , the sorption capacity at (Cξ/Cο = 50%) was found to be 28.5 mg/g and the loaded column could be regenerated using 50ml of 0.15 M HNO3 . The regenerated column could undergo sorption regeneration cycles up to four cycles without significant decrease in the sorption capacity , weight loss or change in the physical properties of the sorbent

  17. Organizational Structures and Processes to Support and Sustain Effective Technical Assistance in a State-Wide Multi-Tiered System of Support Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Julie Q.; Russell, Christine; Dyer, Stephanie; Metcalf, Terri; Rahschulte, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the national proliferation of technical assistance as a driver for school reform and as a model for embedded and sustained professional development, very little is known about the organizational structures and processes needed to support technical assistance. The purpose of this paper is to describe a structured needs assessment process…

  18. HITS-CLIP yields genome-wide insights into brain alternative RNA processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licatalosi, Donny D.; Mele, Aldo; Fak, John J.; Ule, Jernej; Kayikci, Melis; Chi, Sung Wook; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony C.; Blume, John E.; Wang, Xuning; Darnell, Jennifer C.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2008-11-01

    Protein-RNA interactions have critical roles in all aspects of gene expression. However, applying biochemical methods to understand such interactions in living tissues has been challenging. Here we develop a genome-wide means of mapping protein-RNA binding sites in vivo, by high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP). HITS-CLIP analysis of the neuron-specific splicing factor Nova revealed extremely reproducible RNA-binding maps in multiple mouse brains. These maps provide genome-wide in vivo biochemical footprints confirming the previous prediction that the position of Nova binding determines the outcome of alternative splicing; moreover, they are sufficiently powerful to predict Nova action de novo. HITS-CLIP revealed a large number of Nova-RNA interactions in 3' untranslated regions, leading to the discovery that Nova regulates alternative polyadenylation in the brain. HITS-CLIP, therefore, provides a robust, unbiased means to identify functional protein-RNA interactions in vivo.

  19. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    OpenAIRE

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-01-01

    Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The co...

  20. Bioregenerative Life Support Systems Test Complex (Bio-Plex) Food Processing System: A Dual System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Vittadini, Elena; Peterson, Laurie J.; Swango, Beverly E.; Toerne, Mary E.; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A Bioregenerative Life Support Test Complex, BIO-Plex, is currently being constructed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX. This facility will attempt to answer the questions involved in developing a lunar or planetary base. The Food Processing System (FPS) of the BIO-Plex is responsible for supplying food to the crew in coordination with the chosen mission scenario. Long duration space missions require development of both a Transit Food System and of a Lunar or Planetary Food System. These two systems are intrinsically different since the first one will be utilized in the transit vehicle in microgravity conditions with mostly resupplied foods, while the second will be used in conditions of partial gravity (hypogravity) to process foods from crops grown in the facility. The Transit Food System will consist of prepackaged food of extended shelf life. It will be supplemented with salad crops that will be consumed fresh. Microgravity imposes significant limitation on the ability to handle food and allows only for minimal processing. The challenge is to develop food systems similar to the International Space Station or Shuttle Food Systems but with a shelf life of 3 - 5 years. The Lunar or Planetary Food System will allow for food processing of crops due to the presence of some gravitational force (1/6 to 1/3 that of Earth). Crops such as wheat, soybean, rice, potato, peanut, and salad crops, will be processed to final products to provide a nutritious and acceptable diet for the crew. Not only are constraints imposed on the FPS from the crops (e.g., crop variation, availability, storage and shelf-life) but also significant requirements are present for the crew meals (e.g., RDA, high quality, safety, variety). The FPS becomes a fulcrum creating the right connection from crops to crew meals while dealing with issues of integration within a closed self-regenerative system (e.g., safe processing, waste production, volumes, air contaminations, water usage, etc